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Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobianoterapia na Otite Média Aguda em Pacientes Pediátricos Antimicrobial Therapy in Pediatric Patients with Acute Otitis Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A otite média aguda (OMA) é uma inflamação do ouvido médio que apresenta um início rápido de sinais e sintomas, tais como otalgia, febre, irritabilidade, anorexia e ou vômito. Conforme estudos de timpanocentese, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae não-tipável e Moraxella catarrhalis são os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente associados a esta condição clínica. Apesar da resolução espontânea da maioria dos casos

Ademir Moura Júnior; Alba Cristina; S. Oliveira; Caroline L. Fidalgo; Cristina B. Silva; Douglas N. Santana



Otitis externa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Otitis externa is thought to affect 10% of people at some stage, and can present in acute, chronic, or necrotising forms. Otitis externa may be associated with eczema of the ear canal, and is more common in swimmers, humid environments, people with absence of ear wax or with narrow ear canals, hearing-aid users, and after mechanical trauma. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical and prophylactic treatments for otitis externa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: oral antibiotics, specialist aural toilet, topical acetic acid drops or spray, topical aluminium acetate drops, topical antibacterials, topical antifungals, topical anti-infective agents, topical corticosteroids, and water exclusion.



Acute otitis externa: an update.  


Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal inflammation, resulting in otalgia, itching, canal edema, canal erythema, and otorrhea, and often occurs following swimming or minor trauma from inappropriate cleaning. Tenderness with movement of the tragus or pinna is a classic finding. Topical antimicrobials or antibiotics such as acetic acid, aminoglycosides, polymyxin B, and quinolones are the treatment of choice in uncomplicated cases. These agents come in preparations with or without topical corticosteroids; the addition of corticosteroids may help resolve symptoms more quickly. However, there is no good evidence that any one antimicrobial or antibiotic preparation is clinically superior to another. The choice of treatment is based on a number of factors, including tympanic membrane status, adverse effect profiles, adherence issues, and cost. Neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone preparations are a reasonable first-line therapy when the tympanic membrane is intact. Oral antibiotics are reserved for cases in which the infection has spread beyond the ear canal or in patients at risk of a rapidly progressing infection. Chronic otitis externa is often caused by allergies or underlying inflammatory dermatologic conditions, and is treated by addressing the underlying causes. PMID:23198673

Schaefer, Paul; Baugh, Reginald F



Necrotizing otitis externa: a painless reminder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing otitis externa is a necrotizing osteomyelitis of the skull base that predominantly affects diabetic and immunocompromised\\u000a patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently implicated organism. Patients present with severe otalgia, otorrhoea with or without facial palsy,\\u000a or rarely, facial pain as a symptomatic feature. We report a case of necrotizing otitis externa presenting with totally painless\\u000a otorrhoea and highlight

Daniel Thio; Phillip Reece; Rory Herdman



Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa.  


This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10 cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus pseudintermedius alone (n=5) or in combination with Malassezia pachydermatis (n=5). Some coryneform isolates displayed resistance to fusidic acid or enrofloxacin, two antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The frequency of isolation of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year. On basis of the current knowledge, these coryneform bacteria should be regarded as potential secondary pathogens able to proliferate in the environment of an inflamed ear canal. PMID:20434850

Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A; Schjærff, Mette; Kania, Stephen A; Frank, Linda A; Guardabassi, Luca



Otitis Externa, Otitis Media, and Sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pseudomonas aeruginosa malignant otitis externa,which can be a life-threatening infection if not diagnosed and treated promptly and appropriately,\\u000a is typically seen in elderly diabetics.\\u000a \\u000a Local debridement, topical combination agents (antipseudomonal antibiotic with corticosteroids), and systemic antipseudomonal\\u000a antibiotics is the treatment of choice for P. aeruginosa malignant otitis externa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Acute otitis media occurs less commonly in older adults than in children,

Vinod K. Dhawan



Microsoft Academic Search

Es un hecho fácilmente constatable que la actividad económica en gene- ral e industrial en particular se localiza de forma desigual a lo largo de la geografía española. El presente trabajo plantea un modelo que tiene como objetivo analizar la incidencia de las economías externas en la dis- tribución territorial del empleo de los distintos sectores industriales. El modelo incorpora




Persistent petrosquamosal sinus: Underlying cause of otitic hydrocephalus with lateral sinus thrombosis.  


Lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) occurs when a middle ear infection disseminates directly via bone erosion or disseminates indirectly through the venous networks. The petrosquamosal sinus (PSS) is the residual accessory dural sinus connecting intracranial to extracranial drainage. This report describes a case of a patient with persistent PSS running through the mastoid in context of otitic hydrocephalus with LST. To identify PSS, enhanced CT and reconstructed image from CT venography were more useful than MRI. The possibility of persistent PSS running through the mastoid should be considered if LST without marked inflammation and bone erosion is noted. PMID:24063770

Inokuchi, Go; Tsutsumi, Nao; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Fujita, Takeshi; Sawada, Naoki; Kumoi, Kazuo



Otitis Externa: A Rationale for Treatment  

PubMed Central

Acute diffuse otitis externa due to Pseudomonas (swimmer's ear) is a common summer problem which may be empirically (and inadequately) treated. Rational treatment is based upon accurate diagnosis of the etiology of the inflammation, and meticulous treatment of the ear canal. The type of ear drop seems less important than the technique of its application and physical management of the inflamed canal itself. A rational regime of therapy is outlined and side effects of drops discussed with complications of the disease itself.

Jahn, A. F.; Hawke, Michael



[A study of otitis externa associated with Malassezia].  


Malassezia-positive smears can be recognized from otitis externa, however, there are few references in the literature to the relation between Malassezia and otitis externa. Therefore, the bacterial and clinical characteristics of 72 cases (63 patients) with otitis externa were investigated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Takinomiya General Hospital to analyze this. Thirty-seven cases were bacterial otitis externa, 20 cases were fungal otitis externa, and 15 cases were etiological agents unknown in this study. The causative organisms in fungal otitis externa were the genera Aspergillus (10 cases), Malassezia (5) and Candida (5), respectively. We suspected that 5 cases were caused by Malassezia because Malassezia cell counts were greater than 10 per field (x 400), and a large number of Malassezia were isolated from all cases. In these cases, many squamous epithelial cells were observed by direct examination, and cells from the middle or basal layer of the ear canal were also recognized in three cases. Therefore, accelerated turnover of epidermal cells of the ear canal was suggested. The main symptoms were itching and fullness in the ear, with observations of redness and erosion in objective deterioration, and we felt that these conditions were similar to seborrheic dermatitis (SD). In addition, these five cases were confirmed as fungus-related otitis externa by their improvement with antifungal agents. PMID:19430186

Shiota, Ryoko; Kaneko, Takamasa; Yano, Hiroaki; Takeshita, Kimiko; Nishioka, Keiko; Makimura, Koichi



Recurrent malignant otitis externa: management and outcome.  


Necrotizing (malignant) external otitis (NEO) is an infection involving the temporal and the adjacent bones. It is a rare type of external otitis that occurs primarily in immunocompromised persons. The present study aimed to evaluate its management and outcome in recurrent cases. Ten patients attending the ENT Department, Alexandria University were included. They had recurrence of otitis externa over a period of 6 months after-cure, as well as severe night otalgia and high ESR level. Peri-auricular soft tissue swelling, cranial nerve paralysis and trismus were the main persistent or developing presentations in recurrent cases. Extensive surgical intervention was performed in four patients with unsatisfactory outcome. On the other hand, satisfactory results were obtained with those treated with specific medical therapy after culture and sensitivity test and those who underwent minimal surgical intervention. In conclusion, NEO is an aggressive disease that necessitates conservative management and local debridement of sequestrated tissues. The ESR is a good indicator of treatment response. It is recommended to be meticulous in treatment of cases with recurrent NEO and extensive surgical interventions are discouraged. PMID:21833561

Omran, Ahmed Amin; El Garem, Hany Farouk; Al Alem, Reyad Khalil



Otitis externa due to Pseudomonas in swimming pool bathers  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of otitis externa was observed to affect one third of 230 swimmers using a new swimming pool within three weeks of its opening. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown from the water and from all of the nine swabs taken from the infected ears of the swimmers. During the same period only six other cases of otitis externa were seen in the local general practice serving 4,000 patients. The disinfection procedures were found to be defective and after they were corrected the outbreak subsided.

Weingarten, Michael A.



Epidemiological Studies of Otitis Externa: Report of a Prospective and of a Retrospective Study of Otitis Externa Among Swimmers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two epidemiological studies of otitis externa were conducted, one was a prospective study conducted in the summer of 1979 which compared boy scouts at camp that swam in a fresh water lake with boy scouts at another camp that swam in a chlorinated swimming...

R. L. Calderon E. W. Mood



Once-daily ofloxacin otic solution for otitis externa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 7-day regimen of ofloxacin otic 0.3% solution administered once daily to treat otitis externa (OE).Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, multinational study (involving 58 sites in the U.S. and Central America). Ofloxacin otic 0.3% solution was administered once daily for the treatment of OE in patients over 6.0 months of age

Benjamin Torun; Stan L. Block; John Riefler; Ephraim Katz



[Incidence of otitis externa following swimming pool attendance--a case study in 6 indoor pools].  


A bacteriological study of the microflora in the auditory meatus of patients with otitis externa after swimming in correlation to the water flora was done during winter 80/81. Six indoor-pools (monthly controls ahead had proven unobjectionable water quality) were analyzed daily, while all swimmers were asked to come for otologic examination whenever symptoms of otitis externa appeared. In a control group without otitis externa the auditory canal was inspected and swabs were taken immediately after swimming. The results indicate, that a short term contamination of the ear canal is possible by swimming in water of unobjectionable quality; this however does not necessarily lead to clinical appearances. Since the incidence of otitis externa in our study (0.01%) was not higher than the morbidity rate in nonswimmers, the data support the concept of the multiplex etiology for otitis externa. PMID:7148210

Borneff, M; Geyer, G



Treatment of canine otitis externa using video otoscopy.  


Otitis externa in 27 toy poodles and 40 miniature dachshunds was treated using a video otoscope. A distinct concavity (external tympanic concavity) was observed at the junction between the ventral part of the external surface of the tympanum and the ear canal to which a considerable amount of hair and debris had adhered. All hair and debris adhering to the external tympanic concavity were removed, and systemic antibiotic and antifungal agents were administered, after which all of the dogs recovered. The pattern of hair growth observed in the external tympanic concavity could be characterized according to the breed of dog. All of the toy poodles presented with curly hairs, while the miniature dachshunds had upright or flat-lying hairs. PMID:21597241

Usui, Reiko; Usui, Ryoichi; Fukuda, Minako; Fukui, Emiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko



A rare and sinister variant of a common ailment: Fungal malignant otitis externa  

PubMed Central

A recent case report in this journal highlighted the pathophysiology and management of bacterial malignant otitis externa (MOE) (1). We describe the case of an elderly gentleman who had a delayed diagnosis of fungal MOE with advanced diseased at time of diagnosis. This case highlights the changing microbiology of this serious disease and the difficulty in diagnosis given the rarity of this form of otitis externa relative to its uncomplicated form.

Lilic, N; Mowjood, MT; Wong, MHW



Is laterality of malignant otitis externa related to handedness?  


Malignant otitis externa (MOE) usually affect patients with systemic diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. MOE is a mainly unilateral disease. Given that around 90% of human adults are right-handed we hypothesized that hand preference might be one of the factors involved in the development of MOE. All 38 of the patients whom we treated for MOE between August 2009 and November 2012 (28 males and 10 females, age range 43-91 years) had poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and all of them reported itching in the involved ear. The difference in the laterality of MOE among our right- and left-handed subjects was significant: right hand dominance was associated mostly with right-sided MOE (24/34) and left hand dominance was associated with occurrence of MOE only in the left ears (4/4, p=0.006). These findings point to an unexpectedly strong relationship between the patient's handedness and laterality of his/her MOE, leading us to hypothesize that the development of MOE might be attributable to self-inflicted local trauma to the ear canal on the same side as the dominant hand. PMID:23669376

Migirov, Lela; Lipshitz, Noga; Dagan, Elad; Wolf, Michael



Symblepharon secondary to ophthalmomyiasis externa in a dog.  


A 4-month-old crossbred female dog presented with complaints of poor vision and odd appearance of the eyes. At the age of a month, the animal was found lying in a railway road in a very bad condition and was rescued from death. At that time, the patient was presented with severe bilateral ocular discharge, and from both eyes, dipterous fly larvae were extracted. The dog was given symptomatic treatment (deworming, topical and systemic antibiotics, nutritional support) but never regained a normal eye appearance. At the time of the initial presentation, it had severe vision impairment because of bilateral cicatricial symblepharon, total in the left eye and occupying 3/4 of the cornea in the right eye. Surgery was proposed to attempt a resolution. Superficial keratectomy was performed in both eyes. After a midline incision in the cornea, the conjunctiva was dissected away. The conjunctiva was apposed to and sutured to the limbus and secured in the upper and lower conjunctival fornix. Additionally, in the left eye, a lateral canthotomy and canthoplasty were performed to enlarge the size of the eyelid opening. The corneal epithelium healed without complications, the patient regained vision, and after 36 months of follow-up, no recurrences were observed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of symblepharon secondary to ophthalmomyiasis externa in a dog. PMID:22050788

Delgado, Esmeralda




Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from 374 cases of external otitis in dogs were analysed by bacteriology, showing Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the main Gram negative aetiological agent, in 39 clinical diseases. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed predominantly resistance to betalactamic antibiotics.



Skull based osteomyelitis due to postsurgery malignant otitis externa presenting as stroke.  


Malignant or necrotising otitis externa is a rare but potentially fatal disease. The classic presentation is one of severe, unremitting, throbbing otalgia, which may progress to osteomyelitis, especially in the elderly diabetic or immunocompromised patient. The case described is of a 72-year-old immunocompetent, non-diabetic man who presented with facial weakness, dysphagia and weight loss. The admitting diagnosis or impression was that of a cerebrovascular event. The eventual diagnosis was that of skull based osteomyelitis secondary to malignant otitis externa complicating mastoid surgery. PMID:22696765

Su, Nicola; Syed, Irfan; Garth, Richard



Skull based osteomyelitis due to postsurgery malignant otitis externa presenting as stroke  

PubMed Central

Malignant or necrotising otitis externa is a rare but potentially fatal disease. The classic presentation is one of severe, unremitting, throbbing otalgia, which may progress to osteomyelitis, especially in the elderly diabetic or immunocompromised patient. The case described is of a 72-year-old immunocompetent, non-diabetic man who presented with facial weakness, dysphagia and weight loss. The admitting diagnosis or impression was that of a cerebrovascular event. The eventual diagnosis was that of skull based osteomyelitis secondary to malignant otitis externa complicating mastoid surgery.

Su, Nicola; Syed, Irfan; Garth, Richard



Peri and retrobulbar abscess caused by chronic otitis externa, media and interna in a dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

OTITIS externa is a common disease in dogs, and Proteus and Pseudomonas species are frequently cultured from chronic cases (Welch Fossum 2002, Krahwinkel 2003). Otitis media in dogs is usually preceded by a bacterial infection of the external ear canal. The signs of otitis media, such as a discharge from the external ear canal, head shaking and signs of pain

I. M. G. Kraijer-Huver; G. ter Haar; S. C. Djajadiningrat-Laanen; M. H. Boevé



Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with otitis externa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of otitis externa in dogs, and treatment of these infections is becoming problematic because of the increasing number of multiresistant strains. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro activities of cefepime, ceftazidime, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ticarcillin\\/clavulanic acid against 104 strains of P aeruginosa isolated from dogs with otitis

S. Meki?; K. Matanovi?; B. Šeol



Colze de tennis (tendinosi epicondília externa): tractament esclerosant ecoguiat amb polidocanol. A propòsit de dos casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dos pacients (2 homes de 42 i 55 anys) amb tendinosi epicondília externa dolorosa van ser tractats mitjançant un tractament innovador que es basa en l'esclerosi amb Polidocanol, un agent esclerosant, ecoguiada amb Power Color (PC) mitjançant Doppler color de polidocanol, un agent esclerosant. Després del tractament va haver-hi una marcada reducció del dolor recollida mitjançant una escala analògica visual

Guillermo Álvarez Rey; Ignacio Álvarez Rey; Guillermo Álvarez Bustos



Selectivity of pesticides used in integrated apple production to the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa.  


This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Márcio Candeias



Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa  

PubMed Central

This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification.

Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valeria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Marcio Candeias



[Clinical and pathophysiological patterns of otitis externa and overview of problematic cases].  


Otitis externa can sometimes present itself as a difficult clinical problem, in cases such as unsuccessful outcome of usual therapy, prolonged duration of symptoms or frequent recurrencies with local or systemic complications. In these cases more attention should be focused on possible errors made in establishing the right diagnosis, incorrect sequence of applying therapeutical measures, or presence of unrecognized problems, including individual patient factors, characteristics of the pathogen, or other. In this article we present a case report of a 84-year-old patient with complicated otitis externa, together with a short review of physiology, patophysiology, diagnostic and therapeutical measures in external otitis, and suggest a possible clinical approach in the management of problematic cases. PMID:21888087

Dzepina, Davor; Ajduk, Jakov; Zurak, Kreso


Susceptibility of Chrysoperla externa eggs (Neuroptera: Chrisopidae) to conventional and biorational insecticides.  


Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) is a generalist predator in agroecosystems. We assessed the effect of cypermethrin, endosulfan, methoxyfenozide, and spinosad on immature development time, survivorship, sex ratio, fecundity, and fertility on this organism in laboratory toxicity tests. Effects on second-generation organisms were also studied. Exposures were realized by dipping externa. The ecotoxicological studies showed the neonate-L(1) larvae as a susceptible developmental stage. These data indicate that the biorational insecticides tested are compatible with conserving C. externa. PMID:19036204

Rimoldi, Federico; Schneider, Marcela Inés; Ronco, Alicia Estela



Impact of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): ecological approach.  


Few ecotoxicological studies have used life table analysis to evaluate the toxicity of pesticides on beneficial organisms. This study is the first report of the effect of the herbicide glyphosate on a predator insect, Chrysoperla externa, using a demographic approach. This predator is associated to soybean pests and has a potential role as a biological control agent in the Neotropical Region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of C. externa, treated orally by ingestion of glyphosate-dipped eggs of Sitotroga cerealella in laboratory conditions. The data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Development from third larval instar to pupae and adult longevity were shorter in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Adult pre-reproductive period was longer in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Fecundity and fertility were deeply reduced, as well, being fertility greater affected. A high important reduction was registered in all population parameters. Most eggs from glyphosate-treated cohort looked abnormal, smaller than control, dehydrated and became black 2d after oviposition. In addition, adults developed tumours in the abdomen region at 20d after emergence, being the effect more drastic in females than males. It is beyond the scope of our study to speculate on the effects of this herbicide on C. externa field populations. However, it seems likely that populations under continuous use of glyphosate would be exposed at greater detrimental effects in the long term. PMID:19577273

Schneider, M I; Sanchez, N; Pineda, S; Chi, H; Ronco, A



[Toxicity of pesticides recommended in the integrated apple production (IAP) to populations of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)].  


The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of the pesticides abamectin, carbaryl, fenitrothion, methidathion, sulphur and trichlorfon on eggs of two Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) populations, as well as on the subsequent developmental stages and reproduction capacity of this green lacewing. Pesticide exposure and distilled water (control) were accomplished using a Potter's tower. None of the evaluated pesticides affected the egg viability of the C. externa populations studied, but abamectin and carbaryl caused significant mortality of other developmental stages of the predator. Sex ratio and reproduction capacity of females originated from treated eggs were unaffected. However, egg viability of C. externa from Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, was reduced by sulphur. Considering to the total effect (E) of each pesticide, trichlorfon, fenitrothion, methidathion and abamectin were harmless to both C. externa populations (Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria), when applied on eggs, whereas carbaryl was slightly harmful. On the other hand, the fungicide sulphur was slightly harmful to C. externa from Bento Gonçalves, but harmless to those from Vacaria. PMID:19618058

Moura, Alexandre P; Carvalho, Geraldo A; Moscardini, Valéria F; Marques, Márcio C; Souza, Jander R


A randomised controlled trial comparing Triadcortyl with 10% glycerine-ichthammol in the initial treatment of severe acute otitis externa.  


Acute otitis externa is a common clinical condition accounting for a large proportion of patients attending the otolaryngology department, although milder cases are often managed in primary care. Treatment of the most severe forms of otitis externa involves aural toilet, followed by the application of a topical preparation, commonly in the form of an ear canal dressing. A prospective single-blind randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy of 10% glycerine-ichthammol (GI) solution and Triadcortyl (TAC) ointment, both applied as ear canal dressings, in the initial management of severe acute otitis externa. A total of 64 patients were studied. Both treatment modalities were proven efficacious in the treatment of severe acute otitis externa. Although there was a statistically significant improvement of pain parameters in the TAC group, we found no significant differences in clinical findings between the two groups. Therefore, it is recommended that GI dressing can be used instead of an antibiotic dressing as an initial treatment of severe acute otitis externa on the basis of cost, avoidance of resistance and toxicity. PMID:17922130

Masood, Ajmal; Moumoulidis, Ioannis; Ray, Shalina; Chawla, Om; Panesar, Jaan



Loss of genetic variability induced by Agroecosystems: Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) as a case study.  


Four species of green lacewings occur in Brazil, of which Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) exhibits the widest geographical distribution. Chrysoperla externa is a predatory insect that is potentially useful as a biological control agent of agricultural pests. Studies on the genetic diversity of lacewing populations are essential to reduce the environmental and economic harm that may be caused by organisms with a low ability to adapt to the adverse and/or different environmental conditions to which they are exposed. We used the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene as a molecular marker to investigate the genetic diversity of green lacewing species collected from native and agroecosystem environments. Populations derived from native areas showed higher rates of genetic variability compared to populations from agroecosystems. Demographic changes in the form of population expansion were observed in agroecosystems, whereas populations in the native environment appeared stable over time. A statistical analysis showed significant genetic structure between each of the sampled groups, combined with its complete absence within each group, corroborating each group's identity. We infer that the loss of variability exhibited by populations from the agroecosystems is the result of genetic drift by means of the founder effect, a similar effect that has been observed in other introduced populations. Agroecosystems might therefore function as exotic areas for green lacewings, even when these areas are within the normal range of the species. PMID:23949710

Morales, A C; Lavagnini, T C; Freitas, S



Suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens as food source for the green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).  


Diversification of crops with species that provide suitable pollen for predators may reduce pest population on crops by enhancing predator effectiveness. In this paper we evaluated the suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens to the predatory green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen). The predator is commonly found in coffee agroecosystems and the plant species tested were pigeon pea and sunn hemp, which are used in organic coffee systems. Newly emerged females and males of C. externa were reared on diets containing pollen of pigeon pea, sunn hemp, or castor bean, used as a control. The reproductive success of C. externa was evaluated when females fed the pollen species and when honey was added to the diets, to verify the predator need for an extra carbohydrate source. Similar intrinsic growth rates were found for females fed on pigeon pea pollen and on sunn hemp pollen but these rates increased significantly when honey was added to the diets. Females fed with pigeon pea pollen plus honey and with sunn hemp pollen plus honey had higher intrinsic growth rates than those fed with castor bean pollen plus honey. Females fed on castor bean pollen only or on honey only, did not oviposit. Leguminous pollen species were equally suitable for C. externa especially when they were complemented with honey. The results suggest that to successfully enhance predator effectiveness, organic coffee plantation should be diversified with plant providing pollen in combination with plant providing nectar. PMID:18575698

Venzon, Madelaine; Rosado, Maria C; Euzébio, Denise E; Souza, Brígida; Schoereder, José H


Yüzme kursu ö¤rencilerinde s›cak ve nemli havuz ortam›n›n d›fl kulak yolu flora deifliklii ve eksternal otit geliflimi üzerine olan etkisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of the warm and wet environment of the swimming-pool on the bacterial flora of the external ear canal and development of otitis externa in children who attend to swimming course Objective: Especially in the summer season, there is an increased incidence of ear infections in the children who attend to the swim- ming pools. The most frequent ear infection

E. Akolu; M. Çetin; Y. Önlen; N. Duran; L. Savafl; S. Ocak


Hemmung der bakteriellen Adhäsion durch Lektinblockade bei durch Pseudomonas aeruginosa induzierter Otitis externa im Vergleich zur lokalen Therapie mit Antibiotika  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden klinischen prospektiven Phase-II-Studie wurde bei 15 Patienten\\/innen mit durch Pseudomonas aeruginosa induzierter Otitis externa diffusa erstmals die Kenntnis des auf spezifischen Protein(Lektin)rezeptoren beruhenden Mechanismus der bakteriellen Adhäsion durch kompetitive Inhibition mittels spezifischer D-Galaktose\\/D-Mannose\\/N-Azetylneuraminsäure-Lösung therapeutisch genutzt. Patienten der Kontroll(Gentamicin)gruppe erhielten eine lokale Gazestreifenbehandlung mit einer handelsüblichen Genta-micinlösung. Die Therapieergebnisse sind, entsprechend dem Wilcoxonschen Rangsummentest, mit denen zu

M. K. Steuer; H. Herbst; J. Beuth; G. Pulverer; R. Matthias



Randomized trial on the treatment of oedematous acute otitis externa using ear wicks or ribbon gauze: clinical outcome and cost.  


