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1

Water related otitis externa.  

PubMed

Water influences skin inflammation of the external auditory canal. The common term for this illness is "swimmer's ear". Contributory factors are length of exposure to water, type of water and water pollution. The aim of the study was to compare risks for contracting the disease between patients with different exposure to swimming pool water. A retrospective case-control analysis of patients at the ENT-clinic was performed. Swimmers and water polo players swam in a swimming pool chlorinated by an automatic swimming pool cleaning system. Water sport players had a higher risk for ear skin inflammation than football players. Senior football players compared with players younger than 13 were not at increased risk. Swimmers and water polo players older than 13 were at higher risk. Swimmers were at higher risk than football players as well as water polo players. There was no difference for the risk of otitis externa between swimmers and water polo players. Swimmers and water polo players compared with other patients of the ENT-clinic were at higher risk than football players. Frequent and longer exposure to water has been proved to increase the risk of external auditory canal inflammation. PMID:23213950

Kujundzi?, Milodar; Braut, Tamara; Manestar, Dubravko; Cattunar, Albert; Malvi?, Goran; Vukeli?, Jelena; Puselja, Zeljko; Linsak, Dijana Tomi?

2012-09-01

2

Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10 cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus pseudintermedius alone (n=5) or in combination with Malassezia pachydermatis (n=5). Some coryneform isolates displayed resistance to fusidic acid or enrofloxacin, two antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The frequency of isolation of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year. On basis of the current knowledge, these coryneform bacteria should be regarded as potential secondary pathogens able to proliferate in the environment of an inflamed ear canal. PMID:20434850

Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A; Schjærff, Mette; Kania, Stephen A; Frank, Linda A; Guardabassi, Luca

2010-10-26

3

DOCUMENTAO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 DOCUMENTA��O PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2013.2 PRAZO PARA REQUERER a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se o Ensino Médio foi; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; 4 - Originais (assinados e carimbados) dos seguintes

4

DOCUMENTAO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 DOCUMENTA��O PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA REQUERER deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; 4 - Originais (assinados e

5

EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2014.1 PRAZO PARA deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; #12;2 - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; 4 - Originais

6

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2013.1 PRAZO PARA REQUERER deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; #12;2 4 - Originais

7

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

1 NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFER�NCIA EXTERNA (BRASIL) PERÍODO 2013.2 PRAZO PARA REQUERER deverá entregar a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se aceita) - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF; #12;2 4 - Originais

8

Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplamic diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites  

PubMed Central

Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics. PMID:23591518

Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

2013-01-01

9

The joint in vitro action of polymyxin B and miconazole against pathogens associated with canine otitis externa from three European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Canine otitis externa, an inflammation of the external ear canal, can be maintained and worsened by bacterial or fungal infections. For topical treatment, combinations of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial ingredients are mainly used. Hypothesis/Objectives This study was conducted to elucidate the in vitro activity of polymyxin B and miconazole against clinical bacterial isolates from three European countries, to investigate possible differences in sensitivity and to assess drug interactions. Animals Seventeen strains of Escherichia coli, 24 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 25 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with diagnosed otitis externa had been isolated in Germany, France and Italy. Methods Drug activities were evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration. The potentiation of polymyxin B plus miconazole was calculated using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). An FICI ?0.5 defined synergy. Furthermore, geographical variations in the FICI and MIC were assessed by statistical analysis. Results Bacterial susceptibilities were comparable in different European countries, because there were no significant MIC and FICI variations (P > 0.05). As a single agent, polymyxin B had bactericidal activity against most E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains and, in higher concentrations, against S. pseudintermedius strains. Miconazole was bactericidal against all Staphylococcus strains. Synergy was demonstrated against strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 and 0.50, respectively), whereas overall there was no interaction against S. pseudintermedius strains (FICI = 1.25). Proteus mirabilis strains were not inhibited by each of the drugs individually or by their combination. Conclusions and clinical importance In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and miconazole against E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates indicates a rationale for applying both agents in combination to treat otitis externa when infected with these types of bacteria. Résumé Contexte L'otite externe canine, une inflammation du conduit auriculaire externe, peut être entretenue et aggravée par les infections bactériennes ou fongiques. Pour le traitement topique, les associations d'anti-inflammatoires et d'antimicrobiens sont principalement utilisées. Hypothèses/Objectifs Cette étude a été menée pour déterminer l'activité in vitro de la polymyxine B et du miconazole contre les souches bactériennes cliniques isolées dans trois pays européens, d'étudier les différences possibles de sensibilité et de déterminer les interactions médicamenteuses. Sujets Dix-sept souches d'Escherichia coli, 24 souches de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 souches de Proteus mirabilis et 25 souches de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ont été isolées de chiens atteints d'otite externe en Allemagne, France et Italie. Résultats L'activité des molécules a été évaluée par la concentration minimale inhibitrice (CMI) et la concentration minimale bactéricide. La potentialisation de la polymyxine B et du miconazole a été calculée par l'indice de concentration inhibitrice fractionnaire (FICI). Un FICI ? 0.5 définissait la synergie. En outre, les variations géographiques dans le FICI et la CMI étaient évaluées par analyses statistiques. Résultats Les sensibilités bactériennes étaient comparables dans les différents pays européens parce qu'aucune différence significative n'a été mise en évidence entre les variations de CMI et de FICI (P > 0.05). La polymyxine B en tant que seul agent avait une activité bactéricide contre la plupart des souches de E. coli et P. aeruginosa, et, à plus forte concentration, contre

Pietschmann, Silvia; Meyer, Michael; Voget, Michael; Cieslicki, Michael

2013-01-01

10

Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.  

PubMed

Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa. PMID:24226755

Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

2014-06-01

11

Otitis Externa Associated with Malassezia sympodialis in Two Cats  

PubMed Central

The lipid-dependent species Malassezia sympodialis was isolated from two cats with otitis externa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of lipid-dependent species of the genus Malassezia associated with skin disease in domestic animals. PMID:10699037

Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

2000-01-01

12

Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplasmic [correction of cytoplamic] diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites.  

PubMed

Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics. PMID:23591518

Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

2013-08-01

13

Reproducibility of ear cytology in dogs with otitis externa.  

PubMed

Eighty-three dogs with clinical signs of otitis externa and with ear cytology revealing microbial organisms were studied. Samples were collected from both ears of each dog by inserting two swabs successively into each ear canal, rotating each once through 360 degrees and then rolling it out in a line on to a glass slide. For each animal, four single parallel smears (SPS) were made on one slide, which was then appropriately labelled to identify the animal as well as the order of the samples. The slides, one representing each animal, were subsequently stained with modified Wright's stain. Six high-power fields of every SPS were counted. Golden retrievers and West Highland white terriers were found to be predisposed to developing otitis externa (P=0.0006 and P=0.0123, respectively). Otitis externa occurred significantly more frequently in dogs with pendulous pinnae than in dogs with erect pinnae (P=0.0009). There was no significant difference between the first and the second samples with respect to the number of microorganisms found (P>0.1 for cocci and P>0.5 for rods and yeasts), and there was a substantial agreement between the results of the two successive swabs for the presence of cocci (kappa=0.765) and rods (kappa=0.705). For yeasts, the agreement was only moderate (kappa=0.581). PMID:20605955

Lehner, G; Louis, C Sauter; Mueller, R S

2010-07-01

14

Treatment of canine otitis externa using video otoscopy.  

PubMed

Otitis externa in 27 toy poodles and 40 miniature dachshunds was treated using a video otoscope. A distinct concavity (external tympanic concavity) was observed at the junction between the ventral part of the external surface of the tympanum and the ear canal to which a considerable amount of hair and debris had adhered. All hair and debris adhering to the external tympanic concavity were removed, and systemic antibiotic and antifungal agents were administered, after which all of the dogs recovered. The pattern of hair growth observed in the external tympanic concavity could be characterized according to the breed of dog. All of the toy poodles presented with curly hairs, while the miniature dachshunds had upright or flat-lying hairs. PMID:21597241

Usui, Reiko; Usui, Ryoichi; Fukuda, Minako; Fukui, Emiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

2011-09-01

15

In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167) were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:24031774

Penna, B.; Thomé, S.; Martins, R.; Martins, G.; Lilenbaum, W.

2011-01-01

16

In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167) were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:24031774

Penna, B; Thomé, S; Martins, R; Martins, G; Lilenbaum, W

2011-10-01

17

Premios Vicedecanato de Prcticas Externas 2011 La Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas y Empresariales  

E-print Network

Premios Vicedecanato de Prácticas Externas 2011 La Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales Empresas / Economía: JOVEMPA · Ciencias Empresariales: COOPERATIVA CAJA RURAL CENTRAL DE ORIHUELA y Dirección de Empresas / Economía: AUREN AUDITORES LEVANTE Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y

Escolano, Francisco

18

Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa  

PubMed Central

This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Márcio Candeias

2010-01-01

19

Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23227759

Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

2012-01-01

20

Atypical Lipid-Dependent Malassezia Species Isolated from Dogs with Otitis Externa  

PubMed Central

During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of dogs with chronic otitis externa, lipid-dependent Malassezia species were isolated in three dogs. These species were identified as Malassezia furfur and M. obtusa but showed atypical assimilation patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of lipid-dependent species of the genus Malassezia in association with canine otitis. PMID:10835009

Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

2000-01-01

21

Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs.  

PubMed

Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases. Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Cytologic smears were stained using Gram and Giemsa staining methods. Aerobic bacterial culture performed on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Among total number of 92 isolated bacteria, 68 were Staphylococcus intermedius. Other isolated bacteria included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella canis, and six other species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed for all isolated bacteria using 14 antibiotics. Based on the results of this study, all isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to amikacin, enrofloxacin, and rifampin, and had low resistance to gentamicin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. More than half of gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Generally, all isolated gram-negative bacteria, were sensitive to amikacin and enrofloxacin, and had low resistance to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. They were highly resistant to penicillin, eythromycin, and cephalothin. Regarding the results of this study, in cases of uncomplicated otitis externa, it is possible to select antimicrobial drugs merely based on cytology, but it is recommended to perform bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. However, in complicated or refractory cases, antimicrobials should be selected based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. PMID:20526674

Zamankhan Malayeri, Hamed; Jamshidi, Shahram; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi

2010-06-01

22

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with otitis externa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of otitis externa in dogs, and treatment of these infections is becoming problematic because of the increasing number of multiresistant strains. The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro activities of cefepime, ceftazidime, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid against 104 strains of P aeruginosa isolated from dogs with otitis externa. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations, in µg/ml, were evaluated by the E test (bioMérieux). The most active compound was ceftazidime, with 100 per cent efficiency. The majority of tested strains were susceptible to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (89.4 per cent), followed by ciprofloxacin (88.5 per cent) and cefepime (60.6 per cent). The highest resistance was observed to enrofloxacin (51.9 per cent) and gentamicin (43.3 per cent). Large numbers of strains were intermediately susceptible to antibiotics registered for use in veterinary medicine in Croatia--enrofloxacin (47.1 per cent) and gentamicin (41.3 per cent). PMID:21742683

Meki?, S; Matanovi?, K; Šeol, B

2011-07-30

23

The Littoral Station of Aguda, in the North of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The public authorities have recently approved the building of a Littoral Station in Aguda, a small fishing village on the Atlantic coast, 15 km south of the River Douro estuary in the municipal area of Vila Nova de Gaia. The internal structure of the building involves a Fishery Museum exhibiting ancient and modern gear, a Public Aquarium displaying the local marine fauna and flora and a Research and Educational Department for marine biology, aquaculture and fishery. The project was drawn up by the architect João Paulo Peixoto, in collaboration with local engineers, and the author. In Aguda there is an active, small-scale fishery, based on traditional methods handed down from generation to generation. The almost unstudied local marine fauna and flora is characterized by a high diversity of invertebrates and a rich abundance of fish stocks. Easy access to a variety of marine biotopes is guaranteed by means of the local fishing-fleet, thus supporting the Station's programme of education and research.

Weber, M.

1995-03-01

24

La capacidad de pago de la deuda externa. Un estudio empírico sobre la Argentina y el Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. El problema de la deuda externa ocupa un lugar central en la discusión latinoamericana sobre teoría y política económicas. Esta discusión se ha extendido mas allá de los medios puramente académicos y financieros para convertirse en un elemento básico de la discusión política cotidiana. Pese a este amplio debate es todavía difícil ver con claridad el problema de la

Renato Aguilar; Eduardo Giorgi; Rubén Tansini; Mario Zejan

1988-01-01

25

In vitro evaluation of the synergistic activity of neomycin-polymyxin B association against pathogens responsible for otitis externa.  

PubMed

The most recent guidelines recommend, for otitis externa antibiotic therapy, the use of topical formulations in that they are very safe, have a quicker effect and do not induce bacterial resistance compared to systemic therapy. The choice of the class of antibiotics in empiric therapy of otitis externa must take into consideration the polymicrobic nature of the infection that includes both bacteria (Grampositive and Gram-negative) and mycetes. For this reason, in this study we evaluated the synergic activity of neomycin in association with polymyxin B against the pathogens commonly responsible for otitis externa, compared to that of a single antibiotic (ciprofloxacin). The polymyxinB/neomycin association shows clear synergic effects with values of both Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) reduced by 3-4 times with respect to the single antibiotic; and in P. aeruginosa the synergistic effect of the neomycin/polymyxin B association with respect to neomycin was more evident (5-6 times), with an intrinsic in vitro activity constantly higher than that of ciprofloxacin alone or in association with hydrocortisone. From the analysis of the data obtained in vitro, we can conclude that the possibility of using a topical formulation containing a synergistic association of antibiotics, such as neomycin-polymyxin B, in such a way as to obtain the maximum effect in the minimum time with an increase in the spectrum of action of non-bacterial pathogens, is an optimal choice for the clinician for the empiric therapy of otitis externa. PMID:19505383

Tempera, G; Mangiafico, A; Genovese, C; Giudice, E; Mastrojeni, S; Nicolosi, D; Ferneri, P M

2009-01-01

26

Corynebacterium spp. in dogs and cats with otitis externa and/or media: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

The role of Corynebacterium spp. in the pathogenesis of canine and feline otitis externa/media and their appropriate antimicrobial therapy are unclear. The objectives of this study were to (1) better establish the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium spp. in otitis utilizing reported criteria and by assessing clinical response to antibiotic therapy and (2) to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Corynebacterium spp. associated with otitis. The study was retrospective, targeting cultures positive for Corynebacterium spp. Corynebacterium spp. were part of mixed microbial populations in 79/81 cultures. Corynebacterium spp. pathogenicity was highly questionable because of their almost invariable presence with other microbes and the observation that Corynebacterium spp. usually disappear from the ear with resolution of other infections, even when the Corynebacterium spp. are resistant to the prescribed antibiotic(s). However, 2/81 cultures came from two canine ears wherein Corynebacterium spp. may have been pathogenic. Antimicrobial sensitivities for Corynebacterium spp. were available for 54 isolates. Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (53/54), amikacin (50/54), tetracycline (50/54), gentamicin (46/54), and enrofloxacin (32/54). Among those antibiotics available in otic products, gentamicin and enrofloxacin would be rational choices for the empirical, topical therapy of Corynebacterium spp. PMID:22843832

Henneveld, Kerstin; Rosychuk, Rodney A W; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J; Hyatt, Doreene R; Zabel, Sonja

2012-01-01

27

Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)  

PubMed Central

A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint. PMID:23997267

Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G.; Kuroki, Keiichi

2013-01-01

28

Quimioterapia de alta dosis prolonga en forma significativa la supervivencia en pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda  

Cancer.gov

Los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico grande con asignación al azar de pacientes de 16 a 60 años de edad con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), un cáncer de la sangre y de la médula ósea, que no había sido tratada anteriormente, muestran que los pacientes que recibieron una alta dosis de daunorrubicina, un fármaco de quimioterapia disponible comercialmente, durante la terapia inicial vivieron más que los pacientes que recibieron una dosis normal del mismo fármaco.

29

Short and long-term effects of endosulfan, cypermethrin, spinosad, and methoxyfenozide on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).  

PubMed

The susceptibility assessment of natural enemies to pesticides is relevant before the use of selective pesticides and biological control agents within the framework of integrated pest management programs. Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a predator considered a potential biocontrol agent of agricultural pests in the Neothropical Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short and long-term effects of two broad spectrum insecticides (cypermethrin and endosulfan) and two biorational (spinosad and methoxyfenozide) registered in Argentina on young C. externa adults under laboratory conditions by ingestion through drinking water. The assessed end-points were: survivorship during preoviposition period, preoviposition time, fecundity and fertility of females, and survivorship of the progeny. Total survivorship of adults was adversely affected only by cypermethrin that reduced the survivorship of adults irrespective of sex. Although endosulfan did not induce significant total mortality, it reduced the survivorship of females. All tested insecticides delayed the reproductive maturity of adults. Cypermethrin, endosulfan, and spinosad reduced the fecundity of females. Fertility was affected only by spinosad. Methoxyfenozide was the insecticide inducing the lowest effects on reproductive parameters. No effects were observed on the survival of progeny with any of the tested compounds. In accordance with the International Organization for Biological Control and Noxious Animals and Plants guidelines the insecticides were classified according to its lethal effects in the following toxicity classes: methoxyfenozide, spinosad, and endosulfan class 1 (innocuous): cypermethrin class 2 (moderately toxic). However if sublethal effects are taken into account, spinosad and endosulfan should not be considered innocuous. PMID:23356062

Rimoldi, Federico; Schneider, Marcela I; Ronco, Alicia E

2012-12-01

30

In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with chronic and acute otitis externa.  

