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Sample records for otite externa aguda

  1. Ophthalmooestriasis externa.

    PubMed

    Healey, M C; Collins, R K; Hawkins, J A

    1980-10-01

    In this case of ophthalmooestriasis externa in a 20-year-old white male student attending Mississippi State University, three first instar larvae from the sheep nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis, were removed. The patient responded well to application of sulfa eye drops. The exact means by which the patient acquired the larvae was not determined. PMID:7434057

  2. Proliferative and necrotising otitis externa in a cat without pinnal involvement: video-otoscopic features.

    PubMed

    Borio, Stefano; Massari, Federico; Abramo, Francesca; Colombo, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Proliferative and necrotising otitis externa is a rare and recently described disease affecting the ear canals and concave pinnae of kittens. This article describes a case of proliferative and necrotising otits externa in a young adult cat. In this case, the lesions did not affected the pinnae, but both ear canals were severely involved. Video-otoscopy revealed a digitally proliferative lesion, growing at 360° all around the ear canals for their entire length, without involvement of the middle ear. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis, and the cat responded completely to a once-daily application of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment diluted in mineral oil in the ear canals. Video-otoscopy findings, not described previously, were very peculiar and may help clinicians to diagnose this rare disease. PMID:23197497

  3. Otitis externa - bacteriological survey.

    PubMed

    Feinmesser, R; Wiesel, Y M; Argaman, M; Gay, I

    1982-01-01

    Otitis externa is one of the most common problems faced by the otolaryngologist, and in some clinics constitutes up to 40% of patients. Although not lethal, it may be a most debilitating disease. The external ear is an epithelium-lined cul-de-sac with many sweat and cerumeniferous glands whose secretions are an excellent medium for bacterial growth. Bacterial surveys done in the USA and in Israel 30 years ago proved Staphylococcus aureus to be the major pathogen. During the years the major pathogen changed, and in recent surveys Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the dominant pathogenic bacterium. The purpose of this article is to present the results of a bacteriological survey done in Israel on patients suffering from otitis externa in the years 1979-1980. A discussion is presented with regard to the meaning of the review. We tried to establish whether a certain factor could be considered to be the cause of otitis externa. PMID:7099575

  4. Two peculiar new species of Otites Latreille 1804 (Diptera: Ulidiidae) with reduced phallus.

    PubMed

    Morgulis, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Two new closely related species of the genus Otites are described and illustrated: O. freidbergi n. sp. from Israel, and O. friedmani n. sp. from Cyprus. The two species exhibit unusual male terminalia for Otites and other Otitini. Laboratory behavioral observations on live O. freidbergi individuals showed unusually long copulation duration compared to other examined Otitini species. PMID:25947825

  5. Clinical and microbiological features of otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Hawke, M; Wong, J; Krajden, S

    1984-10-01

    A prospective study of 40 cases of acute otitis externa and 99 cases of chronic otitis externa in unselected patients revealed that otitis externa affects males and females with a similar frequency. The peak incidence occurs in the summer and early fall months of the year. Exposure to water, previous use of ear drops, and cotton-tipped applicators predisposed to both acute and chronic otitis externa. Hearing aid ear molds appear to be a predisposing factor in the development of chronic otitis externa. Pain, itching, discharge, and hearing loss were the most common presenting complaints in both acute and chronic otitis externa. The discharge in chronic otitis externa is more commonly purulent, whereas in acute otitis externa it is more commonly mucoid. The tympanic membrane is not frequently involved in acute otitis externa; however, in chronic otitis externa changes in the tympanic membrane were more often encountered. Most infections were of a pure bacterial origin, primarily Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Fungi were the causative organisms more commonly in chronic otitis externa than in acute otitis externa (Figure 7). It was found that previous usage of ear drops was more often associated with otomycosis in acute otitis externa and yet was not related to a higher frequency of otomycosis in chronic otitis externa. The presence of a foreign material, such as an ear mold, was associated with a greater frequency of mixed infections (bacteria and fungi) in the group with chronic otitis externa. The presence of a greenish discharge or foul odor was not related to any particular organism. PMID:6544842

  6. Acute otitis externa in children

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Colin J.; Smith, Christine H.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Question In the summer months I see many children with uncomplicated acute otitis externa (AOE). I am aware of the multiple ototopical preparations. Which is the best first-line agent to treat AOE, and is there a role for an oral antibiotic? Answer There are no specific Canadian guidelines for the management of AOE. However, current American guidelines promote initial ototopical therapy without systemic antibiotics for uncomplicated AOE; suggest there is little difference between the various ototopical preparations; and recommend the choice of treatment be based on the specific clinical situation. In practice, this often results in prescribing an antibiotic-steroid formulation for 7 to 10 days. This ototopical treatment option is supported by a recent Cochrane review that has documented the superiority of an antibiotic-steroid combination when compared with placebo or acetic acid in providing clinical resolution of AOE. PMID:23152458

  7. Ophthalmomyiasis Externa Caused by Oestrus ovis

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Mahesh Kumar; Diddapur, Seethalakshmi Krishnamurthy; Nadagir, Shobha Dhruv; Kota, Subramanya Giliyar

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with foreign body sensation, pain, and redness in left eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed tiny larvae crawling around the conjunctival sac. The larvae, numbering 13, were mechanically removed under topical anesthesia and identified under light microscope as first-stage larvae of Oestrus ovis causing ophthalmomyiasis externa. PMID:22923922

  8. Heterotopic ossification in chronic fibrosing otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, Elizabeth F.; Bhutta, Mahmood F.; Lavy, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Acquired external auditory canal atresia is a rare complication of chronic inflammatory otitis, and is generally fibrous or soft tissue in nature. Here, we present the first reported case of heterotopic ossification within chronic fibrosing otitis externa in a 25-year-old male patient with a childhood history of granular myringitis and failed tympanoplasty. A calcified mass was demonstrated adjacent to the tympanic membrane on CT imaging, and surgical exploration revealed a cohesive bar of bone traversing the medial external auditory canal. Drill canaloplasty and split-thickness skin graft coverage of the lateral tympanic membrane resulted in an improvement in the pure tone average from 79 to 55 dB. As the treatment for chronic fibrosing otitis externa involves the surgical widening of the external auditory canal, we alert surgeons to the possibility of cohesive bone formation as a potential cause of navigational confusion and inadvertent over- or under-drilling of the canal stenosis. PMID:26429555

  9. Experimental treatment of recurrent otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Mileva, M H; Pencheva, D V; Bryaskova, R G; Genova-Kalou, P D; Kantardjiev, T V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of the hybrid material based on polyvinyl alcohol and silver nanoparticles (PVA/AgNps) in the treatment of the otitis externa as an additional component in the commercial product "Betazon Trio". It was established that the experimental creamy formula with silver concentration 600 mg/L is suitable for recovery of the microbial homeostasis when it is administrated once daily in dose 1 ml over a period of 14 days. PMID:26623362

  10. Case report: ophthalmomyiasis externa in Dallas County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Sigauke, Ellen; Beebe, Walter E; Gander, Rita M; Cavuoti, Dominick; Southern, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is an uncommon condition in North America. If not recognized and managed accordingly, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly Oestrus ovis; thus, it is more common in farming communities. We report a case of ophthalmomyiasis externa in a young woman from Dallas County, Texas, who had no known history of contact with farm animals. PMID:12556147

  11. Experimental treatment of recurrent otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Mileva, M.H.; Pencheva, D.V.; Bryaskova, R.G.; Genova-Kalou, P.D.; Kantardjiev, T.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of the hybrid material based on polyvinyl alcohol and silver nanoparticles (PVA/AgNps) in the treatment of the otitis externa as an additional component in the commercial product “Betazon Trio”. It was established that the experimental creamy formula with silver concentration 600 mg/L is suitable for recovery of the microbial homeostasis when it is administrated once daily in dose 1 ml over a period of 14 days. PMID:26623362

  12. Ophthalmomyiasis Externa: Case Report of the Clinicopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Pather, Sugeshnee; Botha, Louis M; Hale, Martin J; Jena-Stuart, Shirely

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the infestation of the superficial external ocular structures by fly larvae. This is a particularly rare condition, which has nevertheless been reported in several countries worldwide. Presented herein are the clinicopathologic features of ophthalmomyiasis externa which occurred in an adult patient. The patient responded well to treatment following thorough ophthalmological examination and prompt diagnosis. PMID:24533424

  13. Ophthalmomyiasis externa from Hakkari, the south east border of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Istek, Şeref

    2014-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa refers to the infestation of ocular surface by dipterous larvae. The term ophthalmomyiasis interna refers to the infestation of the anterior or posterior segment of the eyeball. Oestrus ovis is the most common aetiological agent for ophthalmomyiasis externa, and external disease is the most common form of ocular myiasis correspondingly. The larva is an obligate parasite of sheep. However, humans are accidentally infested. This article is related to the case series of three patients with the diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis externa who were treated in Hakkari State Hospital in June 2013. PMID:24532104

  14. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa. PMID:24226755

  15. The management of otitis externa in UK general practice.

    PubMed

    Pabla, L; Jindal, M; Latif, K

    2012-03-01

    Acute otitis externa is common and provides a heavy workload for general practitioners. We aim to determine the first-line treatment used by general practitioners in the management of otitis externa and subsequent second-line treatment in a hospital ENT clinic. In addition, this study aims to ascertain whether local and national guidelines are being followed appropriately. A prospective observational study on the management of otitis externa in consecutive patients referred to an ENT emergency clinic was undertaken. Data were collected and analysed on symptoms, initial management by general practitioners, findings and treatment in the ENT clinic. A total of 106 patients were studied. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation to clinic was 13 days; 42% of patients received no treatment by their GP prior to referral to the ENT emergency clinic. Only 14% of patients received topical antibiotics alone, whilst 44% received oral antibiotics, either alone or in conjunction with topical antibiotics by their GP. Of the 106 patients, 86% received topical antibiotics in the ENT emergency clinic and oral antibiotics were reserved for those presenting with complicated acute otitis externa. Topical antibiotics are associated with a decrease in disease persistence, whilst oral antibiotics are associated with an increase. However, general practitioners are prescribing oral antibiotics more often than required. There are few regional guidelines and no explicit national guidelines on the management of acute otitis externa for GPs to refer to. We suggest the implementation of national guidelines to aid clinical practice. PMID:21761191

  16. The joint in vitro action of polymyxin B and miconazole against pathogens associated with canine otitis externa from three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Silvia; Meyer, Michael; Voget, Michael; Cieslicki, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine otitis externa, an inflammation of the external ear canal, can be maintained and worsened by bacterial or fungal infections. For topical treatment, combinations of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial ingredients are mainly used. Hypothesis/Objectives This study was conducted to elucidate the in vitro activity of polymyxin B and miconazole against clinical bacterial isolates from three European countries, to investigate possible differences in sensitivity and to assess drug interactions. Animals Seventeen strains of Escherichia coli, 24 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 25 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with diagnosed otitis externa had been isolated in Germany, France and Italy. Methods Drug activities were evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration. The potentiation of polymyxin B plus miconazole was calculated using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). An FICI ≤0.5 defined synergy. Furthermore, geographical variations in the FICI and MIC were assessed by statistical analysis. Results Bacterial susceptibilities were comparable in different European countries, because there were no significant MIC and FICI variations (P > 0.05). As a single agent, polymyxin B had bactericidal activity against most E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains and, in higher concentrations, against S. pseudintermedius strains. Miconazole was bactericidal against all Staphylococcus strains. Synergy was demonstrated against strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 and 0.50, respectively), whereas overall there was no interaction against S. pseudintermedius strains (FICI = 1.25). Proteus mirabilis strains were not inhibited by each of the drugs individually or by their combination. Conclusions and clinical importance In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and miconazole against E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates indicates a rationale for applying both agents in combination to treat otitis externa when infected with these types of bacteria. Résumé Contexte L'otite externe canine, une inflammation du conduit auriculaire externe, peut être entretenue et aggravée par les infections bactériennes ou fongiques. Pour le traitement topique, les associations d'anti-inflammatoires et d'antimicrobiens sont principalement utilisées. Hypothèses/Objectifs Cette étude a été menée pour déterminer l'activité in vitro de la polymyxine B et du miconazole contre les souches bactériennes cliniques isolées dans trois pays européens, d'étudier les différences possibles de sensibilité et de déterminer les interactions médicamenteuses. Sujets Dix-sept souches d'Escherichia coli, 24 souches de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 souches de Proteus mirabilis et 25 souches de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ont été isolées de chiens atteints d'otite externe en Allemagne, France et Italie. Résultats L'activité des molécules a été évaluée par la concentration minimale inhibitrice (CMI) et la concentration minimale bactéricide. La potentialisation de la polymyxine B et du miconazole a été calculée par l'indice de concentration inhibitrice fractionnaire (FICI). Un FICI ≤ 0.5 définissait la synergie. En outre, les variations géographiques dans le FICI et la CMI étaient évaluées par analyses statistiques. Résultats Les sensibilités bactériennes étaient comparables dans les différents pays européens parce qu'aucune différence significative n'a été mise en évidence entre les variations de CMI et de FICI (P > 0.05). La polymyxine B en tant que seul agent avait une activité bactéricide contre la plupart des souches de E. coli et P. aeruginosa, et, à plus forte concentration, contre les souches de S. pseudintermedius. Le miconazole était bactéricide contre toutes les souches de S. pseudintermedius. Une synergie a été mise en évidence contre les souches de E. coli et P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 et 0.50, respectivement), alors qu'aucune interaction n'a été mise en évidence contre les souches de S. pseudintermedius (FICI = 1.25). Les souches de Proteus mirabilis n'ont été inhibées par aucune des molécules, individuellement ou en association. Conclusions et importance clinique La synergie in vitro de la polymyxine B et du miconazole contre les souches d'E. coli et de P. aeruginosa justifie l'application de la combinaison des deux agents dans le traitement de l'otite externe lors d'infection par ces bactéries. Resumen Introducción la otitis externa canina, inflamación del canal auditivo externo, puede perpetuarse y empeorar debido a la presencia de infecciones bacterianas o fúngicas. Para el tratamiento tópico se utilizan fundamentalmente combinaciones de ingredientes antiinflamatorios y antimicrobianos. Hipótesis/objetivos este estudio se condujo para elucidar la actividad in vitro de polimixina B y miconazol frente a aislados clínicos bacterianos de tres países europeos, investigar posibles diferencias en sensibilidad y analizar interacciones de fármacos. Animales diecisiete cepas de Escherichia coli, 24 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 cepas de Proteus mirabilis y 25 cepas de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius de perros diagnosticados con otitis externa asilados de Alemania, Francia e Italia. Métodos se evaluó la actividad de los fármacos mediante la concentración inhibitoria minima (MIC) y la concentración bactericida minima. La potenciación de polimixina B y miconazol se calculó usando el índice de concentración fraccional inhibitoria (FICI). Un FICI≤ 0,5 definía sinergismo. Además se analizaron estadísticamente las variaciones en la FICI y MIC dependiendo de la región de origen. Resultados la susceptibilidad bacteriana fue comparable en los diferentes países europeos ya que no hubo diferencias significativas en MIC y FICI (P > 0,05). Como agente único la polimixina B tuvo actividad antimicrobiana frente a la mayoría de cepas de E. coli y P. aeruginosa, y a mayores concentraciones frente a cepas de S. pseudintermedius. El miconazol fue bactericida frente a todas las cepas de Staphylococcus. Se observó sinergismo frente a cepas de E. coli y P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 y 0,50, respectivamente), mientras en general no hubo sinergismo frente a las cepas de S. pseudintermedius (FICI = 1.25). Cepas de Proteus mirabilis no fueron inhibidas por los fármacos individualmente ni en combinación. Conclusiones e importancia clínica el sinergismo in vitro de la polimixina B y el miconazol frente a aislados de E. coli y P. aeruginosa indica un motivo para utilizar ambos agentes en combinación para tratar casos de otitis externa producidos por infecciones con estas bacterias. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Die canine Otitis externa, eine Entzündung des äußeren Ohrkanals, kann durch eine bakterielle Infektion oder durch eine Infektion mit Hefepilzen aufrechterhalten bzw. verschlimmert werden. Zur topischen Behandlung werden hauptsächlich Kombinationen aus entzündungshemmenden und antimikrobiellen Wirkstoffen verwendet. Hypothese/Ziele Diese Studie wurde durchgeführt, um die in vitro Aktivität von Polymyxin B und Mikonazol gegenüber klinischen Bakterienisolaten aus drei europäischen Ländern zu beleuchten und um mögliche Unterschiede in der Sensibilität zu untersuchen und um Interaktionen von Medikamenten zu beurteilen. Tiere Siebzehn Stämme von Escherichia coli, 24 Stämme von Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 Stämme von Proteus mirabilis und 25 Stämme von Staphylokokkus pseudintermedius von Hunden mit einer diagnostizierten Otitis externa waren in Deutschland, Frankreich und Italien isoliert worden. Methoden Die Wirkstoffaktivitäten wurden mittels minimaler inhibitorischer Konzentration (MIC) und minimaler bakterizider Konzentration evaluiert. Die Potenzierung von Polymyxin B plus Mikonazol wurde mittels „Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index” (FICI) kalkuliert. Ein FICI ≤ 0,5 definierte eine Synergie. Weiters wurden geographische Variationen des FICI und der MIC mittels statistischer Analyse beurteilt. Ergebnisse Die bakteriellen Empfindlichkeiten waren in den verschiedenen europäischen Ländern vergleichbar, da keine signifikanten Unterschiede bei MIC und FICI bestanden (P > 0,05). Als alleiniger Wirkstoff zeigte Polymyxin B eine bakterizide Wirkung gegenüber den meisten E. coli und P. aeruginosa Stämmen und, in höheren Konzentrationen, gegenüber S. pseudintermedius Stämmen. Eine Synergie wurde gegen E. coli und P. aeruginosa Stämme (FICI = 0.25 bzw. 0,50) demonstriert, während insgesamt keine Interaktion gegen S. pseudintermedius Stämme (FICI = 1.25) bestand. Proteus mirabilis Stämme wurden von keinem dieser Wirkstoffe, weder individuell noch in Kombination, inhibiert. Schlussfolgerungen und klinische Bedeutung Eine in vitro Synergie von Polymyxin B und Mikonazol gegenüber E. coli und P. aeruginosa Isolaten bekräftigt die Argumentation dafür, beide Wirkstoffe in Kombination zu verwenden, um eine Otitis externa, bei der diese Bakterien vorkommen, zu behandeln. PMID:23721182

  17. Bacterial Otitis Externa in Patients Attending an ENT Clinic in Babol, North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kiakojuri, Keyvan; Mahdavi Omran, Saeid; Jalili, Bahareh; Hajiahmadi, Mahmood; Bagheri, Meghdad; Ferdousi Shahandashti, Elaheh; Rajabnia, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute otitis externa, an inflammatory condition of the external auditory canal, is a common clinical problem in general medicine. Objectives This study aimed to determine the etiology of otitis externa in patients from the Mazandaran province, north of Iran, which has a humid climate, as humidity can affect the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study involved 116 patients with otitis externa. Two sets of samples were collected from their ears; one set was used for slide preparations, and the other for microbial culturing. After culturing, the microorganisms were identified by conventional methods. Results Patients between 35 and 44 years of age were most frequently affected (25.00%) by otitis externa (average age, 43.87 ± 18.08 years). Moreover, women (54.31%) were more frequently affected than men (45.69%). Upon direct investigation, Gram-positive bacilli were the most commonly identified microorganisms (22.41%). Furthermore, Bacillus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci (22.41% and 19.83%, respectively), were the organisms most frequently identified from cultures of otitis externa samples. Conclusions Direct examination and culture showed that a mixed infection of fungi and bacteria is the most common cause of otitis externa. The present study revealed that Bacilli spp. were the most abundant bacteria isolated from patients with otitis externa. Thus, it is recommended that both organisms should be considered as etiologic agents in protocols for treatment of otitis externa. PMID:27127584

  18. Malignant otitis externa: experience with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Heiden, Christian

    2010-12-01

    With the low incidence of malignant otitis externa (MOE) and its variable manifestations, it is not possible to perform relevant prospective controlled studies in this condition. Therefore, the best evidence on which to base therapeutic decisions is likely to remain retrospective reviews of case series. Even though our knowledge in regard to MOE is not greatly increased by the retrospective case series by Saxby et al in this issue, nevertheless it has value.1 The larger number of cases here confirms that multimodal therapy, with the inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), enables a reduction in mortality compared to earlier case reports without HBOT. This case series is the largest in the literature. The real value of HBOT for MOE remains unclear, in part because in historical reports, patients were probably treated with less efficient antibiotics and surgical procedures than nowadays. It would have been interesting to know whether the fatal cases described here had predominantly intracranial propagation of the infection, because a particularly bad prognosis is expected in these patients even without facial nerve palsy. Cures in this high-risk subgroup would have also been worth mentioning. The number of surgical debridements required was noticeably low in this group of patients. One must bear in mind that necrotic tissue cannot be revitalised by HBOT and generally hinders cure. This syndrome of 'necrotizing' infection carries the suffix 'malignant' with good reason, given the high mortality rates reported in the literature. In summary, multimodal therapy is to be recommended for malignant otitis externa. There is no evidence to justify omitting any of the components of the treatment complex, including HBOT; there is currently no high level evidence-based medicine, just sound common sense, for any of the applied measures. PMID:23111931

  19. Evaluation of an ear cleanser for the treatment of infectious otitis externa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, Lynette K; Kwochka, Kenneth W; Kowalski, Joseph J; Hillier, Andrew; Hoshaw-Woodard, Stacy L

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one ears (16 dogs) with otitis externa originating from bacterial or yeast infections were enrolled in a study to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of an ear cleanser containing 2.5% lactic acid and 0.1% salicylic acid for the treatment of infectious otitis externa. The affected ears were treated with the ear cleanser twice daily for 2 weeks and evaluated after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. The ear cleanser was effective in resolution of infection in 67.7% of the ears, and clinical signs of infectious otitis externa were significantly reduced within 2 weeks. PMID:12756632

  20. A rare and sinister variant of a common ailment: Fungal malignant otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Lilic, N; Mowjood, MT; Wong, MHW

    2012-01-01

    A recent case report in this journal highlighted the pathophysiology and management of bacterial malignant otitis externa (MOE) (1). We describe the case of an elderly gentleman who had a delayed diagnosis of fungal MOE with advanced diseased at time of diagnosis. This case highlights the changing microbiology of this serious disease and the difficulty in diagnosis given the rarity of this form of otitis externa relative to its uncomplicated form. PMID:24960790

  1. Deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus externa promotes sleep.

    PubMed

    Qiu, M H; Chen, M C; Wu, J; Nelson, D; Lu, J

    2016-05-13

    The basal ganglia, a network of subcortical structures, play a critical role in movements, sleep and mental behavior. Basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease affect sleep. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease can ameliorate sleep disturbances. Our series of previous studies lead the hypothesis that dopamine, acting on D2 receptors on the striatopallidal terminals, enhances activity in the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and promotes sleep. Here, we tested if DBS in the GPe promotes sleep in rats. We found that unilateral DBS (180Hz at 100μA) in the GPe in rats significantly increased both non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep compared to sham DBS stimulation. The EEG power spectrum of sleep induced by DBS was similar to that of the baseline sleep, and sleep latency was not affected by DBS. The GPe is potentially a better site for DBS to treat both insomnia and motor disorders caused by basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:26917269

  2. Occurrence of Malassezia spp. in the external ear canals of dogs and cats with and without otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Crespo, M J; Abarca, M L; Cabañes, F J

    2002-04-01

    We studied the lipophilic microbiota of the external ear canals of 332 animals (264 dogs and 68 cats), with and without otitis externa, over an 11-year period from 1988 to 1999. Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from 62.2% and 50% of dogs with and without otitis externa, respectively, and from 41.2% and 17.6% of cats with and without otitis externa, respectively. In the group of animals studied for lipid-dependent species, these yeasts were isolated from 4.5% of dogs with otitis externa and from 23.1% and 8.9% of cats with and without otitis externa, respectively. M. sympodialis and M. furfur were isolated from cats and M. furfur and M. obtusa from dogs. Our findings show that lipid-dependent Malassezia species may contribute to the etiology of otitis externa in dogs and cats. PMID:12058723

  3. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  4. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    PubMed Central

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  5. Risk of otitis externa after swimming in recreational fresh water lakes containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    van Asperen, I. A.; de Rover, C. M.; Schijven, J. F.; Oetomo, S. B.; Schellekens, J. F.; van Leeuwen, N. J.; Collé, C.; Havelaar, A. H.; Kromhout, D.; Sprenger, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an outbreak of otitis externa was due to bathing in recreational fresh water lakes and to establish whether the outbreak was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the water. DESIGN--Matched case-control study. SETTING--The Achterhoek area, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--98 cases with otitis externa and 149 controls matched for age, sex, and place of residence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Odds ratios for type of swimming water and frequency of swimming; presence of P aeruginosa in ear swabs and fresh water lakes. RESULTS--Otitis externa was strongly associated with swimming in recreational fresh water lakes in the previous two weeks (odds ratio 15.5 (95% confidence interval) 4.9 to 49.2) compared with non-swimming). The risk increased with the number of days of swimming, and subjects with recurrent ear disease had a greatly increased risk. The lakes met the Dutch bathing water standards and those set by the European Commission for faecal pollution in the summer of 1994, but P aeruginosa was isolated from all of them, as well as from the ear swabs of 78 (83%) of the cases and 3 (4%) of the controls. CONCLUSIONS--Even when current bathing water standards are met, swimming can be associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa because of exposure to P aeruginosa. People with recurrent ear disease should take special care when swimming in waters containing P aeruginosa. PMID:8520277

  6. Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Márcio Candeias

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

  7. Comparative study of the microbial profile from bilateral canine otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lis C; Leite, Carlos A L; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Carvalho, Cibele B M

    2008-08-01

    Fifty dogs with bilateral otitis externa were studied over a 10-month period. The exudates of both external ears were obtained, using sterile swabs, and microorganisms were isolated according to standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus intermedius was done by the agar diffusion method. There was bacterial and/or fungal growth in all of the samples. These were all polymicrobial infections. Anaerobic bacteria were not isolated in any sample. The most common pathogens isolated were S. intermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the isolation pattern between the right and left ears in 34 of the 50 animals (68%). High resistance rates of S. intermedius strains to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and clindamycin were found. The results suggest that in bilateral canine otitis externa, each ear should be cultured separately and considered as separate units. PMID:18978972

  8. Therapeutic effects of beta-thujaplicin eardrops on canine Malassezia-related otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Saburo; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2006-04-01

    An eardrop solution of beta-thujaplicin was examined for therapeutic effects on canine Malassezia-related otitis externa. Half to one ml of beta-thujaplicin solution of 100 microg/ml including DMSO 2% was injected everyday into both external ear canals of 31 cases for test-of-cure agreement. Fifteen score phases were established from the symptoms and cerumen smear biopsy findings, and score changes were recorded at least once a week. The means of the second and the third inspection day scores decreased significantly more than the previous value of each. In addition, the numbers of yeast-like organisms clearly decreased. These results suggest that beta-thujaplicin eardrops are effective for Malassezia-related otitis externa in dogs. PMID:16679729

  9. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B

    2013-01-01

    Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity. PMID:24145557

  10. Study of lipid in the ear canal in canine otitis externa with Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, A; Sukegawa, T; Mizumoto, N; Tani, H; Miyamoto, T; Sasai, K; Baba, E

    2000-11-01

    An epidemiological investigation of 120 canine otitis externa cases in 1,370 dogs was done on the incidence rate, ear pinna shapes, breeds and their relationships. Eighty-five cases (12.6%) in 672 dogs with pendulous ears and 35 cases (5.0%) in 698 dogs with erect ears had otitis externa, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.05). Ninety-five auditory cerumen specimens were cultured for Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis) and analyzed for concentrations of major fatty acids. Although rates of cases positive for M. pachydermatis in both ear pinna shapes were almost the same, i.e. 55.2% in the pendulous group and 53.6% in the erect group, the average total fatty acid level of the pendulous ear group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in the erect ear group after dismissing extraordinary levels in the Siberian husky. Isolated M. pachydermatis strains were examined for the effects of fatty acid supplementation on their growth. The majority of the strains utilized fatty acids and grew faster in fatty acid supplemented broth. These results suggest that M. pachydermatis, the predominant causative agent of canine otitis externa, prefers the auditory canal of dogs with lipid-rich earwax and grows fast, but growth strongly depends upon the canine breed. PMID:11129861

  11. Effects of beta-thujaplicin on anti-Malassezia pachydermatis remedy for canine otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yasuyuki; Wada, Makoto; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2005-12-01

    The antifungal activity of beta-thujaplicin was evaluated against 51 Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from canine ear canals with or without otitis externa. For comparison, sensitivity tests were performed on M. pachydermatis isolates for nystatin, ketoconazole, and terbinafine HCl, all clinically available antifungal agents. The minimal inhibition concentrations over 50% of the tested isolates (MIC50) were 3.13 microg/ml for beta-thujaplicin and nystatin, 0.016 microg/ml for ketoconazole, and 1.56 microg/ml for terbinafine HCl. The antifungal effect for M. pachydermatis of beta-thujaplicin compared favorably with commercial antifungal agents. None of the 51 M. pachydermatis isolates showed resistance against any of the tested antibiotics investigated in this study. Ten representative isolates of M. pachydermatis were subcultured for 30 generations at concentrations close to the MIC levels of beta-thujaplicin, nystatin, ketoconazole, and terbinafine HCl, and examined to determine whether they had acquired resistance to each drug. As a result, M. pachydermatis was found to achieve resistance more easily for ketoconazole and terbinafine HCl than for beta-thujaplicin or nystatin. The MIC50 of beta-thujaplicin did not change during the course of subculture, and it is thought that the potential development of a resistant strain is low, even with continuous infusion for otitis externa therapy. beta-Thujaplicin is an inexpensive and safe treatment with anti-inflammatory and deodorant effects that can be recommended as an effective remedy for canine otitis externa. PMID:16397383

  12. Impact of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M I; Sanchez, N; Pineda, S; Chi, H; Ronco, A

    2009-09-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies have used life table analysis to evaluate the toxicity of pesticides on beneficial organisms. This study is the first report of the effect of the herbicide glyphosate on a predator insect, Chrysoperla externa, using a demographic approach. This predator is associated to soybean pests and has a potential role as a biological control agent in the Neotropical Region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of C. externa, treated orally by ingestion of glyphosate-dipped eggs of Sitotroga cerealella in laboratory conditions. The data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Development from third larval instar to pupae and adult longevity were shorter in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Adult pre-reproductive period was longer in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Fecundity and fertility were deeply reduced, as well, being fertility greater affected. A high important reduction was registered in all population parameters. Most eggs from glyphosate-treated cohort looked abnormal, smaller than control, dehydrated and became black 2d after oviposition. In addition, adults developed tumours in the abdomen region at 20d after emergence, being the effect more drastic in females than males. It is beyond the scope of our study to speculate on the effects of this herbicide on C. externa field populations. However, it seems likely that populations under continuous use of glyphosate would be exposed at greater detrimental effects in the long term. PMID:19577273

  13. Fungal Malignant Otitis Externa with Facial Nerve Palsy: Tissue Biopsy Aids Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Fungal malignant otitis externa (FMOE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that is challenging to manage. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the low sensitivity of aural swabs and many antifungal drugs have significant side effects. We present a case of FMOE, where formal tissue sampling revealed the diagnosis and the patient was successfully treated with voriconazole, in addition to an up to date review of the current literature. We would recommend tissue biopsy of the external auditory canal in all patients with suspected FMOE in addition to routine microbiology swabs. PMID:24649388

  14. Loss of genetic variability induced by Agroecosystems: Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) as a case study.

