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1

Les antihistaminiques pour les enfants souffrant d’otite moyenne  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question L’otite moyenne est un problème très fréquent en pédiatrie et peut causer bien du stress à l’enfant et à ses parents. Les antihistaminiques et les décongestionnants ont-ils un rôle à jouer dans la prise en charge de l’otite moyenne aiguë ou de l’otite moyenne avec épanchement chez les enfants? Réponse Traditionnellement, les antihistaminiques et les décongestionnants ont été utilisés pour traiter l’otite moyenne; par ailleurs, de récentes lignes directrices, fondées sur des études dans lesquelles on a constaté des résultats négatifs, recommandent de ne pas les utiliser systématiquement. Aucune combinaison d’antihistaminique et de décongestionnant n’a été éprouvée comme ayant des bienfaits cliniquement significatifs, sans compter qu’il faut prendre en considération les effets indésirables possibles.

Bonney, Asha G.; Goldman, Ran D.

2014-01-01

2

Complicated necrotizing otitis externa.  

PubMed

Necrotizing (malignant) otitis externa (NOE) is a rare and invasive infection originating in the external acoustic meatus seen most commonly in diabetes and other immunocompromised states. After a protracted course, disease can smolder and extend into the mastoid, skull base, dural sinuses, and intracranially. We present a case of NOE complicated by mastoiditis, dural sinus thrombosis, and Bezold's abscess in an uncontrolled diabetic presenting with a prolonged course of facial nerve palsy. We stress the importance of maintaining a high index of clinical suspicion for NOE in diabetic patients and offering timely, aggressive treatment to mitigate its complications. PMID:23927998

Nawas, Mariam T; Daruwalla, Vistasp J; Spirer, David; Micco, Alan G; Nemeth, Alexander J

2013-01-01

3

Aspects epidemiologiques, cliniques et therapeutiques des otites externes: ? propos de 801 cas  

PubMed Central

L'objectif de ce travail etait de déterminer l’épidémiologie, la clinique et la thérapeutique des otites externes (OE). Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective d'une année menée du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2006 dans le service ORL du CHU-Tokoin. Huit cent un cas d'otite externe (OE) soit 11,9% des consultations étaient recensés. Le sexe féminin représentait 476 cas (59,42%). Le sex ratio était de 0,68. L’âge moyen des patients était de 25,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 05 mois et 81 ans. La tranche d’âge de 0-15 ans était la plus fréquente avec 360 cas (45%). L'allergie dans 74 cas (60,66%), la lésion de grattage dans 24 cas (19,67%), les corps étrangers du conduit auditif externe dans 18 cas (14,75%) et la natation dans 6 cas (4,92%) étaient les facteurs favorisants. L'otalgie dans 638 cas (79,65%) était le symptôme le plus fréquent. Les différentes formes cliniques des otites externes se répartissaient comme suit: otite externe diffuse dans 612 cas (76,40%), furoncle du CAE 126 dans cas (15,73%), otomycose dans 58 cas (7,24%), zona du conduit auditif externe dans 3 cas (0,37%) et otite externe nécrosante dans 2 cas (0,25%). Les gouttes auriculaires étaient administrées à tous les patients. L’évolution avait noté 799 patients (99,75%) guéris sans complication, un cas de décès et un cas de guérison avec séquelle. Traitée correctement, l'otite externe guérit sans complication. Son éviction passe par une sensibilisation des populations sur l'entretien du conduit auditif externe. PMID:25379111

Bathokedeou, Amana; Essobozou, Pegbessou; Akouda, Patassi; Essohanam, Boko; Eyawelohn, Kpemissi

2014-01-01

4

EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se, do qual conste: A forma de ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa

5

Nasopharyngeal cancer mimicking otitic barotrauma in a resource-challenged center: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nasopharyngeal cancer commonly manifests with cervical lymphadenopathy, recurrent epistaxis and progressive nasal obstruction. Neuro-ophthalmic and otologic manifestations can also occur. Isolated otologic presentations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare and the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer may not be foremost in the list of differentials. Case presentation We present the case of a 29-year-old Nigerian woman with bilateral conductive hearing loss and tinnitus after air travel. There were no other symptoms. The persistence of the symptoms after adequate treatment for otitic barotrauma necessitated re-evaluation, which led to a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer. Conclusion Isolated otologic manifestations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare in regions with low incidence of the disease. There is a need for it to be considered as a possible differential in patients presenting with bilateral serous otitis media. PMID:22040358

2011-01-01

6

Any questions: Treating resistant otitis externa  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the treatment for “resistant” otitis externa due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa? My patient has received topical treatment with gentamicin, polymyxin B. ciprofloxacin, 5% acetic acid, 4% aluminium acetate, ceftazidime, meropenem, and intravenous treatment with ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin. She has partially responded to these but subsequently relapsed, with bilateral green discharge and eczematous skin just around the external ear canal.

A Richard Maw

1997-01-01

7

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

, do qual conste: A forma de ingresso (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa, concurso de títulos ou do exame de seleção. Se for ENEM basta esta informação e o ano da realização do exame. Relação das

8

DOCUMENTAO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

conste: A forma de ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa, concurso de realização do exame de seleção. Se for ENEM basta entregar o documento do INEP com a data da realização do

9

DOCUMENTAO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa, concurso de títulos ou outro). Mês seleção. Se for ENEM basta esta informação e o ano da realização do ENEM. Relação das disciplinas

10

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

, do qual conste: A forma de ingresso / processo seletivo (vestibular, ENEM, transferência externa da realização do exame de seleção. Se for ENEM basta esta informação e o ano da realização do ENEM

11

ECONOMÍAS EXTERNAS Y LOCALIZACIÓN DEL EMPLEO INDUSTRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es un hecho fácilmente constatable que la actividad económica en gene- ral e industrial en particular se localiza de forma desigual a lo largo de la geografía española. El presente trabajo plantea un modelo que tiene como objetivo analizar la incidencia de las economías externas en la dis- tribución territorial del empleo de los distintos sectores industriales. El modelo incorpora

ELISABET VILADECANS MARSAL

2003-01-01

12

Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplamic diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites  

PubMed Central

Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics. PMID:23591518

Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

2013-01-01

13

Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplasmic [correction of cytoplamic] diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites.  

PubMed

Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics. PMID:23591518

Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

2013-08-01

14

Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial\\u000a culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases.\\u000a Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology,\\u000a bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility

Hamed Zamankhan Malayeri; Shahram Jamshidi; Taghi Zahraei Salehi

2010-01-01

15

Herniation of the temporomandibular joint into the external auditory meatus secondary to benign necrotising otitis externa.  

PubMed

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is intimately related to the external auditory meatus (EAM). Herniation of the joint into the EAM occurs secondary to neoplasia, trauma, inflammation and developmental problems [Conover GL, Crammond RJ. Tympanic plate fracture from mandibular trauma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1985;43:292-4; Ali TS, Rubinstein JT. Rheumatoid arthritis of the temporomandibular joint with herniation into the external auditory canal. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2000;109:177-9]. Benign necrotising otitis externa (BNOE) is an uncommon condition characterized by avascular necrosis of the tympanic plate that has been described as a sequela of simple otitis externa. [Wormald PJ. Surgical management of benign necrotizing otitis externa. J Laryngol Otol 1994;108:101-5.] We present a case of BNOE that resulted in a posterior herniation of the TMJ capsule into the EAM. PMID:18848375

Tan, Neil C-W; Wilson, Alan; Buckland, Jonathan

2009-03-01

16

Synchronous Malignant Otitis Externa and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To discuss the management of a squamous cell carcinoma in the presence of malignant otitis externa. Study Design. We present only the third reported case in the literature of a synchronous tumour with malignant otitis externa in the literature. Methods. A case report and review of malignant otitis externa and squamous cell carcinomas of the external auditory canal are discussed. Results. A 66-year-old female is presented here with a 2-month history of a painful, discharging left ear refractory to standard antibiotic therapy. Computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, technetium 99?m, and gallium citrate Ga67 scans were consistent with malignant otitis externa. Biopsy in the operating theatre revealed a synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Primary resection of the tumour and surrounding tissues was performed with concomitant treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusions. This is only the third case to be reported in the literature and highlights several important diagnostic and management issues of these two rare conditions. Both conditions may present in a similar manner on clinical assessment and radiological investigations. Aggressive management with surgical resection and treatment with appropriate intravenous antibiotics is necessary to give the best chance for cure. PMID:24194996

Chin, R. Y.; Nguyen, T. B. V.

2013-01-01

17

Respostas posturais à perturbação externa inesperada em judocas de diferentes níveis de habilidade  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O judô é uma modalidade esportiva na qual é requerido o con- trole eficiente do equilíbrio pelo atleta, por estar constantemente sujeito a movimentos inesperados impostos por seus adversários. Este estudo teve o objetivo de analisar as respostas posturais a uma perturbação externa inesperada de judocas (n = 20) em dois níveis de habilidade (faixas marrom e verde) e

Sheylla Kyoko Yoshitomi; Clarice Tanaka; Marcos Duarte; Fernanda Lima; Edgard Morya; Fuad Hazime

2006-01-01

18

Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa  

PubMed Central

This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valeria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Marcio Candeias

2010-01-01

19

Comparative study of the microbial profile from bilateral canine otitis externa  

PubMed Central

Fifty dogs with bilateral otitis externa were studied over a 10-month period. The exudates of both external ears were obtained, using sterile swabs, and microorganisms were isolated according to standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus intermedius was done by the agar diffusion method. There was bacterial and/or fungal growth in all of the samples. These were all polymicrobial infections. Anaerobic bacteria were not isolated in any sample. The most common pathogens isolated were S. intermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the isolation pattern between the right and left ears in 34 of the 50 animals (68%). High resistance rates of S. intermedius strains to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were found. The results suggest that in bilateral canine otitis externa, each ear should be cultured separately and considered as separate units. PMID:18978972

Oliveira, Lis C.; Leite, Carlos A.L.; Brilhante, Raimunda S.N.; Carvalho, Cibele B.M.

2008-01-01

20

Effect of binghuang ear drop treatment on otitis externa in Guinea pigs.  

PubMed

To investigate the pharmacodynamic effects of Binghuang ear drop on acute suppurative otitis externa in guinea pig model. Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups, with ten animals in each group. Group A animals had normal ear canal and Binghuang ear drops (two drops, B.I.D) were applied in both ears for 7 days; Group B animals had induced otitis externa and received identical prescription as group A; Group C had normal ear canal and were treated with normal saline (two drops, B.I.D) for 7 days. After the treatments, the external morphology of ear canals was observed and the paraffin sections of external auditory canal were prepared and examined under the microscope. The inflammatory manifestation and cell infiltration into the skin of group B was significantly attenuated after the Binghuang ear drops treatment. In contrast, no allergy or side effects were produced by Binghuang ear drops application in the animals with normal ear canals. Binghuang ear drops could be used to treat acute otitis externa by eliciting anti-bacterial effects. PMID:25269771

Zhai, Suo-Qiang; Yu, Ning; Guo, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Yue

2014-12-01

21

Temporal bone osteomyelitis: the relationship with malignant otitis externa, the diagnostic dilemma, and changing trends.  

PubMed

Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. PMID:24963511

Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang

2014-01-01

22

Isolation of Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes from cases of feline otitis externa and canine cystitis.  

PubMed

Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a normal inhabitant of the mucous membranes of domestic animals, such as cattle, sheep, swine, and goats. It is also an opportunistic pathogen in these animals, where it causes a variety of purulent infections involving the skin, joints, and visceral organs. Two recent cases of isolation of A. pyogenes from companion animals are reported. In the first case, a cat presented with a chronic otitis externa, from which A. pyogenes was isolated in pure culture. The second case involved a dog with a urinary tract infection, where A. pyogenes was isolated from urine as the predominant bacterial species. In both cases, the A. pyogenes isolates were presumptively identified by macrobiochemical tests, and then their identities were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:11939339

Billington, S J; Post, K W; Jost, B H

2002-03-01

23

Insecticide survival and behavioral avoidance in the lacewings Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana.  

PubMed

Insecticide impact on non-target species, such as insect predators and parasitoids, is an ever-growing concern in agriculture and recent studies have been shifting focus from lethal to sub-lethal effects since they may prevail in field conditions, although more difficult to assess. Synthetic insecticides are the main concern, but the recent spread of biopesticide use in agriculture draws attention, particularly the main botanical insecticide currently in use - azadirachtin. Here we assessed the lethal and behavioral sub-lethal response of predatory larvae of the lacewing species Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana to two frequently used synthetic insecticides, malathion and permethrin, and to the bioinsecticide azadirachtin. The recommended field concentration of the synthetic insecticides led to low survival time of lacewing larvae from both species, in contrast with azadirachtin. However, all three compounds led to 100% mortality of the lacewing larvae from both species. Insecticide repellence (i.e., avoidance without contact) was similar for both synthetic insecticides in both species, but azadirachtin was a stronger repellent for C. externa, but not C. cubana. In addition, insecticide irritability (i.e., avoidance after contact) occurred in both lacewing species to all three insecticides tested. The notion that natural compounds are safer than synthetic compounds to non-target species is refuted in the present study, which also detected significant irritability to all of the insecticides regardless of their origin, and species-specific repellence elicited particularly by azadirachtin. Therefore, bioinsecticides should not be exempted from risk assessment, and non-target sub-lethal effects should not be neglected when considering potential insecticide use in agriculture. PMID:20817256

Cordeiro, E M G; Corrêa, A S; Venzon, M; Guedes, R N C

2010-11-01

24

Necrotizing otitis externa: a new trend? Report of 6 atypical cases.  

PubMed

Necrotizing otitis externa (OE) is traditionally seen in elderly diabetics and immunocompromised patients. During a 7-year period at our institution, we treated 6 patients with necrotizing OE who were not diabetic, who were not immunocompromised, and who were relatively young (age range: 27 to 65 yr; mean: 42.8). The necrotizing OE in these patients was less aggressive but just as severe as its usual presentation in older diabetic or immunocompromised patients. All 6 patients had evidence of bony erosion on computed tomography of the temporal bones, although 4 had negative findings on technetium-99m scintigraphy. Four of the 6 patients required mastoid exploration and fascia lata grafting, and the other 2 chose to undergo extensive daily microdebridements and intravenous antibiotics followed by 6 weeks of oral antibiotics. We recommend that a diagnosis of necrotizing OE be kept in mind when evaluating any patient who presents with severe otalgia, particularly in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the external auditory canal, edema, granulation tissue, and bony erosion. PMID:20013677

Glynn, Fergal; Walsh, Rory McConn

2009-12-01

25

Respostas agudas pós-exercício dos níveis de lactato sanguíneo e creatinofosfoquinase de atletas adolescentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O crescente interesse de crianças e adolescentes por esportes competitivos induz a uma maior preocupação em prescrever trei- namentos adequados a essa população específica. O conhecimen- to do impacto da intensidade de treinamento físico competitivo sobre a saúde de adolescentes são ainda incipientes na literatura científica. Este estudo objetivou investigar as respostas agudas do lactato sanguíneo (Lac) e da

Carla Cristiane Silva; Tamara Beres Lederer Goldberg; Renata Campos Capela; Cilmery Suemi Kurokawa; Altamir dos Santos Teixeira; José Carlos Dalmas; Edílson Serpeloni Cyrino

2007-01-01

26

DOMINIOS SEDIMENTARIOS GENERADOS DURANTE EL PERÍODO EXTENSIONAL CRETÁCICO INFERIOR ENTRE CAZORLA Y HELLÍN (BÉTICAS EXTERNAS). SU IMPLICACI~N EN LA ESTRUCTURA ACTUAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basin analysis of the externa1 zones of the Betic Cordillera between Cazorla and Hellín applying stratigraphic and tectono-sedimentary criteria on the Kimmeridgian to Upper Albian sediments allowed to differentitate three sedimentary domains. These were named Meseta, Albacete and Prebetic, following previous models established more to the east. The study of lateral relationships of these domains evidence that they form severa1

L. Vilas; C. J. Dabrio; J. R. Peláez; M. García Hesnández

27

Quimioterapia de alta dosis prolonga en forma significativa la supervivencia en pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda  

Cancer.gov

Los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico grande con asignación al azar de pacientes de 16 a 60 años de edad con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), un cáncer de la sangre y de la médula ósea, que no había sido tratada anteriormente, muestran que los pacientes que recibieron una alta dosis de daunorrubicina, un fármaco de quimioterapia disponible comercialmente, durante la terapia inicial vivieron más que los pacientes que recibieron una dosis normal del mismo fármaco.

28

A comparative study of two antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory formulations in the treatment of canine otitis externa.  

PubMed

The efficacy and tolerability of a marbofloxacin-clotrimazole-dexamethasone otic suspension (MCD) was compared with a standard topical treatment using a phase III clinical trial protocol. In a total of 140 dogs with clinical signs of acute or subacute otitis externa, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Malassezia were isolated from samples taken at inclusion to identify the causative pathogen; a further sample was collected in the event of failure or relapse, and from dogs (at day 14) for which Pseudomonas species had been isolated at inclusion. One group received MCD (10 drops per affected ear) once daily and a second received Surolan (containing polymyxin B, miconazole and prednisolone) (5 drops per affected ear), twice daily. Each group received treatment for 7 or 14 days according to the clinical outcome on day 7. Efficacy and tolerability were evaluated on days 7, 14 and, if necessary, 28 for dogs treated for 14 days. The trial demonstrated equivalence of both treatments in terms of efficacy, with a cure rate of 58.3% for MCD and 41.2% for Surolan. Both medications were equally well tolerated by dogs, but MCD was superior in terms of pain relief, decrease in pus quantity and smell, response rate and investigator's assessment on day 14. PMID:16238809

Rougier, Sandrine; Borell, Daniela; Pheulpin, Sandrine; Woehrlé, Frédérique; Boisramé, Bernard

2005-10-01

29

Poor-quality water in swimming pools associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

There are many large and small public outdoor and indoor swimming pools in Tehran that hundreds of people use, especially on hot summer days. The bacteriological quality of the water of some of these pools was assayed over a period of about one year (2001-2002). To assess if these swimming pools were a health risk to users, eleven public swimming pools, in the east and northeast of the city, were examined, and the exposed people were monitored. Samples of swimming-pool waters were examined for colony counts, Escherichia coli and coliforms. In addition, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from nine (81.8%) of those pools. P. aeruginosa grew in seven (63.6%) of the swimming-pool water samples. In two (18.2%) other samples, in addition to P. aeruginosa, high rates of total bacterial count, total coliforms and faecal coliform counts were also found. At the same time, users of the swimming pools were asked to complete a questionnaire. Ear swabs were collected from 179 users with a history of ear problems during the previous two weeks. An adequate control group was chosen randomly from those who never used the investigated pools. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the ear swabs of 142 (79.3%) of the cases, as well as from 4% of the controls. Results were matched for age, sex, duration of time spent in the pools, place of occurrence and other useful information. Investigation of the contaminated swimming pools revealed that chlorination was often inadequate, especially when high numbers of people led to overuse of the pools. Although the results of this research showed that otitis externa was strongly associated with the swimming pools, due to P. aeruginosa, an extensive follow-up study is needed to determine the other possible health risks associated with public pools. PMID:15318488

Hajjartabar, M

2004-01-01

30

Haplotype characterization of the COI mitochondrial gene in Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from different environments in Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The green lacewings (Chrysopidae) belong to the Order Neuroptera and are described as voracious predators in the larval stage and sometimes also in their adulthood. They are an important group used in integrated biological control in field and horticultural crops. Individuals of Chrysoperla externa were collected during 2007 until March 2008 in five different locations in Jaboticabal, SP, with all the seasons sampled. Thirty six sequences with 805 pairs of bases for the gene mitochondrial Citochrome Oxidase I (COI) were analysed. The genetic parameters revealed 24 haplotypes for this population, a total of 36 mutations and haplotype diversity of 0.956. The data of genetic distance and population structure calculated for this population considering the different areas and seasons, revealed a great genetic similarity and high degree of genetic sharing between individuals sampled. It showed that the species Chrysoperla externa from Jaboticabal, SP, is a single population, without genetic structure neither due to the area of origin nor to the seasons of the year. PMID:21180923

Morales, A C; Freitas, S

2010-11-01

31

Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose-response effects.  