PubMed

Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast that is frequently involved as a secondary/perpetuating factor in canine otitis externa. Topical therapies with different antifungal agents, mainly azole compounds, are generally successful in controlling the yeast overgrowth, but treatment failure and rapid recurrences are common. This study compared the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates obtained from chronic and acute cases of otitis externa. The aim was to assess the possible onset of resistance mechanisms in isolates involved in long-lasting episodes with poor response to treatment. We evaluated the in vitro susceptibility to miconazole (MCZ) and clotrimazole (CTZ) of 42 isolates of M. pachydermatis obtained from dogs with chronic (group A, n = 25) and acute otitis (group B, n = 17), using a modified CLSI M27-A3 microdilution method. All isolates were inhibited by the antifungal agents employed, but Malassezia isolates from group A were significantly associated with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for both agents (Median MIC values: MCZ group A 2 µg/ml, group B 1 µg/ml; CTZ group A 8 µg/ml, group B 4 µg/ml). These findings prove that these isolates had a reduced in vitro susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. However, it is unlikely that this could have any influence on the outcome of a topical treatment. Indeed, marketed products include concentrations of the tested agents that largely exceed even the highest MICs found in this study (in most cases at least 1,000 × the MIC, or greater). In conclusion, this study suggests that isolates of M. pachydermatis involved in chronic cases of canine external otitis and exposed to repeated antifungal treatments are unlikely to develop mechanisms of resistance of clinical relevance. PMID:25031085

Chiavassa, E; Tizzani, P; Peano, A

2014-10-01

31

Host Plant Associations of an Entomopathogenic Variety of the Fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, Recovered from the Elongate Hemlock Scale, Fiorinia externa  

PubMed Central

A fungal epizootic has been detected in populations of the scale Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), of several northeastern states. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae), a well-known plant pathogen, was the most commonly recovered fungus from these infected scales. This is the second report of a Colletotrichum sp. infecting scale insects. In Brazil C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae recovered from Orthezia praelonga is under development as a biopesticide for citrus production. C. acutatum was detected growing endophytically in 28 species of plants within the epizootic areas. DNA sequences of the High Mobility Box at the MAT 1–2, mating type gene indicate that Colletotrichum sp. isolates recovered from scale insects and plants within epizootic areas were identical. Results from plant bioassays showed that this entomopathogenic Colletotrichum variety grew endophytically in all of the plants tested without causing external symptoms or signs of infection, with the exception of strawberry plants where mild symptoms of infection were observed. The implications of these findings with respect to the use of this fungus as a biological control agent are discussed. PMID:19613851

Marcelino, José A. P.; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L.; Skinner, Margaret; Schwarzberg, Lora; Giordano, Rosanna

2009-01-01

32

Acute otitis externa in divers working in the North Sea: a microbiological survey of seven saturation dives.  

PubMed Central

Saturation diving is an important and widely used technique in the Offshore Oil Industry. During 1974-5 two saturation dives in the North Sea were terminated because of outbreaks of incapacitating otitis externa, and others were disrupted. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was consistently isolated from the ears of affected divers. Because complex work schedules were threatened seven subsequent dives were subjected to microbiological monitoring and control. Colonization of ear canal with P. aeruginosa or with other gram-negative bacilli occurred in 39 (67%) of the 58 divers studied, usually within 7 days of starting the dive. Data obtained by serotyping this isolations of P. aeruginosa suggested that a single infected diver may be the source of organisms which rapidly spread to his colleagues and throughout the living chambers, that the living chambers may constitute a reservoir of infection during and between dives, and that certain serotypes of P. aeruginosa are more likely than others to colonize the ear canal in the conditions of a saturation dive. The control measures used during the dives were only partially effective, but none of the divers suffered severe pain and all the dives were an operational success. PMID:405421

Alcock, S. R.

1977-01-01

33

In vitro antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. Ex Poir. (Hypericaceae) against strains causing otitis externa in dogs and cats.  

PubMed

Otitis externa in dogs and cats is always caused by a combination of yeasts and bacteria, among which the most important are Malassezia pachydermatis, Staphylococcus intermedius and Pseudomonas species. These organisms often develop resistance to classical antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of an ethyl acetate leaf extract of Harungana madagascariensis against the organisms cited, to carry out the phytochemical investigation of this extract and to determine its bioactive chemical class using dilution techniques, the bioautography method and the standard phytochemical method described by Harborne (1973). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and anthracenic derivatives. The bioassay showed that the antimicrobial properties may be attributed to astilbin, a flavanone derivative identified on the basis of its spectroscopic data. The results suggest that the extract could be used in an antimicrobial preparation effective against the whole range of organisms incriminated in otitis externa in dogs and cats, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 250 microg/ml. PMID:17385560

Moulari, B; Pellequer, Y; Chaumont, J P; Guillaume, Y C; Millet, J

2007-03-01

34

Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose-response effects.  

PubMed

The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2×MFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron > lufenuron > teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2 048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds. PMID:23956013

Joao Zotti, Moises; Dionel Grutzmacher, Anderson; Heres Lopes, Isac; Smagghe, Guy

2013-12-01

35

Comparative efficacy and tolerability of two antibacterial/anti-inflammatory formulations ('Otomize' spray and 'Otosporin' drops) in the treatment of otitis externa in general practice.  

PubMed

An open, multi-centre study was carried out in general practice to compare the efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of a neomycin/dexamethasone preparation administered by spray ('Otomize') and neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone administered as drops ('Otosporin') in the treatment of 187 patients with otitis externa. Patients were allocated at random to receive one or other preparation 3-times daily for 10 days irrespective of response and were followed up again 14 days after cessation of therapy. Assessments were made on entry and at Days 10 and 24 of the severity of erythema, swelling and debris. A global assessment of clinical outcome was made by the doctor on Day 10. There were no significant differences between the two groups at the start of treatment. Significant improvement occurred in both groups from Day 0 to Day 10 and from Day 10 to Day 24 in all symptoms, but no statistically significant differences were recorded between the two drugs. However, significantly more patients in the 'Otomize' group were rated as having a good clinical outcome by the physicians, and a highly significant number of patients, with previous experience of the use of ear drops, expressed a preference for the spray preparation. Few side-effects were reported by either treatment group, none necessitating discontinuation of therapy. PMID:2155756

Smith, R B; Moodie, J

1990-01-01

36

Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov., isolated from otitis externa of a dog, and emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium Collins et al. 1983 emend. Yassin et al. 2011.  

PubMed

A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on an unidentified Arcanobacterium-like Gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from otitis externa of a dog. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Arcanobacterium and was most closely related to the type strains of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (97.2 %), Arcanobacterium hippocoleae (96.5 %) and Arcanobacterium phocae (96.4 %). The presence of the major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)) supported the affiliation of this strain to the genus Arcanobacterium. The polar lipid profile contained the major lipids phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified phospholipid (PL2). Major fatty acids were C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(18 : 0), C(18 : 1)?9c and C(18 : 2)?6,9c/anteiso-C(18 : 0) (detected as a summed feature). C(10 : 0) and C(12 : 0) were present in minor amounts. The results of physiological and biochemical testing clearly distinguished the unknown bacterium from other species of the genus Arcanobacterium. Based on these tests, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in the novel species Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov. The type strain of Arcanobacterium canis is P6775(T) (= CCM 7958(T) = CCUG 61573(T) = CIP 110339(T)). An emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium is also provided. PMID:22081713

Hijazin, Muaz; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Sammra, Osama; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Zschöck, Michael

2012-09-01

37

Enhancing plant resistance at the seed stage: low concentrations of methyl jasmonate reduce the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta but do not alter the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa.  

PubMed

Plants express inducible direct and indirect defenses in response to herbivory. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related signaling compounds referred to as jasmonates play a central role in regulating defense responses to a wide range of herbivores.We assessed whether treating tomato seeds with 0.8 mM of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) affected the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta, and whether possible changes in volatile profiles altered the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa. MeJA-treatment significantly lengthened larval development and decreased the pupal weight of T. absoluta. Herbivory alone increased the emissions of ?-pinene, 6-methyl 5-hepten-2-one, ?-myrcene, (E)-?-ocimene, isoterpinolene, TMTT, (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate, and hexyl salicylate. MeJA seed treatment significantly decreased the emissions of ?-cubebene from undamaged and herbivore-infested plants. In addition, the emissions of several compounds were lower in the absence of herbivory. Chrysoperla. externa preferred odors from herbivore-infested plants over those from control plants, regardless of the MeJA-treatment, and they did not show any preference for herbivore-infested plants for any of the MeJA-treatments. Our results show preliminary evidence that the treatment of tomato seeds with MeJA can reduce the performance of Tuta absoluta, and that the chemical differences observed in plant VOC profiles do not alter the behavior of the model predator. PMID:25319361

Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Paudel, Sulav; Rajotte, Edwin G; Felton, Gary W; Zarbin, Paulo H G

2014-10-01

38

Diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis externa by dermatoscopy  

PubMed Central

Ophthalmomyiasis in humans caused by the larvae of the sheep nasal botfly (Oestrus ovis) and is a rare phenomenon in Israel. We describe the utilization of the dermatoscope as a diagnostic tool for the facilitation of early diagnosis of conjunctivitis due to the infestation of the eyes by the sheep nasal botfly in two patients. After the physical removal of the larvae with the help of a cotton swab applicator under a slit lamp examination and the topical use of antibiotics, the clinical symptoms improved within 1–2 days. Undoubtedly the dermatoscope played a crucial role leading to the definitive diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention. PMID:25396095

Naimer, Sody A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.

2014-01-01

39

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte, onde deverá

40

DOCUMENTAO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte, onde deverá) - Cópia do CPF - Cópia do Passaporte com visto de estudante/permanência atualizado (se estrangeiro

41

DOCUMENTAO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

aceita); - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte de Dispensa de Incorporação (Apenas para alunos brasileiros) - Cópia do CPF - Cópia do Passaporte com

42

EDITAL COMPLETO PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

a convalidação dos estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se o Ensino Médio foi); - Título de Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte

43

NORMAS GERAIS PARA INGRESSO POR TRANSFERNCIA EXTERNA  

E-print Network

estudos concedida pela Secretaria Estadual de Educação, no Brasil. Se o Ensino Médio foi concluído nos Eleitor; - Certificado de Dispensa de Incorporação; - CPF. Se candidato estrangeiro: - Certidão de Nascimento ou Casamento com tradução juramentada; - Carteira de Identidade; - CPF; - Passaporte, onde deverá

44

Otitis Externa Associated with Malassezia sympodialis in Two Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts that form an integral part of animal and human cutaneous microbiota (19). They are also considered important medical yeasts because they are etiological agents of chronic skin disorders and have been reported with increasing frequency as causative agents of life- threatening, iatrogenic, catheter-related sepsis both in immu- nocompromised individuals (1) and low-birth-weight neonates receiving parenteral

M. J. CRESPO; M. L. ABARCA; F. J. CABANES

2000-01-01

45

Cholesteatoma and meningoencephalitis in a dog with chronic otitis externa.  

PubMed

A 10-year-old female spayed German Shepherd dog, with a year-long history of recurrent left ear infections, was presented for progressive ataxia, head tilt, and pain on opening of the mouth. On physical examination, a large amount of ceruminous debris was present in the left ear and multiple neurologic defects localizing to the cerebellum and vestibular system were identified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a minimally contrast-enhancing mass within the left bulla, an intracranial space-occupying, heterogeneously contrast-enhancing lesion at the level of the left cerebello-medullary junction, and contrast enhancement of the ipsilateral meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a marked mixed cell pleocytosis (nucleated cell count 655 cells/?L). The mass was visualized within the horizontal ear canal by otoscopic examination and a biopsy was taken. Impression smears of the biopsy contained many anucleate keratinized squamous epithelial cells, mild mixed inflammation, and few presumptive fibroblasts. With the provided clinical history and MRI findings, a cytologic diagnosis of cholesteatoma was made. A ventral bulla osteotomy was performed, and histopathologic examination of resected tissue confirmed the cytologic diagnosis of cholesteatoma. The dog's clinical symptoms improved postoperatively, but the dog died of unrelated causes, 3.5 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the cytologic features of a cholesteatoma, which is a nonneoplastic, but locally invasive epidermoid cyst, in the middle ear of dogs. PMID:25385218

Newman, Ashleigh W; Estey, Chelsie M; McDonough, Sean; Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Larsen, Meegan; Stokol, Tracy

2014-11-10

46

À propos d'un cas d'otite tuberculeuse primitive compliquée de méningoencéphalite au complexe pédiatrique de Bangui (République centrafricaine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of fatal tuberculous meningoencephalitis following chronic bilateral otitis media in a child. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in the CSF and in the otitis secretions. There were no pulmonary tuberculosis signs, thus the tuberculous otitis was considered as primary. In high tuberculosis endemic areas like Central African Republic it is important to consider tuberculosis, in chronic

J.-C. Gody; E. Kassa-Kelembho; G. Bobossi-Serengbe; E.-N. Beyam; R. Bercion

2006-01-01

47

Pauta de evaluacin externa 1. Grado de avance de los objetivos planteados  

E-print Network

envolvido é bom e coerente com o de outros paises) e houve formação de doutores com teses de muito boa artigos foram publica- dos e/ou submetidos é muito boa. Cabe ressaltar que o aluno Pablo Guarino, membro: · No âmbito da pesquisa básica foram obtidos progressos importantes e resultados de boa qualidade. · No âmbito

48

Invasive otitis externa due to Aspergillus species: case report and review.  

PubMed

Aspergillus flavus, an unusual cause of malignant external otitis, was identified in pure culture of tissue from two patients in which histologic examinations demonstrated branching septate hyphae invading the temporal bone. Both patients presented with protracted external ear pain. Multiple attempts at treatment with topical agents (polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone), oral agents (cephalexin and ciprofloxacin), and parenteral agents (ceftazidime and tobramycin) were unsuccessful before definitive diagnosis was made. Treatment with amphotericin B, followed by a more protracted course of itraconazole, resulted in an apparent cure for these patients. Follow-up examination at 15 months after the discontinuation of therapy with itraconazole demonstrated no recurrence of infection. Previously reported cases have predominantly involved immunocompromised persons, and these cases are summarized. PMID:7893871

Gordon, G; Giddings, N A

1994-11-01

49

Species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from canine otitis externa.  

PubMed

The diversity of species of the genus Staphylococcus sp. and the antimicrobial resistance of isolates from 151 unmedicated dogs of both sexes with a clinical diagnosis of otitis were recorded. Ninety-one isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials. Coagulase-positive species were most common; S. pseudintermedius (38.4%), S. schleiferi schleiferi (15.4%), S. aureus (14.3%), S. epidermidis (11%), S. simulans (11%), S. schleiferi coagulans (8.8%) and S. saprophyticus (1.1%). All the isolates showed resistance to at least one drug and 89% were multiresistant. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid and oxacillin were the most effective, while resistance was widely observed for neomycin and erythromycin. The results highlight the recognition and the potential need for bacterial culture with species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests for appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:20042036

Penna, Bruno; Varges, Renato; Medeiros, Luciana; Martins, Gabriel M; Martins, Rodrigo R; Lilenbaum, Walter

2010-06-01

50

Mem~rie d -;li"1 Soc. En t"' Ino lc 9:c.  

E-print Network

- stuca vallesiaca, Tunica saxtlraga, Silene otites, Scahiosa gramuntia. Situazioni xerotermiche più, Lichenes e Opuntia humifusa (= O. vulgaris). t) In queste stazioni sono stati raccolti i seguenti

Rider, David A.

51

[Postnatal developmental changes in the posterior cranial fossa area. I. Facies posterior partis petrosae (porus et meatus acusticus internus, fossa subarcuata, apertura externa aqueductus vestibuli, apertura externa canaliculi cochleae)].  

PubMed

1. In the newborn the lateral edge of the internal acoustic pore is located about 13.3 mm, in the 2-year-old about 22.5 mm and in the adults about 28.5 (22 to 34) mm from the paramedian plane of the skull. Also the mean distance from the lateral wall of the skull increases from about 13 to 30 mm in the postnatal period. 2. Without the postnatal development of height and width of the internal acoustic pore the postnatal extension (from a mean value of 5 mm in the newborn to about 10 mm in the 15- to 17-year-old) also the postnatal development of height and width of the internal acoustic meatus were measured. 3. Size, width and position of the subarcuata fossa, the external aperture of the aqueduct of the vestibulum just as the external aperture of the cochlear canaliculus were determined. The results were discussed in detail with the datas of former investigators. PMID:7286595

Lang, J; Hofmann, S; Maier, R; Schafhauser, O

1981-01-01

52

Study on human ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis larva, in Sirte-Libya: parasite features, clinical presentation and management.  

PubMed

Oestrus ovis larva is by far the commonest cause of human ophthalmomyiasis. The larva usually limits it's activity to the conjunctiva and cornea, but, penetration of the eye is a potential complication. Misdiagnosis is common and the condition of acute catarrhal conjunctivitis is ascribed to other causes. The study included 20 patients referred to university hospital of Sirte, Libya. Results showed that the condition was more common among adult male shepherds and farmers in rural areas. Important criteria for diagnosis were; sudden mobile foreign body sensation with abrupt itching and lacrimation occurring in endemic area, in warm months even without history of fly strike. Effective treatment consisted of mechanical removal of the larva by the cotton swap mounting technique which resulted in rapid improvement. Suffocation of residual larvae was mediated by use of liberal amounts of topical antibiotics. Slit lamp examination of larva showed that it was small, translucent, avoid the light beam and easily overlooked. Detailed microscopic examination of larval surface structures revealed a multi-component attachment apparatus consisting of oral hooks, inter-segmental spines, caudal spines and a multi-layered spiny thoracic complex described for the first time. These injurious structures are believed to be responsible through inflicting direct mechanical damage for the observed haemorrhage, ulceration or even the potential invasion, as these changes were more obvious in neglected cases. So, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid complications. PMID:16605116

Fathy, Fouad M; El-Barghathi, Adam; El-Ahwal, Abdalla; El-Bagar, Shaban

2006-04-01

53

Effects of atropine on secretion and motility in isolated gastric mucosa and attached muscularis externa from ferret and cat  

PubMed Central

1. A combined in vitro preparation of gastric mucosa and adjacent muscle from young ferrets and kittens has been used to study the effects of atropine on acid secretion and motility produced by acetylcholine (ACh) and pentagastrin. 2. The minimal dose of atropine required to abolish a maximum secretory response to ACh also prevented the associated motility response. This dose of atropine also blocked the motility response to pentagastrin, but was without influence on the secretory effect of this agent. A 103 times larger dose of atropine reduced the secretory effect of pentagastrin by half, probably not by anti-muscarinic effect. The results exclude the possibility that the acid secretory response to pentagastrin necessarily involves a cholinergic receptor. 3. The results support the view that the response of the fundic smooth muscle to pentagastrin depends on the excitation of cholinergic nerves. 4. No evidence has been found of any cholinergic component in the acid secretory response to pentagastrin. In assessing the significance of this result, however, it must be remembered that the Auerbach plexus has been removed over the major part of the mucosa, and the Meissner plexus deprived of input and probably damaged. 5. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that the depressant effect of atropine on acid secretion produced by gastrin and its derivatives is due to the elimination of a cholinergic potentiating influence arising in the intramural plexuses. The residual Meissner plexus elements in this in vitro preparation appear inadequate to sustain this effect. PMID:490363

Roth, S. H.; Schofield, B.; Yates, J. C.