Acute otitis externa is a common condition that can be extremely painful. When there is considerable canal oedema, packing is necessary to facilitate the passage of medication. The experience at the Royal Victoria Eye and Ear Hospital is that ear wicks generally require removal in two to three days by medical staff and can be labour intensive as they often involve serial removals following re-insertions. Alternatively, medicated ribbon gauze is cheap and can be removed by the patient at home. Ear wick and mediated ribbon gauze were investigated by a prospective randomized trial involving 94 patients. Fewer out-patient visits were required for the ribbon gauze group (two vs. three, p<0.0001) with considerably less material and labour costs than the wick group. Similar resolution rates were achieved (70 per cent vs. 64 per cent, p = 0.58). Following development of guidelines, the proportion of otitis externa patient reviews in the accident and emergency department declined from 49 per cent to 36 per cent. Compared with the ear wick, medicated ribbon gauze is a cost-effective method of treating oedematous acute otitis externa. PMID:12385350

Pond, Franklin; McCarty, Dan; O'Leary, Stephen



Corynebacterium spp. in dogs and cats with otitis externa and/or media: a retrospective study.  


The role of Corynebacterium spp. in the pathogenesis of canine and feline otitis externa/media and their appropriate antimicrobial therapy are unclear. The objectives of this study were to (1) better establish the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium spp. in otitis utilizing reported criteria and by assessing clinical response to antibiotic therapy and (2) to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Corynebacterium spp. associated with otitis. The study was retrospective, targeting cultures positive for Corynebacterium spp. Corynebacterium spp. were part of mixed microbial populations in 79/81 cultures. Corynebacterium spp. pathogenicity was highly questionable because of their almost invariable presence with other microbes and the observation that Corynebacterium spp. usually disappear from the ear with resolution of other infections, even when the Corynebacterium spp. are resistant to the prescribed antibiotic(s). However, 2/81 cultures came from two canine ears wherein Corynebacterium spp. may have been pathogenic. Antimicrobial sensitivities for Corynebacterium spp. were available for 54 isolates. Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (53/54), amikacin (50/54), tetracycline (50/54), gentamicin (46/54), and enrofloxacin (32/54). Among those antibiotics available in otic products, gentamicin and enrofloxacin would be rational choices for the empirical, topical therapy of Corynebacterium spp. PMID:22843832

Henneveld, Kerstin; Rosychuk, Rodney A W; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J; Hyatt, Doreene R; Zabel, Sonja



Neurons in the anterior olfactory nucleus pars externa detect right or left localization of odor sources  

PubMed Central

Rodents can localize odor sources by comparing odor inputs to the right and left nostrils. However, the neuronal circuits underlying such odor localization are not known. We recorded neurons in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) while administering odors to the ipsilateral or contralateral (ipsi- or contra-) nostril. Neurons in the AON pars externa (AONpE) showed respiration phase-locked excitatory spike responses to ipsinostril-only stimulation with a category of odorants, and inhibitory responses to contranostril-only stimulation with the same odorants. Simultaneous odor stimulation of the ipsi- and contranostrils elicited significantly smaller responses than ipsinostril-only stimulation, indicating that AONpE neurons subtract the contranostril odor inputs from ipsinostril odor inputs. An ipsilateral odor source induced larger responses than a centrally located source, whereas an odor source at the contralateral position elicited inhibitory responses. These results indicate that individual AONpE neurons can distinguish the right or left position of an odor source by referencing signals from the two nostrils.

Kikuta, Shu; Sato, Kenichiro; Kashiwadani, Hideki; Tsunoda, Koichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Mori, Kensaku




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Este estudio analítico, tipo cohorte retrospectivo, tuvo el objetivo de cuantificar el grado de asociación entre las afecciones agudas de las vías respiratorias altas y la exposición al polvo de fique aéreo en trabajadores industriales de una fabrica de cabuya. La hipótesis del estudio fue: \\

Doris Duque; Richard Shoemaker


Respostas agudas pós-exercício dos níveis de lactato sanguíneo e creatinofosfoquinase de atletas adolescentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O crescente interesse de crianças e adolescentes por esportes competitivos induz a uma maior preocupação em prescrever trei- namentos adequados a essa população específica. O conhecimen- to do impacto da intensidade de treinamento físico competitivo sobre a saúde de adolescentes são ainda incipientes na literatura científica. Este estudo objetivou investigar as respostas agudas do lactato sanguíneo (Lac) e da

Carla Cristiane Silva; Tamara Beres Lederer Goldberg; Renata Campos Capela; Cilmery Suemi Kurokawa; Altamir dos Santos Teixeira; José Carlos Dalmas; Edílson Serpeloni Cyrino



Identification of plant families associated with the predators Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Menéville (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) using pollen grain as a natural marker.  


The predators Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Menéville (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) and Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are frequently observed on vegetable crops, especially on tomato plants, as well as on flowers of several plants around crop fields. It is well known that when predators feed on pollen and nectar they can increase their longevity and reproductive capacity. The objective of this work was to identify plants that could be a pollen source for H. convergens and C. externa in order to develop strategies to attract and keep these predators in vegetable fields like the tomato crop. Adults of C. externa (53 individuals) and H. convergens (43 individuals) were collected in fields from 2004-2005 at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, Federal District. The insects were processed by the acetolysis method and pollen from them was extracted and identified. A total of 11335 grains of pollen belonging to 21 families were extracted from C. externa. A total of 46 pollen grains belonging to ten families were extracted from H. convergens. The Poaceae family was the most abundant one for C. externa while Asteraceae was the commonest pollen for H. convergens. The importance of pollen from different plant species as a food resource for each predator species gives an indication of the importance of plant community structure inside and around crop fields for the establishment of these predator populations and to enhance conservation biological control. PMID:20379654

Medeiros, M A; Ribeiro, P A; Morais, H C; Castelo Branco, M; Sujii, E R; Salgado-Laboriau, M L



Quimioterapia de alta dosis prolonga en forma significativa la supervivencia en pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda

Los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico grande con asignación al azar de pacientes de 16 a 60 años de edad con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), un cáncer de la sangre y de la médula ósea, que no había sido tratada anteriormente, muestran que los pacientes que recibieron una alta dosis de daunorrubicina, un fármaco de quimioterapia disponible comercialmente, durante la terapia inicial vivieron más que los pacientes que recibieron una dosis normal del mismo fármaco.


Skull base osteomyelitis in otitis externa: The utility of triphasic and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography bone scintigraphy  

PubMed Central

Background: Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) refers to infection that has spread beyond the external auditory canal to the base of the skull in advanced stages of otitis externa. Clinically, it may be difficult to differentiate SBO from severe otitis externa without bony involvement. This study was performed to determine the role of three phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) and single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in detecting SBO. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed records of 20 patients (14 M, 6 F) with otitis externa and suspected SBO. TPBS and SPECT/CT of the skull were performed. Findings were correlated with clinical, laboratory and diagnostic CT scan findings. Results: All patients were diabetic with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A total of 18 patients had bilateral and two unilateral symptoms. Cranial nerves were involved in eight patients and microbiological culture of ear discharge fluid positive in seven. Early images showed increased temporal vascularity in nine patients and increased soft-tissue uptake in 10, while delayed images showed increased bone uptake in 19/20 patients. Localized abnormal tracer uptake was shown by SPECT/CT in the mastoid temporal (15), petrous (11), sphenoid (3) and zygomatic (1) and showed destructive changes in five. Thus, TPBS was found positive for SBO in 10/20 patients and changed the management in four. Conclusion: Our study suggests that TPBS with SPECT/CT is a useful non-invasive investigation for detection of SBO in otitis externa.

Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Panda, Naresh Kumar; Das, Ashim; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai



A clinical trial of a topical preparation of miconazole, polymyxin and prednisolone in the treatment of otitis externa in dogs.  


A topical preparation containing miconazole, polymyxin and prednisolone was shown to be more effective in the treatment of otitis externa in 167 dogs than 2 other ear preparations containing antibiotics, an antimycotic and a corticosteroid. With miconazole, polymyxin and prednisolone, the recurrence rate was 26.7% compared with 72.6% and 54.3% when the other products were used. The mean duration of treatment required to achieve resolution of clinical signs was 9.6 days, compared with 12.2 days and 13.0 days and no cases failed to respond to treatment, compared with 17.7% and 14.3%. Malassezia canis alone (71%) or in association with bacteria (18%) was recovered from 44 of 49 ears cultured. PMID:1888310

Studdert, V P; Hughes, K L



A double-blind randomised clinical trial of the treatment of otitis externa using topical steroid alone versus topical steroid–antibiotic therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine if the addition of topical antibiotic increases the efficacy of topical steroid\\u000a in controlling otitis externa. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was performed from February 2003 to April 2005 in\\u000a an otolaryngology emergency clinic (acute urban teaching hospital) in the United Kingdom. Patients were followed up for 2 weeks.\\u000a Forty-five adults with otitis

E. Abelardo; L. Pope; K. Rajkumar; R. Greenwood; D. A. Nunez



Efficacy of ofloxacin otic solution once daily for 7 days in the treatment of otitis externa: A multicenter, open-label, phase III trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Otitis externa (OE) is an infection of the external auditory canal that is typically treated with topically applied broad-spectrum antibiotics. Twice-daily topical treatment with ofloxacin otic 0.3% solution for 10 days has been reported to be as effective and well tolerated as the standard of care, neomycin sulfate\\/polymyxin B sulfate\\/hydrocortisone solution administered 4 times daily for 10 days.Objective: This

Benjamin Torum; Stan L. Block; Hugo Avila; Francisco Montiel; Axel Oliva; William Quintanilla; Frederick Duncanson; H. Furman Cantrell; John Riefler; Ephraim Katz; Elyane Lombardy



Single Unit "Pauser" Characteristics of the Globus Pallidus Pars Externa Distinguish Primary Dystonia from Secondary Dystonia and Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The presence of high frequency discharge neurons with long periods of silence or “pauses” in the globus pallidus pars externa (GPe) are a unique identifying feature of this nucleus. Prior studies have demonstrated that pause characteristics reflect synaptic inputs into GPe. We hypothesized that GPe pause characteristics should distinguish movement disorders whose basal ganglia network abnormalities are different. We examined pause characteristics in 224 GPe units in patients with primary generalized dystonia, Parkinson's disease (PD), and secondary dystonia, undergoing single unit microelectrode recording for DBS placement in the awake state. Pauses in neuronal discharge were identified using the Poisson surprise method. Mean pause length in primary dystonia (606.8±373.3) was higher than in PD (557.4±366.6) (p<0.05). Interpause interval (IPI) was lower in primary dystonia (2331.6±3874.1) than PD (3646.4±5894.5) (p<0.01), and mean pause frequency was higher in primary dystonia (0.14±0.10) than PD (0.07±0.12) (p<0.01). Comparison of pause characteristics in primary versus secondary generalized dystonia revealed a significantly longer mean pause length in primary (606.8±373.3) than in secondary dystonia (495.6±236.5) (p<0.01). IPI was shorter in primary (2331.6±3874.1) than in secondary dystonia (3484.5±3981.6) (p<0.01). The results show that pause characteristics recorded in the awake human GPe distinguish primary dystonia from Parkinson's disease and secondary dystonia. The differences may reflect increased phasic input from striatal D2 receptor positive cells in primary dystonia, and are consistent with a recent model proposing that GPe provides capacity scaling for cortical input.

Sani, Sepehr; Ostrem, Jill L.; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Levesque, Nadja; Starr, Philip A.



Side effects of conventional and non-conventional insecticides on eggs and larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in Argentine.  


The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of two conventional insecticides commonly used in soybean crops of Argentina, endosulfan (Endosulfan 35 Glex, 105 ppm) and cypermethrin (Glextrin 25, 75 ppm) and two insecticides belonging to the new insecticides' generation, methoxyfenozide (Inteprid SC 24%, 144 ppm) and spinosad (Tracer 48%, 120 ppm), on eggs and larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) by dipping and topical application, respectively, under laboratory conditions. After egg treatment, the percentage of egg hatching, duration of the embryonic period and survival of first-instar larvae were evaluated. In the third-instar larvae assay, the survivals of the larvae and pupae, as well as eggs fertility were recorded. Endosulfan and cypermethrin were highly toxic towards eggs and larvae with mortality rates ranging from 80% to 100%. Toxicity of spinosad was intermediate causing short-term effects, but it did not cause any long-term effects. Methoxyfenozide was harmless to eggs and larvae of C. externa, showing good potential for use in integrated pest management in soybean crops. The selectivity of these insecticides and their inclusion in IPM programs is discussed. PMID:17385509

Schneider, M I; Pineda, P; Smagghe, G



Haplotype characterization of the COI mitochondrial gene in Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from different environments in Jaboticabal, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.  


The green lacewings (Chrysopidae) belong to the Order Neuroptera and are described as voracious predators in the larval stage and sometimes also in their adulthood. They are an important group used in integrated biological control in field and horticultural crops. Individuals of Chrysoperla externa were collected during 2007 until March 2008 in five different locations in Jaboticabal, SP, with all the seasons sampled. Thirty six sequences with 805 pairs of bases for the gene mitochondrial Citochrome Oxidase I (COI) were analysed. The genetic parameters revealed 24 haplotypes for this population, a total of 36 mutations and haplotype diversity of 0.956. The data of genetic distance and population structure calculated for this population considering the different areas and seasons, revealed a great genetic similarity and high degree of genetic sharing between individuals sampled. It showed that the species Chrysoperla externa from Jaboticabal, SP, is a single population, without genetic structure neither due to the area of origin nor to the seasons of the year. PMID:21180923

Morales, A C; Freitas, S



Acute respiratory infections control in the context of the IMCI strategy in the Americas Controle das infecções respiratórias agudas no contexto da estrategia AIDPI nas Américas  

Microsoft Academic Search

As infecções respiratórias agudas (IRA) são importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade em menores de cinco anos. Importantes contrastes são observados em relação a isto nos diferentes países das Américas, e também entre regiões ou estados de um mesmo país. A morbidade está associdada a vários fatores, especialmente com a situação nutri- cional das pacientes e o tempo de aleitamento

Yehuda Benguigui


Otites moyennes chroniques. Histoire élémentaire et formes cliniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic otitis media (COM), usually defined as a prolonged inflammation of the middle ear cavities, has several clinical presentations. Each corresponds to a pathological process characterized by irreversible anatomical and histological lesions, by specific symptoms and otoscopic features, as well as by its evolution. The pathogenic process that leads to these different types remains insufficiently known. It induces a dysfunction

P. Tran Ba Huy



The politicisation of traditional Polish Jewry: Orthodox German rabbis and the founding of Agudas Ho?Ortodoksim and Dos yidishe vort in Gouvernement?General Warsaw, 1916–18  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1916, in the midst of the First World War, Orthodox German rabbis Dr Emanuel Carlebach and Dr Pinchas Kohn played a crucial role in founding and developing the organisation of an Orthodox party in Poland named Agudas Ho?Ortodoksim. These attempts to politicize traditional Polish Jewry were opposed by a significant part of Polish Jewry. While some circles of traditional

Tobias Grill



Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.  


Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage. PMID:2585023

Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M



Custos das Mortes por Causas Externas no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence in Brazil is well known to be one of the biggest problems nowadays affecting the society. This problem incurs in several economic costs, in addition to all kinds of immeasurable costs due to life losses. For the economic costs, we can mention, for example, medical treatment costs, police maintenance costs, production costs. In this paper, we focus in the

Alexandre X. Carvalho; Daniel R. C. Cerqueira; Rute I. Rodrigues; Waldir J. A. Lobão



Trombosis aguda de la arteria basilar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute basilar artery thrombosis (ABT) has been largely considered a neurological catastrophe. With conventional treatment, only around 20% of patients achieve functional independence. An early presumptive diagnosis is essential to avoid treatment delay. Either multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography angiography source images may represent valid non-invasive tools to confirm ABT and evaluate ischemic tissue viability.The main determinant of

J. F. Arenillas Lara




Microsoft Academic Search

The present work discuss about the evaluation of the acute systemic toxicity post deletion of the LD50 test (median lethal dose). The three alternative animal tests now employed, the Fixed Dose Procedure, the Acute Toxic Class Method and the Up and Down Procedure, give rise to significant improvements in animal welfare. Although, the total replacement of animal tests it is

Marize C. Valadares


Sintomatología gastrointestinal en las infecciones respiratorias agudas de etiología viral  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo study differences in the presentation of laboratory-confirmed acute viral respiratory infections, especially gastroenteritis symptoms, according to age and causative viral agent during five influenza seasons (1999 to 2004.)

N. Torner; A. Martínez; L. Ruiz; T. Pumarola; M. A. Marcos; A. Domíngueza



Uso de antimicrobianos en infecciones agudas de vías respiratorias altas  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Acute upper respiratory infections are one of the main causes of office visits in family practice worldwide. If antimicrobial drugs were used ju- diciously, it is estimated that 50 million of these prescriptions could be avoided. The vast major- ity of acute rhinopharyngitis (common cold) and acute sinusitis cases are resolved without using antibiotics. Acute otitis media must be

Ramírez Villaseñor


Insuficiencia renal aguda por linfoma de Burkitt renal primario bilateral  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 12 year-old girl who presented with acute renal failure with massive infiltration in both kidneys due to a Burkitt lymphoma that was diagnosed by percutaneous renal biopsy.This case fulfilled all the diagnostic criteria of Malbrain et al. to be considered as primary renal non-Hodgkin lymphoma.We discuss the differential diagnosis with other processes that present

A. Romay Ageitos; J. Freire Bruno; A. M. López Vázquez; I. Castro López; A. Pavón Freire



Conferencia de Consenso sobre bronquiolitis aguda (I): metodología y recomendaciones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recommendations of the Consensus Conference “Diagnostic and Therapeutic Management of Acute Bronchiolitis” are presented. Evidence on the frequency of bronchiolitis in the general population and risk groups, risk factors and markers of severe forms, severity scores and the clinical-etiological profile is summarized. The commonly used diagnostic tests are ineffective in the management of the disease; oxygen saturation measurement is

J. González de Dios; C. Ochoa Sangrador



Atypical Lipid-Dependent Malassezia Species Isolated from Dogs with Otitis Externa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of the genus Malassezia inhabit the skin of humans and many other warm-blooded vertebrates (20). Their most important physiological feature is their lipophilic nature, be- cause they have the property of using lipids as a source of carbon. In fact, with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis, the remaining species of the genus have an absolute require- ment in vitro



Morfologia externa de Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón & Ponce, 1972 vista através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura  

Microsoft Academic Search

External Morphology of Triatoma rickmani Zeledón & Ponce, 1972 by Scanning Electron Mi- croscopy - A male of Triatoma ryckmani Zeledón & Ponce, 1972, was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Only few specimens of this species are known. In this paper, some structures from the head, thorax, abdomen and distal region of the second leg are shown. Some of them

Rodolfo U Carcavallo; Rodrigo Zeledón; José Jurberg; Itamar Galindez



Abertura Financeira e Vulnerabilidade Externa na América Latina: os impactos sobre Brasil, México e Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este trabalho, na primeira seção, define o que costuma ser entendido como um processo de abertura financeira, identifica os níveis que compõem este processo, e lista as principais justificativas teóricas costumeiramente apresentadas para a implementação deste tipo de política. Na segunda seção, discute-se teoricamente o impacto dos processos de liberalização financeira na autonomia de política econômica e no grau

Juan Pablo Painceira; Marcelo Dias Carcanholo


Both Interna1 and Externa1 Regulatory Elements Control Expression of the Pea Fed7 Gene in Transgenic Tobacco Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies using leaves of light-grown transgenic tobacco plants, we have shown that sequences located within the transcribed region of the pea Fed-l gene (encoding ferredoxin I) are major cis-acting determinants of light-regulated mRNA accumulation. However, we show here that these internal sequences are less important for the Fed-l light response in etiolated tobacco seedlings than they are in

Maria Gallo-Meagher; Dolores A. Sowinski; Robert C. Elliott; William F. Thomps



In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a potentiated miconazole aural solution in chronic Malassezia otitis externa in dogs.  


This study assessed the in vitro and in vivo activity of an ear solution containing a third-generation chelating agent (Tricide) as an antimicrobial potentiator for miconazole in chronic Malassezia otitis. Thirty-one ears from 20 dogs were enrolled in the study. Fungal culture, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) testing of miconazole with and without Tricide were performed on all ears. In a randomized, controlled, and blinded treatment trial the ears were treated either with 0.9% saline solution containing 0.01% miconazole, 0.03% dexamethasone and 540 microg/mL Tricide or the same solution without Tricide. Cytologic and auroscopic examinations were conducted on day 0, 14 and 28 and evaluated for number of yeast organisms, degree of erythema, hyperplasia and amount of discharge. The in vitro data was compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The cytologic and auroscopic scores were compared between the visits and treatment groups at day 0, 14 and 28 using a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and repeated measures analysis. MIC and MFC were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced when miconazole was combined with the chelating agent versus miconazole alone. The cytologic scores were significantly lower on days 14 (P = 0.0156) and 28 (P = 0.0280) for the group treated with Tricide. The auroscopic scores decreased significantly by the end of the trial compared to day 0, but the difference between the two groups was not significant. This study suggests that Tricide enhances in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy against Malassezia sp. in dogs with yeast otitis. PMID:20178480

Hensel, Patrick; Austel, Michaela; Wooley, Richard E; Keys, Deborah; Ritchie, Branson W



Avaliação da Consolidação Óssea em Indivíduos com Fratura em Membros Inferiores Utilizando Fixação Externa Circular após Programa de Reabilitação  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper intend to verify the relationship between physical activities and the efficiency of bone consolidation in individuals with circular external fixation (CEF). To reach that, image proceeding and optical density measuring were done in 6 places inside the regeneratum in 32 radiographic images from 8 subjects with FEC, with 4 of them with physical rehabilitation. The results showed that

Silmara P. C. S. Macri; William T. Watanabe; Wolley W. Silva; Marcia A. S. Bissaco


A estrutura e a tendência evolutiva da carga externa em paralelas assimétricas. Análise das rotações em exercícios de competição  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure and evolution trends of the external load in uneven bars. Analysis of the rotations in competition routines Although the Artistic Gymnastics is referred as a sport associated to high volumes and intensities of training, there are few objective studies to support these conclusions. Purpose of the present study was to char- acterize and evaluate external load trends in high

José Ferreirinha; António Silva



Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study developed with 78 children with until five years old, bearers of acute respiration infection interned in pediatric hospital of the periphery of a great city, with the purpose to identify the nursing diagnoses presented by these children. The number of nursing diagnoses, defining characteristics, related factors and risk factors identified and other numerical variables were analyzed based

Flávia Paul; Magalhães Monteiro; Viviane Martins da Silva


Quality of life and psycho-social development in children with otitis media with effusion Qualità di vita e sviluppo psico-sociale nei bambini con otite media secretiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

th class, mostly due to persistent attention disturbances. In the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test, 50% of parents or care- givers had a high state-anxiety score and so were mostly con- cerned with health status of the children. The State-Trait Anx- iety Inventory results indicated that 50% of parents or care- givers had a high trait-anxiety score and thus had an



COMENTARIO EDITORIAL: Infecciones respiratorias agudas en niños: costo para las familias y utilización de servicios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This editorial comments on a recently published work about estimated cost for families related to hospitalisation of children with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) according to complexity and location of hospital. It also explores family reasons for attending hospitals outside their programmatic area, even at risk of higher cost. It also refers to the shortage of local cost related information

Javier Vilosio



Etnografía de la infección respiratoria aguda en una zona rural del altiplano mexicano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To identify the terms used by mothers to refer to diseases, signs and symptoms related to acute respi- ratory illnesses (ARI), alarming signs which should moti- vate them to seek medical attention, and to describe common home practices of disease care and treatment. Material and methods. An ethnographic study was per- formed in six rural communities of the Mexican




Infección respiratoria aguda en niños que acuden a un centro de desarrollo infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the incidence of acute respiratory in- fections and bacterial colonization in children attending a daycare center. Material and Methods. A cohort study was conducted from April to Octuber 1999, among 85 chil- dren aged under four years, who attended the daycare center at Hospital Infantil de Mexico (Mexico City's Children's Hospital) \\

Eugenia Nandí-Lozano; Luz Elena Espinosa; Lucía Viñas-Flores; Carlos Avila-Figueroa



Estudio multicéntrico de infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas en niños hospitalizados menores de dos años  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) account for 50% of pediatric hospital admissions and 70% of pediatric outpatient visits in winter. In 1997, an inpatient epidemiological study of ALRI was undertaken. The objectives were to define etiologic viral agents, analyze epidemiological variables, establish the incidence of nosocomial viral infections, and determine risk factors for mortality due to ALRI. Population, material

Ana Lucía Clary; Teresa Pereira; Liliana Sapoznicoff; Norma Schenone



Relación entre variables climáticas y casos de Infección Respiratoria Aguda en la Provincia del Callao - 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish the relationship between climatic variables, air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH), and the number of cases of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the jurisdiction of the Callao Department of Health I (DISA I) for the year 2001. Methods: Observational analytical cross study that was carried out in the Constitutional Province of Callao. Information about ARI, as

Melina Aguinaga; César Gutiérrez; Guillermo Lazo; Facultad de Medicina-UNMSM



Documento de consenso sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la faringoamigdalitis aguda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute tonsillopharyngitis is one of the most common childhood diseases. Viruses are the most frequent origin. Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes) is the main bacterial cause. A culture or a rapid antigen-detection test of a throat-swab specimen should only be done on the basis of clinical scores, in order to avoid over-diagnosis of bacterial origin and unnecessary antibiotic prescription. The

R. Piñeiro Pérez; F. Hijano Bandera; F. Álvez González; A. Fernández Landaluce; J. C. Silva Rico; C. Pérez Cánovas; C. Calvo Rey; M. J. Cilleruelo Ortega



Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mota-Hernández F, Gutiérrez-Camacho C, Cabrales-Martínez G, Villa-Contreras S. Oral rehydration in continuous administration or in fractionated doses in dehydrated children with acute diarrhea. Salud Publica Mex 2002;44:21-25. The English version of this paper is available at: http:\\/\\/\\/salud\\/index.html Abstract Objective. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two oral rehydration techniques. Material and Methods. A randomized clinical trial was conducted at

Felipe Mota-Hernández; Claudia Gutiérrez-Camacho; Rosa Georgina Cabrales-Martínez; Sofía Villa-Contreras



Gonalgia aguda en el embarazo: reporte de un caso de osteoporosis regional transitoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the case of a patient who after her first pregnacy, during the immediate postpartum period, suffered a femoral supracondylar fracture complicated by bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES), also known as regional temporary osteoporosis (RTO). The fracture of the distal femur was treated with an open reduction and internal fixation of the distal femur by means of a

Raúl Javier García Renedo; Antonio Ortiz Menéndez; Miguel Giráldez Sánchez; Juan Ribera Zabalbeascoa; David H. Gonzalo



Comparative short-term efficacy of Oridermyl(®) auricular ointment and Revolution(®) selamectin spot-on against feline Otodectes cynotis and its associated secondary otitis externa.  


