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Otitis externa.  


Acute otitis externa (AOE) is most often infectious in origin, and can be easily treated with a combination of topical antibiotic and steroid preparations. Systemic antibiotics are rarely needed for AOE. Chronic otitis externa (COE) can be more difficult to treat, but if an underlying cause can be identified this condition can often be successfully managed. In both AOE and COE, prevention is fundamental. If patients are able to avoid precipitating factors, future episodes can often be averted. PMID:24439876

Wipperman, Jennifer



Les antihistaminiques pour les enfants souffrant d'otite moyenne  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question L’otite moyenne est un problème très fréquent en pédiatrie et peut causer bien du stress à l’enfant et à ses parents. Les antihistaminiques et les décongestionnants ont-ils un rôle à jouer dans la prise en charge de l’otite moyenne aiguë ou de l’otite moyenne avec épanchement chez les enfants? Réponse Traditionnellement, les antihistaminiques et les décongestionnants ont été utilisés pour traiter l’otite moyenne; par ailleurs, de récentes lignes directrices, fondées sur des études dans lesquelles on a constaté des résultats négatifs, recommandent de ne pas les utiliser systématiquement. Aucune combinaison d’antihistaminique et de décongestionnant n’a été éprouvée comme ayant des bienfaits cliniquement significatifs, sans compter qu’il faut prendre en considération les effets indésirables possibles.

Bonney, Asha G.; Goldman, Ran D.



Proliferative and necrotising otitis externa in a cat without pinnal involvement: video-otoscopic features.  


Proliferative and necrotising otitis externa is a rare and recently described disease affecting the ear canals and concave pinnae of kittens. This article describes a case of proliferative and necrotising otits externa in a young adult cat. In this case, the lesions did not affected the pinnae, but both ear canals were severely involved. Video-otoscopy revealed a digitally proliferative lesion, growing at 360° all around the ear canals for their entire length, without involvement of the middle ear. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis, and the cat responded completely to a once-daily application of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment diluted in mineral oil in the ear canals. Video-otoscopy findings, not described previously, were very peculiar and may help clinicians to diagnose this rare disease. PMID:23197497

Borio, Stefano; Massari, Federico; Abramo, Francesca; Colombo, Silvia



New minor ecdysteroids from Silene otites (L.) Wib.  


Six minor new ecdysteroid components have been isolated from Silene otites (L.) Wib. by a combination of chromatographic methods. Three of them (2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 3,22-diacetate, 5 alpha-2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 3-acetate, and 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 3-crotonate) are new natural products. PMID:9408851

Báthori, M; Girault, J P; Kalász, H; Máthé, I; Lafont, R



Bioactive furanoeremophilanes from Senecio otites Kunze ex DC.  


The furanoeremophilanes 6 beta-angeloyloxy-1,10-dehydrofuranoeremophilan-9-one (1), 6 beta-hydroxy-1,10-dehydrofuranoeremophilan-9-one (2) and 6 beta-propionyloxy-1,10-dehydrofuranoeremophilan-9-one (3) were isolated from Senecio otites, their structures elucidated by spectral analyses, and their insecticidal and phytotoxic properties evaluated. Compounds 1-3 proved to be effective aphid antifeedants against Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi and had postingestive negative effects on Spodoptera littoralis larvae. These compounds did not have any phytotoxic effects on Lactuca sativa. PMID:19227831

Domínguez, Dulce M; Reina, Matías; Villarroel, Luis; Fajardo, Victor; González-Coloma, Azucena



Acute otitis externa: an update.  


Acute otitis externa is a common condition involving inflammation of the ear canal. The acute form is caused primarily by bacterial infection, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus the most common pathogens. Acute otitis externa presents with the rapid onset of ear canal inflammation, resulting in otalgia, itching, canal edema, canal erythema, and otorrhea, and often occurs following swimming or minor trauma from inappropriate cleaning. Tenderness with movement of the tragus or pinna is a classic finding. Topical antimicrobials or antibiotics such as acetic acid, aminoglycosides, polymyxin B, and quinolones are the treatment of choice in uncomplicated cases. These agents come in preparations with or without topical corticosteroids; the addition of corticosteroids may help resolve symptoms more quickly. However, there is no good evidence that any one antimicrobial or antibiotic preparation is clinically superior to another. The choice of treatment is based on a number of factors, including tympanic membrane status, adverse effect profiles, adherence issues, and cost. Neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone preparations are a reasonable first-line therapy when the tympanic membrane is intact. Oral antibiotics are reserved for cases in which the infection has spread beyond the ear canal or in patients at risk of a rapidly progressing infection. Chronic otitis externa is often caused by allergies or underlying inflammatory dermatologic conditions, and is treated by addressing the underlying causes. PMID:23198673

Schaefer, Paul; Baugh, Reginald F



Floral odors of Silene otites: their variability and attractiveness to mosquitoes.  


Inflorescence scent samples from nine populations of dioecious Silene otites, a plant pollinated by moths and mosquitoes, were collected by dynamic headspace extraction. Sixty-three scent samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Out of 38 found, 35 compounds were identified, most of which were monoterpenoids, fatty acid derivatives, and benzenoids. Phenyl acetaldehyde was the most dominant compound in the majority of samples. The variability in scent composition was high, and population and sex differences were found. Nevertheless, wind tunnel experiments proved similar attraction of Culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus mosquitoes to the inflorescence odor of S. otites of different populations, indicating that different blends are similarly attractive to mosquitoes. The electrophysiological responses of mosquitoes to the 12 most common and abundant odor compounds of S. otites differed. Linalool oxide (furanoid) and linalool evoked the strongest responses in male and female mosquitoes, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was strongly active in females. Medium responses were evoked in males by (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, in females by benzaldehyde and methyl salicylate, and in both sexes by lilac aldehyde, lilac alcohol, and linalool oxide (pyranoid). PMID:18057987

Jhumur, Umma Salma; Dötterl, Stefan; Jürgens, Andreas



Necrotizing otitis externa: a painless reminder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing otitis externa is a necrotizing osteomyelitis of the skull base that predominantly affects diabetic and immunocompromised\\u000a patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequently implicated organism. Patients present with severe otalgia, otorrhoea with or without facial palsy,\\u000a or rarely, facial pain as a symptomatic feature. We report a case of necrotizing otitis externa presenting with totally painless\\u000a otorrhoea and highlight

Daniel Thio; Phillip Reece; Rory Herdman



Conchomeatoplasty for chronic otitis externa.  


Chronic moisture is a major cause of chronic otitis externa (COE). Moisture combined with inadequate lubrication of the stratum corneum and retention of keratin debris promote bacterial and fungal growth. In most cases of COE, creating a well-aerated, dry, self-cleaning external auditory canal prevents further infection. This can usually be accomplished by medical treatment that includes suction and swabbing. Antibiotic-steroid ear drops control infection and inflammation. Alcohol flush and warm-air ventilation dry the canal, and a hydrophobic cream lubricates and seals the stratum corneum from moisture, fungus, and bacteria. An anatomic variation, a narrow external auditory meatus leading to poor ventilation, is frequently associated with COE, which does not respond to conventional therapy. A previously unreported simple lateral conchomeatoplasty is presented. No other described meatoplasty corrects both the conchal cartilage projection and inadequate meatal skin circumference which, together, cause the small meatus. The lateral conchomeatoplasty has been used by this author for over 20 years on 35 ears. All patients showed improvement; most had complete control. PMID:3348895

Hunsaker, D H



Isolation of 5 alpha- and 5 beta-dihydrorubrosterone from Silene otites L. (Wib).  


5 alpha-Dihydrorubrosterone (2 beta, 3 beta, 14 alpha, 17 beta-tetrahydroxy-5 alpha-androst-7-ene-6-one), a new 19-carbon 5 alpha-ecdysteroid, was isolated together with its 5 beta counterpart from the aerial parts of Silene otites L. (Wib.) (Caryophyllaceae) by a combination of solvent partition, low-pressure column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (normal-phase and reversed-phase) and finally HPLC. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic procedures were used for compound characterization. PMID:11113925

Báthori, M; Girault, J P; Máthé, I; Lafont, R



Nasopharyngeal cancer mimicking otitic barotrauma in a resource-challenged center: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nasopharyngeal cancer commonly manifests with cervical lymphadenopathy, recurrent epistaxis and progressive nasal obstruction. Neuro-ophthalmic and otologic manifestations can also occur. Isolated otologic presentations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare and the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer may not be foremost in the list of differentials. Case presentation We present the case of a 29-year-old Nigerian woman with bilateral conductive hearing loss and tinnitus after air travel. There were no other symptoms. The persistence of the symptoms after adequate treatment for otitic barotrauma necessitated re-evaluation, which led to a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer. Conclusion Isolated otologic manifestations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare in regions with low incidence of the disease. There is a need for it to be considered as a possible differential in patients presenting with bilateral serous otitis media.



Ophthalmomyiasis Externa: Case Report of the Clinicopathologic Features  

PubMed Central

Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the infestation of the superficial external ocular structures by fly larvae. This is a particularly rare condition, which has nevertheless been reported in several countries worldwide. Presented herein are the clinicopathologic features of ophthalmomyiasis externa which occurred in an adult patient. The patient responded well to treatment following thorough ophthalmological examination and prompt diagnosis.

Pather, Sugeshnee; Botha, Louis M; Hale, Martin J; Jena-Stuart, Shirely



Ophthalmomyiasis externa from Hakkari, the south east border of Turkey.  


Ophthalmomyiasis externa refers to the infestation of ocular surface by dipterous larvae. The term ophthalmomyiasis interna refers to the infestation of the anterior or posterior segment of the eyeball. Oestrus ovis is the most common aetiological agent for ophthalmomyiasis externa, and external disease is the most common form of ocular myiasis correspondingly. The larva is an obligate parasite of sheep. However, humans are accidentally infested. This article is related to the case series of three patients with the diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis externa who were treated in Hakkari State Hospital in June 2013. PMID:24532104

Istek, ?eref



Clinical practice guideline: acute otitis externa executive summary.  


The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the updated Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute Otitis Externa, as a supplement to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 8 recommendations developed address appropriate diagnosis of acute otitis externa (AOE) and the use of oral and topical antimicrobials and highlight the need for adequate pain relief. An updated guideline is needed due to new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group. PMID:24492208

Rosenfeld, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth R; Cannon, C Ron; Roland, Peter S; Simon, Geoffrey R; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Huang, William W; Haskell, Helen W; Robertson, Peter J



Consideraciones clínicas sobre la resorción radicular externa por impactación dentaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

La resorción externa por presión (RREP) consiste en una pérdida de tejido dentinario y cementario de las raíces dentarias que se origina a nivel del ligamento periodontal, ocasionada por presiones prolongadas y mantenidas sobre la raíz. Presentamos tres casos con diferente repercusión y tratamiento. Según el distinto grado de afecta­ ción se describe y clasifica el tratamiento de RREP a

Martínez Lozano MA; Forner Navarro L; Sánchez Cortés JL


Epidemiological Studies of Otitis Externa: Report of a Prospective and of a Retrospective Study of Otitis Externa Among Swimmers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two epidemiological studies of otitis externa were conducted, one was a prospective study conducted in the summer of 1979 which compared boy scouts at camp that swam in a fresh water lake with boy scouts at another camp that swam in a chlorinated swimming...

R. L. Calderon E. W. Mood



Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplasmic [correction of cytoplamic] diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites.  


Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics. PMID:23591518

Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P



Single photon emission computed tomography\\/computed tomography of the skull in malignant otitis externa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant otitis externa is a severe, rare infective condition of the external auditory canal and skull base. The diagnosis is generally made from a range of clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy is known to detect osteomyelitis earlier than computed tomography. The authors present a patient with bilateral malignant otitis externa where the extent of

Dhritiman Chakraborty; Anish Bhattacharya; Koramadai Karuppusamy Kamaleshwaran; Kanhaiyalal Agrawal; Ashok Kumar Gupta; Bhagwant Rai Mittal


Treatment of canine otitis externa using video otoscopy.  


Otitis externa in 27 toy poodles and 40 miniature dachshunds was treated using a video otoscope. A distinct concavity (external tympanic concavity) was observed at the junction between the ventral part of the external surface of the tympanum and the ear canal to which a considerable amount of hair and debris had adhered. All hair and debris adhering to the external tympanic concavity were removed, and systemic antibiotic and antifungal agents were administered, after which all of the dogs recovered. The pattern of hair growth observed in the external tympanic concavity could be characterized according to the breed of dog. All of the toy poodles presented with curly hairs, while the miniature dachshunds had upright or flat-lying hairs. PMID:21597241

Usui, Reiko; Usui, Ryoichi; Fukuda, Minako; Fukui, Emiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko



Occurrence of Malassezia species in Persian and domestic short hair cats with and without otitis externa.  


The yeasts of the Malassezia genus are opportunistic microorganisms in the skin and auricular canal of human and animals, mainly cats, and can cause otitis externa and dermatitis disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of different species of Malassezia in the external ear canal of cats with and without otitis externa. Thirty-one normal cats and 82 animals with otitis externa were clinically examined. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect specimens from the external ear canal and streaked onto the surface of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia yeasts were isolated from 95.1% and 48.4% of the cats with and without otitis externa, respectively. The rate of isolation in affected animals versus normals was highly significant (P<0.05). Out of the 137 isolates obtained from cats with otitis, 57.7% were identified as M. pachydermatis (with significant frequency; P<0.05), 15.4% as M. obtusa, 11.4% as M. globosa, 7.3% as M. slooffiae, 4.1% as M. sympodialis, 2.4% as M. furfur and 1.6% as M. restricta. Malassezia species were frequently isolated from subjects with age range from 1 to 4 years old (42.7%). Our finding of Malassezia isolates indicated that feline otitis externa can be associated with lipid-dependent Malassezia species in addition to the non lipid- dependent species M. pachydermatis. PMID:19952510

Shokri, Hojjatollah; Khosravi, Alireza; Rad, Mohammadali; Jamshidi, Shahram



[Value of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of malignant otitis externa. Apropos of a case].  


The authors report the case of a 75 years old insulin dependent diabetic man presenting a malignant otitis externa with facial nerve paralysis. Despite prolonged, adequate parenteral antibiotic therapy, the patient's clinical status did not improve. The addition of hyperbaric oxygen as a complementary treatment was followed by the regression of clinical signs and the resolution of infection. Based upon a review of the literature, the authors discuss the indications for this therapy and the problems involved in defining the criteria of cure in malignant otitis externa. PMID:8317865

Gilain, L; Labroue, M; Aidan, D; Ragu, M P; Planquart, X; Peynegre, R



In vitro antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (167) were obtained from 528 samples of canine otitis externa, identified by biochemical reactions and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials. The most effective drug was ciprofloxacin. The study reports alarming resistance among P. aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis externa samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Penna, B.; Thome, S.; Martins, R.; Martins, G.; Lilenbaum, W.



Peri and retrobulbar abscess caused by chronic otitis externa, media and interna in a dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

OTITIS externa is a common disease in dogs, and Proteus and Pseudomonas species are frequently cultured from chronic cases (Welch Fossum 2002, Krahwinkel 2003). Otitis media in dogs is usually preceded by a bacterial infection of the external ear canal. The signs of otitis media, such as a discharge from the external ear canal, head shaking and signs of pain

I. M. G. Kraijer-Huver; G. ter Haar; S. C. Djajadiningrat-Laanen; M. H. Boevé



El sacrificio necesario para sostener la deuda externa: un ejercicio de simulación  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente artículo se desarrolla inicialmente el marco teórico que está implícito en la restricción presupuestaria intertemporal a la cual está sometida una economía. Luego, se realiza una panorámica sobre la evolución reciente de la deuda externa colombiana y la carga que ésta ha ejercido sobre la economía. Dado un primer marco netamente descriptivo, se pasa a realizar varios

Andrés Ramírez Hassan; Humberto Franco Gonzáles



Risk of otitis externa after swimming in recreational fresh water lakes containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an outbreak of otitis externa was due to bathing in recreational fresh water lakes and to establish whether the outbreak was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the water. DESIGN--Matched case-control study. SETTING--The Achterhoek area, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--98 cases with otitis externa and 149 controls matched for age, sex, and place of residence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Odds ratios for type of swimming water and frequency of swimming; presence of P aeruginosa in ear swabs and fresh water lakes. RESULTS--Otitis externa was strongly associated with swimming in recreational fresh water lakes in the previous two weeks (odds ratio 15.5 (95% confidence interval) 4.9 to 49.2) compared with non-swimming). The risk increased with the number of days of swimming, and subjects with recurrent ear disease had a greatly increased risk. The lakes met the Dutch bathing water standards and those set by the European Commission for faecal pollution in the summer of 1994, but P aeruginosa was isolated from all of them, as well as from the ear swabs of 78 (83%) of the cases and 3 (4%) of the controls. CONCLUSIONS--Even when current bathing water standards are met, swimming can be associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa because of exposure to P aeruginosa. People with recurrent ear disease should take special care when swimming in waters containing P aeruginosa.

van Asperen, I. A.; de Rover, C. M.; Schijven, J. F.; Oetomo, S. B.; Schellekens, J. F.; van Leeuwen, N. J.; Colle, C.; Havelaar, A. H.; Kromhout, D.; Sprenger, M. W.



Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa  

PubMed Central

This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification.

Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valeria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Marcio Candeias



Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.  


We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23227759

Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael



Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for malignant otitis externa: lesion not shown on planar image.  


Malignant otitis externa is a severe and rare infection of the external acoustic meatus. Triphasic bone and (67)Ga scintigraphies are used to initial detect and follow-up the response of therapy. With single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images, the diagnostic sensitivity is higher. We presented a case with malignant otitis externa with initial negative planar scintigraphic finding. The lesion was detected by photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images. We concluded that the photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography should be performed routinely for patients with suspected malignant otitis externa, even without evidence of lesion on planar images. PMID:23313120

Chen, Yu-Hung; Hsieh, Hung-Jen



Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis.  


Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity. PMID:24145557

Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B



Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis  

PubMed Central

Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.

Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B



Surgical management of 43 cases of chronic otitis externa in the dog  

PubMed Central

Over a seven-year period, chronic otitis externa was surgically managed in 43 dogs at the University Veterinary Hospital of University College Dublin. Lateral ear canal resection (LECR) was undertaken in nine of the 43 dogs: results were unsatisfactory, with a failure of the surgery in five of eight dogs and one dog lost to follow-up. Once end-stage otitis externa, with or without otitis media, is diagnosed, total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy (TECA/LBO) is the best treatment option. In this series, 37 of 43 dogs underwent TECA/LBO and of the 29 dogs for which follow-up results were obtained 27 (93%) had an excellent or improved outcome to surgery. Complications following all procedures were most common in cases with a concurrent dermatopathy; therefore, definitive diagnosis and medical treatment for skin and ear disease is essential.



Atypical Lipid-Dependent Malassezia Species Isolated from Dogs with Otitis Externa  

PubMed Central

During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of dogs with chronic otitis externa, lipid-dependent Malassezia species were isolated in three dogs. These species were identified as Malassezia furfur and M. obtusa but showed atypical assimilation patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of lipid-dependent species of the genus Malassezia in association with canine otitis.

Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabanes, F. J.



Fungal Malignant Otitis Externa with Facial Nerve Palsy: Tissue Biopsy Aids Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Fungal malignant otitis externa (FMOE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that is challenging to manage. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the low sensitivity of aural swabs and many antifungal drugs have significant side effects. We present a case of FMOE, where formal tissue sampling revealed the diagnosis and the patient was successfully treated with voriconazole, in addition to an up to date review of the current literature. We would recommend tissue biopsy of the external auditory canal in all patients with suspected FMOE in addition to routine microbiology swabs.

Walton, Jenny



Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: The Relationship with Malignant Otitis Externa, the Diagnostic Dilemma, and Changing Trends  

PubMed Central

Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone.

Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang



Treatment of acute otitis externa with ciprofloxacin otic 0.2% antibiotic ear solution  

PubMed Central

Background/objective An inflammation of the cutis and subcutis of the external auditory canal is a primary symptom in cases of acute otitis externa. It is usually treated locally, since this type of therapy ensures a high concentration of the drug and interacts at the site of inflammation with no systemic effects. This systematic review compares the efficacy of treatment using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution with other therapeutic options. Methods After compiling a catalog of search terms, medical databases were searched systematically for randomized, controlled studies. This search initially yielded a total of 38 studies which were then evaluated by three independent reviewers. The number of studies was subsequently reduced to 14: six studies using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution, and eight studies using both 0.2% and 0.3% solutions. Results The studies included in the review demonstrate the statistical equivalence between the ciprofloxacin solution (0.2%) and the reference products PNH (a combination of polymyxin B, neomycin sulfate and hydrocortisone), auriculum powder, and a ciprofloxacin foam with respect to the cure rate. The research groups consistently observed high in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion This systematic review confirms the hypothesis of ciprofloxacin’s noninferiority in the treatment of otitis externa, in terms of the cure rate and microbiological eradication.

Mosges, R; Nematian-Samani, M; Eichel, A



Yüzme kursu ö¤rencilerinde s›cak ve nemli havuz ortam›n›n d›fl kulak yolu flora deifliklii ve eksternal otit geliflimi üzerine olan etkisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of the warm and wet environment of the swimming-pool on the bacterial flora of the external ear canal and development of otitis externa in children who attend to swimming course Objective: Especially in the summer season, there is an increased incidence of ear infections in the children who attend to the swim- ming pools. The most frequent ear infection

E. Akolu; M. Çetin; Y. Önlen; N. Duran; L. Savafl; S. Ocak


Suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens as food source for the green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).  