1979-01-01

54

Concentrações hormonais e desenvolvimento folicular de vacas leiteiras em hipertermia sazonal e aguda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the seasonal and acute heat stress on follicular development and steroid and inhibin concentrations in follicular fluid, in bovine dominant follicle. Cows were distributed into four treatments: summer (n=5), autumn (n=5), animals heat stressed during the winter (n=5) and winter (n=9). On day 7 of the estrous cycle, animals were slaughtered and parameters related to follicle

B. J. Lew; R. Meidan; D. Wolfenson

2006-01-01

55

OT?T?s EKSTERNALI KÖPEKLERDEN ?ZOLE ED?LEN M?KROORGAN?ZMALAR VE ANT?B?YOT?K DUY ARLiLIKLARi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: In this study microbiological examination oj' the materials !iml1 dogs ,,,ith elinical otitis exfema was aimed. Microorgwiisms were isolafedji'om 79 (97.5 %) or 81 otitic dogs in this present study. AnuJI1g these microorRanisms .\\

Mehmet AKAN

56

21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone suspension.  

...dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B. ...dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B....

2014-04-01

57

reas de estudio relacionadas  

E-print Network

Externas y no entran dentro de ningún programa de movilidad Internacional. * Las áreas de estudio son Unidad de Prácticas Externas y no entran dentro de ningún programa de movilidad Internacional. * Las

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

58

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is indicated for treating acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory conditions of the...

2010-04-01

59

21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bacterial, mycotic, and inflammatory dermatoses and otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) In treating dermatoses affecting...four drops per square inch) twice daily. In treating otitis externa, five to 15 drops of the drug should be...

2010-04-01

60

21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pruritus and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses in the dog. It is also indicated for the relief...and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain superficial...

2010-04-01

61

21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... For treating infections, allergic, and traumatic keratitis, conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats.1 (3) Limitations. All topical ophthalmic preparations...

2010-04-01

62

Eficacia del tratamiento antinflamatorio comparado con antibiótico y placebo en pacientes con bronquitis aguda no complicada y expectoración purulenta. Ensayo clínico aleatorio controlado con placebo.  

E-print Network

??Aquesta tesi tenia per objectiu conèixer l'eficàcia del tractament antiinflamatori (ibuprofèn 500 mg/8h/10d) o antibiòtic (amoxicil•lina+àcid clavulànic 500/125 mg/8h/10d) comparat amb placebo en la resolució… (more)

Bayona Faro, Carolina

2014-01-01

63

21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...traumatic keratitis and conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning treatment...be reduced to 1 drop 2 to 4 times daily. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in...

2010-04-01

64

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...such conditions as acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. It is indicated...certain ear conditions in dogs and cats caused by or...organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6...

2010-04-01

65

Complications of acute otitis media in children: case reports and review of literature.  

PubMed

This is a report of three cases of complications of acute otitis media. The first case describes coalescent mastoiditis seen in a ten-month-old infant, the second case is petrositis, sigmoid sinus thrombosis and otitic hydrocephalus seen in a five-year-old child and the third case is an extradural abscess encountered in a three-year-old child. The assessment, diagnosis and treatment of each case are illustrated and discussed. PMID:21409946

Adhami, Maya; Tohme, Souheil

2010-01-01

66

Niobian rutile from the McGuire granitic pegmatite, Park County, Colorado: Solid solution, exsolution, and oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coarse crystals of niobian rutile occur in the hydrothermally altered core-margin zone of the McGuire granitic pegmatite, Park County, Colorado, associated with potassium feldspar, quartz, bi- otite, ilmenite, and monazite-(Ce). Primary homogeneous niobian rutile, with Fe 3+ ? Fe 2+ and a small excess of (Fe,Mn) over the amount required to compensate the incorporation of (Nb,Ta,W), under- went three stages

RON CHAPMAN; WILLIAM B. SIMMONS; LEONARD E. CHACKOWSKY

67

Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Ear (Otitis Externa) Syphilis Tetanus Tonsillitis Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic Synovitis Tuberculosis Urinary Tract Infections Vaginal Yeast Infections Warts West Nile Virus What Is "PANS"? Whooping Cough (Pertussis) ...

68

21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use . For the treatment of otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations...

2013-04-01

69

21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts...

2012-04-01

70

21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts...

2013-04-01

71

21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.  

... (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts...

2014-04-01

72

21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts...

2011-04-01

73

Digestive System general organization throughout  

E-print Network

Digestive System general organization throughout: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa digestive glands salivary pancreas liver (lobes: right, left, caudate, quadrate, diaphragmatic surface, bare

Houde, Peter

74

75 FR 4692 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Miconazole, Polymixin B, and Prednisolone...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. DATES: This rule is effective January...prednisolone acetate) Otic Suspension in dogs for the treatment of otitis externa associated...this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs--(1) Amount. Instill five drops...

2010-01-29

75

76 FR 78150 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Hydrocortisone Aceponate, Miconazole Nitrate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. DATES: This rule is effective December...for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of...this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs--(1) Amount. Instill 1.0 mL...

2011-12-16

76

75 FR 16346 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Orbifloxacin, Mometasone Furoate Monohydrate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. DATES: This rule is effective April...for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of...this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs--(1) Amount. For dogs weighing...

2010-04-01

77

21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin, isoflupredone, and tetracaine ointment.  

...treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs and to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs. It also is effective in treating anal gland infections and moist dermatitis in the dog and is a useful dressing for minor cuts, lacerations, abrasions, and...

2014-04-01

78

21 CFR 524.1044d - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1) The drug is used or indicated for use in dogs in the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa and canine infected superficial lesions...For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa the drug is administered by...

2010-04-01

79

Cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne - étude rétrospective à propos de 145 cas  

PubMed Central

L'otite moyenne chronique cholestéatomateuse représente une entité fréquente et dangereuse en chirurgie otologique, mettant en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel auditif et exposant à des complications redoutables justifiant pleinement le recours exclusif à un traitement chirurgical et à un suivi post-opératoire rigoureux. Dans le but de mettre le point sur les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives de cette pathologie, nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, étalée sur 11 ans et portant sur 145 cas de cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne opérés au sein du service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. PMID:25120876

Bouaity, Brahim; Chihani, Mehdi; Nadour, Karim; Moujahid, Mountassir; Touati, Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Ammar, Haddou

2014-01-01

80

PUERTORRIQUENA VII12 SANJUAN 1980  

E-print Network

a influencias linguisticas externas, el ana lisis de su lenguaje nos puede proporcionar datos valiosos sobre la dominicano. Contacto con el espanol Aunque la comunidad americana reside en Samaria desde ha ce tres anos 0

Sankoff, David

81

FDA Approves Xtoro to Treat Swimmer's Ear  

MedlinePLUS

... acute otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Xtoro is the newest drug belonging to the ... confirmed to be caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus, 70 percent who received Xtoro achieved clinical cure ...

82

Extending ACT-R 6.0 Dan Bothell  

E-print Network

.0 System Lisp based Framework Tcl/Tk GUI Meta-process(es) Module Definitions Contr ol Contr ol General Lisp Externa l Sim Contr ol Clock Event queue Event Event Event #12;Devices · By default a device expected

83

Ajuste estructural y política agrícola en el Brasil. Experiencias de los ochenta y perspectivas para los noventa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. A fines de la década de los setenta la economía brasileña sufrió un creciente deterioro de su situación externa, lo que rompió el equilibrio del proceso de crecimiento económico de los años setenta, conocido como \\

Fernando DallAcqua

1992-01-01

84

21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

2011-04-01

85

21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

2012-04-01

86

21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis,...

2013-04-01

87

21 CFR 524.1044d - Gentamicin and betamethasone ointment.  

...Indications for use. For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa and infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

2014-04-01

88

Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat  

PubMed Central

During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525

Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

1999-01-01

89

21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for 7 days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive...

2011-04-01

90

21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone aceponate, miconazole nitrate, gentamicin sulfate otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts...

2012-04-01

91

21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...more. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. (3) Limitations....

2013-04-01

92

21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.  

...days. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus...

2014-04-01

93

21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus...

2011-04-01

94

21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for 7 days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive...

2012-04-01

95

21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin, betamethasone, and clotrimazole ointment.  

...more. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. (3) Limitations....

2014-04-01

96

21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus...

2012-04-01

97

21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin, mometasone, and clotrimazole otic suspension.  

...for 7 days. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive...

2014-04-01

98

21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone aceponate, miconazole nitrate, gentamicin sulfate otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts...

2013-04-01

99

21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone, miconazole, and gentamicin otic suspension.  

... (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts...

2014-04-01

100

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin, amphomycin, and hydrocortisone ointment.  

...daily. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcers, superficial wounds, and superficial abscesses associated with bacterial...

2014-04-01

101

Semana 24-28 de Agosto, 2009 Highlights 102  

E-print Network

. Morales-R os* Departamento de Qu mica y Secci n Externa de Farmacolog a, Centro de Investigaci n y de Copyright © 2008 American Chemical Society Departamento de Qu mica, Centro de Investigaci n y de Estudios

102

21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (c) Conditions of use in dogs —(1) Amount . For dogs weighing less than 30 pounds...the 215-g bottle) or, for dogs weighing 30 lb or more, instill...for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by...

2010-04-01

103

21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...c) Conditions of use. (1) It is indicated for use in dogs in the following conditions associated with bacterial infections...caused by organisms susceptible to one or both antibiotics: Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal...

2010-04-01

104

21 CFR 524.1484k - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and squalane topical-otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Indications for use. Indicated for use in dogs and cats for treating acute otitis externa and as adjunctive therapy in management...may also be used for treating moist dermatitis in dogs. (3) Limitations. Tetracaine...

2010-04-01

105

21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...penicillin. (d) Conditions of use—dogs —(1) Amount . Rub a small amount...dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible...B. (3) Limitations . For use in dogs only. Shake drug thoroughly and...

2010-04-01

106

21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (c) Conditions of use in dogs —(1) Amount . For dogs weighing less than 30 lbs. instill...daily into the ear canal. For dogs weighing 30 lbs. or more...for use . For the treatment of otitis externa associated with...

2010-04-01

107

21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use. (1) It is used in horses, dogs, and cats in the treatment...also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute moist dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis in dogs. (2) Federal law restricts...

2010-04-01

108

21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs —(1) Amount . Instill five drops in the ear canal twice... (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast...

2010-04-01

109

Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

2001-01-01

110

Pediatric neurotology.  

PubMed

Pediatric neurotology is a subspecialty encompassing the medical and surgical treatment of conditions involving the middle ear, inner ear and lateral skull base. Multiple otologic and neurotologic diseases exist. In the pediatric patient the most common neurotologic conditions are vertigo, complications of otitis media, cholesteatoma, hearing loss and facial paralysis. Vertigo is differentiated into peripheral and central vestibular abnormalities. Peripheral vestibular causes include Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuronitis, otitis media and labyrinthitis. The predominant lesions in our field causing central vestibular disorders are brainstem and posterior fossa tumors. Mastoiditis, meningitis, petrositis, sigmoid sinus thrombosis, extradural abscess, brain abscess, otitic hydrocephalus, cholesteatoma and cholesterol granuloma are complications of otitis media and middle ear disease. Sensorineural hearing loss is now readily treated with cochlear implantation. Facial nerve paralysis may result from infectious and other etiologies. PMID:14992462

Miyamoto, R Christopher; Miyamoto, Richard T

2003-12-01

111

[Local antibacterial therapy for the inflammatory diseases of the external and middle ear].  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to estimate the efficacy and safety of candibioic designed for the treatment of the patients presenting with diffuse otitis externa and chronic otitis media. The open randomized trial included 40 patients with diffuse otitis externa and 40 ones with chronic otitis media who had undergone a surgical sanitation procedure. Their standard clinical and otorhinolaryngological examination was supplemented by the characteristic of clinical symptoms and personal complaints using the 10-score scale. The composite preparation candibiotic was found to be equally effective for the treatment of both diffuse otitis externa and chronic otitis media. The results of the study give reason to recommend the use of candibiotic as an efficacious and safe drug for the treatment of these conditions. PMID:22951697

Khon, E M; Dzhenzhera, G E; Ovchinnikov, A Iu

2012-01-01

112

Incidence and burden of earaches due to recreational swimming: Results from a nationwide study ofover 50,000 respondents  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Earaches and ear pain due to outer ear infections (otitis externa) are common following swimming and can result in time lost from work and school and visits to the physician or hospital. Objectives: Determine the proportion of self-reported earache attributable to ma...

113

PROCESSES AFFECTING THE FATE OF OIL IN THE SEA  

EPA Science Inventory

Using research results reported from oil spills, laboratory experiments and microcosm studies, this review outlines the many processes controlling the behavior of petroleum in marine waters. The fate of oil spilled at sea depends on the composition of the oil, and on such externa...

114

21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

2011-04-01

115

21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin and betamethasone otic solution.  

...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

2014-04-01

116

21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

2012-04-01

117

21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

2010-04-01

118

21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

2013-04-01

119

Estudios simultneos Grado en Derecho y Grado en ADE (DADE) PLAN DE ESTUDIOS  

E-print Network

asignaturas, plan de estudios, folleto de titulación, tabla de adaptaciones, prácticas, movilidad HORARIOS transferencia de créditos, prácticas, movilidad Acceso Fichas de asignaturas Plan de estudios (Información sobre adaptaciones de DADE a ADE Prácticas externas en empresas / instituciones. Movilidad nacional e internacional

Escolano, Francisco

120

La Universidad de Alicante coordina un nuevo proyecto Erasmus Mundus con 21 universidades  

E-print Network

entre las universidades europeas que ha obtenido financiación externa para la movilidad e intercambio de, gracias a un nuevo proyecto denominado "Proyecto de Movilidad Transeuropea sobre la Educación para el Arquitectura. El proyecto contará con un presupuesto de 3.508.975 de euros y ofrecerá 212 becas de movilidad

Escolano, Francisco

121

DECANATO DE ESTUDIOS GENERALES -ACTIVIDADES COHORTE 2014 -PROACTIVA Lunes 6 Martes 7 Mircoles 8 Jueves 9 Viernes 10  

E-print Network

Redes Sociales Prof. Vito Lacasella Hora: 10:30 a.m. Lugar: Conjunto de Auditorios TARDES: Matemática 2014 - PROACTIVA Lunes 20 Martes 21 Miércoles 22 Jueves 23 Viernes 24 Destrezas sociales y universidad externa Conjunto de Auditorios Obesidad y Comportamiento Social (GRUPO 1) Prof. Josefina Villegas Hora: 10

Vásquez, Carlos

122

Cobertura d'accidents esportius Queden coberts els accidents i que puguin patir, les persones de la comunitat  

E-print Network

Resum Cobertura d'accidents esportius Queden coberts els accidents i que puguin patir, les persones contractat. S'entén per accident, la lesió corporal derivada d'una causa violenta, externa, de sobte i aliena les garanties de l'assegurança s'inclouen els accidents corporals per lesions succeïdes en

Geffner, Hector

123

Organic synthesis via magnetic attraction: benign and sustainable protocols using magnetic nanoferrites  

EPA Science Inventory

Magnetic nano-catalysts have been prepared using simple modification of iron ferrites wherein their quasi-homogeneous state, because of nm size range, facilitates the catalysis process as increased surface is available for reaction; the easy separation of the catalysts by externa...

124

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...

2013-04-01

125

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...

2011-04-01

126

21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...

2012-04-01

127

21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1) Amount . 5 to 10 drops for dogs weighing 35 pounds (lb) or less and 10 to 15 drops for dogs weighing more than 35 lb; applied...Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. (3) Limitations ....

2010-04-01

128

21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...less than 30 lb or 4 drops for dogs weighing 30 lb or more. ...215-g bottles: 2 drops for dogs weighing less than 30 lb or 4 drops for dogs weighing 30 lb or more. ...of acute and chronic canine otitis externa associated with...

2010-04-01

129

21 CFR 522.960c - Flumethasone solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...dose. A protein-rich diet is useful in dogs and cats on long-term therapy to counteract...order of a licensed veterinarian. (2) Dogs —(i) Amount. 0.0625 to 0...pruritus, irritation, and inflammation; otitis externa in conjunction with topical...

2010-04-01

130

Personal Acadmico (2002) Aceves Ruiz Jorge. Investigador Emrito. Departamento de Fisiologa, Biofsica y Neurociencias.  