    PubMed

    Morales, A C; Lavagnini, T C; Freitas, S

    2013-02-01

    Four species of green lacewings occur in Brazil, of which Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) exhibits the widest geographical distribution. Chrysoperla externa is a predatory insect that is potentially useful as a biological control agent of agricultural pests. Studies on the genetic diversity of lacewing populations are essential to reduce the environmental and economic harm that may be caused by organisms with a low ability to adapt to the adverse and/or different environmental conditions to which they are exposed. We used the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene as a molecular marker to investigate the genetic diversity of green lacewing species collected from native and agroecosystem environments. Populations derived from native areas showed higher rates of genetic variability compared to populations from agroecosystems. Demographic changes in the form of population expansion were observed in agroecosystems, whereas populations in the native environment appeared stable over time. A statistical analysis showed significant genetic structure between each of the sampled groups, combined with its complete absence within each group, corroborating each group's identity. We infer that the loss of variability exhibited by populations from the agroecosystems is the result of genetic drift by means of the founder effect, a similar effect that has been observed in other introduced populations. Agroecosystems might therefore function as exotic areas for green lacewings, even when these areas are within the normal range of the species. PMID:23949710

  15. Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: The Relationship with Malignant Otitis Externa, the Diagnostic Dilemma, and Changing Trends

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. PMID:24963511

  16. In vitro evaluation of the synergistic activity of neomycin-polymyxin B association against pathogens responsible for otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Mangiafico, A; Genovese, C; Giudice, E; Mastrojeni, S; Nicolosi, D; Ferneri, P M

    2009-01-01

    The most recent guidelines recommend, for otitis externa antibiotic therapy, the use of topical formulations in that they are very safe, have a quicker effect and do not induce bacterial resistance compared to systemic therapy. The choice of the class of antibiotics in empiric therapy of otitis externa must take into consideration the polymicrobic nature of the infection that includes both bacteria (Grampositive and Gram-negative) and mycetes. For this reason, in this study we evaluated the synergic activity of neomycin in association with polymyxin B against the pathogens commonly responsible for otitis externa, compared to that of a single antibiotic (ciprofloxacin). The polymyxinB/neomycin association shows clear synergic effects with values of both Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) reduced by 3-4 times with respect to the single antibiotic; and in P. aeruginosa the synergistic effect of the neomycin/polymyxin B association with respect to neomycin was more evident (5-6 times), with an intrinsic in vitro activity constantly higher than that of ciprofloxacin alone or in association with hydrocortisone. From the analysis of the data obtained in vitro, we can conclude that the possibility of using a topical formulation containing a synergistic association of antibiotics, such as neomycin-polymyxin B, in such a way as to obtain the maximum effect in the minimum time with an increase in the spectrum of action of non-bacterial pathogens, is an optimal choice for the clinician for the empiric therapy of otitis externa. PMID:19505383

  17. Entomopathogenic Activity of a Variety of the Fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, Recovered from the Elongate Hemlock Scale, Fiorinia externa

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, José A. P.; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Giordano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    A fungal epizootic in populations of Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) infesting hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae) in forests of the Northeastern US has been recently detected. The current known distribution of the epizootic spans 36 sites in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit. (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae) was the most prevalent fungus recovered from infected scales. Bioassays indicated that this C. acutatum variety is highly pathogenic to F. externa. Mortality rates of >90 and >55% were obtained for F. externa crawlers and settlers, respectively. Significantly lower mortality levels, ≤ 22%, were obtained when three other species of insects were assayed. C. gleosporioides has also been shown to have pathogenic activity towards a scale insect. The data suggest that C. acutatum var. fioriniae from F. externa epizootics in the US, and the previously reported C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae causing Orthezia praelonga epizootics in Brazil, may constitute distinct biotypes of Colletotrichum that have attained the ability to infect insects in addition to the commonly reported plant hosts. PMID:19613442

  18. Suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens as food source for the green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Venzon, Madelaine; Rosado, Maria C; Euzébio, Denise E; Souza, Brígida; Schoereder, José H

    2006-01-01

    Diversification of crops with species that provide suitable pollen for predators may reduce pest population on crops by enhancing predator effectiveness. In this paper we evaluated the suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens to the predatory green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen). The predator is commonly found in coffee agroecosystems and the plant species tested were pigeon pea and sunn hemp, which are used in organic coffee systems. Newly emerged females and males of C. externa were reared on diets containing pollen of pigeon pea, sunn hemp, or castor bean, used as a control. The reproductive success of C. externa was evaluated when females fed the pollen species and when honey was added to the diets, to verify the predator need for an extra carbohydrate source. Similar intrinsic growth rates were found for females fed on pigeon pea pollen and on sunn hemp pollen but these rates increased significantly when honey was added to the diets. Females fed with pigeon pea pollen plus honey and with sunn hemp pollen plus honey had higher intrinsic growth rates than those fed with castor bean pollen plus honey. Females fed on castor bean pollen only or on honey only, did not oviposit. Leguminous pollen species were equally suitable for C. externa especially when they were complemented with honey. The results suggest that to successfully enhance predator effectiveness, organic coffee plantation should be diversified with plant providing pollen in combination with plant providing nectar. PMID:18575698

  19. Population genetics of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Lavagnini, T C; Morales, A C; Freitas, S

    2015-11-01

    Green lacewings are insects with great potential to be use in the biological control of agricultural pests, but relatively few studies have attempted to understand the genetic structure of these agents, especially those of predatory insects. The purpose of this study was to characterize genetically populations of C. externa using sequences of subunit I of the cytochrome oxidase, a mitochondrial gene, and examine the population structure of this species in sampled areas in São Paulo state. The results indicate high genetic diversity but no genetic structure, detected by AMOVA analysis, and high levels of haplotype sharing in the network. These genetic patterns could be a consequence of environmental homogeneity provided by agroecosystem (citrus orchard), allowing gene flow among populations. Probably there is a unique population in the area sampled that could be used as a population (genetic) source for mass-reared and posterior release in these farms. PMID:26675904

  20. A Novel Mycobacterium cosmeticum-Like Bacterium Isolated from the Ear Swab of a Patient with Otitis Externa

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Jeanette W. P.; Cheng, Janet W. S.; Jureen, Roland; Lin, Raymond T. P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the identification and characterization of a novel nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM), isolated from an ear swab of an adult male patient with chronic otitis externa. Genetically, the bacterium is most closely related to Mycobacterium cosmeticum; however, growth and biochemical features indicate that it is distinctly different. Here, we highlight for the first time an unusual NTM that is a probable cause of ear infection. PMID:25866687

  1. Clinical evaluation of an antiinflammatory and antioxidant diet effect in 30 dogs affected by chronic otitis externa: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Centenaro, Sara; Beribè, Francesca; Laus, Fulvio; Cerquetella, Matteo; Spaterna, Andrea; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this evaluation study was to assess the possible role of a specific nutraceutical diet in relieving main clinical symptoms of chronic bilateral otitis externa (occlusion of ear canal, erythema, discharge quantity, and odor) in 30 adult dogs. Thirty dogs of different breeds (mean age ± SEM; 6.03 ± 0.15 years and mean weight ± SEM; 32.01 ± 1.17 Kg; 53.3 % males, 46.6 % females) with evident chronic clinical otitis symptoms were equally divided and randomly assigned to receive either the nutraceutical diet (ND group) or a standard diet (SD group) over a period of 90 days. In all cases a topical pharmacological treatment was given. The nutraceutical diet, also endowed with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, significantly decreased the mean score intensity of all symptoms after 90 days of intervention (P < 0.0001) with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis infection which was only slightly reduced. Our investigation is one of the few evidence-based results where a commercial nutraceutical diet has been proven effective, in combination with drugs, in relieving otitis externa-related symptoms. This study opens new insights into otitis externa clinical management providing evidence of efficacy of a combined therapy with drugs and a specific nutraceutical diet. PMID:26743397

  2. Comparison of lipid profiles of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa and without clinical symptoms of disease.

    PubMed

    Czyzewska, Urszula; Siemieniuk, Magdalena; Pyrkowska, Aleksandra; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Bieganska, Malgorzata; Dabrowska, Iwona; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Tylicki, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis can cause infections of the skin and mucous membranes, especially in animals. It becomes a problem also in medicine. It is considered that metabolic disorders as well as hormonal and immunological status of the host promote diseases caused by M. pachydermatis. Here we consider whether specific features of fungi could also favour infections. We checked whether there are differences in lipid profiles between strains obtained from dogs with otitis externa and strains obtained from healthy dogs. Lipid profiles were determined using thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All analyses were carried out on 32 strains derived from dogs with otitis externa and 31 strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of disease. The results show that strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of otitis externa are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids. They contain significantly more behenic and lignoceric acids on medium without addition of lipids, and more oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids on medium with lipids supplementation. These strains have also a higher content of esters of ergosterol and triglycerides. Data obtained show differences which may be specific features of M. pachydermatis-specific strains related to the ability of infection, which could be not directly related of the host condition. PMID:26559663

  3. Use of ticarcillin in the management of canine otitis externa complicated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, T J

    1998-04-01

    Twelve dogs were referred with purulent and proliferative otitis externa. Prior treatment included fluoroquinolones, glucocorticoids and polyvalent ear drops over seven days to five months. In all cases the vertical and horizontal ear canals were inflamed and thickened, with ruptured tympanic membranes in four cases. No abnormalities were seen on radiography of the osseous bullae. Numerous rod bacilli and degenerate neutrophils were seen on cytology. Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin was cultured in all cases. Treatment was initiated with 1 to 2 mg/kg prednisolone per os once daily, and a cleansing and drying ear cleaner followed by topical administration of injectable ticarcillin solution four times daily. Cases with ruptured tympanae also received 15 to 25 mg/kg ticarcillin three times daily intravenously until the membranes had healed. All cases were anaesthetised for repeated saline ear flushes until no further discharge was evident and no rods were seen on cytology. Topical ticarcillin and the ear cleaner were continued twice daily for 14 days after clinical resolution. The duration of treatment ranged from 14 to 36 days. Treatment was withdrawn in one case which developed a drug reaction. All other cases responded well with no adverse effects. PMID:9577757

  4. Diagnosis and medical treatment of otitis externa in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L S

    2002-12-01

    Otitis externa is no longer viewed as an isolated disease of the ear canal, but is a syndrome that is often a reflection of underlying dermatological disease. Causes are classified as predisposing (increase the risk of otitis); primary (directly induce otitis), secondary (contribute to otitis only in an abnormal ear or in conjunction with predisposing factors) and perpetuating (result from inflammation and pathology in ear, prevent resolution of otitis). Common primary causes include foreign bodies, hypersensitivity (particularly atopy and food allergy), keratinisation disorders (most commonly primary idiopathic seborrhoea and hypothyroidism) and earmites, particularly in cats. A systematic diagnostic procedure is required to identify causes and contributing factors. This should include history, clinical examination, otoscopy and cytology in all cases and culture and sensitivity as well as otitis media assessment and biopsy in severe and recurrent cases. Ancillary tests may be required depending on the underlying cause. Treatment consists of identifying and addressing predisposing and primary factors; cleaning the ear canal; topical therapy; systemic therapy where necessary; client education; follow-up; and preventive and maintenance therapy as required. PMID:12665128

  5. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa--United States, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    2011-05-20

    Acute otitis externa (AOE) (swimmer's ear) is inflammation of the external auditory canal most often caused by bacterial infection. AOE is characterized by pain, tenderness, redness, and swelling of the external ear canal, and occasionally, purulent exudate. AOE is associated with water exposure (e.g., recreational water activities, bathing, and excessive sweating) and warm, humid environments. Because the overall burden and epidemiology of AOE in the United States have not been well described, data from national ambulatory-care and emergency department (ED) databases were analyzed to characterize the incidence, demographics, and seasonality of AOE and associated health-care costs. The analysis showed that in 2007, an estimated 2.4 million U.S. health-care visits (8.1 visits per 1,000 population) resulted in a diagnosis of AOE. Estimated annual rates of ambulatory-care visits for AOE during 2003-2007 were highest among children aged 5-9 years (18.6) and 10-14 years (15.8); however, 53% of visits occurred among adults aged ≥20 years (5.3). Incidence peaked during summer months, and the regional rate was highest in the South (9.1). Direct health-care costs for nonhospitalized AOE visits total as much as $0.5 billion annually, and ambulatory-care clinicians spend nearly 600,000 hours annually treating AOE. Suggested AOE prevention measures include reducing exposure of the ears to water (e.g., using ear plugs or swim caps and using alcohol-based ear-drying solutions) (3-5). To reduce the national incidence of AOE, additional preventive measures should be investigated, and effective prevention messages should be developed and disseminated. PMID:21597452

  6. Antimicrobial and Analgesic Prescribing Patterns for Acute Otitis Externa, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Sarah A.; Hlavsa, Michele C.; Piercefield, Emily W.; Beach, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute otitis externa (AOE) is a common but preventable ear condition. Clinical guidelines issued in 2006 recommended topical treatments for uncomplicated AOE, but systemic antimicrobials appear to be commonly prescribed. The objective of this analysis was to describe pre- and postguideline prescribing patterns by clinician specialty and antimicrobial type and assess trends over time. Study Design Retrospective longitudinal analysis of a large insurance database. Setting Outpatient departments in the United States. Methods Initial outpatient visits in 2004 to 2010 for AOE (excluding visits with complicating conditions) were extracted from an insurance database. Prescription drug claims were linked and categorized by clinician specialty and antimicrobial type. Results The analysis included 907,261 initial outpatient visits. Use of systemic antimicrobials declined by 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%, 5.7%) from 36.5% of initial visits in 2004 to 32.1% in 2010. Use of systemic antimicrobials varied by specialty. Systemic antimicrobials were prescribed in 47.1% of 2010 emergency department (ED) visits (−6.9% from 2004, 95% CI –12.3, −1.5), 25.9% of otolaryngologist visits (−1.6%, 95% CI –5.6, 2.4), and 20.4% of pediatrician visits (−6.6%, 95% CI –8.8, –4.4). Penicillins were prescribed most frequently (42.3% of systemic prescriptions in 2010), followed by cephalosporins (19.8%), erythromycin/macrolides (17.4%), and quinolones (11.1%). Opioids were prescribed in 26.4% of ED visits and 9% of outpatient visits. Conclusions Use of systemic antimicrobials declined over time, but one-third of 2010 visits resulted in systemic antimicrobials, despite exclusion of visits with complicating factors. Use of systemic antimicrobials varied by specialty. Further educational efforts and outreach to other specialties might be warranted. PMID:23131826

  7. Development and Reproduction of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Fed on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Vectoring Potato leafroll virus (PLRV).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Freire, B C; Carvalho, G A; Oliveira, R L; Medina, P; Budia, F

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) while feeding on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) acting as a vector of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). In laboratory experiments, three different diets were offered ad libitum to C. externa during the larval period: M. persicae fed on PLRV-infected potato leaves, M. persicae fed on uninfected potato leaves, and eggs of the factitious prey Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as the control. The following parameters were studied: the developmental time and survival rate of the larval and pupal stages, the sex ratio, the proportion of fertile females, female fecundity and egg viability, and the survival curve of the first 30 days after adult emergence. PLRV-infected aphids influenced the C. externa larval developmental time and survival compared to PLRV-uninfected aphids and A. kuehniella eggs. The pupal developmental time of C. externa was shorter when fed on aphids compared to A. kuehniella eggs, but no differences were recorded between the PLRV-infected and uninfected aphid diets. Additionally, no differences were observed for pupal survival and reproduction. However, adult survival was affected by the prey type, as 75% of C. externa control adults remained alive at an age of 30 days compared to 51 and 54% for those fed on PLRV-uninfected and infected aphids, respectively. PMID:26395997

  8. Malassezia otitis externa in the dog: the effect of heat-fixing otic exudate for cytological analysis.

    PubMed

    Griffin, J S; Scott, D W; Erb, H N

    2007-10-01

    This study was conducted on 32 dogs with Malassezia otitis externa to determine the effect of heat-fixing otic exudate on cytological analysis. Malassezia infection was confirmed by cytological examination of otic exudate. Otic discharge collected with cotton swabs was then rolled onto glass slides. One slide per dog was heat-fixed prior to staining; the other slide was not heat-fixed. The number of yeast in 10 oil-immersion fields (1000 x magnification) was counted for both slides from each dog. Heat-fixing did not systematically cause either increased or decreased numbers of Malassezia on cytology of otic exudate. PMID:17877584

  9. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) from off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan) with remarks on its single brood externae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2015-09-01

    Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. infests Pagurixus hermit crabs inhabiting rocky shores off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan). This species is clearly distinguishable from Peltogasterella gracilis (Boschma, 1927): the stalk emerges from the middle part of the externa in the present species and P. sulcata (Lilljeborg, 1859), while the stalk in P. gracilis emerges from the posterior end of the externae. The new species differs from P. sulcata based on the morphology of the mantle aperture. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. repeatedly produces single brood externae that have not been previously observed in species belonging to the suborder Kentrogonida Delage, 1884. We also determined partial sequences of the COI gene and 16S rRNA gene of the new species for use as molecular markers for species identification. PMID:26249520

  10. The efficacy of an antiseptic and microbial anti-adhesive ear cleanser in dogs with otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Rème, C A; Pin, D; Collinot, C; Cadiergues, M C; Joyce, J A; Fontaine, J

    2006-01-01

    A new antimicrobial ear cleanser was evaluated for the treatment of bacterial and yeast ear infection in dogs. Forty-five dogs with erythemato-ceruminous or purulent otitis externa were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: reference ear cleanser (Epiotic, Virbac) or test ear cleanser (Epiotic Advanced, Virbac). Ear cleansing was performed twice daily for 2 weeks, and no other treatment was allowed. By week 2, clinical (exudate quantity, erythema, stenosis, excoriation, and odor) and discomfort (pain, ear scratching, and head shaking) scores were significantly decreased (P < .0001 for all) and no microbial overgrowth could be detected in 25 (64.1%) and 32 (68.1%) ears treated with Epiotic and Epiotic Advanced, respectively. The new pH-balanced, propylene glycol-free test ear cleanser, which incorporates microbial adhesin-blocking carbohydrates, proved as effective as the reference acidic formula. PMID:16598680

  11. Anatomy of virgin and mature externae of Loxothylacus texanus, parasitic on the dark blue crab Callinectes rathbunae (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando; Bortolini, José Luis; Høeg, Jens T

    2010-02-01

    Rhizocephalan parasites are dioecious organisms, in that one or several dwarf males are implanted into the external part of the female parasite soon after it emerges from the interior of the host animal. The structure of the female externa and its resident males is crucial for understanding both the reproductive biology and the taxonomy of these specialized parasites. We use scanning electron microscopy and histological methods to study the anatomy of juvenile and the mature externae of the rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus texanus parasitizing the blue crab Callinectes rathbunae. We put emphasis on the implantation of males and the histology of the female reproductive organs. In the virgin externae, male cyprids attach around a cuticular hood covering the mantle aperture, which is partially blocked by a plug of cuticle so only trichogon larvae, not cyprids, can access the mantle cavity. This resembles the situation known from Sacculina carcini. The mature externa is characterized by a visceral mass that contains the ovary, paired colleteric glands, a single male receptacle, but paired receptacle ducts. The proximal attachment of the visceral mass is located at some distance from the basal stalk, as is characteristic for the genus Loxothylacus. The internal anatomy of the mature externa of L. texanus is in most features similar to that seen in other species of the Sacculinidae, which comprises the majority of rhizocephalan species. However, the single receptacle creates a situation where the two implanted males cannot be kept separate as in most other rhizocephalans, but pass through spermatogenesis in a common chamber. This may have unknown effects on the reproductive biology such as male-male competition. PMID:19714752

  12. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  13. Malignant otitis externa

    MedlinePlus

    ... destroy the bones. The infection may affect the cranial nerves, brain, or other parts of the body if ... nervous system (neurological) exam may show that the cranial nerves are affected. If there is any drainage, the ...

  14. Haplotype characterization of the COI mitochondrial gene in Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from different environments in Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morales, A C; Freitas, S

    2010-11-01

    The green lacewings (Chrysopidae) belong to the Order Neuroptera and are described as voracious predators in the larval stage and sometimes also in their adulthood. They are an important group used in integrated biological control in field and horticultural crops. Individuals of Chrysoperla externa were collected during 2007 until March 2008 in five different locations in Jaboticabal, SP, with all the seasons sampled. Thirty six sequences with 805 pairs of bases for the gene mitochondrial Citochrome Oxidase I (COI) were analysed. The genetic parameters revealed 24 haplotypes for this population, a total of 36 mutations and haplotype diversity of 0.956. The data of genetic distance and population structure calculated for this population considering the different areas and seasons, revealed a great genetic similarity and high degree of genetic sharing between individuals sampled. It showed that the species Chrysoperla externa from Jaboticabal, SP, is a single population, without genetic structure neither due to the area of origin nor to the seasons of the year. PMID:21180923

  15. First identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from dogs with otitis externa in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Dziva, Francis; Wint, Crystal; Auguste, Tennille; Heeraman, Carolyn; Dacon, Cherrelle; Yu, Priscilla; Koma, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Otitis externa is a common inflammatory ear disease in dogs caused by a variety of pathogens, and coagulase-positive staphylococci are frequently isolated from such infections. Objective To identify antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and methicillin-resistant strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed over 2 years on 114 client-owned dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a primary complaint of ear infections. Swabs were obtained from both ears and cultured for staphylococci which were subsequently confirmed as coagulase-positive using rabbit plasma. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays were assessed on all isolates followed by subsequent genetic analysis for species identification and detection of the mecA gene. Results Sixty-five coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 114 client-owned dogs. The isolates exhibited resistance against neomycin (58.5%), streptomycin (49.2%), penicillin (49.2%), polymyxin B (44.6%), tetracycline (36.9%), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (33.8%), kanamycin (33.8%), doxycycline (32.3%), norfloxacin (23.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (20%), ciprofloxacin (20%), enrofloxacin (18.5%), gentamicin (16.9%), and cephalothin (9.2%). Forty (61.5%) of the isolates were resistant to at least three or more antimicrobials and 10 were sensitive to all. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay based on species-specific regions of the thermonuclease (nuc) gene, 38/65 (58.5%) isolates were classified as Staphylococcus aureus, 23/65 (35.4%) as S. pseudintermedius, 2/65 (3.1%) as S. intermedius, and 2/65 (3.1%) as S. schleiferi. Analysis for the mecA gene revealed two positive isolates of S. pseudintermedius which were oxacillin-resistant, representing a first report of such organisms in the Caribbean. Conclusion Despite the relatively high prevalence of multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in Trinidad, these are largely susceptible to gentamicin consistent with use in clinical practice. The first detection of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs is likely to have implications on the treatment options for otitis externa in dogs and potential public health significance. PMID:26715379

  16. Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov., isolated from otitis externa of a dog, and emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium Collins et al. 1983 emend. Yassin et al. 2011.

    PubMed

    Hijazin, Muaz; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Sammra, Osama; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Zschöck, Michael

    2012-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on an unidentified Arcanobacterium-like Gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from otitis externa of a dog. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Arcanobacterium and was most closely related to the type strains of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (97.2 %), Arcanobacterium hippocoleae (96.5 %) and Arcanobacterium phocae (96.4 %). The presence of the major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)) supported the affiliation of this strain to the genus Arcanobacterium. The polar lipid profile contained the major lipids phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified phospholipid (PL2). Major fatty acids were C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(18 : 0), C(18 : 1)ω9c and C(18 : 2)ω6,9c/anteiso-C(18 : 0) (detected as a summed feature). C(10 : 0) and C(12 : 0) were present in minor amounts. The results of physiological and biochemical testing clearly distinguished the unknown bacterium from other species of the genus Arcanobacterium. Based on these tests, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in the novel species Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov. The type strain of Arcanobacterium canis is P6775(T) (= CCM 7958(T) = CCUG 61573(T) = CIP 110339(T)). An emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium is also provided. PMID:22081713

  17. Isolation and characterization of staphylococci from external auditory meatus of dogs with or without otitis externa with special reference to Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kenji; Shimizu, Akira; Kawano, Junichi; Uchida, Eiji; Haruna, Akihiro; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2005-03-01

    Staphylococci were isolated from the external auditory meatus in 14 (48.3%) of 29 dogs affected with otitis externa (OE dogs) and 28 (68.3%) of 41 dogs without OE (non-OE dogs). Twenty-two OE isolates were identified as belonging to 12 species, and 42 non-OE isolates were identified as belonging to 13 species. The predominant species found in both OE and non-OE isolates were S. intermedius, and S. epidermidis. Thirty-eight (59.4%) of 64 isolates were resistant to one or more of the 17 antimicrobial agents tested. Resistance to PCG and ABPC was most frequent. S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, a recent etiologic agent of canine OE, was isolated from OE and non-OE dogs. All of the 5 S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans isolates showed typical characteristics. No clear difference in the extracellular enzyme or toxin profiles, nor in the PFGE patterns, was demonstrated between the OE and non-OE isolates of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. A new PCR primer set specific for 16S rDNA was designed to identify strains of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. The amplified fragment was detected in all of the 5 isolates as well as the type strain GA 211 (=JCM 7470) and a reference strain GA 11, but was not detected in any strains of the related species, S. aureus, S. intermedius and S. hyicus. The PCR may allow a simple, rapid and precise identification of S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, in addition to the standard tube test for free coagulase. PMID:15805728

  18. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... you requested has moved to Ear Infections. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  19. Enhancing plant resistance at the seed stage: low concentrations of methyl jasmonate reduce the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta but do not alter the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa.

    PubMed

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Paudel, Sulav; Rajotte, Edwin G; Felton, Gary W; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2014-10-01

    Plants express inducible direct and indirect defenses in response to herbivory. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related signaling compounds referred to as jasmonates play a central role in regulating defense responses to a wide range of herbivores.We assessed whether treating tomato seeds with 0.8 mM of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) affected the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta, and whether possible changes in volatile profiles altered the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa. MeJA-treatment significantly lengthened larval development and decreased the pupal weight of T. absoluta. Herbivory alone increased the emissions of α-pinene, 6-methyl 5-hepten-2-one, β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, isoterpinolene, TMTT, (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate, and hexyl salicylate. MeJA seed treatment significantly decreased the emissions of α-cubebene from undamaged and herbivore-infested plants. In addition, the emissions of several compounds were lower in the absence of herbivory. Chrysoperla. externa preferred odors from herbivore-infested plants over those from control plants, regardless of the MeJA-treatment, and they did not show any preference for herbivore-infested plants for any of the MeJA-treatments. Our results show preliminary evidence that the treatment of tomato seeds with MeJA can reduce the performance of Tuta absoluta, and that the chemical differences observed in plant VOC profiles do not alter the behavior of the model predator. PMID:25319361

  20. First report of ophthalmomyaisis externa in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Azam; Feroze, Agha Hassan; Ferrar, Paul; Abbas, Asad; Beg, Mohammad Asim

    2006-02-01

    Two individuals presented to the Aga Khan University Opthalmology service with foreign-body sensation, pain and redness in one of their eyes. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed tiny larvae crawling around the conjunctival sac. They were mechanically removed under topical anaesthesia and preserved for light microscopy and photography. Comprehensive liaison was established with the Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research for identification of these larvae. Their morphology characterized them as members of fruit-fly, Oestridae family. At least one of them was positively identified as first instar larva of Oestrus ovis. This report describes the first instance of such infections in Southern Pakistan, as concluded after a Medline search. PMID:16555644

  1. Diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis externa by dermatoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Naimer, Sody A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.

    2014-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis in humans caused by the larvae of the sheep nasal botfly (Oestrus ovis) and is a rare phenomenon in Israel. We describe the utilization of the dermatoscope as a diagnostic tool for the facilitation of early diagnosis of conjunctivitis due to the infestation of the eyes by the sheep nasal botfly in two patients. After the physical removal of the larvae with the help of a cotton swab applicator under a slit lamp examination and the topical use of antibiotics, the clinical symptoms improved within 1–2 days. Undoubtedly the dermatoscope played a crucial role leading to the definitive diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention. PMID:25396095

  2. Ruprecht 44 y la estructura espiral externa de la Galaxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Solivella, G. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; De Laurenti, M. A.

    We present first results of a photometric study UBVI CCD; complemented with MK spectral classification and 2MASS data; focusing on the region of the open cluster Ruprecht 44. This cluster is in an area of very low interstellar absorption; through which it is possible examine in the optical range the spiral structure outside the solar circle. Precise distances determination of blue stars in the field of this cluster enable analyze; with other data recently obtained; the structure of great design in the third galactic quadrant. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Cholesteatoma and meningoencephalitis in a dog with chronic otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ashleigh W; Estey, Chelsie M; McDonough, Sean; Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Larsen, Meegan; Stokol, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    A 10-year-old female spayed German Shepherd dog, with a year-long history of recurrent left ear infections, was presented for progressive ataxia, head tilt, and pain on opening of the mouth. On physical examination, a large amount of ceruminous debris was present in the left ear and multiple neurologic defects localizing to the cerebellum and vestibular system were identified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a minimally contrast-enhancing mass within the left bulla, an intracranial space-occupying, heterogeneously contrast-enhancing lesion at the level of the left cerebello-medullary junction, and contrast enhancement of the ipsilateral meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a marked mixed cell pleocytosis (nucleated cell count 655 cells/μL). The mass was visualized within the horizontal ear canal by otoscopic examination and a biopsy was taken. Impression smears of the biopsy contained many anucleate keratinized squamous epithelial cells, mild mixed inflammation, and few presumptive fibroblasts. With the provided clinical history and MRI findings, a cytologic diagnosis of cholesteatoma was made. A ventral bulla osteotomy was performed, and histopathologic examination of resected tissue confirmed the cytologic diagnosis of cholesteatoma. The dog's clinical symptoms improved postoperatively, but the dog died of unrelated causes, 3.5 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the cytologic features of a cholesteatoma, which is a nonneoplastic, but locally invasive epidermoid cyst, in the middle ear of dogs. PMID:25385218

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a potentiated miconazole aural solution in chronic Malassezia otitis externa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Patrick; Austel, Michaela; Wooley, Richard E; Keys, Deborah; Ritchie, Branson W

    2009-10-01

    This study assessed the in vitro and in vivo activity of an ear solution containing a third-generation chelating agent (Tricide) as an antimicrobial potentiator for miconazole in chronic Malassezia otitis. Thirty-one ears from 20 dogs were enrolled in the study. Fungal culture, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) testing of miconazole with and without Tricide were performed on all ears. In a randomized, controlled, and blinded treatment trial the ears were treated either with 0.9% saline solution containing 0.01% miconazole, 0.03% dexamethasone and 540 microg/mL Tricide or the same solution without Tricide. Cytologic and auroscopic examinations were conducted on day 0, 14 and 28 and evaluated for number of yeast organisms, degree of erythema, hyperplasia and amount of discharge. The in vitro data was compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The cytologic and auroscopic scores were compared between the visits and treatment groups at day 0, 14 and 28 using a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and repeated measures analysis. MIC and MFC were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced when miconazole was combined with the chelating agent versus miconazole alone. The cytologic scores were significantly lower on days 14 (P = 0.0156) and 28 (P = 0.0280) for the group treated with Tricide. The auroscopic scores decreased significantly by the end of the trial compared to day 0, but the difference between the two groups was not significant. This study suggests that Tricide enhances in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy against Malassezia sp. in dogs with yeast otitis. PMID:20178480

  5. Treatment of otitis externa associated with Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii in a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) with an acetic and boric acid commercial solution.

    PubMed

    Martel, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank

    2009-06-01

    A 5-year-old lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) was presented with scaly crusts around both external ear openings and exudate present around the left ear. The bird had been treated with ivermectin and enrofloxacin without success. A pure culture of Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii was isolated from both ears. After susceptibility testing, a treatment of an acetic and boric acid solution administered topically 3 times daily was prescribed. The scaly appearance disappeared after 14 days of treatment and C kroppenstedtii could not be reisolated. PMID:19673461

  6. Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

  7. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear canal 2 or 3 times daily. (3) All topical... contraindicated in the initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until infection is under... conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning treatment...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear canal 2 or 3 times daily. (3) All topical... contraindicated in the initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until infection is under... conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning treatment...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear canal 2 or 3 times daily. (3) All topical... contraindicated in the initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until infection is under... conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning treatment...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear canal 2 or 3 times daily. (3) All topical... contraindicated in the initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until infection is under... conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning treatment...

  11. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > For Parents > Swimmer's Ear (Otitis ... español Otitis del nadador (otitis externa) About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa (OE) — commonly known as swimmer's ear — ...

  12. Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a green bottle fly.

    PubMed

    Kalezić, Tanja; Stojković, Milenko; Vuković, Ivana; Spasić, Radoslava; Andjelkovic, Marko; Stanojlović, Svetlana; Božić, Marija; Džamić, Aleksandar

    2014-07-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the result of infestation of the conjunctiva by the larval form or maggots of flies from the order Diptera. If not recognized and managed appropriately, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis). We present the first case, to our knowledge, of ophthalmomyiasis externa in an elderly woman from Belgrade caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen--a green bottle fly. PMID:25022307

  13. [Variability in the in-hospital management of acute myocardial infarction in Spain. IBERICA Study (Investigación, Búsqueda Específica y Registro de Isquemia Coronaria Aguda)].

    PubMed

    Fiol, M; Cabadés, A; Sala, J; Marrugat, J; Elosua, R; Vega, G; José Tormo Díaz, M; Segura, A; Aldasoro, E; Moreno-Iribas, C; Muñiz, J; Hurtado de Saracho, I; García, J

    2001-04-01

    Introduction and objective. Although some in-hospital studies have described the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients in Spain, none has been able to guarantee the exhaustiveness of patient registry. This study sought to determine the clinical characteristics and in-hospital management of patients with MI in eight Spanish population registries.Methods. The IBERICA study is a population-based MI registry carried out in the 25 to 74 year-old population, in eight Spanish regions in 1997. A standardized methodology was used to register and investigate all MI arriving alive to a hospital. Clinical characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors prevalence, pharmacological treatment, invasive and non-invasive procedures performed and complications at 28 days of evolution were recorded. A descriptive analysis was performed and the variation coefficient (VC) was calculated.Results. In 1997, 4,041 MI patients were registered, 79.9% were men with a mean age of 61.1 years. Although 10.9% (95% CI: 9.9-11.9%) were not admitted to the coronary care unit, a large variability existed among different areas (VC = 53%). There was a high variability in the utilization and performance of non-invasive and invasive procedures among regions, as well as in the use of pharmacological treatment. Only the use of antiaggregants (91.5%) and thrombolytic therapy (41.8%) showed a low variability (VC < 10%). Twenty-eight day mortality was 16.2% (95% CI: 15.1-17.4%) with a high variability being observed among the different regions (VC = 20.6%).Conclusion. Patient characteristics vary among the different Spanish regions. The differences in management and prognosis suggest a lack of equality in the health care provided to MI patients in the different regions in Spain. PMID:11282049

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., atopic dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin... caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B. (3) Limitations. For use in...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be stopped.1 (3) Federal law restricts this...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin, isoflupredone, and tetracaine ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... externa in dogs. It also is effective in treating anal gland infections and moist dermatitis in the dog... horse, cat, and dog. It may also be used following amputation of dewclaws, tails and claws,...