PubMed

The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2×MFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron > lufenuron > teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2 048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds. PMID:23956013

Joao Zotti, Moises; Dionel Grutzmacher, Anderson; Heres Lopes, Isac; Smagghe, Guy

2013-12-01

32

Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the epidemiologic pattern of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) in a general hospital in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Material and methods. From 1994 to 1998, 33 patients 13 years of age or older with diagnosis of APP were studied. Descriptive statistics were used to ana- lyze information. Results. Males were frequently affect- ed (82%), specially those coming from rural

Jaime Jesús Durán-Nah; Julián Collí-Quintal

2000-01-01

33

Diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis externa by dermatoscopy  

PubMed Central

Ophthalmomyiasis in humans caused by the larvae of the sheep nasal botfly (Oestrus ovis) and is a rare phenomenon in Israel. We describe the utilization of the dermatoscope as a diagnostic tool for the facilitation of early diagnosis of conjunctivitis due to the infestation of the eyes by the sheep nasal botfly in two patients. After the physical removal of the larvae with the help of a cotton swab applicator under a slit lamp examination and the topical use of antibiotics, the clinical symptoms improved within 1–2 days. Undoubtedly the dermatoscope played a crucial role leading to the definitive diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention.

Naimer, Sody A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.

2014-01-01

34

Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.  

PubMed

Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage. PMID:2585023

Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

1989-12-01

35

[Congenital CSF otitic leakage presenting as rhinorrhea: report of a case].  

PubMed

A 10-year-old girl was brought to our ear, nose and throat clinic for consultation on her articulation problem in addition to an attack of bacterial meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. These problems had bothered her and her family for about 5 years. In August 1988, she had received a bifrontal osteoplastic craniotomy for her CSF leakage, but the procedure was ineffective. Local examination showed bilaterally intact ear drums. The left ear drum looked cloudy and thick with poor mobility under pneumatoscopy. A tympanogram showed that B type. Pure tone audiometry revealed a profound sensorineural hearing loss in the left ear. A CT scan showed widening of the internal auditory canal and dysplasia of the left cochlea and vestibule in addition to fluid accumulation in the mastoid and mesotympanum. Under the impression of CSF otorrhea, an exploratory tympanotomy was performed, revealing an area of leakage in the tympanic cavity. It was sealed with abdominal fat, temporal connective tissue and tissue glue. All of the bothersome symptoms disappeared postoperatively during an 18-month follow-up. PMID:8103386

Chao, W Y; Tseng, H J; Chen, H H

1993-03-01

36

Externa otitis caused by the Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria apiosperma  

PubMed Central

We report a case of otomycosis caused by the Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria apiosperma in an immunocompetent 32 years old man who was suffering from hypoacusia and purulent otorrhea. Isolates were identified as Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria sp. on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Pseudallescheria apiosperma was correctly identified by PCR sequencing of ITS regions and ?-tubulin gene. In this case the contamination could be due to intensive activity of gardening with poor hygiene. PMID:24432231

Neji, Sourour; Ines, Hadrich; Houaida, Trabelsi; Malek, Mnejja; Fatma, Cheikhrouhou; Hayet, Sellami; Fattouma, Makni; Mounom, Ghorbel; Ali, Ayadi

2013-01-01

37

AVALIAÇÃO DE TOXICIDADE AGUDA: ESTRATÉGIAS APÓS A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work discuss about the evaluation of the acute systemic toxicity post deletion of the LD50 test (median lethal dose). The three alternative animal tests now employed, the Fixed Dose Procedure, the Acute Toxic Class Method and the Up and Down Procedure, give rise to significant improvements in animal welfare. Although, the total replacement of animal tests it is

Marize C. Valadares

38

Étude de l'épidémiologie bactérienne de l'otite moyenne aiguë de l'enfant observée en ville dans la région Nord Pas-de-Calais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background – The aim of this work is the study of the bacteriologic epidemiology of acute otitis media in infants observed at home in Nord Pas-de-Calais area, and the analysis of bacteria associated to recurrent otitis and clinical failure.Observations – A total of 295 specimens of ear pus specimens were collected from children (mean age: 18 months; average: one month–12

M. O. Husson; A. Pierreti; J. Quelquejay; F. M. Vaneecloo; R. J. Courcol; C. Vincent

2001-01-01

39

Herniation of the temporomandibular joint into the external auditory meatus secondary to benign necrotising otitis externa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is intimately related to the external auditory meatus (EAM). Herniation of the joint into the EAM occurs secondary to neoplasia, trauma, inflammation and developmental problems [Conover GL, Crammond RJ. Tympanic plate fracture from mandibular trauma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1985;43:292–4; Ali TS, Rubinstein JT. Rheumatoid arthritis of the temporomandibular joint with herniation into the external auditory

Neil C.-W. Tan; Alan Wilson; Jonathan Buckland

2009-01-01

40

[Local treatment of non-suppurative otitis externa. A double-blind randomized study].  

PubMed

A comparison between a plain steroid lotion and a steroid lotion with an additional keratolytic and antiseptic was conducted in order to assess the value, if any, of additives in the treatment of dry external otitis. Sixty patients with dry external otitis were treated with either a plain steroid lotion or a steroid lotion with additives. Assessments were made prior to and after one week of treatment regarding erythema, oedema, secretion, itching, pain and spontaneously reported side-effects. No significant differences in efficacy were observed between the treatments. Statistically significant differences in favour of the plain steroid lotion were found with regard to reduction of erythema and occurrence of spontaneously reported side-effects. These findings invalidate the demands of additives to steroid lotions in the treatment of dry external otitis. PMID:8273245

Vinther, B; Gustavsen, K M

1993-12-20

41

Acute Otitis Externa: Efficacy and Tolerability of N-Chlorotaurine, a Novel Endogenous Antiseptic Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study's objective was to test the tolerability and efficacy of the endogenous antiseptic N-chlorotaurine (NCT) in comparison with a stan- dard clinical treatment according to a phase IIb clin- ical trial protocol. Study Design: The antimicrobial agent NCT was compared with the antibiotic compo- nent drops Otosporin (containing neomycin, poly- myxin B, and hydrocortisone) for topical treatment of

Andreas Neher; Markus Nagl; Elisabeth Appenroth; Martin Wischatta; Franz Reisigl; Martin Schindler; Hanno Ulmer; Kurt Stephan

2004-01-01

42

Bacterias orales en pacientes con leucemia linfocítica aguda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, even the presence of a complex oral micro-flora, it is possible to cure Acute Linphoblastic Leucemic patients. upon 200 different species have been isolated, the majority is transient, and just 20 are resident species. Our investigation analyzed 106 LLA patients treated in the Neoplasic Diseases Peruvian Institute (INEN) since January to December 2001, whit the aim to state the

Gilmer Torres Ramos; Cynthia Anticona; Bachiller de Odontología

43

Mem~rie d -;li"1 Soc. En t"' Ino lc 9:c.  

E-print Network

- stuca vallesiaca, Tunica saxtlraga, Silene otites, Scahiosa gramuntia. Situazioni xerotermiche più, Lichenes e Opuntia humifusa (= O. vulgaris). t) In queste stazioni sono stati raccolti i seguenti

Rider, David A.

44

Quality of life and psycho-social development in children with otitis media with effusion Qualità di vita e sviluppo psico-sociale nei bambini con otite media secretiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

th class, mostly due to persistent attention disturbances. In the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test, 50% of parents or care- givers had a high state-anxiety score and so were mostly con- cerned with health status of the children. The State-Trait Anx- iety Inventory results indicated that 50% of parents or care- givers had a high trait-anxiety score and thus had an

L. BELLUSSI; M. MANDALÀ; F. M. PASSÀLI; G. C. PASSÀLI; M. LAURIELLO; D. PASSALI

45

Efeitos da suplementação aguda de aspartato de arginina na fadiga muscular em voluntários treinados  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A atividade física influi em mecanismos específicos responsá- veis pela redução da produção de força e conseqüentemente à fadiga. A preocupação em melhorar o desempenho físico tem sido propostos; observamos que estudos dão atenção para reduzir acú- mulos dos metabólitos que diminuem a fadiga durante o exercício físico intenso, usando aminoácidos conhecidos por induzir mudan- ças metabólicas, entre eles

Ricardo Pombo Sales; Carlos Eduardo César Miné; Andréia Dellú Franco; Érika Lima Rodrigues; Renato de Souza e Silva; José Carlos Cogo; Rodrigo A. B. Lopes-Martins; Rodrigo Lazo Osorio; Wellington Ribeiro

2005-01-01

46

Ventilación mecánica en pacientes con patologías agudas del Sistema Nervioso Central: sobrevida y pronóstico funcional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The need of mechanical ventilation among patients with acute neurological diseases is considered a poor prognostic sign. Aim: To determine the mortal- ity and functional recovery of neurological patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Patients and methods: Prospective study of 77 patients (42 men, age 54±19 years, with 11±4 points of Glas- gow coma scale (GCS), 61% with cerebrovascular disease), that

Enrique Norero M; Pablo Altschwager K; Carlos Romero P; Patricio Mellado T; Glenn Hernández P; Luis Castillo F; Guillermo Bugedo T

2004-01-01

47

Complicaciones ginecoobstétricas en la bartonelosis aguda: 50 casos observados en Caraz, Ancash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to evaluate obstetric complications arising in pregnant native women with acute bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis in an endemic area in Caraz, Ancash, at 2 237 m above sea level. Material and method: 50 pregnant women were enrolled consecutively in San Juan de Dios Hospital, Caraz, between 1999 and 2003. All cases had the diagnosis of bartonellosis, based on

Douglas López Guimaraes; Maricriz Giraldo Villafane; Ciro Maguiña Vargas

2006-01-01

48

Pancreatitis aguda grave, manejo quirúrgico en un hospital de tercer nivel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Severe acute pancreatitis has a reported mortality of 10-30% in specialized hospitals, representing 20% of patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. Indications for surgery are infected necrosis, necrosis persistent, fulminant pancreatitis or acute pancreatitis complications such as bleeding or intestinal perforation. Methods: We studied patients diagnosed with pancreatitis from January 1, 000 to December 31, 2007. Results: We analyzed

Erick Servín-Torres; José Arturo Velázquez-García; Germán Delgadillo-Teyer; Luis Galindo-Mendoza; Francisco Bevia-Pérez; Fausto Rivera-Bennet

49

Guía de práctica clínica sobre la bronquiolitis aguda: recomendaciones para la práctica clínica  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are scientific controversies about the management of acute bronchiolitis that generate a great variability in the approach to this entity. A clinical practice guideline (CPG) is a set of systematically developed recommendations to assist practitioners and patients to make decisions based on evidence.A working group (WG) of experts has been selected and they have developed the clinical questions. A

M. Simó Nebot; G. Claret Teruel; C. Luaces Cubells; M. D. Estrada Sabadell; J. Pou Fernández

2010-01-01

50

Comparação de dipirona intravenosa com metoclopramida intravenosa no tratamento de crise aguda de enxaqueca: ensaio clínico randomizado  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - I n t rodução: A enxaqueca é uma das doenças mais comuns da prática clínica. Objetivo: C o m p a r a r o efeito analgésico da dipirona com a metoclopramida no alívio da dor. Método: Conduzimos um estudo piloto randomizado comparando dipirona intravenosa com metoclopramida intravenosa em 27 pacientes apresentando crise de enxaqueca. O objetivo primário

Sérgio Murilo Maciel Fernandes Filho; Márcio Santos Costa; Mariana Torres Fernandes; Miriam Vils Foerster

2006-01-01

51

Interruption of bispectral index monitoring by nerve integrity monitoring during tympanoplasty -A case report-  

PubMed Central

We report that intraoperative NIM-2 monitoring devices can interfere with bispectral index monitoring. A 45-year-old male with chronic otits media underwent tympanolasty under general anesthesia with NIM-2 monitoring and bispectral index monitoring at our institution. And then, bispectral index monitoring was severely interrupted by facial nerve monitoring. PMID:23459709

Kim, Jun Hyun; Kim, Ah Na; Kim, Kyung Woo; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Park, Jang Su; Kim, Jung Won

2013-01-01

52

Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

Benson, Carolyn J.

53

Análise Biomecânica dos Efeitos da Crioterapia no Tratamento da Lesão Muscular Aguda Biomechanical Analysis of the Cryotherapy Effects in the Treatment of Acute Muscular Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryotherapy is widespread used in the acute treatment of muscle injuries of professional and unprofessional athletes. The purpose of this study was the investigation of mechanical properties of gastrocnemius muscle submitted to a impact mechanism of injury and treated with cryoterapy. Therefore, twenty four female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (C): animals housed in standard cages for

João Paulo Chieregato Matheus; Goulart Prata; Oliveira Milani; Liana Barbaresco Gomide; José Batista Volpon; Antônio Carlos Shimano; Juliana Goulart; Prata de Oliveira

54

Uso precoz de la ventilación mecánica no invasiva en pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria hipercápnica aguda ingresados en una sala de neumología: estudio prospectivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn recent years, the optimal location for noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) has been a matter of debate. Our aim was to detect the effectiveness of NIMV in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) in respiratory ward and factors associated with failure.

Aydin Ciledag; Akin Kaya; Buket Basa Akdogan; Pinar Akin Kabalak; Zeynep P. Onen; Elif Sen; Banu Gulbay

2010-01-01

55

Pneumonia eosinofílica aguda num doente com infecção crónica pelo vírus da hepatite C Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a cli- nical entity characterized by eosinophilic pul- monary infiltration without peripheral blood eosinophilia in most cases. We describe a case of AEP in a patient with chronic hepatitis C and review some features of the first disease.

Carmen Olabuenaga; Augusta Machado; António Oliveira e Silva; Jorge Almeida; Manuel Quintas

2003-01-01

56

N DE MATRCULA:_______________________ PROCESSO DE ADMISSO -2014.1  

E-print Network

Nº DE MATRÍCULA:_______________________ PROCESSO DE ADMISS�O - 2014.1 Transferência Externa Transferência Externa Portador de Diploma Enem Períodos Cursados: Períodos Trancados: Períodos Abandonados

57

21 CFR 524.1484k - Prednisolone and neomycin suspension.  

...dogs and cats —(1) Amount. For beginning treatment of acute ocular inflammations place 1 or 2 drops in the conjunctival...infectious, allergic and traumatic keratitis and conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa. (3)...

2014-04-01

58

21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone solution.  

...associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses. (ii) Cats. ...of pruritis and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses. (3) Federal...

2014-04-01

59

Auritidibacter ignavus gen. nov., sp. nov., of the family Micrococcaceae isolated from an ear swab of a man with otitis externa, transfer of the members of the family Yaniellaceae Li et al. 2008 to the family Micrococcaceae and emended description of the suborder Micrococcineae.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium designated IMMIB L-1656(T) was isolated from an ear swab of a man and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain IMMIB L-1656(T) is related to members of the family Micrococcaceae (<95.1?% sequence similarity). Anaylsis using different phylogenetic algorithms consistently grouped strain IMMIB L-1656(T) with members of the genus Yaniella. The organism posessed a cell-wall murein based on L-lysine (variation A4?, type L-Lys-Gly-L-Glu), MK-10 as the predominant menaquinone and long-chain cellular fatty acids of straight-chain and branched-chain saturated types (with iso-C(15?:?0) and anteiso-C(17?:?0) predominating). The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol in addition to unknown glycolipids. The DNA G+C content was 59.7 mol%. Based on its distinctive genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, strain IMMIB L-1656(T) represents a novel species in a novel genus, for which the name Auritidibacter ignavus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. We also propose that members of the family Yaniellaceae be transferred to the family Micrococcaceae with amendments to the description of the suborder Micrococcineae. The type strain of Auritidibacter ignavus is IMMIB L-1656(T) (=DSM 45359(T) =CCUG 57943(T)). PMID:20190019

Yassin, A F; Hupfer, H; Siering, C; Klenk, H-P; Schumann, P

2011-02-01

60

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Externa) Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Pneumocystis Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Immunizations Flu Center ...

61

NÌveis plasmÆticos de vitamina A em crianÁas carentes com pneumonia na fase aguda e apÛs recuperaÁªo Plasma vitamin A levels in deprived children with pneumonia during the acute phase and after recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the plasma retinol of children in the acute phase of pneumonia and after recovery and to investigate the association between plasma levels of retinol after recovery with socioeconomic variables, nutritional status and severity of pneumonia. Methods: A prospective cohort study which included 40 low- income hospitalized children with pneumonia, aged 6

Rosangela da Silva; Roseli Oselka; Saccardo Sarni; Augusto de Aguiar; Carrazedo Taddei

62

Cholest?atome de l'oreille moyenne - ?tude r?trospective ? propos de 145 cas  

PubMed Central

L'otite moyenne chronique cholestéatomateuse représente une entité fréquente et dangereuse en chirurgie otologique, mettant en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel auditif et exposant à des complications redoutables justifiant pleinement le recours exclusif à un traitement chirurgical et à un suivi post-opératoire rigoureux. Dans le but de mettre le point sur les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives de cette pathologie, nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, étalée sur 11 ans et portant sur 145 cas de cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne opérés au sein du service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. PMID:25120876

Bouaity, Brahim; Chihani, Mehdi; Nadour, Karim; Moujahid, Mountassir; Touati, Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Ammar, Haddou

2014-01-01

63

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating of 100... 6209Benign neoplasms of the ear (other than skin only): Rate on impairment of function. 6210Chronic otitis externa:...