E-print Network

. Albores Medina Arnulfo. Investigador Titular. Sección Externa de Toxicología. Aldana Aranda Dalila. Aranda Bricaire Eduardo. Investigador Titular. Sección de Mecatrónica. Departamento de Ingeniería Mérida. Arias González Jesús Ernesto. Investigador Titular. Departamento de Recursos del Mar. Unidad

131

Sulphide quinone reductase contributes to hydrogen sulphide metabolism in murine peripheral tissues but not in the CNS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is gaining acceptance as a gaseous signal molecule. However, mechanisms regarding signal termination are not understood. We used stigmatellin and antimycin A, inhibitors of sulphide quinone reductase (SQR), to test the hypothesis that the catabolism of H2S involves SQR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H2S production and consumption were determined in living and intact mouse brain, liver and colonic muscularis externa using gas chromatography and HPLC. Expressions of SQR, ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 (Ethe1) and thiosulphate transferase (TST; rhodanese) were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS In the colonic muscularis externa, H235S was catabolized to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, and stigmatellin reduced both the consumption of H235S and formation of [35S]-thiosulphate. Stigmatellin also enhanced H2S release by the colonic muscularis externa. In the brain, catabolism of H235S to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, which was stigmatellin-insensitive, partially accounted for H235S consumption, while the remainder was captured as unidentified 35S that was probably bound to proteins. Levels of mRNA encoding SQR were higher in the colonic muscularis externa and the liver than in the brain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data support the concept that termination of endogenous H2S signalling in the colonic muscularis externa occurs via catabolism to thiosulphate and sulphate partially via a mechanism involving SQR. In the brain, it appears that H2S signal termination occurs partially through protein sequestration and partially through catabolism not involving SQR. As H2S has beneficial effects in animal models of human disease, we suggest that selective inhibition of SQR is an attractive target for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21950400

Linden, DR; Furne, J; Stoltz, GJ; Abdel-Rehim, MS; Levitt, MD; Szurszewski, JH

2012-01-01

132

Voltammetric behavior of nitrofurazone and its hydroxymethyl prodrug with potential anti-Chagas activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A doença de Chagas é um grave problema de saúde pública para a América Latina, situação agravada pela inexistência de quimioterapia eficiente. Os dois fármacos comercialmente encontrados, benznidazol e nifurtimox, são eficazes apenas na fase aguda da doença. A nitrofurazona é ativa contra Trypanosoma cruzi, entretanto, a alta toxicidade impede seu uso na parasitose. A hidroximetilnitrofurazona é um pró-fármaco da

Mauro Aquiles La-Scalea; Carla Maria de Souza Menezes; Murilo Sérgio; Sílvia Helena; Pires Serrano; Lineu Prestes

2005-01-01

133

INVESTIGACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el momento actual de impetuoso avance, la investigación científica se desarrolla con suma rapidez. El progreso científico-técnico plantea cada vez de manera más aguda, problemas vinculados con la necesidad de síntesis de los conocimientos, de elaboración lógica de la información, por su volumen y diversidad, en todas las ramas de la ciencia. De ahí, que “…el acortamiento del plazo

Ana del Carmen Durán Castañeda

2011-01-01

134

Skeletal Variation in Melanesian Forest Frogs (Anura: Ceratobatrachidae)  

E-print Network

; neopal, neopalatine; op fen, optic fenestra; oper, operculum; p ext pl, pars externa plectri; p med pl, pars media plectri; palquad, palatoquadrate; pl ant, planum antorbitale; pmax, premaxilla; pro for, prootic foramen; prsph, parasphenoid; pter..., pterygoid; qj, quadratojugal; spheneth, sphenethmoid; sq, squamosal; tym ann, tympanic annulus; vom, vomer. 85%) than P. hazelae, P. dorsalis, P. guentheri, Pl. solomonis, P. guppyi, B. trossulus, and B. vertebralis (HL > 85%). Greatest height on skull...

Fuiten, Allison Marie

2012-05-31

135

Rusco aculeati-Fraxinetum angustifoliae, una nova associació forestal de ribera del territori ruscínic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposem una nova comunitat de ribera del territori ruscínic, dominada per Fraxinus angustifolia, que ocupa, d’una banda, la zona marginal externa de les alberedes litorals (Populetum albae), i d’altra, els petits cursos d’aigües estacionals de l’interior. Aquesta comunitat s’estableix en sòls amb marcades oscil·lacions estacionals del nivell freàtic, cosa que afavoreix precisament l a instal·lació dels freixes de fulla petita,

Josep Gesti Perich; Lluís Vilar Saís

2003-01-01

136

E S P A O L V A L E N C I E N G L I S H Secretara EPS  

E-print Network

matícula alumnos en movilidad Impreso Modificación matrícula alumnos de másteres EPS Impreso Devolución de estudios de grado por la vía de los 30 créditos (Universidades extranjeras) Impreso Movilidad Nacional e Internacional Modificación matícula alumnos en movilidad Impreso Prácticas Externas Solicitud de Prácticas

Escolano, Francisco

137

Nutritional profile, carcass composition, and shelf-life of fresh ostrich meat  

E-print Network

. Morris et al. (1995b) determined that the Flexor cruris lateralis, Iliofemoralis, Iliofi bularts, Iliotibialis cranialis, Iliofemoralis externus, Iliotibialis lateralis, Femorotibialis, M. obturatorius medialis, Gastrocnemius par externa... externus, Iliotibialis lateralis and M. obturatorius medialis, on nine randomly selected carcasses at 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h, and 24h post-mortem using an UniFet pH meter (Model UF100-01; UniFET Inc. , San Diego, CA) and Omega digital thermometer (Model OM 272...

Pollok, Kevin Duane

2012-06-07

138

Inhibitory neuropeptides and intrinsic inhibitory innervation of descending human colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of aging on inhibitory neuropeptide concentrations and intrinsic inhibitory innervation of circular muscle were investigated using normal descending colon obtained at surgery. Immunoreactive vasoactive intestinal peptide, peptide histidine-methionine, met5-enkephalin, neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin were extracted from specimens of muscularis externa (patient ages: 19–84 years) and measured by radioimmunoassay. Intracellular electrical activity was recorded from strips of circular muscle

Timothy R. Koch; J. Aidan Carney; V. L. W. Go; Joseph H. Szurszewski

1991-01-01

139

Developmental origins of colon smooth muscle dysfunction in IBS-like rats  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies show that subsets of adult and pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have prior exposures to psychological or inflammatory stress. We investigated the cellular mechanisms of colonic smooth muscle dysfunction in adult rats subjected to neonatal inflammation. Ten-day-old male rat pups received 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to induce colonic inflammation. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips were obtained 6 to 8 wk later. We found that about half of the neonate pups subjected to inflammatory insult showed a significant increase in expression of the pore-forming ?1C-subunit of Cav1.2b channels in adult life. These were the same rats in whom Vip mRNA increased in the colon muscularis externae. Additional experiments showed reduced interaction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 with ?1C1b promoter that increased the acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) in the core promoter region. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) treatment of naïve muscularis externae swiftly recruited CREB-binding protein (CBP) to the ?1C1b promoter and dissociated HDAC3 from this region to initiate transcription. The CBP interaction with the ?1C1b promoter was transient, but the dissociation of HDAC3 persisted to sustain H3K9 hyperacetylation and increase in transcription. Intraperitoneal treatment of adult naïve rats with butyrate mimicked the effects of neonatal colon inflammation. We concluded that neonatal inflammation upregulates VIP in the colon muscularis externae, which modulates epigenetic events at the ?1C1b promoter to activate ?1C1b gene transcription. Inflammatory insult in early life may be one of the etiologies of smooth muscle dysfunction in adult life, which contributes to the altered motility function in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. PMID:23886858

Li, Qingjie; Winston, John H.

2013-01-01

140

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in small intestine of rabbit: biochemical properties and subcellular localization.  

PubMed

Biochemical properties and cellular and subcellular distribution patterns of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) were investigated in small intestine of rabbits. The specific activity of G6PD in fresh homogenates of small intestine was 19 +/- 9 IU/g protein. This value did not change significantly after dialysis. The kinetic and electrophoretic properties of the partially purified enzyme were similar to those found in other rabbit tissues. Enzyme histochemical analysis of G6PD activity using the tetrazolium salt method showed high activity in epithelial cells of villi and crypts of Lieberkuhn. The activity in acinar cells of Brunner's glands was lower than that in epithelium, whereas cells of the muscularis externa showed a very low activity. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the amounts of G6PD protein were lower in the epithelium than in Brunner's glands and muscularis externa. The differences between distribution patterns of activity and protein of G6PD may reflect the presence of inactive enzyme molecules in Brunner's glands and muscularis externa or posttranslational activation of G6PD in epithelium. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical analysis performed with gold-labelled antibodies showed the presence of G6PD protein throughout the cytoplasm and at smooth endoplasmic reticulum in enterocytes. In Paneth cells and cells of Brunner's glands, G6PD was found in the cytoplasm, at rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Immunolabelling was not found in mitochondria or nuclei. Our findings show that G6PD is heterogeneously distributed in cells of the small intestine and that the enzyme is associated with rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum to support synthetic functions in these compartments by NADPH production. PMID:11482375

Ninfali, P; Malatesta, M; Biagiotti, E; Aluigi, G; Gazzanelli, G

2001-07-01

141

In vitro and in vivo activity of a killer peptide against Malassezia pachydermatis causing otitis in dogs.  

PubMed

In order to overcome the limitations inherent in current pharmacological treatments for Malassezia pachydermatis, the cause of otitis externa in dogs, the efficacy of a killer decapeptide (KP) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Sixteen dogs with naturally occurring M. pachydermatis otitis externa were enrolled, and the in vitro fungicidal activity of KP was evaluated using yeasts recovered from these animals. The therapeutic activity was evaluated in four groups of four animals each. The dogs were topically treated with KP (150 ?l, 2 mg/ml) three times per week (group A) or every day (group B), treated with a scramble peptide every day (group C), or left untreated (group D). Assessment of clinical signs (pruritus, erythema, and lichenification and/or hyperpigmentation), expressed as mean of the total clinical index score (mTCIS), the population size of M. pachydermatis at the cytological examination (mean number of yeast cells at 40× magnification [mYC]), and culture testing (mean number of log10 CFU/swab [mCFU]), were conducted daily from the first day of treatment (T0) until two consecutive negative cultures (mCFU ? 2). KP showed an in vitro fungicidal effect against M. pachydermatis isolates, with an MFC90 value of 1 ?g/ml. The mTCIS, mYC and mCFU were negative only in animals in group B after T8. Daily administration of KP for 8 days was safe and effective in controlling both clinical signs and the population size of M. pachydermatis causing otitis externa, thus offering an alternative to the currently available therapeutic or prophylactic protocols for recurrent cases of Malassezia otitis in dogs. PMID:24625672

Cafarchia, Claudia; Immediato, Davide; Paola, Giancarlo Di; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Polonelli, Luciano

2014-05-01

142

Application of ECMO to the Treatment of Benign Double Tracheoesophageal Fistula: Report of a Case.  

PubMed

This report presents the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)-assisted surgical as a treatment of benign double tracheoesophageal fistula. The patient was a 43-year-old woman who presented the airway obstruction for 3 weeks after the esophagus metal stent implantation for the tracheoesophageal fistula 1 year ago. The airway obstruction was due to the expansion and piercing of the metal stent through the upper part of the esophagus into the tracheal cavity. In view of the failure of endotracheal intubation, we finally used ECMO-assisted surgery to remove the stent. And at the same time, cervical esophagostomy externa, exclusion of the thoracic tracheoesophageal fistulas and gastrostomy were performed. PMID:24747543

Wang, Lei; Xu, Xiao Ping; Zhan, Hen; Zhang, Shao Ming

2014-04-18

143

The grotesque in Don Quijote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and The Tyrant by Ramon Del Valle-Inclan  

E-print Network

ejemplos de lo grotesco pueden ser las bromas que aparecieron despues del desastre del trasbordador espacial "Challenger" que volaba en enero de 1986: (What did Christa McAuliffe say to her husband before blasting off? You feed the dogs and I' ll feed... the fish. Did you know that Christa McAuliffe has dandruff? She left her Head and Shoulders on the beach. Did you know that Christa McAuliffe has blue eyes? One blue left and one blue right. ) La situacion externa es el desastre del Challenger. Estd...

Peterson, Valerie Hoppe

1994-01-01

144

New records of feather lice from some seabirds in Chile.  

PubMed

Six species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Philopteridae) are reported from four species of seabirds collected off the coast of Chile. They are Eidmanniella pellucida, Piagetiella transitans, and Piagetiella caputincisa, from a Guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii); Harrisoniella ferox collected from a black-browed albatross (Diomedea melanophrys); Ancistrona vagelli from a white-necked petrel (Pterodroma externa); and Pelmatocerandra flinti collected from a Magellan diving petrel (Pelecanoides magellani). Eidmanniella pellucida and P. transitans are reported from Chile for the first time. Piagetiella caputincisa from the Guanay cormorant may be a contaminant from a red-legged shag (Phalacrocorax gaimardi). PMID:9131581

Sepúlveda, M S; Palma, R L; Ochoa-Acuña, H

1997-04-01

145

Flea Control (Spanish)  

E-print Network

aerosol, champ?, y collares para las mas- cotas. Si su mascota ya tiene una infestaci?n aguda, se debe usar una combinaci?n de regulador de crec- imiento y un insecticida aerosol. Evite el uso de aerosoles t?xicos directamente sobre la mascota... la misma vez que trate las ?reas donde habita (adentro y afuera) la mascota. Tratamiento de la mascota ? S?lo use productos que indiquen que son para las mascotas en su etiqueta. Insecticidas para los per- ros pueden ser peligrosos a los gatos, as...

Merchant, Michael E.

2002-08-23

146

Histochemical localization and characterization of AKP, ACP, NSE, and POD from cultured Apostichopus japonicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the distribution of four enzymes involved in the immune response of Apostichopus japonicus. We collected samples of the tentacles, papillate podium, integument, respiratory tree, and digestive tract and stained them for acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), non-specific esterase (NSE) and peroxidase (POD) activity. The distribution and content of ACP, AKP, NSE, and POD differed among the tissues. The coelomic epithelium of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer of respiratory tree were positive for ACP activity. The coelomic epithelium and cuticular layer of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive or weakly positive for AKP activity. Almost all the epithelial tissues stained positive, strongly positive, or very strongly positive for NSE activity. The cuticular layer of the tentacle and integument and the mucous layer, tunica submucosa, and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive for POD activity. We hypothesize that these enzymes play a role in the immune response in A. japonicus.

Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Hushan

2009-09-01

147

[A case of cavernous sinus aspergillosis].  

PubMed

We reported a case of cavernous sinus aspergillosis. A 62-year-old man complained of trigeminal neuralgia in the right V1 region. Neurological examination on admission showed ptosis, loss of light reflex and ophthalmoplegia externa in the right side. MRI enhanced with gadolinium demonstrated sphenoid sinusitis and mass lesion in the right cavernous sinus. MRA revealed right internal carotid artery occlusion. An open biopsy using the extradural temporopolar approach was performed. Pus discharge was observed from the cavernous sinus and histological examination showed hypha of Aspergillus. With early voriconazole treatment, the patient had improvement in headache, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia externa. Cavernous sinus aspergillosis is often found after sphenoiditis. It results in invasion to an internal carotid artery and worsens the patient's prognosis by cerebral infarction, so early diagnosis and treatment are important. We should consider aspergillosis as one of the differential diagnoses of a mass in the cavernous sinus. The epidural approach to this lesion was available to obviate aspergillus dissemination into the medullary cavity. PMID:24091462

Hase, Tomomi; Kurita, Hideharu; Matsumoto, Eiji; Kuroda, Hajime; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Shinoda, Souji

2013-10-01

148

In vitro growth versus inhibition of growth of Malassezia pachydermatis in the presence of the antibacterial drug gentamicin.  

PubMed

Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal cutaneous microbiota of most warm-blooded vertebrates and is associated with otitis externa and seborrhoeic dermatitis in dogs and cats. In this study, we evaluated the growth capacity of nine M. pachydermatis strains on Sabouraud medium in the presence of a high concentration of gentamicin. Strains of M. pachydermatis cultured on Sabouraud medium in the presence of 50 and 100 µg gentamicin ml(-1) displayed different growth patterns such as growth or lack of growth. We hypothesized that this difference in growth of M. pachydermatis strains was correlated with the different genotypes of the strains. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates, derived from the external ears of house pet cats suffering from otitis externa. The M. pachydermatis strains were cultured on commercial or home-made Sabouraud medium supplemented or not with gentamicin. RAPD analysis demonstrated a genetic heterogeneity between each strain. In particular, five out of nine strains tested were able to form colonies in the presence of gentamicin. However, a correlation between M. pachydermatis genotype and growth capacity in the presence of gentamicin was not widely demonstrated. PMID:25627206

Buommino, Elisabetta; Baroni, Adone; Parisi, Annamaria; Borriello, Flavia Elena; Caputo, Pina; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Nizza, Sandra; Nocera, Francesca Paola; Fiorito, Filomena; De Martino, Luisa

2015-02-01

149

Antibiotic resistance profiles of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from canine patients in Korea.  

PubMed

In this study, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was examined among 74 Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains recently isolated from clinical cases of canine pyoderma and otitis externa at the veterinary teaching hospital at Konkuk University, Korea. Bacterial resistance to the nine commonly used antibiotics was evaluated by a standard disk diffusion technique based on the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The results demonstrated that most S. pseudintermedius isolates were resistant to penicillin (95.9%) or tetracycline (91.9%), but highly susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (90.5%). Among the 74 isolates, 13 mecA-positive and methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains were identified, displaying a high level of resistance (84.6- 100%) to each of the individual antibiotics evaluated, with the exception of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (46.2% resistance). Notably, all of the MRSP isolates exhibited simultaneous resistance to four or more different antibiotics, indicating that they are multiple drug resistant (MDR) strains. Taken together, these results imply that more careful selection or prescription of antibiotics for canine pyoderma and otitis externa should be required for reducing the emergence and/or spread of MDR strains, especially MDR-MRSP isolates, in veterinary pet clinics in Korea. PMID:21193835

Yoon, Jang Won; Lee, Ki-Jong; Lee, So-Young; Chae, Min-Joo; Park, Jae-Keun; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hee-Myung

2010-12-01

150

Ear problems in swimmers.  

PubMed

Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane. PMID:16138712

Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

2005-08-01

151

Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of dove.  