  17. [Human external ophthalmomyiasis: a bibliographic review apropos of cases in the Republic of Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Dorchies, P; Larrouy, G; Deconinck, P; Chantal, J

    1995-01-01

    Ophtalmomyiasis externa was observed in Djibouti Republic. A literature survey of agents indicates that sheep nasal bot fly larvae, Oestrus ovis, are frequent in many countries. Unusual case of oral or nasal infections are indicated. PMID:8555773

  18. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses in the dog. It is also indicated for the relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with acute otitis...

  19. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses in the dog. It is also indicated for the relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with acute otitis...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear canal... hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be stopped.1 (3) Federal law restricts...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use—(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to.... (ii) For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin and betamethasone otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill... of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use—(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to.... (ii) For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use—(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to.... (ii) For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use—(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to.... (ii) For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Instill five drops in the ear canal twice daily for 7 consecutive days. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with...

  7. Otitis

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection; Infection - ear ... affect the inner or outer parts of the ear. The condition is classified according to whether it ... long period of time (chronic). Otitis externa (swimmer's ear). Involves the outer ear and ear canal. A ...

  8. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  9. Genotyping and characterisation of the secretory lipolytic enzymes of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates collected from dogs

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Hideshi; Kumeda, Yuko; Yokoigawa, Kumio; Hosomi, Koji; Kozaki, Shunji; Mukamoto, Masafumi; Kohda, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malassezia species are commensals of normal skin microbial flora of humans and animals. These may become pathogenic under certain conditions such as those associated with atopic dermatitis or otitis externa in dogs. Material and methods Isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis were obtained from 27 dogs with healthy external ears and 32 dogs with otitis externa. Isolates were characterised on the basis of their first internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and internal spacer 1 (IGS1) sequences. Their extracellular lipase and phospholipase activity were also analysed. Three types of phospholipase inhibitor were used to identify the subclasses of phospholipase associated with otitis externa. Results The clinical isolates were classified into three ITS and three IGS1 sequence types. No significant differences in pathogenicity were detected among the ITS or IGS1 genotypes, and all of the isolates exhibited similar levels of lipase activity. The isolates derived from the dogs with otitis externa showed significantly higher phospholipase activity than those obtained from the dogs with healthy external ears. A phospholipase D inhibitor reduced the phospholipase activity of the isolates obtained from the dogs with otitis externa. Conclusions This study did not show any significant differences in pathogenicity among the ITS or IGS1 genotypes but does suggest that phospholipase D might be one of the virulence factors involved in the inflammation of the external ear caused by M. pachydermatis. PMID:26392911

  10. Cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne - étude rétrospective à propos de 145 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Chihani, Mehdi; Nadour, Karim; Moujahid, Mountassir; Touati, Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Ammar, Haddou

    2014-01-01

    L'otite moyenne chronique cholestéatomateuse représente une entité fréquente et dangereuse en chirurgie otologique, mettant en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel auditif et exposant à des complications redoutables justifiant pleinement le recours exclusif à un traitement chirurgical et à un suivi post-opératoire rigoureux. Dans le but de mettre le point sur les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives de cette pathologie, nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, étalée sur 11 ans et portant sur 145 cas de cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne opérés au sein du service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. PMID:25120876

  11. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease. PMID:26611929

  12. Laser assisted Drug Delivery: Grundlagen und Praxis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stephan Alexander; Schrumpf, Holger; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Homey, Bernhard; Gerber, Peter Arne

    2016-05-01

    Die topische Applikation von Wirkstoffen ist eine zentrale Therapieoption der Dermatologie. Allerdings mindert die effektive Barrierefunktion der Haut die Bioverfügbarkeit der meisten Externa. Fraktionierte ablative Laser stellen ein innovatives Verfahren dar, um die epidermale Barriere standardisiert, kontaktfrei zu überwinden. Die Bioverfügbarkeit im Anschluss applizierter Externa wird im Sinne einer laser assisted drug delivery (LADD) signifikant gesteigert. Das Prinzip der LADD wird bereits in einigen Bereichen der Dermatologie erfolgreich eingesetzt. Die vorliegende Übersichtsarbeit soll einen Überblick über die aktuellen aber auch perspektivischen Einsatzmöglichkeiten der LADD bieten. PMID:27119467

  13. Incidence and burden of earaches due to recreational swimming: Results from a nationwide study ofover 50,000 respondents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Earaches and ear pain due to outer ear infections (otitis externa) are common following swimming and can result in time lost from work and school and visits to the physician or hospital. Objectives: Determine the proportion of self-reported earache attributable to ma...

  14. Organic synthesis via magnetic attraction: benign and sustainable protocols using magnetic nanoferrites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic nano-catalysts have been prepared using simple modification of iron ferrites wherein their quasi-homogeneous state, because of nm size range, facilitates the catalysis process as increased surface is available for reaction; the easy separation of the catalysts by externa...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear...

  17. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) associated with melon crop in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Carlos E S; Tavares, Patrícia K A; Macedo, Luciano P M; de Freitas, Sérgio; Araujo, Elton L

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the green lacewings associated with the melon agroecosystem was carried out with the aim of including lacewings into the integrated management program of melon pests. Three species of this predator were found: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen), Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) and Chrysoperla genanigra Freitas. A key to these species is presented. PMID:20676524

  18. Sulphide quinone reductase contributes to hydrogen sulphide metabolism in murine peripheral tissues but not in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Linden, DR; Furne, J; Stoltz, GJ; Abdel-Rehim, MS; Levitt, MD; Szurszewski, JH

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is gaining acceptance as a gaseous signal molecule. However, mechanisms regarding signal termination are not understood. We used stigmatellin and antimycin A, inhibitors of sulphide quinone reductase (SQR), to test the hypothesis that the catabolism of H2S involves SQR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H2S production and consumption were determined in living and intact mouse brain, liver and colonic muscularis externa using gas chromatography and HPLC. Expressions of SQR, ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 (Ethe1) and thiosulphate transferase (TST; rhodanese) were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS In the colonic muscularis externa, H235S was catabolized to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, and stigmatellin reduced both the consumption of H235S and formation of [35S]-thiosulphate. Stigmatellin also enhanced H2S release by the colonic muscularis externa. In the brain, catabolism of H235S to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, which was stigmatellin-insensitive, partially accounted for H235S consumption, while the remainder was captured as unidentified 35S that was probably bound to proteins. Levels of mRNA encoding SQR were higher in the colonic muscularis externa and the liver than in the brain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data support the concept that termination of endogenous H2S signalling in the colonic muscularis externa occurs via catabolism to thiosulphate and sulphate partially via a mechanism involving SQR. In the brain, it appears that H2S signal termination occurs partially through protein sequestration and partially through catabolism not involving SQR. As H2S has beneficial effects in animal models of human disease, we suggest that selective inhibition of SQR is an attractive target for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21950400

  19. Infection respiratoire aige et statut nutritionnel chez les enfants de 0-5 ans: cas des cliniques universitaires de Lubumbashi, Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Ngombe, Lon Kabamba; Mbombo-Ditunga; Kameya, Nduwa; Malingo, Aim Abasiko; Kayomb, Nathalie Kaj; ea Ngolomba, Jean Ngolomba; Nday, David Kakez; Numbi, Luboya

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent les donnes d'une tude rtrospective de 153 dossiers d'enfants hospitaliss dans le service de pdiatrie des Cliniques Universitaires de Lubumbashi/RD Congo pour IRA. En ce qui nous concerne, les IRA chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans reprsentent 26,11% de l'effectif, dont 17,75% gs de moins d'un an. Le sexe masculin est lgrement prdominant (85 contre 68) et prs de 70% des enfants ont un statut nutritionnel prcaire. La rpartition mensuelle connat des pics en mars et octobre. Les diagnostiques notifis sont: rhinite(16,3%),Amygdalite(5,9%),Otite Moyenne Aigue(0,7%),Laryngite (3,3%), Rhinopharyngite (39,2%), Pharyngite (6,5%), Bronchite (7,2%), Bronchopneumonie (5,9%), Pneumonie(2,6%) et Bronchiolite (12,4%).Tous les cas ont bien volus sous traitement. Le but de ce travail est de dterminer la frquence des IRA et le statut nutritionnel des enfants ayant t admis dans le service des pdiatries aux C.U.L. PMID:25995789

  20. Facilitators of implementing occupation based practice among Iranian occupational therapists: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khayatzadeh Mahani, Mohammad; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Occupation-Based Practice (OBP) is a central core of occupational therapy (OT).It refers to using a meaningful occupation based on the client’s interests, needs, health and participation in daily life. This study aimed to explore the facilitators of implementing OBP among Iranian occupational therapists. Methods: Fourteen occupational therapists participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the sampling method was purposeful. The interviews were continued until data saturation was reached, and data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis using constant comparative analysis. Results: Our analysis explored two themes: Factors attributed to context, and factors attributed to therapists. The first theme consisted of three subthemes: Educational programs of OT department, public information about OBP and clinical setting compatible with OBP. The second theme also contained three subthemes including: Positive attitude regarding effectiveness of OBP, emphasis on client- centered and family- centered practice and convincing the clients to utilize OBP. Conclusion: The facilitators of implementing OBP are attributed to factors internal to the therapists as well as to issues in the external environment and context. Understanding these factors will help occupational therapists, OT educational staff, administrators and rehabilitation team members to facilitate the implementation of OBP. PMID:26913270

  1. Formulation of Thermosensitive in situ Otic Gel for Topical Management of Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Shau, P. A.; Dangre, P. V.; Potnis, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics and antiinflammatory agents are the primary and main therapeutic categories in the treatment of otitis media. One of the simpler and feasible approaches of minimizing the problem of repeated use and subsequent resistance is development of sustained release formulation. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to develop a sustained release in situ gel formulation containing combination of broad spectrum antibiotic and antiinflammatory agents for the management of otits media. The prolonged release is achieved by phase transition of Poloxamer 407 (in situ) from sol to gel at a physiological temperature in combination with viscosity imparting agent Natrasol 250 and Klucel HF. The formulation P3N3 (19% w/v Poloxamer 407, 1.5% w/v Natrasol 250) and P3K3 (19% w/v Poloxamer 407, 1.5% w/v Klucel HF) showed mucoadhesive strength 37.17±0.32×103 and 38.12±0.13×103 dyne/cm2, respectively, and gel strength 2.1 and 2 cm, respectively. Both these formulations indicated good drug content and viscosity besides a good gelling ability. The in vitro diffusion has demonstrated prolongation of release of both the drugs over a period of 8 h.

  2. Genetic typing of Malassezia pachydermatis from different domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Castellá, G; Hernández, J J; Cabañes, F J

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, random amplification of polymorphic DNA, which detects DNA polymorphism in fungal genomic DNA, was applied for genetic typing of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates. Fifty-five isolates from different domestic animals and body sites and the neotype strain CBS 1879 were characterized. Primers M13 and OPT-20 were used to analyse their genetic relatedness and similarity. This technique allowed us to distinguish four different genetic types. The predominant genetic type was observed in isolates recovered from different anatomical locations in all animals. It was the only genetic type found in cats, horse, goat and pig. The other three genetic types were observed only in isolates from external ear canals of dogs. Types II and IV were only recovered from external otitic ears and type III from healthy ears. An animal was colonised by more than one type of M. pachydermatis and different genetic types were detected in the same body site. Some genetic types were only isolated from diseased skin. PMID:15922521

  3. Metabolic effects of parasitization by the barnacle Polyascus plana (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) on a grapsid host, Metopograpsus thukuhar.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Jen; Wu, Yen-I; Tung, Tzu-An; Wang, Guan-Yi; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Liu, Shih-Ting; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2016-05-26

    Pathophysiological studies of rhizocephalan infections are rare. We describe differences in the levels of tissue and hemolymph metabolites between Polyascus plana-parasitized and unparasitized individuals of Metopograpsus thukuhar. Crabs were assigned to either a parasitized (carrying at least 1 externa, i.e. a protruding reproductive body) or an unparasitized (not carrying externae and determined to be rootlet-free by a barnacle 18S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction) group. Quantification of metabolites showed that muscle glycogen levels were significantly lower and hepatopancreas levels were significantly higher in parasitized crabs compared to unparasitized crabs; hepatopancreas triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher and hemolymph levels significantly lower in parasitized hosts, and there was no significant difference in muscle triacylglycerol levels between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose levels in the hepatopancreas, muscle, and hemolymph were all significantly higher in parasitized hosts. Significant levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and glycogen were present in the barnacle externae. In addition, levels of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the sinus glands were not significantly different between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose mobilized from the muscle is likely converted to glycogen and triacylglycerol in the rootlet-infiltrated hepatopancreas of parasitized hosts, and the eyestalk neuroendocrine system appears not to be significantly impaired, in terms of hormone production and storage, by parasitization. PMID:27225203

  4. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Megan E.; Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Lee, Kenneth W.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  5. Differential diagnosis of mastoid hypocellularity in human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Stefan; Kierdorf, Uwe; Schultz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Mastoid hypocellularity is frequently used as an indicator of chronic otits media in paleopathological investigations. The condition can be caused by a poor development of air cells during infancy and early childhood (primary hypocellularity) or by obliteration of air cells with bone during later life (secondary hypocellularity). We performed a macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic study of pneumatization patterns in 151 mastoid processes of individuals from an early-medieval cemetery in Germany, with emphasis on the architecture of the nonpneumatized portion of hypocellular mastoid processes. Two types of primary mastoid hypocellularity were distinguished. The first was characterized by a poorly defined boundary between the pneumatized portion and the nonpneumatized portion and a trabecular thickening in the spongy bone of the latter. The second showed a well-defined boundary between the pneumatized portion and the nonpneumatized portion and normal spongy bone architecture in the latter. The key feature for the diagnosis of secondary hypocellularity was the recognition of the walls of former air cells. Our observations closely match the histopathological findings by Wittmaack (Wittmaack: Uber die normale und die pathologische Pneumatisation des Schläfenbeins. Jena: Gustav Fischer [1918]), who developed a concept of the normal pneumatization process of the temporal bone and the pathogenesis of aberrant pneumatization. We agree with Wittmaack's view that two types of primary mastoid hypocellularity can be distinguished morphologically. Regarding the pathogenesis of these types, we, however, conclude that Wittmaack's concept needs to be revised and updated. Further studies are required to establish the relationship between morphological findings in cases of mastoid hypocellularity and the health status of individuals. PMID:19479818

  6. Neurohypophyseal hormones protect against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in zebrafish: role of oxytocin-like and V1a-like receptor.

    PubMed

    Braida, Daniela; Donzelli, Andrea; Martucci, Roberta; Ponzoni, Luisa; Pauletti, Alberto; Sala, Mariaelvina

    2012-10-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are involved in the physiological response to different stressors like the occurrence of seizures which is regarded as a severe stress factor. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is recently featured as a model of epilepsy but the role of neurohypophyseal hormones on this teleost is still unknown. We attempted to determine whether non-mammalian homologues like isotocin (IT) and vasotocin (AVT) affected pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in adult zebrafish in comparison with OT/AVP. The mechanism was studied using the most selective OT and AVP receptor antagonists. Zebrafish were injected i.m. with increasing doses (0.1-40 ng/kg) of the neuropeptides 10 min before PTZ exposure. DesGly-NH2-d(CH2)5-[D-Tyr2,Thr4]OVT (desglyDTyrOVT) for OT receptor and SR49059 for V1a subtype receptor, were injected together with each agonist 20 min before PTZ exposure. All the peptides significantly decreased the number of seizures, increased the mean latency time to the first seizure and decreased lethality. This protective effect led to a dose-response curve following a U-shaped form. IT was approximately 40 times more active than OT while AVT was 20 times more potent than AVP in reducing the number of seizures. DesglyDTyrOVT was more effective in antagonizing OT/IT, while SR49059 mainly blocked AVP/AVT-induced protection against PTZ-induced seizures. The present findings provide direct evidence of an important involvement of IT/OT and AVP/AVT as anticonvulsant agents against PTZ-induced seizures with a receptor-mediated mechanism in zebrafish. These data reinforce zebrafish as an emerging experimental model to study and identify new antiepileptic drugs. PMID:22828174

  7. Differences in Clinical and Laboratory Findings between Group D and Non-Group D Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Gastroenteritis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heung Keun; Rhie, Kyuyol; Yeom, Jung Sook; Park, Ji Sook; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Ki Ryeon; Park, Jung Je

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in clinical features and laboratory findings between group D and non-group D non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) gastroenteritis in children. Methods A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with NTS confirmed by culture study was performed. The clinical features and laboratory findings of group D and non-group D NTS were compared. Results From 2003 to 2012, 75 cases were diagnosed as NTS at our center. The number of group D and non-group D patients was 45 and 30, respectively. The mean age was higher in group D than in non-group D patients (5.1 years vs. 3.4 years, p=0.038). Headaches were more frequently observed (p=0.046) and hematochezia was less frequently observed (p=0.017) in group D than in non-group D NTS gastroenteritis patients. A positive Widal test result was observed in 53.3% of group D and 6.7% of non-group D NTS cases (O-titer, p=0.030; H-titer, p=0.039). There were no differences in white blood cell counts, level of C-reactive protein and rate of antimicrobial resistance between group D and non-group D cases. Conclusion The more severe clinical features such as headache, fever, and higher Widal titers were found to be indicative of group D NTS gastroenteritis. Additionally, group D NTS gastroenteritis was more commonly found in older patients. Therefore, old age, fever, headache, and a positive Widal test are more indicative of group D NTS than non-group D NTS gastroenteritis. Pathophysiological mechanisms may differ across serologic groups. PMID:26157693

  8. Hamster thecal cells express muscle characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Self, D.A.; Schroeder, P.C.; Gown, A.M.

    1988-08-01

    Contraction of the follicular wall about the time of ovulation appears to be a coordinated event; however, the cells that mediate it remain poorly studied. We examined the theca externa cells in the wall of hamster follicles for the presence of a functional actomyosin system, both in developing follicles and in culture. We used a monoclonal antibody (HHF35) that recognizes the alpha and gamma isoelectric variants of actin normally found in muscle, but not the beta variant associated with non-muscle sources, to evaluate large preovulatory follicles for actin content and composition. Antibody staining of sectioned ovaries showed intense circumferential reactivity in the outermost wall of developing follicles. Immunoblots from two-dimensional gels of theca externa lysates demonstrated the presence of the two muscle-specific isozymes of actin. Immunofluorescence of cultured follicular cells pulse-labeled with (3H) thymidine (for autoradiographic detection of DNA replication) revealed the presence, in many dividing cells, of actin filaments aligned primarily along the longitudinal axis of the cells. In cultures exposed to the calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-4) M) for varying periods (5 min to 1 h), contraction of many individual muscle-actin-positive cells was observed. Immunofluorescence of these cells, fixed immediately after ionophore-induced contraction, revealed compaction of the actin filaments. Our findings demonstrate that the cells of the theca externa contain muscle actins from an early stage and that these cells are capable of contraction even while proliferating in subconfluent cultures. They suggest that follicular growth may include a naturally occurring developmental sequence in which a contractile cell type proliferates in the differentiated state.

  9. Microstructure Features of Proventriculus and Ultrastructure of the Gastric Gland Cells in Chinese Taihe Black-bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Ge, T; Peng, S; Zhong, S; Zhou, Z

    2016-02-01

    To investigate microstructure of proventriculus and ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells from Chinese Taihe black-bone silky fowl (BSF), the proventriculus of 4-week-old BSF was sampled. Conventional histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used in this study. The wall of the Taihe BSF proventriculus was consisted of four layers, the mucous, submucosa, muscularis externa and the serosa as others birds. The muscularis externa of the birds' proventriculus contained three layers. Much of the melanin was present in loose connective tissue of lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis externa unlike others. In addition, the ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells was observed by TEM. There was only one kind of gland cell, for example oxynticopeptic cell in proventriculus of Taihe BSF. The oxynticopeptic cells contained numerous mitochondria, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (CRER), intracellular canaliculi (IC) that secrete hydrochloric acid and small amounts of pepsinogen granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was irregular cisternae with ribosomes and surrounded tightly the mitochondria along their configuration. The electron-dense pepsinogen granules were round with various sizes. The neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells were closed up with tight junction and gap junction. The inter-space between the neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells was stenosis or was filled with electron-dense extracellular substance. In conclusion, the gastric gland cells of Chinese Taihe BSF proventriculus were only oxynticopeptic cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, but no parietal cells and chief cells of mammal. The gastric gland cells of proventriculus were underdeveloped compared with those of mammals. PMID:25430887

  10. Vibrant Soundbridge rehabilitation of conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lüers, Jan-Christoffer; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2014-12-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is the world's most often implanted active middle ear implant or hearing aid. During the last few years, the device indications have expanded from sensorineural hearing loss to conductive and mixed hearing loss. Titanium couplers have led to improved contact of the floating mass transducer with the middle ear structures. The resulting hearing gain is satisfying for most patients, but so far, there is no clear audiologic advantage over conventional hearing aids. Currently, the indications are mainly related to intolerance of conventional hearing aids (eg, chronic otitis externa), severe mixed hearing loss with a destructed middle ear and certain medical diagnosis (eg, congenital atresia). PMID:25282039

  11. Comparison of an antifungal agent with a mixture of antifungal, antibiotic and corticosteroid agents for the treatment of Malassezia species otitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bensignor, E; Grandemange, E

    2006-02-11

    Twenty dogs with otitis externa in both ears and numerous Malassezia species yeasts on cytological examination were treated in one ear with a combination product containing clotrimazole, marbofloxacin and dexamethasone, and in the other ear with a topical antifungal containing miconazole. The effects of the treatments were analysed on the basis of the scores for pruritus, erythema and amount of cerumen, and the number of yeasts on cytological smears. There were reductions in the counts of Malassezia species after both treatments, but the combination product gave significantly greater reductions in erythema, cerumen and pruritus. PMID:16474052

  12. Use of thyroid scintigraphy and pituitary immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of spontaneous hypothyroidism in a mature cat.

    PubMed

    Blois, Shauna L; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Mitchell, Colleen; Yu, Anthony; Stoewen, Debbie; Lillie, Brandon N; Kiupel, Matti

    2010-02-01

    A 12-year old, castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented with a 2-year history of poor hair coat, seborrhea, generalized pruritus and otitis externa. Low circulating concentrations of total serum thyroxine (TT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) and an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone concentration supported a diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Thyroid scintigraphy did not show uptake of radioactive technetium in the thyroid area. Treatment with levothyroxine resulted in clinical improvement. Recurrence of dermatitis 8 months after onset of treatment resulted in euthanasia of the cat. On post-mortem examination, thyroid tissue was not identified on gross or histological examination. Pituitary immunohistochemistry identified hyperplasia of chromophobe cells. PMID:19695915

  13. Management of osteomyelitis of the skull base

    SciTech Connect

    Benecke, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-12-01

    Osteomyelitis of the skull base is the most severe form of malignant otitis externa. As a result of having treated 13 patients with skull base osteomyelitis over a 4-year period, we have developed a method of staging and monitoring this malady using gallium and technetium scanning techniques. Stage I is localized to soft tissues, stage II is limited osteomyelitis, and stage III represents extensive skull base osteomyelitis. All stages are treated with appropriate antipseudomonal antibiotics. The duration of therapy depends upon the clearing of inflammation as shown on the gallium scan. Each case must be looked at independently and not subjected to an arbitrary treatment protocol.

  14. [ORL].

    PubMed

    Marchal, F

    2015-01-21

    This 2014 version of news in ENT--established by reading more than 10,000 abstracts published in 2014--will focuss this year on two main topics that are trendy: Robotic surgery in ENT, and e-cigarette. Of course, other subjects will be treated as well, in the format of guidelines, like for otitis externa, tinnitus, ear grommets, Bell's palsy, children's sinusitis, topical treatments in sinusitis, or dangers of radiation on kids. Some interesting mobile applications will be as well presented. PMID:25831614

  15. Cholesterol granuloma associated with otitis media and destruction of the tympanic bulla in a dog.

    PubMed

    Fliegner, R A; Jubb, K V F; Lording, P M

    2007-07-01

    An 8-year-old, male neutered Irish Setter was presented with a 2-week history of pain upon opening the mouth and chronic otitis externa. Computed tomography examination revealed destruction of the left tympanic bulla with a soft-tissue density within the remains of the tympanic cavity. Cytology of aspirates collected from tissue adjacent to the tympanic bulla revealed suppurative inflammation and bacteria. A ventral bulla osteotomy was performed. Histopathology of granulation tissue within the remains of the tympanic cavity was diagnostic of cholesterol granuloma. PMID:17606522

  16. Current Treatment Options for Auricular Hematomas.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, Catriona

    2016-07-01

    Ear disease, such as otitis externa, resulting in aggressive head shaking or ear scratching, is the most common cause of the development of aural hematomas in dogs and cats. An underlying immunologic cause has also been proposed to explain cartilage and blood vessel fragility. Numerous options exist for management of aural hematomas, from medical management alone with corticosteroids, to simple hematoma centesis, to surgical intervention. Because this condition is usually secondary to another disease process, regardless of mode of treatment, likelihood of recurrence is low if the underlying condition is managed properly. PMID:27012935

  17. Esophagotomy in the pony: comparison of surgical techniques and form of feed.

    PubMed

    Stick, J A; Slocombe, R F; Derksen, F J; Scott, E A

    1983-11-01

    Esophageal healing was studied in 12 ponies after cervical esophagotomy. The esophagus was sutured, feed and water were withheld for 48 hours, and then all ponies were permitted to eat. In group I (n = 6), a longitudinal esophagotomy was made. In group II (n = 6), a rotational esophagotomy was made with the mucosal incision 180 degrees away from the incision in the esophageal muscle. Three ponies in each group were fed a soft diet ad libitum for 9 days, and then were allowed access to hay and grain. The remaining ponies were fed hay and grain. The esophagotomies of all hay-fed ponies dehisced and healed by second intention, whereas esophagotomies healed by first intention in the ponies given a soft diet. Endoscopic and radiographic examinations indicated that the progression of healing in the present study was a function of diet (form of food), rather than surgical technique. The cross-sectional width of the muscularis externa at the incision site was 39.6% greater in mash-fed ponies than in hay-fed ponies. Based on density-dependent image analysis, average elastin content and reticulin fiber of the submucosa and muscularis externa at the incision were not influenced by the form of feed or surgical technique, although elastin fiber regeneration did not occur at the site of the incision. PMID:6359981

  18. Absence of DNA sequence diversity of the intergenic spacer 1 region in Malassezia nana isolates from cats.

    PubMed

    de Bellis, Filippo; Castellá, Gemma; Cabañes, F Javier; Bond, Ross

    2010-03-01

    Malassezia nana is a recently-described lipophilic yeast that has been isolated from the ear canals and skin of cats in Japan and Europe and from Brazilian cattle with or without otitis externa. Previous reports have demonstrated that significant intra-species variability exists in the DNA sequence of the intergenic spacer 1 region (IGS1), particularly amongst M. globosa, M. restricta and M. pachydermatis, and that certain IGS genotypes are associated with various epidemiological factors, including host disease status. In the present study, we demonstrated that the IGS1 sequences of 12 UK isolates of M. nana from cats and of six isolates from Spain (5 cat, 1 dog) were identical to each other and to CBS 9557, the M. nana type culture originally obtained from a Japanese cat with otitis externa. Further studies are needed to determine whether other genotypes of M. nana can be identified and associated with geographical regions and the species and disease status of mammalian hosts. PMID:19657958

  19. In vitro growth versus inhibition of growth of Malassezia pachydermatis in the presence of the antibacterial drug gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Baroni, Adone; Parisi, Annamaria; Borriello, Flavia Elena; Caputo, Pina; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Nizza, Sandra; Nocera, Francesca Paola; Fiorito, Filomena; De Martino, Luisa

    2015-02-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal cutaneous microbiota of most warm-blooded vertebrates and is associated with otitis externa and seborrhoeic dermatitis in dogs and cats. In this study, we evaluated the growth capacity of nine M. pachydermatis strains on Sabouraud medium in the presence of a high concentration of gentamicin. Strains of M. pachydermatis cultured on Sabouraud medium in the presence of 50 and 100 µg gentamicin ml(-1) displayed different growth patterns such as growth or lack of growth. We hypothesized that this difference in growth of M. pachydermatis strains was correlated with the different genotypes of the strains. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates, derived from the external ears of house pet cats suffering from otitis externa. The M. pachydermatis strains were cultured on commercial or home-made Sabouraud medium supplemented or not with gentamicin. RAPD analysis demonstrated a genetic heterogeneity between each strain. In particular, five out of nine strains tested were able to form colonies in the presence of gentamicin. However, a correlation between M. pachydermatis genotype and growth capacity in the presence of gentamicin was not widely demonstrated. PMID:25627206

  20. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS) y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS) en el mediano plazo. Material y métodos Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005–2008), se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008) y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008). Resultados A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. Conclusiones El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo. PMID:22282205

  1. The basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease: current concepts and unexplained observations.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Marin, Concepcio; Rodriguez-Oroz, C; Blesa, Javier; Benitez-Temiño, B; Mena-Segovia, Juan; Rodríguez, Manuel; Olanow, C Warren

    2008-12-01

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is reviewed in light of recent advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia (BG). Current emphasis is placed on the parallel interactions between corticostriatal and corticosubthalamic afferents on the one hand, and internal feedback circuits modulating BG output through the globus pallidus pars interna and substantia nigra pars reticulata on the other. In the normal BG network, the globus pallidus pars externa emerges as a main regulatory station of output activity. In the parkinsonian state, dopamine depletion shifts the BG toward inhibiting cortically generated movements by increasing the gain in the globus pallidus pars externa-subthalamic nucleus-globus pallidus pars interna network and reducing activity in "direct" cortico-putaminal-globus pallidus pars interna projections. Standard pharmacological treatments do not mimic the normal physiology of the dopaminergic system and, therefore, fail to restore a functional balance between corticostriatal afferents in the so-called direct and indirect pathways, leading to the development of motor complications. This review emphasizes the concept that the BG can no longer be understood as a "go-through" station in the control of movement, behavior, and emotions. The growing understanding of the complexity of the normal BG and the changes induced by DA depletion should guide the development of more efficacious therapies for Parkinson's disease. PMID:19127584

  2. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more reliable eradication of β-hemolytic streptococci is desirable. In cases of allergy or incompatibility of penicillin, cephalosporins or macrolides (e.g. Erythromycin-estolate) are valuable alternatives. PMID:26755048

  3. [Infection complicated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Ken-ichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are believed to be suspected to be immunocompromized hosts. Many reports have pointed out that diabetic patients are susceptible to certain infections such as surgical site infections, malignant otitis externa, mucormycosis, and necrotizing fasciitis. But their etiology seems to be non-uniform, heterogenous and individualized. Above all, obesity-related infections are also increasing accompanied with the recent rising incidence of obesity. Further studies should be addressed about the relationships between infections and diabetes which include the factors of body mass index, life style, degree of diabetes complications, and poor glycemic control duration. They could live a normal life the same as healthy subjects if good glycemic control is achieved without hypoglycemia. PMID:26666157

  4. Genes, Environment, and Humor Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    2000-10-31

    OAK-B135 The product, which culminates a two-year curriculum development project is a 152-page curriculum module dealing with genes, environment, and human behavior for use in high school biology classrooms. BSCS began the Project in January 1997 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. Development work included the input of an externa; advisory commitee, external reviewers, a panel of writers, and national field testing. BSCS printed 20,000 copies of the module. To date, over 11,000 teachers have requested and received copies of the module free of charge . The curriculum exposes students to methods used to study behavioral genetics and examines the impact of this research on society

  5. Ectoparasitic infestation of dogs in Bendel State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, E I; Nnadozie, C C

    1985-12-01

    An investigation into ectoparasitic infestation of different breeds of dogs presented to four veterinary clinics in Benin, Sapele and Auchi in Bendel State of Nigeria during the period January 1983 to December 1983 is presented. Of a total of 820 dogs examined for ectoparasites 246 (30.00%) were infected by ticks, 226 (27.56%) by lice, 212 (25.85%) by fleas and 109 (13.29%) by mites. The species of ectoparasites identified and their prevalence rates were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.5%), Otobius megnini (10.48%), Ctenocephalides canis (25.85%), Demodex canis (13.29%). Common clinical symptoms evinced in this species include scratching, licking, irritation, restlessness, alopecia, otitis externa and dermatitis. Some aspects of epidemiology of canine ectoparasitic infestation are discussed. PMID:3836217

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

  7. Crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons regulates gastrointestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Muller, Paul Andrew; Koscsó, Balázs; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; Stevanovic, Korey; Berres, Marie-Luise; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Leboeuf, Marylene; Li, Xiu-Min; Mucida, Daniel; Stanley, E Richard; Dahan, Stephanie; Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Merad, Miriam; Bogunovic, Milena

    2014-07-17

    Intestinal peristalsis is a dynamic physiologic process influenced by dietary and microbial changes. It is tightly regulated by complex cellular interactions; however, our understanding of these controls is incomplete. A distinct population of macrophages is distributed in the intestinal muscularis externa. We demonstrate that, in the steady state, muscularis macrophages regulate peristaltic activity of the colon. They change the pattern of smooth muscle contractions by secreting bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which activates BMP receptor (BMPR) expressed by enteric neurons. Enteric neurons, in turn, secrete colony stimulatory factor 1 (CSF1), a growth factor required for macrophage development. Finally, stimuli from microbial commensals regulate BMP2 expression by macrophages and CSF1 expression by enteric neurons. Our findings identify a plastic, microbiota-driven crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons that controls gastrointestinal motility. PAPERFLICK: PMID:25036630

  8. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva.