Diversification of crops with species that provide suitable pollen for predators may reduce pest population on crops by enhancing predator effectiveness. In this paper we evaluated the suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens to the predatory green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen). The predator is commonly found in coffee agroecosystems and the plant species tested were pigeon pea and sunn hemp, which are used in organic coffee systems. Newly emerged females and males of C. externa were reared on diets containing pollen of pigeon pea, sunn hemp, or castor bean, used as a control. The reproductive success of C. externa was evaluated when females fed the pollen species and when honey was added to the diets, to verify the predator need for an extra carbohydrate source. Similar intrinsic growth rates were found for females fed on pigeon pea pollen and on sunn hemp pollen but these rates increased significantly when honey was added to the diets. Females fed with pigeon pea pollen plus honey and with sunn hemp pollen plus honey had higher intrinsic growth rates than those fed with castor bean pollen plus honey. Females fed on castor bean pollen only or on honey only, did not oviposit. Leguminous pollen species were equally suitable for C. externa especially when they were complemented with honey. The results suggest that to successfully enhance predator effectiveness, organic coffee plantation should be diversified with plant providing pollen in combination with plant providing nectar. PMID:18575698

Venzon, Madelaine; Rosado, Maria C; Euzébio, Denise E; Souza, Brígida; Schoereder, José H



Insecticide survival and behavioral avoidance in the lacewings Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana.  


Insecticide impact on non-target species, such as insect predators and parasitoids, is an ever-growing concern in agriculture and recent studies have been shifting focus from lethal to sub-lethal effects since they may prevail in field conditions, although more difficult to assess. Synthetic insecticides are the main concern, but the recent spread of biopesticide use in agriculture draws attention, particularly the main botanical insecticide currently in use - azadirachtin. Here we assessed the lethal and behavioral sub-lethal response of predatory larvae of the lacewing species Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana to two frequently used synthetic insecticides, malathion and permethrin, and to the bioinsecticide azadirachtin. The recommended field concentration of the synthetic insecticides led to low survival time of lacewing larvae from both species, in contrast with azadirachtin. However, all three compounds led to 100% mortality of the lacewing larvae from both species. Insecticide repellence (i.e., avoidance without contact) was similar for both synthetic insecticides in both species, but azadirachtin was a stronger repellent for C. externa, but not C. cubana. In addition, insecticide irritability (i.e., avoidance after contact) occurred in both lacewing species to all three insecticides tested. The notion that natural compounds are safer than synthetic compounds to non-target species is refuted in the present study, which also detected significant irritability to all of the insecticides regardless of their origin, and species-specific repellence elicited particularly by azadirachtin. Therefore, bioinsecticides should not be exempted from risk assessment, and non-target sub-lethal effects should not be neglected when considering potential insecticide use in agriculture. PMID:20817256

Cordeiro, E M G; Corrêa, A S; Venzon, M; Guedes, R N C



Quimioterapia de alta dosis prolonga en forma significativa la supervivencia en pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda

Los resultados preliminares de un estudio clínico grande con asignación al azar de pacientes de 16 a 60 años de edad con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA), un cáncer de la sangre y de la médula ósea, que no había sido tratada anteriormente, muestran que los pacientes que recibieron una alta dosis de daunorrubicina, un fármaco de quimioterapia disponible comercialmente, durante la terapia inicial vivieron más que los pacientes que recibieron una dosis normal del mismo fármaco.


The efficacy of an antiseptic and microbial anti-adhesive ear cleanser in dogs with otitis externa.  


A new antimicrobial ear cleanser was evaluated for the treatment of bacterial and yeast ear infection in dogs. Forty-five dogs with erythemato-ceruminous or purulent otitis externa were randomly allocated to two treatment groups: reference ear cleanser (Epiotic, Virbac) or test ear cleanser (Epiotic Advanced, Virbac). Ear cleansing was performed twice daily for 2 weeks, and no other treatment was allowed. By week 2, clinical (exudate quantity, erythema, stenosis, excoriation, and odor) and discomfort (pain, ear scratching, and head shaking) scores were significantly decreased (P < .0001 for all) and no microbial overgrowth could be detected in 25 (64.1%) and 32 (68.1%) ears treated with Epiotic and Epiotic Advanced, respectively. The new pH-balanced, propylene glycol-free test ear cleanser, which incorporates microbial adhesin-blocking carbohydrates, proved as effective as the reference acidic formula. PMID:16598680

Rème, C A; Pin, D; Collinot, C; Cadiergues, M C; Joyce, J A; Fontaine, J



Short and long-term effects of endosulfan, cypermethrin, spinosad, and methoxyfenozide on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).  


The susceptibility assessment of natural enemies to pesticides is relevant before the use of selective pesticides and biological control agents within the framework of integrated pest management programs. Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a predator considered a potential biocontrol agent of agricultural pests in the Neothropical Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short and long-term effects of two broad spectrum insecticides (cypermethrin and endosulfan) and two biorational (spinosad and methoxyfenozide) registered in Argentina on young C. externa adults under laboratory conditions by ingestion through drinking water. The assessed end-points were: survivorship during preoviposition period, preoviposition time, fecundity and fertility of females, and survivorship of the progeny. Total survivorship of adults was adversely affected only by cypermethrin that reduced the survivorship of adults irrespective of sex. Although endosulfan did not induce significant total mortality, it reduced the survivorship of females. All tested insecticides delayed the reproductive maturity of adults. Cypermethrin, endosulfan, and spinosad reduced the fecundity of females. Fertility was affected only by spinosad. Methoxyfenozide was the insecticide inducing the lowest effects on reproductive parameters. No effects were observed on the survival of progeny with any of the tested compounds. In accordance with the International Organization for Biological Control and Noxious Animals and Plants guidelines the insecticides were classified according to its lethal effects in the following toxicity classes: methoxyfenozide, spinosad, and endosulfan class 1 (innocuous): cypermethrin class 2 (moderately toxic). However if sublethal effects are taken into account, spinosad and endosulfan should not be considered innocuous. PMID:23356062

Rimoldi, Federico; Schneider, Marcela I; Ronco, Alicia E



Determinantes de la mortalidad y la prevalencia de enfermedades diarreicas agudas en menores de cinco años en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza los efectos que sobre la salud de los niños menores de cinco años tienen las características sanitarias de sus viviendas en Colombia. Específicamente, se consideran los impactos de estos factores sobre la mortalidad y la prevalencia de enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA). Así mismo, se estima la influencia del origen racial sobre las condiciones de salud de los

Mauricio Rodriguez Gomez



Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose-response effects.  


The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2×MFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron > lufenuron > teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2 048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds. PMID:23956013

Joao Zotti, Moises; Dionel Grutzmacher, Anderson; Heres Lopes, Isac; Smagghe, Guy



Evaluation of in vitro activity of two topical products against three organisms isolated from canine referral patients with otitis externa and cutaneous pyoderma.  


Canine otitis externa and cutaneous pyoderma are common problems that are often associated with Staphylococcus intermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Malassezia pachydermatis. In vitro activity of two topical products against these organisms isolated from canine referral patients were evaluated. Organisms were grown and diluted to a concentration equivalent to 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU) per mL and exposed to either a 0 or 1/5 dilution of Hexadene Flush with Spherulites (Virbac Animal Health Inc, Fort Worth, TX) or a 1/5 or 1/25 dilution of ResiCHLOR Lotion with Spherulites (Virbac Animal Health Inc, Fort Worth, TX) at time intervals from 1 to 30 minutes. Results showed that all three organisms were killed within 1 minute of contact time at 0 and 1/5 dilution of the flush. The lotion diluted to 1/5 also killed all three organisms. At 1/25 dilution, this lotion killed S. intermedius and P. aeruginosa within 1 minute of contact time, whereas M. pachydermatis was killed after 1 minute. The findings suggest that the two topical products exhibit efficacy against these common skin pathogens in vitro and can be useful in their clinical management. PMID:19757573

Okwumabua, O; Goodman, F; Elfassy, O



Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.  


Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage. PMID:2585023

Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M



Otitis Externa Associated with Malassezia sympodialis in Two Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts that form an integral part of animal and human cutaneous microbiota (19). They are also considered important medical yeasts because they are etiological agents of chronic skin disorders and have been reported with increasing frequency as causative agents of life- threatening, iatrogenic, catheter-related sepsis both in immu- nocompromised individuals (1) and low-birth-weight neonates receiving parenteral





Microsoft Academic Search

The acute porphyries include a group of genetic disorders in the heme biosynthesis, that cause neu- rovisceral manifestations that mimic many medical conditions, psychiatric illnesses and sometimes, it even compromises the patients life. The lack of clinical recognition and delay in diagnosis, often retard the specifi c treatment and follow an increase in the morbimortality. The diagnosis can be quickly





Microsoft Academic Search

Delirium due to acute nicotine withdrawal. Delirium or acute confusional state among hospitalized patients is a frequent and serious problem. It is characterized by acute onset symptoms, fluctuating course, impaired attention, unorganized thinking, and altered level of conciousness. Delirium, as a manifestation of acute nicotine withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the reviewed literature only in eight cases. We report



Mastoiditis aguda infantil. Estudio retrospectivo y revisión de la literatura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review our experience and results in the diagnosis and treatment of acute mastoiditis, a patho- logy with an increasing incidence in the recent years. Me- thods: The study reviewed 49 pediatric patients diagnosed and treated of acute mastoiditis between 1994 and 2003 in our hospital. We summarize epidemiologic, laboratory and clinical features. Results: The mean age was 2.5

A. Rodríguez Paramás; F. García de Pedro; A. Encinas; M. Gutiérrez Triguero



Microsoft Academic Search

We apply a uniform procedure to select very soft sources from point sources observed by Chandrain 4 galaxies. This sample includes one elliptical galaxy (NGC 4967), 2 face-on spirals (M101 and M83), and an interacting galaxy (M51). We report on some intriguing results, including the following. (1) We have found very soft X-ray sources (VSSs) in every galaxy. Some of



Auditoría médica de historias clínicas en consulta externa de cuatro hospitales públicos peruanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Medical audit is defined as a critical and systematic assessment of the quality of health care, including procedures, resources used and outputs that influence on the clinical outcome and the patient quality of life. Objectives: This study assesses the filling of medical records (HC) at the outpatient consultation, allowing identifying information gaps or mistakes. Material and Methods: A descriptive



Atypical Lipid-Dependent Malassezia Species Isolated from Dogs with Otitis Externa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of the genus Malassezia inhabit the skin of humans and many other warm-blooded vertebrates (20). Their most important physiological feature is their lipophilic nature, be- cause they have the property of using lipids as a source of carbon. In fact, with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis, the remaining species of the genus have an absolute require- ment in vitro



[Treatment of acute diffuse otitis externa by low-frequency magnetic field].  


Patients with acute diffuse external otitis were treated using an alternating and pulsatile low-frequency magnetic field synchronized with the pulse wave propagation across the pathological focus. It was shown that the magnetic exposure should be 30-40 min longer because the beneficial effect of the magnetic field develops as a function of time and because there should be a feedback between the acting magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure in focal capillaries which varies during inflammation. This therapeutic method was applied to 27 patients. The mean time on this method was 4 days shorter when compared to that on UHF and SHF therapy or 3 days shorter when compared to that on continuous magnetic field therapy, the difference being statistically significant. PMID:1788892

Suntsov, V V



Abertura Financeira e Vulnerabilidade Externa na América Latina: os impactos sobre Brasil, México e Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este trabalho, na primeira seção, define o que costuma ser entendido como um processo de abertura financeira, identifica os níveis que compõem este processo, e lista as principais justificativas teóricas costumeiramente apresentadas para a implementação deste tipo de política. Na segunda seção, discute-se teoricamente o impacto dos processos de liberalização financeira na autonomia de política econômica e no grau

Juan Pablo Painceira; Marcelo Dias Carcanholo


Insecticide survival and behavioral avoidance in the lacewings Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticide impact on non-target species, such as insect predators and parasitoids, is an ever-growing concern in agriculture and recent studies have been shifting focus from lethal to sub-lethal effects since they may prevail in field conditions, although more difficult to assess. Synthetic insecticides are the main concern, but the recent spread of biopesticide use in agriculture draws attention, particularly the

E. M. G. Cordeiro; A. S. Corrêa; M. Venzon; R. N. C. Guedes


Bacterial and mycotic otological infections in Singapore.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a microbiological study of 84 young adult men with clinical otitic infections. Gram-negative aerobic bacilli were frequently isolated from these patients diagnosed as having otitis externa or chronic suppurative otitis media, of which Pseudomonas species predominated. Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and aerobic Corynebacterium species (diphtheroids) were also found. About 40% of ear infections were attributed to otomycoses, chiefly from Aspergillus species and Candida parapsilosis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacterial isolates revealed that Pseudomonas species were generally resistant to antibiotics commonly employed in general practice: ampicillin, erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and cephaloridine. However, polymyxin B, gentamicin and neomycin were active against some Pseudomonas isolates. Other Gram-negative bacilli were also mainly sensitive to gentamicin, neomycin as well as co-trimoxazole. Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration studies demonstrated good activity of ceftazidime, cefoperazone, tobramycin and carbenicillin against strains of Pseudomonas species and other Gram-negative rods. Cefotaxime and cefoxitin were active against Gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas species. Beta-lactamase production did not appear to be the main mechanism of resistance in these community-acquired Gram-negative bacillary isolates. The antimicrobial therapy of otological infections is reviewed.

Chow, V. T.; Ho, B.; Hong, G. S.; Liu, T. C.



Cervical spinal tuberculosis with tuberculous otitis media masquerading as otitis externa malignans in an elderly diabetic patient: case report.  


Extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis (Tb), a medieval disease, occurs in every part of the body with varying degree of frequency but commonly in the pleural and lymph nodes. When it occurs in bones thoracolumbar vertebrae is the usual site of involvement. Other bones are less involved hence seldomly reported. This is true for other organs and parts of the body including larynx, pharynx nose and the middle ear. More importantly, isolated extrapulmonary tuberculosis without pulmonary involvement is uncommon. The case of a 65 year old Nigerian trader who presented with headache, chronic ear ache with otorrhoea, persistent neck pain and found to be diabetic on further evaluation is presented. She was hitherto managed as a case of otitis external malignans without any improvement but rather her clinical condition worsened with evidence of cervical vertebra destruction and multiple cranial nerve palsies without pulmonary tuberculosis. Prompt and effective response to anti tuberculosis drugs informed the diagnosis of tuberculosis of the cervical vertebra and tuberculous otitis media with multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case underscores the value of high index of suspicion, thorough and complete clinical evaluation in any patient with chronic symptoms and signs unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:15508343

Aderibigbe, A; Ologe, F E



Aeromonas en la diarrea aguda de niæos menores de 5 aæos  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To determine Aeromonas importance as diarrhea agent in children less than 5 year- old and compare its frequency with other enteropathogens. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1998 and 1999 285 fecal samples were taken from children with acute diarrhea in 5 hospitals, which were then sent to ìDaniel A. CarriÛnî Institute of Tropical Medicine in Cary Blairís transportation medium




Doença coronária aguda e insuficiência renal crônica Acute coronary syndrome and chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A insuficiência renal crônica (IRC) tem se tornado freqüente entre os pacientes portadores de doença arterial coronária (DAC), com expressivos aumentos de morbidade e morta- lidade. Por outro lado, a doença renal crônica representa fator de risco independente para o desenvolvimento de DAC, havendo aumento de mortalidade com a progressão da insuficiência renal. O valor prognóstico das troponinas cardíacas

Carlos V. Serrano Jr; Henrique C. Cecotti; Thalite M. Uehara; Rafael Leite; Maristela Carvalho da Costa


Manejo de la gastroenteritis aguda en menores de 5 años: un enfoque basado en la evidencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute gastroenteritis (AG) morbidity and mortality rates in infants and prescholars continue to be high in developing countries. Authors want to develop an evidence-based document that supports decision making regarding AG therapy in infants and children younger than 5 y\\/o. A systematic review of the literature was performed (May, 2008). Evidence grading was established according to Oxford guidelines and Latin

P. Gutiérrez Castrellón; I. Polanco Allué; E. Salazar Lindo



Toxicidad aguda oral y subcrónica en ratas de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

bin, haematocrit, erythrocyte count, total and differential leuco- cyte count) and clinical biochemistry determination (glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, choles- terol, urea nitrogen, total bilirubin and creatinine) were evaluat- ed. Gross necropsy and histopathological examination of organs and tissues (heart, kidney, liver, spleen, brain, lung, stomach, intestine, thymus, adrenals, thyroid\\/parathyroid, pancreas, sali- vary glands, cervical ganglion, testicles, seminal vesicles, prostate

Bueno V; Centro de Investigación



Conocimientos maternos sobre signos de peligro en diarrea aguda en el marco de la estrategia AIEPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

de hidratación. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo por medio de una encuesta. Se aplicó un instrumento de investigaciones operativas de AIEPI, a 204 cuidadores elegidos consecutivamente que asistieron por primera vez a la consulta de crecimiento y desarrollo de un hospital de nivel I en Popayán, Colombia. Se midieron variables: edad materna, sexo, edad del niño, área (rural-urbana), estrato socioeconómico, vínculo al




Complicaciones ginecoobstétricas en la bartonelosis aguda: 50 casos observados en Caraz, Ancash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to evaluate obstetric complications arising in pregnant native women with acute bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis in an endemic area in Caraz, Ancash, at 2 237 m above sea level. Material and method: 50 pregnant women were enrolled consecutively in San Juan de Dios Hospital, Caraz, between 1999 and 2003. All cases had the diagnosis of bartonellosis, based on

Douglas López Guimaraes; Maricriz Giraldo Villafane; Ciro Maguiña Vargas



Alteraciones anatomo-patológicas en un flamenco común (phoenicopterus roseus) por intoxicación aguda por plomo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathological alterations in the common flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) due to acute lead intoxication. The presence of lead in the environment is an undisputable fact. Furthermore, it is a serious health concern as it affects not only the well-being of animals, but also that of human beings. Plumbism is a type of intoxication that can affect any animal species. In wild

Romero D; Martínez-López E; Navas I; María-Mojica P; Peñalver J; García-Fernández AJ



Infección respiratoria aguda en niños que acuden a un centro de desarrollo infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the incidence of acute respiratory in- fections and bacterial colonization in children attending a daycare center. Material and Methods. A cohort study was conducted from April to Octuber 1999, among 85 chil- dren aged under four years, who attended the daycare center at Hospital Infantil de Mexico (Mexico City's Children's Hospital) \\

Eugenia Nandí-Lozano; Luz Elena Espinosa; Lucía Viñas-Flores; Carlos Avila-Figueroa



Treatment of feline otitis externa due to Otodectes cynotis and complicated by secondary bacterial and fungal infections with Oridermyl auricular ointment  

PubMed Central

A blinded randomized study was conducted on 24 cats to confirm the presence of bacterial and/or fungal secondary infections associated with otoacariasis and to verify the efficacy of Oridermyl, an acaricidal/antibiotic/antifungal/anti-inflammatory ointment, for treatment of the primary infestation and secondary infections. Sixteen cats were treated once daily for 10 d; 4 cats were not treated and 4 were treated with a placebo ointment. On Days 0 and 10, ears were swabbed for counts of bacteria and yeasts, for bacterial culture and sensitivity, and examined for determination of the degree of clinical otitis. Auricular secretions were removed for mite counts on Day 10, except for 8 treated cats that were done on Day 30. There was a high number of bacteria and yeasts in most cats and Oridermyl treatment significantly decreased those numbers. Staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria. No live ear mites were found in cats treated with Oridermyl or the placebo ointment.

Roy, Josee; Bedard, Christian; Moreau, Maxim



Aplicación de las especificaciones de calidad analíticas al cálculo de los límites admisibles de error en Programas de Evaluación Externa de la Calidad para concentración espermática  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionExternal quality assessment is an essential activity of the andrology laboratory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the laboratories participating in the Programme of External Quality Monitoring (PSEC) allowable limits of error are used, and the result of a laboratory is considered acceptable if it is within these limits. Currently allowable error limits depend to a large extent on the criteria

Eva R. Palacios; M. Carmen Gonzálvo; Ana Clavero; Juan Pablo Ramírez; Antonio Rosales; Juan Mozas; Lars Björndahl; Luis Martínez; José Antonio Castilla



Treatment of otitis externa associated with Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii in a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) with an acetic and boric acid commercial solution.  


A 5-year-old lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) was presented with scaly crusts around both external ear openings and exudate present around the left ear. The bird had been treated with ivermectin and enrofloxacin without success. A pure culture of Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii was isolated from both ears. After susceptibility testing, a treatment of an acetic and boric acid solution administered topically 3 times daily was prescribed. The scaly appearance disappeared after 14 days of treatment and C kroppenstedtii could not be reisolated. PMID:19673461

Martel, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank



Insuficiencia respiratoria aguda como forma de debut de síndrome de Lambert-Eaton asociado a carcinoma pulmonar de células pequeñas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is a rare disorder of neu- romuscular transmission, usually presenting as a paraneoplastic process associated with a small cell lung cancer. Recently, respiratory muscular impairment has been described in these patients. Acute respiratory failu- re as a presenting symptom has been reported in few cases. We present a case of acute ventilatory failure as the first

F. Jover; E. Chiner; J. M. Arriero; J. Signes-Costa; J. Marco; V. Izura



Tratamiento con ribavirina inhalada en el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda inducida por virus respiratorio sincitial en el adulto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in previously healthy adults is rare, but the overall mortality rate is 40-60%. Inhaled ribavirin is approved for the treatment of hospitalized infants and young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections due to RSV. We present the case of an adult female with RSV pneumonia-induced ARDS who was successfully

Yung-Hung Luo; Chu-Yun Huang; Kuang-Yao Yang; Yu-Chin Lee



Evolution of sex determination systems with heterogametic males and females in silene.  


The plant genus Silene has become a model for evolutionary studies of sex chromosomes and sex-determining mechanisms. A recent study performed in Silene colpophylla showed that dioecy and the sex chromosomes in this species evolved independently from those in Silene latifolia, the most widely studied dioecious Silene species. The results of this study show that the sex-determining system in Silene otites, a species related to S. colpophylla, is based on female heterogamety, a sex determination system that is unique among the Silene species studied to date. Our phylogenetic data support the placing of S. otites and S. colpophylla in the subsection Otites and the analysis of ancestral states suggests that the most recent common ancestor of S. otites and S. colpophylla was most probably dioecious. These observations imply that a switch from XX/XY sex determination to a ZZ/ZW system (or vice versa) occurred in the subsection Otites. This is the first report of two different types of heterogamety within one plant genus of this mostly nondioecious plant family. PMID:24299418

Slancarova, Veronika; Zdanska, Jana; Janousek, Bohuslav; Talianova, Martina; Zschach, Christian; Zluvova, Jitka; Siroky, Jiri; Kovacova, Viera; Blavet, Hana; Danihelka, Jiri; Oxelman, Bengt; Widmer, Alex; Vyskot, Boris



Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

Benson, Carolyn J.