PubMed

Dove ovarian follicle is a complex structure composed of oocyte surrounded by a somatic compartment consisting of theca externa, theca interna and granulosa. The structure of ovarian follicle (1 and 2 mm) of dove was studied by electron microscopy. The granulosa was pseudostratified in the 1-mm-diameter follicles and stratified with two or three irregular rows of cells in the 2-mm-diameter follicles. In the larger follicle indentations between oocyte and granulosa cells become more numerous and the microvilli of granulosa cell elongated to form a zona radiata with similarly elongated oocyte microvilli. Lining bodies were present at the tips of granulosa microvilli and in the cortical region of the oocyte. In the oocyte cortex were observed coated pits, coated vesicles, dense tubules, multivesicular bodies and primordial yolk spheres. Primordial yolk spheres may contain lining bodies and were observed fused with dense tubules and multivesicular bodies or associated with smooth cisternae. PMID:15751536

Zarnescu, Otilia

2004-11-01

152

[An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].  

PubMed

This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas. PMID:19178778

Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

2008-12-01

153

Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.  

PubMed

Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects. PMID:21715284

Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

2011-06-01

154

Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Noninvasive Zoonotic Transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a Canine Pet to a Human  

PubMed Central

rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic techniques were used to identify the bacterial species present in the ear fluid from a female patient with otitis externa. We report the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius from the patient and a possible route of transmission. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the dominant species present was S. intermedius. A pet dog owned by the patient also was tested and found to harbor S. intermedius. In humans, the disease is rare and considered a zoonosis. Previously, S. intermedius has been associated with dog bite wounds, catheter-related injuries, and surgery. This study represents the first reported case of a noninvasive infection with S. intermedius. PMID:10747154

Tanner, Michael A.; Everett, Christine L.; Youvan, Douglas C.

2000-01-01

155

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-01-01

156

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy.  

PubMed

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-03-01

157

Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland in a dog.  

PubMed

Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) is a self-limiting, benign, ischemic, inflammatory disease that is most often described in the submandibular glands of dogs, with clinical and histologic features that resemble malignancy. Unilateral swelling of the parotid salivary gland in a 7-year-old Cocker Spaniel dog was diagnosed as NS. The dog also had otitis externa on the same side as the parotid gland lesions. The main histologic features were included lobular necrosis of salivary tissue; fibrinoid necrosis of some arteries; marked squamous metaplasia of duct and/or acinar epithelium, with intercellular bridge formation; preservation of salivary lobular morphology; and variable inflammation and fibrosis. Etiologic factors for NS in both humans and animals remain obscure. PMID:21088187

Kim, Ha-Young; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Bae, You-Chan; Park, Yeon-Hee; Joo, Yi-Seok

2010-11-01

158

Severe ulcerative and granulomatous pinnal lesions with granulomatous sebaceous adenitis in unrelated vizslas.  

PubMed

Granulomatous sebaceous adenitis (GSA) is uncommon in dogs; however, certain breed predilections exist. In this report, three cases of GSA in unrelated vizslas have been described. All cases initially presented with episodes of otitis externa followed by severe inner pinnal lesions. In one case, multifocal coalescing inner pinnal ulceration appeared 4 wk prior to the occurrence of the skin lesions. The other two cases presented with simultaneous pinnal and skin lesions following episodes of bilateral otitis. The pinnae were diffusely erythematous and had multiple coalescing erosions and ulcers. The body lesions consisted of multifocal alopecia, papules, and fine scales. Biopsies of the skin and pinnae confirmed GSA. Two dogs responded to treatment with synthetic retinoids and cyclosporin A, respectively. One dog was not treated, and the owners preferred euthanasia when the ear lesions recurred and did not respond to glucocorticoids. To the best of the authors' knowledge, GSA with multifocal coalescing ulcerative pinnal lesions has not previously been reported. PMID:22058354

Zur, Gila; Botero-Anug, Ana-Maria

2011-01-01

159

Prevalence, sites of colonization, and antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from healthy dogs in Saskatoon, Canada.  

PubMed

In dogs, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a common colonizer and is associated with pyoderma, otitis externa, and urinary tract infections. In the current study, nasal, pharyngeal, and rectal swabs were taken from 175 healthy dogs and cultured for S. pseudintermedius. The organism was found in 153 dogs (87.4%), including individuals in which it exclusively colonized in the nares (n ?=? 1), pharynx (n ?=? 16), and rectum (n ?=? 17). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that a remarkably susceptible population, 46.4% of isolates, was susceptible to all drugs tested, and resistance to penicillin (39.9%) and tetracycline (23.5%) were most common. No methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant isolates were identified. Although 3.3% of isolates were erythromycin resistant, no inducible clindamycin resistance was found. The data provide a baseline for future resistance surveillance and indicate that multiple body sites, including at least the pharynx and rectum, should be tested. PMID:21398462

Rubin, Joseph E; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel

2011-03-01

160

Otomycosis due to Aspergillus spp. in a dog: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

This report describes the clinical findings, clinicopathology and treatment of otomycosis caused by Aspergillus spp. in an atopic dog affected by chronic unilateral purulent otitis externa unresponsive to topical and oral antibiotics and antifungal treatments. Cytology of otic exudate revealed neutrophils and septate fungal hyphae, and otic culture grew Aspergillus spp. and no bacteria. Treatments included allergen-specific immunotherapy, topical and oral antifungal therapy and anti-inflammatory steroid therapy. Final resolution occurred after treatment of the underlying hypersensitivity disorder, administration of topical ketoconazole and debridement of infectious ear exudate. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi may, as in humans, occur in dogs with ear canals compromised by pre-existing allergic or bacterial otitis, and possibly previous antibiotic therapy. Antifungal medications provided clinical improvement, but the key to successful treatment was the restoration of the normal physiology of the external auditory canal. PMID:20492628

Coyner, Kimberly

2010-12-01

161

Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural organization of the previtellogenic follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii, of the Western Ghats of India, were observed. Both species follow a similar seasonal reproductive pattern. The ovaries contain primordial follicles throughout the year with previtellogenic, vitellogenic, or postvitellogenic follicles, depending upon the reproductive status. The just-recruited primordial follicle includes an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of follicle and thecal cells. The differentiation of the theca into externa and interna layers, the follicle cells into dark and light variants, and the appearance of primordial yolk platelets and mitochondrial clouds in the ooplasm mark the transition of the primordial follicle into a previtellogenic follicle. During further development of the previtellogenic follicle the following changes occur: i) the theca loses distinction as externa and interna; ii) all the follicle cells become the dark variant and increase in the complexity of ultrastructural organization; iii) the nucleus of the oocyte transforms into the germinal vesicle and there is amplification of the nucleoli; iv) the primordial yolk platelets of the cortical cytoplasm of the oocyte increase in abundance; v) the mitochondrial clouds fragment and the mitochondria move away from the clouds, leaving behind the cementing matrix, which contains membrane-bound vesicles of various sizes, either empty or filled with a lipid material; vi) the perivitelline space appears first as troughs at the junctional points between the follicle cells and oocyte, which subsequently spread all around to become continuous; vii) macrovilli and microvilli develop from the follicle cells and oocyte, respectively; and viii) the precursor material of the vitelline envelop arrives at the perivitelline space. The sequential changes in the previtellogenic follicles of two species of caecilians are described. PMID:17345639

Beyo, Reston S; Sreejith, Parameswaran; Divya, Lekha; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2007-04-01

162

Mast Cells Play No Role in the Pathogenesis of Postoperative Ileus Induced by Intestinal Manipulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intestinal manipulation (IM) during abdominal surgery results in intestinal inflammation leading to hypomotility or ileus. Mast cell activation is thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of postoperative ileus (POI). However, this conclusion was mainly drawn using mast cell-deficient mouse models with abnormal Kit signaling. These mice also lack interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) resulting in aberrant gastrointestinal motility even prior to surgery, compromising their use as model to study POI. To avoid these experimental weaknesses we took advantage of a newly developed knock-in mouse model, Cpa3Cre/+, devoid of mast cells but with intact Kit signaling. Design The role of mast cells in the development of POI and intestinal inflammation was evaluated assessing gastrointestinal transit and muscularis externa inflammation after IM in two strains of mice lacking mast cells, i.e. KitW-sh/W-sh and Cpa3Cre/+ mice, and by use of the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn. Results KitW-sh/W-sh mice lack ICC networks and already revealed significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit even before surgery. IM did not further delay intestinal transit, but induced infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells, expression of inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils into the muscularis externa. On the contrary, Cpa3Cre/+ mice have a normal network of ICC and normal gastrointestinal. Surprisingly, IM in Cpa3Cre/+ mice caused delay in gut motility and intestinal inflammation as in wild type littermates mice (Cpa3+/+). Furthermore, treatment with the mast cell inhibitor cromolyn resulted in an inhibition of mast cells without preventing POI. Conclusions Here, we confirm that IM induced mast cell degranulation. However, our data demonstrate that mast cells are not required for the pathogenesis of POI in mice. Although there might be species differences between mouse and human, our results argue against mast cell inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to shorten POI. PMID:24416383

Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J.; Farro, Giovanna; Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Némethova, Andrea; de Vries, Annick; Liston, Adrian; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimwer; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Matteoli, Gianluca

2014-01-01

163

Deep endometriosis: definition, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

Deep endometriosis, defined as adenomyosis externa, mostly presents as a single nodule, larger than 1 cm in diameter, in the vesicouterine fold or close to the lower 20 cm of the bowel. When diagnosed, most nodules are no longer progressive. In >95% of cases, deep endometriosis is associated with very severe pain (in >95%) and is probably a cofactor in infertility. Its prevalence is estimated to be 1% -2%. Deep endometriosis is suspected clinically and can be confirmed by ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast enema is useful to evaluate the degree of sigmoid occlusion. Surgery requires expertise to identify smaller nodules in the bowel wall, and difficulty increases with the size of the nodules. Excision is feasible in over 90% of cases often requiring suture of the bowel muscularis or full-thickness defects. Segmental bowel resections are rarely needed except for sigmoid nodules. Deep endometriosis often involves the ureter causing hydronephrosis in some 5% of cases. The latter is associated with 18% ureteral lesions. Deep endometriosis surgery is associated with late complications such as late bowel and ureteral perforations, and recto-vaginal and uretero-vaginal fistulas. Although rare, these complications require expertise in follow-up and laparoscopic management. Pain relief after surgery is excellent and some 50% of women will conceive spontaneously, despite often severe adhesions after surgery. Recurrence of deep endometriosis is rare. In conclusion, defined as adenomyosis externa, deep endometriosis is a rarely a progressive and recurrent disease. The treatment of choice is surgical excision, while bowel resection should be avoided, except for the sigmoid. PMID:22938769

Koninckx, Philippe R; Ussia, Anastasia; Adamyan, Leila; Wattiez, Arnaud; Donnez, Jacques

2012-09-01

164

Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observed significant decline in ChAT, nNOS, and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 protein and mRNA levels. In DSS colitis, ChAT and PGP9.5 were significantly upregulated while nNOS levels did not change. The nNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio decreased significantly in DSS- but not in TNBS-induced colitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of either ChAT (31 vs. 33%)- or nNOS (37 vs. 41%)-immunopositive neurons per ganglia or the mean number of neurons per ganglia (55 ± 5 vs. 59 ± 5, P > 0.05). Incubation of the distal colon muscularis externae in vitro with different types of inflammatory mediators showed that cytokines decreased ChAT and nNOS expression, whereas H?O?, a component of oxidative stress, increased their expression. NF-?B inhibitor MG-132 did not prevent the IL-1?-induced decline in either ChAT or nNOS expression. These findings showed that TNBS- and DSS-induced inflammation differentially regulates the expression of two critical proteins expressed in the colonic myenteric neurons. These differences are likely due to the exposure of the myenteric plexus neurons to different combinations of Th1-type inflammatory mediators and H?O? in each model. PMID:23681475

Winston, John H; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K

2013-08-15

165

Prevalence of Disorders Recorded in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England  

PubMed Central

Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3–10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1–8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7–34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8–34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O?Neill, Dan G.; Church, David B.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Thomson, Peter C.; Brodbelt, Dave C.

2014-01-01

166

Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.  

PubMed

Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

2014-01-01

167

Trichobilharzia mergi sp. nov. (Trematoda: Digenea: Schistosomatidae), a visceral schistosome of Mergus serrator (L.) (Aves: Anatidae).  

PubMed

Parasitological investigations on red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator L.) in Iceland revealed digenean flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. Adult worms were detected in blood vessels of the large intestine and eggs were deposited in the mucosa and surrounded by granulomatous reactions. Traditional morphological methods showed that the flukes have very slender filiform bodies, males are equipped with a short gynaecophoric canal and both suckers and spatulate ends are present on each sex. Among characteristics of the flukes which render them morphologically distinct from other Trichobilharzia species are: i) males-well developed vesicula seminalis (v.s.) consisting of a short v.s. externa and a significantly longer (approx. 3 times) v.s. interna, unusually well developed genital papilla and localization of the first testis a relatively long distance posterior to the gynaecophoric canal; ii) eggs-small and elongated with slightly rounded poles and a short terminal spine. DNA taxonomic techniques confirmed that a new species had been identified, Trichobilharzia mergi sp. n. The sequence data were deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JX456151 to JX456172. Comparison of the results with our previously published data on characterization of DNA of cercariae isolated from freshwater lymnaeid snails showed that larval development of T. mergi is associated with Radix balthica L. (=Radix peregra Müller, 1774;=Radix ovata Draparnaud, 1805). PMID:23501058

Kolá?ová, Libuše; Skírnisson, Karl; Ferté, Hubert; Jouet, Damien

2013-06-01

168

Histological Study of the External, Middle and Inner Ear of Horses.  

PubMed

Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

2014-10-01

169

A model of the anterior esophagus in snakes, with functional and developmental implications.  

PubMed

The gross anatomy of the mouth of snakes has always been interpreted as an evolutionary response to feeding demands. In most alethinophidian species, their anatomy allows limited functional independence of right and left sides and the roof and floor of the mouth as well as wide separation of the tips of the mandibles. However, locations of the tongue and glottis in snakes suggest extraordinary rearrangement of pharyngeal structures characteristic of all vertebrates. Serial histological sections through the heads of a number of colubroid species show muscularis mucosal smooth muscle fibers appearing in the paratracheal gutter of the lower jaw at varying levels between the eye and ear regions. Incomplete muscularis externa elements appear beneath the paratracheal gutter more caudally but typically at otic levels. Both muscle layers encompass more of the gut wall at more posterior levels, encircling the gut at the level of the atlas or axis. The pattern in snakes suggests developmental dissociation of dorsal and ventral splanchnic derivatives and extensive topological rearrangements of some ventral pharyngeal arch derivatives typical of most tetrapods. When snakes swallow large prey, the effective oral cavity becomes extremely short ventrally. The palatomaxillary arches function as ratchets packing the prey almost directly into the esophagus. Our findings raise questions about germ layer origins and regulation of differentiation of gut regions and derivatives in snakes and suggest that significant aspects of the evolution of lepidosaurs may be difficult to recover from bones or molecular sequence data alone. PMID:24482367

Cundall, David; Tuttman, Cassandra; Close, Matthew

2014-03-01

170

Adrenergic Stimulation Mediates Visceral Hypersensitivity to Colorectal Distension following Heterotypic Chronic Stress  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Chronic stress exacerbates or causes relapse of symptoms such as abdominal pain and cramping in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated whether chronic stress increases plasma norepinephrine and sensitizes colon-specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by increasing the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the colon wall. Methods Heterotypic chronic stress (HeCS) was induced in male Wistar rats and neurologic and molecular responses were analyzed. Tissues were analyzed for NGF expression. Results HeCS significantly increased the visceromoter response to colorectal distension; expression of NGF increased in colonic muscularis externa and mucosa/submucosa. Rheobase decreased, resting membrane potential was depolarized, and electrogenesis of action potentials increased in colon-specific thoracolumbar DRG neurons. Luminal administration of resiniferatoxin in distal colon, systemic administration of anti-NGF antibody, or inhibition of the NGF receptor TrkA by k252A or antisense oligonucleotides in thoracolumbar DRG blocked the chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension. Blockade of ?1/?2- and ?1/?2-adrenergic receptors prevented the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity and increased expression of NGF in the colon wall. HeCS did not induce any inflammatory response in the colon wall. Conclusion The peripheral stress mediator norepinephrine induces visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in response to HeCS by increasing the expression of NGF in the colon wall, which sensitizes primary afferents in the absence of an inflammatory response. PMID:19800336

Winston, John H.; Xu, Guang-Yin; Sarna, Sushil K.

2009-01-01

171

The Cancer Drug Tamoxifen: A Potential Therapeutic Treatment for Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Tamoxifen (TMX) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that can mimic the neuroprotective effects of estrogen but lacks its systemic adverse effects. We found that TMX (1?mg/day) significantly improved the motor recovery of partially paralyzed hind limbs of male adult rats with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI), thus indicating a translational potential for this cancer medication given its clinical safety and applicability and the lack of currently available treatments for SCI. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of TMX for SCI, we used proteomic analyses, Western blots and histological assays, which showed that TMX treatment spared mature oligodendrocytes/increased myelin levels and altered reactive astrocytes, including the upregulation of the water channels aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a novel finding. AQP4 increases in TMX-treated SCI rats were associated with smaller fluid-filled cavities with borders consisting of densely packed AQP4-expressing astrocytes that closely resemble the organization of normal glia limitans externa (in contrast to large cavities in control SCI rats that lacked glia limitans-like borders and contained reactive glial cells). Based on our findings, we propose that TMX is a promising candidate for the therapeutic treatment of SCI and a possible intervention for other neuropathological conditions associated with demyelination and AQP4 dysfunction. PMID:24004276

Guptarak, Jutatip; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Sadygov, Rovshan G.; Zivadinovic, Dragoslava; Paulucci-Holthauzen, Adriana A.; Vergara, Leoncio

2014-01-01

172

Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated manifestations in otolaryngology.  