The efficacy of Oridermyl(®) (acaricidal/antibiotic/antifungal/anti-inflammatory ointment) and Revolution(®) (selamectin spot-on) was compared in a blinded randomized study on 24 adult cats with otoacariasis. Twelve cats were treated once daily for 10 d with Oridermyl(®) and 12 cats were treated on Day 0 with Revolution(®). Otitis was assessed with cytological counts of mean number of bacteria and yeast on Days 0 and 10, and scored clinically every other day. All auricular secretions were removed for mite count on Day 10. On Day 0, cytological examination confirmed the presence of secondary bacterial (24/24) and fungal (21/24) infections. No live mites were observed otoscopically after Day 4 and in auricular secretions at Day 10 in both groups. On Day 10, secondary infections were resolved for all cats treated with Oridermyl(®) but were present in all cats treated with Revolution(®). Improvement in clinical signs of otitis over time was superior in the Oridermyl(®) group (P < 0.001). PMID:23277643

Roy, Josée; Bédard, Christian; Moreau, Maxim; Sauvé, Frédéric



Contaminantes atmosféricos y su correlación con infecciones agudas de las vías respiratorias en niños de Guadalajara, Jalisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the correlation between the con- centration levels of atmospheric air pollutants and the num- ber of medical visits to IMSS, ISSSTE and of SSJ healthcare facilities of the Urban Area of Guadalajara between 2000- 2002 by children under five years suffering from acute res- piratory infections. Material and Methods: An ecological study was performed to describe the

Hermes Ulises Ramírez-Sánchez; María Dolores Andrade-García; Miguel Ernesto González-Castañeda; Alfredo de Jesús Celis-de la Rosa



Gripe y otras infecciones respiratorias agudas en la población trabajadora. Impacto del brote de gripe A (H1N1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThis study aims to asses the impact of influenza and other acute respiratory infectious diseases (ARI) on the Catalan working population between January 2007 and December 2009, including the period of the influenza virus A (H1N1) pandemic in our region.

Constanza Albertí; Ramon Orriols; Rafael Manzanera; Josefina Jardí



Muerte por sobredosis: de la reacción aguda tras consumo de opiáceos a la muerte asociada al policonsumo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs consumption is one of the main causes of death in young people from the European Union, either by an acute reaction to their consumption or because of AIDS. Mortality rates register is a prevalence indicator of drugs consumption, being introduced in our country in 1987 by the SEIT, and from the establishment of the European Observatory for drugs and



Efectos de dos métodos de termoterapia sobre la respuesta vascular aguda y parámetros hemodinámicos en un grupo de sujetos sanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRecently, non-pharmacological resources to relieve pain like hot packs and ultrasound (US) have become common in clinical practice. However, little experimental evidence is available about the possible mechanisms through which these methods bring about pain relief. We aimed to determine the effects of hot packs and US on the acute vascular response and on hemodynamic parameters in healthy subjects.

R. Ramírez-Vélez; A. García Sánchez; C. J. Martínez Betancourt; C. A. Parra Galeano; J. G. Ortega; C. A. López Alban; R. A. Agredo Zúñiga


Drenaje percutáneo de ascitis secundaria a pancreatitis aguda grave asociada a síndrome compartimental abdominal. Informe de dos casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: There are few reports that report the association between severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the presence of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The aggressive treatment of ACS through a formal celiotomy, ascitic fluid evacuation and temporary abdominal closure (TAC) is associated with immediate improvement in all physiological parameters of a critically ill patient. Unfortunately, this surgical strategy carries a

Luis Alberto; Patricio Sánchez-Fernández; Carlos Salazar-Lozano; Humberto Salazar-Murillo



Pustulosis aguda exantemática generalizada: aportación de dos casos Acute Generalized Exanthematic Pustulosis: A Report of Two Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Amicrobian pustulosis is referred to a group of entities with several sterile pustules, with a sudden onset and a rapid and selflimited resolution, simmetrically distributed in face and groins, usually related to drug intake or viral infection. We report two cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis in two patients without personal or family history of psoriasis. The lesions appeared

Susana Mallo; Emilia Fernández; Esther Cardeñoso; Jorge Miguel Ingelmo; Agustín Martín Pascual; Susana Mallo García


Análisis de los resultados de la inmunización universal a los 12 meses de edad con vacuna de varicela, a través de las consultas externas y las hospitalizaciones en el Centro de Referencia Pediátrico de Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo evaluate the incidence of outpatient visits and hospital admissions due to varicella in the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center (CHPR) in the 3 years before and the 3 years after the introduction of routine varicella vaccination at 12 months of age.

J. Quian; P. Dall’orso; C. Romero; A. Cerisola; A. Protasio



Evaluación de la Eficacia y Tolerancia de una Solución Topical Externa en gotas en base a Flumetrina al 1% (Ectickol ® Pour On)* para el control de infestaciones por Ctenocephalides canis en Cuyes de la Sierra Central  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and tolerance of an external solution for implementation in drops, based on Flumethrin 1% (Ectickol ® Pour On) at a dose of 1 mg \\/ kg. liveweight, which in practice is equivalent to two drops per kg live weight applied on the back for treating flea in twenty (20) guinea pigs in the

José Tang Ploog; Fabián Ruiz Herrera; Luis Rodríguez Izaguirre


Evaluación de Eficacia y Tolerancia de una Solución Topical Externa de Fenilpirazol (Fipronil) al 1 % (Ectonil® Pour On)* para el control de infestaciones por Melophagus ovinus en Alpacas en la Sierra Central  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and tolerance of an external solution to the pour on application, based on Fipronil 10 mg. (Ectonil Pour On) at a dose of 1 ml \\/ 10 kg. by Animal treaty which they were applied along the midline dorsal from the cross to the base of the tail, in the treatment of a

José Tang Ploog; Fabián Ruiz Herrera; Luis Rodríguez Izaguirre


Evaluación de Eficacia y Tolerancia de una Solución Topical Externa sobre la base de Flumetrina al 1% (Ectickol ® Pour On)* para el control de infestaciones por Melophagus ovinus en Alpacas de la Sierra Central  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and tolerance of an external solution to the pour on application, based on Flumetrina al 1% (Ectickol ® Pour On) at a dose of 1 ml \\/ 10 kg. by Animal treaty which they were applied along the midline dorsal from the cross to the base of the tail, in the treatment of

José Tang Ploog; Fabián Ruiz Herrera; Luis Rodríguez Izaguirre


Tendencias temporales de las concentraciones de citocinas Th1 y Th2 en esputo inducido de pacientes asmáticos durante infecciones víricas agudas de las vías respiratorias superiores  

Microsoft Academic Search

FundamentalsMany asthma exacerbations are caused by respiratory viral infections that induce the interplay between Th1 and Th2 immune responses. However, the time trends for Th1 and Th2 immune responses during these phenomena have not been well studied.

Ding Zhang; Jingwen Xia; Xiaodong Chen



Respostas Agudas Hemodinâmicas Relacionadas ao Teste de Cooper em Militares Acute Hemodynamic Responses Related to the Cooper Test Applied to Servicemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As the elite troops of the Brazilian Armed Forces, Marines and Paratroopers must undergo tough physical training. However, hemodynamic variables are shown to be largely insignificant and unexplored as ways of marking cardiovascular behavior in response to military training. Objective: To examine the behavior of hemodynamic variables among Brazilian servicemen in different military organizations (Marines and Paratroopers) before and

Alex Souto Maior; Luís Gustavo; Machado Lima


Estrategia de atención de niños hospitalizados por infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas A strategy for the management of hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To improve the quality of care provided to hospitalized children having acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), to increase the knowledge on this health condition, and to broaden the utilization of health care resources through a program called \\

Ana M Ferrari; María C Pireza; Alicia Montanoa


Mensuração do pH de urina para predizer a quantidade de tampão empregado para o tratamento de acidose láctica ruminal aguda em bovinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to establish a practical, fast, precise and low-cost procedure to estimate the degree of metabolic acidosis in cattle with acute rumen lactic acidosis for further treatment. The rumen acidosis was induced experimentally in 40 crossbreed rumen-cannulated 1.5-year- old steers. The induction caused the development of the most characteristic clinical signs of acute rumen

Celso Akio; Marta Lizandra; Daniel Mendes; Netto I Clara; Satsuki Mori; Alexandre Coutinho; Antonelli I Enrico; Lippi Ortolani



Resposta de fase aguda, subnutriÁªo e estado nutricional do ferro em adultos com AIDS Iron status, malnutrition and acute phase response in HIV-positive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status and some iron metabolism parameters of acute phase response (APR) positive and APR-negative AIDS patients were studied. Twenty-nine AIDS patients were submitted to 24h food intake recall, anthropometry, and albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measurements. Infection plus serum CRP > 7mg\\/dl were criteria for APR presence. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) was ascertained

Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro; Daniel Ferreira da Cunha; Freire de Carvalho da Cunha; Mário León Silva-Vergara; Dalmo Correia; Maria de Lourdes; Pires Bianchi


Intracranial complications of acute mastoiditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Oral antibiotic use may have changed the incidence and microbiology of otitic intracranial complications. We reviewed cases of acute mastoiditis to document: (1) incidence of intracranial complications; (2) risk factors; and (3) identify pathologic organisms. Methods: A retrospective study of children at a tertiary care children's hospital with acute mastoiditis from July, 1986 through June, 1998. Results: 118 children

Cynthia Go; Joseph M Bernstein; Andrew L de Jong; Marcelle Sulek; Ellen M Friedman



Interruption of bispectral index monitoring by nerve integrity monitoring during tympanoplasty -A case report-  

PubMed Central

We report that intraoperative NIM-2 monitoring devices can interfere with bispectral index monitoring. A 45-year-old male with chronic otits media underwent tympanolasty under general anesthesia with NIM-2 monitoring and bispectral index monitoring at our institution. And then, bispectral index monitoring was severely interrupted by facial nerve monitoring.

Kim, Jun Hyun; Kim, Ah Na; Kim, Kyung Woo; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Park, Jang Su; Kim, Jung Won



Gradenigo's syndrome--surgical management in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otits media is a common problem. Some of its complications that were seen frequently in the preantibiotic era are rare today. We report a case of an 8 year boy who presented with earache, retro-orbital pain and diplopia secondary to a sixth nerve palsy--Gradenigo's syndrome. In this syndrome infection from the middle ear spreads medially to the petrous apex of

Hassan Nabeel Humayun; Shabbir Akhtar; Shakeel Ahmed




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: In this study microbiological examination oj' the materials !iml1 dogs ,,,ith elinical otitis exfema was aimed. Microorgwiisms were isolafedji'om 79 (97.5 %) or 81 otitic dogs in this present study. AnuJI1g these microorRanisms .\\

Mehmet AKAN


The effects of caspofungin and voriconazole in an experimental fungal infection of the ear due to Aspergillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of caspofungin and voriconazole in the treatment of experimental\\u000a Aspergillus otits media in an experimental rabbit model. A total of 30 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four treatment groups\\u000a and one control group. The rabbits were immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide and triamcinolone acetonide. The right ear of\\u000a each rabbit

Abdullah Ayçiçek; Zafer Çetinkaya; Halil Kiyici; Fethullah Kenar; Gül?ah A?ik; Nuri Kiraz



The surgical management of otitis media with effusion in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the surgical management for otits media with efusion in childhood,within the North Argyll and Clyde region in Scotland.Methods: A prospective study was designed to assess the management of the condition.The study was conducted over 5 years, between 1996 and 2001. During this time 384 procedures were carried out on 296 patients. Sixty-one patients underwent more than one

Catherine Spinou presenter



Tipo de lactancia y su relación con el patrón de crecimiento y frecuencia de infección respiratoria y enfermedad diarreica agudas Lactation Type Linked with Growth Pattern, Respiratory Infection Frequency, and Acute Diarrhea Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to compare growth pattern, acute respiratory infection (ARI) frequency, and acute diarrhea disease (ADD) in infants according to lactation type. Design: We carried out a descriptive, comparative, and cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. We conducted a non-randomized sample by convenience that included total infants seen by an Infant Maternal Nurse during the first 6 months of 2004.

Espinoza-Zavala R; Ocampo-Barrio P


Influencia de virus respiratorios, frío y contaminación aérea en la infección respiratoria aguda baja del lactante Influence of respiratory viruses, cold weather and air pollution in the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections in infants children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: All winters, there is an increase in the number of pediatric consultations, associated to three factors: cold weather, air pollution and respiratory virus epidemics. Aim: To study the influence of these three factors in the demand for pediatric consultations between March and September, in an area of Metropolitan Santiago. Patients and Methods: The number of consultations between March and

Luis F Avendaño; Alejandra Céspedes L; Ximena Stecher G; María Angélica


Domestic Determinants of Net U. S. Foreign Investment (Facteurs intérieurs déterminant l'investissement net étranger dans les comptes nationaux des Etats-Unis) (Factores determinantes internos de la inversión externa neta de Estados Unidos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current account balance known as net foreign investment in the national income and product accounts of the United States is largely determined by domestic factors that have changed the supply of national saving relative to the demand for domestic investment. Thus, the estimated rate of net foreign investment declined by almost half as much as the cyclically adjusted net

George M. Von Furstenberg



Describing External Debt Situations: A Rollover Approach (La description de l'endettement extérieur: l'approche du refinancement) (La refinanciación y su utilidad para la descripción de situaciones de deuda externa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short of a fully developed and generally accepted theoretical framework for analyzing external debt, it is useful to advance as far as possible the description of debt situations. The substance of the approach in the paper is to sort out the fundamental from the less crucial features of external debt positions. Focusing on the export constraint, the study first ranks

Pierre Dhonte



Reproductive Stage of the Life Cycle in the Rhizocephalan Barnacle Polyascus polygenea (Crustacea: Cirripedia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific features of the reproductive stage of the life cycle have been studied in the rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea, a parasite of the coastal crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus. It is shown that a single crab can bear 1 to 8 externae of P. polygenea. The fecundity of the parasite depends on the size of the externae and their number on

O. M. Korn; A. I. Shukalyuk; A. V. Trofimova; V. V. Isaeva



El Impacto de los Cambios Climáticos sobre la Salud en Bolivia: Estimación de Costos y Beneficios hasta el 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bolivia es en uno de los países con mayor vulnerabilidad a enfermedades en Latinoamérica. De los 327 municipios que se tenían el 2003, gran parte de ellos presentaron altos grados de vulnerabilidad en lo que se refiere a las Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (EDA’s) e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA’s) en el occidente del país y alta vulnerabilidad en Malaria y Dengue

Oscar Molina



Intracranial abscesses secondary to ear and paranasal sinuses infections.  


The death rate of brain abscesses in a recently reported series is high, ranging from 36% to 50% of all cases. This paper reports experiences with ten cases of intracranial abscesses secondary to ear and sinus infections. Six of these abscesses are secondary to otitic infections with three of them located in the cerebellum. Two of the cerebellar abscesses are surgically drained through the temporal bone by the otologic surgeon, with close neurosurgical cooperation. Computerized axial tomography has revolutionized the treatment of intracranial abscesses optimizing the timing for medical and surgical management. PMID:7208035

Maniglia, A J; VanBuren, J M; Bruce, W B; Bellucci, R J; Hoffman, S R


Gradenigo's syndrome--surgical management in a child.  


Otits media is a common problem. Some of its complications that were seen frequently in the preantibiotic era are rare today. We report a case of an 8 year boy who presented with earache, retro-orbital pain and diplopia secondary to a sixth nerve palsy--Gradenigo's syndrome. In this syndrome infection from the middle ear spreads medially to the petrous apex of the temporal bone. Work-up includes CT scan of the temporal bones. Timely management with intravenous antibiotics (+ surgery) is needed to prevent intra-cranial complications. PMID:21465982

Humayun, Hassan Nabeel; Akhtar, Shabbir; Ahmed, Shakeel



The Forward Exchange Market and the Effects of Domestic and External Disturbances under Alternative Exchange Rate Systems (Le marché des changes à terme et l'incidence des perturbations intérieures et extérieures sous différents régimes de taux de change) (El mercado de divisas a plazo y los efectos de las perturbaciones internas y externas bajo distintos sistemas de tipos de cambio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les auteurs de la présente étude intègrent dans un modèle macro-économique d'une économie ouverte le marché des changes à terme et les anticipations des spéculateurs en ce qui concerne le futur taux de change au comptant. Ils examinent l'incidence d'un certain nombre de perturbations exogènes sur le revenu, les taux d'intérêt, les taux de change et les réserves de la

Victor Argy; Michael G. Porter



21 CFR 522.960c - Flumethasone solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...externa in conjunction with topical medication; allergic states, e.g., hives, urticaria, and insect bites; and shock and shock-like states by intravenous administration. (iii) Limitations. See paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of...



Elongate Hemlock Scale - Treesearch - USDA Forest Service  


Jul 21, 2013 ... Description: The elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, native to ... and in nine states from Virginia to southern New England and west to Ohio. ... (Marlatt ), and the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand.




Ear infection; Infection - ear ... affect the inner or outer parts of the ear. The condition is classified according to whether it ... of time (chronic). When otitis involves the outer ear and ear canal, it is called otitis externa , ...


21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...consecutive days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations . Federal law...



21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...30 lb or more. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. (3)...



21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...contains penicillin. Allergic reactions in humans are known to occur from topical exposure...eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin,...



Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)  


... a foreign object in the ear, or hard earwax. Consult your doctor to help determine the cause ... Surgery Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Ear Injuries Dealing With Earwax Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) What Is an Ear ...


Simple Climate Model with Nonunique, Self-Oscillatory Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is strong evidence that the climate of the earth has varied substantially over past millennia. A variety of explanations of this phenomenon have appeared in the literature. Many authors attribute the causes of climate change to variations in externa...

R. G. Watts



21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone aceponate, miconazole nitrate, gentamicin sulfate otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...





Earache, a common emergency department presentation, may be caused by a variety of conditions, some distant from the ear. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, otitis externa, otitis media with ruptured tympanic membrane or tympanostomy tubes, malignant otitis externa, mastoiditis and petrositis, traumatic ruptured tympanic membrane, cerumen impactions, and foreign bodies in the ears. PMID:23601480

Conover, Keith



Artigo Original Fatores associados à mortalidade em pacientes hospitalizados por asma aguda grave em 1994, 1999 e 2004 na Espanha e América Latina* Factors associated with mortality in patients hospitalized in Spain and Latin America for acute severe asthma in 1994, 1999, and 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate, for the first time, the characteristics of patients with acute asthma who died during hospitalization in Spain and Latin America, as well as to evaluate factors associated with asthma mortality. Methods: A retrospective review of hospital records of 3,038 patients with asthma (aged 15-69 years) admitted to nineteen tertiary care hospitals in Spain and in eight Latin-American

Gustavo Javier Rodrigo; Vicente Plaza; Santiago Bardagí Forns; Miguel Perpiñá Tordera; Jorge Salas



[External otitis].  


Otitis externa is one of the most common diseases in ORL practice, during summer; the treatment of otitis externa may be simple and easy or protracted and frustrating, also with fatal outcome. Many local factors may interfere with the normal defences against infections in the external auditory canal. Removing or dissolving the cerumen by water or other instruments eliminates an important barrier to infections: its acids inhibit the growth of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus). Also skin abrasions or irritation, allergic diseases and many systemic condition like anaemia, vitamin deficiency, endocrine disorders (diabetes) and various forms of dermatitis cause a lower resistance to infections in external auditory canal. Even if the prognosis remains benign in the majority of cases, important complications could appear like: malignant otitis externa, facial nerve paralysis, tympanic bone osteomyelitis, pericondrytis. Successful treatment depends on a proper diagnosis and therapy: the most important factor in the treatment is repeated debridement of the external auditory canal by the physician. The use of Castellani' Tintura rubra, hydroalcoholic solution of phenic fuchsin, can be very effective for bacteria and mycotic eradication. Culturing of ear canal infection could be performed on the second or third visit if the otitis externa is not responding to therapy. Complication are not frequent, but malignant otitis externa can be mortal. Dermatological consultation is often necessary for correct diagnosis. PMID:11887343

Olina, Massimo; Cametti, Massimiliano; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Gattoni, Massimo; Leigheb, Giorgio; Pia, Francesco



[Local antibacterial therapy for the inflammatory diseases of the external and middle ear].  


The objective of the present study was to estimate the efficacy and safety of candibioic designed for the treatment of the patients presenting with diffuse otitis externa and chronic otitis media. The open randomized trial included 40 patients with diffuse otitis externa and 40 ones with chronic otitis media who had undergone a surgical sanitation procedure. Their standard clinical and otorhinolaryngological examination was supplemented by the characteristic of clinical symptoms and personal complaints using the 10-score scale. The composite preparation candibiotic was found to be equally effective for the treatment of both diffuse otitis externa and chronic otitis media. The results of the study give reason to recommend the use of candibiotic as an efficacious and safe drug for the treatment of these conditions. PMID:22951697

Khon, E M; Dzhenzhera, G E; Ovchinnikov, A Iu



Hyperparasitism of the cryptoniscid isopod Liriopsis pygmaea on the lithodid Paralomis granulosa from the Beagle Channel, Argentina.  


A total of 29,570 false king crab Paralomis granulosa were sampled from the Beagle Channel (54 degrees 51'S, 68 degrees 12'W), Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, between July 1996 and August 1998. Crab size varied from 6.8 to 111.2 mm carapace length (CL). A few crabs parasitized by the rhizocephalan Briarosaccus callosus were found; prevalences of externae (the rhizocephalan reproductive body) and scars (the mark left on the host after the death of the parasite) were 0.28 and 0.16%, respectively. Of 85 externae examined, 55 were non-ovigerous and 30 ovigerous. The cryptoniscid isopod Liriopsis pygmaea infested 36.5% of the B. callosus examined. The most abundant stage was the cryptonicus larva, accounting for 208 of the 238 L. pygmaea recovered. Cryptonisci showed a highly aggregated distribution. A total of 92.7% of cryptonicsci were recovered inside empty externae, suggesting that the latter were attractive to cryptonisci. Early subadult females of L. pygmaea were rare; only 3 individuals occurred inside 1 ovigerous externa. Eight late subadult and 18 adult females were found on 3 and 7 non-ovigerous externae, respectively; in addition, 1 aberrant late subadult was found on 1 ovigerous externa. In the Beagle Channel, the population of P. granulosa harbours 3 different parasites: the bopyrid isopod Pseudione tuberculata, which reaches highest prevalence at 10 to 20 mm CL, the rhizocephalan B. callosus, with highest prevalence at 20 to 40 mm CL, and the cryptoniscid isopod L. pygmaea, which mainly infests rhizocephalan on crabs >40 mm CL. PMID:15038454

Lovrich, Gustavo A; Roccatagliata, Daniel; Peresan, Laura



Diagnostic imaging of ear disease in the dog and cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOST dogs and cats with common aural conditions, such as otitis externa or aural haematoma, may be treated satisfactorily without the need for diagnostic imaging. However, animals with recurrent or severe otitis, and those with more marked signs, such as para?aural swelling, pain on opening the mouth, vestibular syndrome or facial paralysis, may benefit from a more thorough work?up to

Livia Benigni; Chris Lamb



Estudo sobre as alterações da função sexual em mulheres com lesão medular resistentes na cidade de Ribeirão Preto\\/SP Study of sexual function alterations in women with spinal cord injuries in the city of Ribeirao Preto, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

nível de ensino fundamental (49%), analfabetismo (9%). Apresentaram etiologia traumática (100%), nível lombar (53%), seguido do cervical (27%), torácica (16%) e sacral (4%,). Das causas externas constatamos acidente automobilístico (29%), 12% de queda, em terceiro encontra-se o ferimento por arma de fogo (FAF), levantamento de peso, atropelamento e acidente de motocicleta 8% cada, mergulho em águas rasas e espancamento, com

Paula Canova Sodré; Ana Cristina



Otitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) is a ubiquitous saprophytic mold. It is considered an infrequent but important and emerging human pathogen, mostly in immunocompromised hosts. Otomycosis secondary to S. apiospermum is extremely rare. We report an 8-year-old immunocompetent male who developed otitis media and otitis externa from S. apiospermum, which was successful treated with combination of surgical debridement and topical clotrimazole

H. S Bhally; C Shields; S. Y Lin; W. G Merz



Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) associated with melon crop in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil.  