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, M S; Nilssen, A C; Lyslo, A; Syrdalen, P; Dannevig, L

    1991-01-01

    Two boys with ophthalmomyiasis caused by the first instar larva of the reindeer warble fly Hypoderma tarandi are reported. Both were 9 years old and came from the coast of northern Norway. One had ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior and one eye had been removed because of progressive pain and blindness. Histological examination showed the remains of a fly larva. The second boy had ophthalmomyiasis externa with a tumour in the upper eyelid, and histological examination showed a warble with a well preserved larva. Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi. Images PMID:2030144

  9. Red eye: Rule out Ophthalmomyiasis too

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pankaj; Rathore, Mahesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Premchand; Lakhtakia, Sujata; Chalisgaonkar, Charudatt; Dwivedi, Anamika

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis is the infestation of human eye by the larvae of certain flies. Sheep botfly commonly manifests as Ophthalmomyiasis externa when there is conjunctival involvement or rarely as Opthalmomyiasis interna when there is larval penetration into the eyeball. It appears to be more common than what has been indicated by previously published reports. We present a report of seven cases of Ophthalmomyiasis by Oestrus ovis, from central India who presented with features of conjunctivitis varying between mild to severe. The larvae were seen in bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and also entangled in lashes with discharge. Since the larvae are photophobic, it is prudent to look for them in the fornices and also in discharge. Prompt removal of the larvae from the conjunctiva helps in relieving the symptoms and also prevents serious complications. Taxonomic identification of the species is important to estimate the risk of globe penetration by the larvae. PMID:23803482

  10. Studies of certain factors affecting the microenvironment and microflora of the external ear of the dog in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoko; Naito, Fumiko; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2002-12-01

    A total of 187 dogs, 110 with clinical signs of otitis externa (OE), and 77 without history or clinical signs of OE, were examined microenvironment and microbiological analysis of their ear exudates made. The aural temperature and humidity of 160 dogs were measured. There were no significant difference between healthy dogs and OE dogs. German shepherd showed relatively lower temperature (p<0.01) and higher humidity (p<0.01). The mean log(10) number of microbial organisms of ears of OE dogs (4.16 +/- 0.31 cfu/g) was significantly increased, compared to that from the ears of non-OE group (2.55 +/- 0.24 cfu/g). Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus spp. were detected only from OE dogs. In addition, three enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from ear specimens. PMID:12520110

  11. A case report and literature review of "Chiclero's ulcer".

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Jason M; Wortmann, Glenn W

    2012-09-01

    An 86-year-old man with history of travel to Guatemala presented with a 4-month history of an enlarging ulcerative lesion on his right ear. After several weeks of empiric treatment for otitis externa, histopathology, culture, and PCR analysis of a biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis secondary to Leishmania mexicana. Known as "Chiclero's ulcer" in southeast Mexico and Latin America, this unique presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused mainly by the L. mexicana complex. Infection results in a single ulcerative lesion, most commonly involving the ear pinna, without a tendency for cutaneous metastasis, lymphatic or mucosal involvement. The majority of cases of "Chiclero's ulcer" spontaneously re-epithelialize without treatment within 3-9 months. This patient's lesion completely resolved without therapy after 11 months. "Chiclero's ulcer" should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with a chronic ulcerative lesion and history of travel to an endemic area. PMID:23146325

  12. Otomycosis due to Aspergillus spp. in a dog: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Coyner, Kimberly

    2010-12-01

    This report describes the clinical findings, clinicopathology and treatment of otomycosis caused by Aspergillus spp. in an atopic dog affected by chronic unilateral purulent otitis externa unresponsive to topical and oral antibiotics and antifungal treatments. Cytology of otic exudate revealed neutrophils and septate fungal hyphae, and otic culture grew Aspergillus spp. and no bacteria. Treatments included allergen-specific immunotherapy, topical and oral antifungal therapy and anti-inflammatory steroid therapy. Final resolution occurred after treatment of the underlying hypersensitivity disorder, administration of topical ketoconazole and debridement of infectious ear exudate. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi may, as in humans, occur in dogs with ear canals compromised by pre-existing allergic or bacterial otitis, and possibly previous antibiotic therapy. Antifungal medications provided clinical improvement, but the key to successful treatment was the restoration of the normal physiology of the external auditory canal. PMID:20492628

  13. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Young; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Bae, You-Chan; Park, Yeon-Hee; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2010-11-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) is a self-limiting, benign, ischemic, inflammatory disease that is most often described in the submandibular glands of dogs, with clinical and histologic features that resemble malignancy. Unilateral swelling of the parotid salivary gland in a 7-year-old Cocker Spaniel dog was diagnosed as NS. The dog also had otitis externa on the same side as the parotid gland lesions. The main histologic features were included lobular necrosis of salivary tissue; fibrinoid necrosis of some arteries; marked squamous metaplasia of duct and/or acinar epithelium, with intercellular bridge formation; preservation of salivary lobular morphology; and variable inflammation and fibrosis. Etiologic factors for NS in both humans and animals remain obscure. PMID:21088187

  14. A clinical study on the effect of Arka Taila in the management of Karnasrava (Otomycosis)

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Komal K.; Vaghela, D. B.; Manjusha, R.

    2011-01-01

    Karnasrava is the condition characterized by discharge from Karna and occurs mainly due to Avarana of Vata Dosha. Otomycosis denotes diffuse otitis externa due to fungal infection in ear. Otomycosis being one of the causes of Karnasrava was selected for the study. The present study is done on 28 patients of Karnasrava, who were grouped in to two with 14 patients in each group. Group-A was treated with Arka Taila Karnapurana and Group-B with Clotrimazole ear drops (standard control). The signs and symptoms were studied before and after treatment. Result of the study indicates that Arka Taila and Clotrimazole are equally effective in all the signs and symptoms of Karnasrava (Otomycosis). PMID:22529649

  15. A clinical study on the effect of Arka Taila in the management of Karnasrava (Otomycosis).

    PubMed

    Palmer, Komal K; Vaghela, D B; Manjusha, R

    2011-07-01

    Karnasrava is the condition characterized by discharge from Karna and occurs mainly due to Avarana of Vata Dosha. Otomycosis denotes diffuse otitis externa due to fungal infection in ear. Otomycosis being one of the causes of Karnasrava was selected for the study. The present study is done on 28 patients of Karnasrava, who were grouped in to two with 14 patients in each group. Group-A was treated with Arka TailaKarnapurana and Group-B with Clotrimazole ear drops (standard control). The signs and symptoms were studied before and after treatment. Result of the study indicates that Arka Taila and Clotrimazole are equally effective in all the signs and symptoms of Karnasrava (Otomycosis). PMID:22529649

  16. A novel BTK gene mutation creates a de-novo splice site in an X-linked agammaglobulinemia patient.

    PubMed

    Chear, Chai Teng; Ripen, Adiratna Mat; Mohamed, Sharifah Adlena Syed; Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh

    2015-04-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), encoded by the BTK gene, is a cytoplasmic protein critical in B cell development. Mutations in the BTK gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), a primary immunodeficiency with characteristically low or absent B cells and antibodies. This report describes a five year-old boy who presented with otitis externa, arthritis, reduced immunoglobulins and no B cells. Flow cytometry showed undetectable monocyte BTK expression. Sequencing revealed a novel mutation at exon 13 of the BTK gene which created a de novo splice site with a proximal 5 nucleotide loss resulting in a truncated BTK protein. The patient still suffered from ear infection despite intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In this study, mosaicism was seen only in the mother's genomic DNA. These results suggest that a combination of flow cytometry and BTK gene analysis is important for XLA diagnosis and carrier screening. PMID:25680287

  17. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis affecting the skull base and manifesting as spontaneous skull base osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Laura; Mcnally, Jeremy; Corbridge, Rogan

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented with right-sided otalgia radiating to the temporal region, angle of the mandible and upper neck. Otoscopy was unremarkable on examination and there were no signs of otitis externa. MRI revealed an infiltrative soft tissue mass to the right lateral aspect of the clivus. Transnasal and CT-guided biopsies were performed, however, these showed either inconclusive or benign tissue. Following multidisciplinary team assessment a diagnosis of spontaneous skull base osteomyelitis was made and treatment with intravenous antibiotics started. Failure to respond to antimicrobials and the development of cranial nerve palsies raised the possibility of a vasculitis. Subsequently, a clinical diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was made. Remission has now been maintained with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. We discuss the rare presentation of GPA mimicking that of spontaneous skull base osteomyelitis as well as its management and related primary otolaryngological manifestations. PMID:26929226

  18. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas. PMID:19178778

  19. [Dermatologic surgery on the scalp].

    PubMed

    Koenen, W; Kunte, C

    2014-12-01

    Soft tissue defects of the scalp can be closed with varying techniques depending on size and depth of the defect. While small and superficial defects can be closed primarily or be left open for secondary intention healing, larger and deeper defects may need flaps or skin grafts. Extensive defects may require combined flaps or vacuum assisted closure techniques. Defects of the periosteum with denuded skull bone must be treated immediately to avoid bony complications. Usually, the tabula externa is fenestrated with holes or abraded totally to create better healing conditions. Granulation tissue may be induced on the properly prepared skull with vacuum-assisted closure, by using collagen sheets or with dermal skin substitutes. New developments in tissue engineering will surely provide new techniques for dealing with deep and extensive soft tissue defects. PMID:25394521

  20. Ear problems and injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassaday, Kacie; Vazquez, Gerardo; Wright, Justin M

    2014-01-01

    The ear is an unique organ--the principal structure involved in both hearing and balance. Although not common, problems with the ear may be encountered in specific sporting populations. Common conditions affecting the ear in the athlete include otitis externa, an infection of the external ear; external auditory canal exostoses, or abnormal bony growths in the canal; and otitis media, an infection of the middle ear. Given its position on the head, the ear is subject to trauma, often resulting in an auricular hematoma. Divers, due to pressure changes on descent and ascent, are subject to both ear barotrauma and ear decompression sickness. This article will discuss recognition, treatment, and prevention of these conditions affecting the ear in the athlete. PMID:24412886

  1. Crosstalk between Muscularis Macrophages and Enteric Neurons Regulates Gastrointestinal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Paul Andrew; Koscsó, Balázs; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; Stevanovic, Korey; Berres, Marie-Luise; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Leboeuf, Marylene; Li, Xiu-Min; Mucida, Daniel; Stanley, E. Richard; Dahan, Stephanie; Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Merad, Miriam; Bogunovic, Milena

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal peristalsis is a dynamic physiologic process influenced by dietary and microbial changes. It is tightly regulated by complex cellular interactions; however, our understanding of these controls is incomplete. A distinct population of macrophages is distributed in the intestinal muscularis externa. We demonstrate that in the steady state muscularis macrophages regulate peristaltic activity of the colon. They change the pattern of smooth muscle contractions by secreting bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which activates BMP receptor (BMPR) expressed by enteric neurons. Enteric neurons, in turn, secrete colony stimulatory factor 1 (CSF1), a growth factor required for macrophage development. Finally, stimuli from microbial commensals regulate BMP2 expression by macrophages and CSF1 expression by enteric neurons. Our findings identify a plastic, microbiota-driven, crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons, which controls gastrointestinal motility. PMID:25036630

  2. Dermatologic aspects of sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Levine, N

    1980-10-01

    The skin lies at the interface of the athlete and the sports milieu and is subjected to many sports-related dermatoses. Direct traumatic injuries, such as friction blisters, black heel, piezogenic papules, and traumatic subungual hematomas, occur regularly. Environmental insults such as sunburn, cold-induced injury, and contact dermatitis plague the sportsman. Cutaneous infections such as "athlete's foot," otitis externa, herpes simplex, and warts occur because of a favorable microenvironment, occurring with sweating and occlusion as well as close interpersonal contact. Sports participation may uncover or exacerbate latent dermatoses such as occurs in acne mechanica and exercise-induced anaphylaxis. The sportsman is best served if the physician considers him as an athlete-patient. PMID:7430463

  3. Fotometría CCD en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Seggewiss, W.; Ostrov, P.; Solivella, G. R.

    La región de Vela-Puppis contiene varios cúmulos cuyo estudio puede brindarnos información acerca de la cinemática y el estado evolutivo de la población estelar en las zonas externas del disco galáctico. A través de observaciones CCD en los filtros UBV en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58 (α2000= 8h 14m 41s, δ2000=-31o 57'), se han determinado por primera vez los parámetros fundamentales de este cúmulo tales como distancia, enrojecimiento y edad. Se analiza también la estructura de su secuencia principal y la presencia de gigantes y binarias.

  4. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  5. Temporal bone metastasis as a sign of relapsing chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Aljafar, Hadeel M.; Alsuhibani, Sari S.; Alahmari, Mohammad S.; Alzahrani, Musaed A.

    2015-01-01

    Otologic manifestations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are common presentations. However, temporal bone metastasis is rarely described as a sign of relapsing CLL. A 65-year-old male diabetic patient known to have CLL on remission presented to the outpatient otolaryngology clinic with a one month history of progressive bilateral otalgia and right otorrhea, despite multiple courses of antibiotics. He was admitted with suspicion of malignant otitis externa. Left ear showed large hemorrhagic bullae on the posterior segment of tympanic membrane. Left sided facial paralysis developed on the third day of admission. Full recovery of facial paralysis is achieved by 10 days course of corticotherapy. Histological examination of middle ear tissue biopsy showed infiltration by monotonous small lymphoid cells, showing round nuclei, condensed chromatin suggestive of CLL. Although rare, unusual otologic manifestations should raise the suspicion of a temporal bone metastasis as a sign of relapsing CLL. PMID:26446337

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Shu, Min-Tsan; Lin, Hung-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2006-08-01

    We report two cases of carcinoma in situ in the external auditory canal (EAC), presenting with symptoms such as pain, long-term itching of the ear, easy contact bleeding, canal otorrhea and hearing loss. Otoscopic examination revealed granulation tissue and a greyish-black tumour with irregular surface. The first patient had previously been diagnosed with otitis externa with persistent ear itching for the past three years. The second patient had received tympanoplasty for treatment of chronic otitis media on the right ear ten years ago. The first case was treated with wide excision, whereas the second patient received resection of the skin of the EAC together with its adjacent soft tissue, followed by skin grafting. No tumour recurrence was noted in the fourth and third post-operative year for the first and second patient respectively. We suggest that EAC carcinoma can be detected early and treated. PMID:16719955

  7. Bilateral Temporal Bone Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Radiologic Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Mira A.; Matsumoto, Jane; Carr, Carrie M.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A.

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder with an unpredictable clinical course and highly varied clinical presentation ranging from single system to multisystem involvement. Although head and neck involvement is common in LCH, isolated bilateral temporal bone involvement is exceedingly rare. Furthermore, LCH is commonly misinterpreted as mastoiditis, otitis media and otitis externa, delaying diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic management. To improve detection and time to treatment, it is imperative to have LCH in the differential diagnosis for unusual presentations of the aforementioned infectious head and neck etiologies. Any lytic lesion of the temporal bone identified by radiology should raise suspicion for LCH. We hereby describe the radiologic findings of a case of bilateral temporal bone LCH, originally misdiagnosed as mastoiditis. PMID:24478812

  8. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water

    PubMed Central

    COLLIER, S. A.; STOCKMAN, L. J.; HICKS, L. A.; GARRISON, L. E.; ZHOU, F. J.; BEACH, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires’ disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission. PMID:22233584

  9. Occurrence and population size of Malassezia spp. in the external ear canal of dogs and cats both healthy and with otitis.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Gallo, Sabrina; Capelli, Gioia; Otranto, Domenico

    2005-09-01

    Malassezia yeasts are commensal organisms of human and animal skin that occasionally act as pathogens; lipid-dependent species are associated with human skin disorders. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence, risk factors and population size of different species of Malassezia in the external ear canal of dogs and cats with and without otitis externa. Between 2001 and 2003, 107 healthy animals (25 cats and 82 dogs) and 123 animals with chronic otitis exteirna (48 cats and 75 dogs) were clinically examined. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect specimens from the external ear canal and culture tests and cytological examinations were performed to detect the presence and population size of Malassezia yeasts. Malassezia yeasts were isolated from 72.9% and 40% of the cats and from 57.3% and 28.0% of the dogs, with and without otitis externa, respectively. Malassezia was frequently isolated from animals under 5 years of age. The highest prevalence of positive samples was reported in winter for cats and in autumn for dogs. Dogs with pendulous ears showed a higher incidence of infection than dogs with erect ears. More Malassezia yeasts were recovered from animals with otitis (i.e. 59.6 colony forming units - CFUs - for cats and 66.0 CFUs for dogs) than healthy animals. Out of the 413 isolates obtained from animals with and without otitis, 403 (97.6%) were identified as M. pachydermatis and 10 (2.4%) as M. globosa. A statistical evaluation of the occurrence of Malassezia yeasts in dogs and cats revealed that predisposing factors for Malassezia infections are sampling period for cats, and type of ear for dogs. The largest population of Malassezia yeasts was detected in animals with otitis, suggesting a role in the occurrence of lesions. PMID:16170610

  10. Noninflammatory upregulation of nerve growth factor underlies gastric hypersensitivity induced by neonatal colon inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingjie; Winston, John H; Sarna, Sushil K

    2016-02-01

    Gastric hypersensitivity is one of the key contributors to the postprandial symptoms of epigastric pain/discomfort, satiety, and fullness in functional dyspepsia patients. Epidemiological studies found that adverse early-life experiences are risk factors for the development of gastric hypersensitivity. Preclinical studies found that neonatal colon inflammation elevates plasma norepinephrine (NE), which upregulates expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the muscularis externa of the gastric fundus. Our goal was to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which NE upregulates the expression of NGF in gastric hypersensitive (GHS) rats, which were subjected previously to neonatal colon inflammation. Neonatal colon inflammation upregulated NGF protein, but not mRNA, in the gastric fundus of GHS rats. Western blotting showed upregulation of p110γ of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1), pAKT(Ser473), and phosphorylated 4E-binding protein (p4E-BP1)(Thr70), suggesting AKT activation and enhanced NGF protein translation. AKT inhibitor MK-2206 blocked the upregulation of NGF in the fundus of GHS rats. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), the major NGF-degrading protease, was suppressed, indicating that NGF degradation was impeded. Incubation of fundus muscularis externa with NE upregulated NGF by modulating the protein translation and degradation pathways. Yohimbine, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, upregulated plasma NE and NGF expression by activating the protein translation and degradation pathways in naive rats. In contrast, a cocktail of adrenergic receptor antagonists suppressed the upregulation of NGF by blocking the activation of the protein translation and degradation pathways. Our findings provide evidence that the elevation of plasma NE induces NGF expression in the gastric fundus. PMID:26608656

  11. Expression of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the developing rat spinal cord: an immunocytochemical study of the spinal cord glial system.

    PubMed Central

    Oudega, M; Marani, E

    1991-01-01

    The glial system in the developing rat spinal cord was studied using immunocytochemistry. Antibodies to vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used. At E11, vimentin was first found in the membrana limitans externa. In the matrix layer, short vimentin protrusions were found near the membrana limitans externa at E12. In addition, vimentin was scattered throughout the matrix layer, where it was also present as vimentin-positive tangles. Later in development, vimentin immunoreactivity was distributed in a distinct radial pattern in the matrix layer. During the first postnatal weeks, vimentin was replaced by GFAP which is therefore expressed in a similar radial pattern. This orderly structural organisation of vimentin and GFAP in the matrix layer could indicate the involvement of both proteins in morphogenetic processes such as neuron migration and cell organisation. In the mantle layer, a distinct radial vimentin immunoreactivity was replaced by GFAP immunoreactivity during the first 2 postnatal weeks. In addition, GFAP fibres appeared first, at E18, in the ventral mantle layer associated with the motor neuron columns. These glial fibres originated from a local source. In the dorsal mantle layer, GFAP-positive fibres were oriented tangentially, which is different from the overall radial arrangement. This expression pattern may be related to the ingrowth of primary afferents. In the ventral and dorsal raphe, a major vimentin expression was replaced by a minor presence of GFAP. Within the white matter, a vimentin-positive radial pattern was demonstrated which, after birth, was replaced by GFAP. This palisading pattern suggested an involvement of both proteins in the development and guidance of the ascending and descending spinal cord fibre systems. The general transition from the expression of vimentin to the expression of GFAP in the rat spinal cord takes place during the first 3 postnatal weeks. Images Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 5 PMID:1817147

  12. Neuron-macrophage crosstalk in the intestine: a “microglia” perspective

    PubMed Central

    Verheijden, Simon; Schepper, Sebastiaan De; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal macrophages are strategically located in different layers of the intestine, including the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa, where they perform complex tasks to maintain intestinal homeostasis. As the gastrointestinal tract is continuously challenged by foreign antigens, macrophage activation should be tightly controlled to prevent chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Unraveling the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the tissue-specific control of macrophage activation is crucial to get more insight into intestinal immune regulation. Two recent reports provide unanticipated evidence that the enteric nervous system (ENS) acts as a critical regulator of macrophage function in the myenteric plexus. Both studies clearly illustrate that enteric neurons reciprocally interact with intestinal macrophages and are actively involved in shaping their phenotype. This concept has striking parallels with the central nervous system (CNS), where neuronal signals maintain microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, in a quiescent, anti-inflammatory state. This inevitably evokes the perception that the ENS and CNS share mechanisms of neuroimmune interaction. In line, intestinal macrophages, both in the muscularis externa and (sub)mucosa, express high levels of CX3CR1, a feature that was once believed to be unique for microglia. CX3CR1 is the sole receptor of fractalkine (CX3CL1), a factor mainly produced by neurons in the CNS to facilitate neuron-microglia communication. The striking parallels between resident macrophages of the brain and intestine might provide a promising new line of thought to get more insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling macrophage activation in the gut. PMID:26528133

  13. Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii.

    PubMed

    Beyo, Reston S; Sreejith, Parameswaran; Divya, Lekha; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2007-04-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the previtellogenic follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii, of the Western Ghats of India, were observed. Both species follow a similar seasonal reproductive pattern. The ovaries contain primordial follicles throughout the year with previtellogenic, vitellogenic, or postvitellogenic follicles, depending upon the reproductive status. The just-recruited primordial follicle includes an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of follicle and thecal cells. The differentiation of the theca into externa and interna layers, the follicle cells into dark and light variants, and the appearance of primordial yolk platelets and mitochondrial clouds in the ooplasm mark the transition of the primordial follicle into a previtellogenic follicle. During further development of the previtellogenic follicle the following changes occur: i) the theca loses distinction as externa and interna; ii) all the follicle cells become the dark variant and increase in the complexity of ultrastructural organization; iii) the nucleus of the oocyte transforms into the germinal vesicle and there is amplification of the nucleoli; iv) the primordial yolk platelets of the cortical cytoplasm of the oocyte increase in abundance; v) the mitochondrial clouds fragment and the mitochondria move away from the clouds, leaving behind the cementing matrix, which contains membrane-bound vesicles of various sizes, either empty or filled with a lipid material; vi) the perivitelline space appears first as troughs at the junctional points between the follicle cells and oocyte, which subsequently spread all around to become continuous; vii) macrovilli and microvilli develop from the follicle cells and oocyte, respectively; and viii) the precursor material of the vitelline envelop arrives at the perivitelline space. The sequential changes in the previtellogenic follicles of two species of caecilians are described. PMID:17345639

  14. Prevalence of Disorders Recorded in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England

    PubMed Central

    O′Neill, Dan G.; Church, David B.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Thomson, Peter C.; Brodbelt, Dave C.

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3–10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1–8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7–34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8–34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

  15. Steroid productions by co-cultures of granulosa cells with inner and outer theca cells in preovulatory follicles of gonadotropin stimulated calves.

    PubMed

    Bosc, M J; Nicolle, A

    1997-06-01

    Granulosa, interna and externa theca cells were isolated from large follicles of equine-chorionic-gonadotropin (eCG)-primed calves and co-cultured during 3 days in the absence or in the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Co-cultures were performed by adding defined numbers of theca and/or granulosa cells which represented 0, 10, 20, 50 or 100% of total cells per well. Secretion of oestradiol-17beta (E2), androstenedione (A4) and progesterone (P4) depended on the type of theca cells (P < 0.001), on the percentage of seeded granulosa cells (P < 0.001) and on the day of culture (P < 0.001). DHEA increased (P < 0.001) E2 and A4, but not P4 (P > 0.05) productions. Interactions existed between these factors (P < 0.01). On day 1, A4 production was nil in granulosa cells alone. E2 production was negligible in theca cells alone but it increased when granulosa cells were added. E2 and A4 varied in an opposite manner according to the percentage of granulosa cells and with the type of theca cells. On day 3, without DHEA, E2 and A4 were low. On day 3 with DHEA, E2 production was maintained in granulosa cells alone but not with any combination of theca cells. In these conditions, A4 production was maintained in the presence of theca cells but not in granulosa cells alone. Granulosa cells alone secreted more P4 than theca cells. P4 increased as a function of the percentage of granulosa in co-cultures with externa but not interna theca cells with which it remained low. In conclusion, theca cells in culture have two effects in relation to the granulosa cells, which differ according to the steroid concerned and to the cell combination. Both types of theca cells have an inhibitory effect on E2 secretion whereas only interna theca cells are able to alter P4 production. PMID:9393957

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa on vinyl-canvas inflatables and foam teaching aids in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Schets, F M; van den Berg, H H J L; Baan, R; Lynch, G; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-12-01

    Swimming pool-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections mainly result in folliculitis and otitis externa. P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on surfaces in the swimming pool environment. The presence of P. aeruginosa on inflatables and foam teaching aids in 24 public swimming pools in the Netherlands was studied. Samples (n = 230) were taken from 175 objects and analysed for P. aeruginosa by culture. Isolated P. aeruginosa were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion. P. aeruginosa was detected in 63 samples (27%), from 47 objects (27%) in 19 (79%) swimming pools. More vinyl-canvas objects (44%) than foam objects (20%) were contaminated, as were wet objects (43%) compared to dry objects (13%). Concentrations were variable, and on average higher on vinyl-canvas than on foam objects. Forty of 193 (21%) P. aeruginosa isolates from 11 different objects were (intermediate) resistant to one or more of 12 clinically relevant antibiotics, mostly to imipenem and aztreonam. The immediate risk of a P. aeruginosa infection from exposure to swimming pool objects seems limited, but the presence of P. aeruginosa on pool objects is unwanted and requires attention of pool managers and responsible authorities. Strict drying and cleaning policies are needed for infrequently used vinyl-canvas objects. PMID:25473987

  17. Changes in the Population of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Dissemination of Antimicrobial-Resistant Phenotypes in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Duim, Birgitta; Verstappen, Koen M; Broens, Els M; Laarhoven, Laura M; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Hordijk, Joost; de Heus, Phebe; Spaninks, Mirlin; Timmerman, Arjen J; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), which is often multidrug resistant (MDR), has recently emerged as a threat to canine health worldwide. Knowledge of the temporal distribution of specific MRSP lineages, their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and their association with clinical conditions may help us to understand the emergence and spread of MRSP in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the yearly proportions of MRSP lineages and their antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes in the Netherlands and to examine possible associations with clinical conditions. MRSP was first isolated from a canine specimen submitted for diagnostics to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University in 2004. The annual cumulative incidence of MRSP among S. pseudintermedius increased from 0.9% in 2004 to 7% in 2013. MRSP was significantly associated with pyoderma and, to a lesser extent, with wound infections and otitis externa. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 478 MRSP isolates yielded 39 sequence types (ST) belonging to 4 clonal complexes (CC) and 15 singletons. CC71 was the dominant lineage that emerged since 2004, and CC258, CC45, and several unlinked isolates became more frequent during the following years. All but two strains conferred an MDR phenotype, but strains belonging to CC258 or singletons were less resistant. In conclusion, our study showed that MDR CC71 emerged as the dominant lineage from 2004 and onward and that less-resistant lineages were partly replacing CC71. PMID:26582835

  18. Morphological studies on the venous drainage of the trachea in the neck of sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, R E; Maguire, J; Morris, S E; Traber, D L; Herndon, D N

    1989-01-01

    Systemic venous drainage of the cervical portion of the trachea from the cricoid cartilage to the sternal notch was observed in 50 adult sheep. In all animals, the first five to six tracheal rings starting at the cricoid cartilage were drained by the thyroid veins (v. thyroideae) bilaterally to the external jugular veins (v. jugularis externa). A venous complex draining the remaining cervical portion of the trachea was observed only on the left side of the trachea. This complex drained to the cranial vena cava (vena cava cranialis). India ink or Evans blue dye were infused into small vessels draining this area for verification. Variations in this venous complex were classified into three types based upon length of trachea drained. Type I was found in 26%, type II found in 58%, and type III found in 16% of the sheep studied and drained 23 +/- 5%, 58 +/- 11% and 78 +/- 10% of the cervical portion of the trachea, respectively. Blood flow from this area of the trachea was 85 +/- 28 mL/min/100 g wet issue. This study identified and classified the venous drainage of the cervical portion of the trachea in sheep. Images Fig. 14 PMID:2766145

  19. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence reveals abnormal metal distributions in brain and spinal cord in spinocerebellar ataxia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Bogdan F Gh; Robinson, Christopher A; Chapman, L Dean; Nichol, Helen

    2009-09-01

    For the first time, synchrotron rapid-scanning X-ray fluorescence (RS-XRF) was used to simultaneously localize and quantify iron, copper, and zinc in spinal cord and brain in a case of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). In the normal medulla, a previously undescribed copper enrichment was seen associated with spinocerebellar fibers and amiculum olivae. This region was virtually devoid of all metals in the SCA case. Regions with neuronal loss and gliosis in the cerebellar cortex, inferior olivary, and dentate nuclei and areas showing loss of myelinated fibers were also low in all metals in SCA compared to control. In contrast, the ventral columns of the spinal cord that exhibited only moderate myelin pallor had increased metal levels. Iron and zinc were also elevated in the globus pallidus pars externa in SCA relative to control. We hypothesize that metals increase as part of the initial neurodegenerative process, but once degeneration is advanced, the metal levels drop. This implies a role for multiple metals in SCA neurodegeneration, but further study is required to establish a causative role. We suggest that if these findings are generally true of at least some cases of SCA, not only iron but also copper and zinc should be considered as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:19308649

  20. The organization of the lamina ganglionaris of the prawn, Pandalus borealis (Kröyer).

    PubMed

    Nässel, D R

    1975-11-19

    The Lamina ganglionaris (first optic neuropile) of the decapod crustacean Pandalus borealis has its optic cartridges (synaptic compartments) arranged in horizontal rows. Each optic cartridge contains seven receptor axon terminals and the branching axis fibres of five monopolar second order neurons. Four types of monopolar neurons are classified. Their cell bodies are arranged in two layers. The inner layer contains the cell bodies of exclusively one of these types, and each cartridge is invaded by two neurons of this neuron type (type M 1:a and M 1:b). The outer layer contains the cell bodies of the remaining three types (M 2, M3 and M4). One gives rise to a large radially branched axis fibre in the centre of the cartridge. The other two have wide branches which may make inter-cartridge contacts, one proximally and the other distally in the plexiform layer, which is clearly bistratified. The receptor axons terminate in two levels corresponding to these strata. Two sets of tangenital fibres form networks in the proximal and the mid-portion of the lamina. Both networks have fibres with primary branches in the vertical plane and secondary branches in the horizontal plane. The fibres of the networks are derived from axons that pass from the second optic neuropile, the medulla externa. PMID:1201587

  1. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the sheep bot fly Oestrus ovis in northern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Andrew R; Schatz, Scott; Laubach, Harold

    2004-08-01

    Myiasis is the feeding of fly larvae on vertebrates. The sheep bot fly larva of Oestrus ovis is a mammalian parasite of the skin, nose, ears, and eyes. When the larvae infest and feed on the structures of the eye, the condition is termed ophthalmomyiasis. Most often this infestation is limited to the external structures of the eye and is referred to as ophthalmomyiasis externa. The features of this condition are severe local inflammation, positive foreign body sensation, erythema, and lacrimation. Vision may or may not be reduced, depending on involvement of the cornea. A 20-year-old white male soldier sought treatment for an inflamed eye and an irritated cornea OS. His eyelids were swollen with marked periorbital edema and conjunctival erythema OS. On slitlamp examination, small whitish organisms were viewed on the conjunctiva OS. The organisms were removed, preserved, and sent to Nova Southeastern University where they were identified as O. ovis first-stage larvae. The patient was treated with antibiotic ointment, and the inflammation resolved within 1 week. O. ovis has a worldwide distribution, and although sheep are the preferred host, humans may also serve as an intermediate host in the organism's life cycle. This case represents one of several reports of ophthalmomyiasis in the Middle East caused by O. ovis. U.S. troops stationed in Iraq and surrounding areas are vulnerable to eye infestation by fly larvae, and health care providers need to include this condition in their differential diagnosis of anterior segment inflammatory disorders. PMID:15300116