PubMed

Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. PMID:24470939

Lacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Papacharalampous, George; Kampessis, George; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

2012-01-01

173

Neurological and cellular regulation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress and colonic inflammation in rats.  

PubMed

The role of inflammation in inducing visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in ulcerative colitis patients remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that acute ulcerative colitis-like inflammation does not induce VHS. However, it sets up molecular conditions such that chronic stress following inflammation exaggerates single-unit afferent discharges to colorectal distension. We used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce ulcerative colitis-like inflammation and a 9-day heterotypic chronic stress protocol in rats. DSS upregulated Nav1.8 mRNA in colon-responsive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, TRPV1 in colonic muscularis externae (ME) and BDNF in spinal cord without affecting the spike frequency in spinal afferents or VMR to CRD. By contrast, chronic stress did not induce inflammation but it downregulated Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 mRNA in DRG neurons, and upregulated TRPA1 and nerve growth factor in ME, which mediated the increase of spike frequency and VMR to CRD. Chronic stress following inflammation exacerbated spike frequency in spinal afferent neurons. TRPA1 antagonist suppressed the sensitization of afferent neurons. DSS-inflammation did not affect the composition or excitation thresholds of low-threshold and high-threshold fibers. Chronic stress following inflammation increased the percent composition of high-threshold fibers and lowered the excitation threshold of both types of fibers. We conclude that not all types of inflammation induce VHS, whereas chronic stress induces VHS in the absence of inflammation. PMID:23806714

Chen, J; Winston, J H; Sarna, S K

2013-09-17

174

Changing Trends of HIV/AIDS in Otorhinolaryngology with CD4 (+) Count Correlation.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the vital cells of the immune system eventually leading to a fall in the cell mediated immunity. As the disease progresses CD4 (+) (cluster of differentiation4) cells reduce, therefore is a good indicator of the ongoing disease process [1]. HIV infection has myriads of disease presentation; the aim of our study was to correlate the otorhinolaryngological manifestations with the CD4 (+) counts. A clinical study, of 100 HIV positive patients was done from 2008 to 2011. A clinical evaluation revealed 76 % incidence of otorhinolaryngological findings. Oropharyngeal manifestations were the commonest, seen in 48 %, predominantly oropharyngeal candidiasis. Neck nodes were found in 20 % of the patients. 31 % had otological manifestations of which retracted tympanic membrane (eustachian tube dysfunction) was the commonest. 18 % had nasal symptoms of which rhinosinusitis was the commonest being 14 %. The mean CD4 (+) count was below 200 in patients who presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis, otitis externa and epistaxis. With the use and availability of HAART (Highly active antiretroviral therapy) more and more patients with higher CD4 (+) count are presenting with a different spectrum of more subtle disease manifestations, with lower incidence of the classical diseases like candidiasis. A routine otorhinolaryngological evaluation at every visit with high index of suspicion can help in better disease control and give a better quality of life. PMID:25621247

Kirti, Y K; Yashveer, J K; Poorey, V K

2015-03-01

175

Description and host relationships of Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from the heron Nycticorax nycticorax in Peru.  

PubMed

Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. is described from the black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, in Lake Titicaca, Peru. It is distinguished from all 27 known species of the subgenus Polymorphus by its spindle-shaped proboscis and its trunk shape, the anterior 2/3 of which is ovoid, tapering into a tubular posterior end. It resembles Polymorphus brevis (=Arhythmorhynchus brevis), which is, however, longer and considerably more slender, and has smaller and more numerous proboscis hooks per row and smaller eggs. It is separated also from Polymorphus swartzi, Polymorphus striatus, Polymorphus contortus, and Polymorphus cincli by its proboscis armature (usually 18 longitudinal rows of 11-13 hooks each), among other characters. Histopathological sections of host tissue show well defined localized damage including hemorrhaging with subsequent phagocyte cell migration (granular tissue). The lumen of the host intestine is obstructed and villi show compression. The proboscis of P. spindlatus extends through the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, displacing the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis externa. Fibrosis also was observed. PMID:2010853

Amin, O M; Heckmann, R A

1991-04-01

176

Temporal expression of tenascin-C and type I collagen in response to gonadotropins in the immature rat ovary.  

PubMed

Ovarian morphogenesis and physiology in mammals take place in the context of hormones, paracrine factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Both fibrillar type I collagen and the multidomain tenascin-C are matrix molecules capable of modulating the behavior of both normal and neoplastic cells in many organs. Therefore, the objective of this qualitative study was to simultaneously examine the distribution of both tenascin-C and type I collagen in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea induced to develop in response to gonadotropin treatments. In preantral follicles both matrix proteins were present in the focimatrix, theca externa and the interstitium. Equine gonadotropin induced the appearance of both proteins in the theca interna. Subsequent to administration with human chorionic gonadotropin, tenascin-C appearance in the thecal capillaries preceded type I collagen expression. Tenascin-C was also observed in the capillaries of functional and regressing corpora lutea, while type I collagen was predominantly present in the interstitium and tunica albuginea. Western blots showed both an increase in and degradation of tenascin-C in the regressing corpora lutea. The ovarian surface epithelium also showed immunoreactivity for both tenascin-C and type I collagen. The study reveals that tenascin-C and type I collagen may participate in the morphogenesis of ovarian follicles, and in the formation and regression of corpora lutea. PMID:24998028

Bagavandoss, P

2014-09-01

177

DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1  

PubMed Central

El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

2010-01-01

178

CASE REPORT Treatment of Otophyma: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Otophyma is a rare condition that can present as the end stage of any chronic inflammatory disease affecting the ear such as rosacea, eczema, or otitis externa. It can result in conductive hearing loss, low self-esteem, and social embarrassment. This report highlights a case of otophyma treated successfully using a full-thickness skin graft. Methods: We present a case of a 41-year-old lady referred to our department with a 23-year history of bilateral otophyma. During this time, her hearing progressively diminished as the swelling occluded her external auditory meatus. She had been unsuccessfully managed for years with topical emollients, steroids, and regular ear toileting. Result: She was treated by excision of the phymatous tissue and full-thickness grafting, which resulted in a patent external auditory meatus and an improvement in her hearing. Conclusions: The use of a full-thickness skin graft is one of the many treatment options available for the treatment of otophyma. We present a literature review on this uncommon condition and a discussion on the various treatment options available to the patient. PMID:23641297

Sharma, K. S.; Pollock, J.; Hasham, S.; Brotherston, T. M.

2013-01-01

179

Un modelo general de eyección de materia estelar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Posiblemente, la más directa y dramática evidencia de la pérdida de masa por parte de diferentes objetos astrofísicos la constituye el fenómeno de eyección persistente de materia. En el caso particular de las estrellas, las características y los mecanismos que impulsan a sus atmósferas externas hacia el medio interestelar varían a lo largo del diagrama evolutivo. En parte por este motivo, en parte por las dificultades matemáticas involucradas, es muy difícil elaborar un modelo que pueda dar cuenta de los diferentes mecanismos que originan e impulsan el viento estelar. Cabe entonces preguntarse si es posible desarrollar un único modelo en el que estos mecanismos puedan ser considerados (y variados) como parámetros externos que responden a las características de cada región de la secuencia evolutiva. La respuesta es que, en función de la geometría del campo electromagnético involucrado, todo depende de la simetría del problema. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis detallado de una de tales simetrías, discutiendo en particular los resultados obtenidos a la luz de las observaciones disponibles.

Rotstein, N. O.

180

Axial flaps for treatment of penis lesions due to granulomas.  

PubMed

Granulomas can result from subcutaneous injection of ointment into the penis to augment its bulk. Rigid, infiltrated granulomatous and scar tissue prevents coitus, often ulcerates, and must be excised. Large segmental or circumferential defects of the penile integument must be covered with soft, pliable skin. We describe our experience with axial skin-fat flaps taken for this purpose from the groin region. There are two well-known vascular bundles, the arteria circumflexa ilium superficialis (ACIS) and arteria epigastrica superficialis (AES). Both were used successfully (the ACIS in 3 patients and the AES in 1) to provide island skin territories sufficient for resurfacing even a completely degloved penis (1 patient) with primary donor wound closure and rapid healing. In addition, a new flap, based on the arteria pudenda externa, was designed and implemented in 1 patient. The donor potential of the groin and lower abdominal region amply meets the requirements for penis reconstruction. Therefore, it is surprising that axial flaps have not yet become broadly accepted. PMID:2396818

Borovikov, A; Scheplev, P

1990-08-01

181

Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

2004-12-01

182

Prevalence and antimicrobial-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21%) were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate), aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate), ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen. PMID:21556203

Lutz, Jonathan K; Lee, Jiyoung

2011-02-01

183

Glyceryl monooleate-based otic delivery system of ofloxacin: release profile and bactericidal activity.  

PubMed

Abstract This study investigated the preparation and characterization of glyceryl monooleate- (GMO) based drug delivery system containing ofloxacin for the treatment of otitis externa. Acetate buffer (pH 4.5) containing dissolved ofloxacin was added to molten GMO as an aqueous phase, this resulted in the formation of a cubic and a reverse hexagonal phases. The release behavior of ofloxacin from the drug delivery system was studied using three different methods. The mechanism of drug release using paddles/dissolution apparatus and Franz diffusion cells followed Higuchi and Fickian diffusion models; whereas intrinsic release rate method showed zero-order kinetics. The intrinsic release rate was estimated and found to be 187.2?µg/cm(2)/h. The release mechanisms were similar irrespective of the loaded ofloxacin amount, however, the higher drug load displayed higher release rate. The drug delivery system was proven to be microbiologically effective by using agar diffusion method, against Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The GMO/ofloxacin formulation was stable for 6 months after preparation at room temperature as measured with respect to phase stability and antibacterial activity. PMID:24392877

Adwan, Samer; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Sallam, Alsayyed

2014-01-01

184

Virtual otoscopy for evaluating the inner ear with a fluid-filled tympanic cavity in dogs.  

PubMed

The feasibility of virtual otoscopy (VO) imaging was evaluated in five dogs with experimentally induced otitis media, two control dogs, and two canine patients with otitis media. VO images of the tympanic cavity and ossicles were generated with commercially available software using raw computed tomography (CT) data. Eight out of 10 ears inoculated with pathogen exhibited obvious clinical signs associated with otitis externa. CT images revealed soft tissue density material occupying the tympanic bulla compatible with otitis media in three dogs with experimentally induced otitis media and two patients. No remarkable features were observed on the radiographs. Four different VO views (ear canal, tympanic bulla, eustachian tube, and ossicular chain) were created. Promontory, cochlea window, tympanic, and septum bulla as well as ossicles were easily and clearly distinguished except for the incus and stapes of the clinical patients. VO images were not more suitable than images created with conventional CT for accurately diagnosing otitis media in this study. However, it appears that VO could be more feasible for assessing the complex structure of the inner ear in dogs with fluid-filled tympanic cavities since fluid accumulation within the tympanic bulla did not affect the evaluation of bony tissue in the middle ear on VO images. PMID:23271184

Cho, Youngkwon; Jeong, Jimo; Lee, Haebeom; Kim, Minsu; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

2012-12-01

185

Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

2014-06-01

186

Further characteristics of Arcanobacterium canis, a novel species of genus Arcanobacterium.  

PubMed

Comparable to previously conducted phenotypical and genotypical investigations characterizing Arcanobacterium canis, a newly described species with the type strain A. canis DSM 25104 isolated from an otitis externa of a dog, four additional A. canis strains isolated from infections of three dogs and one cat could reliably be identified by phenotypic properties, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, 23S rDNA, and the genes rpoB and gap. All four A. canis investigated in the present study were isolated from the infected animals together with several other bacterial species indicating that the pathogenic importance of A. canis remains unclear. However, the detection of peptidic spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the presented phenotypic and genotypic approaches might help to identify A. canis in future and might elucidate the role this species plays in infections of dogs and cats. PMID:24144861

Sammra, O; Balbutskaya, A; Zhang, S; Hijazin, M; Nagib, S; Lämmler, C; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Kostrzewa, M; Timke, M

2013-12-27

187

Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.  

PubMed

Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported. PMID:25046431

Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

188

[Comparative morphofunctional characteristics of the ovaries in women of reproduction age in the norm and with chronic anovulatory infertility].  

PubMed

This work was aimed at the study of ovarian histophysiology in patients with chronic anovulation. The biopsy specimens obtained by endoscopic laparoscopy from the ovaries of women of reproductive age with anovulation or normal cycle (control) were examined. It was found that in the ovaries of anovulation patients the thickness of both tunica albuginea and follicular theca externa was increased. The number of primordial follicles was not different in groups studied, while the number of antral follicles was decreased in anovulation group. No differences in 3 beta-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase and NADH-dehydrogenase activities in the cells of theca interna and cyst walls were found in both groups, while NADPH-dehydrogenase and NO-synthase activities in these structures were reduced in anovulation. Reduction of estradiol concentration and increase of testosterone concentration were noted in blood of women with anovulatory infertility. The data obtained can be used for the analysis of etiology and pathogenesis of anovulatory infertility and for development of the methods of its treatment. PMID:14994596

Ryzhavski?, B Ia; Smirenina, I V; Shapiro, E P

2003-01-01

189

Noises-induced toggle switch and stability in a gene regulation network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that noises are inevitable in gene regulatory networks due to the low-copy numbers of molecules and environmental fluctuations. In this paper, we investigate the stationary probability distribution (SPD) between both low (OFF state) and high (ON state) protein levels and mean first passage time (MFPT) in an abstract model of the Myc/E2F/miR-17-92 network presented by Aguda et al., PNAS 105, 19678 (2008), where the gene expression is assumed to be disturbed simultaneously by intrinsic and extrinsic noises that were correlated. Our results show that (i) the OFF state is enhanced by the extrinsic noise (D), while the ON state is enhanced by the intrinsic noise (Q) or cross-correlation between two noises (?); (ii) for the cases of negative or no cross-correlation (??0.0), the increase of the noise intensity (D or Q) leads to a decline of the MFPT and enhances the probability of toggle switch to the OFF state; (iii) but for the case of positive cross-correlation (?>0.0), the MFPT as a function of the noise intensity (D or Q) exhibits a maximum, this maximum for MFPT identifies the characteristic of noise enhanced stability of the ON state and (iv) the cross-correlation between two noises can enhance stability of the ON state.

Zeng, Chunhua; Yang, Tao; Han, Qinglin; Zhang, Chun; Tian, Dong; Wang, Hua

2014-08-01

190

Paracrine Hedgehog signaling in stomach and intestine: new roles for Hedgehog in gastrointestinal patterning  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Hedgehog signaling is critical in gastrointestinal patterning. Mice deficient in Hedgehog signaling exhibit abnormalities that mirror deformities seen in the human VACTERL (vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheal, esophageal, renal, limb) association. However, the direction of Hedgehog signal flow is controversial and the cellular targets of Hedgehog signaling change with time during development. We profiled cellular Hedgehog response patterns from embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) to adult in murine antrum, pyloric region, small intestine and colon. Methods Hedgehog signaling was profiled using Hedgehog pathway reporter mice and in situ hybridization. Cellular targets were identified by immunostaining. Ihh-overexpressing transgenic animals were generated and analyzed. Results Hedgehog signaling is strictly paracrine from antrum to colon throughout embryonic and adult life. Novel findings include: mesothelial cells of the serosa transduce Hedgehog signals in fetal life; the hindgut epithelium expresses Ptch but not Gli1 at E10.5; the two layers of the muscularis externa respond differently to Hedgehog signals; organogenesis of the pyloric sphincter is associated with robust Hedgehog signaling; dramatically different Hedgehog responses characterize stomach and intestine at E16; after birth, the muscularis mucosa and villus smooth muscle (SM) consist primarily of Hedgehog responsive cells and Hh levels actively modulate villus core SM. Conclusions These studies reveal a previously unrecognized association of paracrine Hedgehog signaling with several gastrointestinal patterning events involving the serosa, pylorus and villus smooth muscle. The results may have implications for several human anomalies and could potentially expand the spectrum of the human VACTERL association. PMID:19445942

Kolterud, Åsa; Grosse, Ann S.; Zacharias, William J.; Walton, Katherine D.; Kretovich, Katherine E.; Madison, Blair; Waghray, Meghna; Ferris, Jennifer E.; Hu, Chunbo; Merchant, Juanita L.; Dlugosz, Andrzej; Kottmann, Andreas H.; Gumucio, Deborah L.

2009-01-01

191

Ceruminal diffusion activities and ceruminolytic characteristics of otic preparations – an in-vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations. PMID:23574753

2013-01-01

192

Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency promotes the development of necrotizing enterocolitis-like intestinal injury in a newborn mouse model  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typified by mucosal destruction, which subsequently can lead to intestinal necrosis. Prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization are the main risk factors and, combined with other stressors, can cause increased intestinal permeability, injury, and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates intestinal protection due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects of its products carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and bilirubin. This study investigates a possible role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of NEC using a newborn mouse model. We induced NEC-like intestinal injury in 7-day-old HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1 Het, Hmox1+/-) and wild-type (Wt, Hmox1+/+) mice by gavage feeding and hypoxic exposures. Control (Con) pups of both genotypes were dam-fed. Intestines of HO-1 Het Con pups appeared predisposed to injury, with higher histological damage scores, more TUNEL-positive cells, and a significant reduction in muscularis externa thickness compared with Wt Con pups. The increase in HO activity after HO-1 induction by the substrate heme or by hypoxic stress was significantly impaired in HO-1 Het pups. After induction of intestinal injury, HO-1 Het pups displayed significantly higher NEC incidence (78 vs. 43%), mortality (83 vs. 54%), and median scores (2.5 vs. 1.5) than Wt NEC pups. PCR array analyses revealed increased expressions of IL-1?, P-selectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, collagen type XVIII-?1, serpine 1, and others in NEC-induced HO-1 Het ileal and jejunal tissues. We conclude that a partial HO-1 deficiency promotes experimental NEC-like intestinal injury, possibly mediated by exaggerated inflammation and disruption in tissue repair. PMID:23578787

Schulz, Stephanie; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kalish, Flora; Chisholm, Karen M.; Zhao, Hui; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Sylvester, Karl G.; Stevenson, David K.