2013-07-01

64

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating of 100... 6209Benign neoplasms of the ear (other than skin only): Rate on impairment of function. 6210Chronic otitis externa:...

2012-07-01

65

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating of 100... 6209Benign neoplasms of the ear (other than skin only): Rate on impairment of function. 6210Chronic otitis externa:...

2011-07-01

66

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...both antibiotics: Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcer, superficial wounds, and superficial abscesses. (2) The ointment should be applied to the affected areas of...

2010-04-01

67

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...both antibiotics: Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcer, superficial wounds, and superficial abscesses. (2) The ointment should be applied to the affected areas of...

2011-04-01

68

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...both antibiotics: Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcer, superficial wounds, and superficial abscesses. (2) The ointment should be applied to the affected areas of...

2012-04-01

69

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin, amphomycin, and hydrocortisone ointment.  

...the treatment of acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcers, superficial wounds, and superficial abscesses associated with bacterial infections caused by organisms susceptible to...

2014-04-01

70

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...both antibiotics: Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcer, superficial wounds, and superficial abscesses. (2) The ointment should be applied to the affected areas of...

2013-04-01

71

New York State Canal System: Modern Freight-Way.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study demonstrates the benefits of waterborne freight logistics and makes the case for instituting container-onbarge service on the New York State Canal System. We summarize numerous studies comparing the energy requirements and environmental externa...

J. Belt

2010-01-01

72

21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indications for use . Treatment of summer eczema, atopic dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B. (3) Limitations . For use in dogs only. Shake drug...

2013-04-01

73

PUERTORRIQUENA VII12 SANJUAN 1980  

E-print Network

a influencias linguisticas externas, el ana lisis de su lenguaje nos puede proporcionar datos valiosos sobre la dominicano. Contacto con el espanol Aunque la comunidad americana reside en Samaria desde ha ce tres anos 0

Sankoff, David

74

21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be applied once a day or every other day. (2) Indications for use . Treatment of summer eczema, atopic dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B....

2010-04-01

75

Facial Cleanliness  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

76

Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

77

Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

78

Nail Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

79

Body Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

80

Chronic Diarrhea  

MedlinePLUS

... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head ... Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information ...

81

Earache.  

PubMed

Earache, a common emergency department presentation, may be caused by a variety of conditions, some distant from the ear. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, otitis externa, otitis media with ruptured tympanic membrane or tympanostomy tubes, malignant otitis externa, mastoiditis and petrositis, traumatic ruptured tympanic membrane, cerumen impactions, and foreign bodies in the ears. PMID:23601480

Conover, Keith

2013-05-01

82

Radioterapia extema radical en cáncer infiltrante de vejiga en pacientes geriátricos con contraindicación médica para la cirugía: experiencia institucional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  Se analiza retrospectivamente la tolerancia y el control tumoral en pacientes con cáncer infiltrante de vejiga cuya única\\u000a alternativa terapéutica radical es la radioterapia externa.\\u000a \\u000a Cuarenta y siete pacientes (3 mujeres y 44 varones), con contraindicación para cistectomía, fueron tratados con radioterapia\\u000a externa con intención curativa. Cuarenta (85%) tenían una edad al diagnóstico ? 70 años. Nueve presentaban performance status

Raúl Matute Martín; Arnaldo Alvarado Astudillo; Nuria E. Martínez Moreno; José A. Arranz Arija; Marina Gómez Espí; Dolores de la Mata Moya; Esperanza Lozano Guerra; Javier Serrano Andreu; Rafael Herranz Crespo; Manuel Felipe A. Calvo

2002-01-01

83

Distribution, quantitation, and origin of immunoreactive neuropeptide Y in the human gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

A radioimmunoassay for measurement of immunoreactive neuropeptide Y has been developed using antiserum from a rabbit (221) immunized with porcine neuropeptide Y. Antibody 221 has been characterized for both sensitivity and specificity. To determine the distribution of neuropeptide Y in the human gastrointestinal tract, fresh tissue specimens were separated by microdissection into the muscularis externa and the mucosa-submucosa. To examine the origin of neuropeptide Y in human colon, specimens of aganglionic and ganglionic colon were obtained from patients with Hirschsprung's disease. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y in human gut was present in highest concentrations in the muscularis externa of the stomach and in lowest concentrations in the muscularis externa of the ileum and descending colon. Neuropeptide Y in the stomach was present in higher concentrations in the muscularis externa than in the mucosa-submucosa, but in the descending colon there were lower concentrations of neuropeptide Y in the muscularis externa than in the mucosa-submucosa. In Hirschsprung's disease, concentrations of neuropeptide Y were increased in aganglionic colon in both the muscularis externa and the mucosa-submucosa, compared to corresponding layers from proximal ganglionic colon. Extracts of the gastric muscularis externa and the colonic mucosa-submucosa were separated by C18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. One major immunoreactive species was identified by radioimmunoassay which eluted in a position similar to synthetic human neuropeptide Y. These results demonstrated both regional and layer differences in concentrations of neuropeptide Y in human gut. Increased concentrations of neuropeptide Y in aganglionic colon from Hirschsprung's disease most likely result from enlargement of neuropeptide Y-containing extrinsic nerve fibers in both the mucosa-submucosa and the muscularis externa. PMID:3413296

Koch, T R; Roddy, D R; Carney, J A; Telander, R L; Go, V L

1988-06-01

84

Evolution of reproductive systems in the genus Silene.  

PubMed

The genus Silene contains both hermaphrodite, gynodioecious and dioecious species, dioecy being represented in three sections of the genus. To locate the events of change of reproductive systems, we compared ITS sequences of 22 species of Silene chosen throughout the whole genus, and four putative outgroup species. Gynodioecy, which is the most common reproductive system within the genus Silene and in closely related genera such as Saponaria and Dianthus, is proposed to be ancestral in the genus. Dioecy has evolved at least twice: once in the section containing S. latifolia, and once in the clade containing S. otites and S. acaulis ssp. bryoides. Evolution towards hermaphroditism, associated with evolution of selfing has also occurred at least twice, in S. gallica and S. comica. PMID:18386410

Desfeux, C; Maurice, S; Henry, J P; Lejeune, B; Gouyon, P H

1996-04-22

85

La sobreexpresión de poli (ADP-ribosa) polimerasa se correlaciona con el desarrollo de necrosis tubular aguda y con la función precoz del trasplante renal Poly (ADP-ribose) polimerase overexpression is correlationship with develop of acute tubular necrosis and early function of renal allograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP-1) catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of proteins using NAD(+) as substrate. Its overactivation leads to massive NAD+ consumption and ATP depletion. The ischemia\\/reperfusion injury (IR) indu- ces PARP-1 overactivation and leads to cellular necrosis by massive ATP consumption. Our working hypothesis was that massive PARP-1 tubular expression in allograft human kidneys are a direct cause of acute tubular

Francisco O'Valle; María del Carmen Benítez; David Martín-Oliva; Mercedes Gómez-Morales; Cristina Godoy; Fernando García del Moral; Mariano Aguilar; Francisco Oliver; Raimundo G. del Moral

86

Incidence and burden of earaches due to recreational swimming: Results from a nationwide study ofover 50,000 respondents  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Earaches and ear pain due to outer ear infections (otitis externa) are common following swimming and can result in time lost from work and school and visits to the physician or hospital. Objectives: Determine the proportion of self-reported earache attributable to ma...

87

Relações Brasil-Argentina: Uma análise dos avanços e recuos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nada há de original em afirmar que as relações Brasil-Argentina foram erráticas durante grande parte da História. A real dimensão das convergências e divergências é, contudo, menos evidente. Este artigo tenta examinar de forma objetiva os ciclos de avanços e recuos, conforme esquematizado no gráfico ao lado. A política externa argentina sempre sofreu impulsos contraditórios de dependência e autonomia, isolacionismo

Alessandro Warley Candeas

2005-01-01

88

Descripció d?una nova espècie de Pholioxenus Reichardt, 1932 (Coleoptera, Histeridae) de la península Ibèrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es descriu Pholioxenus castilloi n. sp. d'Esplús (Osca, Espanya). Es distingeix bàsicament de Ph. schatzmayri (Müller, 1910) per tenir el cos més ample, amb puntejat i microscultura més densos, estria subhumeral externa completa i estries dorsals més llargues, entre d'altres caràcters. Aquest és el primer representant del gènere de la Península Ibèrica.

Tomàs Yélamos

2002-01-01

89

Point process models show temporal dependencies of basal ganglia nuclei under Deep Brain Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with Parkinsons disease, but its impact on basal ganglia nuclei is not fully understood. DBS applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) affects neurons in the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) through direct projections, as well as indirectly through the Globus Pallidus pars externa (GPe). Since traditional statistical analyses of electrophysiological

Shreya Saxena; Sabato Santaniello; Erwin B. Montgomery; John T. Gale; Sridevi V. Sarma

2010-01-01

90

Localization of monoaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of Astacus astacus Linné (Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular localization of biogenic monoamines in crustaceans was studied by means of a highly specific and sensitive fluorescence method devised by Falck and Hillarp. It was found that neurons displaying specific fluorescence in the central nervous system were confined to the protocerebrum, the medulla externa and interna and the ventral nerve cord. The method allows a distinction between the

Rolf Elofsson; Tiit Kauri; Sven-Olle Nielsen; Jarl-Ove Strömberg

1966-01-01

91

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...

2011-04-01

92

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...

2013-04-01

93

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...

2010-04-01

94

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...

2012-04-01

95

Den litterära textens minne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artikelns primära fokus är inte vad minnet betyder, utan vad minnet har för funktion, vad minnet gör i och med en skönlitterär text. Jag kommer att diskutera minnet som avbildning, spegling, härmning och upprepning, och de retoriska strategier som utgör textens minne. Det externa minnet och glömska Friedrich Kittler diskuterar i essäsamlingen Maskinskrifter teknologins betydelse för litteratu- ren och hur

AnnaLena Hållner

96

Cobertura d'accidents esportius Queden coberts els accidents i que puguin patir, les persones de la comunitat  

E-print Network

Resum Cobertura d'accidents esportius Queden coberts els accidents i que puguin patir, les persones contractat. S'entén per accident, la lesió corporal derivada d'una causa violenta, externa, de sobte i aliena les garanties de l'assegurança s'inclouen els accidents corporals per lesions succeïdes en

Geffner, Hector

97

La economía política de las reformas institucionales en Argentina: Los casos de la política de privatización de Entel, la reforma de la seguridad social y la reforma laboral  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quizás los observadores de Argentina no se hayan recuperado totalmente de la impresión producida por la magnitud de los cambios producidos en sus instituciones económicas en los años noventa bajo la presidencia de Carlos Menem. Comenzando en 1989, el país se embarcó en una nueva estrategia de desarrollo centrada en la inversión privada, la apertura externa y las señales de

Juan Carlos Torre; Pablo Gerchunoff

1999-01-01

98

SWIMBLADDER PERMEABILITY TO OXYGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The permeability of the swimbladder to gas was measured as the conductance to oxygen in seven species of fish. The low over-all conductance resides in the low diffusion constant, K, of the middle layer of the wall (submucosa) while the outer and inner layers (tunica externa and mucosa) have diffusion constants similar to other vertebrate tissues. The low diffusion

GEORGE N. LAPENNAS; KNUT SCHMIDT-NIELSEN

1977-01-01

99

Spiroxys contorta (Nematoda: spirurida) in gastric granulomas of Apalone spinifera pallida (Reptilia: testudines).  

PubMed

Non-caseating granulomas containing larval spirurid nematodes (Spiroxys contorta) were observed in the gastric submucosa and muscularis externa of two pallid spiny softshells (Apalone spinifera pallida) from northcentral Texas (USA). In early granulomas, nematodes were not surrounded by a fibrous capsule but in older, mature granulomas, a fibrous capsule was present. Granulomas without nematodes also were present. PMID:8355361

McAllister, C T; Goldberg, S R; Holshuh, H J

1993-07-01

100

Instrucciones para el uso del paquete ``La Expansi'on del Universo y la Ley de Hubble''  

E-print Network

: longitud de onda, efecto Doppler, espectroscop'ia, magnitud, galaxias. En la P'agina de CLEA hay un manual observando galaxias con un telescopio, para hacerles espectroscop'ia y determinar su corrimiento al rojo. 1 propia Galaxia, as'i como fuentes difusas y de formas no redondas que son las galaxias externas a la

Rodriguez, Luis F.

101

Instrucciones para laboratorios de pruebas (Actualizado al 2/12)  

E-print Network

externas y cargadores de batería. · Solicitud de Laboratorio de Pruebas para Calentadores de Agua con gran Capacidad de Almacenamiento: esta solicitud cubre calentadores de agua a gas y a electricidad, válvula de desvío de agua para duchas/b

102

Modelo Hidrulico Operacional del Oeste de Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico Introducción El Instituto de Investigaciones Sobre Recursos de Agua y el Ambiente de Puerto del Modelo Hidráulico Operacional del Sistema de Distribución de Agua del Oeste de Puerto Rico. El agua. · Reserva Nodos que representan una fuente de agua externa del sistema. · Tanques Nodos con

Gilbes, Fernando

103

Organic synthesis via magnetic attraction: benign and sustainable protocols using magnetic nanoferrites  

EPA Science Inventory

Magnetic nano-catalysts have been prepared using simple modification of iron ferrites wherein their quasi-homogeneous state, because of nm size range, facilitates the catalysis process as increased surface is available for reaction; the easy separation of the catalysts by externa...

104

Sulphide quinone reductase contributes to hydrogen sulphide metabolism in murine peripheral tissues but not in the CNS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is gaining acceptance as a gaseous signal molecule. However, mechanisms regarding signal termination are not understood. We used stigmatellin and antimycin A, inhibitors of sulphide quinone reductase (SQR), to test the hypothesis that the catabolism of H2S involves SQR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H2S production and consumption were determined in living and intact mouse brain, liver and colonic muscularis externa using gas chromatography and HPLC. Expressions of SQR, ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 (Ethe1) and thiosulphate transferase (TST; rhodanese) were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS In the colonic muscularis externa, H235S was catabolized to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, and stigmatellin reduced both the consumption of H235S and formation of [35S]-thiosulphate. Stigmatellin also enhanced H2S release by the colonic muscularis externa. In the brain, catabolism of H235S to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, which was stigmatellin-insensitive, partially accounted for H235S consumption, while the remainder was captured as unidentified 35S that was probably bound to proteins. Levels of mRNA encoding SQR were higher in the colonic muscularis externa and the liver than in the brain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data support the concept that termination of endogenous H2S signalling in the colonic muscularis externa occurs via catabolism to thiosulphate and sulphate partially via a mechanism involving SQR. In the brain, it appears that H2S signal termination occurs partially through protein sequestration and partially through catabolism not involving SQR. As H2S has beneficial effects in animal models of human disease, we suggest that selective inhibition of SQR is an attractive target for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21950400

Linden, DR; Furne, J; Stoltz, GJ; Abdel-Rehim, MS; Levitt, MD; Szurszewski, JH

2012-01-01

105

Jeunes : les stigmatisations de l'apparence  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Jóvenes: las estigmatizaciones de la apariencia . . Hay personas que pueden tener el sentimiento que, en ciertas ocasiones de sus relaciones sociales, se ha atentado a sus derechos 0 su dignidad. Los jovenes se . distinguen claramente de los mayores a este respecto. Su sensibilidad a diferentes formas de ostracismo es mas aguda que la de los adultos,

Olivier Galland

2006-01-01

106

Síndrome de Sweet em cicatriz cirúrgica* Sweet's Syndrome on Surgical Scar  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Resumo: A síndrome de Sweet é dermatose rara, caracterizada por erupção aguda de placas e nódulos eritêmato-edematosos. Relata-se o caso de doente do sexo feminino, de 55 anos, com lesão cutânea compatível com síndrome de Sweet ao redor de cicatriz cirúrgica na face, após exérese de ceratose actínica e ingestão de dipirona. O caso relatado ressalta a possibili- dade

Isadora Cavalcanti Ramos; Cláudio Tudech Wiering; Antônio José Tebcherani; Ana Paula; Galli Sanchez

107

Effects of Ethyl Alcohol on Canine Jejunal Circular Smooth Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl alcohol has many symptomatic effects onthe gastrointestinal tract. Our aim was to determine theeffects of ethyl alcohol on circular smooth musclecontractility of the canine small bowel. Mechanical and intracellular electrical recordings weremade in vitro from the circular muscle of full-thicknessstrips of muscularis externa from canine jejunum. Ethylalcohol (20-120 mM) dose-dependently decreased spontaneous contractile amplitude,hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, anddecreased

Gang Lu; Michael G. Sarr; Joseph H. Szurszewski

1997-01-01

108

LAS CRCELES PERUANAS Y SU FICCIONALIZACIN: UNA IMAGEN DEL PER CONTEMPORNEO  

E-print Network

guerras externas y civiles ocurridas en sus 182 años de vida independiente e [...] el 75 por ciento de las", se lee en el Informe de la CVR3 (9). La CVR atribuye la responsabilidad del 54% de las víctimas publicación del informe como los escritos posteriores han dado lugar a polémicas sobre la responsabilidad de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

Otalgia in children.  

PubMed Central

Otalgia is a common symptom in the pediatric age group. The most common cause is acute otitis media, followed by otitis externa. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis can be established by a thorough history and a careful otologic examination. When the otologic findings are normal and the etiology is obscure, a thorough work-up to determine the source of referred pain is essential. Laboratory investigations are usually not necessary. Treatment should always be directed at the underlying cause. PMID:10881475

Leung, A. K.; Fong, J. H.; Leong, A. G.