Falla hepática aguda: Un diálogo socrático e hipotético con el residente Acute liver failure: Socratic and hypothetic discussion with the resident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute liver failure is the worst consequence that the liver suffers after any insult. Despite of a mayor understanding in the pathogenic mechanisms which explain the sympto- matic constellation and its complications; there has been a very few advances that significantly improve the complex clinical course of these patients. A better understanding of the clinical history, its complications and its



Intoxicaciones agudas en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital universitario de nivel III: cambios producidos en los últimos 10 años  

Microsoft Academic Search

III universitary hospital: changes produced in the last 10 years. The aim was to evaluate the epidemiological changes in the acute poisonings (AP) between 1994 and 2004. For this purpose, all the cases attended at the Emergency Service with the diagnosis of acute poisoning were studied, by means of a transverse descriptive analytical study developed in two periods of one

Pastó Cardona L; Martorell Puigserver C; Mercadal Orfila G; Machí Ribes JJ; Jódar Massanès R; Servicio de Farmacia



Modalidade de morte em mamiferos expostos a irradiacao de corpo inteiro (sindrome aguda da radiacao). (Modes of death in mammals exposed to whole body radiation (acute radiation syndromes)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When an animal is exposed to a sufficient amount of radiation, there will be changes in many organs of the body, and as a result of either the effects in one particular organ or the interaction of effects in several organs, the animal as a whole will show...

O. R. Santos



21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning treatment of acute ocular...daily. (3) All topical ophthalmic preparations containing corticosteroids with or without an anti-microbial agent are...



Has cerumen a protective role in recurrent external otitis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We investigated the bactericidal activity of the cerumen in patients with recurrent otitis externa.Materials and methods: Cerumen samples were collected from 2 groups. Group A (n = 20) consisted of patients with recurrent otitis externa (2 or more acute otitis externa attack in the current year) and group B (n = 30) consisted of cerumen from a healthy population.

Yavuz Selim Pata; Candan Ozturk; Yucel Akbas; Kemal Gorur; Murat Unal; Cengiz Ozcan



[An unusual and dangerous clinical form: chronic osteomatous otitis].  


Some chronic otites result in local or diffuse attico-antral osseous outgrowths. These may complicate all sorts of chronic otites: cholesteatomatous or otherwise, suppurative or merely inflammatory, with the tympanum open or closed. They should be distinguisged from tympanosclerosis and condensation or osseous eburnation lesions. They seem to result from post-inflammatory irritation causing metaplastic bone growth or from an exostosis. The key to their diagnosis lies in radio-tomography. From the surgical point of view, diffuse attico-antral forms are particularly dangerous and deadly. It is essential that the kopho-surgeon should be aware of their existence which, as far as we know, does not seem to have been noted so far. PMID:984644

Fleury, P; Bocquet, L; Sauvage, J P; Basset, J M; Beutter, P; Vissuzaine, C



The surgical management of otitis media with effusion in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the surgical management for otits media with efusion in childhood,within the North Argyll and Clyde region in Scotland.Methods: A prospective study was designed to assess the management of the condition.The study was conducted over 5 years, between 1996 and 2001. During this time 384 procedures were carried out on 296 patients. Sixty-one patients underwent more than one

Catherine Spinou presenter



38 CFR Appendix C to Part 4 - Alphabetical Index of Disabilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...6016Osteitis deformans 5016Osteomalacia 5014Osteomyelitis 5000Osteomyelitis maxilla or mandible 9900Osteoporosis, with joint manifestations 5013Otitis media: Externa6210 Nonsuppurative6201 Suppurative6200...



TOXICIDADE AGUDA DA AMÔNIA NÃO IONIZADA E DO NITRIT O EM ALEVINOS DE Cichlasoma facetum (JENYNS, 1842) Acute toxicity of un ionized ammonia and nitrite in Cichlasoma facetum (Jenyns, 1842) fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen is derivates in water presence indicates active biological processes influenced by organic pollution, being able, in high concentrations, to cause physiological damages, even mortality in aquatic organisms. In order to determine the lethal effect of the un- ionized ammonia and of the nitrite, fingerlings of cará (Cichlasoma facetum) have been exposed, during 96 hours, to diverse concentrations of

Sérgio Renato; Noguez Piedras; José Luis Ruas Oliveira; Paulo Roberto; Rocha Moraes; Alex Bager


AssociaÁªo entre Ìndice de ventilaÁªo e tempo de ventilaÁªo mec‚nica em lactentes com bronquiolite viral aguda Association between ventilation index and time on mechanical ventilation in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the association between time on mechanical ventilation and anthropometric, clinical and pulmonary function variables, measured early, in infants on invasive mechanical ventilation with acute respiratory failure due to viral bronchiolitis, and the temporal progression of variables with significant correlations. Methods: Twenty-nine infants admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of UNICAMP university hospital were studied. Acute viral

Armando A. Almeida-Jœnior; Marcos T. N. da Silva; C. B. Almeida; Breno M. Nery; D. Ribeiro



El Impacto de los Cambios Climáticos sobre la Salud en Bolivia: Estimación de Costos y Beneficios hasta el 2100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bolivia es en uno de los países con mayor vulnerabilidad a enfermedades en Latinoamérica. De los 327 municipios que se tenían el 2003, gran parte de ellos presentaron altos grados de vulnerabilidad en lo que se refiere a las Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (EDA’s) e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA’s) en el occidente del país y alta vulnerabilidad en Malaria y Dengue

Oscar Molina



A Case of Transient, Isolated Cranial Nerve VI Palsy due to Skull Base Osteomyelitis  

PubMed Central

Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy.

Ali, Ammar



The Forward Exchange Market and the Effects of Domestic and External Disturbances under Alternative Exchange Rate Systems (Le marché des changes à terme et l'incidence des perturbations intérieures et extérieures sous différents régimes de taux de change) (El mercado de divisas a plazo y los efectos de las perturbaciones internas y externas bajo distintos sistemas de tipos de cambio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les auteurs de la présente étude intègrent dans un modèle macro-économique d'une économie ouverte le marché des changes à terme et les anticipations des spéculateurs en ce qui concerne le futur taux de change au comptant. Ils examinent l'incidence d'un certain nombre de perturbations exogènes sur le revenu, les taux d'intérêt, les taux de change et les réserves de la

Victor Argy; Michael G. Porter



21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone aceponate, miconazole nitrate, gentamicin sulfate otic suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order...



Nail Hygiene  


... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...


Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing  


... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...


Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene  


... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...


Chronic Diarrhea  


... Challenges and Resources Hygiene-related Diseases Athlete's Foot (tinea pedis) Body Lice Chronic Diarrhea Dental Caries Head Lice Hot Tub Rash Lymphatic Filariasis Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for ...


External Otitis  


... for a short time and analgesics, such as oxycodone Some Trade Names OXYCONTIN with acetaminophen Some Trade Names TYLENOL , can be ... corticosteroid dermatitis eczema hydrocortisone myelitis osteomyelitis otitis externa oxycodone Pseudomonas psoriasis Back to Top Previous: Ear Blockages ...


Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

Finkelman, R. B.; Lovern, V. S.



Estudio comparativo de los hallazgos radiográficos pr e y post tratamiento en pacientes con diagn ó stico clínico de sinusitis maxilar aguda. Comparative S tudy of pre and post treatment radiographic findings in patients with clinical diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective : To determine the radiographic findings pre and post-treatment in patients with clinical diagnosis of Acute Maxillary Sinusitis. Material and methods: We made a pr ospective descriptive study in patients who had the clinical diagnosis of Acute Maxillary Sinusitis. 28 patients were included. All patients had clinical resolution after 10 days of antibiotic treatment. The post-treatment radiograph was made



HPLC analysis of ecdysteroids in plant extracts using superheated deuterium oxide with multiple on-line spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, 1H NMR, and MS).  


HPLC, using superheated D20 as the mobile phase, combined with on-line characterization via a combination of diode array UV, 1H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry has been used for the analysis of a standard of 20-hydroxyecdysone- and ecdysteroid-containing plant extracts. This combination of spectrometers enabled the on-flow collection of UV, 1H NMR, IR, and mass spectra not only for pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (100-400 microg on column) but also the major ecdysteroids present in crude extracts of Silene otites, Silene nutans, and Silene frivaldiskyana. The ecdysteroids unequivocally identified in these extracts included 20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, and integristerone A. PMID:11795808

Louden, Dave; Handley, Alan; Lafont, Rene; Taylor, Steve; Sinclair, Ian; Lenz, Eva; Orton, Timothy; Wilson, Ian D



Intracranial abscesses in infancy and childhood: report of 40 cases.  


Forty cases of brain abscesses in patients under 15 years of age observed between 1960 and 1982 are reported in this study. There has been a progressive decrease in the number of admissions due to that disease. The typical clinical picture was subacute and characterized by intracranial hypertension, fever, alterations in the level of consciousness, seizures and signs of localization in a decreasing order of frequency. Otites and sinusites predominated as primary foci and the most common localizations were frontal and parietal. Electroencephalogram and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid were useful. Currently, computerized tomography is indicated as the test of choice. Thirty-four patients underwent surgeries and the mortality rate was 35.2%. PMID:6497711

Oliveira, T D; Reimão, R; Diament, A J



Evolution of reproductive systems in the genus Silene.  


The genus Silene contains both hermaphrodite, gynodioecious and dioecious species, dioecy being represented in three sections of the genus. To locate the events of change of reproductive systems, we compared ITS sequences of 22 species of Silene chosen throughout the whole genus, and four putative outgroup species. Gynodioecy, which is the most common reproductive system within the genus Silene and in closely related genera such as Saponaria and Dianthus, is proposed to be ancestral in the genus. Dioecy has evolved at least twice: once in the section containing S. latifolia, and once in the clade containing S. otites and S. acaulis ssp. bryoides. Evolution towards hermaphroditism, associated with evolution of selfing has also occurred at least twice, in S. gallica and S. comica. PMID:18386410

Desfeux, C; Maurice, S; Henry, J P; Lejeune, B; Gouyon, P H



Otomycosis: Diagnosis and treatment.  


Aspergillus and Candida spp are the most frequently isolated fungi in patients with otomycosis. The diagnosis of otitis externa relies on the patient's history, otoscopic examination under microscopic control, and imaging studies. Direct preparation of the specimens, particularly with optical brighteners, mycologic culture, and histologic examination, is very important and strongly recommended for the correct diagnosis. Patients with noninvasive fungal otitis externa should be treated with intense débridement and cleansing, and topical antifungals. Topical antifungals, such as clotrimazole, miconazole, bifonazole, ciclopiroxolamine, and tolnaftate, are potentially safe choices for the treatment of otomycosis, especially in patients with a perforated eardrum. The oral triazole drugs, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole are effective against Candida and Aspergillus, with good penetration of bone and the central nervous system. These drugs are essential in the treatment of patients with malignant fungal otitis externa complicated by mastoiditis and meningitis. PMID:20347664

Vennewald, Irina; Klemm, Eckart



A histological study on the coronary artery of the indigenous black Bengal goat in Bangladesh.  


The coronary artery of the black Bengal goat was studied by light microscopy. The wall of the coronary artery consisted of the tunica intima, tunica media and tunica externa. The tunica intima consisted of a single layer of flattened endothelium. The tunica media was well-developed and composed of mainly of smooth muscle cells together with some fine elastic fibers. The tunica externa consisted of predominant collagen fibers, and some elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells. Elastic fibers in the tunica externa formed a circular arrangement around the tunica media. Sex differences were not observed. The media with well-developed smooth muscle cells may be responsible for changes in functional physiological conditions of the heart. PMID:11326426

Awal, M A; Asaduzzaman, M; Prodhan, M A; Kurohmaru, M



Potential therapeutic effect of yeast killer toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental infections were produced in guinea pigs, rabbits and dogs with lesions similar to those seen in human seborrheic dermatitis and otitis externa by cutaneous application of cultures of Malassezia furfur and M. pachydermatis. Infected animals were treated by topical application of a concentrated yeast killer toxin (Hansenula anomala UCSC 25F). Clinical recovery as well as negative mycological test cultures

Luciano Polonelli; Rodolfo Lorenzini; Flavia De Bernardis; Giulia Morace



Cholesteatoom: een wolf in schaapskleren  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of cholesteatoma are similar to those of otitis media or otitis externa, but the disorder can lead to major hearing impairment. Patient and doctor delay can be potentially harmful and should be prevented as much as possible. The main symptom that should arouse suspicion of cholesteatoma is recurrent otitis media accompanied by persistent loss of hearing. Cholesteatoma is

L. Santing; R. van der Eijk; G. Donker



Use of ototopical antibiotics in treating 3 common ear diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompted by rising rates of antibiotic resistance, lack of standardized treatment regimens, and new treatment alternatives, the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery convened an expert consensus panel to consider recommendations for the responsible use of antibiotics in chronic suppurative otitis media, tympanostomy tube otorrhea, and otitis externa. The Panel concluded that in the absence of systemic infection or

Maureen T. Hannley; James C. Denneny; Susan Sedory Holzer




EPA Science Inventory

Using research results reported from oil spills, laboratory experiments and microcosm studies, this review outlines the many processes controlling the behavior of petroleum in marine waters. The fate of oil spilled at sea depends on the composition of the oil, and on such externa...


21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...



21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...



Occurrence and Population Size of Malassezia spp. in the External Ear Canal of Dogs and Cats Both Healthy and with Otitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malassezia yeasts are commensal organisms of human and animal skin that occasionally act as pathogens; lipid-dependent species are associated with human skin disorders. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence, risk factors and population size of different species of Malassezia in the external ear canal of dogs and cats with and without otitis externa. Between 2001 and

Claudia Cafarchia; Sabrina Gallo; Gioia Capelli; Domenico Otranto



Influência do óleo de linhaça sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a influência da adição de óleo de linhaça em substituição ao óleo de soja em rações para poedeiras semipesadas sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Utilizaram-se 192 poedeiras da linhagem Bovans Godline com 29 semanas de idade, distribuídas em seis tratamentos, que consistiram de uma dieta controle

Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Janete Gouveia de Souza; José Humberto Vilar da Silva; Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Raul da Cunha Lima Neto



21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or associated with neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external...observe animals being treated for evidence of hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be...



Incidence and burden of earaches due to recreational swimming: Results from a nationwide study ofover 50,000 respondents  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Earaches and ear pain due to outer ear infections (otitis externa) are common following swimming and can result in time lost from work and school and visits to the physician or hospital. Objectives: Determine the proportion of self-reported earache attributable to ma...


Arjunolic acid in the ethanolic extract of Combretum leprosum root and its use as a potential multi-functional phytomedicine and drug for neurodegenerative disorders: anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterasic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os extratos etanólicos das folhas e raízes de Combretum leprosum Mart. & Eicher (Combretaceae) foram investigados por CGAR-EM, após derivatização com BSTFA\\/ TMCS. Mono e oligossacarídeos, ácidos graxos e triterpenos foram identificados como componentes majoritários. Análise quantitativa por padronização externa revelou a presença de 65% de ácido arjunólico (1) no extrato etanólico das raízes secas. Foram observadas atividades anti-inflamatória, antinociceptiva

Valdir A. Facundo; Katiúscia A. Rios; Ciléia M. Medeiros; Júlio S. L. T. Militão; Ana Luisa; P. Miranda; A. Epifanio; Meriane P. Carvalho; Aline T. Andrade; Angelo C. Pinto



Resolution and Limitations of the Immunoperoxidase Procedure in the Localization of Extracellular Matrix Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double labeling system was used to test the resolution of the indirect immunoperoxidase procedure in the local- ization of extracellular matrix components. A recognizable antigen, cationized ferritin, was first implanted at specific anionic sites N 60 nm periodicity) in the lamina rara in- terna and externa of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and subsequently localized by immunoperoxidase. The coincidence



Impacto de las regulaciones ambientales en las estrategias de comercialización del café costarricense  

Microsoft Academic Search

El uso de instrumentos de gestión ambiental se ha introducido paulatinamente en la forma de hacer negocios de las empresas. Sea por presión externa o por iniciativa local, la implementación de este tipo de prácticas ha venido en aumento y con ello más firmas han visualizado a través de estos esquemas importantes herramientas de apoyo y proyección de sus estrategias

Suyen Alonso Ubieta; Gerardo Jiménez



Otoscopic, Cytological, and Microbiological Examination of the Equine External Ear Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well

Sandra J. Sargent; Linda A. Frank; Benjamin R. Buchanan; Robert L. Donnell; Federica Morandi



Comparison of an antifungal agent with a mixture of antifungal, antibiotic and corticosteroid agents for the treatment of Malassezia species otitis in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty dogs with otitis externa in both ears and numerous Malassezia species yeasts on cytological examination were treated in one ear with a combination product containing clotrimazole, marbofloxacin and dexamethasone, and in the other ear with a topical antifungal containing miconazole. The effects of the treatments were analysed on the basis of the scores for pruritus, erythema and amount of

E. Bensignor; E. Grandemange



Jeunes : les stigmatisations de l'apparence  

Microsoft Academic Search

[spa] Jóvenes: las estigmatizaciones de la apariencia . . Hay personas que pueden tener el sentimiento que, en ciertas ocasiones de sus relaciones sociales, se ha atentado a sus derechos 0 su dignidad. Los jovenes se . distinguen claramente de los mayores a este respecto. Su sensibilidad a diferentes formas de ostracismo es mas aguda que la de los adultos,

Olivier Galland



Molecular Analysis of Malassezia sympodialis-Related Strains from Domestic Animals  

PubMed Central

Recently, several new lipid-dependent species belonging to the genus Malassezia have been described. Some of them, such as Malassezia dermatis, Malassezia nana, and the tentatively named “Malassezia equi,” have similar phenotypes and are genetically close to Malassezia sympodialis Simmons et Guého 1990. DNA characterization by D1/D2 26S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-5.8S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of lipid-dependent strains from different animal species close to M. sympodialis is described and illustrated. Phylogenetic analysis of both the D1/D2 regions of 26S rRNA gene and ITS-5.8S rRNA gene sequences showed four distinct clusters. Cluster I included isolates from different animal species (horse, pig, and lamb) and the type culture of M. sympodialis. Cluster II included isolates from horses grouping close to the “M. equi” AJ305330 sequence. Cluster III comprised isolates mainly from goats. Cluster IV contained isolates mainly from cats grouping together with the M. nana AB075224 sequence. This last cluster included isolates from healthy and external otitic ears. All of these strains had identical 26S rRNA gene and ITS regions. It is not clear whether the value of these genetic differences is for the definition of species or whether they only demonstrate genetic variation among strains from different origins within M. sympodialis, which are in the course of differentiation and probably adaptation to specific animal hosts.

Cabanes, F. J.; Hernandez, J. J.; Castella, G.



Molecular analysis of Malassezia sympodialis-related strains from domestic animals.  


Recently, several new lipid-dependent species belonging to the genus Malassezia have been described. Some of them, such as Malassezia dermatis, Malassezia nana, and the tentatively named "Malassezia equi," have similar phenotypes and are genetically close to Malassezia sympodialis Simmons et Gueho 1990. DNA characterization by D1/D2 26S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-5.8S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of lipid-dependent strains from different animal species close to M. sympodialis is described and illustrated. Phylogenetic analysis of both the D1/D2 regions of 26S rRNA gene and ITS-5.8S rRNA gene sequences showed four distinct clusters. Cluster I included isolates from different animal species (horse, pig, and lamb) and the type culture of M. sympodialis. Cluster II included isolates from horses grouping close to the "M. equi" AJ305330 sequence. Cluster III comprised isolates mainly from goats. Cluster IV contained isolates mainly from cats grouping together with the M. nana AB075224 sequence. This last cluster included isolates from healthy and external otitic ears. All of these strains had identical 26S rRNA gene and ITS regions. It is not clear whether the value of these genetic differences is for the definition of species or whether they only demonstrate genetic variation among strains from different origins within M. sympodialis, which are in the course of differentiation and probably adaptation to specific animal hosts. PMID:15634983

Cabañes, F J; Hernández, J J; Castellá, G



Indications, usage, and dosage of the transfer factor.  


The transfer factor (TF) was described in 1955 by S. Lawrence. In 1992 Kirkpatrick characterized the specific TF at molecular level. The TF is constituted by a group of numerous molecules, of low molecular weight, from 1.0 to 6.0 kDa. The 5 kDa fraction corresponds to the TF specific to antigens. There are a number of publications about the clinical indications of the TF for diverse diseases, in particular those where the cellular immune response is compromised or in those where there is a deficient regulation of the immune response. In this article we present our clinical and basic experiences, especially regarding the indications, usage and dosage of the TF. Our group demonstrated that the TF increases the expression of IFN-gamma and RANTES, while decreases the expression of osteopontine. Using animal models we have worked with M. tuberculosis, and with a model of glioma with good therapeutic results. In the clinical setting we have worked with herpes zoster, herpes simplex type I, herpetic keratitis, atopic dermatitis, osteosarcoma, tuberculosis, asthma, post-herpetic neuritis, anergic coccidioidomycosis, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, mucocutaneous candidiasis, pediatric infections produced by diverse pathogen germs, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and otits media. All of these diseases were studied through protocols which main goals were to study the therapeutic effects of the TF, and to establish in a systematic way diverse dosage schema and time for treatment to guide the prescription of the TF. PMID:18297853

Berrón-Pérez, Renato; Chávez-Sánchez, Raúl; Estrada-García, Iris; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara; Cortez-Gómez, Rudyard; Serrano-Miranda, Ernestina; Ondarza-Aguilera, Rodolfo; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Pineda Olvera, Benjamín; Jiménez-Martínez, María del Carmen; Portugués, Abraham; Rodríguez, Azucena; Cano, Laura; Pacheco, Pedro Urcino; Barrientos, Javier; Chacón, Rommel; Serafín, Jeannet; Mendez, Patricia; Monges, Abelardo; Cervantes, Edgar; Estrada-Parra, Sergio



Patterns of molecular evolution in dioecious and non-dioecious Silene.  