2013-01-01

193

Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders. PMID:24723855

Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C.; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

194

Effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation of STN afferent axons during DBS in Parkinson's disease: a simulation study  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that subthalamic nucleus (STN)-Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may exert at least part of its therapeutic effect through the antidromic suppression of pathological oscillations in the cortex in 6-OHDA treated rats and in parkinsonian patients. STN-DBS may also activate STN neurons by initiating action potential propagation in the orthodromic direction, similarly resulting in suppression of pathological oscillations in the STN. While experimental studies have provided strong evidence in support of antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons, it is difficult to separate relative contributions of antidromic and orthodromic effects of STN-DBS. The aim of this computational study was to examine the effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation on neural firing patterns and beta-band (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the STN and cortex during DBS of STN afferent axons projecting from the cortex. High frequency antidromic stimulation alone effectively suppressed simulated beta activity in both the cortex and STN-globus pallidus externa (GPe) network. High frequency orthodromic stimulation similarly suppressed beta activity within the STN and GPe through the direct stimulation of STN neurons driven by DBS at the same frequency as the stimulus. The combined effect of both antidromic and orthodromic stimulation modulated cortical activity antidromically while simultaneously orthodromically driving STN neurons. While high frequency DBS reduced STN beta-band power, low frequency stimulation resulted in resonant effects, increasing beta-band activity, consistent with previous experimental observations. The simulation results indicate effective suppression of simulated oscillatory activity through both antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons and direct orthodromic stimulation of STN neurons. The results of the study agree with experimental recordings of STN and cortical neurons in rats and support the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons. PMID:24678296

Kang, Guiyeom; Lowery, Madeleine M.

2014-01-01

195

[Architecture of the human skull cap in the region of the pars bregmatica suturae sagittalis. II. Sex characteristics].  

PubMed

There has previously been no treatise on the inner architecture of the human cranial vault other than those dealing with common "age changes". Such a treatise ought to refer to a particular segment of the vault demonstrate the peculiar structure according to age in both sexes, and also take into consideration their normal variability as presupposition for using the results in estimating the age of prehistoric skeletal material. With the help of thin sections across the sagittal suture and the adjoining cranial vault 10 mm behind the bregma findings about the specific structure as to age and sex and their expected variability are demonstrated by more than 200 cases taken from the recent population. According to the results in hand there exists a contradiction to the opinions hitherto existing about a distinct age dependence in the bone structure and distinct sex differences in the findings of the structures of the Ist order. Though data about changes in the anatomical construction of the human cranial vault during the ontogenesis are to be correctly obtained only with the help of longitudinal investigation, the crosssectional investigation produced only differences between the age classes. Real differences were not to be found, but there are to be derived possible tendencies of development for the calvarial thickness, for the relation between the compact bone (tabula externa, tabula interna) and the porous bone (diploë), of the porosity in the diploë and the obliteration of the suture in the course of increasing age. No significant sex differences were found but there are sex peculiarities or at least inclinations to it. The use of the findings taken from the cross-sectional aspect of the cranial vault in order to estimate the age at death and the sex as well as indications of possible individual peculiarities, at present ead to a sufficiently reliable diagnosis only within a polysymptomatical practice. PMID:608583

Creutz, U

1977-01-01

196

Intramural distribution of regulatory peptides in the sigmoid-recto-anal region of the human gut.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of regulatory peptides was studied in the separated mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa taken at 10 sampling sites encompassing the whole human sigmoid colon (five sites), rectum (two sites), and anal canal (three sites). Consistently high concentrations of VIP were measured in the muscle layer at most sites (proximal sigmoid: 286 (16) pmol/g, upper rectum: 269 (17), a moderate decrease being found in the distal smooth sphincter (151 (30) pmol/g). Values are expressed as mean (SE). Conversely, substance P concentrations showed an obvious decline in the recto-anal muscle (mid sigmoid: 19 (2.0) pmol/g, distal rectum: 7.1 (1.3), upper anal canal: 1.6 (0.6)). Somatostatin was mainly present in the sigmoid mucosa and submucosa (37 (9.3) and 15 (3.5) pmol/g, respectively) and showed low, but consistent concentrations in the muscle (mid sigmoid: 2.2 (0.7) pmol/g, upper anal canal: 1.5 (0.8]. Starting in the distal sigmoid colon, a distinct peak of tissue NPY was revealed, which was most striking in the muscle (of mid sigmoid: 16 (3.9) pmol/g, upper rectum: 47 (7.8), anal sphincter: 58 (14)). Peptide YY was confined to the mucosa and showed an earlier peak (upper sigmoid: 709 (186) pmol/g, mid-distal sigmoid: 1965 (484)). A clear differential distribution of regulatory peptides was thus shown in the region studied. A possible role is suggested for NPY and VIP containing nerves in the effector control of the human internal anal sphincter. PMID:2454876

Ferri, G L; Adrian, T E; Allen, J M; Soimero, L; Cancellieri, A; Yeats, J C; Blank, M; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

1988-01-01

197

Modeling the Contributions of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus to Spatial Navigation Using Reinforcement Learning  

PubMed Central

A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN)-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of [1], a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze. PMID:23110073

Sukumar, Deepika; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa

2012-01-01

198

Hemlock woolly adelgid and elongate hemlock scale induce changes in foliar and twig volatiles of eastern hemlock.  

PubMed

Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is in rapid decline because of infestation by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae; 'HWA') and, to a lesser extent, the invasive elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa; 'EHS'). For many conifers, induced oleoresin-based defenses play a central role in their response to herbivorous insects; however, it is unknown whether eastern hemlock mobilizes these inducible defenses. We conducted a study to determine if feeding by HWA or EHS induced changes in the volatile resin compounds of eastern hemlock. Young trees were experimentally infested for 3 years with HWA, EHS, or neither insect. Twig and needle resin volatiles were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We observed a suite of changes in eastern hemlock's volatile profile markedly different from the largely terpenoid-based defense response of similar conifers. Overall, both insects produced a similar effect: most twig volatiles decreased slightly, while most needle volatiles increased slightly. Only HWA feeding led to elevated levels of methyl salicylate, a signal for systemic acquired resistance in many plants, and benzyl alcohol, a strong antimicrobial and aphid deterrent. Green leaf volatiles, often induced in wounded plants, were increased by both insects, but more strongly by EHS. The array of phytochemical changes we observed may reflect manipulation of the tree's biochemistry by HWA, or simply the absence of functional defenses against piercing-sucking insects due to the lack of evolutionary contact with these species. Our findings verify that HWA and EHS both induce changes in eastern hemlock's resin chemistry, and represent the first important step toward understanding the effects of inducible chemical defenses on hemlock susceptibility to these exotic pests. PMID:23900803

Pezet, Joshua; Elkinton, Joseph; Gomez, Sara; McKenzie, E Alexa; Lavine, Michael; Preisser, Evan

2013-08-01

199

Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de los modelos no son afectados al incluir la nueva teoría de convección.

Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

200

Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual ?15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual ?13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 ?13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather ?13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather ?13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

2010-12-01

201

Rare and new etiological agents revealed among 178 clinical Aspergillus strains obtained from Czech patients and characterized by molecular sequencing.  

PubMed

A collection of 178 Aspergillus isolates, recovered from Czech patients, mostly from 2007-2011, was subjected to multilocus DNA sequence typing using the ITS region, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin genes. An unusually wide spectrum of etiologic agents that included 36 species of Aspergillus is discussed in the context of recent taxonomic and clinical reports. Invasive aspergillosis (IA), onychomycosis, and otitis externa were the predominant clinical entities. Five cases due to species newly proven as etiologic agents of human mycoses, as well as cases with unique clinical manifestations caused by unusual agents are discussed in more detail. Three species (i.e., A. insulicola, A. westerdijkiae and A. tritici) were identified as the confirmed etiologic agents of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis. Emericella rugulosa was recovered from a premature newborn with a fatal necrotising disseminated infection and is reported for only the second time as the cause of IA. Furthermore, we document the first infection due to A. calidoustus in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. The infection manifested as a latent brain aspergilloma with an unusual clinical-laboratory finding. In addition to the well-known agents of human mycosis, several rarely isolated or poorly documented species were identified. An undescribed cryptic species related to A. versicolor was found to be common among isolates linked to proven and probable onychomycosis. An isolate representing A. fresenii, or an unnamed sister species, were causal agents of otomycosis. Three well defined, and tentative new species belonging to section Cervini, Candidi and Aspergillus (Eurotium spp.), were associated with cases of probable onychomycosis. PMID:22458252

Hubka, Vit; Kubatova, Alena; Mallatova, Nada; Sedlacek, Petr; Melichar, Jan; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mencl, Karel; Lyskova, Pavlina; Sramkova, Blanka; Chudickova, Milada; Hamal, Petr; Kolarik, Miroslav

2012-08-01

202

Progression of structural neuropathology in preclinical Huntington's disease: a tensor based morphometry study  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Regional cerebral atrophy occurs in carriers of the Huntington's disease (HD) gene mutation before clinical diagnosis is possible. The current inability to reliably measure progression of pathology in this preclinical phase impedes development of therapies to delay clinical onset. We hypothesised that longitudinal statistical imaging would detect progression of structural pathology in preclinical carriers of the HD gene mutation, in the absence of measurable clinical change. Methods: Thirty subjects (17 preclinical mutation positive, 13 mutation negative) underwent serial clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments over an interval of 2 years. Statistically significant changes in regional grey and white matter volume on MRI were analysed using tensor based morphometry (TBM). This technique derives a voxel-wise estimation of regional tissue volume change from the deformation field required to warp a subject's early to late T1 images. Results: Over 2 years, there was progressive regional grey matter atrophy in mutation-positive relative to negative subjects, without significant clinical progression of disease. Significant grey matter volume loss was limited to bilateral putamen and globus pallidus externa (GPe), left caudate nucleus, and left ventral midbrain in the region of the substantia nigra. Conclusions: While these results are consistent with previous cross sectional pathologic and morphometric studies, significant progression of atrophy in HD before the onset of significant clinical decline is now demonstrable with longitudinal statistical imaging. Such measures could be used to assess the efficacy of potential disease modifying drugs in slowing the progression of pathology before confirmed clinical onset of HD. PMID:15834021

Kipps, C; Duggins, A; Mahant, N; Gomes, L; Ashburner, J; McCusker, E

2005-01-01

203

Biological efficacy and stability of diluted ticarcillin-clavulanic acid in the topical treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.  

PubMed

Topical compounded Timentin(®) diluted with an inactive vehicle has been reported to be effective in the treatment of otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aims of this study were to determine the biological efficacy of Timentin(®) (ticarcillin and clavulanic acid) when diluted in the carrier vehicle Methopt(®) against P. aeruginosa and to determine the efficacy and stability of Timentin(®) aqueous stock concentrate solution. Timentin(®) stock concentrate was tested against four P. aeruginosa isolates on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28; then after 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage at 4 or -20°C. The diluted Timentin(®)-Methopt(®) solutions were tested against all isolates after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 28 days of storage at 24 or 4°C. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels for all strains were determined using the broth microdilution method. The MIC of the stock solution remained relatively constant and acceptable throughout the study when stored at -20°C and was also acceptable for shorter time periods (6-9 months) when stored at 4°C. The MIC for the diluted Timentin(®)-Methopt(®) solution remained relatively constant and acceptable throughout the study for all four bacterial strains, with no difference between the solutions stored at 4 or 24°C. The results of this study indicate that storage of the Timentin(®) stock solution at -20°C does not compromise efficacy for at least 12 months and that Timentin(®) diluted in Methopt(®) was stable for 28 days when stored at either 4 or 24°C. PMID:22050006

Bateman, Fiona L; Moss, Susan M; Trott, Darren J; Shipstone, Michael A

2012-04-01

204

Dual chemoarchitectonic lamination of the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus  

PubMed Central

The chemoanatomical organization of the visual sector of the cat’s thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) - i.e. at the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and at the pulvinar nucleus (Pul) - was investigated with two novel cytoarchitectonic markers. The Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) binding reaction visualized the extracellular perineuronal net (PN) and the SMI 32 immunoreaction stained intracellular neurofilaments. Two distinct layers of the TRN could be detected, particularly by WFA- but also by SMI 32-staining. The outer tier outlined a canopy of labeling placed a bit detached from the diencephalon dorsolaterally, while the inner TRN tier is very tightly attached to the thalamic lamina limitans externa. The labeled neurons showed typically fusiform morphology with dendrites orienting in the plane of TRN. Additionally, these chemoarchitectural reactions identified a chain of structures in the ventral diencephalon connected to the TRN tiers. One stained string is formed by the subthalamic nucleus bound laterally to the peripeduncular nucleus extending further dorsolateral into the outer TRN tier. The other chain laced up the field of Forel, the zona incerta, the ventral LGN, the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) and the previously-overlooked peripulvinar nucleus (PPulN) and so formed the inner TRN tier. In the third most distanced TRN tier, in the perireticular nucleus, a very few WFA-binding presenting neuron were found. In addition to the PN possessing TRN neurons, WFA-reactive presumable interneurons were also labeled within the visual thalamus. Following tracer injections into the feline Pul, two stripes of cells were retrogradely labeled in the neighboring visual TRN sector. The location of these reticular neurons coincided precisely with the chemoanatomically identified inner and outer TRN tiers. On the analogy of the PGN-TRN duality at the dLGN, the chemoanatomical and tract tracing findings strongly suggest a similar dual organization in the pulvinoprojecting TRN portion. PMID:19909790

Baldauf, Zsolt B.

2009-01-01

205

Renal corpuscle of the sturgeon kidney: an ultrastructural, chemical dissection, and lectin-binding study.  

PubMed

The sturgeon is an ancient species of fish that thrives in a wide range of ecological environments, from freshwater to seawater. Basic in this process of adaptation is the ability of the kidney to control fluid filtration and urine formation. However, the morphological basis of this process is mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to use microdissection techniques (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and lectin-binding histochemistry) to examine the structure of the renal corpuscle of the sturgeon Acipenser nacarii in order to reveal morphologic features that could be related to function, phylogeny, and habitat. The renal corpuscles are aligned along the intrarrenal arteries. The urinary pole shows a siphon-like neck segment (NS) in 92% of the nephrons, whose structural characteristics are different from those of other fish. The podocytes have cuboidal cellular bodies, intercellular contacts, and poorly developed cell processes. The podocyte glycocalyx contains N-acetylglucosamine and lacks sialic acid. The structural and lectin-binding patterns are similar to those found in the immature mammalian kidney. The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is very thick and consists of three layers: a lamina rara externa, a lamina densa, and a thick subendothelial lamina. The latter contains tubular microfibrils, collagen fibers, and long mesangial cell processes. Frequently, the podocyte bodies attach directly to the GBM, and the area occupied by the filtration slits is very small. Furthermore, the GBM shows a glycosylation pattern different from that observed in most vertebrates. Contrary to what would be expected in sturgeons living in freshwater, the A. nacarii renal corpuscle morphology suggests a low glomerular filtration rate. PMID:12740951

Ojeda, José L; Icardo, José M; Domezain, Alberto

2003-06-01

206

Eradication of elephant ear mites (Loxoanoetus bassoni) in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects. PMID:22448521

Wyatt, Jeff; DiVincenti, Louis

2012-03-01

207

Side-effects of glyphosate on the life parameters of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) in Argentina.  

PubMed

In Argentina, transgenic soybean crop (Roundup Ready, RR) has undergone a major expansion over the last 15 years, with the consequent increase of glyphosate applications, a broad-spectrum and post emergence herbicide. Soybean crops are inhabited by several arthropods. Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is a predator associated to soybean soft-bodies pest and have a Neotropical distribution. Nowadays, it is being considered a potentially biological control agent in South America. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on larvae (third instar) and adults of this predator. Commercial compound and the maximum registered concentrations for field use were employed: GlifoGlex 48 (48% glyphosate, 192 mg a.i./litre, Gleba Argentina S.A.). The exposure was by ingestion through the treated prey (Rophalosiphum padi) or by drinking treated water during 48 h for treatment of the adult. The herbicide solutions were prepared using distilled water as solvent. The bioassays were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions: 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) of photoperiod. Development time, weight of pupae, adult emergence, pre-oviposition period, fecundity and fertility were evaluated as endpoints. Larvae from glyphosate treatment molted earlier than controls. In addition, the weight of pupae, longevity, fecundity and fertility were drastically reduced in treated organisms. The reductions were more drastic when the treatments were performed at the third larval stage than as adult. The reproduction capacity of the predator was the most affected parameter and could be related to a hormonal disruption by glyphosate in the treated organisms. This work can confirm the deleterious effects of this herbicide on beneficial organisms. Also, it agrees with prior studies carried out on other predators associated to soybean pest, such as Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae). PMID:21539255

Mirande, L; Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Piñeda, S; Schneider, M I

2010-01-01

208

Evaluation of fungal flora in normal and diseased canine ears.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to characterize otic fungal flora encountered in normal dogs, atopic dogs with no clinical or cytological evidence of otitis and dogs with otitis externa. Forty-two normal dogs, 23 atopic dogs and 32 dogs with otitis were included in the study. Samples for otic fungal culture and cytology were obtained from all animals, for a total of 194 ears. Sixty-seven ear samples (34%) were culture positive for saprophytic fungal organisms, as follows: 43 (64%) Penicillium species, 13 (19%) Aspergillus species and the remaining 17% comprised of various other saprophytic fungal organisms. Cytological evidence of saprophytic fungal colonization or infection was not found in any animal. There was no relationship between positive saprophytic fungal culture and any study group. Thirty-three ear samples (17%) were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis. Cytological findings of Malassezia were significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia (P = 0.006 left ear; P = 0.019 right ear). Furthermore, increased numbers of Malassezia led to a higher chance of positive culture (P = 0.003 left ear; P = 0.008 right ear; McNemar's test). Malassezia pachydermatis was more likely to be cultured from ears with increased cerumen. Ear type (erect or pendulous) was not significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia or saprophytic fungal organisms. There was no relationship between positive Malassezia culture and any study group; however, Malassezia was more likely to be cultured from individual dogs in the atopic or otitis groups that also had other dermatological signs consistent with allergic dermatitis and/or pyoderma (P = 0.031 left ear; P = 0.005 right ear). PMID:20868397

Campbell, Jacquelyn J; Coyner, Kimberly S; Rankin, Shelley C; Lewis, Thomas P; Schick, Anthea E; Shumaker, Amy K

2010-12-01

209

Safety and tolerability of 0.1% tacrolimus solution applied to the external ear canals of atopic beagle dogs without otitis.  