A survey of the green lacewings associated with the melon agroecosystem was carried out with the aim of including lacewings into the integrated management program of melon pests. Three species of this predator were found: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen), Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) and Chrysoperla genanigra Freitas. A key to these species is presented. PMID:20676524

Bezerra, Carlos E S; Tavares, Patrícia K A; Macedo, Luciano P M; de Freitas, Sérgio; Araujo, Elton L


Distribution and quantitation of gut neuropeptides in normal intestine and inflammatory bowel diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study hyperplasia of peptidergic nerves purported to be diagnostic of Crohn's disease, we determined the distribution and concentrations of gut neuropeptides in specimens of normal intestine, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Tissue specimens obtained at surgery were dissected into the mucosal-submucosal and muscularis externa layers, and immunoreactive gut neuropeptides were acid-extracted for measurement by radioimmunoassay. The immunoreactive species were

Timothy R. Koch; J. Aidan Carney; Liang W. Vay Go



Use of quinolones for treatment of ear and eye infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant otitis externa is a severe, necrotizing infection of the external auditory canal which is sometimes fatal. The traditional antimicrobial treatment has usually been the combination of an antipseudomonal beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside, given intravenously for 4 to 8 weeks. Over 100 patients have been treated with a fluoroquinolone alone, most commonly ciprofloxacin given by mouth in a dosage of

M. Barza



Traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology of Croton species (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Croton é um gênero de Euphorbiaceae com cerca de 1300 espécies, amplamente distribuídas em regiões tropicais do Novo e Velho Mundos. Várias espécies há muito tempo desempenham papel importante nos usos tradicionais de plantas medicinais na África, Ásia e América do Sul. Tais usos incluem tratamento de câncer, constipação intestinal, diarréia e outros problemas digestivos, diabetes, feridas externas, febre, hipercolesterolemia,

Antonio Salatino; Maria L. Faria Salatino; Giuseppina Negri



A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Aging on the Nerve Cell Number in the Myenteric Ganglia of the Human Colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the number of nerve cells present in the myenteric plexus of the human large intestine using a nonhistochemical method (Giemsa) in laminar preparations of the muscularis externa in two groups of subjects aged 20-35 and over 65 years. The collagen and elastic system related fibers in the myenteric ganglia were also qualitatively evaluated. The total number of

O. A. Gomes; R. R. de Souza; E. A. Liberti



Potential therapeutic effect of yeast killer toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental infections were produced in guinea pigs, rabbits and dogs with lesions similar to those seen in human seborrheic dermatitis and otitis externa by cutaneous application of cultures of Malassezia furfur and M. pachydermatis. Infected animals were treated by topical application of a concentrated yeast killer toxin (Hansenula anomala UCSC 25F). Clinical recovery as well as negative mycological test cultures

Luciano Polonelli; Rodolfo Lorenzini; Flavia De Bernardis; Giulia Morace



Otoscopic, Cytological, and Microbiological Examination of the Equine External Ear Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well

Sandra J. Sargent; Linda A. Frank; Benjamin R. Buchanan; Robert L. Donnell; Federica Morandi



Neurotransmitters modulate cytokine-stimulated interleukin 6 secretion in rat intestinal smooth muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Cytokine production by resident cells of the richly innervated muscularis externa may contribute to neuromuscular changes observed during intestinal inflammation. This study investigated neurotransmitter modulation of cytokine production by intestinal smooth muscle. Methods: We measured interleukin (IL)-6 messenger RNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, IL-6 by bioassay, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate by enzyme immunoassay in rat

Gert Van Assche; Giovanni Barbara; Yikang Deng; Poala Lovato; Jack Gauldie; Stephen M. Collins



21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...



21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...



Infestation Level of the Crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus by a Parasitic Crustacean Polyascus polygenea (Crustacea: Cirripedia) in Vostok Bay, Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the infestation level of the coastal crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus by a cirripede barnacle Polyascus polygenea in Peter the Great Bay (Vostok Bay, Sea of Japan) in 1998–1999. It is shown that the externae of the parasite usually appear on the surface of the host’s body at the time when the crab attains sexual maturity (at a carapace width

O. M. Korn; A. V. Akhmadieva; A. V. Rybakov; A. I. Shukalyuk



Investigating the effect of different targets in deep brain stimulation on symptoms of Parkinson's disease using a mean-field model of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigated effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on Parkinson's disease (PD) when different target sites in the basal ganglia are stimulated. The targets which are investigated are subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus interna (GPi), and globus pallidus externa (GPe). For this purpose we used a computational model of the basal ganglia- thalamocortical system (BGTCS) with parameters

Alireza Nahvi; Fariba Bahrami



Teratologic Evaluation of Bisphenol A (CAS No. 80-05-7) Administered to CD(R) Rats on Gestational Days 6 Through 15.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

BPA was evaluated for developmental toxicity in CD rats (0, 160, 320, 640 or 1280 mg/kg/day dosed daily by gastric intubation on gestational days (gd) 6-15. Timed-pregnant dams (>20/group) were sacrificed on gd 20 and all fetuses were examined for externa...

C. J. Price J. D. George M. C. Marr R. Wolkowski-Tyl



lncreased Expression of Vacuolar Aquaporin and H+ATPase Related to Motor Cell Function in Mimosa pudica L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature motor cells of Mimosa pudica that exhibit large and rapid turgor variations in response to externa1 stimuli are characterized by two distinct types of vacuoles, one containing large amounts of tannins (tannin vacuole) and one without tannins (colloidal or aqueous vacuole). In these highly specialized cells we measured the abundance of two tonoplast proteins, a putative water-channel protein (aquaporin

Pierrette Fleurat-Lessard; Nathalie Frangne; Masayoshi Maeshima; Raphael Ratajczak; Enrico Martinoia


Source Code Assurance Tool: Preliminary Functional Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been said that information system security is really information system security-the point being that in the assessment of an information system, it is never enough to focus only on the bits and bytes that flow through the system. Processes externa...

R. L. Craft J. Espinoza P. L. Campbell




Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza los factores de índole tanto interna como externa que pueden ser determinantes en la decisión de emprender actividades innovadoras en las empresas hosteleras. Para llevar a cabo la contrastación empírica de las hipótesis propuestas se ha utilizado un modelo de regresión logística binaria. El estudio empírico utiliza una muestra de 443 empresas que forman parte de la

M. C. López-Fernández; A. M. Serrano-Bedia; R Gómez-López



Resolution and Limitations of the Immunoperoxidase Procedure in the Localization of Extracellular Matrix Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double labeling system was used to test the resolution of the indirect immunoperoxidase procedure in the local- ization of extracellular matrix components. A recognizable antigen, cationized ferritin, was first implanted at specific anionic sites N 60 nm periodicity) in the lamina rara in- terna and externa of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and subsequently localized by immunoperoxidase. The coincidence



Foliar terpenoids in Tsuga species and the fecundity of scale insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the reproductive success of two Japanese scale insects, Fiorinia externa Ferris and Nuculaspis tsugae (Marlatt) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and the concentrations of 15 terpenoids in needles of Tsuga sieboldii, the Japanese host, and T. canadensis, the North American host, was investigated during 1981 and 1982 in a field plot of 8-year-old trees in New Haven, CT, USA. Both

Mark S. McClure; J. Daniel Hare



Sulphide quinone reductase contributes to hydrogen sulphide metabolism in murine peripheral tissues but not in the CNS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is gaining acceptance as a gaseous signal molecule. However, mechanisms regarding signal termination are not understood. We used stigmatellin and antimycin A, inhibitors of sulphide quinone reductase (SQR), to test the hypothesis that the catabolism of H2S involves SQR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H2S production and consumption were determined in living and intact mouse brain, liver and colonic muscularis externa using gas chromatography and HPLC. Expressions of SQR, ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 (Ethe1) and thiosulphate transferase (TST; rhodanese) were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS In the colonic muscularis externa, H235S was catabolized to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, and stigmatellin reduced both the consumption of H235S and formation of [35S]-thiosulphate. Stigmatellin also enhanced H2S release by the colonic muscularis externa. In the brain, catabolism of H235S to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, which was stigmatellin-insensitive, partially accounted for H235S consumption, while the remainder was captured as unidentified 35S that was probably bound to proteins. Levels of mRNA encoding SQR were higher in the colonic muscularis externa and the liver than in the brain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data support the concept that termination of endogenous H2S signalling in the colonic muscularis externa occurs via catabolism to thiosulphate and sulphate partially via a mechanism involving SQR. In the brain, it appears that H2S signal termination occurs partially through protein sequestration and partially through catabolism not involving SQR. As H2S has beneficial effects in animal models of human disease, we suggest that selective inhibition of SQR is an attractive target for pharmaceutical development.

Linden, DR; Furne, J; Stoltz, GJ; Abdel-Rehim, MS; Levitt, MD; Szurszewski, JH



La demanda por combustible y el impacto de la contaminación al interior de los hogares sobre la salud: el caso de Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

El consumo de leña para la preparación de alimentos es aún común en algunos países en desarrollo. La exposición a la contaminación dentro de los hogares, causada por la quema de este combustible en estufas sin sistemas de ventilación adecuados, aumenta la probabilidad de adquirir enfermedades respiratorias agudas. En este trabajo, se construye un modelo de decisión de hogares que

Martínez Mariana




Microsoft Academic Search

El consumo de leña para la preparación de alimentos es aún común en algunos países en desarrollo. La exposición a la contaminación dentro de los hogares, causada por la quema de este combustible en estufas sin sistemas de ventilación adecuados, aumenta la probabilidad de adquirir enfermedades respiratorias agudas. En este trabajo, se construye un modelo de decisión de hogares que




Abuja Geographic Information Systems (AGIS) as a Tool for Good Governance in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Abuja (FCT) covers a total land area approximately 7,315 sq. km. This makes it more than twice the area of Lagos State. According to the Aguda panel, this vast area was considered necessary in order to allow room not just for the capital city but also for a city region that will provide most of the needs of the

Anthony A. ADEOYE


Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson y necrólisis epidérmica tóxica por profilaxis con TARGA en el Hospital Nacional Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo, Lambayeque,Perú Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by HAART prophylaxis in the National Hospital Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo, Lambayeque, Perú  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson (SSJ) y necrólisis epidérmica tóxica (NET) son reacciones inflamatorias agudas originadas por hipersensibilidad (reacción inmunológica), que incluye piel y membranas mucosas. Se presenta un caso de reacción adversa medicamentosa en un paciente varón de 25 años, que recibió profilaxis con Terapia Antiretroviral de Gran Actividad. Presentó exantema, que progresa a SSJ y evoluciona a NET. Permaneció

Victor A. Soto Cáceres; Rosa E. Rodríguez Barboza



A new genus and two new species of Peltogastridae (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitizing hermit crabs from Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan), and their DNA-barcodes.  


A new genus and two new species of Peltogastridae, Peltogaster postica sp. nov. and Ommatogaster nana gen. et sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. The two new rhizocephalans were found to be parasitic on the estuarine hermit crabs, Pagurus minutus Hess, 1865 and Diogenes leptocerus Forest, 1956, respectively. Peltogaster postica sp. nov. is allied to P. curvata Kossmann, 1874, P. paguri Rathke, 1842 , and P. reticulata Shiino, 1943 , but is distinguished by its relative length and internal and external structures of the mature externa. Ommatogaster gen. nov. is established for the present new species O. nana based on the morphologies of the visceral mass of the externa and the presence of a nauplius eye in the larvae. Partial COI sequences were obtained from the two new species and one known species, Dipterosaccus indicus Van Kampen and Boschma, 1925, to test the possible usefulness of the sequences as tags for species identification. PMID:22035309

Yoshida, Ryuta; Osawa, Masayuki; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi



Potential factors affecting the outcome of dogs with a resection of the lateral wall of the vertical ear canal.  

PubMed Central

The records of 60 dogs that had a resection of the lateral wall of the vertical ear canal (Zepp) were examined. The surgical outcomes were evaluated in association with the following variables: breed, sex, age of onset of the otitis externa, duration of the disease before the surgery was performed, treatment received for the otitis externa, the status of the ear and tympanic membrane at the time of the surgery, the culture results, and concurrent medical problems. The outcome of surgery was acceptable in 45% and unacceptable in 55% of the cases. Breed was the only factor that could be correlated with the outcome. The procedure failed in 86.5% of the cocker spaniels. When surgical outcomes in breeds other than cocker spaniels were evaluated, 63% were acceptable and 37% were unacceptable. Sharpeis were found to have an ear canal of small diameter compared with that of other breeds and a tendency to have better outcomes.

Sylvestre, A M



Strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens from clinical material.  

PubMed Central

Eight strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens have been received from among 466 strains of Pseudomonas submitted to the Computer Trials Laboratory for identification over the last eight years. Two of the strains of P. putrefaciens from patients with otitis media and otitis externa respectively appear to have played a pathogenic role. The biochemical characteristics of these eight strains were compared with those of seven culture collection strains.

Holmes, B; Lapage, S P; Malnick, H



Steroid productions by Co-cultures of granulosa cells with inner and outer theca cells in preovulatory follicles of gonadotropin stimulated calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulosa, interna and externa theca cells were isolated from large follicles of equine-chorionicgonadotropin (eCG)-primed calves and co-cultured during 3 days in the absence or in the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Co-cultures were performed by adding defined numbers of theca and\\/or granulosa cells which represented 0, 10, 20, 50 or 100% of total cells per well. Secretion of oestradiol-17? (E2), androstenedione

M. J. Bosc; Agnès Nicolle



Intracellular distinction between peroxidase and catalase in exocrine cells of rat lacrimal gland: A biochemical and cytochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The lacrimal gland (Glandula orbitalis externa) of rat contains both peroxidase and catalase and was used as a model for biochemical\\u000a and cytochemical distinction between peroxidase and catalase. Both enzymes were isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation\\u000a from tissue homogenates, and the effects of fixation with glutaraldehyde and various conditions of incubation were investigated\\u000a colorimetrically using DAB as hydrogen donor. The

V. Herzog; H. D. Fahimi



Fluctuating mixed-type hearing loss associated with synovitis–acne–pustulosis–hyperostosis–osteomyelitis (SAPHO) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) are the characteristic features of SAPHO syndrome. A 53-year-old woman had been treated for PPP for 2 years. She complained of hearing loss in the right ear, and otitis externa was diagnosed. The pure-tone audiogram (PTA) indicated mild hearing loss in the right ear, and her hearing continued to deteriorate despite

Shigetaka Shimizu; Kumiko Yukawa; Sachie Kawaguchi; Yukari Okubo; Mamoru Suzuki



A new passerine bird from the early Oligocene of Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a nearly complete articulated specimen representing a new species and genus, Jamna szybiaki gen. et sp. nov., of an early Oligocene passeriform bird from Poland. In overall osteology, the specimen resembles extant\\u000a Passeriformes but it differs from that group in several characters including the not bifurcated spina externa (sternum) and\\u000a the absence of a hooked processus acrocoracoideus (coracoid).

Zbigniew M. Boche?ski; Teresa Tomek; Ma?gorzata Bujoczek; Krzysztof Wertz


Use of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography in diagnosis of sigmoid sinus thrombosis.  


Magnetic resonance angiography is an established radiologic technique which is rapidly becoming useful in imaging the head and neck. Currently, this imaging modality is important in the diagnosis of sigmoid sinus thrombosis caused by otologic disease. Since the introduction of antibiotic therapy, the percentage of deaths attributed to intracranial complications from otitic disease has decreased from 2.5 to approximately 0.25% of documented deaths. Also, the incidence of sinus thrombosis within this group has decreased, but it is still a serious and potentially lethal condition. Sinus thrombosis is suspected clinically when mastoid disease progresses, with picket fence fever pattern, chills, headaches and signs of papilledema. Definitive diagnosis is necessary before surgical treatment. The Queckenstedt test is unreliable, computed tomography is better suited for demonstrating thrombosis of the sagittal sinus rather than the sigmoid sinus, and conventional angiography (although it provides excellent visualization) has the hazard of ionizing radiation and requires vessel puncture and the use of intraarterial contrast agents. We present two cases of thrombosis of the sigmoid sinus as an intracranial otologic complication which were diagnosed definitively with magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. The combination of magnetic resonance imaging, which showed the thrombosis displaying abnormal signal intensity, and magnetic resonance angiography, which demonstrated the absence of flow in the sinus, was an ideal diagnostic tool. For both patients, treatment consisted of mastoidectomy, sigmoid sinus decompression and antibiotics. PMID:9248135

Davison, S P; Facer, G W; McGough, P F; McCaffrey, T V; Reder, P A



Molecular Analysis of Malassezia sympodialis-Related Strains from Domestic Animals  

PubMed Central

Recently, several new lipid-dependent species belonging to the genus Malassezia have been described. Some of them, such as Malassezia dermatis, Malassezia nana, and the tentatively named “Malassezia equi,” have similar phenotypes and are genetically close to Malassezia sympodialis Simmons et Guého 1990. DNA characterization by D1/D2 26S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-5.8S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of lipid-dependent strains from different animal species close to M. sympodialis is described and illustrated. Phylogenetic analysis of both the D1/D2 regions of 26S rRNA gene and ITS-5.8S rRNA gene sequences showed four distinct clusters. Cluster I included isolates from different animal species (horse, pig, and lamb) and the type culture of M. sympodialis. Cluster II included isolates from horses grouping close to the “M. equi” AJ305330 sequence. Cluster III comprised isolates mainly from goats. Cluster IV contained isolates mainly from cats grouping together with the M. nana AB075224 sequence. This last cluster included isolates from healthy and external otitic ears. All of these strains had identical 26S rRNA gene and ITS regions. It is not clear whether the value of these genetic differences is for the definition of species or whether they only demonstrate genetic variation among strains from different origins within M. sympodialis, which are in the course of differentiation and probably adaptation to specific animal hosts.

Cabanes, F. J.; Hernandez, J. J.; Castella, G.



Developmental origins of colon smooth muscle dysfunction in IBS-like rats.  


Epidemiological studies show that subsets of adult and pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have prior exposures to psychological or inflammatory stress. We investigated the cellular mechanisms of colonic smooth muscle dysfunction in adult rats subjected to neonatal inflammation. Ten-day-old male rat pups received 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to induce colonic inflammation. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips were obtained 6 to 8 wk later. We found that about half of the neonate pups subjected to inflammatory insult showed a significant increase in expression of the pore-forming ?1C-subunit of Cav1.2b channels in adult life. These were the same rats in whom Vip mRNA increased in the colon muscularis externae. Additional experiments showed reduced interaction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 with ?1C1b promoter that increased the acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) in the core promoter region. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) treatment of naïve muscularis externae swiftly recruited CREB-binding protein (CBP) to the ?1C1b promoter and dissociated HDAC3 from this region to initiate transcription. The CBP interaction with the ?1C1b promoter was transient, but the dissociation of HDAC3 persisted to sustain H3K9 hyperacetylation and increase in transcription. Intraperitoneal treatment of adult naïve rats with butyrate mimicked the effects of neonatal colon inflammation. We concluded that neonatal inflammation upregulates VIP in the colon muscularis externae, which modulates epigenetic events at the ?1C1b promoter to activate ?1C1b gene transcription. Inflammatory insult in early life may be one of the etiologies of smooth muscle dysfunction in adult life, which contributes to the altered motility function in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. PMID:23886858

Li, Qingjie; Winston, John H; Sarna, Sushil K



Acute and Chronic Changes in Aquaporin 4 Expression After Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

The effect of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the expression levels and distribution of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has not been studied. We have found AQP4 in gray and white matter astrocytes in both uninjured and injured rat spinal cords. AQP4 was detected in astrocytic processes that were tightly surrounding neurons and blood vessels, but more robustly in glia limitans externa and interna, which were forming an interface between spinal cord parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Such spatial distribution of AQP4 suggests a critical role that astrocytes expressing AQP4 play in the transport of water from blood/CSF to spinal cord parenchyma and vice versa. SCI induced biphasic changes in astrocytic AQP4 levels, including its early down-regulation and subsequent persistent up-regulation. However, changes in AQP4 expression did not correlate well with the onset and magnitude of astrocytic activation, when measured as changes in GFAP expression levels. It appears that reactive astrocytes began expressing increased levels of AQP4 after migrating to the wound area (thoracic region) two weeks after SCI, and AQP4 remained significantly elevated for months after SCI. We also showed that increased levels of AQP4 spread away from the lesion site to cervical and lumbar segments, but only in chronically injured spinal cords. Although overall AQP4 expression levels increased in chronically-injured spinal cords, AQP4 immunolabeling in astrocytic processes forming glia limitans externa was decreased, which may indicate impaired water transport through glia limitans externa. Finally, we also showed that SCI-induced changes in AQP4 protein levels correlate, both temporally and spatially, with persistent increases in water content in acutely and chronically injured spinal cords. Although correlative, this finding suggests a possible link between AQP4 and impaired water transport/edema/syringomyelia in contused spinal cords.

Nesic, Olivera; Lee, Julieann; Ye, Zaiming; Unabia, Geda C.; Rafati, Danny; Hulsebosch, Claire E.; Perez-Polo, J. Regino



Fotometría CCD en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La región de Vela-Puppis contiene varios cúmulos cuyo estudio puede brindarnos información acerca de la cinemática y el estado evolutivo de la población estelar en las zonas externas del disco galáctico. A través de observaciones CCD en los filtros UBV en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58 (?2000= 8h 14m 41s, ?2000=-31o 57'), se han determinado por primera vez los parámetros fundamentales de este cúmulo tales como distancia, enrojecimiento y edad. Se analiza también la estructura de su secuencia principal y la presencia de gigantes y binarias.

Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Seggewiss, W.; Ostrov, P.; Solivella, G. R.


Structural features of alveolar wall basement membrane in the adult rat lung  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructural characteristics of alveolar (ABM) and capillary (CBM) basement membranes in the adult rat lung have been defined using tannic acid fixation, ruthenium red staining, or incubation in guanidine HCl. ABM is dense and amorphous, has 3- to 5-nm filaments in the lamina rara externa (facing the alveolus) that run between the lamina densa and the basal cell surface of the epithelium, has an orderly array of ruthenium red-positive anionic sites that appear predominantly (79%) on the lamina rara externa, and has discontinuities beneath alveolar type II cells but not type I cells that allow penetration of type II cytoplasmic processes into the interstitium of the alveolar wall. The CBM is fibrillar and less compact than ABM, has no lamina rara filaments, and has one fifth the number of ruthenium red- positive anionic sites of ABM that appear predominantly (64%) overlying the lamina densa. Incubation of lung tissue with Flavobacterium heparinum enzyme or with chondroitinase has shown that ABM anionic sites represent heparan sulfate proteoglycans, whereas CBM anionic sites contain this and other sulfated proteoglycans. The CBM fuses in a local fashion with ABM, compartmentalizing the alveolar wall into a thick and thin side and establishing a thin, single, basement-membrane gas-exchange surface between alveolar air, and capillary blood. The potential implications of ABM and CBM ultrastructure for permeability, cell differentiation, and repair and morphogenesis of the lung are discussed.



[A case of cavernous sinus aspergillosis].  


We reported a case of cavernous sinus aspergillosis. A 62-year-old man complained of trigeminal neuralgia in the right V1 region. Neurological examination on admission showed ptosis, loss of light reflex and ophthalmoplegia externa in the right side. MRI enhanced with gadolinium demonstrated sphenoid sinusitis and mass lesion in the right cavernous sinus. MRA revealed right internal carotid artery occlusion. An open biopsy using the extradural temporopolar approach was performed. Pus discharge was observed from the cavernous sinus and histological examination showed hypha of Aspergillus. With early voriconazole treatment, the patient had improvement in headache, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia externa. Cavernous sinus aspergillosis is often found after sphenoiditis. It results in invasion to an internal carotid artery and worsens the patient's prognosis by cerebral infarction, so early diagnosis and treatment are important. We should consider aspergillosis as one of the differential diagnoses of a mass in the cavernous sinus. The epidural approach to this lesion was available to obviate aspergillus dissemination into the medullary cavity. PMID:24091462

Hase, Tomomi; Kurita, Hideharu; Matsumoto, Eiji; Kuroda, Hajime; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Shinoda, Souji



The misdiagnosis of external auditory canal carcinoma.  