Dioecy (i.e. having separate sexes) is a rather rare breeding system in flowering plants. Such rareness may result from a high probability of extinction in dioecious species because of less efficient dispersal and the costs of sexual selection, which are expected to harm dioecious species' survival on the long term. These handicaps should decrease the effective population size (Ne) of dioecious species, which in turn should reduce the efficacy of selection. Moreover, sexual selection in dioecious species is expected to specifically affect some genes, which will evolve under positive selection. The relative contribution of these effects is currently unknown and we tried to disentangle them by comparing sequence evolution between dioecious and non-dioecious species in the Silene genus (Caryophyllaceae), where dioecy has evolved at least twice. For the dioecious species in the section Melandrium, where dioecy is the oldest, we found a global reduction of purifying selection, while on some, male-biased genes, positive selection was found. For section Otites, where dioecy evolved more recently, we found no significant differences between dioecious and non-dioecious species. Our results are consistent with the view that dioecy is an evolutionary dead end in flowering plants, although other scenarios for explaining reduced Ne cannot be ruled out. Our results also show that contrasting forces act on the genomes of dioecious plants, and suggest that some time is required before the genome of such plants bears the footprints of dioecy. PMID:23206219

Käfer, J; Talianová, M; Bigot, T; Michu, E; Guéguen, L; Widmer, A; Žl?vová, J; Glémin, S; Marais, G A B



Potential factors affecting the outcome of dogs with a resection of the lateral wall of the vertical ear canal.  

PubMed Central

The records of 60 dogs that had a resection of the lateral wall of the vertical ear canal (Zepp) were examined. The surgical outcomes were evaluated in association with the following variables: breed, sex, age of onset of the otitis externa, duration of the disease before the surgery was performed, treatment received for the otitis externa, the status of the ear and tympanic membrane at the time of the surgery, the culture results, and concurrent medical problems. The outcome of surgery was acceptable in 45% and unacceptable in 55% of the cases. Breed was the only factor that could be correlated with the outcome. The procedure failed in 86.5% of the cocker spaniels. When surgical outcomes in breeds other than cocker spaniels were evaluated, 63% were acceptable and 37% were unacceptable. Sharpeis were found to have an ear canal of small diameter compared with that of other breeds and a tendency to have better outcomes.

Sylvestre, A M



A new genus and two new species of Peltogastridae (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitizing hermit crabs from Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan), and their DNA-barcodes.  


A new genus and two new species of Peltogastridae, Peltogaster postica sp. nov. and Ommatogaster nana gen. et sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. The two new rhizocephalans were found to be parasitic on the estuarine hermit crabs, Pagurus minutus Hess, 1865 and Diogenes leptocerus Forest, 1956, respectively. Peltogaster postica sp. nov. is allied to P. curvata Kossmann, 1874, P. paguri Rathke, 1842 , and P. reticulata Shiino, 1943 , but is distinguished by its relative length and internal and external structures of the mature externa. Ommatogaster gen. nov. is established for the present new species O. nana based on the morphologies of the visceral mass of the externa and the presence of a nauplius eye in the larvae. Partial COI sequences were obtained from the two new species and one known species, Dipterosaccus indicus Van Kampen and Boschma, 1925, to test the possible usefulness of the sequences as tags for species identification. PMID:22035309

Yoshida, Ryuta; Osawa, Masayuki; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi



Differential immune and genetic responses in rat models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are clinically, immunologically, and morphologically distinct forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, smooth muscle function is impaired similarly in both diseases, resulting in diarrhea. We tested the hypothesis that differential cellular, genetic, and immunological mechanisms mediate smooth muscle dysfunction in two animal models believed to represent the two diseases. We used the rat models of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)- and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic inflammations, which closely mimic the clinical and morphological features of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, respectively. DSS inflammation induced oxidative stress initially in mucosa/submucosa, which then propagated to the muscularis externa to impair smooth muscle function. The muscularis externa showed no increase of cytokines/chemokines. On the other hand, TNBS inflammation almost simultaneously induced oxidative stress, recruited or activated immune cells, and generated cytokines/chemokines in both mucosa/submucosa and muscularis externa. The generation of cytokines/chemokines did not correlate with the recruitment and activation of immune cells. Consequently, the impairment of smooth muscle function in DSS inflammation was primarily due to oxidative stress, whereas that in TNBS inflammation was due to both oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. The impairment of smooth muscle function in DSS inflammation was due to suppression of G?q protein of the excitation-contraction coupling. In TNBS inflammation, it was due to suppression of the ?1C1b subunit of Cav1.2b channels, CPI-17 and G?q. TNBS inflammation increased IGF-1 and TGF-? time dependently in the muscularis externa. IGF-1 induced smooth muscle hyperplasia; both IGF-1 and TGF-? induced hypertrophy. In conclusion, both TNBS and DSS induce transmural inflammation, albeit with different types of inflammatory mediators. The recruitment or activation of immune cells does not correlate directly with the intensity of generation of inflammatory mediators. The inflammatory mediators in TNBS and DSS inflammations target different genes to impair smooth muscle function.

Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Winston, John H.



Otalgia in children.  

PubMed Central

Otalgia is a common symptom in the pediatric age group. The most common cause is acute otitis media, followed by otitis externa. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis can be established by a thorough history and a careful otologic examination. When the otologic findings are normal and the etiology is obscure, a thorough work-up to determine the source of referred pain is essential. Laboratory investigations are usually not necessary. Treatment should always be directed at the underlying cause.

Leung, A. K.; Fong, J. H.; Leong, A. G.



Electrophysiological, behavioral and metabolical features of globus pallidus seizures induced by a microinjection of kainic acid in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been few studies of the globus pallidus in relation to epilepsy. In this study, kainic acid (KA)-induced globus pallidus seizure was electrophysiologically, electroencephalographically, histopathologically and metabolically investigated in rats. Sixteen Wistar rats weighing 250–350 g were used. Under intraperitoneal pentobarbital anesthesia, a stainless-steel cannula was inserted stereotaxically into the left globus pallidus pars externa (GPe) for KA injection.

Atsushi Sawamura; Kiyotaka Hashizume; Tatsuya Tanaka



Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf's essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi)  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial potential of leaf’s essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 ?g/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals.

Silva, A.B.; Silva, T.; Franco, E.S.; Rabelo, S.A.; Lima, E.R.; Mota, R.A.; da Camara, C.A.G.; Pontes-Filho, N.T.; Lima-Filho, J.V.



Otolithiasis in three dogs.  


Mineral opacities within the tympanic bullae, termed otoliths, were detected in three dogs by means of radiography and computed tomography. Radiographic signs of otitis externa were present in two dogs. One dog had clinical signs of vestibular disease, whereas the other two dogs had no clinical evidence of ear disease. Otolithiasis may represent mineralized necrotic material of a current or previous case of otitis media. PMID:12620046

Ziemer, Lisa S; Schwarz, Tobias; Sullivan, Martin



Art pop i curtmetratges a una biblioteca penitenciària: tallers de dinamització cultural a la Biblioteca del Centre Penitenciari de Joves de Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es descriuen i s'analitzen dues activitats d'extensió cultural dutes a terme a la Biblioteca del Centre Penitenciari de Joves de Barcelona a partir d'una col·laboració externa. S'inclou una descripció del Centre, de la Biblioteca i del perfil d'usuari a qui s'han dirigit les activats. Seguidament, es resumeixen els diferents passos duts a terme per a la confecció de les activitats,

Laia Castell Padilla; Josep M. Pallisé Carreté; Núria Pedrola i Guillén; Cristina Tomàs i Humbert; Lola Burgos Oliván



Diagnosis and surgical treatment of a malignant trichoepithelioma of the ear canal in a pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).  


Case Description-A 10-year-old spayed female Holland Lop-mix pet rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was evaluated because of purulent-hemorrhagic discharge from the right ear canal and a suspected mass within that ear canal. Clinical Findings-Results of contrast-enhanced CT, video otoscopy, and histologic examination of endoscopic tissue biopsy samples indicated severe otitis media and externa and a benign trichoepithelioma of the right ear canal. Treatment and Outcome-Total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy were performed. Histologic examination of a surgical biopsy sample of the mass indicated malignant trichoepithelioma. Tumor recurrence was detected 22 weeks after surgery. The rabbit was euthanized 33 weeks after surgery because of the large size of the recurrent tumor and declining quality of life. Necropsy findings indicated a malignant trichoepithelioma with local and lymphatic invasion into the right mandibular lymph node. Clinical Relevance-This was the first report of the clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcome for a domestic rabbit with a diagnosis of a malignant trichoepithelioma of the ear canal and associated otitis media and externa. Neoplasia should be included as a differential diagnosis for pet rabbits with otitis externa and media. Although such tumors are typically benign, trichoepitheliomas in rabbits can be malignant. Computed tomography and histologic examination of tissue samples were useful diagnostic techniques, but histologic examination of an endoscopic biopsy sample did not allow identification of malignant characteristics of the trichoepithelioma. PMID:24984135

Budgeon, Casey; Mans, Christoph; Chamberlin, Tamara; Stein, John; Drees, Randi; Robat, Cecilia; Pinkerton, Marie; Imai, Denise M; McAnulty, Jonathan



Tratamiento de la enfermedad de Hodgkin, esquema MOPP\\/ABV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  El propósito del presente estudio fue determinar la eficacia de un régimen híbrido de 7 fármacos en pacientes con enfermedad\\u000a de Hodgkin (EH) en estadios avanzados y en estadios tempranos IIB con factores pronósticos desfavorables, y evaluar su toxicidad\\u000a aguda y tardía.\\u000a \\u000a Entre enero del 1988 y diciembre del 1998 fueron tratados 126 pacientes, 70 hombres, promedio de edad de

Greta Corrales; Rosa Somoza Núñez; Jean Desenne Labonardier; Aixa Müller; María Alejandra Torres; Elsa Tovar; Nelson Urdaneta Laffe; Alicia Páez; Mercedes León; Carlos de Jongh García; Esther Arbona; Oswaldo Travieso Travieso



In vitro and in vivo activity of a killer peptide against Malassezia pachydermatis causing otitis in dogs.  


In order to overcome the limitations inherent in current pharmacological treatments for Malassezia pachydermatis, the cause of otitis externa in dogs, the efficacy of a killer decapeptide (KP) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Sixteen dogs with naturally occurring M. pachydermatis otitis externa were enrolled, and the in vitro fungicidal activity of KP was evaluated using yeasts recovered from these animals. The therapeutic activity was evaluated in four groups of four animals each. The dogs were topically treated with KP (150 ?l, 2 mg/ml) three times per week (group A) or every day (group B), treated with a scramble peptide every day (group C), or left untreated (group D). Assessment of clinical signs (pruritus, erythema, and lichenification and/or hyperpigmentation), expressed as mean of the total clinical index score (mTCIS), the population size of M. pachydermatis at the cytological examination (mean number of yeast cells at 40× magnification [mYC]), and culture testing (mean number of log10 CFU/swab [mCFU]), were conducted daily from the first day of treatment (T0) until two consecutive negative cultures (mCFU ? 2). KP showed an in vitro fungicidal effect against M. pachydermatis isolates, with an MFC90 value of 1 ?g/ml. The mTCIS, mYC and mCFU were negative only in animals in group B after T8. Daily administration of KP for 8 days was safe and effective in controlling both clinical signs and the population size of M. pachydermatis causing otitis externa, thus offering an alternative to the currently available therapeutic or prophylactic protocols for recurrent cases of Malassezia otitis in dogs. PMID:24625672

Cafarchia, Claudia; Immediato, Davide; Paola, Giancarlo Di; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Polonelli, Luciano



Degree of circular polarization in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degree of circular polarization (DCP) in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has been studied analytically. Energy levels have been calculated using Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian and effective mass approximation. Effects due to application of externa magnetic field have been investigated, followed by calculation of transition dipole moment and DCP. Numerical estimates made for Mn-doped CdSe/ZnSe QDs show that DCP in undoped QDs is negligible while transition metal ion doping yields substantial polarization rotation (?-2.20%) even at moderate magnetic fields (?0.5T).

Rana, Shivani; Sen, Pratima; Sen, Pranay Kumar



[Orbital arteriovenous anastomoses].  


Separate angiography of the channels of a. carotis externa and a. carotis interna revealed two cases with orbital arteriovenous anastomoses between the branches of a. maxillaris interna and v. ophthalmica inferior. In one of these cases the fistule was additionally supplied with blood by branches of a. ophthalmica. The clinical picture of arteriovenous anastomoses of the orbit resembles that of carotid-cavernous fistules. Surgical management consisted in embolization of the channel of a. maxillaris interna on the side of the anastomosis with muscular emboli. The vascular murmur and exophthalmos disappeared after the operation. PMID:716744

Serbinenko, F A; Padalko, P I



Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from canine otitis.  


Cryptococcus neoformans was demonstrated in the clinical material of a 15-year-old male dog with a history of chronic otitis externa by employing Helianthus annuus seed agar as a selective medium. The examination of the isolate for sexual compatibility on modified Helianthus annuus seed medium revealed that it belonged to Filobasidiella neoformans var. neoformans 'alpha' mating type. In the authors' view, this appears to be the first report of isolation of Cr. neoformans var. neoformans from diseased ear of a dog. PMID:2093842

Pal, M; Ono, K; Goitsuka, R; Hasegawa, A



Privatisation, Decentralisation and Education in the United Kingdom: The Role of the State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 1950s, the axis `centralisation-decentralisation', especially as thematised in the work of Isaac Kandel, has represented a major focus of comparative studies in education. Kandel argued that issues relating to the internal conduct of the classroom (interna) should, so far as possible, be decentralised, while issues relating to administration, school structure and organisation of the educational system (externa) might safely be centralised. After 1988, successive governments in the United Kingdom have undertaken reforms which have placed more central control on the curriculum and even methods of teaching (interna), while school finance and administration (externa) have been devolved to the school level. The present essay argues that a simplistic approach to centralisation and decentralisation is not likely to be fruitful. Instead, we should acknowledge the role of the State in creating a `permissive framework' for educational systems. Local action can then be seen as part of a policy accommodating or resisting the implications of that framework.

Turner, David



The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users.  


Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated. PMID:24948963

Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor



Phaeohyphomycosis and onychomycosis due to Chaetomium spp., including the first report of Chaetomium brasiliense infection.  


Chaetomium species have been rarely described as aetiological agents of invasive and dermatomycotic infections in humans. The majority of cases have been reported within the last two decades. Treatment failed in most of these cases. In this paper we present two cases in which Chaetomium spp. can be clearly identified as an aetiological agent in pathological conditions. In the first report, we describe a new aetiological agent, Chaetomium brasiliense, which was implicated in a case of otitis externa in a patient with spinocellular carcinoma basis cranii. The patient had been repeatedly treated for relapsing otitis externa and had previously undergone surgery several times for otitis media. The fungal aetiology was confirmed by repeated positive culture and histologic studies. The second case involved onychomycosis with strikingly brown nail discoloration due to Chaetomium globosum in an otherwise healthy patient. The nail lesion was successfully cured by oral terbinafine. The determination of both species was supported by sequencing of rDNA regions. The morphological aspect of Chaetomium spp. identification is also discussed. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that both isolates were susceptible to terbinafine and azole derivates except fluconazole. Amphotericin B was effective only against the C. brasiliense strain. We review the literature to summarize clinical presentations, histologic findings, and treatment strategies. PMID:21466265

Hubka, Vit; Mencl, Karel; Skorepova, Magdalena; Lyskova, Pavlina; Zalabska, Eva



Absence of DNA sequence diversity of the intergenic spacer 1 region in Malassezia nana isolates from cats.  


Malassezia nana is a recently-described lipophilic yeast that has been isolated from the ear canals and skin of cats in Japan and Europe and from Brazilian cattle with or without otitis externa. Previous reports have demonstrated that significant intra-species variability exists in the DNA sequence of the intergenic spacer 1 region (IGS1), particularly amongst M. globosa, M. restricta and M. pachydermatis, and that certain IGS genotypes are associated with various epidemiological factors, including host disease status. In the present study, we demonstrated that the IGS1 sequences of 12 UK isolates of M. nana from cats and of six isolates from Spain (5 cat, 1 dog) were identical to each other and to CBS 9557, the M. nana type culture originally obtained from a Japanese cat with otitis externa. Further studies are needed to determine whether other genotypes of M. nana can be identified and associated with geographical regions and the species and disease status of mammalian hosts. PMID:19657958

de Bellis, Filippo; Castellá, Gemma; Cabañes, F Javier; Bond, Ross



Preferential distribution of anionic sites on the basement membrane and the abluminal aspect of the endothelium in fenestrated capillaries  

PubMed Central

Cationized ferritin (CF) was injected interstitially to study the distribution of anionic sites on the basement membrane and abluminal aspect of the endothelium in the fenestrated capillaries of the mouse pancreas and intestinal mucosa. Extensive, but uneven removal of the basement membrane was obtained by collagenase perfusion of the vasculature before CF labeling. In the absence of collagenase treatment, CF label was essentially restricted to the lamina rara externa of the basement membrane and occurred in clusters distributed in a relatively ordered planar lattice. After collagenase digestion, labeling of the lamina rara interna and of the abluminal aspect of the endothelium became possible. In the lamina rara interna, the CF label occurred in clusters with a distribution comparable to that found in the lamina rara externa. On the abluminal aspect of the endothelium, the plasmalemma proper was extensively, though variably, labeled. Coated pits were heavily labeled, whereas the membranes and stomatal diaphragms of plasmalemmal vesicles and transendothelial channels remained free of CF decoration. In contradistinction with the heavy labeling of their luminal aspects, the abluminal surface of the fenestral diaphragms were free of any CF decoration. Pronase treatment removed all anionic sites detectable by CF binding. The findings establish the existence of differentiated microdomains on the abluminal aspect of the endothelial plasmalemma and suggest that the capillary wall selects permeant macromolecules according to charge, in addition to size.



Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi.  


The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of ?-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A. carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37°C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals. PMID:24951723

Hubka, Vit; Lyskova, Pavlina; Frisvad, Jens C; Peterson, Stephen W; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav



The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users  

PubMed Central

Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated.

Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O. Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor



Comparative macroanatomical study of the neurocranium in some carnivora.  


This study was carried out to investigate the specific anatomical features of the neurocranium of the skull of the dog, cat, badger, marten and otter. Twenty-five animals (five from each species) were used without sexual distinction. The neurocranium consists of os occipitale, os sphenoidale, os pterygoideum, os ethmoidale, vomer, os temporale, os parietale and os frontale. The processus paracondylaris is projected ventrally in the cat, dog, marten and badger, and caudally in the otter. Two foramina were found laterally on each side of the protuberantia occipitalis externa in the otter, and one foramen was found near the protuberantia occipitalis externa in the badger. Foramen was not seen in other species. Paired ossa parietalia joined each other at the midline, forming the sutura sagittalis in the badger, dog, otter and cat while it was separated by the linea temporalis in the marten. The os frontale was small in otters, narrow and long in martens, and quite wide in cats and dogs. The bulla tympanica was rounded in the marten, dog, cat and badger, dorsoventral compressed in otter, and it was very large in all species examined. These observations represented interspecies differences in the neurocranium of marten, otter, badger, cat and dog. PMID:16433674

Karan, M; Timurkaan, S; Ozdemir, D; Unsaldi, E



An ultrastructural and histopathological study of Henneguya pellucida n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characidae) cultivated in Brazil.  


During a study of myxosporean parasites of cultivated freshwater fish, a new myxosporean species, Henneguya pellucida n. sp., was discovered. Of the 120 Piaractus mesopotamicus sampled, only 10 specimens (8.3%) were infected. Yellow, round plasmodia measuring 0.5-3 mm were found in the serous membrane of the visceral cavity and in the tunica externa of the swim bladder. Sporogenesis was asynchronous, with the earliest developmental stages aligned prevailingly along the endoplasmic periphery and mature spores in the central zone. The mature spores were pear shaped (total length: 33.3 +/- 1.5 microm, mean +/- SD; width: 4.1 +/- 0.4 microm; body length: 11.4 +/- 0.3 microm; caudal process length: 24.1 +/- 1.5 microm). The polar capsules were elongated (length: 4.0 +/- 0.4 microm; width: 1.6 +/- 0.2 microm). The development of the parasite in the swim bladder produced thickening of the tunica externa and a granulomatous reaction. There was no correlation between the prevalence of the parasite and the chemical and physical characteristics of the water. Infection was recorded only in juvenile specimens ranging in size from 9.5 to 20 cm. PMID:16218209

Adriano, E A; Arana, S; Cordeiro, N S



Pipeline embolization device and subsequent vessel sacrifice for treatment of a bleeding carotid pseudoaneurysm at the skull base: a case report.  


An attempt at parent vessel reconstruction with Pipeline embolization devices to treat a mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery at the skull base is presented. A 50-year-old woman with malignant otitis externa and bilateral temporal bone osteomyelitis presented with brisk bleeding from her left ear. She had bony dehiscence of the left carotid canal at CT and extravasation from a pseudoaneurysm of the carotid petrous segment at angiography. Carotid tortuosity proximally precluded placing a covered stent. After the lesion stopped bleeding spontaneously and given the presence of bilateral osteomyelitis putting the contralateral carotid at risk, the decision was made to attempt preservation of the parent vessel with flow diversion. However, bleeding recurred after 12 days, necessitating carotid sacrifice. This first reported experience in treating a carotid pseudoaneurysm at the skull base with the Pipeline device shows that transient cessation of bleeding is insufficient for flow diversion to be effective. PMID:22842208

Kadkhodayan, Yasha; Shetty, Vilaas S; Blackburn, Spiros L; Reynolds, Matthew R; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J



Red eye: rule out Ophthalmomyiasis too.  