  2. External Ophthalmomyiasis Presenting to an Emergency Department: Corneal Findings as a Sign of Oestrus ovis

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz, Heydari

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to determine the frequency of opthalmyomyiasis externa and the ocular findings of disease in Southern Khorasan. Methods All patients referred to the emergency department of Valiaser hospital during the year 2011 with external ophthalmomyiasis were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis was made according to clinical findings and the presence of Oestrus ovis larvae. Results There were 18 cases of external ophthalmomyiasis in the emergency department of Valiaser hospital in 2011. Most cases had the common signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, except for three males who were referred with respective complaints of red eye, foreign body sensation, and swelling around the eyelids after contact injury the previous day; corneal infiltration was present in three cases. The visual acuity among the three cases that had peripheral corneal involvement was 20 / 30 in both eyes. The bulbar conjunctiva showed chemosis in all cases and a ropy pattern discharge that was clinically compatible with external ophthalmomyiasis. However, in one case, microscopic slit lamp examination did not show Oestrus ovis larvae. Conclusions The frequency of external ophthalmomyiasis was high in this region. Although external ophthalmomyiasis usually manifests as allergic conjunctivitis, coronary-like corneal infiltration may be considered in the differential diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis or toxic insult. PMID:24082771

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated manifestations in otolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    lacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V.; Papacharalampous, George; Kampessis, George; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. PMID:24470939

  4. Nigrostriatal Dopamine Acting on Globus Pallidus Regulates Sleep.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Yao, Qiao-Ling; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Chen, Michael C; Lu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Lesions of the globus pallidus externa (GPe) produce a profound sleep loss (∼45%) in rats, suggesting that GPe neurons promote sleep. As GPe neuronal activity is enhanced by dopamine (DA) from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), we hypothesized that SNc DA via the GPe promotes sleep. To test this hypothesis, we selectively destroyed the DA afferents to the caudoputamen (CPu) using 6-hydroxydopamine and examined changes in sleep-wake profiles in rats. Rats with 80-90% loss of SNc neurons displayed a significant 33.7% increase in wakefulness (or sleep reduction). This increase significantly correlated with the extent of SNc DA neuron loss. Furthermore, these animals exhibited sleep-wake fragmentation and reduced diurnal variability of sleep. We then optogenetic-stimulated SNc DA terminals in the CPu and found that 20-Hz stimulation from 9 to 10 PM increased total sleep by 69% with high electroencephalograph (EEG) delta power. We finally directly optogenetic-stimulated GPe neurons and found that 20-Hz stimulation of the GPe from 9 to 10 PM increased total sleep by 66% and significantly increased EEG delta power. These findings elucidate a novel circuit for DA control of sleep and the mechanisms of abnormal sleep in BG disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. PMID:25316334

  5. Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from normal and diseased external ear canals in dogs: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Girão, M D; Prado, M R; Brilhante, R S N; Cordeiro, R A; Monteiro, A J; Sidrim, J J C; Rocha, M F G

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the role of Malassezia pachydermatis as a pathogenic agent in canine otitis, a comparative analysis of isolates from normal and diseased external ear canals in dogs was undertaken. Specimens were collected from the ears of dogs with unilateral or bilateral otitis and from healthy dogs. Mycological analysis was by direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and Dixon's agar. Of the otitis specimens, 63.7% showed typical Malassezia cells on cytological examination. In samples taken from the healthy ears of dogs with unilateral otitis, only 21.43% (P<0.05) showed evidence of Malassezia. M. pachydermatis was identified cytologically and culturally in 57.53% (P<0.05), 14.29% and 30.0% of samples from the ears of dogs with otitis, from the healthy ears of dogs with unilateral otitis and from the ears of healthy dogs with no otitis. In the group with otitis associated with M. pachydermatis, the poodle was the most common breed (39.29%; P<0.05), whereas in the group without otitis, the German Shepherd breed was prominent (although this observation was not statistically significant). In both groups, the majority of dogs with M. pachydermatis were aged between 1 and 3 years (P<0.05). The higher incidence of M. pachydermatis isolated from the ears of dogs with otitis externa suggests a putative pathogenic role of this yeast in this condition. PMID:16154787

  6. Otic cytology in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Angus, John C

    2004-03-01

    Accurate characterization of the primary cause and perpetuating factors is essential for successful management of ear disease in dogs and cats. Cytology is a simple, rapid, and practical diagnostic test that should be performed routinely on any and all patients presented for clinical signs consistent with otitis externa. In combination with clinical signs, otoscopic evaluation, and diagnostic testing of primary disease, serial cytology enhances the ability of veterinarians to diagnose secondary infections, monitor progression of disease, evaluate response to therapy, and make appropriate management decisions. Cytologic specimens should be evaluated for the presence, numbers, and characteristics of three key features: yeast, bacteria, and leukocytes. More than five yeast organisms or more than 25 bacteria per high-powered field is suggestive of significant microbial activity warranting therapeutic intervention. The presence of leukocytes, particularly with phagocytized bacteria, indicates "true infection" rather than overgrowth; if suppurative discharge is present, systemic therapy is needed. Cytology combined with culture and susceptibility is the best method for identification of bacterial overgrowth and infection; however, if only one test can be performed, always choose cytology. Culture results assist in the selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy, but cytology determines whether systemic antibiotics are indicated, which organisms are most significant, and when therapy can be discontinued. PMID:15062616

  7. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA.

    PubMed

    Vickers, T Winston; Clifford, Deana L; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Duncan, Calvin L; Gaffney, Patricia M; Boyce, Walter M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)--48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001-2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007-2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor. PMID:26618759

  8. [Aniseikonia reduces binocular summation in the VECP].

    PubMed

    Krause, K; Gerding, H; Timmermann, M; Kauffmann, T

    1995-04-01

    The binocular summation effect of human VECP (increase in amplitude from about 4.0 microV to about 5.4 microV) was proved and optimized in 32 subjects. Stimulus parameters: TV steady-state pattern reversal (7.0 Hz); pattern size 1 degree; stimulus contrast 5% (higher stimulus contrasts reduced considerably the selectivity of the binocular summation effect); 96 sweeps averaging (Nicolet Compaq Four); position of electrodes: 10% and 30% above Protuberantia occipitalis externa of nasioninion distance. Aniseikonia of 7 to 52% was generated by means of small Galilei telescopes. Because of comparatively large interindividual variance within the series of subjects, no decrease in binocular VECP amplitude could be demonstrated at an aniseikonia less than 52%. On one woman subject, a significant reduction in amplitude (5% level) at 14%, 26% and 52% aniseikonia was apparent, but not at 7%. Thus, for this subject, it was possible to correlate the results with the clinically known limits of toleration for aniseikonia. This result was confirmed by more than 60% of the subjects in the test group. PMID:7780270

  9. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    PubMed

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

  10. Variations in prevalence of viral, bacterial, and rhizocephalan diseases and parasites of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    Prevalence of blue crab diseases and parasites has not been consistently monitored in the Gulf of Mexico. To establish current prevalence levels and to more fully understand population dynamics, commercial landing trends, and effects of future natural and anthropogenic disasters on animal health, we measured the prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Loxothylacus texanus, shell disease, and Vibrio spp. in blue crabs collected from Louisiana in 2013 and the beginning of 2014. We used PCR to detect WSSV and L. texanus infections, visual gross diagnosis for L. texanus externae and shell disease, and standard microbiological culture techniques and biochemical testing for Vibrio spp. We found no crabs infected with WSSV or L. texanus. Absence of L. texanus parasitization was expected based on the sampled salinities and the sampling focus on large crabs. Shell disease was present at a level of 54.8% and was most prevalent in the winter and summer and least prevalent in the spring. Vibrio spp. were found in the hemolymph of 22.3% of the crabs and prevalence varied by site, season, and sex. Additionally, three of 39 crabs tested were infected with reo-like virus. PMID:25769514

  11. [Functional morphology of the theca interna of the vesicular follicle in human ovary].

    PubMed

    Schaar, H

    1976-01-01

    A study of histological serial sections of human ovaries and histochemical reactions established that several cell types differentiate in the theca interna during the formation and development of tertiary follicles (2nd growth period). This leads, in turn, to triple-layering of the theca interna in follicles of the 2nd resting period. The inner thecal layer consists of fusiform cells from the basement membrane, which are apposed to the membrana granulosa and show a strong positive reaction to alkaline phosphatases. A tropic function for the follicular epithelium must be assigned to this layer. The middle layer consists of epitheloid thecal cells, which show a strong positive reaction to 3beta-ol-steroid hydrogenase. These represent the estrogen glands of the follicle. The outer layer of the theca interna, whose transition to the theca externa is indistinct, also has fusiform cells, which are available as reserve material for the differentiation of further epitheloid thecal cells to pre-ovulatory follicles in later periods of development. PMID:183448

  12. Periarteritis nodosa in rats treated with chronic excess sodium chloride (NaCl) after X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Ito, A.; Kajihara, H.

    1987-07-01

    Five-week-old male Crj:CD (SD) rats were treated with excess sodium chloride after abdominal X-irradiation. The gastric regions of the rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy given in two equal fractions separated by 3 days. After X-irradiation, animals were fed a diet containing 10% sodium chloride. Red blood cell anemia appeared 22 weeks after the last irradiation. By gross observation, the mesenteric arteries became reddish in color, and bead- or lead pipe-like nodular thickenings were present. Microscopically, these nodularly thickened mesenteric arteries showed fibrinoid necrosis with massive inflammatory infiltration including eosinophils and neutrophils. In more advanced lesions, elastica interna and externa and medial smooth muscle cells disappeared completely and were replaced by granulation tissue. In old lesions, arterial walls were markedly thickened with fibrous or fibromuscular tissue. These findings were quite similar to those of the human periarteritis nodosa. These arterial lesions could not be found in the rats with X-irradiation only, sodium chloride only, or in nontreated animals. This study demonstrates X-ray-induced, NaCl-promoted periarteritis nodosa-like lesions in rats.

  13. Periarteritis nodosa in rats treated with chronic excess sodium chlorides (NaCl) after X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Nakagawa, Y.; Ito, A.; Kajihara, H.

    1987-07-01

    Five-week-old male Crj:CD (SD) rats were treated with excess sodium chloride after abdominal X-irradiation. The gastric regions of the rats were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy given in two equal fractions separated by 3 days. After X-irradiation, animals were fed a diet containing 10% sodium chloride. Red blood cell anemia appeared 22 weeks after the last irradiation. By gross observation, the mesenteric arteries became reddish in color, and bead- or lead pipe-like nodular thickenings were present. Microscopically these nodularly thickened mesenteric arteries showed fibrinoid necrosis with massive inflammatory infiltration including eosinophils and neutrophils. In more advanced lesions, elastica interna and externa and medial smooth muscle cells disappeared completely and were replaced by granulation tissue. In old lesions, arterial walls were markedly thickened with fibrous or fibromuscular tissue. These findings were quite similar to those of the human periarteritis nodosa. These arterial lesions could not be found in the rats with X-irradiation only, sodium chloride only, or in nontreated animals. This study demonstrates X-ray-induced, NaCl-promoted periarteritis nodosa-like lesions in rats.

  14. Use of ImageJ software for histomorphometric evaluation of normal and severely affected canine ear canals.

    PubMed

    Zur, Gila; Klement, Eyal

    2015-10-01

    Morphological studies comparing normal and diseased ear canals use primarily subjective scoring. The aim of this study was to compare normal and severely affected ears in dogs with objective measurements using ImageJ software. Ear canals were harvested from cadavers with normal ears and from dogs that underwent total ear canal ablation for unresolved otitis. Histopathology samples from ear canals were evaluated by semi-quantitative scoring and also by using ImageJ-software for histomorphometric measurements. The normal ears were compared to the severely affected ears using the 2 methods. The 2 methods were significantly (P < 0.0001) correlated for epidermal hyperplasia, ceruminous gland dilation, and hyperplasia and tissue inflammation, which were significantly greater in the severely affected ears (P < 0.0001). This study demonstrated that there is a very high correlation between the 2 methods for the most markedly affected components of otitis externa and that ImageJ software can be efficiently used to measure and evaluate ear canal histomorphometry. PMID:26424913

  15. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine Dermatitis Secondary to Corynebacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Boynosky, Nicole Ann; Stokking, Laura B

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are considered nonpathogenic in canine dermatitis; however, potential clinical significance has been demonstrated in canine otitis externa and from a dog bite wound in a human. Objectives of this study were to identify the predominant Corynebacterium species present in lesions of canine dermatitis, assess pathogenic role, determine antimicrobial susceptibility, and evaluate clinical response. Of 37 isolates identified as Corynebacterium, 31 were Corynebacterium auriscanis . Most Corynebacterium isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (97%), tetracyclines (92%), and amikacin (89%); isolate susceptibilities to β-lactams, trimethoprim-sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones were <50%. Most cultures grew mixed populations of bacteria; C. auriscanis was the only organism isolated in three patients. At recheck, 2-8 wk after initial presentation, pleomorphic rods were absent or significantly decreased in all patients. Two of three C. auriscanis isolates were obtained in pure culture and were evaluable, meaning patient had an initial exam and recheck examination. Both patients were already on antimicrobials to which C. auriscanis was resistant in vitro. Both improved after doxycycline administration. C. auriscanis may act as an opportunistic pathogen in canine dermatitis and may not respond to antimicrobial therapy based on susceptibilities for other organisms in mixed infections. Occasionally, Corynebacterium isolated alone may be pathogenic. PMID:26535455

  16. A computational modelling approach to investigate different targets in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pirini, Marco; Rocchi, Laura; Sensi, Mariachiara; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2009-02-01

    We investigated by a computational model of the basal ganglia the different network effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) in different target sites in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), and the globus pallidus pars externa (GPe). A cellular-based model of the basal ganglia system (BGS), based on the model proposed by Rubin and Terman (J Comput Neurosci 16:211-235, 2004), was developed. The original Rubin and Terman model was able to reproduce both the physiological and pathological activities of STN, GPi, GPe and thalamo-cortical (TC) relay cells. In the present study, we introduced a representation of the direct pathway of the BGS, allowing a more complete framework to simulate DBS and to interpret its network effects in the BGS. Our results suggest that DBS in the STN could functionally restore the TC relay activity, while DBS in the GPe and in the GPi could functionally over-activate and inhibit it, respectively. Our results are consistent with the experimental and the clinical evidences on the network effects of DBS. PMID:18553128

  17. Identification of a direct GABAergic pallidocortical pathway in rodents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael C; Ferrari, Loris; Sacchet, Matthew D; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Qiu, Mei-Hong; Gotlib, Ian H; Fuller, Patrick M; Arrigoni, Elda; Lu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between the basal ganglia and the cortex plays a critical role in a range of behaviors. Output from the basal ganglia to the cortex is thought to be relayed through the thalamus, but an intriguing alternative is that the basal ganglia may directly project to and communicate with the cortex. We explored an efferent projection from the globus pallidus externa (GPe), a key hub in the basal ganglia system, to the cortex of rats and mice. Anterograde and retrograde tracing revealed projections to the frontal premotor cortex, especially the deep projecting layers, originating from GPe neurons that receive axonal inputs from the dorsal striatum. Cre-dependent anterograde tracing in Vgat-ires-cre mice confirmed that the pallidocortical projection is GABAergic, and in vitro optogenetic stimulation in the cortex of these projections produced a fast inhibitory postsynaptic current in targeted cells that was abolished by bicuculline. The pallidocortical projections targeted GABAergic interneurons and, to a lesser extent, pyramidal neurons. This GABAergic pallidocortical pathway directly links the basal ganglia and cortex, and may play a key role in behavior and cognition in normal and disease states. PMID:25581560

  18. Horner's syndrome in dogs and cats: 100 cases (1975-1985).

    PubMed

    Kern, T J; Aromando, M C; Erb, H N

    1989-08-01

    The medical records of 74 dogs and 26 cats with Horner's syndrome (HS) that were admitted to the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine between January 1975 and October 1985 were reviewed. In dogs, but not cats, HS was associated significantly (P less than 0.01) with increasing age. Dogs with hypothyroidism (defined liberally but not rigorously), intracranial neoplasia, or thoracic neoplasia, cats with otitis media/interna (defined liberally), and dogs and cats with brachial plexus root avulsion were at greater risk for developing HS than were animals that were hit by a car. Dogs and cats with otitis externa were at less risk of developing HS than were animals that were hit by a car. The cause of HS could not be determined in 50% of dogs and 42.3% of cats. The results of topical adrenergic drug testing in dogs were inconclusive in localizing lesion site. In dogs and cats, HS appeared to be unassociated with gender, breed, or right vs left side. The important causes of HS in dogs and cats were trauma (hit by car), brachial plexus root avulsion, intracranial and thoracic neoplasia, and otitis media/interna. PMID:2768065

  19. SPECT imaging in evaluating extent of malignant external otitis: case report

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Tu'Meh, S.S.; Piwnica-Worms, D.; Holman, B.L.

    1987-03-01

    Otitis externa, a benign inflammatory process of the external auditory canal, is general responsive to local therapy. Some patients however, develop a less controllable disease leading to chondritis and osteomyelitis of the base of the skull. The direct invasive characteristic of the disease has led to the descriptive term malignant external otitis (MEO), more appropriately called necrotizing or invasive external otitis. Malignant external otitis is caused by an aggressive pseudomonas or proteus infection that almost exclusively occurs in elderly diabetic patients. The primary imaging modalities previously used in the diagnosis and evaluation of MEO were standard planar scintigraphic techniques with technetium-99M (/sup 99m/Tc) bone agents and gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga), and pluridirectional tomography. The advent of high resolution computed tomography (CT) effectively allowed demonstration of the soft tissue extension and bone destruction associated with MEO, but still suffered from the low sensitivity constraints of all radiographic techniques in determining early inflammatory bone involvement. Recent work suggests that scintigraphic detection of MEO with /sup 99m/Tc-MDP and /sup 67/Ga, combined with the cross-sectional resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be of value in planning treatment of this inflammatory condition.

  20. Effects of common topical otic preparations on the morphology of isolated cochlear outer hair cells.

    PubMed

    Russell, P T; Church, C A; Jinn, T H; Kim, D J; John, E O; Jung, T T

    2001-01-01

    Otic drops are commonly used not only for otitis externa but also for otorrhea in the presence of tympanostomy tube or tympanic membrane perforation. Many studies have demonstrated the ototoxicity of common otic preparations such as Cortisporin otic drops. Recent studies have suggested the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic drops as an alternative owing to their excellent antimicrobial coverage and no ototoxic effect. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative ototoxicity of four common otic preparations by direct exposure to isolated cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). OHCs from adult chinchilla cochlea were exposed to standard bathing solution (control), Cortisporin, Cipro HC, Ciloxan, and Floxin. The cells were observed using an inverted microscope, and the images recorded in digital still-frame and video, and analyzed on the Image Pro-Plus 3.0 program. As measured by time to cell death and change in morphology of OHCs, Cortisporin was most toxic to OHCs. Among the fluoroquinolone drops, Floxin was more toxic than Ciloxan or Cipro HC. PMID:11349764

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated manifestations in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Lacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Papacharalampous, George; Kampessis, George; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. PMID:24470939

  2. Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.

    PubMed

    Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported. PMID:25046431

  3. Use of ImageJ software for histomorphometric evaluation of normal and severely affected canine ear canals

    PubMed Central

    Zur, Gila; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Morphological studies comparing normal and diseased ear canals use primarily subjective scoring. The aim of this study was to compare normal and severely affected ears in dogs with objective measurements using ImageJ software. Ear canals were harvested from cadavers with normal ears and from dogs that underwent total ear canal ablation for unresolved otitis. Histopathology samples from ear canals were evaluated by semi-quantitative scoring and also by using ImageJ-software for histomorphometric measurements. The normal ears were compared to the severely affected ears using the 2 methods. The 2 methods were significantly (P < 0.0001) correlated for epidermal hyperplasia, ceruminous gland dilation, and hyperplasia and tissue inflammation, which were significantly greater in the severely affected ears (P < 0.0001). This study demonstrated that there is a very high correlation between the 2 methods for the most markedly affected components of otitis externa and that ImageJ software can be efficiently used to measure and evaluate ear canal histomorphometry. PMID:26424913

  4. Combined Immunodeficiency Associated with DOCK8 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Davis, Jeremiah C.; Lamborn, Ian T.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Jing, Huie; Favreau, Amanda J.; Matthews, Helen F.; Davis, Joie; Turner, Maria L.; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M.; Su, Helen C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections with elevated serum levels of IgE are features of some variants of combined immunodeficiency. The genetic causes of these variants are unknown. METHODS We collected longitudinal clinical data on 11 patients from eight families who had recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections. We performed comparative genomic hybridization arrays and targeted gene sequencing. Variants with predicted loss-of-expression mutations were confirmed by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase –polymerase-chain-reaction assay and immunoblotting. We evaluated the number and function of lymphocytes with the use of in vitro assays and flow cytometry. RESULTS Patients had recurrent otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonias; recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin infections with otitis externa; recurrent, severe herpes simplex virus or herpes zoster infections; extensive and persistent infections with molluscum contagiosum; and human papillomavirus infections. Most patients had severe atopy with anaphylaxis; several had squamous-cell carcinomas, and one had T-cell lymphoma –leukemia. Elevated serum IgE levels, hypereosinophilia, low numbers of T cells and B cells, low serum IgM levels, and variable IgG antibody responses were common. Expansion in vitro of activated CD8 T cells was impaired. Novel homozygous or compound heterozygous deletions and point mutations in the gene encoding the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) led to the absence of DOCK8 protein in lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Autosomal recessive DOCK8 deficiency is associated with a novel variant of combined immunodeficiency. PMID:19776401

  5. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingming; Guo, Daqing; Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-10-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 2-4 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  6. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)—48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001–2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007–2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor. PMID:26618759

  7. The "skin-skull-brain model": a new instrument for the study of gunshot effects.

    PubMed

    Thali, M J; Kneubuehl, B P; Zollinger, U; Dirnhofer, R

    2002-02-18

    In order to create and study wound morphology, a "skin-skull-brain model" had to be designed which would make the laboratory reproduction of a real ballistic injury possible. To simulate the human skin, an artificial skin (a silicon cap) is used. This silicon scalp contains synthetic fibers (artificial leather) to simulate the collagen and fat of the scalp. The artificial skull is a layered polyurethane sphere (19 cm o.d.; and 5, 6, or 7 mm thick) constructed in a specially designed form with a Tabula externa, Tabula interna, and a porous Diploe sandwiched in between. The periostium of the artificial skull is made of latex. This elastic latex layer prevents the bone fragments from scattering after the model has been struck by gunfire. The brain itself is simulated with ordnance gelatin, 10% at 4 degrees C, a material well known in wound ballistics. Gunshots were fired at a distance of 10 m from the model. During the evaluation of the "skin-skull-brain model", it was possible to show that injuries inflicted to this model are fully comparable to the morphology of equivalent real gunshot injuries. Using the "skin-skull-brain model" has some significant advantages: the model is inexpensive, easy to construct, instantly available for use, and eliminates ethics conflicts. The main advantage of such a model is, in comparison with biological substances, the high reproducibility of inflicted traumas. PMID:11909661

  8. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 24 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  9. [Evaluation of intensity of angiogenesis in granulation tissue in chronic otitis media--preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Pajor, Anna; Jankowski, Andrzej; Danilewicz, Marian; Durko, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    In chronic otitis media molecular pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown, however, angiogenesis may play a role. The aim of the study was to determine the intensity of angiogenesis in granulation tissue in chronic otitis media of different clinical course. Twenty six granulation tissue specimens (twenty two--from chronic otitis media, four--from prolongated otitis externa) taken during surgery were analyzed. The angiogenesis (microvessel density) was measured in paraffin-embedded tissue by an immunohistochemical method, by staining for endothelial cells with a monoclonal antibody against CD 34. The presence of CD 34 was found in all specimens. The expression was more intense in tissue samples from the group with good clinical course (good healing and without recurrence) than those in the group with poor healing and recurrence (mean number of dots for mm2 589,2 vs 533,3, respectively) and from the group without bacterial infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa than those with this infection (mean number of dots for mm2 645,5 vs 440,8, respectively), but differences were not significant. In conclusion it is suggested that angiogenesis may contribute to different clinical course of chronic otitis media. PMID:17152811

  10. Further characteristics of Arcanobacterium canis, a novel species of genus Arcanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Sammra, O; Balbutskaya, A; Zhang, S; Hijazin, M; Nagib, S; Lämmler, C; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Kostrzewa, M; Timke, M

    2013-12-27

    Comparable to previously conducted phenotypical and genotypical investigations characterizing Arcanobacterium canis, a newly described species with the type strain A. canis DSM 25104 isolated from an otitis externa of a dog, four additional A. canis strains isolated from infections of three dogs and one cat could reliably be identified by phenotypic properties, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, 23S rDNA, and the genes rpoB and gap. All four A. canis investigated in the present study were isolated from the infected animals together with several other bacterial species indicating that the pathogenic importance of A. canis remains unclear. However, the detection of peptidic spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the presented phenotypic and genotypic approaches might help to identify A. canis in future and might elucidate the role this species plays in infections of dogs and cats. PMID:24144861

  11. Un modelo general de eyección de materia estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstein, N. O.

    Posiblemente, la más directa y dramática evidencia de la pérdida de masa por parte de diferentes objetos astrofísicos la constituye el fenómeno de eyección persistente de materia. En el caso particular de las estrellas, las características y los mecanismos que impulsan a sus atmósferas externas hacia el medio interestelar varían a lo largo del diagrama evolutivo. En parte por este motivo, en parte por las dificultades matemáticas involucradas, es muy difícil elaborar un modelo que pueda dar cuenta de los diferentes mecanismos que originan e impulsan el viento estelar. Cabe entonces preguntarse si es posible desarrollar un único modelo en el que estos mecanismos puedan ser considerados (y variados) como parámetros externos que responden a las características de cada región de la secuencia evolutiva. La respuesta es que, en función de la geometría del campo electromagnético involucrado, todo depende de la simetría del problema. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis detallado de una de tales simetrías, discutiendo en particular los resultados obtenidos a la luz de las observaciones disponibles.

  12. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  13. Glomerular basement membrane anionic charge site changes early in aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, J. D.; Sisson-Ross, S.; Vernier, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Alterations of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) anionic (charge sites, CSs) in the development of proteinuria in a model of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in man (puromycin aminonucleoside nephrotic syndrome [PAN] in the rat) were assessed quantitatively and sequentially early after disease induction. GBM CSs (known to consist mainly of heparan sulfate-rich proteoglycans) were stained in vivo and, in a separate group of animals by an in vitro method, with the cationic marker polyethyleneimine (PEI) studied by electron microscopic examination. Four hours after administration of PAN, there was a significant decrease in GBM lamina rara externa CSs: 18 +/- 0.7 versus 22.0 +/- 2.2 per 1000 nm GBM in controls by PEI injection and 17.2 +/- 2.7 versus 21.1 +/- 1.6 per 1000 nm GBM in controls by PEI in vitro staining. This CS alteration coincided with changes in glomerular epithelial cell morphologic characteristics (increased cytoplasmic organelles and rough endoplasmic reticulum) and preceded the detection of foot process broadening (at 24 hours) and increased urinary albuminuria (suggested at 12-24 hours, statistically significant at 36-48 hours). These results suggest that GBM CS-heparan sulfate proteoglycan alterations consisting of either decreased number and/or less anionic charge occur early in PAN and support a role for glomerular epithelial cell maintenance of GBM CS for normal glomerular function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3789094

  14. Cavernomas of the skull: review of the literature 1975-2000.

    PubMed

    Heckl, Stefan; Aschoff, Alfred; Kunze, Stefan

    2002-03-01

    We describe four patients with intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas of the skull which were localized supraorbitally, parietally (two cases), and occipitally. The diameter ranged from 15 mm to 25 mm. They presented with slowly growing mass, tender to pressure, with spontaneous pain, and with freely mobile skin above the cavernoma sites. Magnetic resonance imaging (hyperintensity on T2 and isointensity with brain on T1) and CT (osteolytic lesion with erosion of the tabula externa) confirmed the plain skull films showing the honeycomb or sunburst appearance pattern. Resections and postoperative course were uneventful. In three of these cases there was coexistence with tumors (meningeoma, malignant lymphoma, and malignant melanoma); none of these constellations has been described before. Generally, cavernous hemangiomas of the skull are rare. There is one extensive review published by Barnes in 1984 regarding a period of 136 years with 123 intraosseous hemangiomas of the skull and 74 of the jaws. Unfortunately, the histological confirmation is not completely clear and some capillary hemangiomas are included. In a review of the literature since 1975, we found 103 histologically proven intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas of the skull (with our four cases included) and 22 of the jaws, which are shown in an overview with respect to their localization. The most frequent site was frontal, followed by temporal. PMID:11954766

  15. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  16. In vitro activity of climbazole, clotrimazole and silver-sulphadiazine against isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1997-06-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast-like, mainly zoophilic fungus, also known as Malassezia canis. It can be isolated in 20-50% from normal ear cerumen specimen from dogs or cats and has an even higher prevalence in non-suppurative otitis externa in animal species such as these. The genus Malassezia contains the two species M. furfur, a mainly anthropophilic fungus which physiologically occurs on human skin, and M. pachydermatis. We performed Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)-testings of 40 clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis against climbazole (CLIM), clotrimazole (CLOT) and silver-sulphadiazine (SILV). While CLOT and CLIM are broad-spectrum antimycotics of the azole-type, SILV is a sulphonamide compound with antibacterial and antimycotic properties used topically in veterinary medicine. For CLIM, the range of MICs was between < 0.06 and 1 micrograms/ml with an empirical median mean of 0.06 microgram/ml; for CLOT the range was between < 0.06 and 32 micrograms/ml (mean = 4 micrograms/ml), respectively. The MICs for SILV ranged between 0.25 and > 64 micrograms/ml (mean = 16 micrograms/ml) against all tested strains. In conclusion, the two azole-antimycotics CLIM and CLOT showed good in vitro activity against M. pachydermatis. The activity of CLIM was even higher than that of CLOT, which might be due to the better water solubility of CLIM. The activity of SILV was significantly lower. PMID:9230670

  17. Glyceryl monooleate-based otic delivery system of ofloxacin: release profile and bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Samer; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Sallam, Alsayyed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the preparation and characterization of glyceryl monooleate- (GMO) based drug delivery system containing ofloxacin for the treatment of otitis externa. Acetate buffer (pH 4.5) containing dissolved ofloxacin was added to molten GMO as an aqueous phase, this resulted in the formation of a cubic and a reverse hexagonal phases. The release behavior of ofloxacin from the drug delivery system was studied using three different methods. The mechanism of drug release using paddles/dissolution apparatus and Franz diffusion cells followed Higuchi and Fickian diffusion models; whereas intrinsic release rate method showed zero-order kinetics. The intrinsic release rate was estimated and found to be 187.2 µg/cm(2)/h. The release mechanisms were similar irrespective of the loaded ofloxacin amount, however, the higher drug load displayed higher release rate. The drug delivery system was proven to be microbiologically effective by using agar diffusion method, against Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The GMO/ofloxacin formulation was stable for 6 months after preparation at room temperature as measured with respect to phase stability and antibacterial activity. PMID:24392877

  18. Inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency rather than the loss of interstitial cells of Cajal causes smooth muscle dysfunction in W/W(v) mice.