External auditory canal (EAC) carcinomas are frequently misdiagnosed. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of misdiagnosed cases and analyze the factors involved. This study was a retrospective assessment. Eighteen of 44 EAC carcinoma cases seen at the Eye and ENT Hospital were misdiagnosed. All medical records were retrospectively analyzed for the age, sex, presenting symptoms, type of misdiagnosis, computed tomographic (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, stage of the cancer, surgical approach, histopathological examination, adjunctive therapy (postoperative radiotherapy) and outcomes of treatment. Six cases were misdiagnosed as otitis media, five cases were misdiagnosed as otitis externa, and two cases were misdiagnosed as external auditory canal cholesteatomas. Other misdiagnoses were stenosis of the EAC, ear neuralgia, furuncle of the EAC, benign neoplasm of the EAC and pre-auricular fistula. Our analyses suggest that a biopsy should be conducted to obtain a histopathological diagnosis if an EAC carcinoma is suspected, in case otitis media or otitis externa does not respond to routine anti-bacterials. Head and neck MRI should be used to explore the involvement of soft tissues. Patients with bloody ear discharge and otalgia, particularly with temporal bone erosion seen in a CT scan, are highly likely to have a malignant carcinoma of the temporal bone. PMID:22926989

Zhang, Ting; Dai, ChunFu; Wang, ZhengMin



The earlobe crease, coronary artery disease, and sudden cardiac death: an autopsy study of 520 individuals.  


The majority of previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between diagonal earlobe creases (ELC) and coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study of 520 forensic autopsy cases, the earlobes were studied and photographed before autopsy, and the existence of a diagonal ELC was noted in 55%. The cause of death, the degree of coronary atherosclerosis, aortosclerosis, and cerebrosclerosis, as well as heart, kidney, and spleen weights, were noted in each case. The body mass index (BMI), thickness of abdominal fat, baldness, and excessive hair in the meatus externa of the external ears were also assessed. Nonparametric methods were used in the statistical calculations. It was found that ELC was strongly correlated with CAD in both men and women (P < 0.0001) but with sudden cardiac death (SCD) only in men (P < 0.04). The sensitivity of the ELC sign was 75% and the positive predictive value (ppv) was 68%. In individuals below 40 years, the ppv was as high as 80%. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, ELC was found to be the strongest independent risk factor for CAD and SCD apart from age and BMI (both genders), as well as baldness and hair in the meatus externa (in males). It is concluded that in a patient population similar to that in the present study the ELC sign could be especially useful in screening for premature CAD in younger individuals. PMID:16738431

Edston, Erik



The Anterior Olfactory Nucleus: Quantitative Study of Dendritic Morphology  

PubMed Central

The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) occupies a crucial position within the olfactory circuit as it is able to influence function in nearly every major synaptic processing stage of both the ipsilateral and contralateral pathway. Nevertheless, very little is known about the region’s internal organization and circuitry. The present study provides basic quantitative and qualitative data on the morphology of several cell types within the two major regions of the AON: pars externa and pars principalis. In pars externa two types of cells are analyzed, the “classical” cell (Type I), containing only apically-directed dendrites with large spines, and a previously unreported cell with basilar dendrites and complex, spiny apical processes (Type II). In pars principalis the characteristic pyramidal cell is described both on the basis of the depth of the cell bodies in the cell layer comprising the structure and on the basis of their radial location. Several other non-pyramidal neurons are also described. The findings provide useful basic information necessary for understanding and modeling the circuitry of the AON.

Brunjes, Peter C.; Kenerson, Michael C.




PubMed Central

The muscularis externa of the intestinal wall of frogs was fixed in osmium tetroxide, embedded in Vestopal-W, serially sectioned for electron microscopy, and stained with uranyl acetate. A method to obtain individually mounted and properly positioned serial sections is described. The three-dimensional techniques used during the course of this investigation demonstrate that it is possible to examine carefully relatively large areas of tissue on individual serial sections with the electron microscope and subsequently to construct montages of electron micrographs of pertinent areas from each section. Several carefully rendered interrelationships of nerve processes and smooth muscle cells in three dimensions are exhibited and described. Recent studies of other neuro-effector relationships are discussed in relation to the present status of the nature and organization of the autonomic nervous system in visceral organs.

Thaemert, J. C.



A clinical study on the effect of Arka Taila in the management of Karnasrava (Otomycosis).  


Karnasrava is the condition characterized by discharge from Karna and occurs mainly due to Avarana of Vata Dosha. Otomycosis denotes diffuse otitis externa due to fungal infection in ear. Otomycosis being one of the causes of Karnasrava was selected for the study. The present study is done on 28 patients of Karnasrava, who were grouped in to two with 14 patients in each group. Group-A was treated with Arka TailaKarnapurana and Group-B with Clotrimazole ear drops (standard control). The signs and symptoms were studied before and after treatment. Result of the study indicates that Arka Taila and Clotrimazole are equally effective in all the signs and symptoms of Karnasrava (Otomycosis). PMID:22529649

Palmer, Komal K; Vaghela, D B; Manjusha, R



Helix advancement meatoplasty.  


We describe a new technique of helix advancement meatoplasty. This technique is useful in both mastoid surgery and some cases of otitis externa. The technique is designed to avoid the problems of (1) inferior positioning of the meatoplasty at the time of surgery, and (2) later inferior migration of the pinna (as can occur when the suspensory ligaments of the pinna have been cut or weakened). Such outcomes can result in a mastoid cavity which is difficult to clean as the approach to it is awkward; in such cases, it is common to have to look up into the cavity rather than directly into it. Helix advancement meatoplasty improves post-operative visualisation and aeration. It eases cleaning of the cavity by creating a more superiorly placed meatoplasty, which is supported by the tragus and is therefore less likely to drop. PMID:22643206

Goodyear, P W A; Reddy, C E; Lesser, T H J



Structural and immunohistochemical aspects of the postovulatory follicle in Japanese quail.  


In the present study, we searched for the presence of granulosa lipid spheres, of lacunae, and of the smooth-muscle markers desmin and alpha-smooth-muscle actin, in the wall of the POF1 of the quail ovary. Lacunae, using the labelled yolk technique, were visible as large cavities in the POF1 wall. The immunohistochemical localization of desmin was similar to that observed in preovulatory follicles. A similar distribution was observed using an anti-alpha-smooth-muscle actin antiserum, but the cells of the theca externa were also positively stained. The general conclusion was that the studied structures were similarly localized in the follicle wall, before and during the day after ovulation, but that they are more obvious in the POF, due to its general contracted state. PMID:1996782

Van Nassauw, L; Callebaut, M



Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of dove.  


Dove ovarian follicle is a complex structure composed of oocyte surrounded by a somatic compartment consisting of theca externa, theca interna and granulosa. The structure of ovarian follicle (1 and 2 mm) of dove was studied by electron microscopy. The granulosa was pseudostratified in the 1-mm-diameter follicles and stratified with two or three irregular rows of cells in the 2-mm-diameter follicles. In the larger follicle indentations between oocyte and granulosa cells become more numerous and the microvilli of granulosa cell elongated to form a zona radiata with similarly elongated oocyte microvilli. Lining bodies were present at the tips of granulosa microvilli and in the cortical region of the oocyte. In the oocyte cortex were observed coated pits, coated vesicles, dense tubules, multivesicular bodies and primordial yolk spheres. Primordial yolk spheres may contain lining bodies and were observed fused with dense tubules and multivesicular bodies or associated with smooth cisternae. PMID:15751536

Zarnescu, Otilia



Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract  

SciTech Connect

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.



Mastoiditis and meningitis complicating an aural foreign body.  


Children commonly present to emergency departments with foreign bodies in the ear. In addition, physicians place wicks in the ear canal as part of the treatment of otitis externa. Usually, these foreign bodies are easily removed, but occasionally, removal must be deferred or is delayed by parents. Therefore, the dangers of retained foreign bodies are important for the emergency physician to be aware of. We report the highly unusual case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with ear pain for 3 weeks. She was found to have an ear wick in place as part of the treatment of otalgia. She was subsequently diagnosed with mastoiditis and meningitis. This is first time mastoiditis and meningitis has been reported as a complication of ear wick placement, although not the only case of an intracranial complication of an aural foreign body. PMID:23034496

Burke, Ryan T; Gatton, Barbara; Melville, Laura D



[An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].  


This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas. PMID:19178778

Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto



Granulomatous meningitis caused by Coccidioides immitis in a dog.  


Granulomatous meningitis attributable to Coccidioides immitis was diagnosed on postmortem examination in a 4-year-old Border Collie. Clinical signs included CNS disease, aspiration pneumonia secondary to a megaesophagus, and otitis externa. Central nervous system signs included central vestibular and cranial nerve dysfunction. Cerebellar and medullary infiltrates seen on histologic examination affected cranial nerves VIII, IX, and X. Despite extensive diagnostics, diagnosis was not made antemortem. Analysis of CSF suggested suppurative meningitis, but bacteriologic culture results were negative. Coccidioides endospores were identified on reexamination of brain tissue. The clinical course of disease and rate of Coccidioides immitis infection is variable. Causative agents of granulomatous or inflammatory CNS disease may include fungal infection more often than is currently suspected. PMID:9530420

Burtch, M



Dermatologic aspects of sports medicine.  


The skin lies at the interface of the athlete and the sports milieu and is subjected to many sports-related dermatoses. Direct traumatic injuries, such as friction blisters, black heel, piezogenic papules, and traumatic subungual hematomas, occur regularly. Environmental insults such as sunburn, cold-induced injury, and contact dermatitis plague the sportsman. Cutaneous infections such as "athlete's foot," otitis externa, herpes simplex, and warts occur because of a favorable microenvironment, occurring with sweating and occlusion as well as close interpersonal contact. Sports participation may uncover or exacerbate latent dermatoses such as occurs in acne mechanica and exercise-induced anaphylaxis. The sportsman is best served if the physician considers him as an athlete-patient. PMID:7430463

Levine, N



Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis.  


Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observed significant decline in ChAT, nNOS, and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 protein and mRNA levels. In DSS colitis, ChAT and PGP9.5 were significantly upregulated while nNOS levels did not change. The nNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio decreased significantly in DSS- but not in TNBS-induced colitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of either ChAT (31 vs. 33%)- or nNOS (37 vs. 41%)-immunopositive neurons per ganglia or the mean number of neurons per ganglia (55 ± 5 vs. 59 ± 5, P > 0.05). Incubation of the distal colon muscularis externae in vitro with different types of inflammatory mediators showed that cytokines decreased ChAT and nNOS expression, whereas H?O?, a component of oxidative stress, increased their expression. NF-?B inhibitor MG-132 did not prevent the IL-1?-induced decline in either ChAT or nNOS expression. These findings showed that TNBS- and DSS-induced inflammation differentially regulates the expression of two critical proteins expressed in the colonic myenteric neurons. These differences are likely due to the exposure of the myenteric plexus neurons to different combinations of Th1-type inflammatory mediators and H?O? in each model. PMID:23681475

Winston, John H; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K



PHLS primary care consultation--infectious disease and primary care research and service development priorities.  


In 1999 for the first time the PHLS undertook a questionnaire survey of general practitioners' views of the burden of infectious disease and the priorities for research and development of infectious disease services within the PHLS. Three hundred and seventy-one (38%) of 979 questionnaires mailed to chairs of primary care groups in England, and general practitioners in research networks, were returned. Service areas: computer transfer of laboratory results was considered of greatest priority. Guidance on antibiotic usage, guidance on infectious diseases and education for general practitioners were ranked two, three and four. Burden of infectious disease in primary care: upper respiratory tract infections, tonsillitis/pharyngitis, otitis media/externa and acute cough were placed one, three, four and seven respectively. Urinary tract infections were ranked second and dyspepsia/Helicobacter pylori fifth. Leg ulcers, diarrhoea, genital chlamydia infection and vaginal discharge were other diseases considered to cause a large burden of ill-health. Genital chlamydia, tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori and meningococci were ranked one, two, three, and five in the NHS opportunity to affect the burden of ill-health. Priorities for improvements to diagnostic tests, evidence on which to base treatment and guidance: chronic fatigue/ME was ranked top in these areas. The other top ten syndromes ranked in order were genital chlamydia infections, antibiotic resistance surveillance, vaginal discharge, leg ulcers, sinusitis, otitis media/externa, dyspepsia/Helicobacter pylori, Creutzfeld Jacob Disease, and tonsillitis. This consultation exercise has highlighted broad areas for future PHLS involvement in primary care. In order to make progress, further consultation is needed with groups of GPs, and other relevant bodies. Particularly for the areas ranked in the top ten, the type of further PHLS involvement needs to be defined. For some syndromes (chronic fatigue and leg ulcers) this may be writing guidance and for others (respiratory tract infections) more treatment trials are required. The purposes and possible methods of communicable disease surveillance in general practice should be the subject of additional consultation. PMID:11467013

McNulty, C A; Smith, G E; Graham, C



The cypris larvae of the parasitic barnacle Heterosaccus lunatus (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala): some laboratory observations.  


Heterosaccus lunatus parasitizes the portunid crab, Charybdis callianassa in Moreton Bay, Australia. With the host crabs maintained at 22.5 degrees C this sacculinid rhizocephalan released larval broods every 6-7 days. During July-August 1996 and particularly August 1999 such broods showed the change-over from male only larvae in the early broods to females only in the later broods. As the host crabs were maintained under similar aquarium conditions in both years it is concluded that the light/dark cycle is the principal cue triggering this larval sex reversal. Oogenesis in the parasite externa is somehow controlled to produce two different sized ova - male larvae develop from large ova and females from small ova. A working hypothesis outlining how sex is probably determined for the larvae of sacculinids is erected. H. lunatus is considered the ideal sacculinid for the further experimental work necessary to verify the proposed sex-determining mechanism and its control processes. Measurements of the maximum swimming speeds of H. lunatus male and female cyprids showed the larger males to be the faster in absolute terms (27.95 compared with 17.60 mm s(-1), respectively), however, the calculated relative speeds were almost identical at approximately 90 body lengths s(-1). Settlement experiments confirmed that female H. lunatus cyprids settle only on the gills of C. callianassa; these cyprids needed to be at least 2 days old before they were able to settle. PMID:11077064

Walker; Lester



Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.  


In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids. PMID:22270356

Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy



SPECT imaging in evaluating extent of malignant external otitis: case report  

SciTech Connect

Otitis externa, a benign inflammatory process of the external auditory canal, is general responsive to local therapy. Some patients however, develop a less controllable disease leading to chondritis and osteomyelitis of the base of the skull. The direct invasive characteristic of the disease has led to the descriptive term malignant external otitis (MEO), more appropriately called necrotizing or invasive external otitis. Malignant external otitis is caused by an aggressive pseudomonas or proteus infection that almost exclusively occurs in elderly diabetic patients. The primary imaging modalities previously used in the diagnosis and evaluation of MEO were standard planar scintigraphic techniques with technetium-99M (/sup 99m/Tc) bone agents and gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga), and pluridirectional tomography. The advent of high resolution computed tomography (CT) effectively allowed demonstration of the soft tissue extension and bone destruction associated with MEO, but still suffered from the low sensitivity constraints of all radiographic techniques in determining early inflammatory bone involvement. Recent work suggests that scintigraphic detection of MEO with /sup 99m/Tc-MDP and /sup 67/Ga, combined with the cross-sectional resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be of value in planning treatment of this inflammatory condition.

English, R.J.; Tu'Meh, S.S.; Piwnica-Worms, D.; Holman, B.L.



Combined Immunodeficiency Associated with DOCK8 Mutations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections with elevated serum levels of IgE are features of some variants of combined immunodeficiency. The genetic causes of these variants are unknown. METHODS We collected longitudinal clinical data on 11 patients from eight families who had recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections. We performed comparative genomic hybridization arrays and targeted gene sequencing. Variants with predicted loss-of-expression mutations were confirmed by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase –polymerase-chain-reaction assay and immunoblotting. We evaluated the number and function of lymphocytes with the use of in vitro assays and flow cytometry. RESULTS Patients had recurrent otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonias; recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin infections with otitis externa; recurrent, severe herpes simplex virus or herpes zoster infections; extensive and persistent infections with molluscum contagiosum; and human papillomavirus infections. Most patients had severe atopy with anaphylaxis; several had squamous-cell carcinomas, and one had T-cell lymphoma –leukemia. Elevated serum IgE levels, hypereosinophilia, low numbers of T cells and B cells, low serum IgM levels, and variable IgG antibody responses were common. Expansion in vitro of activated CD8 T cells was impaired. Novel homozygous or compound heterozygous deletions and point mutations in the gene encoding the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) led to the absence of DOCK8 protein in lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Autosomal recessive DOCK8 deficiency is associated with a novel variant of combined immunodeficiency.

Zhang, Qian; Davis, Jeremiah C.; Lamborn, Ian T.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Jing, Huie; Favreau, Amanda J.; Matthews, Helen F.; Davis, Joie; Turner, Maria L.; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M.; Su, Helen C.



Clinical study in patients with ocular ischemic diseases treated with enhanced external counterpulsation combined with drugs.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect in patients with ocular ischemic diseases treated with enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) combined with drugs. A total of 65 patients with carotid artery stenosis were included in this study. Group A consisted of 31 patients (43 eyes) treated with EECP and medication, and group B consisted of 34 patients (49 eyes) treated with medication alone. The clinical effect was analyzed by comparing the visual acuity, visual fields and optical hemodynamics between the two groups of patients. Ocular ischemic diseases mainly included ischemic optic neuropathy, central (branch) retinal artery occlusion, ophthalmoplegia externa and ocular ischemic syndrome. Significant improvement of visual acuity, visual fields and optical hemodynamics was observed in the patients of group A, and statistically significant differences were found between groups A and B (?2=4.935, 7.124 and 5.478, respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, ophthalmologists should observe for ocular ischemic diseases. The symptoms of the disease and the vision of the patient could be effectively improved by EECP, which has no evident complications. PMID:23625058

Yang, Yuxin; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Yitao; Gui, Yanling



Adrenergic Stimulation Mediates Visceral Hypersensitivity to Colorectal Distension following Heterotypic Chronic Stress  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Chronic stress exacerbates or causes relapse of symptoms such as abdominal pain and cramping in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated whether chronic stress increases plasma norepinephrine and sensitizes colon-specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by increasing the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the colon wall. Methods Heterotypic chronic stress (HeCS) was induced in male Wistar rats and neurologic and molecular responses were analyzed. Tissues were analyzed for NGF expression. Results HeCS significantly increased the visceromoter response to colorectal distension; expression of NGF increased in colonic muscularis externa and mucosa/submucosa. Rheobase decreased, resting membrane potential was depolarized, and electrogenesis of action potentials increased in colon-specific thoracolumbar DRG neurons. Luminal administration of resiniferatoxin in distal colon, systemic administration of anti-NGF antibody, or inhibition of the NGF receptor TrkA by k252A or antisense oligonucleotides in thoracolumbar DRG blocked the chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension. Blockade of ?1/?2- and ?1/?2-adrenergic receptors prevented the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity and increased expression of NGF in the colon wall. HeCS did not induce any inflammatory response in the colon wall. Conclusion The peripheral stress mediator norepinephrine induces visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in response to HeCS by increasing the expression of NGF in the colon wall, which sensitizes primary afferents in the absence of an inflammatory response.

Winston, John H.; Xu, Guang-Yin; Sarna, Sushil K.



Partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in rabbits.  


Six lop rabbits were presented with clinical signs of otitis media or externa. The presence of disease was confirmed by computerized tomography examination, with two rabbits suffering from bilateral disease. The rabbits were anaesthetized and underwent surgery of the affected bulla. Rabbits with bilateral disease had a minimum of 2 weeks between procedures. A single vertical incision was made over the base of the vertical canal, which was bluntly dissected free from surrounding tissue. The ventral portion of the vertical canal was removed and a lateral bulla osteotomy was performed. The mucosa at the base of the dorsal vertical canal was apposed and the aural cartilage sutured to form a blind-ending pouch open at the pretragic incisure. Histopathological samples taken from the dorsal margin of the vertical canal yielded subtle and non-specific changes in the six samples submitted. All rabbits were discharged within 48 hours of surgery. The cosmetic outcome was excellent with animals retaining visually normal aural anatomy. The partial ear canal ablation/lateral bulla osteotomy procedure is quick and has a good cosmetic result when performed in rabbits. PMID:23448371

Eatwell, K; Mancinelli, E; Hedley, J; Keeble, E; Kovalik, M; Yool, D A



Microbial contamination of non-disposable instruments in otolaryngology out-patients.  


Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and contaminated equipment may contribute to this. There has been little work concerning contamination of non-disposable equipment in Otolaryngology. This study investigates the efficacy of the cleaning regimen for non-disposable instruments in an Otolaryngology out-patients clinic. Instruments were swabbed before each clinic, when they had been autoclaved, then after use on patients, when they had been washed with detergent and chlorhexidine. Swabs of 86 instruments were cultured using standardized microbiological techniques. Fifteen instruments (17 per cent) were contaminated, most with coagulase negative staphylococci. Two specimens of Micrococcus luteus were cultured and one each of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Aureobacterium spp. Micrococcus luteus and coagulase negative staphylococci may represent skin contaminants, but Aureobacterium spp. and Acinetobacter lwoffii can be sources of nosocomial infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a potentially serious pathogen and is implicated in the aetiology of otitis externa. These findings question the efficacy of the current cleaning techniques. PMID:12625885

Powell, Steven; Perry, John; Meikle, David



Treating epilepsy: a review of Polish historical sources.  


The first surviving Polish publications on epilepsy were written in the 16th and 17th centuries. Many causes of epileptic seizures are quoted and they are divided into two categories: internal and external. Internal causes (causa interna) include imbalance in the basic bodily humors, that is, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm, and blood. According to medieval writers, the principal cause of epilepsy was vapor, a damp, cold volatile substance originating in the excessive production of one of the basic organismic liquids. Vapor allegedly stuck to the openings leading to the cerebral ventricles or blocked them entirely, resulting in convulsions. External causes (causa externa) include overeating and excessive drinking, teething, spoiled milk, poisons, badly treated spots and fever, cold air, moonlight, and wearing donkey hide. Medical treatments for epilepsy included surgical interventions (bloodletting) and pharmacological interventions. The latter included laxatives, sea onion (scilla maritima, urginea maritima), and ground human skull, all of which were supposed to protect the body from vapors. Medical practitioners of that time also advised that the factors and circumstances conducive to epileptic seizures be observed and identified so that patients could be isolated from these alleged causal factors and their seizures reduced or ended. PMID:21775214

Owczarek, Krzysztof



Novel method for studying postoperative ileus in mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Postoperative ileus (POI) is characterized by a transient inhibition of coordinated motility of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after abdominal surgery and leads to increased morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. Currently, intestinal manipulation of the intestine is widely used as a preclinical model of POI. The technique used to manipulate the intestine is however highly variable and difficult to standardize, leading to large variations and inconsistent findings between different investigators. Therefore, we developed a device by which a fixed and adjustable pressure can be applied during intestinal manipulation. Methods: The standardized pressure manipulation method was developed using the purpose-designed device. First, the effect of graded manipulation was examined on postoperative GI transit. Next, this new technique was compared to the conventional manipulation technique used in previous studies. GI transit was measured by evaluating the intestinal distribution of orally gavaged fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran. Infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells and cytokine production (ELISA) in the muscularis externa of the intestine were assessed. Results: Increasing pressures resulted in a graded reduction of intestinal transit and was associated with intestinal inflammation as demonstrated by influx of leukocytes and increased levels of IL-6, IL-1? and MCP-1 compared to control mice. With an applied pressure of 9 grams a similar delay in intestinal transit could be obtained with a smaller standard deviation, leading to a reduced intra-individual variation. Conclusions: This method provides a reproducible model with small variation to study the pathophysiology of POI and to evaluate new anti-inflammatory strategies.

van Bree, Sjoerd HW; Nemethova, Andrea; van Bovenkamp, Fleur S; Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro; Elbers, L; Giovangiulio, Martina Di; Matteoli, Gianluca; van Vliet, Jan; Cailotto, Cathy; Tanck, Michael WT; Boeckxstaens, Guy EE



vasa-related genes and their expression in stem cells of colonial parasitic rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala).  


vasa (vas)-related genes are members of the DEAD-box protein family and are expressed in the germ cells of many Metazoa. We cloned vasa-related genes (PpVLG, CpVLG) and other DEAD-box family related genes (PpDRH1, PpDRH2, CpDRH, AtDRHr) from the colonial parasitic rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea, the non-colonial Clistosaccus paguri (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala), and the parasitic isopodan Athelgis takanoshimensis (Crustacea: Isopoda). The colonial Polyascus polygenea, a parasite of the coastal crabs Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Hemigrapsus longitarsis was used as a model object for further detailed investigations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that PpVLG and CpVLG are closely related to vasa-like genes of other Arthropoda. The rest of the studied genes form their own separate branch on the phylogenetic tree and have a common ancestry with the p68 and PL10 subfamilies. We suppose this group may be a new subfamily of the DEAD-box RNA helicases that is specific for parasitic Crustacea. We found PpVLG and PpDRH1 expression products in stem cells from stolons and buds of internae, during asexual reproduction of colonial P. polygenea, and in germ cells from sexually reproducing externae, including male spermatogenic cells and female oogenic cells. PMID:17085060

Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Golovnina, Kseniya A; Baiborodin, Sergei I; Gunbin, Konstantin V; Blinov, Alexander G; Isaeva, Valeria V



External Ophthalmomyiasis Presenting to an Emergency Department: Corneal Findings as a Sign of Oestrus ovis  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aims to determine the frequency of opthalmyomyiasis externa and the ocular findings of disease in Southern Khorasan. Methods All patients referred to the emergency department of Valiaser hospital during the year 2011 with external ophthalmomyiasis were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis was made according to clinical findings and the presence of Oestrus ovis larvae. Results There were 18 cases of external ophthalmomyiasis in the emergency department of Valiaser hospital in 2011. Most cases had the common signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, except for three males who were referred with respective complaints of red eye, foreign body sensation, and swelling around the eyelids after contact injury the previous day; corneal infiltration was present in three cases. The visual acuity among the three cases that had peripheral corneal involvement was 20 / 30 in both eyes. The bulbar conjunctiva showed chemosis in all cases and a ropy pattern discharge that was clinically compatible with external ophthalmomyiasis. However, in one case, microscopic slit lamp examination did not show Oestrus ovis larvae. Conclusions The frequency of external ophthalmomyiasis was high in this region. Although external ophthalmomyiasis usually manifests as allergic conjunctivitis, coronary-like corneal infiltration may be considered in the differential diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis or toxic insult.