Ophthalmomyiasis is the infestation of human eye by the larvae of certain flies. Sheep botfly commonly manifests as Ophthalmomyiasis externa when there is conjunctival involvement or rarely as Opthalmomyiasis interna when there is larval penetration into the eyeball. It appears to be more common than what has been indicated by previously published reports. We present a report of seven cases of Ophthalmomyiasis by Oestrus ovis, from central India who presented with features of conjunctivitis varying between mild to severe. The larvae were seen in bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and also entangled in lashes with discharge. Since the larvae are photophobic, it is prudent to look for them in the fornices and also in discharge. Prompt removal of the larvae from the conjunctiva helps in relieving the symptoms and also prevents serious complications. Taxonomic identification of the species is important to estimate the risk of globe penetration by the larvae. PMID:23803482

Choudhary, Pankaj; Rathore, Mahesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Premchand; Lakhtakia, Sujata; Chalisgaonkar, Charudatt; Dwivedi, Anamika



Bilateral Temporal Bone Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Radiologic Pearls  

PubMed Central

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder with an unpredictable clinical course and highly varied clinical presentation ranging from single system to multisystem involvement. Although head and neck involvement is common in LCH, isolated bilateral temporal bone involvement is exceedingly rare. Furthermore, LCH is commonly misinterpreted as mastoiditis, otitis media and otitis externa, delaying diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic management. To improve detection and time to treatment, it is imperative to have LCH in the differential diagnosis for unusual presentations of the aforementioned infectious head and neck etiologies. Any lytic lesion of the temporal bone identified by radiology should raise suspicion for LCH. We hereby describe the radiologic findings of a case of bilateral temporal bone LCH, originally misdiagnosed as mastoiditis.

Coleman, Mira A.; Matsumoto, Jane; Carr, Carrie M.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A.



Red eye: Rule out Ophthalmomyiasis too  

PubMed Central

Ophthalmomyiasis is the infestation of human eye by the larvae of certain flies. Sheep botfly commonly manifests as Ophthalmomyiasis externa when there is conjunctival involvement or rarely as Opthalmomyiasis interna when there is larval penetration into the eyeball. It appears to be more common than what has been indicated by previously published reports. We present a report of seven cases of Ophthalmomyiasis by Oestrus ovis, from central India who presented with features of conjunctivitis varying between mild to severe. The larvae were seen in bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and also entangled in lashes with discharge. Since the larvae are photophobic, it is prudent to look for them in the fornices and also in discharge. Prompt removal of the larvae from the conjunctiva helps in relieving the symptoms and also prevents serious complications. Taxonomic identification of the species is important to estimate the risk of globe penetration by the larvae.

Choudhary, Pankaj; Rathore, Mahesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Premchand; Lakhtakia, Sujata; Chalisgaonkar, Charudatt; Dwivedi, Anamika



Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva.  

PubMed Central

Two boys with ophthalmomyiasis caused by the first instar larva of the reindeer warble fly Hypoderma tarandi are reported. Both were 9 years old and came from the coast of northern Norway. One had ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior and one eye had been removed because of progressive pain and blindness. Histological examination showed the remains of a fly larva. The second boy had ophthalmomyiasis externa with a tumour in the upper eyelid, and histological examination showed a warble with a well preserved larva. Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi. Images

Kearney, M S; Nilssen, A C; Lyslo, A; Syrdalen, P; Dannevig, L



Movimiento regular y caótico en cúmulos globulares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los cúmulos globulares exhiben diferentes grados de elipticidad y se mueven en el campo gravitatorio de la galaxia a la que pertenecen. Las órbitas de sus estrellas no necesitan, por ello, conservar la energía ni el momento angular, y resulta probable la presencia de movimientos caóticos. Como paso preliminar de una investigación más extensa, presentamos aquí los resultados de un estudio de órbitas estelares en un cúmulo globular levemente triaxial que describe una órbita circular dentro de una galaxia. Las órbitas se investigan utilizando dos métodos: 1) La clasificación por frecuencias de D.D. Carpintero y L.A. Aguilar (1998, MNRAS, en prensa), y 2) Los exponentes de Lyapunov (subrutina LIAMAG, gentilmente suministrada por D. Pfenniger). Utilizando diversos espacios de condiciones iniciales, investigamos las familias de órbitas de las estrellas del cúmulo. Confirmamos la presencia de órbitas caóticas, particularmente en las zonas externas del cúmulo, y discutimos su importancia para la estructura del cúmulo.

Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.


Stability of non-aqueous topical tetracaine and clotrimazole solutions in polypropylene droptainer bottles.  


Tetracaine topical solution may improve patient adherence with topical clotrimazole therapy for fungal otitis externa. The chemical stability of tetracaine 1% and combination clotrimazole 1% with tetracaine 1% topical solutions was determined using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 were used as anhydrous solvents. Standard curves for tetracaine and clotrimazole were linear with r2 > or = 0.999. Clotrimazole did not degrade in either propylene glycol or polyethylene glycol 400 throughout the 90-day study period. Tetracaine degraded significantly in propylene glycol but not in polyethylene glycol 400. A beyond-use date of 90 days is supported for tetracaine and the combination clotrimazole-tetracaine solution in polyethylene glycol 400. A beyond-use date of 60 days is supported for tetracaine and the combination clotrimazole-tetracaine in propylene glycol. PMID:24579301

McPherson, Timothy B; Neumann, William L; Kolling, William M



Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract  

SciTech Connect

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.



Rare case of temporal bone carcinoma with intracranial extension.  


Temporal bone cancer, a relatively rare disease, accounting for less than 0.2% of all tumors of the head and neck and is associated with a poor outcome; often presents in a subtle manner, which may delay diagnosis. It should be suspected in any case of persistent otitis media or otitis externa that fails to improve with adequate treatment. Despite advances in operative technique and postoperative care, long-term survival remains poor). It includes cancers arising from pinna that spreads to the temporal bone, primary tumors of the external auditory canal (EAC), middle ear, mastoid, petrous apex, and metastatic lesions to the temporal bone. Here is a report on a case of temporal bone carcinoma presenting with right otalgia, otorrhea and facial paralysis. The patient was initially diagnosed as mastoiditis and later the clinical impression was revised to temporal bone carcinoma (undifferentiated type), based on the pathologic findings. PMID:24294589

Kasim, Kasim S; Abdullah, Asma Binti



Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Noninvasive Zoonotic Transmission of Staphylococcus intermedius from a Canine Pet to a Human  

PubMed Central

rRNA-based molecular phylogenetic techniques were used to identify the bacterial species present in the ear fluid from a female patient with otitis externa. We report the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius from the patient and a possible route of transmission. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms indicated that the dominant species present was S. intermedius. A pet dog owned by the patient also was tested and found to harbor S. intermedius. In humans, the disease is rare and considered a zoonosis. Previously, S. intermedius has been associated with dog bite wounds, catheter-related injuries, and surgery. This study represents the first reported case of a noninvasive infection with S. intermedius.

Tanner, Michael A.; Everett, Christine L.; Youvan, Douglas C.



Variability of egg envelopes in Korean spined loaches (Cobitidae).  


Fifteen Korean cobitid species were investigated by the light and electron microscope to clarify the structure on the egg envelope of the oocyte. The egg envelope (zona radiata) consists of two layers: 1) zona radiata externa which is the site for attachment of various adhesive materials, and 2) zona radiata interna which consists of heterogeneous electron-dense multi layers. The external appearances ofthe egg envelope could be classified into seven types as follow: 1) granule (Cobitis sinensis, C. lutheri, C. tetralineata and Iksookimia yongdokensis), 2) villi (C. pacifica, I. koreensis, I. pumila, I. hugowolfeldi and Niwaella multifasciata), 3) papilla (I. longicorpa). 4) grapevine (I. choii), 5) hillock (Kichulchoia brevifasciata), 6) sawtooth-like form (Koreocobitis naktongensis) and 7) unadorned form (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, M. mizolepis). PMID:15303362

Park, Jong-Young; Kim, Ik-Soo



Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology.

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue



Differences in brain activation between tremor- and nontremor-dominant Parkinson disease.  


OBJECTIVE To compare differences in functional brain activity between tremor- and nontremor-dominant subtypes of Parkinson disease (PD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. DESIGN In our study, patients with tremor-dominant PD and those with nontremor-dominant PD performed a grip task, and the results obtained were compared using voxelwise analysis. Areas of the brain that were significantly different were then examined using a region-of-interest analysis to compare these patients with healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine macroscopic differences in gray and white matter volume between patient groups. SETTING University-affiliated research institution. PARTICIPANTS A total of 20 drug-naive patients with PD (10 with tremor-dominant PD and 10 with nontremor-dominant PD) and a total of 20 healthy controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation and percent signal change. RESULTS Robust findings across both voxelwise and region-of-interest analyses showed that, compared with patients with tremor-dominant PD, patients with nontremor-dominant PD had reduced activation in the ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the globus pallidus interna, and the globus pallidus externa. Region-of-interest analyses confirmed that patients with nontremor-dominant PD had reduced activity in the ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the globus pallidus interna, and the globus pallidus externa compared with patients with tremor-dominant PD and healthy controls. Patients with tremor-dominant PD had increased activity in the contralateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with patients with nontremor-dominant PD and healthy controls. These results could not be explained by differences in gray or white matter volume. CONCLUSIONS Reduced brain activity occurs in the prefrontal cortex and globus pallidus of patients with nontremor-dominant PD compared with both patients with tremor-dominant PD and healthy controls, which suggests that functional magnetic resonance imaging is a promising technique to understand differences in brain activation between subtypes of PD. PMID:23318516

Prodoehl, Janey; Planetta, Peggy J; Kurani, Ajay S; Comella, Cynthia L; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E



Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis.  


Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observed significant decline in ChAT, nNOS, and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 protein and mRNA levels. In DSS colitis, ChAT and PGP9.5 were significantly upregulated while nNOS levels did not change. The nNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio decreased significantly in DSS- but not in TNBS-induced colitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of either ChAT (31 vs. 33%)- or nNOS (37 vs. 41%)-immunopositive neurons per ganglia or the mean number of neurons per ganglia (55 ± 5 vs. 59 ± 5, P > 0.05). Incubation of the distal colon muscularis externae in vitro with different types of inflammatory mediators showed that cytokines decreased ChAT and nNOS expression, whereas H?O?, a component of oxidative stress, increased their expression. NF-?B inhibitor MG-132 did not prevent the IL-1?-induced decline in either ChAT or nNOS expression. These findings showed that TNBS- and DSS-induced inflammation differentially regulates the expression of two critical proteins expressed in the colonic myenteric neurons. These differences are likely due to the exposure of the myenteric plexus neurons to different combinations of Th1-type inflammatory mediators and H?O? in each model. PMID:23681475

Winston, John H; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K



Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.  


Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C



The postnatal development of the alimentary canal in the opossum. III. Small intestine and colon.  

PubMed Central

The duodenum of the newborn opossum exhibits a patent lumen containing scattered elongate villi, whereas the distal segments of the small intestine are smaller in diameter and are filled with short immature villi. The muscularis externa through the small intestine consists of a single layer of myoblasts. Interposed between the intestinal lining epithelium and the muscularis externa is an extensive capillary bed that occupies a considerable proportion of the intestinal wall. Additional villi appear to form during the postnatal period as a result of evaginations of the epithelium, together with underlying connective tissue and vasculature, into the intestinal lumen. Intestinal glands are not observed until 8.5cm, and are shallow in depth even in the adult. The epithelium of the entire small intestine is modified for absorption until just prior to weaning. The principal intestinal lining cells show an extensive apical endocytic complex, large supranuclear vacuoles and numerous cytoplasmic inclusions. Intestinal epithelial cells of the colon also appear to be modified for absorption during the first two weeks after birth. Although goblet cells and Paneth cells are present during the suckling period, they do not comprise a significant population in the intestinal epithelium until after weaning. In contrast to the small intestine, goblet cells are numerous in the colon by the ninth postnatal day. The significance of macromolecular absorption and the possibility of passive immunity being transmitted in the opossum during suckling are discussed and related to similar events that occur in the slckling young of several eutherian species. The possible functional significance of two large membranes that develop in the lamina propria of the intestines after weaning also is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37

Krause, W J; Cutts, J H; Leeson, C R



Simulation with pharmacological agents of radiation damage to small intestinal villi  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation induces damage to intestinal villi, resulting in a progressive decline in villous height and changes in topography. Gamma and neutron radiation are reported to cause changes in the structure of smooth muscle and nerve twigs of the intestinal wall. It is possible, therefore, that villous collapse may be due partly to changes in the underlying stromal elements as a result of damage to nerve or muscle. To test this hypothesis, mice were treated with the drug reserpine which is known to affect the neural control of intestinal smooth muscle function and the small intestine was examined for topographical and histological changes. Two dose levels of reserpine were used and a group of mice were exposed to a single dose of whole body 15 Gy X-irradiation. Comparable villous collapse was observed in each group. Resin embedded semi-thin sections revealed changes in the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis externa after each treatment, suggesting a correlation between villous collapse and smooth muscle damage in response to both irradiation and drug treatment.

Indran, M.; Boyle, F.C.; Carr, K.E.



Use of quinolones for treatment of ear and eye infections.  


Malignant otitis externa is a severe, necrotizing infection of the external auditory canal which is sometimes fatal. The traditional antimicrobial treatment has usually been the combination of an antipseudomonal beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside, given intravenously for 4 to 8 weeks. Over 100 patients have been treated with a fluoroquinolone alone, most commonly ciprofloxacin given by mouth in a dosage of 750 mg b.i.d. for 6 to 12 weeks. About 90% of patients have been cured. Treatment with a quinolone has the advantage over older treatments that it can be given orally and has a low rate of side-effects. The ocular penetration of the fluoroquinolones has been studied in patients with unifected eyes. After the administration of a single dose of ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin or norfloxacin, penetration into the aqueous humor, expressed as the ratio of the peak concentration in the aqueous humor to that in the serum, is about 20%. The penetration of ciprofloxacin into the vitreous humor, based primarily on the data from one report, is about 20%. The concentrations are likely to be higher after repeated doses or in the inflamed eye. Whether the concentrations achieved will be adequate for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes has not been determined. PMID:1864290

Barza, M



The immunohistochemical localization of desmin and smooth muscle actin in the ovary of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus) during the oestrous cycle.  


The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of smooth muscle actin and desmin immunopositive cells in the ovary of the giant rat. In addition, the study describes the morphological changes in the ovary of this species during the oestrous cycle. Healthy secondary and tertiary follicles dominated the ovary during pro-oestrus and oestrus. The theca externa of the tertiary follicles was immunopositive for smooth muscle actin, but immunonegative for desmin. Oestrus was also characterized by the presence of corpora haemorrhagica, which had an outer layer of smooth muscle actin immunopositive cells. Differentiating corpora lutea were observed during metoestrus. A further notable feature of the ovary during metoestrus was the presence of numerous atretic secondary and tertiary follicles. In the later stages of atresia, the follicles were infiltrated by desmin and smooth muscle actin immunopositive cells. Dioestrus was characterized by the presence of non-regressing and regressing corpora lutea. Immunostaining for smooth muscle actin was demonstrated in the enclosing layer of the corpora lutea, as well as in the tunica media of blood vessels within the corpora lutea. The results of this study have shown that morphological changes in the ovary of the giant rat during the oestrus cycle are similar to those of laboratory rodents. Furthermore, the results of the immunohistochemical study indicate that the perifollicular distribution of desmin and smooth muscle actin cells changes during follicular development and atresia. PMID:19958343

Madekurozwa, M-C; Oke, B O; Akinloye, A K



A study of tea tree oil ototoxicity.  


Tea tree oil shows promise as an effective treatment for a number of micro-organisms commonly associated with otitis externa and otitis media, but its possible ototoxicity has not been previously assessed. The ototoxicity of tea tree oil was examined in the guinea pig by measuring the thresholds of the compound auditory nerve action potential (CAP) to tone bursts before and after instillation of the oil into the middle ear. After 30 min of instillation, 100% tea tree oil caused a partial CAP threshold elevation at 20 kHz. A lower concentration of oil [2% tea tree oil dissolved in saline using 0.5% detergent (Tween-80)] did not cause any significant lasting threshold change after middle ear instillation for the same period of time. The latter concentration of oil is greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration reported for most micro-organisms in the effective spectrum of the oil and this suggests that this concentration may be safe and effective provided only short exposures (about 30 min) are used. The results suggest that high concentrations of tea tree oil applied to the round window for a relatively short time are to some extent ototoxic to the high-frequency region of the cochlea. Hence further study is needed to establish whether tea tree oil can be used with safety in the treatment of external and middle ear infections. PMID:10720822

Zhang, S Y; Robertson, D



External Ophthalmomyiasis Presenting to an Emergency Department: Corneal Findings as a Sign of Oestrus ovis  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aims to determine the frequency of opthalmyomyiasis externa and the ocular findings of disease in Southern Khorasan. Methods All patients referred to the emergency department of Valiaser hospital during the year 2011 with external ophthalmomyiasis were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis was made according to clinical findings and the presence of Oestrus ovis larvae. Results There were 18 cases of external ophthalmomyiasis in the emergency department of Valiaser hospital in 2011. Most cases had the common signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, except for three males who were referred with respective complaints of red eye, foreign body sensation, and swelling around the eyelids after contact injury the previous day; corneal infiltration was present in three cases. The visual acuity among the three cases that had peripheral corneal involvement was 20 / 30 in both eyes. The bulbar conjunctiva showed chemosis in all cases and a ropy pattern discharge that was clinically compatible with external ophthalmomyiasis. However, in one case, microscopic slit lamp examination did not show Oestrus ovis larvae. Conclusions The frequency of external ophthalmomyiasis was high in this region. Although external ophthalmomyiasis usually manifests as allergic conjunctivitis, coronary-like corneal infiltration may be considered in the differential diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis or toxic insult.

Behrouz, Heydari



The use of the temporoparietal fascial flap in temporal bone reconstruction.  


After routine canal wall down mastoidectomy, local muscle flaps with and without bone paté, cartilage and fascia are the standard techniques available to otologists wishing to obliterate the mastoid and reconstruct the external auditory canal. Reconstructive options for temporal bone defects after extirpative surgery for cancer, osteoradionecrosis, and revision surgery for chronic granulomatous otitis media, however, are few. Although the neighboring temporoparietal fascia flap (TPFF), based on the superficial temporal vessels, has been frequently employed for auricular reconstruction, its versatility in temporal bone reconstruction has not been widely explored. The TPFF has recently been employed at our institution in 11 patients who presented with a variety of reconstructive problems, including defects after temporal bone resection, surgery for malignant otitis externa, and revision mastoid surgery. Follow-up in these patients ranged from 1 to 43 months (average 18.4 months) and surgical objectives of achieving a dry mastoid bowl, fully epithelialized canal, and/or reduction of mastoid cavity volume was attained in 100% of cases. The TPFF offers many advantages to the otologic surgeon when faced with reconstruction dilemmas that center around a poorly vascularized mastoid cavity and temporal bone. The TPFF is a reliable source of local well-vascularized tissue that is extremely pliable and facilitates both hearing and nonhearing preservation temporal bone reconstruction. PMID:8694118

Cheney, M L; Megerian, C A; Brown, M T; McKenna, M J; Nadol, J B



Description and host relationships of Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from the heron Nycticorax nycticorax in Peru.  


Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. is described from the black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, in Lake Titicaca, Peru. It is distinguished from all 27 known species of the subgenus Polymorphus by its spindle-shaped proboscis and its trunk shape, the anterior 2/3 of which is ovoid, tapering into a tubular posterior end. It resembles Polymorphus brevis (=Arhythmorhynchus brevis), which is, however, longer and considerably more slender, and has smaller and more numerous proboscis hooks per row and smaller eggs. It is separated also from Polymorphus swartzi, Polymorphus striatus, Polymorphus contortus, and Polymorphus cincli by its proboscis armature (usually 18 longitudinal rows of 11-13 hooks each), among other characters. Histopathological sections of host tissue show well defined localized damage including hemorrhaging with subsequent phagocyte cell migration (granular tissue). The lumen of the host intestine is obstructed and villi show compression. The proboscis of P. spindlatus extends through the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, displacing the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis externa. Fibrosis also was observed. PMID:2010853

Amin, O M; Heckmann, R A



Mycological and histological investigations in humans with middle ear infections.  


The aim of our investigations was to characterize fungal colonization of the ear in immunocompetent patients. From 1993 to 2000, 128 patients supposed to suffer from otomycosis were included. Mycological examination conducted by direct microscopy and fungal cultures was performed on 139 specimens. Among these, 115 patients suffered from chronic otitis media with persisting tympanum perforation and otorrhea. A further 13 patients had clinical signs of an otitis externa only. Out of 139 samples, fungi were identified in the auditory canal (n = 54), on the tympanic membrane (n = 5), and in the middle ear (n = 5). Two-thirds were as moulds and one-third yeasts. The dominating species were Aspergillus niger and Candida parapsilosis. Samples from 15 patients supposed to have mastoiditis or cholesteatoma were examined histologically. Fungal hyphae were observed in the middle ear cavity and/or between horny lamellae of cholesteatoma in four patients. In the middle ear of immunocompetent patients chronic-hyperplastic (polypoid) inflammation was detected with increased production of mucus, which probably promotes colonization by pathogenic fungi in the middle ear as well as in the auditory canal. Invasive fungal growth into the subepithelial connective tissue was not observed. PMID:12588477

Vennewald, I; Schönlebe, J; Klemm, E



Ultrastructural study of normal rat glomeruli by the quick-freezing and deep-etching method.  


The ultrastructural features of isolated normal rat glomeruli were investigated using a new splitting technique and the quick-freezing and deep-etching (QF-DE) method. Examinations were also made of in vivo normal rat glomeruli by the QF-DE method to visualize the glomeruli under near natural conditions. Freeze-fractured capillary loops were observed from the capillary lumen or the urinary space. Foot processes were found to be freeze-fractured horizontally, obliquely or vertically to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and a glomerular slit diaphragm, which consisted of sheet-like, ladder-like and zipper-like substructures, was clearly identified. The GBM was classified into three zones, which might correspond to those seen in ultrathin sections, including the lamina densa and laminae rarae externa and interna. The lamina densa was composed of a meshwork filled with fine particles, which might represent products of insoluble proteins. In the laminae rarae, filamentous structures consisting of irregular networks could be observed connecting glomerular endothelial or epithelial cells with the lamina densa. Furthermore, the above findings were obtained from investigations at various consecutive levels of freeze-fractured capillary loops from various angles. The three-dimensional ultrastructure of the glomeruli could be demonstrated at high resolution by the QF-DE method. PMID:1774840

Hora, K



[Aetiology and antibiotic sensitivity of the most frequent outpatient infections, except those of the lower respiratory tract].  