    PubMed

    Winston, John H; Chen, Jinghong; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Sarna, Sushil K

    2014-01-01

    The initial hypothesis suggested that the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) played an essential role in mediating enteric neuronal input to smooth muscle cells. Much information for this hypothesis came from studies in W/W(v) mice lacking ICC. However, mast cells, which play critical roles in regulating inflammation in their microenvironment, are also absent in W/W(v) mice. We tested the hypothesis that the depletion of mast cells in W/W(v) mice generates inflammation in fundus muscularis externa (ME) that impairs smooth muscle reactivity to Ach, independent of the depletion of ICC. We performed experiments on the fundus ME from wild type (WT) and W/W(v) mice before and after reconstitution of mast cells by bone marrow transplant. We found that mast cell deficiency in W/W(v) mice significantly increased COX-2 and iNOS expression and decreased smooth muscle reactivity to Ach. Mast cell reconstitution or concurrent blockade of COX-2 and iNOS restored smooth muscle contractility without affecting the suppression of c-kit in W/W(v) mice. The expression of nNOS and ChAT were suppressed in W/W(v) mice; mast cell reconstitution did not restore them. We conclude that innate inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency in W/W(v) mice impairs smooth muscle contractility independent of ICC deficiency. The impairment of smooth muscle contractility and the suppression of the enzymes regulating the synthesis of Ach and NO in W/W(v) mice need to be considered in evaluating the role of ICC in regulating smooth muscle and enteric neuronal function in W/W(v) mice. PMID:24550836

  19. Inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency rather than the loss of interstitial cells of Cajal causes smooth muscle dysfunction in W/Wv mice

    PubMed Central

    Winston, John H.; Chen, Jinghong; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2014-01-01

    The initial hypothesis suggested that the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) played an essential role in mediating enteric neuronal input to smooth muscle cells. Much information for this hypothesis came from studies in W/Wv mice lacking ICC. However, mast cells, which play critical roles in regulating inflammation in their microenvironment, are also absent in W/Wv mice. We tested the hypothesis that the depletion of mast cells in W/Wv mice generates inflammation in fundus muscularis externa (ME) that impairs smooth muscle reactivity to Ach, independent of the depletion of ICC. We performed experiments on the fundus ME from wild type (WT) and W/Wv mice before and after reconstitution of mast cells by bone marrow transplant. We found that mast cell deficiency in W/Wv mice significantly increased COX-2 and iNOS expression and decreased smooth muscle reactivity to Ach. Mast cell reconstitution or concurrent blockade of COX-2 and iNOS restored smooth muscle contractility without affecting the suppression of c-kit in W/Wv mice. The expression of nNOS and ChAT were suppressed in W/Wv mice; mast cell reconstitution did not restore them. We conclude that innate inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency in W/Wv mice impairs smooth muscle contractility independent of ICC deficiency. The impairment of smooth muscle contractility and the suppression of the enzymes regulating the synthesis of Ach and NO in W/Wv mice need to be considered in evaluating the role of ICC in regulating smooth muscle and enteric neuronal function in W/Wv mice. PMID:24550836

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency promotes the development of necrotizing enterocolitis-like intestinal injury in a newborn mouse model.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stephanie; Wong, Ronald J; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kalish, Flora; Chisholm, Karen M; Zhao, Hui; Vreman, Hendrik J; Sylvester, Karl G; Stevenson, David K

    2013-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typified by mucosal destruction, which subsequently can lead to intestinal necrosis. Prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization are the main risk factors and, combined with other stressors, can cause increased intestinal permeability, injury, and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates intestinal protection due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects of its products carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and bilirubin. This study investigates a possible role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of NEC using a newborn mouse model. We induced NEC-like intestinal injury in 7-day-old HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1 Het, Hmox1(+/-)) and wild-type (Wt, Hmox1(+/+)) mice by gavage feeding and hypoxic exposures. Control (Con) pups of both genotypes were dam-fed. Intestines of HO-1 Het Con pups appeared predisposed to injury, with higher histological damage scores, more TUNEL-positive cells, and a significant reduction in muscularis externa thickness compared with Wt Con pups. The increase in HO activity after HO-1 induction by the substrate heme or by hypoxic stress was significantly impaired in HO-1 Het pups. After induction of intestinal injury, HO-1 Het pups displayed significantly higher NEC incidence (78 vs. 43%), mortality (83 vs. 54%), and median scores (2.5 vs. 1.5) than Wt NEC pups. PCR array analyses revealed increased expressions of IL-1β, P-selectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, collagen type XVIII-α1, serpine 1, and others in NEC-induced HO-1 Het ileal and jejunal tissues. We conclude that a partial HO-1 deficiency promotes experimental NEC-like intestinal injury, possibly mediated by exaggerated inflammation and disruption in tissue repair. PMID:23578787

  1. Evolution of the basal ganglia: dual-output pathways conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Ericsson, Jesper; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2012-09-01

    The basal ganglia, including the striatum, globus pallidus interna and externa (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and substantia nigra pars compacta, are conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny and have been suggested to form a common vertebrate mechanism for action selection. In mammals, this circuitry is further elaborated by the presence of a dual-output nucleus, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and the presence of modulatory input from the cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We sought to determine whether these additional components of the mammalian basal ganglia are also present in one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates, the lamprey. We show, by using immunohistochemistry, tract tracing, and whole-cell recordings, that homologs of the SNr and PPN are present in the lamprey. Thus the SNr receives direct projections from inwardly rectifying γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic striatal neurons expressing substance P, but it is also influenced by indirect basal ganglia projections from the STN and potentially the GPe. Moreover, GABAergic SNr projection neurons are tonically active and project to the thalamus and brainstem motor areas. The homolog of the PPN contains both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons and is connected with all the nuclei of the basal ganglia, supporting its proposed role as part of an extended basal ganglia. A separate group of cholinergic neurons dorsal to the PPN corresponds to the descending mesencephalic locomotor region. Our results suggest that dual-output nuclei are part of the ancestral basal ganglia and that the PPN appears to have coevolved as part of a mechanism for action selection common to all vertebrates. PMID:22351244

  2. Intramural distribution of regulatory peptides in the sigmoid-recto-anal region of the human gut.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, G L; Adrian, T E; Allen, J M; Soimero, L; Cancellieri, A; Yeats, J C; Blank, M; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of regulatory peptides was studied in the separated mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa taken at 10 sampling sites encompassing the whole human sigmoid colon (five sites), rectum (two sites), and anal canal (three sites). Consistently high concentrations of VIP were measured in the muscle layer at most sites (proximal sigmoid: 286 (16) pmol/g, upper rectum: 269 (17), a moderate decrease being found in the distal smooth sphincter (151 (30) pmol/g). Values are expressed as mean (SE). Conversely, substance P concentrations showed an obvious decline in the recto-anal muscle (mid sigmoid: 19 (2.0) pmol/g, distal rectum: 7.1 (1.3), upper anal canal: 1.6 (0.6)). Somatostatin was mainly present in the sigmoid mucosa and submucosa (37 (9.3) and 15 (3.5) pmol/g, respectively) and showed low, but consistent concentrations in the muscle (mid sigmoid: 2.2 (0.7) pmol/g, upper anal canal: 1.5 (0.8]. Starting in the distal sigmoid colon, a distinct peak of tissue NPY was revealed, which was most striking in the muscle (of mid sigmoid: 16 (3.9) pmol/g, upper rectum: 47 (7.8), anal sphincter: 58 (14)). Peptide YY was confined to the mucosa and showed an earlier peak (upper sigmoid: 709 (186) pmol/g, mid-distal sigmoid: 1965 (484)). A clear differential distribution of regulatory peptides was thus shown in the region studied. A possible role is suggested for NPY and VIP containing nerves in the effector control of the human internal anal sphincter. PMID:2454876

  3. Acute stress-induced colonic tissue HSP70 expression requires commensal bacterial components and intrinsic glucocorticoid.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kaori; Zhang, Xiumin; Ono, Yusuke; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2009-01-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSPs) has a protective effect in cells under stress. Physical stressors, such as restraint, induce HSPs in colonic tissue in vivo, but the mechanism of HSP induction is not yet clear. Because commensal bacteria support basal expression of colon epithelial HSP70, we postulated that stress responses may enhance the interaction of commensal bacteria and the colonic tissue. Restraining C57BL/6 mice for 2h effectively induced HSP70 in colonic epithelia. Both blockade of stress-induced glucocorticoid by RU486 or elimination of commensal bacteria by antibiotics independently abrogated restraint-induced HSP70 augmentation. Oral administration of LPS to commensal-depleted mice restored restraint-induced HSP70 augmentation. Because TLR4 expression was absent from the epithelial surface, and was limited to lamina propria and muscularis externa, we examined how LPS reaches the lamina propria. Alexa-LPS administered in the colonic lumen was only detected in the lamina propria of the restrained mice. Expression of the tight junction component ZO-1 in the epithelia, which regulates the passage of luminal substances through the epithelia, was reduced after restraint, but reversed by RU486. In conclusion, HSP70 induction in colonic epithelial cells under restraint requires both stress-induced glucocorticoid and luminal commensal bacteria, and LPS plays a significant role. Glucocorticoid-dependent attenuation of epithelial tight junction integrity may facilitate the access of LPS into the lamina propria, where TLR4, known to be required for HSP70 induction, is abundantly expressed. Sophisticated regulation of colonic protection against stressors involving the general stress response and the luminal environment has been demonstrated. PMID:18760344

  4. Morphological and molecular description of Tenuisentis niloticus (Meyer, 1932) (Acanthocephala: Tenuisentidae) from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae), in Burkina Faso, with emendation of the family diagnosis and notes on new features, cryptic genetic diversity and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Evans, R Paul; Boungou, Magloire; Heckmann, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Specimens described as Rhadinorhynchus niloticus Meyer, 1932 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from two male specimens collected from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) in the Egyptian Nile were later redescribed in the genus Tenuisentis Van Cleave, 1936 (Tenuisentidae) based on 12 specimens collected from the same host species in the White Nile. That redescription basically distinguished the two genera based on five traits but did not actually provide a formal description. His account left out information about cerebral ganglion, lemnisci, some reproductive structures, eggs, proboscis hook dissymmetry and roots, size of trunk and a few other structures. We provide (i) the first complete description of this species enhanced by SEM, molecular, and histo-pathological studies; (ii) expand the existing descriptions; (iii) correct questionable accounts advanced by Van Cleave on the cement gland and the hypodermal giant nuclei; and (iv) add descriptions of new features such as the para-receptacle structure which we also report from Paratenuisentis Bullock & Samuel, 1975, the only other genus in Tenuisentidae Van Cleave, 1936. The subsequent description of a few more specimens from the same host collected in Mali was more informative yet incomplete and at variance with our specimens from Burkina Faso. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) and nuclear (18S ribosomal RNA) gene relationships uncovered a cryptic species complex containing two lineages. Based on our studies, the family diagnosis is emended. The acanthocephalan causes damage to the host intestine as depicted in histopathological sections. The invading worm can extend from the mucosal layer to the muscularis externa of the host with subsequent tissue necrosis, villi compression, haemorrhaging and blood loss. PMID:26790681

  5. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  6. Determinação da composição química em nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Existe um gradiente radial de abundâncias no disco galáctico, cujo comportamento é razoavelmente bem conhecido para distâncias galactocêntricas entre 3 e 10 kpc. Foi obtido a partir de resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias, regiões HII e estrelas, como as estrelas quentes de tipo O, B e aglomerados abertos. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento deste gradiente radial na região externa do disco, conhecida como anticentro galáctico, reportamos aqui os resultados finais da análise de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro, observadas no LNA e no ESO entre 1995 e 2000. O uso de nebulosas planetárias permite o cálculo das abundâncias de elementos traçadores da evolução química do disco como oxigênio, argônio e neônio com o uso de técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Os resultados indicam uma distribuição de abundâncias distinta daquela encontrada na vizinhança solar, mostrando que o gradiente radial diminui sensivelmente para distâncias galactocêntricas maiores que 10 kpc. Este resultado está de acordo com os mais recentes modelos de evolução química do disco, que prevêem uma diminuição ou mesmo um desaparecimento do gradiente radial no bordo externo do disco galáctico. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  7. Optimizing a basal bark spray of dinotefuran to manage armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Christmas tree plantations.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Richard S

    2010-10-01

    The armored scales Fiorinia externa Ferris and Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are increasingly damaging to Christmas tree plantings in southern New England. The systemic insecticide dinotefuran was investigated for selectively suppressing armored scale populations relative to their natural enemies in cooperating growers' fields in 2008 and 2009. Banded soil application of dinotefuran resulted in poor control. However, a dinotefuran spray applied to the basal 25 cm of trunk resulted in its absorption through the bark, translocation to the foliage, and good efficacy. The basal bark spray did not significantly impact the activity of predators Chilocorus stigma (Say) or Cybocephalus nipponicus Enrody-Younga and in 2009 showed a dosage-dependent improvement in the percentage of scales parasitized by Encarsia citrina Craw. A field dosage-response factorial experiment revealed that a 0.25% (vol:vol) addition of a surfactant with dinotefuran did not enhance insecticidal effect. Probit-transformed scale population reduction relative to the untreated check was subjected to linear regression analysis; reduction of scale populations was proportional to the log of insecticide dosage, whereas basal bark spray efficacy declined in proportion to the cube of tree height. The regression equation can be used to optimize dosage relative to tree height. Excellent efficacy resulted from basal bark spray application dates of 28 April (prebud break) to mid-June, but earlier spray timing within that treatment window had fewer crawlers discoloring new growth with their short-lived feeding. A basal bark spray of dinotefuran is well suited for integration with natural enemies to manage armored scales in Christmas tree plantations. PMID:21061974

  8. The current practice trends in pediatric bone-anchored hearing aids in Canada: a national clinical and surgical practice survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) in the 1980s, the practices of surgeons who implant these hearing aids have become varied; different indications and surgical techniques are utilized depending on the surgeon and institution. The objective of the current study is to describe the clinical and surgical practices of otolaryngologists in Canada who perform pediatric BAHA operations. Methods A detailed practice questionnaire was devised and sent to all members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Those who performed pediatric BAHA surgeries were asked to participate. Results Twelve responses were received (response rate of 80%). All of the respondents identified congenital aural atresia to be an indication for pediatric BAHAs. Other indications were chronic otitis externa or media with hearing loss (92%), allergic reactions to conventional hearing aids (75%), congenital fixation or anomaly of ossicular chain (67%), and unilateral deafness (25%). Minor complications, such as skin reactions, were reported in 25% of cases, while major complications were very rare. There was great variability with regards to surgical techinque and post-operative management. The extent of financial support for the BAHA hardware and device also varied between provinces, and even within the same province. Conclusion There is a lack of general consensus regarding pediatric BAHA surgeries in Canada. With such a small community of otolaryngologists performing this procedure, we are hopeful that this survey can serve as an impetus for a national collaboration to establish a set of general management principles and inspire multi-site research ventures. PMID:23815797

  9. Evaluation of fungal flora in normal and diseased canine ears.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn J; Coyner, Kimberly S; Rankin, Shelley C; Lewis, Thomas P; Schick, Anthea E; Shumaker, Amy K

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize otic fungal flora encountered in normal dogs, atopic dogs with no clinical or cytological evidence of otitis and dogs with otitis externa. Forty-two normal dogs, 23 atopic dogs and 32 dogs with otitis were included in the study. Samples for otic fungal culture and cytology were obtained from all animals, for a total of 194 ears. Sixty-seven ear samples (34%) were culture positive for saprophytic fungal organisms, as follows: 43 (64%) Penicillium species, 13 (19%) Aspergillus species and the remaining 17% comprised of various other saprophytic fungal organisms. Cytological evidence of saprophytic fungal colonization or infection was not found in any animal. There was no relationship between positive saprophytic fungal culture and any study group. Thirty-three ear samples (17%) were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis. Cytological findings of Malassezia were significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia (P = 0.006 left ear; P = 0.019 right ear). Furthermore, increased numbers of Malassezia led to a higher chance of positive culture (P = 0.003 left ear; P = 0.008 right ear; McNemar's test). Malassezia pachydermatis was more likely to be cultured from ears with increased cerumen. Ear type (erect or pendulous) was not significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia or saprophytic fungal organisms. There was no relationship between positive Malassezia culture and any study group; however, Malassezia was more likely to be cultured from individual dogs in the atopic or otitis groups that also had other dermatological signs consistent with allergic dermatitis and/or pyoderma (P = 0.031 left ear; P = 0.005 right ear). PMID:20868397

  10. Hemlock woolly adelgid and elongate hemlock scale induce changes in foliar and twig volatiles of eastern hemlock.

    PubMed

    Pezet, Joshua; Elkinton, Joseph; Gomez, Sara; McKenzie, E Alexa; Lavine, Michael; Preisser, Evan

    2013-08-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is in rapid decline because of infestation by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae; 'HWA') and, to a lesser extent, the invasive elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa; 'EHS'). For many conifers, induced oleoresin-based defenses play a central role in their response to herbivorous insects; however, it is unknown whether eastern hemlock mobilizes these inducible defenses. We conducted a study to determine if feeding by HWA or EHS induced changes in the volatile resin compounds of eastern hemlock. Young trees were experimentally infested for 3 years with HWA, EHS, or neither insect. Twig and needle resin volatiles were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We observed a suite of changes in eastern hemlock's volatile profile markedly different from the largely terpenoid-based defense response of similar conifers. Overall, both insects produced a similar effect: most twig volatiles decreased slightly, while most needle volatiles increased slightly. Only HWA feeding led to elevated levels of methyl salicylate, a signal for systemic acquired resistance in many plants, and benzyl alcohol, a strong antimicrobial and aphid deterrent. Green leaf volatiles, often induced in wounded plants, were increased by both insects, but more strongly by EHS. The array of phytochemical changes we observed may reflect manipulation of the tree's biochemistry by HWA, or simply the absence of functional defenses against piercing-sucking insects due to the lack of evolutionary contact with these species. Our findings verify that HWA and EHS both induce changes in eastern hemlock's resin chemistry, and represent the first important step toward understanding the effects of inducible chemical defenses on hemlock susceptibility to these exotic pests. PMID:23900803

  11. Ceruminal diffusion activities and ceruminolytic characteristics of otic preparations – an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations. PMID:23574753

  12. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

    2010-06-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio.La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  13. Photoreceptor projection and termination pattern in the lamina of gonodactyloid stomatopods (mantis shrimp).

    PubMed

    Kleinlogel, Sonja; Marshall, N Justin

    2005-08-01

    The apposition compound eyes of gonodactyloid stomatopods are divided into a ventral and a dorsal hemisphere by six equatorial rows of enlarged ommatidia, the mid-band (MB). Whereas the hemispheres are specialized for spatial vision, the MB consists of four dorsal rows of ommatidia specialized for colour vision and two ventral rows specialized for polarization vision. The eight retinula cell axons (RCAs) from each ommatidium project retinotopically onto one corresponding lamina cartridge, so that the three retinal data streams (spatial, colour and polarization) remain anatomically separated. This study investigates whether the retinal specializations are reflected in differences in the RCA arrangement within the corresponding lamina cartridges. We have found that, in all three eye regions, the seven short visual fibres (svfs) formed by retinula cells 1-7 (R1-R7) terminate at two distinct lamina levels, geometrically separating the terminals of photoreceptors sensitive to either orthogonal e-vector directions or different wavelengths of light. This arrangement is required for the establishment of spectral and polarization opponency mechanisms. The long visual fibres (lvfs) of the eighth retinula cells (R8) pass through the lamina and project retinotopically to the distal medulla externa. Differences between the three eye regions exist in the packing of svf terminals and in the branching patterns of the lvfs within the lamina. We hypothesize that the R8 cells of MB rows 1-4 are incorporated into the colour vision system formed by R1-R7, whereas the R8 cells of MB rows 5 and 6 form a separate neural channel from R1 to R7 for polarization processing. PMID:15947970

  14. Effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation of STN afferent axons during DBS in Parkinson's disease: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Guiyeom; Lowery, Madeleine M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that subthalamic nucleus (STN)-Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may exert at least part of its therapeutic effect through the antidromic suppression of pathological oscillations in the cortex in 6-OHDA treated rats and in parkinsonian patients. STN-DBS may also activate STN neurons by initiating action potential propagation in the orthodromic direction, similarly resulting in suppression of pathological oscillations in the STN. While experimental studies have provided strong evidence in support of antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons, it is difficult to separate relative contributions of antidromic and orthodromic effects of STN-DBS. The aim of this computational study was to examine the effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation on neural firing patterns and beta-band (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the STN and cortex during DBS of STN afferent axons projecting from the cortex. High frequency antidromic stimulation alone effectively suppressed simulated beta activity in both the cortex and STN-globus pallidus externa (GPe) network. High frequency orthodromic stimulation similarly suppressed beta activity within the STN and GPe through the direct stimulation of STN neurons driven by DBS at the same frequency as the stimulus. The combined effect of both antidromic and orthodromic stimulation modulated cortical activity antidromically while simultaneously orthodromically driving STN neurons. While high frequency DBS reduced STN beta-band power, low frequency stimulation resulted in resonant effects, increasing beta-band activity, consistent with previous experimental observations. The simulation results indicate effective suppression of simulated oscillatory activity through both antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons and direct orthodromic stimulation of STN neurons. The results of the study agree with experimental recordings of STN and cortical neurons in rats and support the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons. PMID:24678296

  15. Effects of Oesophagostomum dentatum and dietary carbohydrates on morphology of the large intestine of pigs.

    PubMed

    Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Murrell, K D

    2003-10-01

    The effects of Oesophagostomum dentatum infection and dietary carbohydrates on the morphology and epithelial cell proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs were investigated experimentally. Thirty-two worm-free pigs (n=32) from a specific pathogen-free farm were randomly divided into four groups (A-D), of eight animals each. Pigs in groups A (control) and B (infected) were fed Diet 1, and pigs in groups C (control) and D (infected) were fed Diet 2. The two diets were formulated: Diet 1 (%) contained barley flour, oat husk meal plus soya bean meal (55:21:24) and Diet 2 (%) contained barley flour, inulin and sugar beet fibre (SBF) (80.1:7:12.9) plus soya bean meal (3:1) to contain carbohydrates from inulin and sugar beet fibre (SBF) that were readily fermentable in the large intestine. The two infected pig groups (16 pigs total) were inoculated with 6000 infective larvae of O. dentatum and all pigs, including the controls, were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. The combination of O. dentatum infection and highly fermentable dietary carbohydrates affected the mucosal architecture, the epithelial cell proliferation and mucin secretion of the large intestine. Infection had a significant influence on the crypt volume, height and density, and on muscularis externa at the proximal and middle colon. The changes in the affected gut sections were proportional to the number of worms present. However, these parameters appeared unaffected by those diets alone. In pigs without infection non-digestible dietary carbohydrates significantly influenced the tissue weight of colon. PMID:14519317

  16. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C.; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders. PMID:24723855

  17. Purinergic signalling in the enteric nervous system (An overview of current perspectives).

    PubMed

    King, Brian F

    2015-09-01

    Purinergic Signalling in the Enteric Nervous System involves the regulated release of ATP (or a structurally-related nucleotide) which activates an extensive suite of membrane-inserted receptors (P2X and P2Y subtypes) on a variety of cell types in the gastrointestinal tract. P2X receptors are gated ion-channels permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium. They depolarise cells, act as a pathway for calcium influx to activate calcium-dependent processes and initiate gene transcription, interact at a molecular level as a form of self-regulation with lipids within the cell wall (e.g. PIP2) and cross-react with other membrane-inserted receptors to regulate their activity (e.g. nAChRs). P2Y receptors are metabotropic receptors that couple to G-proteins. They may release calcium ions from intracellular stores to activate calcium-dependent processes, but also may activate calcium-independent signalling pathways and influence gene transcription. Originally ATP was a candidate only for NANC neurotransmission, for inhibitory motoneurons supplying the muscularis externa of the gastrointestinal tract and bringing about the fast IJP. Purinergic signalling later included neuron-neuron signalling in the ENS, via the production of either fast or slow EPSPs. Later still, purinergic signalling included the neuro-epithelial synapse-for efferent signalling to epithelia cells participating in secretion and absorption, and afferent signalling for chemoreception and mechanoreception at the surface of the mucosa. Many aspects of purinergic signalling have since been addressed in a series of highly-focussed and authoritative reviews. In this overview however, the current focus is on key aspects of purinergic signalling where there remains uncertainty and ambiguity, with the view to stimulating further research in these areas. PMID:26049261

  18. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  19. Aktuelle Optionen zur Behandlung pathologischer Narben.

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-01

    Die Entstehung von Narben ist die Konsequenz von Operationen, Traumata und verschiedenen Hautkrankheiten. Neben frischen unreifen Narben, die im Laufe der Heilung in reife Narben übergehen und in der Regel keiner weiteren Behandlung bedürfen, existieren lineare hypertrophe Narben, flächige hypertrophe Narben, Keloide und atrophe Narben, die aufgrund von Symptomen wie Juckreiz und Schmerzen, einer Stigmatisierung, funktionellen und ästhetischen Einschränkungen für die betroffenen Patienten sehr störend und Grundlage für einen Behandlungswunsch sein können. Für die Behandlung und Prävention von Narben existiert heutzutage eine Vielzahl von Optionen. Zur Anwendung kommen können Externa, basierend auf Silikon oder Zwiebelextrakt, intraläsionale Injektionsverfahren mit kristallinen Glukokortikoiden (häufig in Kombination mit Kryotherapie) oder 5-Fluorouracil sowie ablative und nichtablative Laserverfahren. Um die Vielfalt an Behandlungsansätzen und die aktuelle Datenlage für die behandelnden Ärzte zusammenzufassen, existieren aktuelle Leitlinien, mit deren Hilfe für jeden einzelnen Narbentyp klare Therapieempfehlungen gegeben werden können. Dies erlaubt es, Patienten zu schnellerer Beschwerdefreiheit zu verhelfen und ihren ästhetischen Ansprüchen gerecht zu werden. Neben der immer wichtiger werdenden Narbenprävention nimmt auch der zunehmende Einsatz modernster Laserverfahren einen zentralen Stellenwert in der klinischen Narbenbehandlung ein. Zugleich liegt großes Augenmerk darauf, aktuelle Therapieverfahren mit Hilfe zeitgemäßer Studiendesigns zu evaluieren, um die Evidenz der Narbenbehandlung zunehmend zu verbessern. PMID:27119466

  20. Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

    2010-12-01

    A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual δ15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual δ13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 δ13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather δ13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather δ13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

  1. Ultrastructure and function of cellular components of the intercentral joint in the percoid vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, R J

    1995-10-01

    The intervertebral joint of the teleost, Perca flavescens, is formed by opposing amphicoelus centra whose rims are connected by external ligaments. The tissue, located within the space formed by these structures, is derived from the notochord and consists of the elastic externa, the fibrous sheath, and the notochordal cells. The cellular tissue within the joint has many characteristics of a stratified epithelium, and when examined with the transmission electron microscope, at least three morphologically distinct regions can be recognized. First, a peripheral single layer of columnar to squamous-shaped cells lies on a basement membrane immediately deep to the fibrous sheath. Second, several layers of cells, each containing a large central vacuole, occur. Third, in the deepest part of the joint, several layers of attenuated cells surround intracentral fluid-filled lacunae and form a transverse septum across the joint. All cells in this tissue are interconnected by numerous desmosomes. Further, an extensive intermediate filament network exists in all three types of cells. The intermediate filament network in the vacuolated cells is arranged cortically around a membrane-bound vacuole, and suggests that these cells may act as passive cellular hydrostats. The squamous cells surrounding the joint lacunae are structurally similar to mammalian epidermal cells, and the intermediate filament network within them is layered parallel to the surface of the lacunae. The organization of these cells suggests that they are the tensile component of extracellular hydrostats within the intercentral joint. These cellular and extracellular hydrostats within the intercentral joint would function to resist the compressive and tensile stresses encountered during undulatory swimming. PMID:7473764

  2. Pontine Infarct Presenting with Atypical Dental Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Rajat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Singh, Abhishek B

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain’ most commonly occurs due to dental causes like caries, gingivitis or periodontitis. Other common causes of ‘orofacial pain’ are sinusitis, temporomandibular joint(TMJ) dysfunction, otitis externa, tension headache and migraine. In some patients, the etiology of ‘orofacial pain’ remains undetected despite optimal evaluation. A few patients in the practice of clinical dentistry presents with dental pain without any identifiable dental etiology. Such patients are classified under the category of ‘atypical odontalgia’. ‘Atypical odontalgia’ is reported to be prevalent in 2.1% of the individuals. ‘Atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’ can result from the neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis, trigeminal neuralgia and herpes infection. Trigeminal neuralgia has been frequently documented as a cause of ‘atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’. There are a few isolated case reports of acute pontine stroke resulting in ‘atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’. However, pontine stroke as a cause of atypical odontalgia is limited to only a few cases, hence prevalence is not established. This case is one, where a patient presented with acute onset atypical dental pain with no identifiable dental etiology, further diagnosed as an acute pontine infarct on neuroimaging. A 40 years old male presented with acute onset, diffuse teeth pain on right side. Dental examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) of the brain had an acute infarct in right pons near the trigeminal root entry zone(REZ). Pontine infarct presenting with dental pain as a manifestation of trigeminal neuropathy, has rarely been reported previously. This stresses on the importance of neuroradiology in evaluation of atypical cases of dental pain. PMID:26464604

  3. Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.

    2003-08-01

    ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

  4. Cystic fibrosis mouse model-dependent intestinal structure and gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Bazett, Mark; Honeyman, Lisa; Stefanov, Anguel N; Pope, Christopher E; Hoffman, Lucas R; Haston, Christina K

    2015-06-01

    Mice with a null mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) gene show intestinal structure alterations and bacterial overgrowth. To determine whether these changes are model-dependent and whether the intestinal microbiome is altered in cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse models, we characterized the ileal tissue and intestinal microbiome of mice with the clinically common ΔF508 Cftr mutation (FVB/N Cftr(tm1Eur)) and with Cftr null mutations (BALB/c Cftr(tm1UNC) and C57BL/6 Cftr(tm1UNC)). Intestinal disease in 12-week-old CF mice, relative to wild-type strain controls, was measured histologically. The microbiome was characterized by pyrosequencing of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and intestinal load was measured by RT-PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. The CF-associated increases in ileal crypt to villus axis distention, goblet cell hyperplasia, and muscularis externa thickness were more severe in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftr(tm1UNC) mice than in the FVB/N Cftr(tm1Eur) mice. Intestinal bacterial load was significantly increased in all CF models, compared to levels in controls, and positively correlated with circular muscle thickness in CF, but not wild-type, mice. Microbiome profiling identified Bifidobacterium and groups of Lactobacillus to be of altered abundance in the CF mice but overall bacterial frequencies were not common to the three CF strains and were not correlative of major histological changes. In conclusion, intestinal structure alterations, bacterial overgrowth, and dysbiosis were each more severe in BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftr(tm1UNC) mice than in the FVB/N Cftr(tm1Eur) mice. The intestinal microbiome differed among the three CF mouse models. PMID:25721416

  5. Cystic fibrosis mouse model-dependent intestinal structure and gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bazett, Mark; Honeyman, Lisa; Stefanov, Anguel N.; Pope, Christopher E.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Haston, Christina K.

    2015-01-01

    Mice with a null mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) gene show intestinal structure alterations and bacterial overgrowth. To determine whether these changes are model-dependent and whether the intestinal microbiome is altered in cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse models, we characterized the ileal tissue and intestinal microbiome of mice with the clinically common ΔF508 Cftr mutation (FVB/N Cftrtm1Eur) and with Cftr null mutations (BALB/c Cftrtm1UNC and C57BL/6 Cftrtm1UNC). Intestinal disease in 12-week-old CF mice, relative to wild-type strain controls, was measured histologically. The microbiome was characterized by pyrosequencing of the V4–V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and intestinal load was measured by RT-PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. The CF-associated increases in ileal crypt to villus axis distention, goblet cell hyperplasia, and muscularis externa thickness were more severe in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftrtm1UNC mice than in the FVB/N Cftrtm1Eur mice. Intestinal bacterial load was significantly increased in all CF models, compared to levels in controls, and positively correlated with circular muscle thickness in CF, but not wild-type, mice. Microbiome profiling identified Bifidobacterium and groups of Lactobacillus to be of altered abundance in the CF mice but overall bacterial frequencies were not common to the three CF strains and were not correlative of major histological changes. In conclusion, intestinal structure alterations, bacterial overgrowth, and dysbiosis were each more severe in BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftrtm1UNC mice than in the FVB/N Cftrtm1Eur mice. The intestinal microbiome differed among the three CF mouse models. PMID:25721416

  6. Functional assessment of intestinal motility and gut wall inflammation in rodents: analyses in a standardized model of intestinal manipulation.