Behrouz, Heydari



Un modelo general de eyección de materia estelar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Posiblemente, la más directa y dramática evidencia de la pérdida de masa por parte de diferentes objetos astrofísicos la constituye el fenómeno de eyección persistente de materia. En el caso particular de las estrellas, las características y los mecanismos que impulsan a sus atmósferas externas hacia el medio interestelar varían a lo largo del diagrama evolutivo. En parte por este motivo, en parte por las dificultades matemáticas involucradas, es muy difícil elaborar un modelo que pueda dar cuenta de los diferentes mecanismos que originan e impulsan el viento estelar. Cabe entonces preguntarse si es posible desarrollar un único modelo en el que estos mecanismos puedan ser considerados (y variados) como parámetros externos que responden a las características de cada región de la secuencia evolutiva. La respuesta es que, en función de la geometría del campo electromagnético involucrado, todo depende de la simetría del problema. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis detallado de una de tales simetrías, discutiendo en particular los resultados obtenidos a la luz de las observaciones disponibles.

Rotstein, N. O.


Effects of common topical otic preparations on the morphology of isolated cochlear outer hair cells.  


Otic drops are commonly used not only for otitis externa but also for otorrhea in the presence of tympanostomy tube or tympanic membrane perforation. Many studies have demonstrated the ototoxicity of common otic preparations such as Cortisporin otic drops. Recent studies have suggested the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic drops as an alternative owing to their excellent antimicrobial coverage and no ototoxic effect. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative ototoxicity of four common otic preparations by direct exposure to isolated cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). OHCs from adult chinchilla cochlea were exposed to standard bathing solution (control), Cortisporin, Cipro HC, Ciloxan, and Floxin. The cells were observed using an inverted microscope, and the images recorded in digital still-frame and video, and analyzed on the Image Pro-Plus 3.0 program. As measured by time to cell death and change in morphology of OHCs, Cortisporin was most toxic to OHCs. Among the fluoroquinolone drops, Floxin was more toxic than Ciloxan or Cipro HC. PMID:11349764

Russell, P T; Church, C A; Jinn, T H; Kim, D J; John, E O; Jung, T T



Virtual otoscopy for evaluating the inner ear with a fluid-filled tympanic cavity in dogs  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of virtual otoscopy (VO) imaging was evaluated in five dogs with experimentally induced otitis media, two control dogs, and two canine patients with otitis media. VO images of the tympanic cavity and ossicles were generated with commercially available software using raw computed tomography (CT) data. Eight out of 10 ears inoculated with pathogen exhibited obvious clinical signs associated with otitis externa. CT images revealed soft tissue density material occupying the tympanic bulla compatible with otitis media in three dogs with experimentally induced otitis media and two patients. No remarkable features were observed on the radiographs. Four different VO views (ear canal, tympanic bulla, eustachian tube, and ossicular chain) were created. Promontory, cochlea window, tympanic, and septum bulla as well as ossicles were easily and clearly distinguished except for the incus and stapes of the clinical patients. VO images were not more suitable than images created with conventional CT for accurately diagnosing otitis media in this study. However, it appears that VO could be more feasible for assessing the complex structure of the inner ear in dogs with fluid-filled tympanic cavities since fluid accumulation within the tympanic bulla did not affect the evaluation of bony tissue in the middle ear on VO images.

Cho, Youngkwon; Jeong, Jimo; Lee, Haebeom; Kim, Minsu; Kim, Namsoo



Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.



Cell type-associated differences in migration, survival, and immunogenicity following grafting in CNS tissue.  


Cell transplantation has been suggested to display several neuroprotective and/or neuroregenerative effects in animal models of central nervous system (CNS) trauma. However, while most studies report on clinical observations, currently little is known regarding the actual fate of the cell populations grafted and whether or how the brain's innate immune system, mainly directed by activated microglia and astrocytes, interacts with autologous cellular implants. In this study, we grafted well-characterized neural stem cell, mouse embryonic fibroblast, dendritic cell, bone marrow mononuclear cell, and splenocyte populations, all isolated or cultured from C57BL/6-eGFP transgenic mice, below the capsula externa (CE) of healthy C57BL/6 mice and below the inflamed/demyelinated CE of cuprizone-treated C57BL/6 mice. Two weeks postgrafting, an extensive quantitative multicolor histological analysis was performed in order (i) to quantify cell graft localization, migration, survival, and toxicity and (ii) to characterize endogenous CNS immune responses against the different cell grafts. Obtained results indicate dependence on the cell type grafted: (i) a different degree of cell graft migration, survival, and toxicity and (ii) a different organization of the endogenous immune response. Based on these observations, we warrant that further research should be undertaken to understand-and eventually control-cell graft-induced tissue damage and activation of the brain's innate immune system. The latter will be inevitable before cell grafting in the CNS can be performed safely and successfully in clinical settings. PMID:22472278

Praet, Jelle; Reekmans, Kristien; Lin, Dan; De Vocht, Nathalie; Bergwerf, Irene; Tambuyzer, Bart; Daans, Jasmijn; Hens, Niel; Goossens, Herman; Pauwels, Patrick; Berneman, Zwi; Van der Linden, Annemie; Ponsaerts, Peter



Cell culture retains contractile phenotype but epigenetically modulates cell-signaling proteins of excitation-contraction coupling in colon smooth muscle cells.  


Smooth muscle cell cultures are used frequently to investigate the cellular mechanisms of contraction. We tested the hypothesis that cell culture alters the expression of select cell-signaling proteins of excitation-contraction coupling in colon smooth muscle cells without altering the contractile phenotype. We used muscularis externa (ME) tissues, freshly dispersed cells (FC), primary cell cultures (PC), and resuspensions of cell cultures (RC). Colon smooth muscle cells retained their phenotype in all states. We investigated expression of 10 cell-signaling proteins of excitation-contraction coupling in all four types of tissue. Expression of all these proteins did not differ between ME and FC (P > 0.05). However, expression of the ?(1C)-subunit of Ca(v)1.2b, myosin light chain kinase, myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and 17-kDa C kinase-potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor (CPI-17) decreased in PC and RC vs. ME and FC (all P < 0.05). Expression of G?(i3), serine/threonine protein phosphatase-1 ?-catalytic subunit, and Rho kinase 1 increased in PC and RC vs. ME and FC (all P < 0.05). Cell culture and resuspension downregulated expression of ?-actin and calponin, but not myosin heavy chain. The net effect of these molecular changes was suppression of cell reactivity to ACh in RC vs. FC. Overexpression of CPI-17 in PC partially reversed the suppression of contractility in resuspended cells. Methylation-specific PCR showed increased methylation of the Cpi-17 gene promoter in PC vs. ME (P < 0.05). We concluded that smooth muscle cells retain their contractile phenotype in culture. However, reactivity to ACh declines because of altered expression of specific cell-signaling proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling. DNA methylation of the Cpi-17 promoter may contribute to its gene suppression. PMID:23238936

Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Sarna, Sushil K



Alteration in localization of steroid hormone receptors and coregulatory proteins in follicles from cows with induced ovarian follicular cysts.  


Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in cattle. The altered follicular dynamics and cellular differentiation observed in COD may be mediated through a disruption of the expression of steroid receptors and their associated transcriptional cofactors. The aim of this study was to determine the protein expression profiles of ESR1, ESR2, PGR, AR, NCOA3, NCOR2, and PHB2 (REA) in ovarian follicles in an experimental model of COD induced by the administration of ACTH. Ovaries were collected and follicles were dissected from heifers during the follicular phase (control) or from heifers treated with ACTH to induce the formation of ovarian follicular cysts. Ovaries were fixed, sectioned, and stained immunohistochemically for steroid receptors and the associated transcription factors. The relative expression of ESR1 was similar in follicular cysts and in tertiary follicles from both control and cystic cows and was significantly higher than in secondary follicles. The expression of ESR2 in the granulosa was higher in cystic follicles. No differences were seen for PGR. The expression of androgen receptor was significantly increased in tertiary follicles with lower immunostaining in cysts. The expression of NCOA3 was observed in the granulosa and theca with a significantly increased expression in the theca interna of cystic follicles. The highest levels of NCOR2 expression in granulosa, theca interna, and theca externa were observed in cysts. In granulosa cells, NCOR2 levels increase progressively as follicles mature and the treatment had no effect. In summary, ovaries from animals with induced COD exhibited altered steroid receptor expression compared with normal animals, as well as changes in the expression of their regulators. It is reasonable to suggest that in conditions characterized by altered ovulation and follicular persistence, such as COD, changes in the intra-ovarian expression of these proteins could play a role in their pathogenesis. PMID:23081895

Salvetti, Natalia R; Alfaro, Natalia S; Velázquez, Melisa M L; Amweg, Ayelen N; Matiller, Valentina; Díaz, Pablo U; Ortega, Hugo H



High-speed documented experimental gunshot to a skull-brain model and radiologic virtual autopsy.  


The authors documented and evaluated experimental gunshots to a skull-brain model with high-speed photography and subsequent radiographic examination for comparison of the morphologic findings in the model. The artificial skull was a polyurethane ball constructed in layers, with a porous diploe sandwiched between a tabula externa and a tabula interna. The brain itself was simulated with gelatin 10% at 4 degrees C, a material well known in wound ballistics. Gunshots were fired at the model from a distance of 10 m and documented with high-speed photography (up to 50 million frames/sec). Subsequently, a complete examination of the artificial skull was performed, including spiral computed tomography (with two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructions) and classic skull autopsy. The high-speed photographs clearly showed the dynamic development of the skull fracture system from an external perspective. The subsequent radiographic examination of the entire head volume created two-dimensional reformations in any plane and three-dimensional reconstructions of the gunshot injury of the polyurethane skull-brain model, especially the wound channel and the fracture system. Thanks to the model and high-speed photographs, the dynamic development of the morphology of a gunshot wound could be documented and studied. The data from computed tomography, using two-dimensional and three-dimensional postprocessing with a perspective view, were very similar to those from classic head autopsy, but derived in a hands-off and nondestructive manner. This examination method leads the way to radiographic digital autopsy or virtual autopsy. PMID:12198345

Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Vock, Peter; Allmen, Gabriel v; Dirnhofer, Richard



Ciprofloxacin: an oral quinolone for the treatment of infections with gram-negative pathogens. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents. Canadian Infectious Disease Society.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the use of ciprofloxacin, a synthetic fluoroquinolone, in community and hospital practice, and to minimize overprescribing by providing an overview of the literature and recommendations for appropriate use. OPTIONS: First-line treatment for infections in which ciprofloxacin is shown to be effective, treatment with oral ciprofloxacin rather than parenteral therapy with another drug, and step-down therapy with oral ciprofloxacin after initial parenteral treatment. OUTCOMES: In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of articles concerning ciprofloxacin, including in-vitro and pharmacokinetic studies using recognized standard methods with appropriate controls and published in recognized peer-reviewed journals, and randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trials. VALUES: The Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society (CIDS) and a recognized expert (T.J.L.) recommended use of ciprofloxacin to treat infections against which it has proved effective both in vitro and in randomized controlled trials. They took into account its value as an oral replacement for other drugs given parenterally and development of resistance. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: With more appropriate use of ciprofloxacin there will be less development of resistant pathogens. For certain infections patients who would otherwise require admission to hospital could be treated at home and patients initially admitted for parenteral therapy could be discharged sooner on oral therapy with ciprofloxacin. RECOMMENDATIONS: Ciprofloxacin may be considered as first-line treatment for a number of infections in which gram-negative pathogens are proven or strongly suspected, including complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, bacterial diarrhea, selected bone and joint infections, malignant otitis externa, bronchopulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and selected pneumonia cases. VALIDATION: The paper was prepared, reviewed and revised by the Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the CIDS. It was then reviewed and revised further by the Council of the CIDS. SPONSOR: The CIDS is solely responsible for developing, funding and endorsing these guidelines.

Louie, T J



Cell type- and stage-specific changes in HOXA7 protein expression in human ovarian folliculogenesis: possible role of GDF-9.  


Homeobox (HOX) genes are important transcriptional regulators in development and in adult tissues. A major obstacle to the understanding of their roles in humans has been the lack of well-defined anti-human HOX antibodies. We generated a thoroughly characterized polyclonal rabbit antibody against human HOXA7 and used it to study the distribution, role, and regulation of HOXA7 in human ovarian folliculogenesis and in granulosa cell tumors. Immunohistochemically, follicles were strongly HOXA7-positive compared with stroma. Oocytes expressed little HOXA7. Granulosa cells were predominantly negative in primordial follicles, had uniformly HOXA7-positive nuclei in primary follicles, and, as follicles matured, the subcellular localization of HOXA7 changed from nuclear to predominantly cytoplasmic. HOXA7 was mainly cytoplasmic in theca interna, but completely absent in theca externa. Granulosa cell tumors were mainly HOXA7 positive and, like in preovulatory follicles and theca interna, staining was predominantly cytoplasmic. The change in HOXA7 expression from negative primordial to positive primary follicles suggested a relationship with granulosa cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, SV40 Tag-immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) were double stained with anti-HOXA7 antibody and with Ki-67 as proliferation marker. HOXA7 expression was highest in mitotic cells. In addition, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), known to be secreted by oocytes in primary human follicles, up-regulated HOXA7 protein, and stimulated proliferation of SVOG, while TGF-beta1 inhibited HOXA7 expression and proliferation. This is the first report on the expression of any HOX gene in human ovarian follicles and granulosa cell tumors. It shows that HOXA7 undergoes cell type- and stage-specific changes during ovarian folliculogenesis, likely regulates granulosa cell proliferation, and in subcellular location differs between proliferating and secretory cells. The increase in HOXA7 protein in response to GDF-9 represents the first demonstration of a possible regulatory role of oocytes in ovarian follicular HOX gene expression. PMID:16466395

Ota, Takayo; Choi, Kyung-Bok; Gilks, C Blake; Leung, Peter C K; Auersperg, Nelly



Side-effects of glyphosate on the life parameters of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) in Argentina.  


In Argentina, transgenic soybean crop (Roundup Ready, RR) has undergone a major expansion over the last 15 years, with the consequent increase of glyphosate applications, a broad-spectrum and post emergence herbicide. Soybean crops are inhabited by several arthropods. Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is a predator associated to soybean soft-bodies pest and have a Neotropical distribution. Nowadays, it is being considered a potentially biological control agent in South America. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on larvae (third instar) and adults of this predator. Commercial compound and the maximum registered concentrations for field use were employed: GlifoGlex 48 (48% glyphosate, 192 mg a.i./litre, Gleba Argentina S.A.). The exposure was by ingestion through the treated prey (Rophalosiphum padi) or by drinking treated water during 48 h for treatment of the adult. The herbicide solutions were prepared using distilled water as solvent. The bioassays were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions: 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) of photoperiod. Development time, weight of pupae, adult emergence, pre-oviposition period, fecundity and fertility were evaluated as endpoints. Larvae from glyphosate treatment molted earlier than controls. In addition, the weight of pupae, longevity, fecundity and fertility were drastically reduced in treated organisms. The reductions were more drastic when the treatments were performed at the third larval stage than as adult. The reproduction capacity of the predator was the most affected parameter and could be related to a hormonal disruption by glyphosate in the treated organisms. This work can confirm the deleterious effects of this herbicide on beneficial organisms. Also, it agrees with prior studies carried out on other predators associated to soybean pest, such as Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae). PMID:21539255

Mirande, L; Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Piñeda, S; Schneider, M I



Dopamine differentially modulates the excitability of striatal neurons of the direct and indirect pathways in lamprey.  


The functions of the basal ganglia are critically dependent on dopamine. In mammals, dopamine differentially modulates the excitability of the direct and indirect striatal projection neurons, and these populations selectively express dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Although the detailed organization of the basal ganglia is conserved throughout the vertebrate phylum, it was unknown whether the differential dopamine modulation of the direct and indirect pathways is present in non-mammalian species. We aim here to determine whether the receptor expression and opposing dopaminergic modulation of the direct and indirect pathways is present in one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates, the river lamprey. Using in situ hybridization and patch-clamp recordings, we show that D1 receptors are almost exclusively expressed in the striatal neurons projecting directly to the homolog of the substantia nigra pars reticulata. In addition, the majority of striatal neurons projecting to the homolog of the globus pallidus interna/globus pallidus externa express D1 or D2 receptors. As in mammals, application of dopamine receptor agonists differentially modulates the excitability of these neurons, increasing the excitability of the D1-expressing neurons and decreasing the excitability of D2-expressing neurons. Our results suggest that the segregated expression of the D1 and D2 receptors in the direct and indirect striatal projection neurons has been conserved across the vertebrate phylum. Because dopamine receptor agonists differentially modulate these pathways, increasing the excitability of the direct pathway and decreasing the excitability of the indirect pathway, this organization may be conserved as a mechanism that biases the networks toward action selection. PMID:23637194

Ericsson, Jesper; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Robertson, Brita; Silberberg, Gilad; Grillner, Sten



Dual chemoarchitectonic lamination of the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus.  


The chemoanatomical organization of the visual sector of the cat's thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN)-that is at the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and at the pulvinar nucleus (Pul)-was investigated with two novel cytoarchitectonic markers. The Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) binding reaction visualized the extracellular perineuronal net (PN) and the SMI 32 immunoreaction stained intracellular neurofilaments. Two distinct layers of the TRN could be detected, particularly by WFA- but also by SMI 32-staining. The outer tier outlined a canopy of labeling placed a bit detached from the diencephalon dorsolaterally, while the inner TRN tier is very tightly attached to the thalamic lamina limitans externa. The labeled neurons showed typically fusiform morphology with dendrites orienting in the plane of TRN. Additionally, these chemoarchitectural reactions identified a chain of structures in the ventral diencephalon connected to the TRN tiers. One stained string is formed by the subthalamic nucleus bound laterally to the peripeduncular nucleus extending further dorsolateral into the outer TRN tier. The other chain laced up the field of Forel, the zona incerta, the ventral LGN, the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) and the previously-overlooked peripulvinar nucleus (PPulN) and so formed the inner TRN tier. In the third most distanced TRN tier, in the perireticular nucleus, a very few WFA-binding presenting neuron were found. In addition to the PN possessing TRN neurons, WFA-reactive presumable interneurons were also labeled within the visual thalamus. Following tracer injections into the feline Pul, two stripes of cells were retrogradely labeled in the neighboring visual TRN sector. The location of these reticular neurons coincided precisely with the chemoanatomically identified inner and outer TRN tiers. On the analogy of the PGN-TRN duality at the dLGN, the chemoanatomical and tract tracing findings strongly suggest a similar dual organization in the pulvinoprojecting TRN portion. PMID:19909790

Baldauf, Z B



Estudio de la formación de galaxias espirales en un modelo de agregación jerárquica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El estudio de formación de galaxias espirales ha llevado al desarrollo de numerosos modelos teóricos (e.g. White & Rees 1978). En la actualidad, el modelo más aceptado predice la formación de una galaxia espiral a partir del colapso disipativo del gas en el pozo de potencial de un halo oscuro, conservando su momento angular específco (Fall & Efstathiou 1980). En los últimos años, ha sido posible realizar simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas, las cuales describen la evolución conjunta de la materia oscura y los bariones. Estos experimentos han señalado la dificultad de formar estructuras discoidales con propiedades consistentes con las observaciones, en modelos de agregación jerárquica. El problema principal se origina en la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de la componente disipativa, durante el proceso de ensamblaje de los objetos, a través de la fusión de subestructura (Navarro & Steinmetz 1997). Estos experimentos no incluían procesos de formación estelar. En este trabajo, se expondrán resultados de simulaciones hidrodinámicas cosmológicas, incluyendo formación estelar (Tissera et al 1997), donde ha sido posible reproducir objetos discoidales con contrapartida observacional. El elemento fundamental ha sido la formación de bulbos estelares, los cuales han evitado la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de los bariones. Se encontró que los discos exponenciales puramente gaseosos son altamente inestables y suceptibles de generar barras, responsables de la pérdida de momento angular y la caída violenta del gas hacia la región central. Estas inestabilidades son fácilmente inducidas durante interacciones y fusiones con objetos vecinos (Barnes & Hernquist 1996). Un bulbo estelar (o un objeto masivo y compacto) estabiliza el disco ante perturbaciones externas, asegurándole un potencial simétrico (Sellwood & Moore 1998, Van der Bosch 1998). En este caso, el gas en el disco no pierde completamente su momento angular intrínseco durante las fusiones, sino que, las sobrevive aportando una contribución distinta de cero, a partir de la cual el disco se regenera acretando en una segunda etapa, gas del halo de acuerdo al modelo tradicional de Fall & Efstathiou.

Tissera, P.; Saiz, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.


Hemlock woolly adelgid and elongate hemlock scale induce changes in foliar and twig volatiles of eastern hemlock.  


Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is in rapid decline because of infestation by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae; 'HWA') and, to a lesser extent, the invasive elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa; 'EHS'). For many conifers, induced oleoresin-based defenses play a central role in their response to herbivorous insects; however, it is unknown whether eastern hemlock mobilizes these inducible defenses. We conducted a study to determine if feeding by HWA or EHS induced changes in the volatile resin compounds of eastern hemlock. Young trees were experimentally infested for 3 years with HWA, EHS, or neither insect. Twig and needle resin volatiles were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We observed a suite of changes in eastern hemlock's volatile profile markedly different from the largely terpenoid-based defense response of similar conifers. Overall, both insects produced a similar effect: most twig volatiles decreased slightly, while most needle volatiles increased slightly. Only HWA feeding led to elevated levels of methyl salicylate, a signal for systemic acquired resistance in many plants, and benzyl alcohol, a strong antimicrobial and aphid deterrent. Green leaf volatiles, often induced in wounded plants, were increased by both insects, but more strongly by EHS. The array of phytochemical changes we observed may reflect manipulation of the tree's biochemistry by HWA, or simply the absence of functional defenses against piercing-sucking insects due to the lack of evolutionary contact with these species. Our findings verify that HWA and EHS both induce changes in eastern hemlock's resin chemistry, and represent the first important step toward understanding the effects of inducible chemical defenses on hemlock susceptibility to these exotic pests. PMID:23900803

Pezet, Joshua; Elkinton, Joseph; Gomez, Sara; McKenzie, E Alexa; Lavine, Michael; Preisser, Evan



Safety and tolerability of 0.1% tacrolimus solution applied to the external ear canals of atopic beagle dogs without otitis.  


Tacrolimus is a nonsteroidal alternative to treat noninfectious otitis externa (OE) in people. This 21-day study investigated whether twice daily application (0.2 mL/dose) of sterile olive oil based 0.1% tacrolimus suspension in ears of atopic beagle dogs without OE was associated with adverse local reactions, development of OE, change in otic cytology, vestibular dysfunction, or hearing loss detected by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). The study was randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. Twenty-two dogs matched for age and sex were randomized to tacrolimus or vehicle control treatment groups. Two investigators independently evaluated dogs for signs of adverse effects including OE the first 4 days of treatment, then every 3 days. A logistic regression model was fit for each investigator's clinical scores (SAS, 9.2, 2008). Time (P = 0.0032) and group (P = 0.0167) were always significant for OE. Inter-observer reliability of clinical scores was strong, measured using Kappa coefficients and proportion of agreement. All nine exclusions (7/10 control- and 2/12 tacrolimus-treated dogs) were excluded for yeast OE. Inter-observer agreement to exclude was 100%. All dogs not excluded had normal BAER assessments before treatment, weekly during treatment, and after 21 days of treatment. None showed vestibular abnormalities at these times. Tacrolimus blood concentrations (Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II) were below detection limits (3 ng/mL) at baseline and after 21 days of treatment. Results suggest otic application of olive oil based tacrolimus suspension to canine ears with intact tympanic membranes is unlikely to result in hearing loss or vestibular dysfunction but yeast OE is a possible risk. PMID:20609208

Kelley, Laura S; Flynn-Lurie, Alison K; House, Rossi A; Simpson, Andrew C; Marsella, Rosanna



Quantifying the Neural Elements Activated and Inhibited by Globus Pallidus Deep Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is an effective therapy option for controlling the motor symptoms of medication-refractory Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Despite the clinical successes of GPi DBS, the precise therapeutic mechanisms are unclear and questions remain on the optimal electrode placement and stimulation parameter selection strategies. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional computational model of GPi-DBS in nonhuman primates to investigate how membrane channel dynamics, synaptic inputs, and axonal collateralization contribute to the neural responses generated during stimulation. We focused our analysis on three general neural elements that surround GPi-DBS electrodes: GPi somatodendritic segments, GPi efferent axons, and globus pallidus pars externa (GPe) fibers of passage. During high-frequency electrical stimulation (136 Hz), somatic activity in the GPi showed interpulse excitatory phases at 1–3 and 4–5.5 ms. When including stimulation-induced GABAA and AMPA receptor dynamics into the model, the somatic firing patterns continued to be entrained to the stimulation, but the overall firing rate was reduced (78.7 to 25.0 Hz, P < 0.001). In contrast, axonal output from GPi neurons remained largely time-locked to each pulse of the stimulation train. Similar entrainment was also observed in GPe efferents, a majority of which have been shown to project through GPi en route to the subthalamic nucleus. The models suggest that pallidal DBS may have broader network effects than previously realized and the modes of therapy may depend on the relative proportion of GPi and/or GPe efferents that are directly affected by the stimulation.