Reporting of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles is recommended in order to improve antibiotic prescribing policies and to avoid the emergence of bacterial resistance. During 2001, susceptibility data from bacterial isolates collected from urine, faeces and ear swabs and antimicrobial susceptibility for Streptococcus pyogenes during the first five months in 2002 were recorded in the Health Area of Pamplona (389,489 inhabitants) and compared against data for antibiotic prescriptions. More than 80% of bacteria from urine were susceptible to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, oral cephalosporins, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin. Of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 98.3% were susceptible to trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole and 96.6% of Campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin. Amoxicillin remained susceptible for more than 95.5% of middle ear isolates. Gram-negative bacilli isolates from otitis externa swabs were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polimyxin B in over 80% of cases. Of the Streptococcus pyogenes isolated, 22.5% were resistant to erythromycin. Antimicrobial consumption in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants, day (DID) during 2001 was 14.8. Here, we highlight the over-prescription of some broad-spectrum antibiotics and macrolides for the empiric treatment of infectious diseases in our area. Knowledge of local susceptibility patterns is essential in order to inform empiric therapy. PMID:12861284

Mazón, A; Gil-Setas, A; López Andrés, A



Point process models show temporal dependencies of basal ganglia nuclei under deep brain stimulation.  


Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with Parkinsons disease, but its impact on basal ganglia nuclei is not fully understood. DBS applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) affects neurons in the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) through direct projections, as well as indirectly through the Globus Pallidus pars externa (GPe). Since traditional statistical analyses of electrophysiological data provide too coarse a view of circuit dynamics, and mesoscopic biophysical dynamic models contain an intractable number of state variables for small populations of neurons, we apply a modular approach and treat each region in the STN-GPe-GPi circuit as a multi-input multi-output point process system. We use microelectrode recordings of a normal primate with DBS applied to STN at 100 and 130 Hz to estimate point process models (PPMs) for recorded regions in GPi. Our PPMs uncovered distinct dependencies between regions of GPe and GPi neurons, separated by the position of the GPi neurons, and showed normal refractory periods, inhibition from projecting neurons in the GPe, and DBS-induced oscillatory effects. The PPMs also showed the relative impact of the above factors, which traditional statistics fail to capture. Our PPM framework suggests a useful approach for understanding dynamics of complex neural circuits. PMID:21096637

Saxena, Shreya; Santaniello, Sabato; Montgomery, Erwin B; Gale, John T; Sarma, Sridevi V



Evaluation for waterproof ear protectors in swimmers.  


The middle ear cavity is exposed and vulnerable to waterborne infection in patients with grommets, perforated tympanic membranes and after radical mastoidectomy. Patients suffering from chronic otitis externa and those receiving radiotherapy to the head and neck also have an increased susceptibility to such infections. Many advocate the use of waterproof ear protectors in such patients when swimming. The choice of a suitable ear protector is complicated as many are now available commercially. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the degree of protection afforded by seven different ear protectors in a group of six swimmers. A very sensitive, original method of water detection was devised incorporating a pH indicator strip. The results showed conclusively that cotton wool coated in paraffin jelly BPC was the most effective method of ear protection and was found to be comfortable and easy to use. Other methods, including custom-made silicone rubber plugs, were not adequate in sealing the external auditory canal and are considerably more expensive. PMID:2614235

Robinson, A C



Combined Immunodeficiency Associated with DOCK8 Mutations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections with elevated serum levels of IgE are features of some variants of combined immunodeficiency. The genetic causes of these variants are unknown. METHODS We collected longitudinal clinical data on 11 patients from eight families who had recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections. We performed comparative genomic hybridization arrays and targeted gene sequencing. Variants with predicted loss-of-expression mutations were confirmed by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase –polymerase-chain-reaction assay and immunoblotting. We evaluated the number and function of lymphocytes with the use of in vitro assays and flow cytometry. RESULTS Patients had recurrent otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonias; recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin infections with otitis externa; recurrent, severe herpes simplex virus or herpes zoster infections; extensive and persistent infections with molluscum contagiosum; and human papillomavirus infections. Most patients had severe atopy with anaphylaxis; several had squamous-cell carcinomas, and one had T-cell lymphoma –leukemia. Elevated serum IgE levels, hypereosinophilia, low numbers of T cells and B cells, low serum IgM levels, and variable IgG antibody responses were common. Expansion in vitro of activated CD8 T cells was impaired. Novel homozygous or compound heterozygous deletions and point mutations in the gene encoding the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) led to the absence of DOCK8 protein in lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Autosomal recessive DOCK8 deficiency is associated with a novel variant of combined immunodeficiency.

Zhang, Qian; Davis, Jeremiah C.; Lamborn, Ian T.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Jing, Huie; Favreau, Amanda J.; Matthews, Helen F.; Davis, Joie; Turner, Maria L.; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M.; Su, Helen C.



[Pseudomonas folliculitis outbreaks associated with swimming pools or whirlpools in two guest-room sites in the northern region of Israel].  


In summer 2010-2011 two outbreaks of Pseudomonas foliculitis occurred among bathers who used the swimming pools or whirlpools in two guest-room sites. The source of the infection was traced to the swimming pools or whirlpools, which had not been chlorinated and monitored routinely. Of 40 bathers, 25 (62.5%) developed Pseudomonas folliculitis 2-4 days after exposure. Typically the rash began as a pruritic erythematous papule on the buttocks, axilla, and extremities, with fever, adenopathy and otitis externa. In the culture of the pustules and bacterial examination grew Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Pseudomonas folliculitis was first described by McCausland and Cox in 1975. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of outbreaks in swimming pools or whirlpools in guest-room sites in Israel. This article describes the epidemiological and environmental health investigation of the two outbreaks. With the rising popularity of swimming pools and whirlpools in guest-room sites, physicians in the community and the emergency rooms may encounter this disease. We urge their real time report to the public health offices, in charge of the epidemiological inquires, aiming to prevent the occurrence of new cases or improper treatment of similar cases. PMID:23002686

Cohen-Dar, Michal; DiCastro, Noa; Grotto, Itamar



A model of the anterior esophagus in snakes, with functional and developmental implications.  


The gross anatomy of the mouth of snakes has always been interpreted as an evolutionary response to feeding demands. In most alethinophidian species, their anatomy allows limited functional independence of right and left sides and the roof and floor of the mouth as well as wide separation of the tips of the mandibles. However, locations of the tongue and glottis in snakes suggest extraordinary rearrangement of pharyngeal structures characteristic of all vertebrates. Serial histological sections through the heads of a number of colubroid species show muscularis mucosal smooth muscle fibers appearing in the paratracheal gutter of the lower jaw at varying levels between the eye and ear regions. Incomplete muscularis externa elements appear beneath the paratracheal gutter more caudally but typically at otic levels. Both muscle layers encompass more of the gut wall at more posterior levels, encircling the gut at the level of the atlas or axis. The pattern in snakes suggests developmental dissociation of dorsal and ventral splanchnic derivatives and extensive topological rearrangements of some ventral pharyngeal arch derivatives typical of most tetrapods. When snakes swallow large prey, the effective oral cavity becomes extremely short ventrally. The palatomaxillary arches function as ratchets packing the prey almost directly into the esophagus. Our findings raise questions about germ layer origins and regulation of differentiation of gut regions and derivatives in snakes and suggest that significant aspects of the evolution of lepidosaurs may be difficult to recover from bones or molecular sequence data alone. PMID:24482367

Cundall, David; Tuttman, Cassandra; Close, Matthew



CASE REPORT Treatment of Otophyma: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Otophyma is a rare condition that can present as the end stage of any chronic inflammatory disease affecting the ear such as rosacea, eczema, or otitis externa. It can result in conductive hearing loss, low self-esteem, and social embarrassment. This report highlights a case of otophyma treated successfully using a full-thickness skin graft. Methods: We present a case of a 41-year-old lady referred to our department with a 23-year history of bilateral otophyma. During this time, her hearing progressively diminished as the swelling occluded her external auditory meatus. She had been unsuccessfully managed for years with topical emollients, steroids, and regular ear toileting. Result: She was treated by excision of the phymatous tissue and full-thickness grafting, which resulted in a patent external auditory meatus and an improvement in her hearing. Conclusions: The use of a full-thickness skin graft is one of the many treatment options available for the treatment of otophyma. We present a literature review on this uncommon condition and a discussion on the various treatment options available to the patient.

Sharma, K. S.; Pollock, J.; Hasham, S.; Brotherston, T. M.



Neural control of dopamine neurotransmission: implications for reinforcement learning.  


In the past few decades there has been remarkable convergence of machine learning with neurobiological understanding of reinforcement learning mechanisms, exemplified by temporal difference (TD) learning models. The anatomy of the basal ganglia provides a number of potential substrates for instantiation of the TD mechanism. In contrast to the traditional concept of direct and indirect pathway outputs from the striatum, we emphasize that projection neurons of the striatum are branched and individual striatofugal neurons innervate both globus pallidus externa and globus pallidus interna/substantia nigra (GPi/SNr). This suggests that the GPi/SNr has the necessary inputs to operate as the source of a TD signal. We also discuss the mechanism for the timing processes necessary for learning in the TD framework. The TD framework has been particularly successful in analysing electrophysiogical recordings from dopamine (DA) neurons during learning, in terms of reward prediction error. However, present understanding of the neural control of DA release is limited, and hence the neural mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Inhibition is very conspicuously present among the inputs to the DA neurons, with inhibitory synapses accounting for the majority of synapses on DA neurons. Furthermore, synchronous firing of the DA neuron population requires disinhibition and excitation to occur together in a coordinated manner. We conclude that the inhibitory circuits impinging directly or indirectly on the DA neurons play a central role in the control of DA neuron activity and further investigation of these circuits may provide important insight into the biological mechanisms of reinforcement learning. PMID:22487041

Aggarwal, Mayank; Hyland, Brian I; Wickens, Jeffery R



Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.  


In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids. PMID:22270356

Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy



Otoscopic, cytological, and microbiological examination of the equine external ear canal.  


Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well as the need for chemical restraint. In this study, the proximal external ear canal was examined in live horses using a handheld otoscope and in cadaver heads using video otoscopy. Visualization of the proximal ear canal of the sedated horse could be done with a handheld otoscope, but more sedation or general anaesthesia and a video otoscope would be required to adequately visualize the tympanic membrane in the live horse. The proximal ear canals of 18 horses were examined cytologically and cultured aerobically. In three horses, both ears were sampled. No cells or organisms were seen on cytological examination of 11/21 ears. Nine of the 21 ears were sterile when cultured. Ten of the 21 ears had mixed growth with low numbers of organisms (Corynebacterium sp. being most common). Two of the 21 ears had heavy growth of a single organism (Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus intermedius, respectively). Equine cadaver heads were examined in cross-section by computed tomography (CT) imaging and histopathology in order to further understand the anatomy of the equine external ear canal. Equine practitioners should be aware that otic examination is possible and may provide important diagnostic information. PMID:16674732

Sargent, Sandra J; Frank, Linda A; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Donnell, Robert L; Morandi, Federica



Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.  


Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara



Microvascular distribution and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in bovine cystic follicles.  


The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of microvessels in the theca and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the theca and granulosa of cystic follicles. Paraffin sections of cystic follicles were stained with Bandeiraea simplicifolia-I (BS-I) to visualize the endothelial cells of microvessels. The other sections were immunostained with anti-VEGF antibody. The mRNA expression of VEGF in the theca interna of cystic and healthy follicle was determined by RT-PCR. In the theca interna, cystic follicles with granulosa cells had significantly greater microvessel number density (the number of microvessels per given field) and area (area occupied by microvessels per given area) than healthy follicles in various sizes (<3, 4-8, >9 mm). Loss of granulosa cells from cystic follicles resulted in a similar number density, but significantly smaller area of microvessels in the theca interna. There was no significant difference in the microvessel number density and area of the theca externa between the types of follicle. VEGF protein was expressed in the granulosa and theca interna of healthy and cystic follicles. These results demonstrate that cystic follicles have a highly developed vasculature network in the theca interna, especially in cystic follicles containing granulosa cells. It is also suggested that VEGF is highly expressed in the cystic follicle as well as healthy follicle, which may be associated with advanced vasculature and the accumulation of follicular fluid in cystic follicles. PMID:15950432

Isobe, N; Kitabayashi, M; Yoshimura, Y



Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection  

SciTech Connect

Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.



Treating epilepsy: a review of Polish historical sources.  


The first surviving Polish publications on epilepsy were written in the 16th and 17th centuries. Many causes of epileptic seizures are quoted and they are divided into two categories: internal and external. Internal causes (causa interna) include imbalance in the basic bodily humors, that is, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm, and blood. According to medieval writers, the principal cause of epilepsy was vapor, a damp, cold volatile substance originating in the excessive production of one of the basic organismic liquids. Vapor allegedly stuck to the openings leading to the cerebral ventricles or blocked them entirely, resulting in convulsions. External causes (causa externa) include overeating and excessive drinking, teething, spoiled milk, poisons, badly treated spots and fever, cold air, moonlight, and wearing donkey hide. Medical treatments for epilepsy included surgical interventions (bloodletting) and pharmacological interventions. The latter included laxatives, sea onion (scilla maritima, urginea maritima), and ground human skull, all of which were supposed to protect the body from vapors. Medical practitioners of that time also advised that the factors and circumstances conducive to epileptic seizures be observed and identified so that patients could be isolated from these alleged causal factors and their seizures reduced or ended. PMID:21775214

Owczarek, Krzysztof



Asymmetric pulmonary perfusion causing unilateral pulmonary edema as a complication of acute myocardial infarction.  


Acute unilateral pulmonary edema is an unusual clinical condition occasionally associated with severe mitral valve insufficiency. We describe a patient diagnosed as having unilateral pulmonary edema after an acute anterior myocardial infarction. Echocardiograms performed in the acute phase ruled out mitral insufficiency. A perfusion lung scan showed left-sided pulmonary hypoperfusion. The diagnosis of acquired hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery tree was made by chest computed tomography. The pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed. El edema agudo de pulmón unilateral es una entidad infrecuente que en ocasiones se ha asociado con la pres-encia de insuficiencia mitral severa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente que, tras presentar un infarto agudo de miocardio anterior, presenta un edema agudo de pulmón unilateral. En los ecocardiogramas realizados en la fase aguda se descartó la presencia de insuficiencia mitral. La gammagrafía de perfusión pulmonar mostró una hipoperfusión generalizada del pulmón izquierdo. Se diagnosticó una hipoplasia adquirida del árbol arterial pulmonar izquierdo mediante tomografía computarizada torácica. Se discuten la patogenia y el diagnóstico diferencial. PMID:24774712

Peña, Carlos; Jaquet, Michel; Salgado, Julio; Pubul, Virginia; Ruibal, Alvaro; Vázquez, Begoña



Mast Cells and Gastrointestinal Dysmotility in the Cystic Fibrosis Mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) has many effects on the gastrointestinal tract and a common problem in this disease is poor nutrition. In the CF mouse there is an innate immune response with a large influx of mast cells into the muscularis externa of the small intestine and gastrointestinal dysmotility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of mast cells in gastrointestinal dysmotility using the CF mouse (Cftrtm1UNC, Cftr knockout). Methodology Wild type (WT) and CF mice were treated for 3 weeks with mast cell stabilizing drugs (ketotifen, cromolyn, doxantrazole) or were treated acutely with a mast cell activator (compound 48/80). Gastrointestinal transit was measured using gavage of a fluorescent tracer. Results In CF mice gastric emptying at 20 min post-gavage did not differ from WT, but was significantly less than in WT at 90 min post-gavage. Gastric emptying was significantly increased in WT mice by doxantrazole, but none of the mast cell stabilizers had any significant effect on gastric emptying in CF mice. Mast cell activation significantly enhanced gastric emptying in WT mice but not in CF mice. Small intestinal transit was significantly less in CF mice as compared to WT. Of the mast cell stabilizers, only doxantrazole significantly affected small intestinal transit in WT mice and none had any effect in CF mice. Mast cell activation resulted in a small but significant increase in small intestinal transit in CF mice but not WT mice. Conclusions The results indicate that mast cells are not involved in gastrointestinal dysmotility but their activation can stimulate small intestinal transit in cystic fibrosis.

De Lisle, Robert C.; Meldi, Lauren; Roach, Eileen; Flynn, Maureen; Sewell, Racquel



Impaired Integrity of DNA after Recovery from Inflammation Causes Persistent Dysfunction of Colonic Smooth Muscle  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Patients with inflammatory bowel disease who are in remission and those that developed inflammatory bowel syndrome after enteric infection continue to have symptoms of diarrhea or constipation in the absence of overt inflammation, indicating motility dysfunction. We investigated whether oxidative stress during inflammation impairs integrity of the promoter of Cacna1c, which encodes the pore-forming ?1C subunit of Cav1.2b calcium channels. Methods We used long-extension PCR (LX-PCR) to evaluate DNA integrity in tissues from distal colons of rats; trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce inflammation. Results H2O2 increased in the muscularis externa 1 to 7 days after inflammation was induced with TNBS. The oxidative stress significantly impaired DNA integrity in 2 specific segments of the Cacna1c promoter: ?506 to ?260 and ?2,193 to ?1,542. The impairment peaked at day 3 and recovered partially by day 7 after induction of inflammation; expression of the products of Cacna1c followed a similar time course. Oxidative stress suppressed the expression of Nrf2, an important regulator of anti-oxidant proteins. Intra-peritoneal administration of sulforaphane significantly reversed the suppression of Nrf2, oxidative damage in the promoter of Cacna1c, and suppression of Cacna1c on day 7 of inflammation. The inflammation subsided completely by 56 days after inflammation was induced; however, impairment of DNA integrity, expression of Nrf2 and Cacna1c, and smooth muscle reactivity to acetylcholine remained suppressed at this timepoint. Conclusion Oxidative stress during inflammation impairs the integrity of the promoter of Cacna1c; impairment persists partially after inflammation has subsided. Reduced transcription of Cacna1c contributes to smooth muscle dysfunction in the absence of inflammation.

Choi, Kuicheon; Chen, Jinghong; Mitra, Sankar; Sarna, Sushil K.



Homeostatic and therapeutic roles of VIP in smooth muscle function: myo-neuroimmune interactions  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that spontaneous release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from enteric neurons maintains homeostasis in smooth muscle function in mild inflammatory insults and that infusion of exogenous VIP has therapeutic effects on colonic smooth muscle dysfunction in inflammation. In vitro experiments were performed on human colonic circular smooth muscle tissues and in vivo on rats. The incubation of human colonic circular smooth muscle strips with TNF-? suppressed their contractile response to ACh and the expression of the pore-forming ?1C subunit of Cav1.2 channels. VIP reversed both effects by blocking the translocation of NF-?B to the nucleus and its binding to the ?B recognition sites on h?1C1b promoter. The translocation of NF-?B was inhibited by blocking the degradation of I?B?. Induction of inflammation by a subthreshold dose of 17 mg/kg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats moderately decreased muscularis externa concentration of VIP, and it had little effect on the contractile response of circular smooth muscle strips to ACh. The blockade of VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptors 1/2 during mild inflammatory insult significantly worsened the suppression of contractility and the inflammatory response. The induction of more severe inflammation by 68 mg/kg TNBS induced marked suppression of colonic circular muscle contractility and decrease in serum VIP. Exogenous infusion of VIP by an osmotic pump reversed these effects. We conclude that the spontaneous release of VIP from the enteric motor neurons maintains homeostasis in smooth muscle function in mild inflammation by blocking the activation of NF-?B. The infusion of exogenous VIP mitigates colonic inflammatory response and smooth muscle dysfunction.

Shi, Xuan-Zheng



Physiological and biochemical investigations on egg stickiness in common carp.  


The properties and behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs in water and in ovarian fluids were studied at different temperature, pH, and with divalent cation concentrations. The biochemical composition of zona radiata externa (ZRE) was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on amino acids, carbohydrates, uronic acid and sialic acids using chemical assays; on proteins using electrophoresis. Comparative biochemical studies were performed on the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, the vimba, Vimba vimba and the bleak, Chalcalburnus chalcoides. Eggs of common carp became sticky within seconds after mixing with water. Egg stickiness was not affected by water pH in a range of 6-9, by water temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, by divalent cations in concentrations < or =20 mmol/l, and by sodium chloride concentrations < or =50 mmol/l. Our investigations indicated that specific proteins of the cyprinid ovarian fluid are controlling (inhibiting) the initiation of egg stickiness: egg stickiness did not develop as long as the eggs were incubated in ovarian fluid. When however the ovarian fluid proteins were removed from the ovarian fluid by heat treatment, eggs developed stickiness within seconds, like they do in water. Biochemically, the ZRE consisted of nine types of proteins whereby four of them were glycoproteins. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and uronic acids were the major carbohydrates. Treatment of the egg membrane with invertase or amyloglucosidase did not affect the egg stickiness. Treatment with protease prevented stickiness. From these results and from additional histochemical results, we conclude that glycoproteins are likely to be the molecules responsible for stickiness. PMID:18938050

Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A



Nephritogenicity of antibodies to proteoglycans of the glomerular basement membrane--I.  