    PubMed

    Vilz, Tim O; Overhaus, Marcus; Stoffels, Burkhard; Websky, Martin von; Kalff, Joerg C; Wehner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is a common reason for a variety of human diseases. Animal research models are critical in investigating the complex cellular and molecular of intestinal pathology. Although the tunica mucosa is often the organ of interest in many inflammatory diseases, recent works demonstrated that the muscularis externa (ME) is also a highly immunocompetent organ that harbours a dense network of resident immunocytes.(1,2) These works were performed within the standardized model of intestinal manipulation (IM) that leads to inflammation of the bowel wall, mainly limited to the ME. Clinically this inflammation leads to prolonged intestinal dysmotility, known as postoperative ileus (POI) which is a frequent and unavoidable complication after abdominal surgery.(3) The inflammation is characterized by liberation of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-6(4) or IL-1β or inhibitory neurotransmitters like nitric oxide (NO).(5) Subsequently, tremendous numbers of immunocytes extravasate into the ME, dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and monocytes and finally maintain POI.(2) Lasting for days, this intestinal paralysis leads to an increased risk of aspiration, bacterial translocation and infectious complications up to sepsis and multi organ failure and causes a high economic burden.(6) In this manuscript we demonstrate the standardized model of IM and in vivo assessment of gastrointestinal transit (GIT) and colonic transit. Furthermore we demonstrate a method for separation of the ME from the tunica mucosa followed by immunological analysis, which is crucial to distinguish between the inflammatory responses in these both highly immunoactive bowel wall compartments. All analyses are easily transferable to any other research models, affecting gastrointestinal function. PMID:22990580

  7. Comparison of three methods for relief of pain after ear canal ablation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Buback, J L; Boothe, H W; Carroll, G L; Green, R W

    1996-01-01

    This study compared three methods of pain relief in dogs that had total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy. The hypothesis was that systemic opioids with preoperative local nerve blocks would provide superior pain relief. Thirty-one dogs with chronic otitis externa were included in the study. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of three protocols: systemic opioids alone (10 dogs, group 1), systemic opioids with bupivacaine splash block (11 dogs, group 2), and systemic opioids with preoperative local bupivacaine nerve blocks (10 dogs, group 3). Twenty-one dogs had bilateral ear ablation and 10 had unilateral ablation. Pain was assessed preoperatively, at extubation, 2 hours postextubation, and 1 day postoperatively by a single observer blinded to the analgesic protocol used. Pain scores were not significantly different within or between groups, nor did unilateral versus bilateral ablation have a significant effect on the score. Mean scores were less than 3 (scale 1 to 5) for all groups at all observation times. Rough recoveries were noted in 30% of group 1 dogs, 0% of group 2, and 20% of group 3 dogs. Ninety-four percent of dogs were moderately to heavily sedated at extubation. Sixty percent of group 3 dogs remained moderately to heavily sedated 2 hours postextubation. Rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and postoperative change in serum cortisol levels were not significantly different between groups. Postoperative increase in blood glucose was significantly higher in groups 1 and 3 compared with preoperative levels. Twenty-three percent of the dogs required additional analgesia or tranquilization after surgery, as determined by the anesthetist; 1 dog in group 1, 2 in group 2, and 4 in group 3. Each of the three analgesic protocols provided similar pain relief in dogs undergoing total ear canal ablation. PMID:8879109

  8. Safety and tolerability of 0.1% tacrolimus solution applied to the external ear canals of atopic beagle dogs without otitis.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Laura S; Flynn-Lurie, Alison K; House, Rossi A; Simpson, Andrew C; Marsella, Rosanna

    2010-12-01

    Tacrolimus is a nonsteroidal alternative to treat noninfectious otitis externa (OE) in people. This 21-day study investigated whether twice daily application (0.2 mL/dose) of sterile olive oil based 0.1% tacrolimus suspension in ears of atopic beagle dogs without OE was associated with adverse local reactions, development of OE, change in otic cytology, vestibular dysfunction, or hearing loss detected by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). The study was randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. Twenty-two dogs matched for age and sex were randomized to tacrolimus or vehicle control treatment groups. Two investigators independently evaluated dogs for signs of adverse effects including OE the first 4 days of treatment, then every 3 days. A logistic regression model was fit for each investigator's clinical scores (SAS, 9.2, 2008). Time (P = 0.0032) and group (P = 0.0167) were always significant for OE. Inter-observer reliability of clinical scores was strong, measured using Kappa coefficients and proportion of agreement. All nine exclusions (7/10 control- and 2/12 tacrolimus-treated dogs) were excluded for yeast OE. Inter-observer agreement to exclude was 100%. All dogs not excluded had normal BAER assessments before treatment, weekly during treatment, and after 21 days of treatment. None showed vestibular abnormalities at these times. Tacrolimus blood concentrations (Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II) were below detection limits (3 ng/mL) at baseline and after 21 days of treatment. Results suggest otic application of olive oil based tacrolimus suspension to canine ears with intact tympanic membranes is unlikely to result in hearing loss or vestibular dysfunction but yeast OE is a possible risk. PMID:20609208

  9. Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Cheng, Suzan; Donald, Paul J.; Purdy, James A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

  10. Dual chemoarchitectonic lamination of the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, Zsolt B.

    2009-01-01

    The chemoanatomical organization of the visual sector of the cat’s thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) - i.e. at the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and at the pulvinar nucleus (Pul) - was investigated with two novel cytoarchitectonic markers. The Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) binding reaction visualized the extracellular perineuronal net (PN) and the SMI 32 immunoreaction stained intracellular neurofilaments. Two distinct layers of the TRN could be detected, particularly by WFA- but also by SMI 32-staining. The outer tier outlined a canopy of labeling placed a bit detached from the diencephalon dorsolaterally, while the inner TRN tier is very tightly attached to the thalamic lamina limitans externa. The labeled neurons showed typically fusiform morphology with dendrites orienting in the plane of TRN. Additionally, these chemoarchitectural reactions identified a chain of structures in the ventral diencephalon connected to the TRN tiers. One stained string is formed by the subthalamic nucleus bound laterally to the peripeduncular nucleus extending further dorsolateral into the outer TRN tier. The other chain laced up the field of Forel, the zona incerta, the ventral LGN, the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) and the previously-overlooked peripulvinar nucleus (PPulN) and so formed the inner TRN tier. In the third most distanced TRN tier, in the perireticular nucleus, a very few WFA-binding presenting neuron were found. In addition to the PN possessing TRN neurons, WFA-reactive presumable interneurons were also labeled within the visual thalamus. Following tracer injections into the feline Pul, two stripes of cells were retrogradely labeled in the neighboring visual TRN sector. The location of these reticular neurons coincided precisely with the chemoanatomically identified inner and outer TRN tiers. On the analogy of the PGN-TRN duality at the dLGN, the chemoanatomical and tract tracing findings strongly suggest a similar dual organization in the pulvinoprojecting TRN portion. PMID:19909790

  11. Age-related morphological changes in the basement membrane in the stria vascularis of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mitsuya; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kashio, Akinori; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Basement membrane anionic sites (BMAS) are involved in the selective transport of electrically charged macromolecules in cochlear capillaries. Using cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI), we examined age-related changes in BMAS in the cochleae of C57BL/6 mice. The mice were grouped according to age as follows: 3days, 4weeks, 8weeks, 6months, and 12months. In the right bony labyrinths, widths of the stria vascularis were measured in paraffin-embedded sections using light microscopy. The left bony labyrinths were immersed in a 0.5% cationic PEI solution and embedded in epoxy resin. Ultrathin sections of the left cochlea were examined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant difference in stria vascularis width was observed between the 4-week-old and 12-month-old mice. The PEI distribution in the capillary and epithelial basement membranes (BMs) of the cochlea was observed. In all animals, PEI particles were evenly distributed in the capillary BM of the spiral ligament and in the subepithelial BM of Reissner's membrane. In the stria vascularis, PEI particles were evenly distributed in the capillary BM in 3-day-old mice. In 4- and 8-week-old mice, PEI particle sizes were markedly lower than those observed in 3-day-old mice. In 6- and 12-month-old mice, PEI particles were hardly detected in the strial capillary BM. In the strial capillary BM in these mice, the laminae rarae externa and interna disappeared, but the lamina densa became larger. We speculated that age-related changes of strial capillary BMAS may affect electrically charged macromolecule transport systems in the stria vascularis of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25555607

  12. Biochemical analysis and immunohistochemical examination of a GnRH-like immunoreactive peptide in the central nervous system of a decapod crustacean, the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Okumura, Takuji; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2009-12-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the central nervous system (CNS) of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the kuruma prawn brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve obtained by cGnRH-II TR-FIA using the anti-cGnRH-II antibody, which cross-reacts not only with cGnRH-II but also with lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) and octopus GnRH (octGnRH). Extracts of kuruma prawn brains and eyestalks showed a similar retention time to synthetic lGnRH-II and octGnRH in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. Using this antibody, we detected GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies in the anterior-most part of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain), the protocerebrum. Furthermore, GnRH-like-ir fibers were observed in the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum. In the eyestalk, GnRH-like-ir cell bodies were detected in the medulla interna, and GnRH-like-ir fibers were distributed in the medulla interna, medulla externa, and lamina ganglionalis. In the thoracic ganglion, GnRH-like-ir fibers, but not GnRH-like-ir cell bodies, were detected. No GnRH-like-ir cell bodies or fibers were detected in the abdominal ganglion or ovary. Thus, we have shown the existence and distribution of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the kuruma prawn. PMID:19968471

  13. Comportamiento dinámico de asteroides en la región 23 < a < 26 UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.

    Los Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) pueden ser una fuente de origen de los cometas de corto período. Muchos de los KBOs observados parecen provenir, al igual que el sistema Pluton-Charonte, de órbitas resonantes con Neptuno. Los Centauros son objetos que dinámicamente provienen de órbitas inestables cuyo semieje mayor se encuentra entre las órbitas de Júpiter y Neptuno. Pudiera ser que estos cuerpos fueron expulsados desde la región del cinturón de Kuiper y se encuentran en un proceso de ``scattering" debido a los efectos gravitacionales de los planetas gigantes. Su tiempo de vida dinámico es de algunos millones de años. La evolución orbital de los objetos trans-Neptunianos nos permite conocer su comportamiento anterior, por eso, es importante su relación dinámica con la evolución orbital de Neptuno. El objeto de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento dinámico de partículas test que se encuentran entre las resonancias 3:2 con Neptuno y 2:3 con Urano, las cuales comprenden una región de 2 UA aproximadamente. Los primeros resultados indican que la mayoría de los objetos ficticios son eyectados hacia la parte externa del Sistema Solar, mientras que sólo una parte pequeña del total de objetos estudiados, aproximadamente un 7%, son eyectados hacia la parte interna del Sistema Solar, y en algunos casos sus órbitas pueden cruzar la órbita de los planetas terrestres.

  14. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  15. Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves of low and elevated toxicities following exposure to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms in Portuguese estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were examined in 405 composite samples of Mytilus spp., Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus and Spisula solida collected between 2007 and 2012 from natural production areas in two estuaries (Aveiro and Mondego), two coastal lagoons (Óbidos and Formosa), and three open coastal areas (Aguda, Comporta and Culatra). Toxin concentrations were obtained from the biotoxin monitoring programme database. Episodes of PST toxicity in Portugal have been associated with Gymnodinium catenatum blooms. Toxin profiles for each species showed no trend over the surveyed years. In general, profiles differ only slightly among areas, except for Óbidos. However, toxin profiles in bivalves varied between low and elevated toxicities, corresponding to below and above the PST regulatory limit, respectively. The ratio R1=(C1+2):B1, which were the main toxins produced by G. catenatum cells, decreased considerably between elevated and low toxicity cockles, indicating the elimination of C1+2 or conversion of compounds into B1. R2=[(dcSTX)+(dcGTX2+3)]:[(C1+2)+(B1)], which represents the ratio of minor to major toxins in G. catenatum cells, increased substantially in wedge clams (D. trunculus) of low toxicity and less markedly in cockles (C. edule) and mussels (Mytilus spp.). These differences are interpreted as the predominance of a biotransformation phase after exposure to the algal bloom. The toxin profile of surf clams (S. solida) was dominated by decarbamoyl compounds, reflecting intense biotransformation during exposure to blooms. The higher ratio R2 in low toxicity samples suggests that elimination of the produced decarbamoyl toxins was slower than biotransformation. PMID:25616737

  16. [Surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes in Argentina from 2005 to 2010 during the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine era].

    PubMed

    Efron, Adriana M; Moscoloni, María A; Reijtman, Vanesa R; Regueira, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in the immunization programs of many countries has greatly reduced this invasive disease and the carriage caused by this serotype, also increasing other capsular types and non-capsular isolations. There were 313 isolations of H. influenzae under study, which were recovered from a sterile site coming from pediatric and adult patients carrying the invasive disease. Patients were treated at 90 different hospitals belonging to the Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Meningitis e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas Bacterianas (National Lab Network for Meningitis and Acute Bacterial Respiratory Infections) from 2005 to 2010 for the following disorders: pneumonia, 40.3% (n=126), meningitis, 30.0% (n=94) and bacteremia, 26.5% (n=83). In pediatric patients (n=279), the highest frequency of isolations corresponded to children under the age of 2 years, 74.5% (n=208). Regarding type distribution, 61.3% corresponded to non-capsular H. influenzae (n=192), 20.1% to type b (n=63), 11.2% to type a (n=35), 4.8% to type f, and 2.6% to other types. Capsular H. influenzae was predominant in meningitis whereas non-capsular H. influenzae in pneumonia and bacteremia. The biotype was determined in 306 isolations. The totality (100%) of type a (n=35) was biotype II whereas 66.7% of type b (n=63) was biotype I. Slide agglutination and PCR tests were used in 220 isolations. There was a match of 0.982 (IC: 0.92-1.00) between them. During the last year, there was a great increase in type b, showing the importance of clinical and laboratory-based surveillance of the invasive disease caused by H. influenzae. PMID:24401777

  17. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.

    1997-11-01

    Despite the progress made in establishing the capabilities of the auditory system in several species of fish, significant questions remain regarding how sound reaches the ear and the nature of the coupling between the ear and various accessory structures. In this research, experimental measurements and theoretical modeling were used to examine the mechanical behavior of the peripheral auditory system of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). The experiments consisted of measuring the in vivo motion of the swimbladder, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths of an anesthetized and tethered fish, in response to an acoustic stimulus, using a noninvasive ultrasonic measurement system. The experimental results show strong coupling between the swimbladders, tripus, and saccule. At low frequencies, the swimbladders, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths move with the same amplitude and phase as the fish's body. At higher frequencies, multiple resonances occur in most swimbladder responses. The swimbladder resonance also appears in the sagitta response; the sagitta displacement ranges from 1 to 10 nm/Pa. The results of only a few tests indicate motion of the lagenar otolith, while no data show movement of the utricular otolith. The mathematical model of the dynamics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system is the first such model to include the swimbladder, Weberian apparatus, and saccule (including the hair cell ciliary bundles). The saccule model features only translation of the otolith in the direction of hair cell orientation. The model predicts the correct amplitude and phase relationships between the two swimbladder chambers and shows the coupling observed between the anterior swimbladder and the tripus. The model also predicts a high-pass filter effect due to the tunica externa compliance; however, the model low frequency cut-off seems insufficient to prevent a change in depth from overstimulating the Weberian apparatus. The model predicts a sagitta displacement on the order of 10 nm/Pa. Above 50 Hz, the relative displacement between the sagitta and sensory epithelium is primarily due to the Weberian apparatus. The phase relationships between the sagitta and sensory epithelium displacements vary with location of the acoustic source.

  18. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus responsible for human colonization and infection in an area of Italy with high density of pig farming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Livestock-Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) belonging to ST398 lineage, common among pigs and other animals, emerged in Central and Northern Europe, becoming a new risk factor for MRSA among farm workers. Strains belonging to ST398 can be responsible for human colonization and infection, mainly in areas with high livestock-farming. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) human colonization and infections in an area of the Lombardy Region (Italy), the Italian region with the highest density of pig farming. Methods In the period March-April 2010, 879 nasal swabs were taken from subjects at admission to a local hospital serving an area of the Lombardy Region devoted to agriculture and farming. In the period March 2010-February 2011, all MRSA strains from community-acquired infection (CAI) observed in the same hospital, were collected. Molecular characterization of the isolates included SCCmec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results Out of 879 nasal swabs examined, 9 (1%) yielded MRSA. Five strains were assigned to sequence type (ST)398 (spa t899, 3 isolates; t108 and t2922, 1 isolate each) and were therefore categorized as LA-MRSA. The other 4 isolates were likely of hospital origin. No strains were positive for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes. Twenty MRSA isolates were detected from CAI, 17 were from skin and soft-tissue infections and 3 from other infections. An MRSA isolate from otitis externa was t899/ST398 and PVL-negative, hence categorized as LA-MRSA. Four isolates were assigned to t127/ST1. Eight strains were PVL-positive community acquired (CA)-MRSA and belonged to different clones, the most frequent being ST8. Conclusions In an area of Italy with high density of pig farming, LA-MRSA is able to colonize the population and rarely to produce infections. Typical CA-MRSA is more common than LA-MRSA among CAI. PMID:23731504

  19. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa of cysts exhibited a similar cell DNA fragmentation to early atretic follicles. In the granulosa and theca interna, active caspase-3 shown similar immunostaining levels in tertiary and cystic follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa cells presented high expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w in the tertiary and cystic follicles with diminishing intensity in the atretic follicles, except with Bcl-w where the intensity was maintained in the atretic follicles (p < 0.05). The expression of Bax was weak in the healthy and cystic follicles. In the theca interna, Bcl-2 expression was the same as the pattern found in the granulosa; no differences were found between tertiary and cystic follicles from both groups for Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. The expression of Bax in this layer was higher in the tertiary follicles of the treated animals (p < 0.05) while the values for cystic follicles were similar to those in the tertiary follicles of controls. The theca externa showed low expression of the pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition. PMID:19570211

  20. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary, Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de Garcia, Sylvia Cristina Garcia; Ferreira, Maria Auxiliadora Pantoja; da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2012-03-01

    The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was-to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin's solution and sectioned into 7 microm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (p<0.05), with the highest mean in the luteal phase. Primordial follicles were found in the cortex; the oocytes were enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells. In the primary follicles, proliferation of the follicular cells gave rise to cuboidal cells (granulosa cells). The secondary follicle was characterized by two or more concentric layers of cuboidal cells (granulosa), beginning of antrum formation, and the presence of pellucid zone and theca cells. Antral follicles were characterized by a central cavity (antrum), the presence of cumulus oophorus and theca layers (interna and externa). In the right ovary, the values of the primordial and primary follicles were similar, but significantly different from the secondary ones (p<0.05). In the left ovary, significant differences were observed between all follicles in the follicular phase (p<0.05); the mean number of primordial and primary follicles was similar in the luteal phase. The mean number of pre-antral follicles and antral follicles in the follicular phase was higher in the left ovary (p<0.05). The mean number of antral follicles in the luteal phase was similar in both ovaries. We also found significant differences in mean diameter of preantral follicles, oocyte, granulosa layer and oocyte nucleus during the estrous cycle. In the antral follicles a significant difference was observed only in follicular diameter (p<0.05). The predominance of active primordial and primary follicles was found in both phases; otherwise the secondary follicles and antral follicles showed a high degree of degeneration. The results obtained in the present work will strengthen the development of biotechnology programs to improve the productive potential and conservation of the collared peccary. PMID:22458237

  1. Growth and molting in epizoic pedunculate barnacles genus Octolasmis (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histology were used to study growth in species of the pedunculate barnacle genus Octolasmis (O. angulata, O. cor, O. californiana, O. mülleri). These species are epizoic in the gill chamber of portunid crabs and have highly reduced capitular shell plates, with large areas of general cuticle in between. The external integument grows by means of a system of narrow growth zones, one encircling the peduncle and a Y-shaped system on either side of the capitulum. Growth is by a regular series of molts, but shedding of old cuticle and production of new layers is entirely restricted to the growth zones. Just prior to ecdysis, the new cuticle lies in a highly folded fashion beneath the old cuticle that is about to be shed. At ecdysis, the old cuticle breaks along the margins of the growth zones and the resulting scars remain as a system of "ecdysial lines" along either side of the zone. Once exposed after ecdysis, the new cuticle remains as a part of the permanent external integument. The growth zones divide the externa into five cuticular areas, two on the peduncle and three on the capitulum. The calcareous shell plates (carina, paired scuta, and, when present, paired terga) all lie within the capitular regions and the ecdysial lines pass across, not around, these mineralized areas. The number, relative spacing, and topology of the ecdysial lines form a record of the growth history of the specimen. These and other growth patterns demonstrate that size increase is due to the formation of new cuticle by molting in the growth zones, while expansion of the shell plates by mineralization follows only after production of the new cuticle. Thus, although specialized, growth in Octolasmis still complies with the general crustacean model, complicated only by the mineralization of parts of the capitular cuticle into shell plates. The results are compared with the very scarce information on molting in other barnacles. We argue that at least the circular peduncular growth zone is omnipresent in the Cirripedia Thoracica. PMID:15108155

  2. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de los modelos no son afectados al incluir la nueva teoría de convección.

  3. Characterization of persistent follicles induced by prolonged treatment with progesterone in dairy cows: an experimental model for the study of ovarian follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo U; Stangaferro, Matías L; Gareis, Natalia C; Silvia, William J; Matiller, Valentina; Salvetti, Natalia R; Rey, Florencia; Barberis, Fabián; Cattaneo, Luciano; Ortega, Hugo H

    2015-10-15

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is a major factor contributing to poor reproductive efficiency of lactating dairy cows. The objective of the present study was to analyze the endocrine profile, growth dynamics, and histologic characteristics of persistent ovarian follicles-cysts developing in response to long-term administration of intermediate levels of progesterone. To this end, after synchronization of cows, a low dose of progesterone was administered for 5, 10, and 15 days after the expected day of ovulation in treated cows (groups P5, P10, and P15, respectively), using an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device. A significant increase in diameter was detected on Day 11 of progesterone treatment and thereafter (P < 0.05), and at Day 15 of persistence, the diameter of the persistent follicle reached a mean of 23 ± 0.6 mm. Microscopically, the persistent follicles had a complete granulosa, an intensely vascularized theca interna, and a collagenous theca externa layer. Temporal changes in the serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and FSH were detected (effects of time, P < 0.01). Progesterone treatment completely inhibited the LH preovulatory surge in treated cows and affected the basal concentration of LH. The pulse frequency remained high at 5 and 10 days of persistence and declined (P < 0.05) after 15 days of persistence. The LH pulse concentration and pulse amplitude had a significant reduction (P < 0.05) during follicular persistence. Changes in the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone in serum and follicular fluid were also observed. In serum, estradiol increased gradually from proestrus to Day 10 of follicular persistence (P < 0.05), progesterone showed an increase (P < 0.05) at Day 5 of follicular persistence, 17-hydroxyprogesterone showed a significant decrease at 5 days of follicular persistence in relation to proestrus, and testosterone showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) from proestrus and Day 5 of persistence through Day 15 of follicular persistence. Correlation between serum and follicular fluid steroid concentrations was significant for testosterone (P < 0.0001) and not significant for estradiol and progesterone. These findings indicate that ovarian cysts in COD are similar in many ways to the persistent follicles induced by progesterone, with an analogous hormonal and morphologic context, thus confirming a local role of subluteal levels of progesterone in COD pathogenesis and in the regulatory mechanisms of the ovarian function. PMID:26187329

  4. Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilia, P A; Swain, R P; Williams, A V; Loadholt, C B; Ainsworth, S K

    1985-12-01

    The cationic ultrastructural tracer polyethyleneimine (PEI: pI approximately equal to 11.0), binds electrophysically to uniformly spaced discrete electron-dense anionic sites present in the laminae rarae of the rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangial reflections of the GBM, Bowman's capsule, and tubular basement membranes when administered intravenously. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of glomerular anionic sites reveals that the maximum concentration of stainable lamina rara externa (lre) sites (21/10,000 A GBM) occurs 60 minutes after PEI injection with a site-site interspacing of 460 A. Lamina rara interna (lri) sites similarly demonstrate a maximum concentration (20/10,000 A GBM) at 60 minutes with a periodicity of 497 A. The concentration and distribution of anionic sites within the lri was irregular in pattern and markedly decreased in number, while the lre possesses an electrical field that is highly regular at all time intervals analyzed (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes). Immersion and perfusion of renal tissue with PEI reveals additional heavy staining of the epithelial and endothelial cell sialoprotein coatings. PEI appears to bind to glomerular anionic sites reversibly: ie, between 60 and 180 minutes the concentration of stained sites decreases. At 300 minutes, the interspacing once again approaches the 60-minute concentration. This suggests a dynamic turnover or dissociation followed by a reassociation of glomerular negatively charged PEI binding sites. In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria. PEI does not induce proteinuria in rats, nor does it produce glomerular morphologic alterations when ten times the tracer dosage is administered intravenously. These findings indicate that the choice of ultrastructural charge tracer, the method of administering the tracer, and the time selected for analysis of tissue after administration of tracer significantly influences results. Morphometric analysis of the distribution of glomerular anionic sites in nonproteinuric rats provides a method of evaluating quantitative alterations of the glomerular charge barrier in renal disease models. PMID:4073220

  5. Management of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections by Different Medical Practices, Including Homeopathy, and Consumption of Antibiotics in Primary Care: The EPI3 Cohort Study in France 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Bégaud, Bernard; Rossignol, Michel; Avouac, Bernard; Lert, France; Rouillon, Frederic; Bénichou, Jacques; Massol, Jacques; Duru, Gerard; Magnier, Anne-Marie; Abenhaim, Lucien; Guillemot, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Prescribing of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) varies substantially in primary care. Objectives To describe and compare antibiotic and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs use, URTI symptoms' resolution and occurrence of potentially-associated infections in patients seeking care from general practitioners (GPs) who exclusively prescribe conventional medications (GP-CM), regularly prescribe homeopathy within a mixed practice (GP-Mx), or are certified homeopathic GPs (GP-Ho). Method The EPI3 survey was a nationwide population-based study of a representative sample of 825 GPs and their patients in France (2007–2008). GP recruitment was stratified by self-declared homeopathic prescribing preferences. Adults and children with confirmed URTI were asked to participate in a standardized telephone interview at inclusion, one-, three- and twelve-month follow up. Study outcomes included medication consumption, URTI symptoms' resolution and potentially-associated infections (sinusitis or otitis media/externa) as reported by patients. Analyses included calibration to account for non-respondents and groups were compared using multivate analyses adjusting for baseline differences with a propensity score. Results 518 adults and children with URTI (79.3% rhinopharyngitis) were included (36.9% response rate comparable between groups). As opposed to GP-CM patients, patients in the GP-Ho group showed significantly lower consumption of antibiotics (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.68) and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.38–0.76) with similar evolution in related symptoms (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.64–2.10). An excess of potentially-associated infections (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 0.90–3.20) was observed in the GP-Ho group (not statistically significant). No difference was found between GP-CM and GP-Mx patients. Conclusion Patients who chose to consult GPs certified in homeopathy used less antibiotics and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs for URTI than those seen by GPs prescribing conventional medications. No difference was observed in patients consulting GPs within mixed-practice. A non-statistically significant excess was estimated through modelling for associated infections in the GP-Ho group and needs to be further studied. PMID:24646513

  6. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.

    PubMed

    Conklin, R J

    1990-02-01

    Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital form, a mixed fungal/bacterial infection, is treated with debridement, antibiotics and drying routine similar to the therapy of otitis externa. Nail infections by a variety of organisms may appear as onycholysis with or without paronychia and should be treated with the appropriate antibiotics. Tinea versicolor occurs in heat and humidity. Since Pityrosporum orbiculare is part of the normal flora it often recurs, necessitating regular treatment. Acute trauma injuries include contusions, black heel or petichiae of the heel, black toe (bleeding under the nail), 'jogger's nipple' caused by chafing, and foot blisters. Chronic trauma may result in calluses, corns and paronychia. Plantar corns can be disabling and may be caused by overly tight shoes or abnormalities in biomechanics; treatment includes restoring normal foot function and minimal surgical procedures. Paronychia is treated best by wedge resection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2180022

  7. Localization and quantification of binding sites for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in sheep ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Eckery, D C; Moeller, C L; Nett, T M; Sawyer, H R

    1997-09-01

    In sheep, growth and development of ovarian follicles beyond 2 mm in diameter is acutely dependent on gonadotropin support. As a consequence, following hypophysectomy (HPX) or hypothalamic-pituitary stalk disconnection (HPD), growth of follicles beyond 2 mm is arrested and all follicles > 2 mm undergo atresia. Although administration of exogenous gonadotropins stimulates follicular growth and ovulation in HPD ewes, follicles in HPX ewes remain unresponsive unless growth hormone (GH) is also given. To determine whether the difference in follicular sensitivity to gonadotropins after HPD (gonadotropin sensitive) or HPX (gonadotropin insensitive) is related to the distribution and quantity of binding sites for FSH, LH, and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), binding sites for these hormones were localized and quantified using topical autoradiography in healthy follicles from control (pituitary-intact), HPD, and HPX ewes. In addition, in situ hybridization was performed to localize mRNA for GH and FSH receptors. Irrespective of treatment, binding of FSH and mRNA for FSH receptor were greatest (p < 0.05) in the membrana granulosa; LH binding was greatest (p < 0.05) in the theca interna; and IGF-I binding was greatest (p < 0.05) in the theca externa. Although the relative number of binding sites for LH did not differ among treatments, those for FSH and IGF-I were lower (p < 0.05) in HPD and HPX ewes compared to controls. Attempts to quantify binding sites for GH were unsuccessful due to high nonspecific binding. However, mRNA for GH receptor was most abundant (p < 0.05) in the membrana granulosa and oocytes of small antral and preantral follicles. Compared to levels in controls and HPD ewes, the level of GH receptor mRNA was lower (p < 0.05) in follicles obtained from HPX ewes. On the basis of these data, failure of small antral follicles in HPX ewes to respond to exogenous gonadotropins is not due to a reduction in receptors for FSH, LH, or IGF-I. The observed reduction of mRNA for GH receptor in the membrana granulosa of follicles from HPX ewes provides evidence that GH may play an important role in early stages of folliculogenesis and that it is involved in the maintenance of sensitivity to gonadotropins. PMID:9282983

  8. Estudio de la formación de galaxias espirales en un modelo de agregación jerárquica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, P.; Saiz, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.

    El estudio de formación de galaxias espirales ha llevado al desarrollo de numerosos modelos teóricos (e.g. White & Rees 1978). En la actualidad, el modelo más aceptado predice la formación de una galaxia espiral a partir del colapso disipativo del gas en el pozo de potencial de un halo oscuro, conservando su momento angular específco (Fall & Efstathiou 1980). En los últimos años, ha sido posible realizar simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas, las cuales describen la evolución conjunta de la materia oscura y los bariones. Estos experimentos han señalado la dificultad de formar estructuras discoidales con propiedades consistentes con las observaciones, en modelos de agregación jerárquica. El problema principal se origina en la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de la componente disipativa, durante el proceso de ensamblaje de los objetos, a través de la fusión de subestructura (Navarro & Steinmetz 1997). Estos experimentos no incluían procesos de formación estelar. En este trabajo, se expondrán resultados de simulaciones hidrodinámicas cosmológicas, incluyendo formación estelar (Tissera et al 1997), donde ha sido posible reproducir objetos discoidales con contrapartida observacional. El elemento fundamental ha sido la formación de bulbos estelares, los cuales han evitado la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de los bariones. Se encontró que los discos exponenciales puramente gaseosos son altamente inestables y suceptibles de generar barras, responsables de la pérdida de momento angular y la caída violenta del gas hacia la región central. Estas inestabilidades son fácilmente inducidas durante interacciones y fusiones con objetos vecinos (Barnes & Hernquist 1996). Un bulbo estelar (o un objeto masivo y compacto) estabiliza el disco ante perturbaciones externas, asegurándole un potencial simétrico (Sellwood & Moore 1998, Van der Bosch 1998). En este caso, el gas en el disco no pierde completamente su momento angular intrínseco durante las fusiones, sino que, las sobrevive aportando una contribución distinta de cero, a partir de la cual el disco se regenera acretando en una segunda etapa, gas del halo de acuerdo al modelo tradicional de Fall & Efstathiou.

  9. Alterações Induzidas Pelo Exercício no Número, Função e Morfologia de Monócitos de Ratos

    PubMed Central

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas por curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve por 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada por 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado por curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas agudas observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.

  10. Progress in the prognosis of adult Hodgkin's lymphoma in the past 35 years through clinical trials in Argentina: a GATLA experience.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Santiago; Lastiri, Francisco

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends in complete remission (CR) rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) through 35 years of Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) clinical trials. A total of 1,254 adult patients with Hodgkin's Lymphoma were evaluated according to seven consecutive protocols. This 35-year study was divided into three phases. The patients in the first phase (1968-1985) were treated with CVPP (cyclophosphamide/vinblastine/procarbazine/prednisone) plus involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT). In the CVPP regimen, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine were administered intravenously on day 1 and prednisone and procarbazine were administered orally on days 1-14 every 28 days. The second phase (1986-1996) used mainly reinforced CVPP with cyclophosphamide and vinblastine on days 1-8 plus IFRT. The third phase (1997-2003) used ABVD(doxorubicin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine) plus IFRT. In clinical stage I/II, the CR rate was 86% in 252 patients treated in the first phase and DFS and OS were 57% and 78% at 5 years and 50% and 71% at 10 years. The second phase had 148 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 91%, 5-year DFS and OS were 78% and 90%, and 10-year DFS and OS were 70% and 83%. The third phase had 182 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 95%, 5-year DFS and OS were 87% and 96%, and 10-year DFS and OS were not reached. The statistical difference was P = 0.016 in terms of CR and P < 0.001 in terms of DFS and OS. In the first phase of 394 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 71%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 37% and 62%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 32% and 53%. In the second phase of 164 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 84%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 66% and 80%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 60% and 75%. In the third phase of 114 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 88% and DFS and OS at 5 years were 60% and 90%. The DFS and OS were not reached at 10 years. The differences among the 3 phases in CR, DFS and OS were highly significant (P < 0.001). PMID:15453925

  11. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  12. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los desórdenes gastrointestinales están entre las enfermedades más frecuentes en el área estudiada. Para la mayoría de los entrevistados, la medicina tradicional es una opción confiable para la atención de sus enfermedades. Sin embargo, la preferencia de los habitantes entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina alopática podría ser clarificada a partir de futuros estudios comparativos que permitan obtener resultados más convincentes. Los resultados expuestos pueden ser usados como una base de datos para posteriores trabajos relacionados a la medicina tradicional y su contribución con la medicina alopática en San Pablo de Huacareta. PMID:22856877

  13. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.Fundamento: As urgências cardiovasculares são causas importantes de procura por atendimento médico, sendo fundamentais a rapidez e a precisão no diagnóstico para diminuir sua morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso da ecocardiografia direcionada como complemento diagnóstico ao exame físico em um serviço terciário de emergências clínicas. Métodos: Foram incluídos cem pacientes adultos sem doenças cardíacas ou pulmonares conhecidas que procuraram atendimento de urgência com queixas cardiológicas. Foram excluídos pacientes com alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma ou febre. A ecocardiografia direcionada foi realizada logo após a avaliação inicial do paciente na sala de emergência, com aparelho ultraportátil GE Vscan, avaliando subjetivamente: dimensões das cavidades, função sistólica ventricular, fluxos intracardíacos pelo mapeamento de fluxo em cores, pericárdio e aorta. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi 61 ± 17 anos. O quadro clínico inicial foi dor torácica (52 pacientes), dispneia (32 pacientes), arritmia/avaliação da função ventricular (dez pacientes), hipotensão/tontura (cinco pacientes) e edema periférico (um paciente). Em 28 pacientes a ecocardiografia direcionada confirmou a hipótese diagnóstica inicial: 19 pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, cinco com síndrome coronariana aguda, dois com tromboembolismo pulmonar e dois com tamponamento cardíaco. Em 17 pacientes, a ecocardiografia direcionada alterou o diagnóstico, afastando a hipótese clínica inicial em dez casos com suspeita de insuficiência cardíaca, dois com suspeita de tromboembolismo pulmonar, dois com hipotensão a esclarecer, e em cada um dos três restantes com suspeitas de síndrome coronariana aguda, tamponamento cardíaco e dissecção de aorta. Conclusão: A ecocardiografia direcionada ultraportátil em serviço de emergências clínicas pode definir rapidamente o diagnóstico e, com isso, é possível iniciar mais precocemente o tratamento adequado. PMID:25352461

  14. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo GeoB 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  15. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em vários aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-anãs.