PubMed

Tacrolimus is a nonsteroidal alternative to treat noninfectious otitis externa (OE) in people. This 21-day study investigated whether twice daily application (0.2 mL/dose) of sterile olive oil based 0.1% tacrolimus suspension in ears of atopic beagle dogs without OE was associated with adverse local reactions, development of OE, change in otic cytology, vestibular dysfunction, or hearing loss detected by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). The study was randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. Twenty-two dogs matched for age and sex were randomized to tacrolimus or vehicle control treatment groups. Two investigators independently evaluated dogs for signs of adverse effects including OE the first 4 days of treatment, then every 3 days. A logistic regression model was fit for each investigator's clinical scores (SAS, 9.2, 2008). Time (P = 0.0032) and group (P = 0.0167) were always significant for OE. Inter-observer reliability of clinical scores was strong, measured using Kappa coefficients and proportion of agreement. All nine exclusions (7/10 control- and 2/12 tacrolimus-treated dogs) were excluded for yeast OE. Inter-observer agreement to exclude was 100%. All dogs not excluded had normal BAER assessments before treatment, weekly during treatment, and after 21 days of treatment. None showed vestibular abnormalities at these times. Tacrolimus blood concentrations (Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II) were below detection limits (3 ng/mL) at baseline and after 21 days of treatment. Results suggest otic application of olive oil based tacrolimus suspension to canine ears with intact tympanic membranes is unlikely to result in hearing loss or vestibular dysfunction but yeast OE is a possible risk. PMID:20609208

Kelley, Laura S; Flynn-Lurie, Alison K; House, Rossi A; Simpson, Andrew C; Marsella, Rosanna

2010-12-01

210

Multiple osteosclerotic lesions in an Iron Age skull from Switzerland (320-250 BC)--an unusual case.  

PubMed

The single Hochdorf burial was found in 1887 during construction work in the Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland. It dates from between 320 and 250 BC. The calvarium, the left half of the pelvis and the left femur were preserved. The finding shows an unusual bony alteration of the skull. The aim of this study was to obtain a differential diagnosis and to examine the skull using various methods. Sex and age were determined anthropologically. Radiological examinations were performed with plain X-ray imaging and a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner. For histological analysis, samples of the lesion were taken. The pathological processing included staining after fixation, decalcification, and paraffin embedding. Hard-cut sections were also prepared. The individual was female. The age at death was between 30 and 50 years. There is an intensely calcified bone proliferation at the right side of the os frontalis. Plain X-ray and CT imaging showed a large sclerotic lesion in the area of the right temple with a partly bulging appearance. The inner boundary of the lesion shows multi-edged irregularities. There is a diffuse thickening of the right side. In the left skull vault, there is a mix of sclerotic areas and areas which appear to be normal with a clear differentiation between tabula interna, diploë and tabula externa. Histology showed mature organised bone tissue. Radiological and histological findings favour a benign condition. Differential diagnoses comprise osteomas which may occur, for example, in the setting of hereditary adenomatous polyposis coli related to Gardner syndrome. PMID:23897004

Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Langer, Rupert; Ross, Steffen; Nielsen, Ebbe; Lösch, Sandra

2013-01-01

211

Upregulation of ?1-adrenoceptors is involved in the formation of gastric dysmotility in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal dysmotility is one of the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Gastroparesis and upregulated ?-adrenoceptors (?-ARs) have been reported in rats with bilateral microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the substantia nigra, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of ?-ARs in gastroparesis in 6-OHDA rats. Gastric motility was studied through strain gauge measurement. Immunofluorescence, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to examine the expression of ?-ARs. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited gastric motility in a dose-dependent fashion in both control and 6-OHDA rats, but much stronger adrenergic reactivity was observed in the 6-OHDA rats. The inhibition of gastric motility by NE in both control and 6-OHDA rats was not affected by tetrodotoxin, a neural sodium channel blocker. Blocking ?1-AR or ?2-AR did not affect the inhibition of strip contraction by NE in control rats, but ?1-AR blockage obviously enhanced the half maximal inhibitory concentration value of NE in 6-OHDA rats. Selective inhibition of ?3-AR blocked the effect of NE significantly in both control and 6-OHDA rats. The protein expression of ?1-AR, but not ?2-AR and ?3-AR in gastric muscularis externa was increased significantly in 6-OHDA rats. In conclusion, ?3-AR involves the regulation of gastric motility in control rats, whereas the upregulation of ?1-AR is responsible for enhanced NE reactivity in 6-OHDA rats and therefore is involved in the formation of gastroparesis. The effect of both ?1-AR and ?3-AR on gastric motility is independent of the enteric nervous system. PMID:24467967

Song, Jin; Zheng, Lifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Feng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruifang; Sun, Lu; Hong, Feng; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jinxia

2014-07-01

212

The guinea-pig oesophagus is a versatile in vitro preparation for pharmacological studies.  

PubMed

1. The isolated oesophagus of the guinea-pig is a useful preparation that can be used as an alternative to the phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations that have been used traditionally in the determination of the actions of drugs and toxins at the neuromuscular junction. The guinea-pig isolated oesophagus can also provide information about effects at ganglionic nicotinic receptors, which are not present in the diaphragm preparations. 2. The muscularis externa of the body of the oesophagus consists exclusively of striated muscle fibres. The myenteric plexus is found between the outer longitudinally arranged layer and the inner circular layer. The muscularis mucosae contains smooth muscle fibres arranged longitudinally. 3. The vagal nerves are comprised of special vagal efferents that innervate the striated muscle fibres directly and 'parasympathetic' vagal fibres that synapse in the myenteric ganglia and, subsequently, affect the smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae. Thus, both striated and smooth muscle responses to vagal nerve stimulation can be studied. In addition, afferent neurons run in the vagus. 4. Studies using various isolated oesophageal preparations have been reviewed. These consist of the whole oesophagus (including striated muscle, myenteric plexus and smooth muscle), the isolated mucosal layer (striated muscle and the myenteric plexus both absent) and the whole oesophagus with the vagus nerve attached. Comparative studies of the effects of drugs acting directly on the muscularis mucosae and/or indirectly via the intramural plexuses can be performed using the whole oesophagus and the isolated mucosal layer. 5. The use of the guinea-pig isolated vagus nerve-oesophagus preparation allows potency determinations for both neuromuscular and ganglion blockade of various non-depolarizing muscle relaxants to be performed simultaneously under identical conditions. Furthermore, the phenomenon of fade, a waning of tetanic tension during the stimulation period, can be studied. 6. A potential application of this preparation is the simultaneous screening of the constituents of snake venoms for activity at the neuromuscular junction and/or the ganglion. It is also suggested that new calcium channel blockers could be screened in this preparation because different voltage-sensitive calcium channels are involved in neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals at the neuromuscular junction and autonomic cholinergic neuroeffector sites. PMID:12390291

Kerr, Karen P

2002-12-01

213

Extensional Detachment faulting in melange rocks. Plurikilometres migration by W the External Zone (Cordillera Bética, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis and correlation of units carried out in the continuous geological map (Roldán et al., 2012), has revealed a fragmentation of the carbonate outcrops belong to the Subbetic Domain (García-Hernández et al., 1980). Subbetic NW verging thrust and fold axial traces have not lateral continuity and Jurassic carbonate outscrops appear as klippes on the olistotromic unit. These ductile structures that can be observed in the internal structure of these jurassic blocks are unrelated to the brittle-ductile deformation bands observed at the basal pelitic levels. Basal detachments are rooted in: a) the Olistostromic unit, a Upper Langhian-Lower Serravallian breccia constituted by gypsum-bearing clay and marls; b) Cretaceous-Tertiary marly sedimentary rocks (Rodríguez-Fernández, et al., 2013) . In both kind of rocks, cataclastic structures allows to infer a top-to-the WSW displacement. Paleostress measurements, made on these detachments levels, are compatible with a extensional regime (Roldán et al., 2012). At the same time, the analysis and interpretation of subsurface data (seismic surveys and borehole testing) shows that the Subbetic Domain (External Subbetic, Molina 1987) are affected by westward low-angle normal faults. A balanced cross-section, based on morphological and cartographic data in the area between Sierra de Cabra and Sierra de Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén), shows plurikilometric displacements which has been produced during Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian times. References: García-Hernández, M., López-Garrido, A.C., Rivas, P., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Vera, J.A. (1980): Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the zones of the Betic Cordillera. Geol. Mijnb. 59 (2). 155-168. Molina, J.M. (1987). Análisis de facies del Mesozoico en el Subbético. Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Granada. 518 p. Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Roldán, F. J., Azañón, J.M. y García-Cortés, A. (2013). El colapso gravitacional del frente orogénico a lpino en el Dominio Subbético durante el Mioceno medio-superior: El Complejo Extensional Subbético. Boletín Geológico y Minero, 124 (3): 477-504. Roldán, F.J., Azañón, J.M. y Rodríguez-Fernández, J. (2012): Desplazamiento extensional del Subbético entre las sierras de Cabra y Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén. Zonas Externas de la Cordillera Bética). VIII Congreso Geológico de España oviedo. GEOTEMAS, V-13: 484. Roldán, F.J., Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Villalobos, M., Lastra, J., Díaz-Pinto, G., Pérez Rodríguez, A.B. (2012). Zonas: Subbético, Cuenca del Guadalquivir y Campo de Gibraltar. In GEODE. Mapa Geológico Digital Continuo de España. Sistema de Información Geológica Continua: SIGECO. IGME. Editor Navas, J. Disponible en: http://cuarzo.igme.es/sigeco.default.htm

Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Rodríguez, Jose; Mateos, Rosa Maria

2014-05-01

214

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus responsible for human colonization and infection in an area of Italy with high density of pig farming  

PubMed Central

Background Livestock-Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) belonging to ST398 lineage, common among pigs and other animals, emerged in Central and Northern Europe, becoming a new risk factor for MRSA among farm workers. Strains belonging to ST398 can be responsible for human colonization and infection, mainly in areas with high livestock-farming. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) human colonization and infections in an area of the Lombardy Region (Italy), the Italian region with the highest density of pig farming. Methods In the period March-April 2010, 879 nasal swabs were taken from subjects at admission to a local hospital serving an area of the Lombardy Region devoted to agriculture and farming. In the period March 2010-February 2011, all MRSA strains from community-acquired infection (CAI) observed in the same hospital, were collected. Molecular characterization of the isolates included SCCmec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results Out of 879 nasal swabs examined, 9 (1%) yielded MRSA. Five strains were assigned to sequence type (ST)398 (spa t899, 3 isolates; t108 and t2922, 1 isolate each) and were therefore categorized as LA-MRSA. The other 4 isolates were likely of hospital origin. No strains were positive for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes. Twenty MRSA isolates were detected from CAI, 17 were from skin and soft-tissue infections and 3 from other infections. An MRSA isolate from otitis externa was t899/ST398 and PVL-negative, hence categorized as LA-MRSA. Four isolates were assigned to t127/ST1. Eight strains were PVL-positive community acquired (CA)-MRSA and belonged to different clones, the most frequent being ST8. Conclusions In an area of Italy with high density of pig farming, LA-MRSA is able to colonize the population and rarely to produce infections. Typical CA-MRSA is more common than LA-MRSA among CAI. PMID:23731504

2013-01-01

215

Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em vários aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-anãs.

Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

2003-08-01

216

Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis.  

PubMed

The cationic ultrastructural tracer polyethyleneimine (PEI: pI approximately equal to 11.0), binds electrophysically to uniformly spaced discrete electron-dense anionic sites present in the laminae rarae of the rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangial reflections of the GBM, Bowman's capsule, and tubular basement membranes when administered intravenously. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of glomerular anionic sites reveals that the maximum concentration of stainable lamina rara externa (lre) sites (21/10,000 A GBM) occurs 60 minutes after PEI injection with a site-site interspacing of 460 A. Lamina rara interna (lri) sites similarly demonstrate a maximum concentration (20/10,000 A GBM) at 60 minutes with a periodicity of 497 A. The concentration and distribution of anionic sites within the lri was irregular in pattern and markedly decreased in number, while the lre possesses an electrical field that is highly regular at all time intervals analyzed (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes). Immersion and perfusion of renal tissue with PEI reveals additional heavy staining of the epithelial and endothelial cell sialoprotein coatings. PEI appears to bind to glomerular anionic sites reversibly: ie, between 60 and 180 minutes the concentration of stained sites decreases. At 300 minutes, the interspacing once again approaches the 60-minute concentration. This suggests a dynamic turnover or dissociation followed by a reassociation of glomerular negatively charged PEI binding sites. In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria. PEI does not induce proteinuria in rats, nor does it produce glomerular morphologic alterations when ten times the tracer dosage is administered intravenously. These findings indicate that the choice of ultrastructural charge tracer, the method of administering the tracer, and the time selected for analysis of tissue after administration of tracer significantly influences results. Morphometric analysis of the distribution of glomerular anionic sites in nonproteinuric rats provides a method of evaluating quantitative alterations of the glomerular charge barrier in renal disease models. PMID:4073220

Pilia, P A; Swain, R P; Williams, A V; Loadholt, C B; Ainsworth, S K

1985-12-01

217

Supplementation of direct-fed microbials as an alternative to antibiotic on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 800 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross × Ross) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment (50 birds/replicate pen). The 4 dietary treatments fed for 35 d were a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 0.1% virginiamycin, as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP); control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained Lactobacillus reuteri (DFM 1); and control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained a mixture of L. reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DFM 2). Results showed that dietary AGP and DFM supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the BW gain of broilers during 0 to 21 d. The feed intake was reduced, whereas the feed conversion was improved significantly when birds were fed DFM 2 at 0 to 7 d of age. The white blood cell and monocyte levels were significantly higher in the DFM 2 group compared with the control. In addition, feeding DFM significantly (P < 0.05) increased the plasma immunoglobulin levels where a higher level was observed in DFM 2 compared with those of the other treatments. Neither DFM nor AGP treatments affected the cecal Lactobacillus and Salmonella content; however, cecal Escherichia coli content significantly decreased in broiler chickens fed DFM and AGP. The ileal villus height, and width and total thickness of muscularis externa were significantly increased when birds were fed DFM compared with AGP and control. These results indicate that the dietary supplementation of DFM increases the growth performance of birds at an early age, stimulates the immune response, decreases the number of E. coli, and improves the ileal morphology of broiler chickens. Thus, DFM that contained a mixture of several beneficial microorganisms could be a viable alternative to antibiotics in the broiler diets. PMID:23873556

Salim, H M; Kang, H K; Akter, N; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Na, J C; Jong, H B; Choi, H C; Suh, O S; Kim, W K

2013-08-01

218

Hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic sauvagine-like immunoreactivity in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) central nervous system.  

PubMed

In the present study, immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay were used to investigate the presence of sauvagine in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic areas of the central nervous system (CNS) of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) using a specific antiserum raised against synthetic non-conjugated sauvagine (SVG), a frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagei) skin peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family. Sauvagine-immunoreactive (SVG-ir) bipolar neurons were found in the nucleus of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis located in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. In the tectal mesencephalon, beaded SVG-ir fibres were present in the optic tectum, and in the torus semicircularis. Abundant SVG-ir varicose fibres were seen in the granulosa layer of the cerebellum, the nucleus isthmi, and the obex of the spinal cord. SVG-ir fibres were also seen by the alar plate of the rombencephalon. In the diencephalon, the antiserum stained parvocellular neurons of the preoptic nucleus (PON) which extended their dendrites into the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) of the third ventricle and projected their ependymofugal fibres to the zona externa (ZE) of the median eminence. Immunopositive fibres were also present in the medial forebrain bundle at the chiasmatic field, the posterior thalamus, the pretectal gray, and the ventrocaudal hypothalamus. In the telencephalon (forebrain), SVG-ir fibres were seen in the medial septum, the lateral septum, and the amygdala. The SVG immunoreactivity could not be detected after using the SVG antiserum previously immunoabsorbed with synthetic SVG (0.1 microM), but immunoblock of the antiserum with sucker (Catostomus commersoni) urotensin I (sUI), sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) urotensin I, sucker CRF, rat/human CRF, or ovine CRF (0.1-10 microM) did not eliminate visualization of the immunoreactivity. In radioimmunoassay, the SVG antiserum did not crossreact with sUI, or the SVG fragments SVG1-16, SVG16-27, and SVG26-34, but it recognized the C-terminal fragment SVG35-40. Crossreaction with mammalian ovine CRF and rat/human CRF was negligible. Both hypothalamic and mesencephalic extracts gave parallel displacement curves to SVG. The results suggest the presence in the bullfrog brain of a SVG-like neuropeptide, i.e., a peptide of the CRF family, that either is SVG or shares high homology with the C-terminus of that peptide. The function of this neuropeptide in amphibians is not known at this time, but based on its anatomical distribution to the ZE it could affect the release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or other substances from the amphibian pars distalis. Involvement of the SVG-like peptide in behavioural (forebrain), visual (thalamus-tegmentum mesencephali-pretectal gray-optic tectum), motor coordination (cerebellum), and autonomic (spinal) functions, as well as an undefined interaction with the CSF in the bullfrog, seems likely. PMID:8822168

Gonzalez, G C; Bountzioukas, S; Gonzalez, E S; McMaster, D; Ko, D; Lederis, K; Lukowiak, K

1996-02-01

219

Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas  

PubMed Central

Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

2013-01-01