2000-01-01

110

Variation in Plant Defense against Invasive Herbivores: Evidence for a Hypersensitive Response in Eastern Hemlocks ( Tsuga canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores can trigger a wide array of morphological and chemical changes in their host plants. Feeding by some insects induces\\u000a a defensive hypersensitive response, a defense mechanism consisting of elevated H2O2 levels and tissue death at the site of herbivore feeding. The invasive hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (‘HWA’) and elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa (‘EHS’) feed on eastern hemlocks;

Laura Radville; Arielle Chaves; Evan L. Preisser

2011-01-01

111

Intracellular distinction between peroxidase and catalase in exocrine cells of rat lacrimal gland: A biochemical and cytochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The lacrimal gland (Glandula orbitalis externa) of rat contains both peroxidase and catalase and was used as a model for biochemical\\u000a and cytochemical distinction between peroxidase and catalase. Both enzymes were isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation\\u000a from tissue homogenates, and the effects of fixation with glutaraldehyde and various conditions of incubation were investigated\\u000a colorimetrically using DAB as hydrogen donor. The

V. Herzog; H. D. Fahimi

1976-01-01

112

Artigo original  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar a gravidade dos níveis de fadiga aguda em mulheres durante os períodos de pré-parto e o pós-parto, definindo as características e modificações associadas a gravidez relacionadas com a fadiga e conhecer o impacto da fadiga em algumas atividades diárias. Utilizou-se o método transversal no Hospital de Mulheres e Crianças de Sarakaya,

Sezgi Çinar; Nursan Dede Çinar

113

Developmental origins of colon smooth muscle dysfunction in IBS-like rats  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies show that subsets of adult and pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have prior exposures to psychological or inflammatory stress. We investigated the cellular mechanisms of colonic smooth muscle dysfunction in adult rats subjected to neonatal inflammation. Ten-day-old male rat pups received 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to induce colonic inflammation. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips were obtained 6 to 8 wk later. We found that about half of the neonate pups subjected to inflammatory insult showed a significant increase in expression of the pore-forming ?1C-subunit of Cav1.2b channels in adult life. These were the same rats in whom Vip mRNA increased in the colon muscularis externae. Additional experiments showed reduced interaction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 with ?1C1b promoter that increased the acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) in the core promoter region. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) treatment of naïve muscularis externae swiftly recruited CREB-binding protein (CBP) to the ?1C1b promoter and dissociated HDAC3 from this region to initiate transcription. The CBP interaction with the ?1C1b promoter was transient, but the dissociation of HDAC3 persisted to sustain H3K9 hyperacetylation and increase in transcription. Intraperitoneal treatment of adult naïve rats with butyrate mimicked the effects of neonatal colon inflammation. We concluded that neonatal inflammation upregulates VIP in the colon muscularis externae, which modulates epigenetic events at the ?1C1b promoter to activate ?1C1b gene transcription. Inflammatory insult in early life may be one of the etiologies of smooth muscle dysfunction in adult life, which contributes to the altered motility function in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. PMID:23886858

Li, Qingjie; Winston, John H.

2013-01-01

114

Hamster thecal cells express muscle characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Contraction of the follicular wall about the time of ovulation appears to be a coordinated event; however, the cells that mediate it remain poorly studied. We examined the theca externa cells in the wall of hamster follicles for the presence of a functional actomyosin system, both in developing follicles and in culture. We used a monoclonal antibody (HHF35) that recognizes the alpha and gamma isoelectric variants of actin normally found in muscle, but not the beta variant associated with non-muscle sources, to evaluate large preovulatory follicles for actin content and composition. Antibody staining of sectioned ovaries showed intense circumferential reactivity in the outermost wall of developing follicles. Immunoblots from two-dimensional gels of theca externa lysates demonstrated the presence of the two muscle-specific isozymes of actin. Immunofluorescence of cultured follicular cells pulse-labeled with (3H) thymidine (for autoradiographic detection of DNA replication) revealed the presence, in many dividing cells, of actin filaments aligned primarily along the longitudinal axis of the cells. In cultures exposed to the calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-4) M) for varying periods (5 min to 1 h), contraction of many individual muscle-actin-positive cells was observed. Immunofluorescence of these cells, fixed immediately after ionophore-induced contraction, revealed compaction of the actin filaments. Our findings demonstrate that the cells of the theca externa contain muscle actins from an early stage and that these cells are capable of contraction even while proliferating in subconfluent cultures. They suggest that follicular growth may include a naturally occurring developmental sequence in which a contractile cell type proliferates in the differentiated state.

Self, D.A.; Schroeder, P.C.; Gown, A.M.

1988-08-01

115

Imaginacion e identidad: los personajes de Juan Tovar  

E-print Network

se vuelve ambiguo: no se puede saber quien es, con quien habla, ni cuando vive. Asi en esta novela los dos pianos de la realidad externa e interna se aproximan. Su novela inedita, Criatura de un dia, sigue cata tendencia y, segun Tovar, los... fantasias in- fantiles. Cecilia, una nina de siete anos, va a pasar tres dias en casa de su abuela, quien al darse cuenta de la "ignorancia" de Cecilia en cuanto a la religion, de- cide llevarla al catecismo y ensenarle los rezos y ri- tos que debe...

Dennis, Susan Michele

2012-06-07

116

Adrenergic Innervation of Bowel in Hirschsprung's Disease  

PubMed Central

The adrenergic innervation of normal and aganglionic regions of bowel from patients with Hirschsprung's disease was investigated by a fluorescent histochemical technique. In normal bowel the adrenergic nerves end about intramural ganglion cells. In aganglionic bowel the adrenergic nerves form a dense varicose plexus in both muscularis externa and muscularis mucosae. It is suggested that the cause of megacolon in Hirschsprung's disease is due to a lack of nervous pathways controlling the intrinsic reflexes, which is probably congenital in origin. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5800344

Gannon, B. J.; Noblet, Helen R.; Burnstock, G.

1969-01-01

117

Relaciones entre lo sucedido en la década y las nuevas tendencias teatrales  

E-print Network

1983, el costo de vida aumentó en un 430%. La deuda externa pasó a 43,000 millones de dólares. Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo y otras entidades denunciaban 30,000 desaparecidos. Se estiman en 2,100,000 los argentinos que viven en el exterior. Asume...SPRING 1991 23 Relaciones entre lo sucedido en la década y las nuevas tendencias teatrales Eduardo Rovner Me propongo hurgar, más que en las relaciones entre lo sucedido en los '80 y los discursos de las obras estrenadas en la década, en lo...

Rovner, Eduardo

1991-04-01

118

The Anterior Olfactory Nucleus: Quantitative Study of Dendritic Morphology  

PubMed Central

The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) occupies a crucial position within the olfactory circuit as it is able to influence function in nearly every major synaptic processing stage of both the ipsilateral and contralateral pathway. Nevertheless, very little is known about the region’s internal organization and circuitry. The present study provides basic quantitative and qualitative data on the morphology of several cell types within the two major regions of the AON: pars externa and pars principalis. In pars externa two types of cells are analyzed, the “classical” cell (Type I), containing only apically-directed dendrites with large spines, and a previously unreported cell with basilar dendrites and complex, spiny apical processes (Type II). In pars principalis the characteristic pyramidal cell is described both on the basis of the depth of the cell bodies in the cell layer comprising the structure and on the basis of their radial location. Several other non-pyramidal neurons are also described. The findings provide useful basic information necessary for understanding and modeling the circuitry of the AON. PMID:20187150

Brunjes, Peter C.; Kenerson, Michael C.

2012-01-01

119

The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users  

PubMed Central

Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated. PMID:24948963

Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O. Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor

2014-01-01

120

The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users.  

PubMed

Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated. PMID:24948963

Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor

2014-05-01

121

Privatisation, Decentralisation and Education in the United Kingdom: The Role of the State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1950s, the axis `centralisation-decentralisation', especially as thematised in the work of Isaac Kandel, has represented a major focus of comparative studies in education. Kandel argued that issues relating to the internal conduct of the classroom (interna) should, so far as possible, be decentralised, while issues relating to administration, school structure and organisation of the educational system (externa) might safely be centralised. After 1988, successive governments in the United Kingdom have undertaken reforms which have placed more central control on the curriculum and even methods of teaching (interna), while school finance and administration (externa) have been devolved to the school level. The present essay argues that a simplistic approach to centralisation and decentralisation is not likely to be fruitful. Instead, we should acknowledge the role of the State in creating a `permissive framework' for educational systems. Local action can then be seen as part of a policy accommodating or resisting the implications of that framework.

Turner, David

2004-07-01

122

Stepwise enforcement of the notochord and its intersection with the myoseptum: an evolutionary path leading to development of the vertebra?  

PubMed Central

The notochord constitutes the main axial support during the embryonic and larval stages, and the arrangement of collagen fibrils within the notochord sheath is assumed to play a decisive role in determining its functional properties as a fibre-wound hydrostatic skeleton. We have found that during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon stepwise changes occur in the configuration of the collagen fibre-winding of the notochord sheath. The sheath consists of a basal lamina, a layer of type II collagen, and an elastica externa that delimits the notochord; and these constituents are secreted in a specific order. Initially, the collagen fibrils are circumferentially arranged perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, and this specific spatial fibril configuration is maintained until hatching when the collagen becomes reorganized into distinct layers or lamellae. Within each lamella, fibrils are parallel to each other, forming helices around the longitudinal axis of the notochord, with a tangent angle of 75–80° to the cranio-caudal axis. The helical geometry shifts between adjacent lamellae, forming enantiomorphous left- and right-handed coils, respectively, thus enforcing the sheath. The observed changes in the fibre-winding configuration may reflect adaptation of the notochord to functional demands related to stage in ontogeny. When the vertebral bodies initially form as chordacentra, the collagen lamellae of the sheath in the vertebral region are fixed by the deposition of minerals; in the intervertebral region, however, they represent a pre-adaptation providing torsional stability to the intervertebral joint. Hence, these modifications of the sheath transform the notochord per se into a functional vertebral column. The elastica externa, encasing the notochord, has serrated surfaces, connected inward to the type II collagen of the sheath, and outward to type I collagen of the mesenchymal connective tissue surrounding the notochord. In a similar manner, the collagen matrix of the neural and haemal arch cartilages is tightly anchored to the outward surface of the elastic membrane. Hence, the elastic membrane may serve as an interface between the notochord and the adjacent structures, with an essential function related to transmission of tensile forces from the musculature. The interconnection between the notochord and the myosepta is discussed in relation to function and to evolution of the arches and the vertebra. Contrary to current understanding, this study also shows that notochord vacuolization does not result in an increased elongation of the embryo, which agrees with the circular arrangement of type II collagen that probably only enables a restricted increase in girth upon vacuolization, not aiding elongation. As the vacuolization occurs during the egg stage, this type of collagen disposition, in combination with an elastica externa, also probably facilitates flexibility and curling of the embryo. PMID:16928203

Grotmol, Sindre; Kryvi, Harald; Keynes, Roger; Kross?y, Christel; Nordvik, Kari; Totland, Geir K

2006-01-01

123

Crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons regulates gastrointestinal motility.  

PubMed

Intestinal peristalsis is a dynamic physiologic process influenced by dietary and microbial changes. It is tightly regulated by complex cellular interactions; however, our understanding of these controls is incomplete. A distinct population of macrophages is distributed in the intestinal muscularis externa. We demonstrate that, in the steady state, muscularis macrophages regulate peristaltic activity of the colon. They change the pattern of smooth muscle contractions by secreting bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which activates BMP receptor (BMPR) expressed by enteric neurons. Enteric neurons, in turn, secrete colony stimulatory factor 1 (CSF1), a growth factor required for macrophage development. Finally, stimuli from microbial commensals regulate BMP2 expression by macrophages and CSF1 expression by enteric neurons. Our findings identify a plastic, microbiota-driven crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons that controls gastrointestinal motility. PAPERFLICK: PMID:25036630

Muller, Paul Andrew; Koscsó, Balázs; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; Stevanovic, Korey; Berres, Marie-Luise; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Leboeuf, Marylene; Li, Xiu-Min; Mucida, Daniel; Stanley, E Richard; Dahan, Stephanie; Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Merad, Miriam; Bogunovic, Milena

2014-07-17

124

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-01-01

125

Foramen of Huschke (tympanicum) in a Nigerian male with articular soft-tissue herniation into the external auditory meatus.  

PubMed

The protrusion of articular soft-tissue from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) into the external ear in the absence of trauma, neoplasm or inflammation is rare. We present below a Nigerian adult male with retrodiscal herniation of soft-tissues of the TMJ into the external auditory meatus through a persistent foramen of Huschke. We are not aware of any reports of this developmental defect or its prevalence in the Nigerian medical literature. Therefore, this case is presented to heighten the index of suspicion of physicians when managing patients with otorrhea and otalgia; which is often primarily diagnosed or misdiagnosed as otitis externa. This will help avoid complications associated with the anomaly, some of which could be very serious. PMID:25287039

Olarinoye-Akorede, S A; Olanrewaju, I S; Suleiman, A O

2014-01-01

126

Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Noninvasive Zoonotic Transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a Canine Pet to a Human  

PubMed Central

rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic techniques were used to identify the bacterial species present in the ear fluid from a female patient with otitis externa. We report the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius from the patient and a possible route of transmission. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the dominant species present was S. intermedius. A pet dog owned by the patient also was tested and found to harbor S. intermedius. In humans, the disease is rare and considered a zoonosis. Previously, S. intermedius has been associated with dog bite wounds, catheter-related injuries, and surgery. This study represents the first reported case of a noninvasive infection with S. intermedius. PMID:10747154

Tanner, Michael A.; Everett, Christine L.; Youvan, Douglas C.

2000-01-01

127

Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.  

PubMed

Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects. PMID:21715284

Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

2011-06-01

128

Canine atopic dermatitis: a retrospective study of 266 cases examined at the University of California, Davis, 1992-1998. Part I. Clinical features and allergy testing results.  

PubMed

The medical records of 266 dogs diagnosed as having atopic dermatitis were reviewed. Statistical data were evaluated referable to breed predilections, clinical signs and positive reactions to allergens. Positive reactions were most common to house dust mites (more common with clinical signs in the fall) followed by moulds (more common with clinical signs in the fall and spring). Dogs with positive reactions to moulds, trees or cultivated plants were more likely to have skin and ear yeast infections. Dogs with positive reactions to cultivated plants were more likely to have otitis externa and pedal lesions. Positive reactions to house dust were more common in dogs with early onset of signs and in those tested early in the disease. Dogs had more positive reactions to weeds when allergy tests were performed in the summer and fall. Positive reactions to flea antigen were highly correlated with the clinical diagnosis of flea allergy dermatitis. PMID:11972892

Zur, Gila; Ihrke, Peter J; White, Stephen D; Kass, Philip H

2002-04-01

129

Uses and indications for video-otoscopy in small animal practice.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic otitis externa and otitis media are common disorders in dogs and cats. In combination with other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the video-otoscope is a useful and effective tool in the management of clinical cases. The enhanced illumination and magnification provide the practitioner with more detailed information for diagnosis and prognosis, and the configuration of the working channel facilitates sampling, improves efficacy of cleaning procedures, and decreases risks of iatrogenic injury to structures of the middle and inner ear. Photographic documentation of clinical cases enhances the medical record, communication with colleagues, and client education. Although video-otoscopy facilitates diagnosis and therapy, it does not replace other important diagnostic tests such as evaluation for atopy, adverse food reactions, and immune-compromising disease. Failure to identify the underlying primary cause usually results in treatment failure regardless of the technology employed. PMID:11487956

Angus, J C; Campbell, K L

2001-07-01

130

Purulent rhinitis and otitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sheep showered with contaminated 'shower wash'.  

PubMed

Three crossbred lowland ewes developed a severe purulent rhinitis and another three ewes developed a severe purulent otitis externa/media after being showered with a wash that had been used 24 to 48 hours before on a separate group of Cheviot ewes with lesions of dermatitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in pure growth from the aural and nasal abscesses and also from the dermatitis lesions. Extended antibiotic susceptibility testing and the random amplification of polymorphic DNA indicated that a single clonal type was associated with the rhinitis and otitis and with the dermatitis, providing strong evidence of an epidemiological link between the lesions of dermatitis and the aural and nasal abscesses through the use of the contaminated 'shower wash'. PMID:14690073

Watson, P J; Jiru, X; Watabe, M; Moore, J E

2003-12-01

131

Seven novel FMRFamide-like neuropeptide sequences from the eyestalk of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was localized in the eyestalk of Penaeus monodon by immunohistochemistry using a combination of three anti-FMRFamide-like peptide (FLPs) monoclonal antibodies. Approximately 3000 small neuronal cell bodies in the lamina ganglionalis; 100 medium to large size at the ganglion between the medulla interna and the medulla terminalis; and 250 medium size around the medulla terminalis were stained intensely. The neuronal processes in neuropils of the medulla externa, medulla interna, medulla terminalis, sinus gland and some nerve fibers in the optic nerve were also recognized. The small cell bodies, approximately 1500 cells, anterior to the medulla externa were stained inconsistently and the neuronal processes were not observed from these cells. Isolation of FLPs from 9000 eyestalks was performed using methanol/acetic/water (90:1:9) extraction. After the extract was partially purified using C18 cartridges, it was further purified by five to seven steps of RP-HPLC using three kinds of columns: C18; C8; and cyano, and three solvent systems: acetonitrile/trifluoro acetic acid; aceonitrile/heptafluoro butyric acid; and acetonitrile/triethyl ammonium acetate. Dot-ELISA using the combination of the same antibodies was used to monitor FLPs in the fractions during purification processes. Seven new sequences of FLPs were identified which can be divided into four subgroups according to the primary structure of the C-terminus: (1) GDRNFLRFamide; (2) AYSNLNYLRFamide; (3) AQPSMRLRFamide, SQPSMRLRFamide, SMPSLRLRFamide and DGRTPALRLRFamide; and (4) GYRKPPFNGSIFamide. These data indicate the high complexity of this peptide family in which multiple forms are usually exist. PMID:11959015

Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Pupuem, Jirasak; Krungkasem, Chatchadaporn; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sithigorngul, Weerawan; Petsom, Amorn

2002-03-01

132

The morphogenesis of the arteries of the pelvic extremity. A comparative study of mammals with special reference to the tree shrew Tupaia belangeri (Tupaiidae, Scandentia, Mammalia).  