  16. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

  17. Extensional Detachment faulting in melange rocks. Plurikilometres migration by W the External Zone (Cordillera Bética, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Rodríguez, Jose; Mateos, Rosa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The synthesis and correlation of units carried out in the continuous geological map (Roldán et al., 2012), has revealed a fragmentation of the carbonate outcrops belong to the Subbetic Domain (García-Hernández et al., 1980). Subbetic NW verging thrust and fold axial traces have not lateral continuity and Jurassic carbonate outscrops appear as klippes on the olistotromic unit. These ductile structures that can be observed in the internal structure of these jurassic blocks are unrelated to the brittle-ductile deformation bands observed at the basal pelitic levels. Basal detachments are rooted in: a) the Olistostromic unit, a Upper Langhian-Lower Serravallian breccia constituted by gypsum-bearing clay and marls; b) Cretaceous-Tertiary marly sedimentary rocks (Rodríguez-Fernández, et al., 2013) . In both kind of rocks, cataclastic structures allows to infer a top-to-the WSW displacement. Paleostress measurements, made on these detachments levels, are compatible with a extensional regime (Roldán et al., 2012). At the same time, the analysis and interpretation of subsurface data (seismic surveys and borehole testing) shows that the Subbetic Domain (External Subbetic, Molina 1987) are affected by westward low-angle normal faults. A balanced cross-section, based on morphological and cartographic data in the area between Sierra de Cabra and Sierra de Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén), shows plurikilometric displacements which has been produced during Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian times. References: García-Hernández, M., López-Garrido, A.C., Rivas, P., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Vera, J.A. (1980): Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the zones of the Betic Cordillera. Geol. Mijnb. 59 (2). 155-168. Molina, J.M. (1987). Análisis de facies del Mesozoico en el Subbético. Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Granada. 518 p. Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Roldán, F. J., Azañón, J.M. y García-Cortés, A. (2013). El colapso gravitacional del frente orogénico a lpino en el Dominio Subbético durante el Mioceno medio-superior: El Complejo Extensional Subbético. Boletín Geológico y Minero, 124 (3): 477-504. Roldán, F.J., Azañón, J.M. y Rodríguez-Fernández, J. (2012): Desplazamiento extensional del Subbético entre las sierras de Cabra y Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén. Zonas Externas de la Cordillera Bética). VIII Congreso Geológico de España oviedo. GEOTEMAS, V-13: 484. Roldán, F.J., Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Villalobos, M., Lastra, J., Díaz-Pinto, G., Pérez Rodríguez, A.B. (2012). Zonas: Subbético, Cuenca del Guadalquivir y Campo de Gibraltar. In GEODE. Mapa Geológico Digital Continuo de España. Sistema de Información Geológica Continua: SIGECO. IGME. Editor Navas, J. Disponible en: http://cuarzo.igme.es/sigeco.default.htm

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Calvo Rodríguez, R; Montero Pérez, F J; García Olid, A; Gallardo Valverde, J M; Calderón de la Barca, J M; Jiménez Murillo, L M

    2016-01-01

                Fundamento. La obstrucción intestinal es una de las urgencias quirúrgicas más frecuentes. Su diagnóstico se basa esencialmente en la historia clínica, la exploración física y las pruebas de imagen. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el valor diagnóstico de reactantes de fase aguda en pacientes con obstrucción intestinal benigna versus maligna.             Método. Se ha realizado un estudio de cohortes histórico sobre 53 pacientes sometidos a cirugía por obstrucción intestinal y/o cáncer colorrectal no obstructivo. Los pacientes se encuadraron en 3 grupos: grupo 1 (cáncer colorrectal con obstrucción intestinal) (n=23), grupo 2 (obstrucción intestinal benigna) (n=10) y grupo 3 (con cáncer de colon no obstructivo) (n= 20). Se determinan los valores plasmáticos iniciales de la proteína C reactiva (PCR) y el enzima lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH).            Resultados.La PCR se elevó cuantitativamente más en pacientes con obstrucción intestinal benigna (grupo 2) (p=0,001), mientras quela LDH en el grupo 1 (pacientes con cáncer obstructivo). Los niveles plasmáticos de LDH fueron significativamente mayores en los grupos con obstrucción intestinal (Grupos 1 y 2) que en pacientes sin obstrucción (p<0,001). Niveles plasmáticos de PCR mayores de 11 mg/l y de LDH mayores de 317 U/L mostraron una validez diagnóstica aceptable para diferenciar los pacientes con obstrucción intestinal, con áreas bajo la curva ROC  de 80% (IC 95% = 68-92%) y de 86% (IC 95%= 75-96%) respectivamente. Su validez diagnóstica para diferenciar el origen benigno o maligno es menor, con áreas bajo la curva ROC de 56% para niveles de PCR > 24 ng/l (IC 95 % = 30-82%) y de 52% (IC 95%  =  29-74%) para niveles de LDH > 359 U/L.             Conclusión. La determinación de las concentraciones plasmáticas dela PCR puede ayudar al diagnóstico de la obstrucción intestinal y orientar hacia su origen benigno o maligno en los servicios de urgencias.            Palabras clave. Obstrucción intestinal. Proteína C reactiva (PCR). Lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH). Cáncer colorrectal. Urgencias. PMID:27125616

  19. Application of the groundwater-balance equation to indicate interbasin and vertical flow in two semi-arid drainage basins, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.

    2000-09-01

    An analysis of horizontal inflow and outflow in the groundwater-budget equation and the significance for interbasin flow are presented. Two field cases in Mexico, one in the Baja California peninsula and another in central Mexico, highlight the influence of interbasin flow. A significant proportion (approximately 70%) of the ed (thermal) groundwater probably originates outside the drainage basin. A conclusion is that a groundwater-balance study is an unsatisfactory method for determining some parameters, such as storativity (S). Specifically, the groundwater-balance approach provides unreliable results when vertical inflow is ignored or cannot be adequately defined. Vertical flow is indicated by the presence of groundwater temperatures as much as 23 °C higher than ambient temperature. Regional faults could be the pathways for upward flow. When vertical inflow is ignored, uncertainty in the estimation of the storativity through regional groundwater-balance calculation results. On the basis of the groundwater-balance equation, a value of S=0.19 appears to represent the confined condition of the developed part of the aquifer; this result is several orders of magnitude higher than would be reasonable according to the geological conditions. Findings are useful in evaluating whether a groundwater resource is being "overexploited". Conclusions are instructive in the application of transient-flow computer models, in which vertical flow of less dense water from beneath is not included. Résumé. L'article présente une analyse des entrées et des sorties horizontales dans l'équation du bilan d'une nappe et leur signification dans les écoulements entre bassins. Deux exemples provenant du Mexique, l'un dans la péninsule de Basse Californie, l'autre dans le centre du Mexique, mettent en lumière l'influence de l'écoulement entre bassins, où une proportion significative (environ 70%) de l'eau souterraine extraite, thermale, a probablement son origine hors du bassin. Une conclusion est qu'une étude par bilan de la nappe est une méthode qui n'est pas satisfaisante pour déterminer certains paramètres comme le coefficient d'emmagasinement. En particulier, l'approche par le bilan de la nappe donne des résultats qui ne sont pas fiables lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale ou que l'on ne peut pas la définir correctement. L'existence d'une drainance verticale est prouvée par des températures de l'eau souterraine pouvant être supérieures de 23 °C à la température ambiante. Des failles régionales peuvent permettre ces écoulements vers le haut. Lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale, on introduit une incertitude sur l'estimation de l'emmagasinement à partir des calculs du bilan régional de la nappe. Sur la base de l'équation du bilan de la nappe, une valeur de S=0,19 semble représenter les conditions captives de la partie développée de l'aquifère ce résultat est plus élevé, de plusieurs ordres de grandeur, que celui que l'on peut raisonnablement attendre des conditions géologiques. Ces résultats sont utiles pour évaluer si une ressource en eau souterraine est "surexploitée". Ces conclusions sont intéressantes lorsque l'on applique des modèles d'écoulement transitoire dans lesquels on ne prend pas en compte la drainance verticale d'une eau plus légère remontant. Resumen. En este trabajo, se investigan las entradas y salidas de flujo horizontal en la ecuación de balance de agua subterránea, así como el papel que desempeñan en el flujo entre cuencas. Se analizan dos ejemplos de México, uno en la Península de Baja California y otro en la parte central del país. En ambos, destaca la influencia del flujo entre cuencas, ya que se estima que una parte importante (aproximadamente el 70%) del agua termal extraída procede de una cuenca superficial externa. Se concluye que el método basado en cálculos de balance de agua subterránea no es satisfactorio para determinar algunos parámetros, como, por ejemplo, el coeficiente de almacenamiento (S). En particular, la ecuación de balance de agua subterránea proporciona resultados poco fiables cuando el flujo vertical es ignorado o no puede ser evaluado de forma adecuada. El flujo vertical se identifica por un incremento de temperatura del agua subterránea, que puede llegar a superar la temperatura ambiental en hasta 23 °C. La presencia de fallas regionales y las extracciones pueden favorecer el flujo vertical. Cuando éste es ignorado, aumenta la incertidumbre en la estimación del coeficiente de almacenamiento mediante un balance de agua subterránea. El valor obtenido con este médodo (S=0,19) es característico de acuíferos libres, pero resulta varios órdenes de magnitud mayor que el que sería esperable teniendo en cuenta las condiciones hidrogeológicas. Estos hallazgos son útiles para evaluar si los recursos de agua subterránea están siendo "sobreexplotados". Las conclusiones obtenidas son instructivas de cara a la aplicación de modelos numéricos de flujo transitorio que no consideran el flujo vertical por densidad.

  20. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

  1. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Background: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. Objective: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between D-dimer and serum potassium in acute-onset AF (AAF). Methods: To investigate the potential correlation between the values of serum potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of all emergency department visits for AAF in 2013. Results: Among 271 consecutive AAF patients with D-dimer assessments, those with hypokalemia (n = 98) had significantly higher D-dimer values than normokalemic patients (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0.004). The rate of patients with D-dimer values exceeding the diagnostic cut-off was higher in the group of patients with hypokalemia than in those with normal serum potassium (26.5% versus 16.2%; p = 0.029). An inverse and highly significant correlation was found between serum potassium and D-dimer (r = -0.21; p < 0.001), even after adjustments for age and sex (beta coefficient -94.8; p = 0.001). The relative risk for a positive D-dimer value attributed to hypokalemia was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.63; p = 0.040). The correlation remained statistically significant in patients free from antihypertensive drugs (r = -0.25; p = 0.018), but not in those taking angiotensin-receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or diuretics. Conclusions: The inverse correlation between values of potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF provides important and complementary information about the thromboembolic risk of these patients.Fundamento: Valores de D-dímero são frequentemente aumentada em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) em comparação com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipocalemia desempenha um papel em várias doenças cardiovasculares, mas pouco se sabe sobre a associação com FA. Objetivo: As concentrações de D-dímero encontram-se frequentemente aumentadas em pacientes com FA, quando comparados com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipopotassemia desempenha um papel importante nas doenças cardiovasculares, porém, pouco é conhecido sobre sua associação com a FA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a correlação entre os níveis séricos de D-dímero e potássio na FA aguda (FAA). Métodos: Para investigar a existência de uma potencial correlação entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA, realizamos uma revisão retrospectiva de dados clínicos e laboratoriais relacionados a todas as visitas ao departamento de emergência devido à FAA, no ano de 2013. Resultados: Entre os 271 pacientes com FAA, aqueles com hipopotassemia (n = 98) mostraram aumento significativo nos níveis de D-dímero, quando comparados com pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0,004). A taxa de pacientes com níveis de D-dímero excedendo o valor limiar de diagnóstico foi maior no grupo de pacientes com hipopotassemia, quando comparado com o grupo de pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (26,5% versus 16,2%; p = 0,029). Detectamos uma correlação inversa e altamente significativa entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero (r = -0,21; p < 0,001), até mesmo após ajuste para idade e sexo (coeficiente beta -94,8; p = 0,001). O risco relativo de um valor positivo de D-dímero estar relacionado à hipopotassemia foi de 1,64 (95% CI, 1,02 to 2,63; p = 0,040). A correlação permaneceu estatisticamente significativa em pacientes livres de medicamentos hipertensivos (r = -0,25; p = 0,018), porém não nos pacientes em tratamento com bloqueadores do receptor de angiotensina, inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina e diuréticos. Conclusões: A correlação inversa existente entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA fornece informações importantes sobre o risco de tromboembolismo nestes pacientes. PMID:25494015

  2. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a cultura da batata podem ser de ordem agronómica, economica e comercial. Como exemplos destes podem ser citados: o uso racional de matérias orgânicos, esterco de curral e inorgânico fertilizantes. Efeito de materias orgnicânicos e N, P, K elementos minerais para produção da batata As necessidades em N, P, e K elementos minerais da batata são superidas pela aplicação apropriada de matérias orgânicos, esterco de currals, fertilizantes ao solo, combinada com a ambiente (Márton 2001a., 2001b.), época adequada e posição ideal de aplicá- lo. Efeito da materias orgânicos O suprimento de N á batateira provém principalmente da matéria orgânica do solo e do fertilizante aplicado (László 2000a., Márton et all. 2000.). Embora não seja muito praticado no Brasíl, a incorporação de esterco ao solo é fator de aumento da produção de tuberculos. Este resultado favorável poderia ser atribuído ao melhoramento da estrutura do solo, á maior retenção de água pelo e mesmo favorecendo o melhor desenvolvimento do sistema radicular da planta. A batata pode ser cultivada em todo tipo de solo desde que tenha boa drenagem e seja bem estruturado. Isto é tem que ser bem aerado e permitir o bom desenvolvimento dos órgãos subterráneos da batateira. Sem de matéria orgânicos e esterco de curral a tendencia de determinados solos formar crosta, oferecendo uma alta resisténcia mecánica á emergéncia das plantas, pode ser um determinante de stands desuniformes. A cause primaria da formação de crostas é a destruição dos agregados do solo pela excessiva manipulação mecánica resultando em aeração reduzida e aumento da densidade e coesão das particulas do solo. O encrostamento do solo pode ser reduzido através com matérias orgânicos. De maneira geral, a produção de tuberculos em solo de baixa potencialidade (aqueles em que a penetração das raizes é dificultada pela compactação, textura argilosa ou com camadas no solo) será menor do que nagueles com alta potencialidade (boa textura e adequada retenção de agua). Efeito do nitrogênio No Brazíl em todas regiões onde se cultiva batata é raro encontrar solos com elevado teor de nitrogênio e que não precisam de quantidades desta elemento. É o elemento que governa o padrão de desenvolvimento da planta, estimulando principalmente o crescimento da parte aérea (Kádár et all. 2000., László 2000.). Para se obter rendimento de tubérculos é necessário um rápido e curto periodo de desenvolvimento da parte aérea e uma fase de acúmulo maior possível. Para tanto, devem ser evitadas doses muito altas de nitrogênio e, principalmente, se aplicadas tardiamente, pois haverá demasiado desenvolvimento de folhas que demorarão mais a finalizar seu crescimento e maturação. Isto implicará na redução do periodo de intenso desenvolvimento dos tubérculos e armazenagem do amido, resultando em menor produção. Há risco para a saúde na ingestão de alimentos com altos teores de nitrato e nitrito, havendo preocupação com o efeito de doses mais altas de nitrogênio sobre os teores dos mesmos nos tuberculos. Embora haja diferenças entre cultivares, localidades e períodos de armazenamento, há estudos mostrando que a fertilização com até 150 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio não foi suficiente para propiciar niveis preocupantes de nitrato nos tuberculos colhidos. Efeito do fósforo A grande maioria dos solos brasileiros cultivados com batata apresentam limitações ao bom desenvolvimento e produção da cultura em função dos baixos níveis de fósforo. Isto significa que aumentos de produção quase sempre ocorrem quando o solo recebe adubação fosfatada (László 2001a.). Estes aumentos são mais marcantes em solos nunca antes adubados ou com baixo teor de fósforo. Nestes, dificilmente alcanca- se a produção máxima com níveis reduzidos de fósforo. Não seria exagerado supor níveis de 600 a 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5, como sendo aqueles que iriam proporcionar produção máximas, principalmente em solos mais ácidos e pobres em matéria orgânico. A adubação fosfatada é muito importante no crescimento inicial da planta e, além de aumentar a produção de tuberculos em peso e números, aumenta também a quantidade e qualidade do amido neles contidos e reduz perdas durante o armazenamento dos mesmos. A quantidade de fósforo a aplicar dependerá da análise do solo considerando- se principalmente o nível de P existente e a textura do solo. Solos de textura média e arenosa necessitam maior conteúdo de fósforo do que os de textura argilosa para serem considerandos solos de baixo, médio ou alto teor de fósfato. Efeito da potássica Embora seja o elemento mais absorbido pela batateira, nem sempre há resposta positiva da aduba potássica sobre o rendimento da cultura. Provavelmente isto esteja relacionado com níveis elevados deste elemento no solo (Kurnik et all. 2001.). Entretanto, em solos com médios e baixos teores de potássio, aumentos significativos são conseguidos. Por isto, as recomendações de adubação com potássio, nas diversas regiões do mundo, variam de 50-300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Resultados de trabalhos em brasiléiros têm demonstrado que a aduba potássica pode ser substituída pela aplicação de 150 m3 ha-1 de vinhaça de cana de açúcar. Ao elevar- se a dose de fertilização potássica deverá haver precaução para que a adubação magnesiana seja suficiente. O K além de aumentar a produção, em solos deficientes, aumenta também o tamanho dos tubérculos produzidos, e a proporção de tubérculos grandes. Deficiência no suprimento de potássio á planta pode acarretar produção de tubérculos com elevada susceptibilidade aos danos mecánicos pós-colheita. Os tubérculos injuriados enegrecem facilmente e este enegrecimento é inversamente proporcional á quantidade de potássio nos tuberculos. Ademais, quando fritos dão origem a um produto escuro, de baixa valor comercial. Manejo de adubação Diversos fatores como potencial de produção do solo, modo de aplicação do fertilizante dentre outro fatores afetam a resposta da batateira á aplicação de fertilizantes (Refschneider 1987.). Depreende- se pois que no estabelecimento de um nivel ideal de fertilização as variáveis planta, solo e condições climaticas devem ser visualizadas como um sistema pouco provável de ser homogeneo mesmo em nivel de fazenda. Como tal, generalizações a respeito de doses ou niveis de fertlização são difíceis de serem feitas, recomendações exigem julgamento hábil por parte do fazendeiro ou do tecnico responsavel pela cultura (Márton 2001a., 2001b.). Este julgamento será mais preciso conhecendo- se pontos que serão rápidamente discutidos a seguir. A taxa de absorção de nutrientes é governada pela concentração externa ou suprimento de nutrientes pelo solo e a demanda do nutriente criada pelo desenvolvimento e funcinamento normal dos diversos órgãos das plantas. O nivel de nutrientes na solução do solo deve ser suficiamente alto para que suas taxas de absorção não sejam limitantes ao crescimento. Por outro lado, não deve ser demasiado para causar excessiva absorção de outros nutrientes. Forte associação existe entre a absorção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da planta. De maneira geral, a fase de rapido desenvolvimento da cultura é acompanhada por um grande aumento na absorção de nutrientes com a taxa de absorção declinado quando a taxa de crescimento diminuiu. Normalmente todos os fertilizantes potássicos e fosfatados são adicionados ao solo na época do plantio. O nitrogênio normalmente é parcelado. Cerca de 2 por 3 do nível recomendado é colocado no sulco de plantio e o restante adicionado por ocasião da amontoa. É uma prática tradicinal e com pouco suporte experimental no condiõces brasileiras. Espera -se que a aplicação parcelada do nitrogênio e mesmo do potássio possem ser benéficas quando houver chuva excessiva ou irrigações mal executadas principalmente em solos mais arenosos onde poderá ocorrer a lixiviacão dos mesmos (Márton 2001a., 2001b.). O parcelamento poderá também ser benéfico quando elevados níveis de fertilizantes porém recomendandos e a aplicação por feita nos sulcos de plantio, pois evitar-se ia assim, elevada concentração salina em torno dos tubérculos plantados, embora a aplicação á lanco, em toda área, possa ser opção vantajosa. Quantidades corretas de fertilizantes, posição ideal e época certa de aplicação, combinadas adequadamente, definem o programa de adubação da batata. Esse programa é variável de acordo com o solo, a batata e condisões ambientais (Márton 2001a.). A dose de um elemento a ser aplicada em batata, é função da quantidade desse elemento suprida pelo solo e da percentagem de recuperação do elemento adicionado ao solo como fertilizante. Resultados experimentais comparando a aplicação de fertilizante á lanco ou localizado mostram respostas variadas sobre a produção. E possivel encontrar resultados iguais em ambos os métodos, de supremacia da aplicação á lanco ou da aplicação localizada (Kurnik et all. 2001.). Parece que baixas quantidades de fertilizantes são mais eficiemente utilizadas quando aplicação nos sulcos de plantios. Entretanto o potancial de produção pode ser aumentando com alta ou mesmo moderada quantidade de fertilizantes aplicados á lanço. A recomendação geral de colocar o adubo no sulco de plantio da batata merece ser questionada. É uma recomendação válida ao entender- se que a batata responde bastante á aplicação de fósforo, que os solos brasileiros tem alta capacidade de absorção de fósforo e que haverá maior proliferação de raízes na área fertilizada. Uma indagação aparece: um solo com baxa disponibilidade de fósforo fora da zona fertilizada permitiria o desenvolvimento ótimo da planta. Algumas evidéncias mostram, para outras espécies, que grande parte do sistema radicular, deve estar exposta ao fósforo para suprir as necessidades das plantas. Ademais, há um determinado valor de concentração de fósforo, na solução do solo, acima da qual a taxa de absorção não é aumentada. Essas considerações suscitam a possibilidade de questionar se a aplicação de fósforo em sulcos seria a forma mais eficiente de usá-lo quando se pretende alcancar elevadas produções. Deve-se lembrar entretanto, que solos tropicais, ainda com baixos teores fósforo e alta capacidade de adsorção, seria necessária dose muito elevada de P, quando aplicada á lanço, em todo o terreno. Se a aplicação localizada do fósforo pode, em parte, ser explicada, a do nitrogênio e potássio não são facilmente justificadas sob o aspecto de eficiéncia de utilização. Pelo contrário, ela pode ser questionada, principalmente pelas suas caracteristicas de difusão, pelo efeito que altas concentração de amónio e cloreto podem ter sobre a pressão osmotica da solução do solo junto aos tubérculos plantados, pelo efeito negativo do cloreto sobre a absorção de fósforo e também sobre a capacidade produtiva das plantas. Portanto, existe a possibilidade de ocorrer toxidez de amónio e de cloreto ao se aplicar doses altas dos fertilizantes nos sulcos de plantios. Isto pode determinar uma menor eficiéncia no uso dos fertilizantes. Materiais e Metodos: Nos desenvolverémos os três experimentos (i.e.: 1., 2., 3.) para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação com diferentes doságens do latossolo vermelho novo, do esterco de curral e do adubo fórmula 4N:14P:8K no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, da Brazília-DF no 1990. Caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo em faixa arado (dados estimados), e conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do esterco de curral e palha de arroz queimado (dados estimados): a., caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo latossolo vermelho (solo novo: nunca foi usado para produção da batata semente): CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1 com abastecer fraco destes elementos, b., conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do esterco de curral (qualidade médio): N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do palha de arroz queimado (palha de arroz foi queimado em um especial forno): N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. Nestas provas usarémos para controle a *mistura padrão. O este tratamento é a composição usual neste programa i.e.: 150 l de solo novo, 50 l de palha de arroz queimado, 50 l de esterco de curral, 350 gramas de cal e 300 gramas de adubo da fórmula 4N:14P:8K. Experimento 1. Efeito de diferentes misturas para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O experimento foi instalado considerando-se sete misturas de substrato (latossolo vermelho novo, esterco de curral, palha de arroz queimado) em 3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto com cinco repetições, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, na mésas experimentais em caso de vegetação. A cultivar foi a Achat, com plãntulas provenientes de cultura de tecidos. A data de plantio foi 18.04.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 "in vitro" plantulas com raiz embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado com ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 22 0C e humidade médio foi 68% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 04.07.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA. As misturas do substrato utilizadas foram como a seguir no Tabela 1. Experimento 2. Efeito de adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O experimento foi instalado considerando-se 9 dosagens de adubo da fórmula 4N:14P:8K com latossolo vermelho novo em 3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto com cinco repetições, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso na mésas experimentais em casa de vegetação. O adubo foi posicionando no solo de 4 cm abaixo de superficie do solo. A cultivar foi a Achat, com plãntulas provenientes de cultura de tecidos. A data de plantio foi 18.04.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 "in vitro" plantulas com raiz embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado com ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 22 0C e humidade médio foi 68% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 04.07.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA. As doságens de adubo foram como a seguir no Tabela 2. Experimento 3. Efeito de latossolo vermelho novo, palha de arroz queimado e adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Para pesquisar estes efeitos o experimento tipo de (2 x 6) foi instalado considerando-se as combinações entre duas misturas (i.e.: 1., 2.) e seis doságens de adubo complexo 4N:14P:8K, com três repetições, no delineamento experimental de bloco ao acaso, sendo 1 vaso (3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto) por parcela na mésas experimentais em casa de vegetação. O adubo foi posicionando no solo de 4 cm abaixo de superficie do solo. A cultivar utilizada foi Baraka e o tamanho de tuberculos foi com 0-20 mm. A data de plantio foi 25.09.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 tuberculos com embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 21 0C é humidade médio foi 66% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 14.12.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco e matéria seca. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, MANOVA. Os manejos foram como a seguir no Tabela 3. Resultados e Discuscáo Experimento 1. Efeito de diferentes misturas para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O tratamento 3. i.e.: mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm (tamanho de comercial), peso de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. Porém, não houve diferencas significativas para o numero tuberculos comerciais, i.e.: com 0-20 mm, para os tratamentos 2., 3., 4., e 5. Portanto, a mistura poderá ter uma composição entre 60 a 90% de latossolo vermelho novo, 6 a 24% de palha de arroz queimado e de 4 a 16% de esterco de curral. Não houve diferenca significativa entre a mistura padrão utilizada e as misturas incluidas nos extremos indicados anteriormente. Porém, a mistura padrão recebeu adubação quimica de 4N:14P:8K (3.6 grama vaso-1) e calcário na dosagem de 4.2 grama vaso-1, o que não aconteceu com as parcelas das misturas em analise. Experimento 2. Efeito de adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Há um efeito crescente das dóses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. Porém, a maior dóse não chegou a ultrapassar a mistura padrão. Experimento 3. Efeito de latossolo vermelho novo, palha de arroz queimado e adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Efeitos de misturas As duas misturas (i.e.: 1 e 2) deram resultados significativos mais alto que a mistura padrão, em média 54 %. Entre as misturas 1 e 2, foi melhor a 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a mistura 1. (70% latossolo vermelho novo, 20% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Em caso de número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com a mistura 2. foi possivel aumentar geralmente os números de tuberculos em 77% que a mistura padrão. Efeitos de adubação 1. Área da folhas por planta entre manejo foi melhor de modo significativo a doságem de 3.6 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo (3103 cm2 plantas-1). 2. Peso fresco da folhas e de hastes por plantas as tendencias foram parecidos com o da área de folhas. 3. Peso fresco de raizis por planta até 7.2 grama vaso-1 diminuiu depois aumentou. 4. Peso fresco total de tuberculos por planta as crescentes doságens de um modo forte diminuiram a produção de tuberculos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 em 160% em os dois caso da mistura. 5. Peso de fitomassa fresco por planta foi melhor a 3.6 g vaso-1 (239 grama planta-1 em médio da dois mistura), depois os dados diminuirám. 6. Produção de biomassa fresco por planta a maxima produção (188 grama planta-1) foi obtida com 3.6 grama vaso-1. Deste ponto de modo forte caiu a produção. 7. Peso da matéria seca de folhas, hastes e raizis por planta somente em caso de mistura padrão o resultado foi significativo em relação aos outros tratamentos. 8. Péso da matéria seca de tuberculos total por planta modo significativo diminuiu a produção (0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 = 360%) em médio da duas misturas. 9. Biomassa produção de materia seca por planta modo significativo diminuiu para efeito de alta dosagens de adubo complexo (0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 = 158%) em médio da duas misturas. 10. Peso fresco de tuberculos com 0-20 mm as crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção em 213% em médio da duas misturas. 11. Peso fresco de tuberculos com 20 mm-1 as crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção assima de 250% em médio da duas misturas. 12. Numero de tuberculos 0-20 mm e 20 mm- por planta com os manejos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 foi possível aumentar em media 200% sobre a mistura padrão. Os manejo de 18.0 grama de adubo vaso-1 já causaram importante diminuição em relação caso a absoluto controle. 13. Numero total de tuberculos por planta entre manejos foi melhor a dosagem de 7.2 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo 4N:14P:8K comparando da mistura padrão. Nos verificamos-se que a mistura padrão sempre deu menor rasultados do que as outras misturas (i.e.: 1 e 2). Entre as misturas 1 e 2 a melhor foi a número 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Com esta mistura e com relação a mistura padrão, foi possível aumentar o número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com 77%. No caso do adubação, verificamos que grande quantidades de adubo acima de 7.2 grama vaso-1, de modo rigoroso diminuiu a produção de batata-semente pré- básica. Este fato deve ser considerado para a eleição das dosagens de adubos. Deve-se indicar o caso de número de tuberculos acima 20 mm-, onde em relação mistura padrão foi possivel aumentar em média 73% os resultados. Reconhecimento: Esta pesquisa foi apoio da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, Brasília-DF e Centro Pesquisa de Solo e Agroquímica do Academia Húngara de Ciências, Budapest References Kádár I-Márton L.-Horváth S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. Kurnik E.-Németh T.-Márton L.-Radimszki L. 2001. Effects of a new environment friendly deep fertilization system on a limy chernozem soil parameters. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press László M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László M. 2001b. Year and fertilization effect analysis in long field term experiments. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László M.-Imre K.-Jose E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99-106. László M.-Silva J.C.-Jose A.B. 2000b. Ecological friendly dragée technics on different crops and vegetables seeds. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 107-111. László M.-Silva J.B.C.-Jose A.B. 2000c. Ecological friendly dragée technics to sustainable precision agriculture. Fertilization in the Third Millenium. CASISCF. Beijing Márton L. 2000a. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Dissertation. University of Veszprém, Keszthely Márton L. 2000b. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Thesis. University of Veszprém, Keszthely Márton L. 2001a. Climete change effets on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press Márton L. 2001b. Climate change and fertilization effect analysis at the Tisza- river basin on rye yield. SZINET. University of Szent István. Gödöllő Márton L.-Kádár I.-Estáquio M.J. 2000. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation. ESSC. Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Abstract Book. 195. Valencia Reifschneider F.J.B. 1987. Produção de batata. Linha Gráfica e Editora. Brasília. p. 239. Tabela 1. Tratamentos do experimento 1. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------------------ Numero de Composição em % Tratamento Solo novo Palha de arroz queimado Esterco de curral ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. 100 0 0 2. 90 6 4 3. 80 10 10 4. 70 18 12 5. 60 24 16 6. 50 30 20 7. 40 36 24 ----------------------------------------------------------------- Tabela 2. Tratamentos do experimento 2. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------- Numero de Adubo 4:14:8 N P2O5 K2O Tratamento Grama vaso-1 ------------------------------------------------------- 1. 0.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 2. 1.8 0.072 0.252 0.144 3. 3.6 0.144 0.504 0.288 4. 5.4 0.216 0.756 0.432 5. 7.2 0.288 1.008 0.576 6. 9.0 0.360 1.260 0.720 7. 10.8 0.432 1.512 0.864 8. 12.6 0.504 1.764 1.008 9. 14.4 0.576 2.016 1.152 ------------------------------------------------------- Tabela 3. Tratamentos do experimento 3. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Num. de Mistura % Trat. Solo novo Palea de arr. Q Esterco de curral 4N:14P:8K g vaso-1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. 70 20 10 0.0 2 70 20 10 3.6 3. 70 20 10 7.2 4. 70 20 10 10.8 5. 70 20 10 14.4 6. 70 20 10 18.0 7. 80 10 10 0.0 8. 80 10 10 3.6 9. 80 10 10 7.2 10. 80 10 10 10.8 11. 80 10 10 14.4 12. 80 10 10 18.0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------