Johnson, Matthew D.; McIntyre, Cameron C.



Optimizing a basal bark spray of dinotefuran to manage armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Christmas tree plantations.  


The armored scales Fiorinia externa Ferris and Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are increasingly damaging to Christmas tree plantings in southern New England. The systemic insecticide dinotefuran was investigated for selectively suppressing armored scale populations relative to their natural enemies in cooperating growers' fields in 2008 and 2009. Banded soil application of dinotefuran resulted in poor control. However, a dinotefuran spray applied to the basal 25 cm of trunk resulted in its absorption through the bark, translocation to the foliage, and good efficacy. The basal bark spray did not significantly impact the activity of predators Chilocorus stigma (Say) or Cybocephalus nipponicus Enrody-Younga and in 2009 showed a dosage-dependent improvement in the percentage of scales parasitized by Encarsia citrina Craw. A field dosage-response factorial experiment revealed that a 0.25% (vol:vol) addition of a surfactant with dinotefuran did not enhance insecticidal effect. Probit-transformed scale population reduction relative to the untreated check was subjected to linear regression analysis; reduction of scale populations was proportional to the log of insecticide dosage, whereas basal bark spray efficacy declined in proportion to the cube of tree height. The regression equation can be used to optimize dosage relative to tree height. Excellent efficacy resulted from basal bark spray application dates of 28 April (prebud break) to mid-June, but earlier spray timing within that treatment window had fewer crawlers discoloring new growth with their short-lived feeding. A basal bark spray of dinotefuran is well suited for integration with natural enemies to manage armored scales in Christmas tree plantations. PMID:21061974

Cowles, Richard S



Rare and new etiological agents revealed among 178 clinical Aspergillus strains obtained from Czech patients and characterized by molecular sequencing.  


A collection of 178 Aspergillus isolates, recovered from Czech patients, mostly from 2007-2011, was subjected to multilocus DNA sequence typing using the ITS region, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. An unusually wide spectrum of etiologic agents that included 36 species of Aspergillus is discussed in the context of recent taxonomic and clinical reports. Invasive aspergillosis (IA), onychomycosis, and otitis externa were the predominant clinical entities. Five cases due to species newly proven as etiologic agents of human mycoses, as well as cases with unique clinical manifestations caused by unusual agents are discussed in more detail. Three species (i.e., A. insulicola, A. westerdijkiae and A. tritici) were identified as the confirmed etiologic agents of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. Emericella rugulosa was recovered from a premature newborn with a fatal necrotising disseminated infection and is reported for only the second time as the cause of IA. Furthermore, we document the first infection due to A. calidoustus in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. The infection manifested as a latent brain aspergilloma with an unusual clinical-laboratory finding. In addition to the well-known agents of human mycosis, several rarely isolated or poorly documented species were identified. An undescribed cryptic species related to A. versicolor was found to be common among isolates linked to proven and probable onychomycosis. An isolate representing A. fresenii, or an unnamed sister species, were causal agents of otomycosis. Three well defined, and tentative new species belonging to section Cervini, Candidi and Aspergillus (Eurotium spp.), were associated with cases of probable onychomycosis. PMID:22458252

Hubka, Vit; Kubatova, Alena; Mallatova, Nada; Sedlacek, Petr; Melichar, Jan; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mencl, Karel; Lyskova, Pavlina; Sramkova, Blanka; Chudickova, Milada; Hamal, Petr; Kolarik, Miroslav



Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

Chen, Allen M., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Cheng, Suzan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Donald, Paul J. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)



Physiological and biochemical investigations on egg stickiness in common carp.  


The properties and behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs in water and in ovarian fluids were studied at different temperature, pH, and with divalent cation concentrations. The biochemical composition of zona radiata externa (ZRE) was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on amino acids, carbohydrates, uronic acid and sialic acids using chemical assays; on proteins using electrophoresis. Comparative biochemical studies were performed on the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, the vimba, Vimba vimba and the bleak, Chalcalburnus chalcoides. Eggs of common carp became sticky within seconds after mixing with water. Egg stickiness was not affected by water pH in a range of 6-9, by water temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, by divalent cations in concentrations < or =20 mmol/l, and by sodium chloride concentrations < or =50 mmol/l. Our investigations indicated that specific proteins of the cyprinid ovarian fluid are controlling (inhibiting) the initiation of egg stickiness: egg stickiness did not develop as long as the eggs were incubated in ovarian fluid. When however the ovarian fluid proteins were removed from the ovarian fluid by heat treatment, eggs developed stickiness within seconds, like they do in water. Biochemically, the ZRE consisted of nine types of proteins whereby four of them were glycoproteins. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and uronic acids were the major carbohydrates. Treatment of the egg membrane with invertase or amyloglucosidase did not affect the egg stickiness. Treatment with protease prevented stickiness. From these results and from additional histochemical results, we conclude that glycoproteins are likely to be the molecules responsible for stickiness. PMID:18938050

Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A



The Mouse Olfactory Peduncle  

PubMed Central

The olfactory peduncle, the region connecting the olfactory bulb with the basal forebrain, contains several neural areas that have received relatively little attention. The present work includes studies that provide an overview of the region in the mouse. An analysis of cell soma size in pars principalis (pP) of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) revealed considerable differences in tissue organization between mice and rats. An unbiased stereological study of neuron number in the cell-dense regions of pars externa (pE) and pP of the AON of 3, 12 and 24 month-old mice indicated that pE has about 16,500 cells in 0.043 mm3and pP about 58,300 cells in 0.307 mm3. Quantitative Golgi studies of pyramidal neurons in pP suggested that mouse neurons are similar though smaller to those of the rat. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that all peduncular regions (pE, pP, the dorsal peduncular cortex, ventral tenia tecta, and anterior olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex) have cells that express either calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y or cholecystokinin (antigens commonly co-expressed by subspecies of GABAergic neurons), though the relative numbers of each cell type differs between zones. Finally, an electron microscopic comparison of the organization of myelinated fibers in lateral olfactory tract in the anterior and posterior peduncle indicated that the region is less orderly in mice than in the rat. The results provide a caveat for investigators who generalize data between species as both similarities and differences between the laboratory mouse and rat were observed.

Brunjes, Peter C; Kay, Rachel B; Arrivillaga, J. P



Multiple osteosclerotic lesions in an Iron Age skull from Switzerland (320-250 BC)--an unusual case.  


The single Hochdorf burial was found in 1887 during construction work in the Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland. It dates from between 320 and 250 BC. The calvarium, the left half of the pelvis and the left femur were preserved. The finding shows an unusual bony alteration of the skull. The aim of this study was to obtain a differential diagnosis and to examine the skull using various methods. Sex and age were determined anthropologically. Radiological examinations were performed with plain X-ray imaging and a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner. For histological analysis, samples of the lesion were taken. The pathological processing included staining after fixation, decalcification, and paraffin embedding. Hard-cut sections were also prepared. The individual was female. The age at death was between 30 and 50 years. There is an intensely calcified bone proliferation at the right side of the os frontalis. Plain X-ray and CT imaging showed a large sclerotic lesion in the area of the right temple with a partly bulging appearance. The inner boundary of the lesion shows multi-edged irregularities. There is a diffuse thickening of the right side. In the left skull vault, there is a mix of sclerotic areas and areas which appear to be normal with a clear differentiation between tabula interna, diploë and tabula externa. Histology showed mature organised bone tissue. Radiological and histological findings favour a benign condition. Differential diagnoses comprise osteomas which may occur, for example, in the setting of hereditary adenomatous polyposis coli related to Gardner syndrome. PMID:23897004

Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Langer, Rupert; Ross, Steffen; Nielsen, Ebbe; Lösch, Sandra



Effective deep brain stimulation suppresses low frequency network oscillations in the basal ganglia by regularizing neural firing patterns  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effects of DBS depend strongly on stimulation frequency: high frequencies (>90Hz) improve motor symptoms, while low frequencies (<50Hz) are either ineffective or exacerbate symptoms. The neuronal basis for these frequency-dependent effects of DBS is unclear. The effects of different frequencies of STN-DBS on behavior and single-unit neuronal activity in the basal ganglia were studied in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat model of PD. Only high frequency DBS reversed motor symptoms and the effectiveness of DBS depended strongly on stimulation frequency in a manner reminiscent of its clinical effects in persons with PD. Quantification of single-unit activity in the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) revealed that high frequency DBS, but not low frequency DBS, reduced pathological low frequency oscillations (~9Hz) and entrained neurons to fire at the stimulation frequency. Similarly, the coherence between simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons within and across GPe and SNr shifted from the pathological low frequency band to the stimulation frequency during high frequency DBS, but not during low frequency DBS. The changes in firing patterns in basal ganglia neurons were not correlated with changes in firing rate. These results indicate that high frequency DBS is more effective than low frequency DBS, not as a result of changes in firing rate, but rather due to its ability to replace pathological low frequency network oscillations with a regularized pattern of neuronal firing.

McConnell, George C.; So, Rosa Q.; Hilliard, Justin D; Lopomo, Paola; Grill, Warren M.



Effects of otic betamethasone on intradermal testing in normal dogs.  


Otitis externa is common in atopic dogs and is frequently treated using potent glucocorticoids topically. These preparations can cause adrenal suppression and affect skin test reactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an otic product containing betamethasone could decrease skin reactivity in normal dogs. Sixteen laboratory beagles were used in a cross-over, blinded trial. Dogs were enrolled in two groups; one received placebo and the other a betamethasone-containing otic preparation (Otomax) twice daily for 2 weeks. After a 4-week wash-out period, treatments were switched. Dogs were intradermally tested on days 0 and 14 of each treatment period with histamine phosphate (1 : 100,000 and 1 : 200,000 w/v) and allergens common in the area. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests were done before and after treatment to investigate adrenal suppression. After 2 weeks of otic betamethasone, Dermatophagoides farinae (P = 0.0034), Cynodon dactylon (P = 0.0459) and histamine 1 : 100,000 w/v (P = 0.0028) reactions were significantly reduced. Pre-treatment post-ACTH serum cortisol levels and those obtained after both treatments did not differ statistically (P = 0.6362). Betamethasone induced a slight but statistically significant elevation (P = 0.0002) of serum alkaline phosphatase. Despite the increase, values were within normal range. It is concluded that, although otic betamethasone did not suppress adrenal glands, it mildly suppressed intradermal reactions to 1 : 100,000 w/v histamine, D. farinae and C. dactylon. PMID:17610484

Ginel, Pedro J; Garrido, Cristina; Lucena, Rosario



Modeling the Contributions of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus to Spatial Navigation Using Reinforcement Learning  

PubMed Central

A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN)-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of [1], a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze.

Sukumar, Deepika; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa



Ceruminal diffusion activities and ceruminolytic characteristics of otic preparations -- an in-vitro study.  


BACKGROUND: An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon(R), Eas Otic(R), Epi Otic(R), Otifree(R), Otomax(R), Panolog(R), Posatex(R), Surolan(R)) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. RESULTS: Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations. PMID:23574753

Stahl, Jessica; Mielke, Stefanie; Pankow, Wolf-Rüdiger; Kietzmann, Manfred



Evaluation of fungal flora in normal and diseased canine ears.  


This study was undertaken to characterize otic fungal flora encountered in normal dogs, atopic dogs with no clinical or cytological evidence of otitis and dogs with otitis externa. Forty-two normal dogs, 23 atopic dogs and 32 dogs with otitis were included in the study. Samples for otic fungal culture and cytology were obtained from all animals, for a total of 194 ears. Sixty-seven ear samples (34%) were culture positive for saprophytic fungal organisms, as follows: 43 (64%) Penicillium species, 13 (19%) Aspergillus species and the remaining 17% comprised of various other saprophytic fungal organisms. Cytological evidence of saprophytic fungal colonization or infection was not found in any animal. There was no relationship between positive saprophytic fungal culture and any study group. Thirty-three ear samples (17%) were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis. Cytological findings of Malassezia were significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia (P = 0.006 left ear; P = 0.019 right ear). Furthermore, increased numbers of Malassezia led to a higher chance of positive culture (P = 0.003 left ear; P = 0.008 right ear; McNemar's test). Malassezia pachydermatis was more likely to be cultured from ears with increased cerumen. Ear type (erect or pendulous) was not significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia or saprophytic fungal organisms. There was no relationship between positive Malassezia culture and any study group; however, Malassezia was more likely to be cultured from individual dogs in the atopic or otitis groups that also had other dermatological signs consistent with allergic dermatitis and/or pyoderma (P = 0.031 left ear; P = 0.005 right ear). PMID:20868397

Campbell, Jacquelyn J; Coyner, Kimberly S; Rankin, Shelley C; Lewis, Thomas P; Schick, Anthea E; Shumaker, Amy K



Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency promotes the development of necrotizing enterocolitis-like intestinal injury in a newborn mouse model.  


Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typified by mucosal destruction, which subsequently can lead to intestinal necrosis. Prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization are the main risk factors and, combined with other stressors, can cause increased intestinal permeability, injury, and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates intestinal protection due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects of its products carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and bilirubin. This study investigates a possible role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of NEC using a newborn mouse model. We induced NEC-like intestinal injury in 7-day-old HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1 Het, Hmox1(+/-)) and wild-type (Wt, Hmox1(+/+)) mice by gavage feeding and hypoxic exposures. Control (Con) pups of both genotypes were dam-fed. Intestines of HO-1 Het Con pups appeared predisposed to injury, with higher histological damage scores, more TUNEL-positive cells, and a significant reduction in muscularis externa thickness compared with Wt Con pups. The increase in HO activity after HO-1 induction by the substrate heme or by hypoxic stress was significantly impaired in HO-1 Het pups. After induction of intestinal injury, HO-1 Het pups displayed significantly higher NEC incidence (78 vs. 43%), mortality (83 vs. 54%), and median scores (2.5 vs. 1.5) than Wt NEC pups. PCR array analyses revealed increased expressions of IL-1?, P-selectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, collagen type XVIII-?1, serpine 1, and others in NEC-induced HO-1 Het ileal and jejunal tissues. We conclude that a partial HO-1 deficiency promotes experimental NEC-like intestinal injury, possibly mediated by exaggerated inflammation and disruption in tissue repair. PMID:23578787

Schulz, Stephanie; Wong, Ronald J; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kalish, Flora; Chisholm, Karen M; Zhao, Hui; Vreman, Hendrik J; Sylvester, Karl G; Stevenson, David K



Canine atopic dermatitis in Greece: clinical observations and the prevalence of positive intradermal test reactions in 91 spontaneous cases.  


Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in a total of 91 dogs by combining the compatible historical evidence and clinical signs with the presence of one or more positive intradermal test reactions well correlated with the exposure to the aeroallergens and the seasonality of the clinical signs. Compared to the general hospital population Yorkshire terriers, Chinese Shar-Peis and cocker spaniels showed a strong predilection. No such predilection was found regarding the sex of the animals. The age of the dogs at the onset of the clinical signs ranged from 2 months to 8 years (median: 2.5 years). Moderate to severe pruritus, noticed in all the 91 dogs, was either localized (29/91) or generalized (64/91) and non-seasonal (43/91), seasonal (19/91) or of unknown seasonality (29/91). The most common cutaneous lesions included erythema, hyperpigmentation, hypotrichosis and crusts; their body distribution was generalized (64%) or localized (36%) with the feet as the most common site of involvement. Five dogs that had unlesional skin were significantly younger and had been pruritic for a shorter period of time compared to the majority of our study population. Otitis externa (43/91) and bacterial pyoderma (30/91) were the most common conditions associated with atopic dermatitis, while the prevalence of Malassezia dermatitis was very low (2/91). Of the other allergic skin diseases flea allergic dermatitis was the most common (29/91) followed by food hypersensitivity (2 out of the 15 dogs tested). The majority of the dogs demonstrated multiple sensitivities to the 50 aeroallergens tested, while domestic mites (77/91), and particularly Dermatophagoides farinae (64/91), were the most commonly implicated. The total number of the positive intradermal test reactions was increasing parallel to the age of the dogs but it was negatively associated with the presence of skin lesions on the carpal and tarsal joints. PMID:10490235

Saridomichelakis, M N; Koutinas, A F; Gioulekas, D; Leontidis, L



Prophylactic and therapeutic benefits of COX-2 inhibitor on motility dysfunction in bowel obstruction: roles of PGE2 and EP receptors  

PubMed Central

We reported previously that mechanical stretch in rat colonic obstruction induces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in smooth muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether in vivo treatment with COX-2 inhibitor has prophylactic and therapeutic effects on motility dysfunction in colon obstruction, and if so what are the underlying mechanisms. Partial colon obstruction was induced with a silicon band in the distal colon of 6–8-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats; obstruction was maintained for 3 days or 7 days. Daily administration of COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was started before or after the induction of obstruction to study its prophylactic and therapeutic effects, respectively. The smooth muscle contractility was significantly suppressed, and colonic transit rate was slower in colonic obstruction. Prophylactic treatment with NS-398 significantly prevented the impairments of colonic transit and smooth muscle contractility and attenuated fecal collection in the occluded colons. When NS-398 was administered therapeutically 3 days after the initiation of obstruction, the muscle contractility and colonic transit still improved on day 7. Obstruction led to marked increase of COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Exogenous PGE2 decreased colonic smooth muscle contractility. All four PGE2 E-prostanoid receptor types (EP1 to EP4) were detected in rat colonic muscularis externa. Treatments with EP1 and EP3 antagonists suppressed muscle contractility in control tissue but did not improve contractility in obstruction tissue. On the contrary, the EP2 and EP4 antagonists did not affect control tissue but significantly restored muscle contractility in obstruction. We concluded that our study shows that COX-2 inhibitor has prophylactic and therapeutic benefits for motility dysfunction in bowel obstruction. PGE2 and its receptors EP2 and EP4 are involved in the motility dysfunction in obstruction, whereas EP1 and EP3 mediate PGE2 regulation of colonic smooth muscle contractile function in normal state.

Lin, You-Min; Sarna, Sushil K.



Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.



Growth and molting in epizoic pedunculate barnacles genus Octolasmis (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica).  


Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histology were used to study growth in species of the pedunculate barnacle genus Octolasmis (O. angulata, O. cor, O. californiana, O. mülleri). These species are epizoic in the gill chamber of portunid crabs and have highly reduced capitular shell plates, with large areas of general cuticle in between. The external integument grows by means of a system of narrow growth zones, one encircling the peduncle and a Y-shaped system on either side of the capitulum. Growth is by a regular series of molts, but shedding of old cuticle and production of new layers is entirely restricted to the growth zones. Just prior to ecdysis, the new cuticle lies in a highly folded fashion beneath the old cuticle that is about to be shed. At ecdysis, the old cuticle breaks along the margins of the growth zones and the resulting scars remain as a system of "ecdysial lines" along either side of the zone. Once exposed after ecdysis, the new cuticle remains as a part of the permanent external integument. The growth zones divide the externa into five cuticular areas, two on the peduncle and three on the capitulum. The calcareous shell plates (carina, paired scuta, and, when present, paired terga) all lie within the capitular regions and the ecdysial lines pass across, not around, these mineralized areas. The number, relative spacing, and topology of the ecdysial lines form a record of the growth history of the specimen. These and other growth patterns demonstrate that size increase is due to the formation of new cuticle by molting in the growth zones, while expansion of the shell plates by mineralization follows only after production of the new cuticle. Thus, although specialized, growth in Octolasmis still complies with the general crustacean model, complicated only by the mineralization of parts of the capitular cuticle into shell plates. The results are compared with the very scarce information on molting in other barnacles. We argue that at least the circular peduncular growth zone is omnipresent in the Cirripedia Thoracica. PMID:15108155

Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T



The fine structure of the female reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera).  


The general structure of the female genital system of Zorotypus caudelli is described. The ovarioles are of the panoistic type. Due to the reduction of the envelope (tunica externa) the ovarioles are in direct contact with the hemolymph like in some other insect groups, Plecoptera included. The calices are much larger in Z. caudelli then in Zorotypus hubbardi and their epithelial cells produce large amounts of secretions, probably protecting the surface of the eggs deposited on the substrate. Eggs taken from the calyx bear a series of long fringes, which are missing in the eggs found in the ovariole, and in other zorapteran species. The long sperm of Z. caudelli and the long spermathecal duct are likely related to a sexual isolating mechanism (cryptic female choice), impeding female re-mating. The apical receptacle and the spermathecal duct - both of ectodermal origin - consist of three cell types. In addition to the cells beneath the cuticle lining the lumen, two other cell types are visible: secretory and canal cells. The cytoplasm of the former is rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns and Golgi complexes, which produce numerous discrete dense secretory bodies. These products are released into the receiving canal crossing the extracellular cavity of secretory cells, extending over a series of long microvilli. The secretion is transported towards the lumen of the apical receptacle of the spermatheca or to that of the spermathecal duct by a connecting canal formed by the canal cells. It is enriched by material produced by the slender canal cells. Before mating, the sperm cells are enveloped by a thick glycocalyx produced at the level of the male accessory glands, but it is absent when they have reached the apical receptacle, and also in the spermathecal duct lumen. It is likely removed by secretions of the spermatheca. The eggs are fertilized at the level of the common oviduct where the spermathecal duct opens. Two micropyles at the dorsal side of the equator level possibly facilitate fertilization. The presence of these two micropyles is a presumably derived feature shared with Phasmatodea. The fine structure of the female reproductive system of Z. caudelli does not allow to assess the phylogenetic position at the present stage of knowledge. The enlarged calyx and the temporary presence of long fringes on the eggs are potential autapomorphies of Z. caudelli or may indicate relationships with other Zorotypus species. PMID:21996134

Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Gottardo, M; Machida, R; Mashimo, Y; Beutel, R G



Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary, Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae).  


The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was-to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin's solution and sectioned into 7 microm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (p<0.05), with the highest mean in the luteal phase. Primordial follicles were found in the cortex; the oocytes were enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells. In the primary follicles, proliferation of the follicular cells gave rise to cuboidal cells (granulosa cells). The secondary follicle was characterized by two or more concentric layers of cuboidal cells (granulosa), beginning of antrum formation, and the presence of pellucid zone and theca cells. Antral follicles were characterized by a central cavity (antrum), the presence of cumulus oophorus and theca layers (interna and externa). In the right ovary, the values of the primordial and primary follicles were similar, but significantly different from the secondary ones (p<0.05). In the left ovary, significant differences were observed between all follicles in the follicular phase (p<0.05); the mean number of primordial and primary follicles was similar in the luteal phase. The mean number of pre-antral follicles and antral follicles in the follicular phase was higher in the left ovary (p<0.05). The mean number of antral follicles in the luteal phase was similar in both ovaries. We also found significant differences in mean diameter of preantral follicles, oocyte, granulosa layer and oocyte nucleus during the estrous cycle. In the antral follicles a significant difference was observed only in follicular diameter (p<0.05). The predominance of active primordial and primary follicles was found in both phases; otherwise the secondary follicles and antral follicles showed a high degree of degeneration. The results obtained in the present work will strengthen the development of biotechnology programs to improve the productive potential and conservation of the collared peccary. PMID:22458237

Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de Garcia, Sylvia Cristina Garcia; Ferreira, Maria Auxiliadora Pantoja; da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Le Pendu, Yvonnick



An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa of cysts exhibited a similar cell DNA fragmentation to early atretic follicles. In the granulosa and theca interna, active caspase-3 shown similar immunostaining levels in tertiary and cystic follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa cells presented high expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w in the tertiary and cystic follicles with diminishing intensity in the atretic follicles, except with Bcl-w where the intensity was maintained in the atretic follicles (p < 0.05). The expression of Bax was weak in the healthy and cystic follicles. In the theca interna, Bcl-2 expression was the same as the pattern found in the granulosa; no differences were found between tertiary and cystic follicles from both groups for Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. The expression of Bax in this layer was higher in the tertiary follicles of the treated animals (p < 0.05) while the values for cystic follicles were similar to those in the tertiary follicles of controls. The theca externa showed low expression of the pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition.

Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H



Staining methods applied to glycol methacrylate embedded tissue sections.  


The use of glycol methacrylate (GMA) avoids some technical artifacts, which are usually observed in paraffin-embedded sections, providing good morphological resolution. On the other hand, weak staining have been mentioned during the use of different methods in plastic sections. In the present study, changes in the histological staining procedures have been assayed during the use of staining and histochemical methods in different GMA-embedded tissues. Samples of tongue, submandibular and sublingual glands, cartilage, portions of respiratory tract and nervous ganglion were fixed in 4% formaldehyde and embedded in glycol methacrylate. The sections of tongue and nervous ganglion were stained by H&E. Picrosirius, Toluidine Blue and Sudan Black B methods were applied, respectively, for identification of collagen fibers in submandibular gland, sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cartilage (metachromasia) and myelin lipids in nervous ganglion. Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) method was used for detection of glycoconjugates in submandibular gland and cartilage while AB/PAS combined methods were applied for detection of mucins in the respiratory tract. In addition, a combination of Alcian Blue (AB) and Picrosirius methods was also assayed in the sublingual gland sections. The GMA-embedded tissue sections showed an optimal morphological integrity and were favorable to the staining methods employed in the present study. In the sections of tongue and nervous ganglion, a good contrast of basophilic and acidophilic structures was obtained by H&E. An intense eosinophilia was observed either in the striated muscle fibers or in the myelin sheaths in which the lipids were preserved and revealed by Sudan Black B. In the cartilage matrix, a strong metachromasia was revealed by Toluidine Blue in the negatively-charged glycosaminoglycans. In the chondrocytes, glycogen granules were intensely positive to PAS method. Extracellular glycoproteins were also PAS positive in the basal membrane and in the region occupied by the lamina externa and reticular fibers surrounding each smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels. In the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, acid and neutral mucins were histochemically detected by AB and PAS methods, respectively. Moreover, granules containing acid and neutral mucins were revealed in purple by AB and PAS concomitantly. In the sublingual gland sections, a distinct affinity of acid mucins by AB (in turquoise-blue) and collagen fibers by Picrosirius (in red) was obtained when these methods were combined. Although some routine dyes used in paraffin sections have showed a weak stain in historesin sections, our results showed that different dyes could be applied in GMA sections if modified staining procedures were assayed. Therefore, appropriate staining contrast and, thus, detection of one or different substances in a same section can be acquired in association to the good morphological resolution provided by GMA. PMID:14680922

Cerri, P S; Sasso-Cerri, E



[Agents of otomycosis in Manisa region, Turkey, 1995-2011].  


Otomycosis, which is otitis externa caused by fungi, is common throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. However, the epidemiologic data about the etiologic agents of otomycosis in Turkey is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the agents of otomycosis in patients living at Manisa region (located at western Anatolia of Turkey). A total of 2279 cases [1465 male, 813 female; age range 1-87 (mean: 41.7) years] who were clinically prediagnosed as otomycosis at Celal Bayar University Hospital, between February 1995 and July 2011, were included in the study. External ear swab samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis have been evaluated by routine mycological methods. Identification of mold-like fungi was based on colony morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure, whereas germ tube test, growth characteristics on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and API 20C AUX (bio-Mérieux, France) system were used for the identification of yeast-like fungi. Of the samples, 28% (638/2279) were found positive by direct microscopy and 24% (544/2279) by culture methods. Among culture-positive cases the isolation rates of mold-like and yeast-like fungi were 66% (359/544) and 34% (185/544), respectively. The number of distribution of the molds were as follows; Aspergillus niger (180), Aspergillus fumigatus (95), Aspergillus terreus (32), Aspergillus flavus (23), Aspergillus spp. (14), Penicillium spp. (13), Trichophyton spp. (T.rubrum 1, T.mentagrophytes 1); while this distribution was as follows for the yeasts; Candida tropicalis (97), Candida albicans (39), Candida parapsilosis (21), Candida glabrata (19), Candida kefyr (4), C.guilliermondii (2), Candida krusei (1), Geotrichum candidum (1) and Trichosporon capitatum (1). It was notable that 96% (344/359) of mold-like fungi were Aspergillus spp., and 99% (183/185) of yeast-like fungi were Candida spp. The results of this study indicated that the most frequent agents of otomycosis were non-dermatophyte species such as Aspergillus, followed by Candida. Dermatophytes were isolated in a small number of otomycosis cases. These data will provide support to the establishment of antifungal therapy guidelines for otomycosis. PMID:22399174

De?erli, Kenan; Ecemi?, Talat; Günhan, K?vanç; Ba?kesen, Tolga; Kal, Elçin



Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis.  


The cationic ultrastructural tracer polyethyleneimine (PEI: pI approximately equal to 11.0), binds electrophysically to uniformly spaced discrete electron-dense anionic sites present in the laminae rarae of the rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangial reflections of the GBM, Bowman's capsule, and tubular basement membranes when administered intravenously. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of glomerular anionic sites reveals that the maximum concentration of stainable lamina rara externa (lre) sites (21/10,000 A GBM) occurs 60 minutes after PEI injection with a site-site interspacing of 460 A. Lamina rara interna (lri) sites similarly demonstrate a maximum concentration (20/10,000 A GBM) at 60 minutes with a periodicity of 497 A. The concentration and distribution of anionic sites within the lri was irregular in pattern and markedly decreased in number, while the lre possesses an electrical field that is highly regular at all time intervals analyzed (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes). Immersion and perfusion of renal tissue with PEI reveals additional heavy staining of the epithelial and endothelial cell sialoprotein coatings. PEI appears to bind to glomerular anionic sites reversibly: ie, between 60 and 180 minutes the concentration of stained sites decreases. At 300 minutes, the interspacing once again approaches the 60-minute concentration. This suggests a dynamic turnover or dissociation followed by a reassociation of glomerular negatively charged PEI binding sites. In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria. PEI does not induce proteinuria in rats, nor does it produce glomerular morphologic alterations when ten times the tracer dosage is administered intravenously. These findings indicate that the choice of ultrastructural charge tracer, the method of administering the tracer, and the time selected for analysis of tissue after administration of tracer significantly influences results. Morphometric analysis of the distribution of glomerular anionic sites in nonproteinuric rats provides a method of evaluating quantitative alterations of the glomerular charge barrier in renal disease models. PMID:4073220

Pilia, P A; Swain, R P; Williams, A V; Loadholt, C B; Ainsworth, S K



Gastrointestinal morphology and function in turkeys fed diets diluted with whole grain wheat.  


The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that moderate dilution of turkey diets with whole grain wheat (up to 22.5%) improves gastrointestinal function, thus contributing to sustained growth performance. A total of 900 male turkeys were allocated to 5 dietary treatments: basal diet (BD), BD diluted with low levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat, and BD diluted with high levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat (GH and WH, respectively). At successive stages of the experiment, diets containing 5 and 15%, 7.5 and 17.5%, 10 and 20%, 12.5 and 22.5% of wheat in different physical form were fed to turkeys aged 5 to 8, 9 to 12, 13 to 16, and 17 to 18 wk, divided into subgroups with low and high dietary levels of wheat, respectively. Dietary dilution with different levels of wheat did not reduce the BW gain of turkeys and did not deteriorate feed conversion despite a decrease in the amino acid content of diets. In comparison with BD, diet GH increased the thickness of the muscularis externa and the depth of cecal crypts (P < 0.05), increased Bacteria domain, and decreased Salmonella counts (P < 0.001), increased butyric acid concentrations, and decreased the levels of putrefactive compounds in the cecal digesta (P < 0.001). In comparison with BD, diet WH improved feed efficiency (P = 0.002) and contributed to significant (P < 0.01) changes in the parameters of gastrointestinal function, including lower pH of gizzard digesta, increased depth of jejunal crypts, lower ammonia concentrations, and lower pH of intestinal digesta, increased Bacteria and Bifidobacterium counts, decreased Salmonella counts, and higher concentrations of butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acids. In comparison with diet GH, diet WH enhanced the activity of bacterial ?-glucosidase and ?-glucosidase as well as ?-galactosidase, reduced the activity of ?-glucuronidase, and increased total fatty acid concentrations, mainly acetic acid levels, in the cecal digesta (P < 0.01). The observed changes indicate that diet supplementation with wheat grain enhances gastrointestinal function, thus improving feed conversion in turkeys. PMID:23776267

Zdunczyk, Z; Jankowski, J; Mikulski, D; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Sosnowska, E; Juskiewicz, J



Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em vários aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-anãs.

Borges, B.; Baptista, R.



Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.  


Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital form, a mixed fungal/bacterial infection, is treated with debridement, antibiotics and drying routine similar to the therapy of otitis externa. Nail infections by a variety of organisms may appear as onycholysis with or without paronychia and should be treated with the appropriate antibiotics. Tinea versicolor occurs in heat and humidity. Since Pityrosporum orbiculare is part of the normal flora it often recurs, necessitating regular treatment. Acute trauma injuries include contusions, black heel or petichiae of the heel, black toe (bleeding under the nail), 'jogger's nipple' caused by chafing, and foot blisters. Chronic trauma may result in calluses, corns and paronychia. Plantar corns can be disabling and may be caused by overly tight shoes or abnormalities in biomechanics; treatment includes restoring normal foot function and minimal surgical procedures. Paronychia is treated best by wedge resection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2180022

Conklin, R J



Sebaceous adenitis in Swedish dogs, a retrospective study of 104 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Sebaceous adenitis (SA) is an uncommon, immune mediated skin disease in dogs. The aim was to retrospectively investigate SA in dogs in Sweden with respect to breed, sex and age distribution. A second aim was to retrospectively compare clinical signs in dogs with generalized SA and to estimate the survival after diagnosis in the English springer spaniel, standard poodle and the akita. Methods In total 34 Swedish veterinarians contributed with 104 clinically and histologically verified SA cases. Breed, gender and age at diagnosis were registered for each case. The degree of clinical signs at time for diagnosis and at follow-up and information about treatments, concurrent diseases and euthanasia were recorded for the springer spaniels, standard poodles and akitas using a standardized questionnaire. Results A total of 104 cases of SA were included; most cases were recorded for the springer spaniel (n = 25), standard poodle (n = 21) and the akita (n = 10). These three breeds, together with the lhasa apso and the chow-chow, were the most common when national registry data from the Swedish Board of Agriculture and Swedish Kennel Club were considered. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years. The proportion of males was 61%. When the springer spaniels, standard poodles and the akitas with generalized signs were compared (n = 51), the spaniels showed significantly more severe clinical signs than the poodles at diagnosis regarding alopecia, seborrhoea, pyoderma and the overall severity of clinical signs. At follow-up, the degree of clinical signs for otitis externa and pyoderma differed significantly between the breeds. The estimated median survival time was 42 months. In dogs where data regarding survival was available at the end of the study (n = 44), SA was reported to be the reason for euthanasia in 14 dogs, whereof 7 within 24 months after diagnosis. Conclusion The result of this study implicates that the English springer spaniel is a breed predisposed to SA and that it has more severe clinical signs than the standard poodle. A large proportion of the dogs (spaniel, poodle and akita) investigated regarding survival were reported to have been euthanized to great extent due to the disease.

Hernblad Tevell, Elisabeth; Bergvall, Kerstin; Egenvall, Agneta



Topographic organization of tufted cell axonal projections in the hamster main olfactory bulb: an intrabulbar associational system.  


The organization of intrinsic axonal projections of principal neurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) was studied in hamsters by using wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and fluorescent dyes. Punctate injections of either WGA-HRP or fast blue (FB) that are restricted to small sectors on one side of the MOB produce comparably restricted fields of retrograde labeling on the opposite side. Label is found predominantly in superficially situated (middle and external) tufted cells that lie near and at the border between the external plexiform and glomerular layers. Few of the deeper middle tufted, internal tufted, or mitral cells and no external tufted cells that lie in the superficial two-thirds of the glomerular layer are labeled in regions remote to the injection site. Anterograde transport of WGA-HRP from the injection site labels axons that travel dorsally and ventrally in restricted bands through the internal plexiform layer and then terminate within this layer in the punctate sector on the opposite side that contains retrogradely labeled neurons. Such reciprocal projections between opposing regions of the medial and lateral sides of the MOB are found at all rostrocaudal and dorsoventral levels. When punctate injections of FB into the MOB are paired with restricted injections of a second fluorescent tracer (nuclear yellow or diamidino yellow dihydrochloride) into the appropriate sector of pars externa (pE) of the anterior olfactory nucleus, the punctate region of remote retrogradely labeled principal neurons is embedded within a topographically restricted longitudinal wedge of retrogradely labeled mitral and tufted cells that project extrinsically to or through pE. However, extremely few of these neurons are double-retrogradely labeled. The results reveal the existence of an intrabulbar associational system in which principal neurons engage in point-to-point, reciprocal projections between opposing regions of the medial and lateral MOB. Moreover, the results indicate that this associational system largely arises from superficially situated tufted cells distinct from those that support bulbofugal projections into the topographically organized interbulbar commissural system via pE. PMID:2582006

Schoenfeld, T A; Marchand, J E; Macrides, F



Colonoscopic perforation leading to a diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Colonoscopic perforation is a rare but serious complication of colonoscopy. Factors known to increase the risk of perforation include colonic strictures, extensive diverticulosis, and friable tissues. We describe the case of a man who was found to have perforation of the sigmoid colon secondary to an undiagnosed connective tissue disorder (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV) while undergoing surveillance for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Case presentation A 33-year-old Caucasian man presented to our hospital with an acute abdomen following a colonoscopy five days earlier as part of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer screening. His medical history included bilateral clubfoot. His physical examination findings suggested left iliac fossa peritonitis. A computed tomographic scan revealed perforation of the sigmoid colon and incidentally a right common iliac artery aneurysm as well. Hartmann's procedure was performed during laparotomy. The patient recovered well post-operatively and was discharged. Reversal of the Hartmann's procedure was performed six months later. This procedure was challenging because of dense adhesions and friable bowel. The histology of bowel specimens from this surgery revealed thinning and fibrosis of the muscularis externa. The patient was subsequently noted to have transparency of truncal skin with easily visible vessels. An underlying collagen vascular disorder was suspected, and genetic testing revealed a mutation in the collagen type III, ?1 (COL3A1) gene, which is consistent with a diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Conclusions Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type, is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene on chromosome 2q31. It is characterized by translucent skin, clubfoot, and the potentially fatal complications of spontaneous large vessel rupture, although spontaneous uterine and colonic perforations have also been reported in the literature. The present case presentation describes the identification of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in a patient with a non-spontaneous colonic perforation secondary to an invasive investigation for another hereditary disorder pre-disposing him to colorectal cancer. Invasive procedures such as arteriograms and endoscopies are relatively contra-indicated in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Alternatives with a lower risk of perforation, such as computed tomographic colonography, need to be considered for patients requiring ongoing colorectal cancer surveillance. Furthermore, management of vascular aneurysms in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV requires consideration of the risks of endovascular stenting, as opposed to open surgical intervention, because of tissue friability. Genetic and reproductive counseling should be offered to affected individuals and their families.



Progress in the prognosis of adult Hodgkin's lymphoma in the past 35 years through clinical trials in Argentina: a GATLA experience.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends in complete remission (CR) rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) through 35 years of Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) clinical trials. A total of 1,254 adult patients with Hodgkin's Lymphoma were evaluated according to seven consecutive protocols. This 35-year study was divided into three phases. The patients in the first phase (1968-1985) were treated with CVPP (cyclophosphamide/vinblastine/procarbazine/prednisone) plus involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT). In the CVPP regimen, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine were administered intravenously on day 1 and prednisone and procarbazine were administered orally on days 1-14 every 28 days. The second phase (1986-1996) used mainly reinforced CVPP with cyclophosphamide and vinblastine on days 1-8 plus IFRT. The third phase (1997-2003) used ABVD(doxorubicin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine) plus IFRT. In clinical stage I/II, the CR rate was 86% in 252 patients treated in the first phase and DFS and OS were 57% and 78% at 5 years and 50% and 71% at 10 years. The second phase had 148 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 91%, 5-year DFS and OS were 78% and 90%, and 10-year DFS and OS were 70% and 83%. The third phase had 182 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 95%, 5-year DFS and OS were 87% and 96%, and 10-year DFS and OS were not reached. The statistical difference was P = 0.016 in terms of CR and P < 0.001 in terms of DFS and OS. In the first phase of 394 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 71%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 37% and 62%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 32% and 53%. In the second phase of 164 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 84%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 66% and 80%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 60% and 75%. In the third phase of 114 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 88% and DFS and OS at 5 years were 60% and 90%. The DFS and OS were not reached at 10 years. The differences among the 3 phases in CR, DFS and OS were highly significant (P < 0.001). PMID:15453925

Pavlovsky, Santiago; Lastiri, Francisco



Relationship of plasma estradiol-17beta, total estrogen, and progesterone to estrus behavior in mithun (Bos frontalis) cows.  


The objectives of this study were (1) to establish the characteristics of estrus behavior in mithun cows (n = 12) and (2) to determine the relationships between this behavior and the plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta (E2), total estrogen, and progesterone. Estrus was detected by visual observations of estrus signs, per recta examination of genitalia and bull parading thrice a day for three consecutive cycles. Among the behavioral signs of estrus, the cow to be mounted by bull (100%) was the best indicator of estrus followed by standing to be mounted (92%). Per rectum examination of genital organs revealed relaxed and open os externa of cervix, turgid uterus, and ovaries having palpable follicles in all animals. The mean (+/-SEM) length of estrus cycle and duration of estrus were recorded to be 21.8 +/- 0.69 days and 12.6 +/- 1.34 h, respectively. Endocrine profiles during the peri-estrus period showed that the mean highest peak concentrations of E2 (27.29 +/- 0.79 pg/ml) and total estrogen (45.69 +/- 2.32 pg/ml) occurred at -3.90 +/- 2.27 and -3.89 +/- 2.26 h prior to the onset of estrus, respectively. Plasma progesterone concentration was basal (0.14 +/- 0.001 ng/ml) during the peri-estrus period. Plasma E2 and total estrogen were found to increase from 6 days before estrus to reach a peak level on the day of estrus and decline thereafter to basal level on day 3 of the cycle. The plasma progesterone concentration was the lowest on the day of estrus showing gradual increase to register a peak level on day 15 of the cycle. Estrus behavior was found to be positively correlated with the maximum peak concentration of E2 (r = 0.89; P < 0.0001) and total estrogen (r = 0.66; P = 0.019) during the peri-estrus period. The mean total estrogen concentration during the peri-estrus period was significantly correlated with estrus behavior (r = 0.60; P = 0.04). The correlations between the estrus behavior and E2:progesterone ratios at 6 days before the onset of estrus (r = 0.92) and on the day of estrus (r = 0.95) was significant. The total estrogen:progesterone ratios at 6 days before the onset of estrus and on the day of estrus were also positively correlated with the estrus behavior (r = 0.86 and 0.88). In conclusion, our results suggest that the maximum peak concentration of E2 and total estrogen and mean level of total estrogen during the peri-estrus period and the E2:progesterone and total estrogen:progesterone ratios on 6 days before the onset of estrus and on the day of estrus are the important factors contributing the behavioral manifestation of estrus in mithun cows. PMID:16490196

Mondal, Mohan; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Prakash, B S



Audiometric evaluation of bilaterally fitted bone-anchored hearing aids.  


Bilateral fittings of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) were evaluated in 25 patients with at least 3 months experience with using two BAHAs. For all patients, air conduction hearing aids were contraindicated due to either recurrent otorrhoea or otitis externa (19 cases) or to congenital aural atresia (six cases). Candidacy for bilateral fitting was primarily based on symmetry of bone conduction thresholds. For all patients, measurements comprised sound localisation, speech recognition in quiet and in noise. In addition, in a subgroup of nine patients, release from masking for pure-tone stimuli in noise with interaural phase differences (binaural masking level difference. BMLD) was measured. The percentage of correct localisation judgments with 500-Hz and 2-kHz noise bursts increased significantly (p<0.01) from 22.2 per cent and 24.3 per cent for unilateral fittings to 41.8 per cent and 45.3 per cent for bilateral fittings, respectively. With unilateral fittings sound localisation judgments appeared to be strongly biased to the ipsilateral BAHA side. whereas with bilateral fittings, judgments were far more symmetrical. The speech reception threshold for sentences in quiet was significantly (p<0.01) better for the bilateral fittings compared to the unilateral fittings: 37.5 dBA versus 41.7 dBA. Speech recognition in noise was measured with the speech signal presented in front of the listener and a 65-dBA masking noise at either +90 degrees or -90 degrees azimuth. For noise presented at the ipsilateral side of the first fitted BAHA, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly reduced (p<0.01) from -0.7 dB for the unilateral fitting to -4.0 dB for the bilateral fitting. The speech reception threshold in noise was not significantly different (p>0.05) for unilateral and bilateral fittings when the noise was presented at the contralateral side of the first fitted BAHA. The results for the six patients with congenital atresia are comparable with those for the other patients. So, directional hearing and speech recognition in noise improve significantly with a second BAHA. The BMLD measurements showed a significant (p<0.01) release from masking of 6.1, 6.0 and 6.6 dB for 125-Hz, 250-Hz and 500-Hz stimuli, respectively. The BMLD effect of 4.1 dB at 1,000 Hz was not significant at the 5 per cent level. The positive results with the bilateral fittings in quiet can be ascribed to increased stimulus levels due to diotic summation of signals from either side. The results for localisation, speech recognition in noise and BMLD measurements indicate that bilaterally fitted BAHAs do indeed (to some extent) result in binaural hearing. PMID:11465298

Bosman, A J; Snik, A F; van der Pouw, C T; Mylanus, E A; Cremers, C W


Application of the groundwater-balance equation to indicate interbasin and vertical flow in two semi-arid drainage basins, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of horizontal inflow and outflow in the groundwater-budget equation and the significance for interbasin flow are presented. Two field cases in Mexico, one in the Baja California peninsula and another in central Mexico, highlight the influence of interbasin flow. A significant proportion (approximately 70%) of the ed (thermal) groundwater probably originates outside the drainage basin. A conclusion is that a groundwater-balance study is an unsatisfactory method for determining some parameters, such as storativity (S). Specifically, the groundwater-balance approach provides unreliable results when vertical inflow is ignored or cannot be adequately defined. Vertical flow is indicated by the presence of groundwater temperatures as much as 23 °C higher than ambient temperature. Regional faults could be the pathways for upward flow. When vertical inflow is ignored, uncertainty in the estimation of the storativity through regional groundwater-balance calculation results. On the basis of the groundwater-balance equation, a value of S=0.19 appears to represent the confined condition of the developed part of the aquifer; this result is several orders of magnitude higher than would be reasonable according to the geological conditions. Findings are useful in evaluating whether a groundwater resource is being "overexploited". Conclusions are instructive in the application of transient-flow computer models, in which vertical flow of less dense water from beneath is not included. Résumé. L'article présente une analyse des entrées et des sorties horizontales dans l'équation du bilan d'une nappe et leur signification dans les écoulements entre bassins. Deux exemples provenant du Mexique, l'un dans la péninsule de Basse Californie, l'autre dans le centre du Mexique, mettent en lumière l'influence de l'écoulement entre bassins, où une proportion significative (environ 70%) de l'eau souterraine extraite, thermale, a probablement son origine hors du bassin. Une conclusion est qu'une étude par bilan de la nappe est une méthode qui n'est pas satisfaisante pour déterminer certains paramètres comme le coefficient d'emmagasinement. En particulier, l'approche par le bilan de la nappe donne des résultats qui ne sont pas fiables lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale ou que l'on ne peut pas la définir correctement. L'existence d'une drainance verticale est prouvée par des températures de l'eau souterraine pouvant être supérieures de 23 °C à la température ambiante. Des failles régionales peuvent permettre ces écoulements vers le haut. Lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale, on introduit une incertitude sur l'estimation de l'emmagasinement à partir des calculs du bilan régional de la nappe. Sur la base de l'équation du bilan de la nappe, une valeur de S=0,19 semble représenter les conditions captives de la partie développée de l'aquifère ce résultat est plus élevé, de plusieurs ordres de grandeur, que celui que l'on peut raisonnablement attendre des conditions géologiques. Ces résultats sont utiles pour évaluer si une ressource en eau souterraine est "surexploitée". Ces conclusions sont intéressantes lorsque l'on applique des modèles d'écoulement transitoire dans lesquels on ne prend pas en compte la drainance verticale d'une eau plus légère remontant. Resumen. En este trabajo, se investigan las entradas y salidas de flujo horizontal en la ecuación de balance de agua subterránea, así como el papel que desempeñan en el flujo entre cuencas. Se analizan dos ejemplos de México, uno en la Península de Baja California y otro en la parte central del país. En ambos, destaca la influencia del flujo entre cuencas, ya que se estima que una parte importante (aproximadamente el 70%) del agua termal extraída procede de una cuenca superficial externa. Se concluye que el método basado en cálculos de balance de agua subterránea no es satisfactorio para determinar algunos parámetros, como, por ejemplo, el coeficiente de almacenamiento (S). En particular, la ecuación de ba

Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.