PubMed

The ontogeny of the arteries of the pelvic extremity of Tupaia belangeri was investigated by light microscopy on the basis of serial sections of 30 embryos, dating from day 17 to day 42 post-copulation. In Tupaia, the gestational period takes approximately 43 days. Additionally, a 3-D reconstruction of the pelvic region and the right leg of a 22-day embryo was prepared. The arteries of an adult Tupaia were studied on the basis of a corrosion cast. The results were compared with the ontogeny of the arterial system of other mammals. In the 17-day embryo, the anlage of the pelvic extremity is penetrated by a capillary plexus. In the 18-day embryo, the a. ischiadica reaches the pelvic limb bud, representing the primary axial artery. On day 19, its r. perforans tarsi extends from the plantar to the dorsal aspect of the foot plate. The a. ischiadica is the main artery of the leg until the stage of the 22-day embryo. Afterwards, the peripheral arteries supplied by it are taken over by the a. iliaca externa and its extension, the a. femoralis. The a. iliaca externa springs from the a. iliaca communis in the 19-day embryo. From day 21 to day 22, the capillary plexus, which is nourished by the a. femoralis, closely approaches the a. ischiadica, and finally, a connecting branch joins the a. ischiadica. The a. ischiadica is then reduced to the a. glutea caudalis, and the aa. femoralis, poplitea profunda (at the cranial aspect of the m. popliteus), and interossea become the main arteries of the pelvic extremity. The a. poplitea superficialis, lying at the caudal aspect of the m. popliteus, and its continuation in the crural region, the a. peronea, develop until the 25-day embryo. The a. peronea gives rise to an r. perforans which penetrates the membrana interossea towards the dorsum of the foot. As a result of a shift of the origin of the a. iliaca externa in the proximal direction, the length of the a. iliaca communis gradually decreases until, on day 24, the a. iliaca externa springs directly from the lateral wall of the aorta. In the 20-day embryo, the a. iliaca externa gives rise to an a. circumflexa ilium profunda towards the lateral pelvic wall, and in 23-day embryos, to the a. profunda femoris. The main branches of the a. profunda femoris develop until day 24. At the same time, the aa. circumflexa femoris lateralis and nutricia ossis femoris arise from the a. femoralis. The a. saphena, which is already recognizable in the 23-day embryo, gives rise to the a. genus descendens, and as an a. plantaris medialis, to four aa. digitales plantares communes (I-IV) at the planta pedis. The development of the a. tibialis cranialis on day 25 takes place independently and without any topographic relation to the a. saphena, which functionally replaces the a. tibialis cranialis in some other mammals. In the 26-day embryo, the aa. peronea and tibialis cranialis extend to the dorsum of the foot where they continue as the aa. dorsales pedis profunda and superficialis. The fourth main artery of the lower leg, the a. caudalis femoris, which is first observed in the 20-day embryo, reaches the lateral aspect of the foot on day 24. Its r. calcaneus runs to the planta pedis. In 30-day embryos, the aa. digitales plantares propriae have differentiated. The corresponding dorsal arteries and the superficial plantar vascular are develop until day 35, so that all important arteries of the pelvic extremity, which are seen in the corrosion cast of the adult, are recognizable. Among the embryos and the adult Tupaia studied, individual variation is minimal. The developmental stage at which the arteries of the leg acquired a secondary vascular wall was ascertained. Only a vessel with a primary vascular wall can dissolve into a capillary plexus later on (e.g., a. interossea). In contrast, the course of an artery which has acquired a secondary vascular wall is determined, because modifications of the course of a vessel often need a capillary plexus as an intermediate st PMID:9816724

Funke, C; Kuhn, H J

1998-01-01

133

Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.  

PubMed

Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

2014-01-01

134

The primary visual system of flatfish: an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

The retinal projections of two species of flatfish (Scophthalmus maximus, Scophthalmidae; Platichthys flesus, Pleuronectidae) were investigated by autoradiography and by a HRP technique. Contralateral projections to five hypothalamic centres (area optica preoptica ventralis, nucleus opticus preopticus parvocellularis posterior pars lateralis, n. suprachiasmaticus, n. opticus hypothalami ventromedialis and area optica hypothalami posterior), thirteen thalamo-pretectal centres (nucleus opticus dorsolateralis (partes medialis, ventralis and lateralis), n. opticus ventrolateralis, n. opticus commissurae posterioris (partes dorsalis and ventralis), n. opticus accessorius, n. geniculatus lateralis mesencephali, nn. opticus pretectalis dorsalis, medialis and ventralis and n. corticalis), three layers of the optic tectum (stratum opticum pars externa, stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale, stratum album centrale), and a single target in the tegmentum (n. opticus tegmenti mesencephali dorsalis), were identified in both species. Interspecific variation of the contralateral visual projections is relatively small. Ipsilateral visual projections of fibres which recross the midline in the minor and transverse commissures were also identified; in S. maximus this ipsilateral contingent is poorly developed and concerns principally hypothalamic structures, while in P. flesus the ipsilateral projections are considerably more extensive and involve both hypothalamic and thalamo-pretectal primary visual centres. No differences in the projections from the fixed and from the migrated eye were observed in either species. The findings are discussed in the general context of the existing literature on the visual projections of teleosts, in an attempt to characterize the primary visual system of the Pleuronectiformes in an evolutionary context. PMID:8238965

Medina, M; Repérant, J; Ward, R; Rio, J P; Lemire, M

1993-02-01

135

Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the sheep bot fly Oestrus ovis in northern Iraq.  

PubMed

Myiasis is the feeding of fly larvae on vertebrates. The sheep bot fly larva of Oestrus ovis is a mammalian parasite of the skin, nose, ears, and eyes. When the larvae infest and feed on the structures of the eye, the condition is termed ophthalmomyiasis. Most often this infestation is limited to the external structures of the eye and is referred to as ophthalmomyiasis externa. The features of this condition are severe local inflammation, positive foreign body sensation, erythema, and lacrimation. Vision may or may not be reduced, depending on involvement of the cornea. A 20-year-old white male soldier sought treatment for an inflamed eye and an irritated cornea OS. His eyelids were swollen with marked periorbital edema and conjunctival erythema OS. On slitlamp examination, small whitish organisms were viewed on the conjunctiva OS. The organisms were removed, preserved, and sent to Nova Southeastern University where they were identified as O. ovis first-stage larvae. The patient was treated with antibiotic ointment, and the inflammation resolved within 1 week. O. ovis has a worldwide distribution, and although sheep are the preferred host, humans may also serve as an intermediate host in the organism's life cycle. This case represents one of several reports of ophthalmomyiasis in the Middle East caused by O. ovis. U.S. troops stationed in Iraq and surrounding areas are vulnerable to eye infestation by fly larvae, and health care providers need to include this condition in their differential diagnosis of anterior segment inflammatory disorders. PMID:15300116

Gregory, Andrew R; Schatz, Scott; Laubach, Harold

2004-08-01

136

Circulatory antigen of Heymann nephritis. III. Presence of the 70-kD circulatory protein in the immune deposits of Heymann nephritis.  

PubMed Central

An antigen of 70 kD size has been isolated previously from normal rat serum which has immunological cross-reactivity to the Heymann nephritis antigen, F x 1A. Its role in the pathogenesis of Heymann's nephritis was unknown. In this investigation we tested for the presence of 70-kD circulatory antigen in the glomerular immune deposits of Heymann's nephritis. Further, its presence was correlated with severity of disease. It was observed that the presence of the 70-kD antigen strongly correlated with the existence of electron-dense deposits in the lamina rara externa (LRE) of the glomerular capillary wall and with pathologic proteinuria. Temporally, the presence of the 70-kD antigen in the immune deposits was followed by large electron-dense deposits, enhanced complement activity and proteinuria. The data suggest that in the growing immune complex lattice in the LRE, the 70-kD circulatory antigen by virtue of its small size, mobility and antigen cross-reactivity facilitates cross linking and coalescence of immune complexes, resulting in electron-dense immune deposits (EDD) formation which initiates complement activation and consequent proteinuria. PMID:1893629

Singh, A K; Schwartz, M M

1991-01-01

137

Fluctuating mixed-type hearing loss associated with synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteomyelitis (SAPHO) syndrome.  

PubMed

Synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) are the characteristic features of SAPHO syndrome. A 53-year-old woman had been treated for PPP for 2 years. She complained of hearing loss in the right ear, and otitis externa was diagnosed. The pure-tone audiogram (PTA) indicated mild hearing loss in the right ear, and her hearing continued to deteriorate despite recovery from inflammation. Her tympanogram was of the As-type, and acoustic reflex was absent in the right ear. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral normal ossicles and cochleas. Bone scintigraphy revealed tracer uptake in the bilateral sternoclavicular joints, glenohumeral joints, and the capital humerus. She was hospitalized for arthralgia, and the pain was controlled with steroid therapy. Her right hearing deteriorated soon after the tapering of the steroid; her hearing recovered after cyclosporine therapy was initiated. The first tonsil provocation test showed increased blood cells in the urine, and the second test showed exacerbation of pustulosis. Despite immunosuppressant therapy, the arthritis attacks and hearing loss persisted; therefore, tonsillectomy was performed, which improved PPP. However, her hearing remained unchanged after the operation. We considered that irreversible changes might have already developed in the ossicular joints, and ossicular reconstruction was performed. Thereafter, her hearing and earache improved. PMID:19864094

Shimizu, Shigetaka; Yukawa, Kumiko; Kawaguchi, Sachie; Okubo, Yukari; Suzuki, Mamoru

2010-08-01

138

Virtual otoscopy for evaluating the inner ear with a fluid-filled tympanic cavity in dogs  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of virtual otoscopy (VO) imaging was evaluated in five dogs with experimentally induced otitis media, two control dogs, and two canine patients with otitis media. VO images of the tympanic cavity and ossicles were generated with commercially available software using raw computed tomography (CT) data. Eight out of 10 ears inoculated with pathogen exhibited obvious clinical signs associated with otitis externa. CT images revealed soft tissue density material occupying the tympanic bulla compatible with otitis media in three dogs with experimentally induced otitis media and two patients. No remarkable features were observed on the radiographs. Four different VO views (ear canal, tympanic bulla, eustachian tube, and ossicular chain) were created. Promontory, cochlea window, tympanic, and septum bulla as well as ossicles were easily and clearly distinguished except for the incus and stapes of the clinical patients. VO images were not more suitable than images created with conventional CT for accurately diagnosing otitis media in this study. However, it appears that VO could be more feasible for assessing the complex structure of the inner ear in dogs with fluid-filled tympanic cavities since fluid accumulation within the tympanic bulla did not affect the evaluation of bony tissue in the middle ear on VO images. PMID:23271184

Cho, Youngkwon; Jeong, Jimo; Lee, Haebeom; Kim, Minsu; Kim, Namsoo

2012-01-01

139

Microbial contamination of non-disposable instruments in otolaryngology out-patients.  

PubMed

Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and contaminated equipment may contribute to this. There has been little work concerning contamination of non-disposable equipment in Otolaryngology. This study investigates the efficacy of the cleaning regimen for non-disposable instruments in an Otolaryngology out-patients clinic. Instruments were swabbed before each clinic, when they had been autoclaved, then after use on patients, when they had been washed with detergent and chlorhexidine. Swabs of 86 instruments were cultured using standardized microbiological techniques. Fifteen instruments (17 per cent) were contaminated, most with coagulase negative staphylococci. Two specimens of Micrococcus luteus were cultured and one each of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Aureobacterium spp. Micrococcus luteus and coagulase negative staphylococci may represent skin contaminants, but Aureobacterium spp. and Acinetobacter lwoffii can be sources of nosocomial infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a potentially serious pathogen and is implicated in the aetiology of otitis externa. These findings question the efficacy of the current cleaning techniques. PMID:12625885

Powell, Steven; Perry, John; Meikle, David

2003-02-01

140

Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated manifestations in otolaryngology  

PubMed Central

Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. PMID:24470939

lacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V.; Papacharalampous, George; Kampessis, George; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

141

Occurrence of L- and D-crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoforms in the eyestalk X-organ/sinus gland complex during the ontogeny of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.  

PubMed

We studied the ontogeny of the eyestalk structure and of the L-CHH and d-Phe3-CHH synthesis in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex by light microscopy and immunocytochemistry in the freshwater crustacean Astacus leptodactylus. The optic ganglia start to differentiate in embryos at EI 190 microm (EI: eye index; close to 410 microm at hatching). At EI 270 microm, the three medullae (externa, interna, and terminalis) and the lamina ganglionaris are present and are organized as in the adult eyestalk. The L-CHH was localized in perikarya of neuroendocrine cells, in their tracts, and in SG from the metanauplius stage to the adult. The d-Phe3-CHH was visualized in XO perikarya, in their tracts and in SG of embryos from EI 350 microm and in all later studied stages. Co-localization of both CHH stereoisomers always occurred in the d-Phe3-CHH-producing cells. These results show that the synthesis of CHH enantiomers starts during the embryonic life in A. leptodactylus, and that the d-isomer is synthesized later than its L-counterpart. We discuss the post-translational isomerization as a way to generate hormonal diversity and the putative relation between d-Phe3-CHH synthesis and the ability to osmoregulate, occurring late during the embryonic life of Astacus leptodactylus. PMID:15314080

Serrano, Laetitia; Grousset, Evelyse; Charmantier, Guy; Spanings-Pierrot, Céline

2004-09-01

142

Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

2014-06-01

143

Trichobilharzia mergi sp. nov. (Trematoda: Digenea: Schistosomatidae), a visceral schistosome of Mergus serrator (L.) (Aves: Anatidae).  

PubMed

Parasitological investigations on red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator L.) in Iceland revealed digenean flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. Adult worms were detected in blood vessels of the large intestine and eggs were deposited in the mucosa and surrounded by granulomatous reactions. Traditional morphological methods showed that the flukes have very slender filiform bodies, males are equipped with a short gynaecophoric canal and both suckers and spatulate ends are present on each sex. Among characteristics of the flukes which render them morphologically distinct from other Trichobilharzia species are: i) males-well developed vesicula seminalis (v.s.) consisting of a short v.s. externa and a significantly longer (approx. 3 times) v.s. interna, unusually well developed genital papilla and localization of the first testis a relatively long distance posterior to the gynaecophoric canal; ii) eggs-small and elongated with slightly rounded poles and a short terminal spine. DNA taxonomic techniques confirmed that a new species had been identified, Trichobilharzia mergi sp. n. The sequence data were deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JX456151 to JX456172. Comparison of the results with our previously published data on characterization of DNA of cercariae isolated from freshwater lymnaeid snails showed that larval development of T. mergi is associated with Radix balthica L. (=Radix peregra Müller, 1774;=Radix ovata Draparnaud, 1805). PMID:23501058

Kolá?ová, Libuše; Skírnisson, Karl; Ferté, Hubert; Jouet, Damien

2013-06-01

144

Tonkin herbal drug: a multidisciplinary approach to development.  

PubMed

Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq, locally known as 'Tonkin', has been used for generations by the Dominicans in the Philippines for medicinal purposes. The seeds, stems and leaves are said to be effective in treating several types of skin ailments such as chronic and gangrenous wounds, cuts and blisters due to burns. Scientific investigations to rationalize the reported medicinal uses of the plant were carried out at University of Santo Tomas. Botanists at the University did the identification and studied the cultivation and propagation of the plant. Pharmacists and chemists worked closely together on the 'Tonkin' seeds. The seeds were found to have both analgesic and antiseptic properties. Chemists identified indolizidine alkaloids in the seeds, to which the analgesic properties have been attributed. Antimicrobial and antifungal compounds were also identified. Different formulations of the crude drug have been made, namely, an ointment for the treatment of skin ailments, glycerol preparation for the treatment of pharyngitis and an otic preparation for the treatment of otitis externa. Limited clinical trials of these formulations were carried out in collaboration with the medical doctors. The clinical trial studies were supported by in vitro studies carried out by microbiologists. Basic research on this plant material is still continuing. Efforts are now underway for the commercial production of the Tonkin ointment. PMID:14724348

Ysrael, Mafel C

2003-01-01

145

CASE REPORT Treatment of Otophyma: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Otophyma is a rare condition that can present as the end stage of any chronic inflammatory disease affecting the ear such as rosacea, eczema, or otitis externa. It can result in conductive hearing loss, low self-esteem, and social embarrassment. This report highlights a case of otophyma treated successfully using a full-thickness skin graft. Methods: We present a case of a 41-year-old lady referred to our department with a 23-year history of bilateral otophyma. During this time, her hearing progressively diminished as the swelling occluded her external auditory meatus. She had been unsuccessfully managed for years with topical emollients, steroids, and regular ear toileting. Result: She was treated by excision of the phymatous tissue and full-thickness grafting, which resulted in a patent external auditory meatus and an improvement in her hearing. Conclusions: The use of a full-thickness skin graft is one of the many treatment options available for the treatment of otophyma. We present a literature review on this uncommon condition and a discussion on the various treatment options available to the patient. PMID:23641297

Sharma, K. S.; Pollock, J.; Hasham, S.; Brotherston, T. M.

2013-01-01

146

Variation in plant defense against invasive herbivores: evidence for a hypersensitive response in eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis).  

PubMed

Herbivores can trigger a wide array of morphological and chemical changes in their host plants. Feeding by some insects induces a defensive hypersensitive response, a defense mechanism consisting of elevated H(2)O(2) levels and tissue death at the site of herbivore feeding. The invasive hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae ('HWA') and elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa ('EHS') feed on eastern hemlocks; although both are sessile sap feeders, HWA causes more damage than EHS. The rapid rate of tree death following HWA infestation has led to the suggestion that feeding induces a hypersensitive response in hemlock trees. We assessed the potential for an herbivore-induced hypersensitive response in eastern hemlocks by measuring H(2)O(2) levels in foliage from HWA-infested, EHS-infested, and uninfested trees. Needles with settled HWA or EHS had higher H(2)O(2) levels than control needles, suggesting a localized hypersensitive plant response. Needles with no direct contact to settled HWA also had high H(2)O(2) levels, suggesting that HWA infestation may induce a systemic defense response in eastern hemlocks. There was no similar systemic defensive response in the EHS treatment. Our results showed that two herbivores in the same feeding guild had dramatically different outcomes on the health of their shared host. PMID:21573865

Radville, Laura; Chaves, Arielle; Preisser, Evan L

2011-06-01

147

Prevalence and Antimicrobial-Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pools and Hot Tubs  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21%) were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate), aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate), ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen. PMID:21556203

Lutz, Jonathan K.; Lee, Jiyoung

2011-01-01

148

Neurological and cellular regulation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress and colonic inflammation in rats.  

PubMed

The role of inflammation in inducing visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in ulcerative colitis patients remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that acute ulcerative colitis-like inflammation does not induce VHS. However, it sets up molecular conditions such that chronic stress following inflammation exaggerates single-unit afferent discharges to colorectal distension. We used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce ulcerative colitis-like inflammation and a 9-day heterotypic chronic stress protocol in rats. DSS upregulated Nav1.8 mRNA in colon-responsive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, TRPV1 in colonic muscularis externae (ME) and BDNF in spinal cord without affecting the spike frequency in spinal afferents or VMR to CRD. By contrast, chronic stress did not induce inflammation but it downregulated Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 mRNA in DRG neurons, and upregulated TRPA1 and nerve growth factor in ME, which mediated the increase of spike frequency and VMR to CRD. Chronic stress following inflammation exacerbated spike frequency in spinal afferent neurons. TRPA1 antagonist suppressed the sensitization of afferent neurons. DSS-inflammation did not affect the composition or excitation thresholds of low-threshold and high-threshold fibers. Chronic stress following inflammation increased the percent composition of high-threshold fibers and lowered the excitation threshold of both types of fibers. We conclude that not all types of inflammation induce VHS, whereas chronic stress induces VHS in the absence of inflammation. PMID:23806714

Chen, J; Winston, J H; Sarna, S K

2013-09-17

149

Neurological and cellular regulation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress and colonic inflammation in rats  

PubMed Central

The role of inflammation in inducing visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in ulcerative colitis patients remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that acute ulcerative colitis-like inflammation does not induce VHS. However, it sets up molecular conditions such that chronic stress following inflammation exaggerates single unit afferent discharges to colorectal distension. We used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce ulcerative colitis-like inflammation and a 9-day heterotypic chronic stress protocol in rats. DSS upregulated Nav1.8 mRNA in colon-responsive DRG neurons, TRPV1 in colonic muscularis externae (ME) and BDNF in spinal cord without affecting the spike frequency in spinal afferents or VMR to CRD. By contrast, chronic stress did not induce inflammation but it downregulated Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 mRNA in DRG neurons, and upregulated TRPA1 and NGF in ME, which mediated the increase of spike frequency and VMR to CRD. Chronic stress following inflammation exacerbated spike frequency in spinal afferent neurons. TRPA1 antagonist suppressed the sensitization of afferent neurons. DSS-inflammation did not affect the composition or excitation thresholds of low-threshold and high-threshold fibers. Chronic stress following inflammation increased the percent composition of high-threshold fibers and lowered the excitation threshold of both types of fibers. We conclude that not all types of inflammation induce VHS, whereas chronic stress induces VHS in the absence of inflammation. PMID:23806714

Chen, Jinghong; Winston, John H.; Sarna, Sushil K.

2013-01-01

150

SPECT imaging in evaluating extent of malignant external otitis: case report  

SciTech Connect

Otitis externa, a benign inflammatory process of the external auditory canal, is general responsive to local therapy. Some patients however, develop a less controllable disease leading to chondritis and osteomyelitis of the base of the skull. The direct invasive characteristic of the disease has led to the descriptive term malignant external otitis (MEO), more appropriately called necrotizing or invasive external otitis. Malignant external otitis is caused by an aggressive pseudomonas or proteus infection that almost exclusively occurs in elderly diabetic patients. The primary imaging modalities previously used in the diagnosis and evaluation of MEO were standard planar scintigraphic techniques with technetium-99M (/sup 99m/Tc) bone agents and gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga), and pluridirectional tomography. The advent of high resolution computed tomography (CT) effectively allowed demonstration of the soft tissue extension and bone destruction associated with MEO, but still suffered from the low sensitivity constraints of all radiographic techniques in determining early inflammatory bone involvement. Recent work suggests that scintigraphic detection of MEO with /sup 99m/Tc-MDP and /sup 67/Ga, combined with the cross-sectional resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be of value in planning treatment of this inflammatory condition.

English, R.J.; Tu'Meh, S.S.; Piwnica-Worms, D.; Holman, B.L.

1987-03-01

151

[Aniseikonia reduces binocular summation in the VECP].  

PubMed

The binocular summation effect of human VECP (increase in amplitude from about 4.0 microV to about 5.4 microV) was proved and optimized in 32 subjects. Stimulus parameters: TV steady-state pattern reversal (7.0 Hz); pattern size 1 degree; stimulus contrast 5% (higher stimulus contrasts reduced considerably the selectivity of the binocular summation effect); 96 sweeps averaging (Nicolet Compaq Four); position of electrodes: 10% and 30% above Protuberantia occipitalis externa of nasioninion distance. Aniseikonia of 7 to 52% was generated by means of small Galilei telescopes. Because of comparatively large interindividual variance within the series of subjects, no decrease in binocular VECP amplitude could be demonstrated at an aniseikonia less than 52%. On one woman subject, a significant reduction in amplitude (5% level) at 14%, 26% and 52% aniseikonia was apparent, but not at 7%. Thus, for this subject, it was possible to correlate the results with the clinically known limits of toleration for aniseikonia. This result was confirmed by more than 60% of the subjects in the test group. PMID:7780270

Krause, K; Gerding, H; Timmermann, M; Kauffmann, T

1995-04-01

152

Un modelo general de eyección de materia estelar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Posiblemente, la más directa y dramática evidencia de la pérdida de masa por parte de diferentes objetos astrofísicos la constituye el fenómeno de eyección persistente de materia. En el caso particular de las estrellas, las características y los mecanismos que impulsan a sus atmósferas externas hacia el medio interestelar varían a lo largo del diagrama evolutivo. En parte por este motivo, en parte por las dificultades matemáticas involucradas, es muy difícil elaborar un modelo que pueda dar cuenta de los diferentes mecanismos que originan e impulsan el viento estelar. Cabe entonces preguntarse si es posible desarrollar un único modelo en el que estos mecanismos puedan ser considerados (y variados) como parámetros externos que responden a las características de cada región de la secuencia evolutiva. La respuesta es que, en función de la geometría del campo electromagnético involucrado, todo depende de la simetría del problema. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis detallado de una de tales simetrías, discutiendo en particular los resultados obtenidos a la luz de las observaciones disponibles.

Rotstein, N. O.

153

Clinical study in patients with ocular ischemic diseases treated with enhanced external counterpulsation combined with drugs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect in patients with ocular ischemic diseases treated with enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) combined with drugs. A total of 65 patients with carotid artery stenosis were included in this study. Group A consisted of 31 patients (43 eyes) treated with EECP and medication, and group B consisted of 34 patients (49 eyes) treated with medication alone. The clinical effect was analyzed by comparing the visual acuity, visual fields and optical hemodynamics between the two groups of patients. Ocular ischemic diseases mainly included ischemic optic neuropathy, central (branch) retinal artery occlusion, ophthalmoplegia externa and ocular ischemic syndrome. Significant improvement of visual acuity, visual fields and optical hemodynamics was observed in the patients of group A, and statistically significant differences were found between groups A and B (?2=4.935, 7.124 and 5.478, respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, ophthalmologists should observe for ocular ischemic diseases. The symptoms of the disease and the vision of the patient could be effectively improved by EECP, which has no evident complications. PMID:23625058

Yang, Yuxin; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Yitao; Gui, Yanling

2013-06-01

154

System Identification of Local Field Potentials under Deep Brain Stimulation in a Healthy Primate  

PubMed Central

High frequency (HF) Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the Sub-Thalamic Nucleus (STN) is a clinically recognized therapy for the treatment of motor disorders in Parkinson Disease (PD). The underlying mechanisms of DBS and how it impacts neighboring nuclei, however, are not yet completely understood. Electrophysiological data has been collected in PD patients and primates to better understand the impact of DBS on STN and the entire Basal Ganglia (BG) motor circuit. We use single unit recordings from Globus Pallidus, both pars interna and externa segments (GPi and GPe) in the BG, in a normal primate before and after DBS to reconstruct Local Field Potentials (LFPs) in the region. We then use system identification techniques to understand how GPe LFP activity and the DBS signal applied to STN influence GPi LFP activity. Our models suggest that when no stimulation is applied, the GPe LFPs have an inhibitory effect on GPi LFPs with a 2-3 ms delay, as is the case for single unit neuronal activity. On the other hand, when DBS is ON the models suggest that stimulation has a dominant effect on GPi LFPs which mask the inhibitory effects of GPe. PMID:21096635

Pedoto, Gilda; Santaniello, Sabato; Montgomery, Erwin B.; Gale, John T.; Fiengo, Giovanni; Glielmo, Luigi; Sarma, Sridevi V.

2013-01-01

155

Description and host relationships of Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from the heron Nycticorax nycticorax in Peru.  

PubMed

Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. is described from the black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, in Lake Titicaca, Peru. It is distinguished from all 27 known species of the subgenus Polymorphus by its spindle-shaped proboscis and its trunk shape, the anterior 2/3 of which is ovoid, tapering into a tubular posterior end. It resembles Polymorphus brevis (=Arhythmorhynchus brevis), which is, however, longer and considerably more slender, and has smaller and more numerous proboscis hooks per row and smaller eggs. It is separated also from Polymorphus swartzi, Polymorphus striatus, Polymorphus contortus, and Polymorphus cincli by its proboscis armature (usually 18 longitudinal rows of 11-13 hooks each), among other characters. Histopathological sections of host tissue show well defined localized damage including hemorrhaging with subsequent phagocyte cell migration (granular tissue). The lumen of the host intestine is obstructed and villi show compression. The proboscis of P. spindlatus extends through the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, displacing the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis externa. Fibrosis also was observed. PMID:2010853

Amin, O M; Heckmann, R A

1991-04-01

156

DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.  

PubMed

El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio.La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

2010-06-01

157

DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOM?A Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAP?UTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1  

PubMed Central

El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

Mondragon, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

2010-01-01

158

The development of the gastrointestinal system in fetal sheep in the absence of ingested fluid.  

PubMed

Our aim was to determine the effects of preventing the passage of ingested fluid on the development of the digestive tract in fetal sheep. The esophagus was fistulated and ligated in six fetuses at 90 days of gestation (term = 145 days); vascular catheters were implanted at day 120. Six control fetuses had vascular catheters implanted at day 120. At autopsy (day 135), although fetal body weights were similar in both groups, the abdominal girth and weights of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and pancreas were reduced in experimental fetuses. In the gastric (abomasal) fundus and antrum, there was evidence of altered mucus composition in epithelial cells, a decrease in thickness of the muscularis externa, and an increase in thickness of the mucosa and its components. In the duodenum, there were significant changes in the thickness of most components of the wall; Brunner's glands were greatly reduced in size of were absent. Glandular cells contained less mucus in comparison to controls. In the proximal small intestine, there were significant reductions in the thickness of most components of the wall, and epithelial cell migration was retarded, resulting in a longer renewal time for villous cells. In the distal small intestine, the diameter of the intestine and submucosal and epithelial cell migration rate were significantly decreased in the experimental group. In summary, the absence of the passage of ingested fluid in fetal sheep restricts the growth and development of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and pancreas. PMID:2061785

Avila, C G; Harding, R

1991-01-01

159

Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.  

PubMed

In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids. PMID:22270356

Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy

2012-04-01

160

Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

1984-02-01

161

Mechano-transcription of COX-2 is a common response to lumen dilation of the rat gastrointestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Background In obstructive bowel disorders (OBDs) such as achalasia, pyloric stenosis, and bowel obstruction, the lumen of the affected segments is markedly dilated and the motility function is significantly impaired. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stress in lumen dilation leads to induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in smooth muscle throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, contributing to motility dysfunction. Methods Lumen dilation was induced in vivo with obstruction bands (12 × 3 mm) applied over the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the pyloric sphincter, and the ileum in rats for 48 hr. Mechanical stretch in vivo was also emulated by balloon distension of the distal colon. Direct stretch of muscle strips from the esophagus, gastric fundus, and ileum was mimicked in an in vitro tissue culture system. Key Results Partial obstruction in the LES, pylorus, and ileum significantly increased expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein in the muscularis externae of the dilated segment oral to the occlusions, but not in the aboral segment. Direct stretch of the lumen in vivo or of muscle strips in vitro markedly induced COX-2 expression. The smooth muscle contractility was significantly suppressed in the balloon distended segments. However, treatment with COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 restored the contractility. Furthermore, in vivo administration of NS-398 in gastric outlet obstruction significantly improved gastric emptying. Conclusions & Inferences Mechanical dilation of the gut lumen by occlusion or direct distension induces gene expression of COX-2 throughout the GI tract. Mechanical stress-induced COX-2 contributes to motility dysfunction in conditions with lumen dilation. PMID:22489918

Lin, You-Min; Li, Feng; Shi, Xuan-Zheng

2014-01-01

162

Lessons Learnt from Post-Infectious IBS  

PubMed Central

The development of IBS symptoms – altered bowel function and abdominal cramping in a subset of adult subjects exposed to severe enteric infections opened up an unprecedented opportunity to understand the etiology of this poorly understood disorder. Perhaps, for the reasons that these symptoms follow a severe enteric infection, and mucosal biopsy tissues are readily available, the focus of most studies thus far has been to show that mild/low-grade mucosal inflammation persisting after the initial infection has subsided causes the IBS symptoms. Parallel studies in non-infectious IBS patients, who did not have prior enteritis, showed similar mild mucosal inflammation. Together, these studies examined the mucosal infiltration of specific immune cells, increase of select inflammatory mediators, mast cell and enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia, and epithelial permeability. In spite of the fact that the data on these topics were not consistent among different studies and clinical trials with prednisone, fluoxetine, and ketotifen failed to provide relief of IBS symptoms, the predominant conclusions were that mild mucosal inflammation is the cause of IBS symptoms. However, the circular smooth muscle cells, and myenteric neurons are the primary regulators of gut motility function, while primary afferent neurons and CNS play essential roles in induction of visceral hypersensitivity – no explanation was provided as to how mild mucosal inflammation causes dysfunction in cells far removed. Accumulating evidence shows that mild mucosal inflammation in IBS patients is in physiological range. It has little deleterious effects on cells within its own environment and therefore it is unlikely to affect cells in the muscularis externa. This review discusses the disconnect between the focus on mild/low-grade mucosal inflammation and the potential mechanisms and molecular dysfunctions in smooth muscle cells, myenteric neurons, and primary afferent neurons that may underlie IBS symptoms. PMID:21897820

Sarna, Sushil K.

2011-01-01

163

Signal enhancement in the output stage of the basal ganglia by synaptic short-term plasticity in the direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathways  

PubMed Central

Many of the synapses in the basal ganglia display short-term plasticity. Still, computational models have not yet been used to investigate how this affects signaling. Here we use a model of the basal ganglia network, constrained by available data, to quantitatively investigate how synaptic short-term plasticity affects the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr), the basal ganglia output nucleus. We find that SNr becomes particularly responsive to the characteristic burst-like activity seen in both direct and indirect pathway striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN). As expected by the standard model, direct pathway MSNs are responsible for decreasing the activity in SNr. In particular, our simulations indicate that bursting in only a few percent of the direct pathway MSNs is sufficient for completely inhibiting SNr neuron activity. The standard model also suggests that SNr activity in the indirect pathway is controlled by MSNs disinhibiting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) via the globus pallidus externa (GPe). Our model rather indicates that SNr activity is controlled by the direct GPe-SNr projections. This is partly because GPe strongly inhibits SNr but also due to depressing STN-SNr synapses. Furthermore, depressing GPe-SNr synapses allow the system to become sensitive to irregularly firing GPe subpopulations, as seen in dopamine depleted conditions, even when the GPe mean firing rate does not change. Similar to the direct pathway, simulations indicate that only a few percent of bursting indirect pathway MSNs can significantly increase the activity in SNr. Finally, the model predicts depressing STN-SNr synapses, since such an assumption explains experiments showing that a brief transient activation of the hyperdirect pathway generates a tri-phasic response in SNr, while a sustained STN activation has minor effects. This can be explained if STN-SNr synapses are depressing such that their effects are counteracted by the (known) depressing GPe-SNr inputs. PMID:23801960

Lindahl, Mikael; Kamali Sarvestani, Iman; Ekeberg, Orjan; Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren

2013-01-01

164

Ceruminal diffusion activities and ceruminolytic characteristics of otic preparations - an in-vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations. PMID:23574753

2013-01-01

165

Impaired Integrity of DNA after Recovery from Inflammation Causes Persistent Dysfunction of Colonic Smooth Muscle  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Patients with inflammatory bowel disease who are in remission and those that developed inflammatory bowel syndrome after enteric infection continue to have symptoms of diarrhea or constipation in the absence of overt inflammation, indicating motility dysfunction. We investigated whether oxidative stress during inflammation impairs integrity of the promoter of Cacna1c, which encodes the pore-forming ?1C subunit of Cav1.2b calcium channels. Methods We used long-extension PCR (LX-PCR) to evaluate DNA integrity in tissues from distal colons of rats; trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce inflammation. Results H2O2 increased in the muscularis externa 1 to 7 days after inflammation was induced with TNBS. The oxidative stress significantly impaired DNA integrity in 2 specific segments of the Cacna1c promoter: ?506 to ?260 and ?2,193 to ?1,542. The impairment peaked at day 3 and recovered partially by day 7 after induction of inflammation; expression of the products of Cacna1c followed a similar time course. Oxidative stress suppressed the expression of Nrf2, an important regulator of anti-oxidant proteins. Intra-peritoneal administration of sulforaphane significantly reversed the suppression of Nrf2, oxidative damage in the promoter of Cacna1c, and suppression of Cacna1c on day 7 of inflammation. The inflammation subsided completely by 56 days after inflammation was induced; however, impairment of DNA integrity, expression of Nrf2 and Cacna1c, and smooth muscle reactivity to acetylcholine remained suppressed at this timepoint. Conclusion Oxidative stress during inflammation impairs the integrity of the promoter of Cacna1c; impairment persists partially after inflammation has subsided. Reduced transcription of Cacna1c contributes to smooth muscle dysfunction in the absence of inflammation. PMID:21745450

Choi, Kuicheon; Chen, Jinghong; Mitra, Sankar; Sarna, Sushil K.

2011-01-01

166

Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

2003-08-01

167

PKC delta-isoform translocation and enhancement of tonic contractions of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.  

PubMed

PKC is involved in mediating the tonic component of gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction in response to stimulation by agonists for G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we present pharmacological and immunohistochemical evidence indicating that a member of the novel PKC isoforms, PKC-delta, is involved in maintaining muscarinic receptor-coupled tonic contractions of the guinea pig ileum. The tonic component of carbachol-evoked contractions was enhanced by an activator of conventional and novel PKCs, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 200 nM or 1 microM), and by an activator of novel PKCs, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB; 100 or 500 nM). Enhancement was unaffected by concentrations of bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM-I; 22 nM) that block conventional PKCs or by a PKC-epsilon-specific inhibitor peptide but was attenuated by higher doses of BIM-I (2.2 microM). Relevant proteins were localized at a cellular and subcellular level using confocal analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of the ileum showed that PKC-delta was exclusively expressed in smooth muscles distributed throughout the layers of the gut wall. PKC-epsilon immunoreactivity was prominent in enteric neurons but was largely absent from smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. Treatment with PDBu, IDB, or carbachol resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent translocation of PKC-delta from the cytoplasm to filamentous structures within smooth muscle cells. These were parallel to, but distinct from, actin filaments. The translocation of PKC-delta in response to carbachol was significantly reduced by scopolamine or calphostin C. The present study indicates that the tonic carbachol-induced contraction of the guinea pig ileum is mediated through a novel PKC, probably PKC-delta. PMID:17158259

Poole, Daniel P; Furness, John B

2007-03-01

168

Hemlock woolly adelgid and elongate hemlock scale induce changes in foliar and twig volatiles of eastern hemlock.  

PubMed

Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is in rapid decline because of infestation by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae; 'HWA') and, to a lesser extent, the invasive elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa; 'EHS'). For many conifers, induced oleoresin-based defenses play a central role in their response to herbivorous insects; however, it is unknown whether eastern hemlock mobilizes these inducible defenses. We conducted a study to determine if feeding by HWA or EHS induced changes in the volatile resin compounds of eastern hemlock. Young trees were experimentally infested for 3 years with HWA, EHS, or neither insect. Twig and needle resin volatiles were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We observed a suite of changes in eastern hemlock's volatile profile markedly different from the largely terpenoid-based defense response of similar conifers. Overall, both insects produced a similar effect: most twig volatiles decreased slightly, while most needle volatiles increased slightly. Only HWA feeding led to elevated levels of methyl salicylate, a signal for systemic acquired resistance in many plants, and benzyl alcohol, a strong antimicrobial and aphid deterrent. Green leaf volatiles, often induced in wounded plants, were increased by both insects, but more strongly by EHS. The array of phytochemical changes we observed may reflect manipulation of the tree's biochemistry by HWA, or simply the absence of functional defenses against piercing-sucking insects due to the lack of evolutionary contact with these species. Our findings verify that HWA and EHS both induce changes in eastern hemlock's resin chemistry, and represent the first important step toward understanding the effects of inducible chemical defenses on hemlock susceptibility to these exotic pests. PMID:23900803

Pezet, Joshua; Elkinton, Joseph; Gomez, Sara; McKenzie, E Alexa; Lavine, Michael; Preisser, Evan

2013-08-01

169

Canine atopic dermatitis in Greece: clinical observations and the prevalence of positive intradermal test reactions in 91 spontaneous cases.  

PubMed

Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in a total of 91 dogs by combining the compatible historical evidence and clinical signs with the presence of one or more positive intradermal test reactions well correlated with the exposure to the aeroallergens and the seasonality of the clinical signs. Compared to the general hospital population Yorkshire terriers, Chinese Shar-Peis and cocker spaniels showed a strong predilection. No such predilection was found regarding the sex of the animals. The age of the dogs at the onset of the clinical signs ranged from 2 months to 8 years (median: 2.5 years). Moderate to severe pruritus, noticed in all the 91 dogs, was either localized (29/91) or generalized (64/91) and non-seasonal (43/91), seasonal (19/91) or of unknown seasonality (29/91). The most common cutaneous lesions included erythema, hyperpigmentation, hypotrichosis and crusts; their body distribution was generalized (64%) or localized (36%) with the feet as the most common site of involvement. Five dogs that had unlesional skin were significantly younger and had been pruritic for a shorter period of time compared to the majority of our study population. Otitis externa (43/91) and bacterial pyoderma (30/91) were the most common conditions associated with atopic dermatitis, while the prevalence of Malassezia dermatitis was very low (2/91). Of the other allergic skin diseases flea allergic dermatitis was the most common (29/91) followed by food hypersensitivity (2 out of the 15 dogs tested). The majority of the dogs demonstrated multiple sensitivities to the 50 aeroallergens tested, while domestic mites (77/91), and particularly Dermatophagoides farinae (64/91), were the most commonly implicated. The total number of the positive intradermal test reactions was increasing parallel to the age of the dogs but it was negatively associated with the presence of skin lesions on the carpal and tarsal joints. PMID:10490235

Saridomichelakis, M N; Koutinas, A F; Gioulekas, D; Leontidis, L

1999-07-01

170

Origin and topography of fibers contributing to the fornix in macaque monkeys.  

PubMed

The distribution of neurons contributing to the fornix was mapped by placing the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in polyacrylamide gels in different medial to lateral locations within the fornix of three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The HRP was placed from 3 to 5 mm caudal to the descending columns of the fornix. Additional information came from a series of rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasciculata) with anterograde tracer injections in the medial temporal lobe. The hippocampal formation, including the subiculum and presubiculum, together with the entorhinal cortex (EC) and perirhinal cortex (area 35) contribute numerous axons to the fornix in a topographical manner. In contrast, the lateral perirhinal cortex (area 36) and parahippocampal cortical areas TF and TH only contained a handful of cells labeled via the fornix. The medial fornix originates from cells in the caudal half of the subiculum, the lamina principalis interna of the caudal half of the presubiculum, and from the perirhinal cortex (area 35). The intermediate portion of the fornix (i.e., that part midway between the midline and most lateral parts of the fornix) originates from cells in the rostral half of the subiculum and prosubiculum, the anterior presubiculum (only from the lamina principalis externa), the caudal presubiculum (primarily from lamina principalis interna), the rostral half of CA3, the EC (primarily 28I and 28M), and the perirhinal cortex (area 35). The lateral parts of the fornix arise from the rostral EC (28L only) and the most rostral portion of CA3. Subcortically, the medial septum, nucleus of the diagonal band, supramammillary nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and the thalamic nucleus reuniens all send projections through the fornix, which presumably terminate in the hippocampus and adjacent parahippocampal region. These results not only help to define those regions that project via the fornix, but also reveal those subcortical projections to the hippocampal formation most likely to rely entirely on nonfornical pathways. PMID:17372974

Saunders, Richard C; Aggleton, John P

2007-01-01

171

Estudio de la formación de galaxias espirales en un modelo de agregación jerárquica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El estudio de formación de galaxias espirales ha llevado al desarrollo de numerosos modelos teóricos (e.g. White & Rees 1978). En la actualidad, el modelo más aceptado predice la formación de una galaxia espiral a partir del colapso disipativo del gas en el pozo de potencial de un halo oscuro, conservando su momento angular específco (Fall & Efstathiou 1980). En los últimos años, ha sido posible realizar simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas, las cuales describen la evolución conjunta de la materia oscura y los bariones. Estos experimentos han señalado la dificultad de formar estructuras discoidales con propiedades consistentes con las observaciones, en modelos de agregación jerárquica. El problema principal se origina en la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de la componente disipativa, durante el proceso de ensamblaje de los objetos, a través de la fusión de subestructura (Navarro & Steinmetz 1997). Estos experimentos no incluían procesos de formación estelar. En este trabajo, se expondrán resultados de simulaciones hidrodinámicas cosmológicas, incluyendo formación estelar (Tissera et al 1997), donde ha sido posible reproducir objetos discoidales con contrapartida observacional. El elemento fundamental ha sido la formación de bulbos estelares, los cuales han evitado la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de los bariones. Se encontró que los discos exponenciales puramente gaseosos son altamente inestables y suceptibles de generar barras, responsables de la pérdida de momento angular y la caída violenta del gas hacia la región central. Estas inestabilidades son fácilmente inducidas durante interacciones y fusiones con objetos vecinos (Barnes & Hernquist 1996). Un bulbo estelar (o un objeto masivo y compacto) estabiliza el disco ante perturbaciones externas, asegurándole un potencial simétrico (Sellwood & Moore 1998, Van der Bosch 1998). En este caso, el gas en el disco no pierde completamente su momento angular intrínseco durante las fusiones, sino que, las sobrevive aportando una contribución distinta de cero, a partir de la cual el disco se regenera acretando en una segunda etapa, gas del halo de acuerdo al modelo tradicional de Fall & Efstathiou.

Tissera, P.; Saiz, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.

172

Effective deep brain stimulation suppresses low frequency network oscillations in the basal ganglia by regularizing neural firing patterns  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effects of DBS depend strongly on stimulation frequency: high frequencies (>90Hz) improve motor symptoms, while low frequencies (<50Hz) are either ineffective or exacerbate symptoms. The neuronal basis for these frequency-dependent effects of DBS is unclear. The effects of different frequencies of STN-DBS on behavior and single-unit neuronal activity in the basal ganglia were studied in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat model of PD. Only high frequency DBS reversed motor symptoms and the effectiveness of DBS depended strongly on stimulation frequency in a manner reminiscent of its clinical effects in persons with PD. Quantification of single-unit activity in the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) revealed that high frequency DBS, but not low frequency DBS, reduced pathological low frequency oscillations (~9Hz) and entrained neurons to fire at the stimulation frequency. Similarly, the coherence between simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons within and across GPe and SNr shifted from the pathological low frequency band to the stimulation frequency during high frequency DBS, but not during low frequency DBS. The changes in firing patterns in basal ganglia neurons were not correlated with changes in firing rate. These results indicate that high frequency DBS is more effective than low frequency DBS, not as a result of changes in firing rate, but rather due to its ability to replace pathological low frequency network oscillations with a regularized pattern of neuronal firing. PMID:23136407

McConnell, George C.; So, Rosa Q.; Hilliard, Justin D; Lopomo, Paola; Grill, Warren M.

2012-01-01

173

Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual ?15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual ?13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 ?13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather ?13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather ?13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

2010-12-01

174

Morbidity and Outcomes of Foreign Travelers in Zakynthos Island, Greece: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although there is satisfactory recording of diseases affecting travelers visiting developing countries, little is known regarding morbidity of travelers when visiting developed countries. We sought to evaluate the morbidity of foreign travelers in Zakynthos, a popular Greek island attracting large number of foreign tourists every summer. Methods Data from foreign travelers that accommodated in Zakynthos and sought medical services from the private offices of Zante Medical Care from May 1 to October 30 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Two thousand six hundred and eighty-eight patients were included in the study. The mean age (±SD) of the patients whom the age was recorded was 29.6 (±18.3) and 51.5% of them were from 18 to 40 years old. Disorders of the respiratory tract (32.7%), dermatologic conditions (21.1%), musculoskeletal injuries (16.4%), and gastrointestinal disorders (16.3%) were the four most prevalent clinical categories among patients. Ear disorder was the most common syndromic description (14.5%) among which 81.2% were ear infections; otitis externa and otitis media were diagnosed in 8.5% and 3.3% patients in total. The most common specific diagnosis was gastroenteritis (14.3%). Insect bite and sunburn were the most common diagnosis (6.5% and 3.8%, respectively) among patients with a dermatologic condition. Ear infection was the most common diagnosis in pediatric patients. Conclusion Disorders mainly of the upper respiratory tract were the predominant causes of illness among foreign travelers in Zakynthos. Traveler's diarrhea was the most common specific diagnosis but the prevalence within the total population was not very high. PMID:24728297

Plessa, Eleni; Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Xanthopoulos, Dimitrios; Falagas, Matthew E.

2014-01-01

175

Inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency rather than the loss of interstitial cells of Cajal causes smooth muscle dysfunction in W/Wv mice  

PubMed Central

The initial hypothesis suggested that the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) played an essential role in mediating enteric neuronal input to smooth muscle cells. Much information for this hypothesis came from studies in W/Wv mice lacking ICC. However, mast cells, which play critical roles in regulating inflammation in their microenvironment, are also absent in W/Wv mice. We tested the hypothesis that the depletion of mast cells in W/Wv mice generates inflammation in fundus muscularis externa (ME) that impairs smooth muscle reactivity to Ach, independent of the depletion of ICC. We performed experiments on the fundus ME from wild type (WT) and W/Wv mice before and after reconstitution of mast cells by bone marrow transplant. We found that mast cell deficiency in W/Wv mice significantly increased COX-2 and iNOS expression and decreased smooth muscle reactivity to Ach. Mast cell reconstitution or concurrent blockade of COX-2 and iNOS restored smooth muscle contractility without affecting the suppression of c-kit in W/Wv mice. The expression of nNOS and ChAT were suppressed in W/Wv mice; mast cell reconstitution did not restore them. We conclude that innate inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency in W/Wv mice impairs smooth muscle contractility independent of ICC deficiency. The impairment of smooth muscle contractility and the suppression of the enzymes regulating the synthesis of Ach and NO in W/Wv mice need to be considered in evaluating the role of ICC in regulating smooth muscle and enteric neuronal function in W/Wv mice. PMID:24550836

Winston, John H.; Chen, Jinghong; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Sarna, Sushil K.

2014-01-01

176

Prophylactic and therapeutic benefits of COX-2 inhibitor on motility dysfunction in bowel obstruction: roles of PGE2 and EP receptors  

PubMed Central

We reported previously that mechanical stretch in rat colonic obstruction induces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in smooth muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether in vivo treatment with COX-2 inhibitor has prophylactic and therapeutic effects on motility dysfunction in colon obstruction, and if so what are the underlying mechanisms. Partial colon obstruction was induced with a silicon band in the distal colon of 6–8-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats; obstruction was maintained for 3 days or 7 days. Daily administration of COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was started before or after the induction of obstruction to study its prophylactic and therapeutic effects, respectively. The smooth muscle contractility was significantly suppressed, and colonic transit rate was slower in colonic obstruction. Prophylactic treatment with NS-398 significantly prevented the impairments of colonic transit and smooth muscle contractility and attenuated fecal collection in the occluded colons. When NS-398 was administered therapeutically 3 days after the initiation of obstruction, the muscle contractility and colonic transit still improved on day 7. Obstruction led to marked increase of COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Exogenous PGE2 decreased colonic smooth muscle contractility. All four PGE2 E-prostanoid receptor types (EP1 to EP4) were detected in rat colonic muscularis externa. Treatments with EP1 and EP3 antagonists suppressed muscle contractility in control tissue but did not improve contractility in obstruction tissue. On the contrary, the EP2 and EP4 antagonists did not affect control tissue but significantly restored muscle contractility in obstruction. We concluded that our study shows that COX-2 inhibitor has prophylactic and therapeutic benefits for motility dysfunction in bowel obstruction. PGE2 and its receptors EP2 and EP4 are involved in the motility dysfunction in obstruction, whereas EP1 and EP3 mediate PGE2 regulation of colonic smooth muscle contractile function in normal state. PMID:22038825

Lin, You-Min; Sarna, Sushil K.

2012-01-01

177

Ultrastructure and function of cellular components of the intercentral joint in the percoid vertebral column.  

PubMed

The intervertebral joint of the teleost, Perca flavescens, is formed by opposing amphicoelus centra whose rims are connected by external ligaments. The tissue, located within the space formed by these structures, is derived from the notochord and consists of the elastic externa, the fibrous sheath, and the notochordal cells. The cellular tissue within the joint has many characteristics of a stratified epithelium, and when examined with the transmission electron microscope, at least three morphologically distinct regions can be recognized. First, a peripheral single layer of columnar to squamous-shaped cells lies on a basement membrane immediately deep to the fibrous sheath. Second, several layers of cells, each containing a large central vacuole, occur. Third, in the deepest part of the joint, several layers of attenuated cells surround intracentral fluid-filled lacunae and form a transverse septum across the joint. All cells in this tissue are interconnected by numerous desmosomes. Further, an extensive intermediate filament network exists in all three types of cells. The intermediate filament network in the vacuolated cells is arranged cortically around a membrane-bound vacuole, and suggests that these cells may act as passive cellular hydrostats. The squamous cells surrounding the joint lacunae are structurally similar to mammalian epidermal cells, and the intermediate filament network within them is layered parallel to the surface of the lacunae. The organization of these cells suggests that they are the tensile component of extracellular hydrostats within the intercentral joint. These cellular and extracellular hydrostats within the intercentral joint would function to resist the compressive and tensile stresses encountered during undulatory swimming. PMID:7473764

Schmitz, R J

1995-10-01

178

Rare and new etiological agents revealed among 178 clinical Aspergillus strains obtained from Czech patients and characterized by molecular sequencing.  

PubMed

A collection of 178 Aspergillus isolates, recovered from Czech patients, mostly from 2007-2011, was subjected to multilocus DNA sequence typing using the ITS region, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. An unusually wide spectrum of etiologic agents that included 36 species of Aspergillus is discussed in the context of recent taxonomic and clinical reports. Invasive aspergillosis (IA), onychomycosis, and otitis externa were the predominant clinical entities. Five cases due to species newly proven as etiologic agents of human mycoses, as well as cases with unique clinical manifestations caused by unusual agents are discussed in more detail. Three species (i.e., A. insulicola, A. westerdijkiae and A. tritici) were identified as the confirmed etiologic agents of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. Emericella rugulosa was recovered from a premature newborn with a fatal necrotising disseminated infection and is reported for only the second time as the cause of IA. Furthermore, we document the first infection due to A. calidoustus in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. The infection manifested as a latent brain aspergilloma with an unusual clinical-laboratory finding. In addition to the well-known agents of human mycosis, several rarely isolated or poorly documented species were identified. An undescribed cryptic species related to A. versicolor was found to be common among isolates linked to proven and probable onychomycosis. An isolate representing A. fresenii, or an unnamed sister species, were causal agents of otomycosis. Three well defined, and tentative new species belonging to section Cervini, Candidi and Aspergillus (Eurotium spp.), were associated with cases of probable onychomycosis. PMID:22458252

Hubka, Vit; Kubatova, Alena; Mallatova, Nada; Sedlacek, Petr; Melichar, Jan; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mencl, Karel; Lyskova, Pavlina; Sramkova, Blanka; Chudickova, Milada; Hamal, Petr; Kolarik, Miroslav

2012-08-01

179

Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los desórdenes gastrointestinales

2012-01-01

180

[Surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes in Argentina from 2005 to 2010 during the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine era].  

PubMed

The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in the immunization programs of many countries has greatly reduced this invasive disease and the carriage caused by this serotype, also increasing other capsular types and non-capsular isolations. There were 313 isolations of H. influenzae under study, which were recovered from a sterile site coming from pediatric and adult patients carrying the invasive disease. Patients were treated at 90 different hospitals belonging to the Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Meningitis e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas Bacterianas (National Lab Network for Meningitis and Acute Bacterial Respiratory Infections) from 2005 to 2010 for the following disorders: pneumonia, 40.3% (n=126), meningitis, 30.0% (n=94) and bacteremia, 26.5% (n=83). In pediatric patients (n=279), the highest frequency of isolations corresponded to children under the age of 2 years, 74.5% (n=208). Regarding type distribution, 61.3% corresponded to non-capsular H. influenzae (n=192), 20.1% to type b (n=63), 11.2% to type a (n=35), 4.8% to type f, and 2.6% to other types. Capsular H. influenzae was predominant in meningitis whereas non-capsular H. influenzae in pneumonia and bacteremia. The biotype was determined in 306 isolations. The totality (100%) of type a (n=35) was biotype II whereas 66.7% of type b (n=63) was biotype I. Slide agglutination and PCR tests were used in 220 isolations. There was a match of 0.982 (IC: 0.92-1.00) between them. During the last year, there was a great increase in type b, showing the importance of clinical and laboratory-based surveillance of the invasive disease caused by H. influenzae. PMID:24401777

Efron, Adriana M; Moscoloni, María A; Reijtman, Vanesa R; Regueira, Mabel

2013-01-01

181

Development of an intestinal cell culture model to obtain smooth muscle cells and myenteric neurones  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on the development of an entirely new intestinal smooth muscle cell (ISMC) culture model using rat neonates for use in pharmacological research applications. Segments of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rat neonates. The cell extraction technique consisted of ligating both ends of the intestine and incubating (37 ºC) in 0.25% trypsin for periods of 30–90 min. Isolated cells were suspended in DMEM-HEPES, plated and allowed to proliferate for 7 days. Cell culture quality was assessed via a series of viability tests using the dye exclusion assay. In separate experiments, tissues were exposed to trypsin for varying durations and subsequently histological procedures were applied. Cell purification techniques included differential adhesion technique for minimizing fibroblasts. Selective treatments with neurotoxin scorpion venom (30 µg mL?1) and anti-mitotic cytosine arabinoside (6 µm) were also applied to purify respectively ISMC and myenteric neurones selectively. The different cell populations were identified in regard to morphology and growth characteristics via immunocytochemistry using antibodies to smooth muscle ?-actin, ?-actinin and serotonin-5HT3 receptors. Based on both viability and cell confluence experiments, results demonstrated that intestinal cells were best obtained from segments of the ileum dissociated in trypsin for 30 min. This provided the optimum parameters to yield highly viable cells and confluent cultures. The finding was further supported by histological studies demonstrating that an optimum incubation time of 30 min is required to isolate viable cells from the muscularis externae layer. When cell cultures were treated with cytosine arabinoside, the non-neuronal cells were abolished, resulting in the proliferation of cell bodies and extended neurites. Conversely, cultures treated with scorpion venom resulted in complete abolition of neurones and proliferation of increasing numbers of ISMC, which were spindle-shaped and uniform throughout the culture. When characterized by immunocytochemistry, neurones were stained with antibody to 5HT3 receptors but not with antibodies to ?-smooth muscle actin and ?-actinin. Conversely, ISMC were stained with antibodies to ?-smooth muscle actin and ?-actinin but not with antibody to 5HT3 receptors. The present study provides evidence that our method of dissociation and selectively purifying different cell populations will allow for pharmacological investigation of each cell type on different or defined mixtures of different cell types. PMID:17979953

Batista Lobo, S; Denyer, M; Britland, S; Javid, F A

2007-01-01

182

Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em vários aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-anãs.

Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

2003-08-01

183

Management of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections by Different Medical Practices, Including Homeopathy, and Consumption of Antibiotics in Primary Care: The EPI3 Cohort Study in France 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Prescribing of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) varies substantially in primary care. Objectives To describe and compare antibiotic and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs use, URTI symptoms' resolution and occurrence of potentially-associated infections in patients seeking care from general practitioners (GPs) who exclusively prescribe conventional medications (GP-CM), regularly prescribe homeopathy within a mixed practice (GP-Mx), or are certified homeopathic GPs (GP-Ho). Method The EPI3 survey was a nationwide population-based study of a representative sample of 825 GPs and their patients in France (2007–2008). GP recruitment was stratified by self-declared homeopathic prescribing preferences. Adults and children with confirmed URTI were asked to participate in a standardized telephone interview at inclusion, one-, three- and twelve-month follow up. Study outcomes included medication consumption, URTI symptoms' resolution and potentially-associated infections (sinusitis or otitis media/externa) as reported by patients. Analyses included calibration to account for non-respondents and groups were compared using multivate analyses adjusting for baseline differences with a propensity score. Results 518 adults and children with URTI (79.3% rhinopharyngitis) were included (36.9% response rate comparable between groups). As opposed to GP-CM patients, patients in the GP-Ho group showed significantly lower consumption of antibiotics (Odds ratio (OR)?=?0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.68) and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs (OR?=?0.54, 95% CI: 0.38–0.76) with similar evolution in related symptoms (OR?=?1.16, 95% CI: 0.64–2.10). An excess of potentially-associated infections (OR?=?1.70, 95% CI: 0.90–3.20) was observed in the GP-Ho group (not statistically significant). No difference was found between GP-CM and GP-Mx patients. Conclusion Patients who chose to consult GPs certified in homeopathy used less antibiotics and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs for URTI than those seen by GPs prescribing conventional medications. No difference was observed in patients consulting GPs within mixed-practice. A non-statistically significant excess was estimated through modelling for associated infections in the GP-Ho group and needs to be further studied. PMID:24646513

Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Begaud, Bernard; Rossignol, Michel; Avouac, Bernard; Lert, France; Rouillon, Frederic; Benichou, Jacques; Massol, Jacques; Duru, Gerard; Magnier, Anne-Marie; Abenhaim, Lucien; Guillemot, Didier

2014-01-01

184

Gastrointestinal morphology and function in turkeys fed diets diluted with whole grain wheat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that moderate dilution of turkey diets with whole grain wheat (up to 22.5%) improves gastrointestinal function, thus contributing to sustained growth performance. A total of 900 male turkeys were allocated to 5 dietary treatments: basal diet (BD), BD diluted with low levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat, and BD diluted with high levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat (GH and WH, respectively). At successive stages of the experiment, diets containing 5 and 15%, 7.5 and 17.5%, 10 and 20%, 12.5 and 22.5% of wheat in different physical form were fed to turkeys aged 5 to 8, 9 to 12, 13 to 16, and 17 to 18 wk, divided into subgroups with low and high dietary levels of wheat, respectively. Dietary dilution with different levels of wheat did not reduce the BW gain of turkeys and did not deteriorate feed conversion despite a decrease in the amino acid content of diets. In comparison with BD, diet GH increased the thickness of the muscularis externa and the depth of cecal crypts (P < 0.05), increased Bacteria domain, and decreased Salmonella counts (P < 0.001), increased butyric acid concentrations, and decreased the levels of putrefactive compounds in the cecal digesta (P < 0.001). In comparison with BD, diet WH improved feed efficiency (P = 0.002) and contributed to significant (P < 0.01) changes in the parameters of gastrointestinal function, including lower pH of gizzard digesta, increased depth of jejunal crypts, lower ammonia concentrations, and lower pH of intestinal digesta, increased Bacteria and Bifidobacterium counts, decreased Salmonella counts, and higher concentrations of butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acids. In comparison with diet GH, diet WH enhanced the activity of bacterial ?-glucosidase and ?-glucosidase as well as ?-galactosidase, reduced the activity of ?-glucuronidase, and increased total fatty acid concentrations, mainly acetic acid levels, in the cecal digesta (P < 0.01). The observed changes indicate that diet supplementation with wheat grain enhances gastrointestinal function, thus improving feed conversion in turkeys. PMID:23776267

Zdunczyk, Z; Jankowski, J; Mikulski, D; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Sosnowska, E; Juskiewicz, J

2013-07-01

185

A potential use of color ultrasound as a tool for reproductive management: New observations using color ultrasound scanning that were not possible with imaging only in black and white.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) has been applied to the ovary and the uterus of domestic animals from the late 1980s, and established in 1990s as a practical tool for animal production. US made it possible to detect pregnancy at a very early stage and, most importantly, to observe the real-time dynamics of follicular development and hence the discovery of follicular waves. This has greatly contributed to our understanding of ovarian physiology and helped us to develop several "pin-point" protocols for hormonal treatment. While US may not seem to fit preconceived ideas of a "green" technology, it does not contravene environmental priorities, and it is non-invasive ("ethical") and non-hormonal ("clean"). Using the US technology that is now commercially available at a reasonable price, we are able to estimate the best timing for AI and this allows us to plan either the use of precisely-timed nutritional supplements for fetal development or an immediate 2nd AI service to achieve a better economic efficiency. During the last few years, we have also begun to be able to observe in detail the local blood flow in individual ovarian follicles and CL using color Doppler ultrasonography in the cow. From the series of observations, we have found that: 1) the change of blood supply to an individual follicle closely relates to the dynamics of follicular growth and atresia; 2) the local blood flow detected in the theca externa of mature follicles rapidly increases around the onset of LH surge and is most active before ovulation; 3) the blood supply to the developing CL increases in parallel with CL volume and plasma progesterone concentrations; and 4) the local blood flow surrounding the mature CL acutely increases prior to the onset of luteolysis in response to uterine as well as exogenous PGF(2alpha). It is now clear that color Doppler ultrasound is very useful for observing echogenicity with local blood flow thereby providing an easily obtained estimation of the physiological status of follicles, CLs and early conceptus. Widespread commercial application of color US will depend on further technological developments that reduce the cost and improve performance and ease-of-use. Overall, US is now a most effective non-invasive tool for managing reproduction, at the level of both the individual animal and the herd system. In particular, US can help us to clarify potential problems in high-producing dairy cattle during the postpartum period. PMID:16538034

Miyamoto, Akio; Shirasuna, Koumei; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Kamada, Daichi; Awashima, Chiho; Kaneko, Etsushi; Acosta, Tomas J; Matsui, Motozumi

2006-02-01

186

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus responsible for human colonization and infection in an area of Italy with high density of pig farming  

PubMed Central

Background Livestock-Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) belonging to ST398 lineage, common among pigs and other animals, emerged in Central and Northern Europe, becoming a new risk factor for MRSA among farm workers. Strains belonging to ST398 can be responsible for human colonization and infection, mainly in areas with high livestock-farming. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) human colonization and infections in an area of the Lombardy Region (Italy), the Italian region with the highest density of pig farming. Methods In the period March-April 2010, 879 nasal swabs were taken from subjects at admission to a local hospital serving an area of the Lombardy Region devoted to agriculture and farming. In the period March 2010-February 2011, all MRSA strains from community-acquired infection (CAI) observed in the same hospital, were collected. Molecular characterization of the isolates included SCCmec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results Out of 879 nasal swabs examined, 9 (1%) yielded MRSA. Five strains were assigned to sequence type (ST)398 (spa t899, 3 isolates; t108 and t2922, 1 isolate each) and were therefore categorized as LA-MRSA. The other 4 isolates were likely of hospital origin. No strains were positive for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes. Twenty MRSA isolates were detected from CAI, 17 were from skin and soft-tissue infections and 3 from other infections. An MRSA isolate from otitis externa was t899/ST398 and PVL-negative, hence categorized as LA-MRSA. Four isolates were assigned to t127/ST1. Eight strains were PVL-positive community acquired (CA)-MRSA and belonged to different clones, the most frequent being ST8. Conclusions In an area of Italy with high density of pig farming, LA-MRSA is able to colonize the population and rarely to produce infections. Typical CA-MRSA is more common than LA-MRSA among CAI. PMID:23731504

2013-01-01

187

An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa of cysts exhibited a similar cell DNA fragmentation to early atretic follicles. In the granulosa and theca interna, active caspase-3 shown similar immunostaining levels in tertiary and cystic follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa cells presented high expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w in the tertiary and cystic follicles with diminishing intensity in the atretic follicles, except with Bcl-w where the intensity was maintained in the atretic follicles (p < 0.05). The expression of Bax was weak in the healthy and cystic follicles. In the theca interna, Bcl-2 expression was the same as the pattern found in the granulosa; no differences were found between tertiary and cystic follicles from both groups for Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. The expression of Bax in this layer was higher in the tertiary follicles of the treated animals (p < 0.05) while the values for cystic follicles were similar to those in the tertiary follicles of controls. The theca externa showed low expression of the pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition. PMID:19570211

Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H

2009-01-01

188

An experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the progress made in establishing the capabilities of the auditory system in several species of fish, significant questions remain regarding how sound reaches the ear and the nature of the coupling between the ear and various accessory structures. In this research, experimental measurements and theoretical modeling were used to examine the mechanical behavior of the peripheral auditory system of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). The experiments consisted of measuring the in vivo motion of the swimbladder, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths of an anesthetized and tethered fish, in response to an acoustic stimulus, using a noninvasive ultrasonic measurement system. The experimental results show strong coupling between the swimbladders, tripus, and saccule. At low frequencies, the swimbladders, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths move with the same amplitude and phase as the fish's body. At higher frequencies, multiple resonances occur in most swimbladder responses. The swimbladder resonance also appears in the sagitta response; the sagitta displacement ranges from 1 to 10 nm/Pa. The results of only a few tests indicate motion of the lagenar otolith, while no data show movement of the utricular otolith. The mathematical model of the dynamics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system is the first such model to include the swimbladder, Weberian apparatus, and saccule (including the hair cell ciliary bundles). The saccule model features only translation of the otolith in the direction of hair cell orientation. The model predicts the correct amplitude and phase relationships between the two swimbladder chambers and shows the coupling observed between the anterior swimbladder and the tripus. The model also predicts a high-pass filter effect due to the tunica externa compliance; however, the model low frequency cut-off seems insufficient to prevent a change in depth from overstimulating the Weberian apparatus. The model predicts a sagitta displacement on the order of 10 nm/Pa. Above 50 Hz, the relative displacement between the sagitta and sensory epithelium is primarily due to the Weberian apparatus. The phase relationships between the sagitta and sensory epithelium displacements vary with location of the acoustic source.

Finneran, James J.

1997-11-01

189

Progress in the prognosis of adult Hodgkin's lymphoma in the past 35 years through clinical trials in Argentina: a GATLA experience.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends in complete remission (CR) rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) through 35 years of Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) clinical trials. A total of 1,254 adult patients with Hodgkin's Lymphoma were evaluated according to seven consecutive protocols. This 35-year study was divided into three phases. The patients in the first phase (1968-1985) were treated with CVPP (cyclophosphamide/vinblastine/procarbazine/prednisone) plus involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT). In the CVPP regimen, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine were administered intravenously on day 1 and prednisone and procarbazine were administered orally on days 1-14 every 28 days. The second phase (1986-1996) used mainly reinforced CVPP with cyclophosphamide and vinblastine on days 1-8 plus IFRT. The third phase (1997-2003) used ABVD(doxorubicin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine) plus IFRT. In clinical stage I/II, the CR rate was 86% in 252 patients treated in the first phase and DFS and OS were 57% and 78% at 5 years and 50% and 71% at 10 years. The second phase had 148 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 91%, 5-year DFS and OS were 78% and 90%, and 10-year DFS and OS were 70% and 83%. The third phase had 182 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 95%, 5-year DFS and OS were 87% and 96%, and 10-year DFS and OS were not reached. The statistical difference was P = 0.016 in terms of CR and P < 0.001 in terms of DFS and OS. In the first phase of 394 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 71%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 37% and 62%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 32% and 53%. In the second phase of 164 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 84%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 66% and 80%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 60% and 75%. In the third phase of 114 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 88% and DFS and OS at 5 years were 60% and 90%. The DFS and OS were not reached at 10 years. The differences among the 3 phases in CR, DFS and OS were highly significant (P < 0.001). PMID:15453925

Pavlovsky, Santiago; Lastiri, Francisco

2004-09-01

190

Metabolic fate of monovalent and multivalent antibodies of Heymann nephritis following formation of surface immune complexes on glomerular epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Heymann nephritis of the rat has several similarities to human idiopathic membranous glomerulo-nephropathy, and therefore serves as an animal model for study of the human disease. The disease process in the rat is initiated by autoantibodies forming in situ immune deposits on the surface of the glomerular epithelial cell in the lamina rara externa region of the glomerular basement membrane. It is now understood that multispecific antibodies (like anti-gp600) form the nephritogenic deposits which cause proteinuria, while MoAb (like anti-gp330, anti-90 kD and anti-gp70) form only transient deposits which do not give rise to proteinuria. The reasons for differences between pathologic effects of mono- and multispecific antibodies are not known. Following characterization of putative antigens of Heymann nephritis by immunofluorescence, immunogold and immunoblot techniques, we have investigated the metabolic handling of a multispecific (anti-600), monospecific antibody (anti-gp70) and a MoAb (anti-gp330) by the cultured glomerular epithelial cell to gain an insight into the mechanism of nephritogenicity of multispecific antibody. Anti-gp600 reacted to multiple antigens in the 330-kD and 70-kD regions; anti-gp70 reacted to only the 70-kD region. Ultrastructurally, all three types of antigens were present on the plasma membrane, concentrated in the microvillar region. The cells were incubated with the antibodies, and clearance of the antibodies from the cells was evaluated. Following binding, all three antibodies were internalized by the cells. However, it was found that monoclonal anti-gp330 MoAb was cleared most rapidly from the cell (t1/2 5 min), followed by anti-gp70 (t1/2 30 min). Anti-gp600 was cleared at four times slower rate than anti-gp70 (t1/2 2h) by the cell. While anti-gp330 MoAb and monospecific anti-gp70 antibody were expelled from the cell in 25-32% digested form, the multispecific anti-gp600 was digested to the extent of only 5-8%. No immune complexes were detected in the medium with any of the three antibodies. The shed label was in intact IgG form. It is concluded that multispecific antibodies of Heymann nephritis are nephritogenic because of their slower clearance and digestion and therefore, higher accretion rate on the surface of the glomerular epithelial cell. The differential handling of the antibodies by the glomerular epithelial cell offers an explanation for the in vivo differences in the nephritogenicity of these antibodies observed earlier. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 PMID:8252800

Singh, A K; Kasinath, B S

1993-01-01

191

Tumores neonatales y malformaciones cong?nitas  

PubMed Central

Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

Tornero, O. Berbel; Garcia, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferris i; Castell, J. Garcia; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

2013-01-01