PubMed Central

We investigated nephritogenic potential of antibodies to heparan sulfate-proteoglycan of glomerular basement membrane. Glomeruli were isolated, basement membranes were prepared, proteoglycans extracted, and purified core protein was obtained. We immunized rabbits with the core protein, IgG fraction prepared from the antisera and specificity of the antibody determined. A single immunoprecipitin line in agar diffusion plate and a single band (approximately 18,000 mol wt) on the immunoblot autoradiograms were visualized. The antibody showed precise reactivity with the glomerular basement membranes. The clearance studies indicated that approximately 75% of the radioiodinated antibody disappeared from circulation within 1 h and 1-2% bound to the kidney. For nephritogenicity experiments, the antibody was intravenously administered into rats and we examined their kidneys at 1 h to 24 d later. A linear immunofluorescence of glomerular basement membranes was observed with rabbit IgG at all times while that of C3 until the 10th day. Early morphologic changes included glomerular infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes with focal exfoliation of endothelium. The leukocytic infiltration subsided by the third day and was followed by progressive thickening of basement membranes, focal mesangial cell proliferation, increase in mesangial matrix, and accumulation of monocytes. Focal knob-like thickening of glomerular basement membrane was observed from the 15th day onward. Regularly-spaced electrondense deposits were seen in the lamina rara interna and externa of glomerular basement membranes and persisted throughout the investigatory period. No significant proteinuria was observed at any stage of the experiment. These findings suggest that the antibodies to the basement membrane heparan sulfate-proteoglycan are nephrotoxic but possess weak nephritogenic potential. Images

Makino, H; Gibbons, J T; Reddy, M K; Kanwar, Y S



Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia  

PubMed Central

The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders.

Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C.; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun



Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.



Dual chemoarchitectonic lamination of the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus  

PubMed Central

The chemoanatomical organization of the visual sector of the cat’s thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) - i.e. at the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and at the pulvinar nucleus (Pul) - was investigated with two novel cytoarchitectonic markers. The Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) binding reaction visualized the extracellular perineuronal net (PN) and the SMI 32 immunoreaction stained intracellular neurofilaments. Two distinct layers of the TRN could be detected, particularly by WFA- but also by SMI 32-staining. The outer tier outlined a canopy of labeling placed a bit detached from the diencephalon dorsolaterally, while the inner TRN tier is very tightly attached to the thalamic lamina limitans externa. The labeled neurons showed typically fusiform morphology with dendrites orienting in the plane of TRN. Additionally, these chemoarchitectural reactions identified a chain of structures in the ventral diencephalon connected to the TRN tiers. One stained string is formed by the subthalamic nucleus bound laterally to the peripeduncular nucleus extending further dorsolateral into the outer TRN tier. The other chain laced up the field of Forel, the zona incerta, the ventral LGN, the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) and the previously-overlooked peripulvinar nucleus (PPulN) and so formed the inner TRN tier. In the third most distanced TRN tier, in the perireticular nucleus, a very few WFA-binding presenting neuron were found. In addition to the PN possessing TRN neurons, WFA-reactive presumable interneurons were also labeled within the visual thalamus. Following tracer injections into the feline Pul, two stripes of cells were retrogradely labeled in the neighboring visual TRN sector. The location of these reticular neurons coincided precisely with the chemoanatomically identified inner and outer TRN tiers. On the analogy of the PGN-TRN duality at the dLGN, the chemoanatomical and tract tracing findings strongly suggest a similar dual organization in the pulvinoprojecting TRN portion.

Baldauf, Zsolt B.



Multiple osteosclerotic lesions in an Iron Age skull from Switzerland (320-250 BC)--an unusual case.  


The single Hochdorf burial was found in 1887 during construction work in the Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland. It dates from between 320 and 250 BC. The calvarium, the left half of the pelvis and the left femur were preserved. The finding shows an unusual bony alteration of the skull. The aim of this study was to obtain a differential diagnosis and to examine the skull using various methods. Sex and age were determined anthropologically. Radiological examinations were performed with plain X-ray imaging and a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner. For histological analysis, samples of the lesion were taken. The pathological processing included staining after fixation, decalcification, and paraffin embedding. Hard-cut sections were also prepared. The individual was female. The age at death was between 30 and 50 years. There is an intensely calcified bone proliferation at the right side of the os frontalis. Plain X-ray and CT imaging showed a large sclerotic lesion in the area of the right temple with a partly bulging appearance. The inner boundary of the lesion shows multi-edged irregularities. There is a diffuse thickening of the right side. In the left skull vault, there is a mix of sclerotic areas and areas which appear to be normal with a clear differentiation between tabula interna, diploë and tabula externa. Histology showed mature organised bone tissue. Radiological and histological findings favour a benign condition. Differential diagnoses comprise osteomas which may occur, for example, in the setting of hereditary adenomatous polyposis coli related to Gardner syndrome. PMID:23897004

Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Langer, Rupert; Ross, Steffen; Nielsen, Ebbe; Lösch, Sandra



The Mouse Olfactory Peduncle  

PubMed Central

The olfactory peduncle, the region connecting the olfactory bulb with the basal forebrain, contains several neural areas that have received relatively little attention. The present work includes studies that provide an overview of the region in the mouse. An analysis of cell soma size in pars principalis (pP) of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) revealed considerable differences in tissue organization between mice and rats. An unbiased stereological study of neuron number in the cell-dense regions of pars externa (pE) and pP of the AON of 3, 12 and 24 month-old mice indicated that pE has about 16,500 cells in 0.043 mm3and pP about 58,300 cells in 0.307 mm3. Quantitative Golgi studies of pyramidal neurons in pP suggested that mouse neurons are similar though smaller to those of the rat. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that all peduncular regions (pE, pP, the dorsal peduncular cortex, ventral tenia tecta, and anterior olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex) have cells that express either calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y or cholecystokinin (antigens commonly co-expressed by subspecies of GABAergic neurons), though the relative numbers of each cell type differs between zones. Finally, an electron microscopic comparison of the organization of myelinated fibers in lateral olfactory tract in the anterior and posterior peduncle indicated that the region is less orderly in mice than in the rat. The results provide a caveat for investigators who generalize data between species as both similarities and differences between the laboratory mouse and rat were observed.

Brunjes, Peter C; Kay, Rachel B; Arrivillaga, J. P



Adrenergic ?2-Receptors Mediates Visceral Hypersensitivity Induced by Heterotypic Intermittent Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Chronic visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been difficult to treat effectively partially because its pathophysiology is not fully understood. Recent studies show that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, we designed to investigate the role of adrenergic signaling in visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypical intermittent stress (HIS). Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores (AWRs) used as visceral sensitivity were determined by measuring the visceromoter responses to colorectal distension. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGs) were labeled by injection of DiI into the colon wall and were acutely dissociated for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Blood plasma level of NE was measured using radioimmunoassay kits. The expression of ?2-adrenoceptors was measured by western blotting. We showed that HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was attenuated by systemic administration of a ?-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, but not by a ?-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Using specific ?–adrenoceptor antagonists, HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was alleviated by ?2 adrenoceptor antagonist but not by ?1- or ?3-adrenoceptor antagonist. Administration of a selective ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist also normalized hyperexcitability of colon-innervating DRG neurons of HIS rats. Furthermore, administration of ?-adrenoceptor antagonist suppressed sustained potassium current density (IK) without any alteration of fast-inactivating potassium current density (IA). Conversely, administration of NE enhanced the neuronal excitability and produced visceral hypersensitivity in healthy control rats, and blocked by ?2-adrenoceptor antagonists. In addition, HIS significantly enhanced the NE concentration in the blood plasma but did not change the expression of ?2-adrenoceptor in DRGs and the muscularis externa of the colon. The present study might provide a potential molecular target for therapy of visceral hypersensitivity in patents with IBS.

Zhou, Yuan-Yuan; Ju, Zhong; Zhang, Hong-Hong; Hu, Chuang-Ying; Xiao, Ying; Xu, Guang-Yin



Optimizing a basal bark spray of dinotefuran to manage armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Christmas tree plantations.  


The armored scales Fiorinia externa Ferris and Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are increasingly damaging to Christmas tree plantings in southern New England. The systemic insecticide dinotefuran was investigated for selectively suppressing armored scale populations relative to their natural enemies in cooperating growers' fields in 2008 and 2009. Banded soil application of dinotefuran resulted in poor control. However, a dinotefuran spray applied to the basal 25 cm of trunk resulted in its absorption through the bark, translocation to the foliage, and good efficacy. The basal bark spray did not significantly impact the activity of predators Chilocorus stigma (Say) or Cybocephalus nipponicus Enrody-Younga and in 2009 showed a dosage-dependent improvement in the percentage of scales parasitized by Encarsia citrina Craw. A field dosage-response factorial experiment revealed that a 0.25% (vol:vol) addition of a surfactant with dinotefuran did not enhance insecticidal effect. Probit-transformed scale population reduction relative to the untreated check was subjected to linear regression analysis; reduction of scale populations was proportional to the log of insecticide dosage, whereas basal bark spray efficacy declined in proportion to the cube of tree height. The regression equation can be used to optimize dosage relative to tree height. Excellent efficacy resulted from basal bark spray application dates of 28 April (prebud break) to mid-June, but earlier spray timing within that treatment window had fewer crawlers discoloring new growth with their short-lived feeding. A basal bark spray of dinotefuran is well suited for integration with natural enemies to manage armored scales in Christmas tree plantations. PMID:21061974

Cowles, Richard S




PubMed Central

Background Bile acids (BAs) regulate cells by activating nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. GpBAR1 is a membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptor that can mediate the rapid, transcription-independent actions of BAs. Although BAs have well-known actions on motility and secretion, nothing is known about the localization and function of GpBAR1 in the gastrointestinal tract. Methods We generated an antibody to the C-terminus of human GpBAR1, and characterized the antibody by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of HEK293-GpBAR1-GFP cells. We localized GpBAR1 immunoreactivity (IR) and mRNA in the mouse intestine, and determined the mechanism by which BAs activate GpBAR1 to regulate intestinal motility. Key Results The GpBAR1 antibody specifically detected GpBAR1-GFP at the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells, and interacted with proteins corresponding in mass to the GpBAR1-GFP fusion protein. GpBAR1-IR and mRNA were detected in enteric ganglia of the mouse stomach and small and large intestine, and in the muscularis externa and mucosa of the small intestine. Within the myenteric plexus of the intestine, GpBAR1-IR was localized to ~50% of all neurons and to >80% of inhibitory motor neurons and descending interneurons expressing nitric oxide synthase. Deoxycholic acid, a GpBAR1 agonist, caused a rapid and sustained inhibition of spontaneous phasic activity of isolated segments of ileum and colon by a neurogenic, cholinergic and nitrergic mechanism, and delayed gastrointestinal transit. Conclusions and Inferences GpBAR1 is unexpectedly expressed in enteric neurons. BAs activate GpBAR1 on inhibitory motor neurons to release nitric oxide and suppress motility, revealing a novel mechanism for the actions of BAs on intestinal motility.

Poole, Daniel P.; Godfrey, Cody; Cattaruzza, Fiore; Cottrell, Graeme S.; Kirkland, Jacob G.; Pelayo, Juan Carlos; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Corvera, Carlos U.



Acute injury and chronic disability resulting from surfboard riding.  


We undertook a cross-sectional survey of surfers at eight Victorian beaches between February and May 2003 and analysed acute injury and chronic disability sustained while surfing during the preceding 12 months. Significant injuries were defined as requiring medical attention or time off surfing/work. 646 surfers were enrolled (90.2% male, median age 27 years, median years of surfing 10). 145 surfers sustained 168 significant acute injuries in the preceding 12 months (0.26 injuries/surfer/year, 95% CI 0.22-0.30). Most were caused by striking a surfboard or another surfer (45.2%, 95% CI 37.6-53.1), "wiping out" (36.3%, 95% CI 29.1-44.1) or striking the seabed (17.9%, 95% CI 12.6-24.7). Injuries included lacerations (46.4%, 95% CI 38.8-54.3), sprains (28.6%, 95% CI 22.0-36.1), dislocations (10.7%, 95% CI 6.7-16.6) and fractures (8.9%, 95% CI 5.3-14.6). Body parts most frequently injured were the lower limb (45.8%, 95% CI 38.2-53.7) and the head/face (26.2%, 95% CI 19.9-33.6). Surfing injuries that were treated in Victorian emergency departments over a six year period revealed a similar pattern, although there was a greater proportion of head/face injuries (42.0%, 95% CI 36.0-48.1, p = 0.001). 20 surfers reported long-term effects from acute injuries, mainly unstable/stiff/painful joints. 136 surfers reported chronic health problems not related to acute injury including chronic/recurrent otitis externa and exostoses, muscle and joint pain/stiffness and pterygium. Significant injury while surfing is not uncommon. Although head injury accounts for a considerable proportion, very few surfers wear protective headgear. Greater use of protective headgear should be considered. PMID:15712498

Taylor, D McD; Bennett, D; Carter, M; Garewal, D; Finch, C F



Eradication of elephant ear mites (Loxoanoetus bassoni) in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  


Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects. PMID:22448521

Wyatt, Jeff; DiVincenti, Louis



Effective deep brain stimulation suppresses low frequency network oscillations in the basal ganglia by regularizing neural firing patterns  

PubMed Central

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The effects of DBS depend strongly on stimulation frequency: high frequencies (>90Hz) improve motor symptoms, while low frequencies (<50Hz) are either ineffective or exacerbate symptoms. The neuronal basis for these frequency-dependent effects of DBS is unclear. The effects of different frequencies of STN-DBS on behavior and single-unit neuronal activity in the basal ganglia were studied in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat model of PD. Only high frequency DBS reversed motor symptoms and the effectiveness of DBS depended strongly on stimulation frequency in a manner reminiscent of its clinical effects in persons with PD. Quantification of single-unit activity in the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) revealed that high frequency DBS, but not low frequency DBS, reduced pathological low frequency oscillations (~9Hz) and entrained neurons to fire at the stimulation frequency. Similarly, the coherence between simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons within and across GPe and SNr shifted from the pathological low frequency band to the stimulation frequency during high frequency DBS, but not during low frequency DBS. The changes in firing patterns in basal ganglia neurons were not correlated with changes in firing rate. These results indicate that high frequency DBS is more effective than low frequency DBS, not as a result of changes in firing rate, but rather due to its ability to replace pathological low frequency network oscillations with a regularized pattern of neuronal firing.

McConnell, George C.; So, Rosa Q.; Hilliard, Justin D; Lopomo, Paola; Grill, Warren M.



Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.



Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

Chen, Allen M., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Cheng, Suzan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Donald, Paul J. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)



Modeling the Contributions of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus to Spatial Navigation Using Reinforcement Learning  

PubMed Central

A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN)-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of [1], a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze.

Sukumar, Deepika; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa



Cell type- and stage-specific changes in HOXA7 protein expression in human ovarian folliculogenesis: possible role of GDF-9.  


Homeobox (HOX) genes are important transcriptional regulators in development and in adult tissues. A major obstacle to the understanding of their roles in humans has been the lack of well-defined anti-human HOX antibodies. We generated a thoroughly characterized polyclonal rabbit antibody against human HOXA7 and used it to study the distribution, role, and regulation of HOXA7 in human ovarian folliculogenesis and in granulosa cell tumors. Immunohistochemically, follicles were strongly HOXA7-positive compared with stroma. Oocytes expressed little HOXA7. Granulosa cells were predominantly negative in primordial follicles, had uniformly HOXA7-positive nuclei in primary follicles, and, as follicles matured, the subcellular localization of HOXA7 changed from nuclear to predominantly cytoplasmic. HOXA7 was mainly cytoplasmic in theca interna, but completely absent in theca externa. Granulosa cell tumors were mainly HOXA7 positive and, like in preovulatory follicles and theca interna, staining was predominantly cytoplasmic. The change in HOXA7 expression from negative primordial to positive primary follicles suggested a relationship with granulosa cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, SV40 Tag-immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) were double stained with anti-HOXA7 antibody and with Ki-67 as proliferation marker. HOXA7 expression was highest in mitotic cells. In addition, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), known to be secreted by oocytes in primary human follicles, up-regulated HOXA7 protein, and stimulated proliferation of SVOG, while TGF-beta1 inhibited HOXA7 expression and proliferation. This is the first report on the expression of any HOX gene in human ovarian follicles and granulosa cell tumors. It shows that HOXA7 undergoes cell type- and stage-specific changes during ovarian folliculogenesis, likely regulates granulosa cell proliferation, and in subcellular location differs between proliferating and secretory cells. The increase in HOXA7 protein in response to GDF-9 represents the first demonstration of a possible regulatory role of oocytes in ovarian follicular HOX gene expression. PMID:16466395

Ota, Takayo; Choi, Kyung-Bok; Gilks, C Blake; Leung, Peter C K; Auersperg, Nelly



Update on new medicinal applications of gentamicin: evidence-based review.  


Gentamicin (GM) was discovered in 1963 and was introduced into parenteral usage in 1971. Since then, GM has been widely used in medicinal applications. The Food and Drug Administration of the United States approved the routine prescription of GM to treat the following infectious disorders: infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., Pseudomonas spp.; Staphylococcus infectious disease; bacterial meningitis; bacterial sepsis of newborns; bacterial septicemia; infection of the eye, bone, skin and/or subcutaneous tissue; infective endocarditis; peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis due to Pseudomonas and other gram-negative organisms; peritonitis due to gastrointestinal tract infections; respiratory tract infections; and urinary tract infectious disease. GM is an old antibiotic and is used widely beyond its FDA-labeled indications as follows: actinomycotic infection; Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteremia with pyelonephritis; appendicitis; cystic fibrosis; diverticulitis; adjunct regimen for febrile neutropenia; female genital infection; uterine infection; postnatal infection; necrotizing enterocolitis in fetus or newborn; osteomyelitis; pelvic inflammatory disease; plague; gonorrhea; tularemia; prophylaxis of post-cholecystectomy infection, transrectal prostate biopsy, and post-tympanostomy-related infection; malignant otitis externa; and intratympanically or transtympanically for Ménière's disease. GM is also used in combination regimens, such as with beta-lactam antibiotics to treat mixed infection and with bacteriophage to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections. It is also added to medical materials, such as GM-loaded cement spacers for osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint-associated infections. Overall, there are many medicinal applications for GM. To reduce the development of GM-resistant bacteria and to maintain its effectiveness, GM should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected as being caused by susceptible bacteria. In the future, we believe that GM will be used more widely in combination therapy and applied to medical materials for clinical applications. A definitive, appropriately powered study of this antibiotic and its clinical applications is now required, especially in terms of its effectiveness, safety, and cost. PMID:24216440

Chen, Changhua; Chen, Yumin; Wu, Pinpin; Chen, Baoyuan



Inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency rather than the loss of interstitial cells of Cajal causes smooth muscle dysfunction in W/Wv mice  

PubMed Central

The initial hypothesis suggested that the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) played an essential role in mediating enteric neuronal input to smooth muscle cells. Much information for this hypothesis came from studies in W/Wv mice lacking ICC. However, mast cells, which play critical roles in regulating inflammation in their microenvironment, are also absent in W/Wv mice. We tested the hypothesis that the depletion of mast cells in W/Wv mice generates inflammation in fundus muscularis externa (ME) that impairs smooth muscle reactivity to Ach, independent of the depletion of ICC. We performed experiments on the fundus ME from wild type (WT) and W/Wv mice before and after reconstitution of mast cells by bone marrow transplant. We found that mast cell deficiency in W/Wv mice significantly increased COX-2 and iNOS expression and decreased smooth muscle reactivity to Ach. Mast cell reconstitution or concurrent blockade of COX-2 and iNOS restored smooth muscle contractility without affecting the suppression of c-kit in W/Wv mice. The expression of nNOS and ChAT were suppressed in W/Wv mice; mast cell reconstitution did not restore them. We conclude that innate inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency in W/Wv mice impairs smooth muscle contractility independent of ICC deficiency. The impairment of smooth muscle contractility and the suppression of the enzymes regulating the synthesis of Ach and NO in W/Wv mice need to be considered in evaluating the role of ICC in regulating smooth muscle and enteric neuronal function in W/Wv mice.

Winston, John H.; Chen, Jinghong; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Sarna, Sushil K.



Developmental origins of Functional Dyspepsia-like gastric hypersensitivity in rats  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Gastric hypersensitivity (GHS) contributes to epigastric pain in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD); the etiology and cellular mechanisms of this dysfunction remain unknown. We investigated whether inflammatory insult to the colons of neonatal rats induced GHS in adult life. Methods We used cellular, molecular, and in vivo approaches to investigate the mechanisms of GHS in adult rats subjected to neonatal colonic insult by intraluminal administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS); controls received saline. Six to 8 weeks later, rats were evaluated for GHS and tissue was collected for molecular experiments.’ Results Inflammatory insult to the colon on post-natal day (PND) 10 caused an aberrant increase of corticosterone on PND 15 and induced GHS in adult life. We called these FD-like rats. Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptors following neonatal insult blocked the induction of GHS in adult rats. The aberrant increase of plasma corticosterone in neonates elevated the plasma concentration of norepinephrine, nerve growth factor (NGF) in the gastric fundus muscularis externae, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the thoracic dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord, and downregulated Kv1.1 mRNA in thoracic DRG without affecting the expression of Kv1.4, Nav1.8, TrpA1, TrpV1, or P2X3 in FD-like rats. Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptors during neonatal insult or the inhibition of adrenergic receptors, NGF or BDNF in FD-like rats suppressed GHS. The intrathecal administration of small interfering RNAs against Kv1.1 increased GHS in naïve rats. Conclusion Inflammatory insult to the colons of rat pups leads to GHS in adult life. GHS is caused by altered expression of genes encoding neurotrophins and ion channels, and altered activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

Winston, John H.; Sarna, Sushil K.



Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual ?15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual ?13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 ?13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather ?13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather ?13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.



Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency promotes the development of necrotizing enterocolitis-like intestinal injury in a newborn mouse model.  


Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typified by mucosal destruction, which subsequently can lead to intestinal necrosis. Prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization are the main risk factors and, combined with other stressors, can cause increased intestinal permeability, injury, and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates intestinal protection due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects of its products carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and bilirubin. This study investigates a possible role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of NEC using a newborn mouse model. We induced NEC-like intestinal injury in 7-day-old HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1 Het, Hmox1(+/-)) and wild-type (Wt, Hmox1(+/+)) mice by gavage feeding and hypoxic exposures. Control (Con) pups of both genotypes were dam-fed. Intestines of HO-1 Het Con pups appeared predisposed to injury, with higher histological damage scores, more TUNEL-positive cells, and a significant reduction in muscularis externa thickness compared with Wt Con pups. The increase in HO activity after HO-1 induction by the substrate heme or by hypoxic stress was significantly impaired in HO-1 Het pups. After induction of intestinal injury, HO-1 Het pups displayed significantly higher NEC incidence (78 vs. 43%), mortality (83 vs. 54%), and median scores (2.5 vs. 1.5) than Wt NEC pups. PCR array analyses revealed increased expressions of IL-1?, P-selectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, collagen type XVIII-?1, serpine 1, and others in NEC-induced HO-1 Het ileal and jejunal tissues. We conclude that a partial HO-1 deficiency promotes experimental NEC-like intestinal injury, possibly mediated by exaggerated inflammation and disruption in tissue repair. PMID:23578787

Schulz, Stephanie; Wong, Ronald J; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kalish, Flora; Chisholm, Karen M; Zhao, Hui; Vreman, Hendrik J; Sylvester, Karl G; Stevenson, David K



Upregulation of ?1-adrenoceptors is involved in the formation of gastric dysmotility in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.  


Gastrointestinal dysmotility is one of the nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Gastroparesis and upregulated ?-adrenoceptors (?-ARs) have been reported in rats with bilateral microinjection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the substantia nigra, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of ?-ARs in gastroparesis in 6-OHDA rats. Gastric motility was studied through strain gauge measurement. Immunofluorescence, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to examine the expression of ?-ARs. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited gastric motility in a dose-dependent fashion in both control and 6-OHDA rats, but much stronger adrenergic reactivity was observed in the 6-OHDA rats. The inhibition of gastric motility by NE in both control and 6-OHDA rats was not affected by tetrodotoxin, a neural sodium channel blocker. Blocking ?1-AR or ?2-AR did not affect the inhibition of strip contraction by NE in control rats, but ?1-AR blockage obviously enhanced the half maximal inhibitory concentration value of NE in 6-OHDA rats. Selective inhibition of ?3-AR blocked the effect of NE significantly in both control and 6-OHDA rats. The protein expression of ?1-AR, but not ?2-AR and ?3-AR in gastric muscularis externa was increased significantly in 6-OHDA rats. In conclusion, ?3-AR involves the regulation of gastric motility in control rats, whereas the upregulation of ?1-AR is responsible for enhanced NE reactivity in 6-OHDA rats and therefore is involved in the formation of gastroparesis. The effect of both ?1-AR and ?3-AR on gastric motility is independent of the enteric nervous system. PMID:24467967

Song, Jin; Zheng, Lifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Feng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruifang; Sun, Lu; Hong, Feng; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jinxia



Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency promotes the development of necrotizing enterocolitis-like intestinal injury in a newborn mouse model  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typified by mucosal destruction, which subsequently can lead to intestinal necrosis. Prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization are the main risk factors and, combined with other stressors, can cause increased intestinal permeability, injury, and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates intestinal protection due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects of its products carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and bilirubin. This study investigates a possible role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of NEC using a newborn mouse model. We induced NEC-like intestinal injury in 7-day-old HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1 Het, Hmox1+/-) and wild-type (Wt, Hmox1+/+) mice by gavage feeding and hypoxic exposures. Control (Con) pups of both genotypes were dam-fed. Intestines of HO-1 Het Con pups appeared predisposed to injury, with higher histological damage scores, more TUNEL-positive cells, and a significant reduction in muscularis externa thickness compared with Wt Con pups. The increase in HO activity after HO-1 induction by the substrate heme or by hypoxic stress was significantly impaired in HO-1 Het pups. After induction of intestinal injury, HO-1 Het pups displayed significantly higher NEC incidence (78 vs. 43%), mortality (83 vs. 54%), and median scores (2.5 vs. 1.5) than Wt NEC pups. PCR array analyses revealed increased expressions of IL-1?, P-selectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, collagen type XVIII-?1, serpine 1, and others in NEC-induced HO-1 Het ileal and jejunal tissues. We conclude that a partial HO-1 deficiency promotes experimental NEC-like intestinal injury, possibly mediated by exaggerated inflammation and disruption in tissue repair.

Schulz, Stephanie; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kalish, Flora; Chisholm, Karen M.; Zhao, Hui; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Sylvester, Karl G.; Stevenson, David K.



Anatomical, biochemical and physiological considerations of the colon in design and development of novel drug delivery systems.  


The colon is composed of four distinct layers such as serosa, muscularis externa, sub mucosa and mucosa. There exists a difference in the anatomy, neural and blood supply and absorption characteristics as the length of the colon is traversed. At birth the mucosal surface of the colon is similar to that of the small intestine but rapid changes occur with the loss of the villi leaving flat mucosa with deep crypts. The existence of receptors like muscarinic M3, cholecystokinin1, Eph, Erb B, estrogen (?, ?), gastrin releasing peptide, killer Ig like receptor, lymphocyte-endothelial receptor, notch, pregnane X, substance P and peroxisome proliferator-activated ? receptor can be utilized as a promising approach for targeting. The inner compact firm mucus is impervious to bacteria, making it a defensive barrier for the colossal bacterial load. The mucus thus provides innate immunity to maintain the homeostasis in colon. The physiological properties of the colon such as pH, transit time, luminal pressure of the colon, and the presence of microbial flora localized in the colon are utilized in the drug design. The drug delivery systems exploit enteric coating and biodegradable polymers to reach colon in an intact form by surpassing the barriers in the stomach and small intestine. The presence of azo-reductase, glucuronidase, dextranase, pectinase, glycosidase, polysaccharidase made it feasible to design prodrug and enzyme based drug delivery. Drug designing methodologies in colon specific drug delivery include pH- based systems, enzymedepended systems, timed- release systems and pressure/osmotically release systems. PMID:22920573

Vadlamudi, Harini Chowdary; Raju, Y Prasanna; Yasmeen, B Rubia; Vulava, Jayasri



Expression of intermediate filaments in the Balbiani body and ovarian follicular wall of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).  


In the present study, we examined the distribution of 6 groups of intermediate filaments (IFs; cytokeratins, CKs, vimentin, synemin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and lamins) in oocytes and follicular walls of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) during their development using immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques. A distinctly vimentin- and synemin-positive Balbiani body, which is a transient accumulation of organelles (mitochondria, Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum) that occurs in the oocytes of all vertebrates including birds, could be detected in the oocytes of primordial and early pre-vitellogenic follicles. In larger pre-vitellogenic follicles, the Balbiani body has dispersed and the positivity of the granulosa cells appeared to concentrate in the basal portion of their cytoplasm. Our ultrastructural data demonstrated that the matrix of the Bal-biani body consists of fine IFs, which may play a role in the formation and dispersion of the Balbiani body. Of the CKs studied (panCK, CK5, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK15, CK18 and CK19), only CK5 showed a slight positive staining in both the theca externa and the Balbiani bodies of pre-vitellogenic oocytes. In conclusion, our data, which describe the changes in avian IF protein expression during folliculogenesis, suggest that the functions of the IFs (vimentin and synemin) of oocytes and follicular walls are not primarily mechanical but may be involved in the transient tethering of mitochondria in the area of the Balbiani body and in the gain of endocrine competence during the differentiation of granulosa cells. PMID:23391820

Rodler, Daniela; Sinowatz, Fred



Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los desórdenes gastrointestinales



Nitric oxide modifies chromatin to suppress ICAM-1 expression during colonic inflammation  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is an established inflammatory mediator. However, it remains controversial whether NO enhances the inflammatory response in the colon or suppresses it. We investigated the epigenetic regulation of Icam-1 expression by NO following induction of colonic inflammation in rats by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid and obtaining colonic muscularis externae tissues 24 h later. TNBS inflammation induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by translocating NF-?B to the nucleus. The incubation of inflamed tissues with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) did not affect the nuclear translocation of NF-?B; however, it suppressed the NF-?B binding to DNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis (ChIP)-qPCR assays showed that the increase in NF-?B/DNA interaction following inflammation is due to the transcriptional downregulation of global HDAC3 and a decrease in its interaction with the DNA on the Icam-1 promoter containing the binding motifs of NF-?B. The decrease in the association of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 with the Icam-1 promoter increased the acetylation of histone 4 lysine residue 12 (H4K12), which would favor chromatin relaxation and greater access of NF-?B to its DNA binding sites. HDAC3 dissociation from the DNA did not affect the acetylation levels of H4K8 and H4K16. The NO release by GSNO countered the upregulation of Icam-1 by increasing the transcription of global HDAC3 and its association with the Icam-1 promoter, and by suppressing H4K12 acetylation. We conclude that chromatin modification by transcriptional downregulation of HDAC3 plays a critical role in the induction of the inflammatory response. NO may serve as an anti-inflammatory mediator during the acute stage of inflammation by blunting the downregulation of global HDAC3, increasing HDAC3 interaction with the nucleosomes containing the binding moieties of NF-?B, reducing H4K12Ac to restrict the access of NF-?B to DNA, and suppressing ICAM-1 expression.

Li, Qingjie



An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa of cysts exhibited a similar cell DNA fragmentation to early atretic follicles. In the granulosa and theca interna, active caspase-3 shown similar immunostaining levels in tertiary and cystic follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa cells presented high expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w in the tertiary and cystic follicles with diminishing intensity in the atretic follicles, except with Bcl-w where the intensity was maintained in the atretic follicles (p < 0.05). The expression of Bax was weak in the healthy and cystic follicles. In the theca interna, Bcl-2 expression was the same as the pattern found in the granulosa; no differences were found between tertiary and cystic follicles from both groups for Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. The expression of Bax in this layer was higher in the tertiary follicles of the treated animals (p < 0.05) while the values for cystic follicles were similar to those in the tertiary follicles of controls. The theca externa showed low expression of the pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition.

Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H



Supplementation of direct-fed microbials as an alternative to antibiotic on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens.  


An experiment was conducted to investigate the supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 800 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross × Ross) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment (50 birds/replicate pen). The 4 dietary treatments fed for 35 d were a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 0.1% virginiamycin, as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP); control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained Lactobacillus reuteri (DFM 1); and control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained a mixture of L. reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DFM 2). Results showed that dietary AGP and DFM supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the BW gain of broilers during 0 to 21 d. The feed intake was reduced, whereas the feed conversion was improved significantly when birds were fed DFM 2 at 0 to 7 d of age. The white blood cell and monocyte levels were significantly higher in the DFM 2 group compared with the control. In addition, feeding DFM significantly (P < 0.05) increased the plasma immunoglobulin levels where a higher level was observed in DFM 2 compared with those of the other treatments. Neither DFM nor AGP treatments affected the cecal Lactobacillus and Salmonella content; however, cecal Escherichia coli content significantly decreased in broiler chickens fed DFM and AGP. The ileal villus height, and width and total thickness of muscularis externa were significantly increased when birds were fed DFM compared with AGP and control. These results indicate that the dietary supplementation of DFM increases the growth performance of birds at an early age, stimulates the immune response, decreases the number of E. coli, and improves the ileal morphology of broiler chickens. Thus, DFM that contained a mixture of several beneficial microorganisms could be a viable alternative to antibiotics in the broiler diets. PMID:23873556

Salim, H M; Kang, H K; Akter, N; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Na, J C; Jong, H B; Choi, H C; Suh, O S; Kim, W K



Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary, Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae).  


The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was-to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin's solution and sectioned into 7 microm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (p<0.05), with the highest mean in the luteal phase. Primordial follicles were found in the cortex; the oocytes were enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells. In the primary follicles, proliferation of the follicular cells gave rise to cuboidal cells (granulosa cells). The secondary follicle was characterized by two or more concentric layers of cuboidal cells (granulosa), beginning of antrum formation, and the presence of pellucid zone and theca cells. Antral follicles were characterized by a central cavity (antrum), the presence of cumulus oophorus and theca layers (interna and externa). In the right ovary, the values of the primordial and primary follicles were similar, but significantly different from the secondary ones (p<0.05). In the left ovary, significant differences were observed between all follicles in the follicular phase (p<0.05); the mean number of primordial and primary follicles was similar in the luteal phase. The mean number of pre-antral follicles and antral follicles in the follicular phase was higher in the left ovary (p<0.05). The mean number of antral follicles in the luteal phase was similar in both ovaries. We also found significant differences in mean diameter of preantral follicles, oocyte, granulosa layer and oocyte nucleus during the estrous cycle. In the antral follicles a significant difference was observed only in follicular diameter (p<0.05). The predominance of active primordial and primary follicles was found in both phases; otherwise the secondary follicles and antral follicles showed a high degree of degeneration. The results obtained in the present work will strengthen the development of biotechnology programs to improve the productive potential and conservation of the collared peccary. PMID:22458237

Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de Garcia, Sylvia Cristina Garcia; Ferreira, Maria Auxiliadora Pantoja; da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Le Pendu, Yvonnick



Deeply infiltrating endometriosis is a disease whereas mild endometriosis could be considered a non-disease.  


Deeply infiltrating endometriosis can be defined as endometriosis infiltrating deeper than 5 mm under the peritoneal surface. Type I is a conical lesion suggested to be caused by infiltration; type II is mainly caused by retraction of the bowel over the lesion; type III is the most severe lesion suggested to be caused by adenomyosis externa. Severe cases are clinically apparent by nodularities in the pouch of Douglas, whereas mild and subtle forms of deep endometriosis are easily missed. Clinical examination during menstruation and scrutiny at laparoscopy for indurations, followed, preferably, by CO2-laser-excision are the key features for diagnosis and treatment. It is important to realize that depth of infiltration and lateral spread cannot be evaluated by laparoscopic inspection but only during excision, that CA125 concentration but not ultrasound or nuclear magnetic resonance can be helpful in the diagnosis, and that in the most severe cases medical pretreatment is advocated. Results of excision, as evaluated by disappearance of pain in some 80% of women, by a cumulative pregnancy of some 70% and a low recurrence rate, are excellent. The peritoneal fluid is thought to play a key role in the physiopathology of deep endometriosis which is considered to be endometriosis which has escaped from the influence of the peritoneal fluid. This concept is clinically important for the medical treatment of endometriosis, which is suggested to shrink deep lesions and to bring them back under peritoneal fluid control. A model of endometriosis is proposed and discussed. Subtle lesions are considered a natural condition occurring intermittently in all women, whereas we question whether mild endometriosis is a disease. In some women endometriosis has an aggressive behavior and develops into cystic ovarian endometriosis or into deeply infiltrating endometriosis. In this model subtle and mild forms would be called "endometriosis," whereas deep and cystic ovarian forms could be called "endometriotic disease." It is stressed that deep and cystic ovarian endometriosis are two distinct entities, which is important for our understanding of endometriosis, for classification and for treatment of endometriosis. PMID:7978935

Koninckx, P R; Oosterlynck, D; D'Hooghe, T; Meuleman, C



[Agents of otomycosis in Manisa region, Turkey, 1995-2011].  


Otomycosis, which is otitis externa caused by fungi, is common throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. However, the epidemiologic data about the etiologic agents of otomycosis in Turkey is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the agents of otomycosis in patients living at Manisa region (located at western Anatolia of Turkey). A total of 2279 cases [1465 male, 813 female; age range 1-87 (mean: 41.7) years] who were clinically prediagnosed as otomycosis at Celal Bayar University Hospital, between February 1995 and July 2011, were included in the study. External ear swab samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis have been evaluated by routine mycological methods. Identification of mold-like fungi was based on colony morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure, whereas germ tube test, growth characteristics on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and API 20C AUX (bio-Mérieux, France) system were used for the identification of yeast-like fungi. Of the samples, 28% (638/2279) were found positive by direct microscopy and 24% (544/2279) by culture methods. Among culture-positive cases the isolation rates of mold-like and yeast-like fungi were 66% (359/544) and 34% (185/544), respectively. The number of distribution of the molds were as follows; Aspergillus niger (180), Aspergillus fumigatus (95), Aspergillus terreus (32), Aspergillus flavus (23), Aspergillus spp. (14), Penicillium spp. (13), Trichophyton spp. (T.rubrum 1, T.mentagrophytes 1); while this distribution was as follows for the yeasts; Candida tropicalis (97), Candida albicans (39), Candida parapsilosis (21), Candida glabrata (19), Candida kefyr (4), C.guilliermondii (2), Candida krusei (1), Geotrichum candidum (1) and Trichosporon capitatum (1). It was notable that 96% (344/359) of mold-like fungi were Aspergillus spp., and 99% (183/185) of yeast-like fungi were Candida spp. The results of this study indicated that the most frequent agents of otomycosis were non-dermatophyte species such as Aspergillus, followed by Candida. Dermatophytes were isolated in a small number of otomycosis cases. These data will provide support to the establishment of antifungal therapy guidelines for otomycosis. PMID:22399174

De?erli, Kenan; Ecemi?, Talat; Günhan, K?vanç; Ba?kesen, Tolga; Kal, Elçin



Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis.  


The cationic ultrastructural tracer polyethyleneimine (PEI: pI approximately equal to 11.0), binds electrophysically to uniformly spaced discrete electron-dense anionic sites present in the laminae rarae of the rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangial reflections of the GBM, Bowman's capsule, and tubular basement membranes when administered intravenously. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of glomerular anionic sites reveals that the maximum concentration of stainable lamina rara externa (lre) sites (21/10,000 A GBM) occurs 60 minutes after PEI injection with a site-site interspacing of 460 A. Lamina rara interna (lri) sites similarly demonstrate a maximum concentration (20/10,000 A GBM) at 60 minutes with a periodicity of 497 A. The concentration and distribution of anionic sites within the lri was irregular in pattern and markedly decreased in number, while the lre possesses an electrical field that is highly regular at all time intervals analyzed (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes). Immersion and perfusion of renal tissue with PEI reveals additional heavy staining of the epithelial and endothelial cell sialoprotein coatings. PEI appears to bind to glomerular anionic sites reversibly: ie, between 60 and 180 minutes the concentration of stained sites decreases. At 300 minutes, the interspacing once again approaches the 60-minute concentration. This suggests a dynamic turnover or dissociation followed by a reassociation of glomerular negatively charged PEI binding sites. In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria. PEI does not induce proteinuria in rats, nor does it produce glomerular morphologic alterations when ten times the tracer dosage is administered intravenously. These findings indicate that the choice of ultrastructural charge tracer, the method of administering the tracer, and the time selected for analysis of tissue after administration of tracer significantly influences results. Morphometric analysis of the distribution of glomerular anionic sites in nonproteinuric rats provides a method of evaluating quantitative alterations of the glomerular charge barrier in renal disease models. PMID:4073220

Pilia, P A; Swain, R P; Williams, A V; Loadholt, C B; Ainsworth, S K



Extensional Detachment faulting in melange rocks. Plurikilometres migration by W the External Zone (Cordillera Bética, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis and correlation of units carried out in the continuous geological map (Roldán et al., 2012), has revealed a fragmentation of the carbonate outcrops belong to the Subbetic Domain (García-Hernández et al., 1980). Subbetic NW verging thrust and fold axial traces have not lateral continuity and Jurassic carbonate outscrops appear as klippes on the olistotromic unit. These ductile structures that can be observed in the internal structure of these jurassic blocks are unrelated to the brittle-ductile deformation bands observed at the basal pelitic levels. Basal detachments are rooted in: a) the Olistostromic unit, a Upper Langhian-Lower Serravallian breccia constituted by gypsum-bearing clay and marls; b) Cretaceous-Tertiary marly sedimentary rocks (Rodríguez-Fernández, et al., 2013) . In both kind of rocks, cataclastic structures allows to infer a top-to-the WSW displacement. Paleostress measurements, made on these detachments levels, are compatible with a extensional regime (Roldán et al., 2012). At the same time, the analysis and interpretation of subsurface data (seismic surveys and borehole testing) shows that the Subbetic Domain (External Subbetic, Molina 1987) are affected by westward low-angle normal faults. A balanced cross-section, based on morphological and cartographic data in the area between Sierra de Cabra and Sierra de Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén), shows plurikilometric displacements which has been produced during Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian times. References: García-Hernández, M., López-Garrido, A.C., Rivas, P., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Vera, J.A. (1980): Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the zones of the Betic Cordillera. Geol. Mijnb. 59 (2). 155-168. Molina, J.M. (1987). Análisis de facies del Mesozoico en el Subbético. Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Granada. 518 p. Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Roldán, F. J., Azañón, J.M. y García-Cortés, A. (2013). El colapso gravitacional del frente orogénico a lpino en el Dominio Subbético durante el Mioceno medio-superior: El Complejo Extensional Subbético. Boletín Geológico y Minero, 124 (3): 477-504. Roldán, F.J., Azañón, J.M. y Rodríguez-Fernández, J. (2012): Desplazamiento extensional del Subbético entre las sierras de Cabra y Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén. Zonas Externas de la Cordillera Bética). VIII Congreso Geológico de España oviedo. GEOTEMAS, V-13: 484. Roldán, F.J., Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Villalobos, M., Lastra, J., Díaz-Pinto, G., Pérez Rodríguez, A.B. (2012). Zonas: Subbético, Cuenca del Guadalquivir y Campo de Gibraltar. In GEODE. Mapa Geológico Digital Continuo de España. Sistema de Información Geológica Continua: SIGECO. IGME. Editor Navas, J. Disponible en:

Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Rodríguez, Jose; Mateos, Rosa Maria



The fine structure of the female reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera).  


The general structure of the female genital system of Zorotypus caudelli is described. The ovarioles are of the panoistic type. Due to the reduction of the envelope (tunica externa) the ovarioles are in direct contact with the hemolymph like in some other insect groups, Plecoptera included. The calices are much larger in Z. caudelli then in Zorotypus hubbardi and their epithelial cells produce large amounts of secretions, probably protecting the surface of the eggs deposited on the substrate. Eggs taken from the calyx bear a series of long fringes, which are missing in the eggs found in the ovariole, and in other zorapteran species. The long sperm of Z. caudelli and the long spermathecal duct are likely related to a sexual isolating mechanism (cryptic female choice), impeding female re-mating. The apical receptacle and the spermathecal duct - both of ectodermal origin - consist of three cell types. In addition to the cells beneath the cuticle lining the lumen, two other cell types are visible: secretory and canal cells. The cytoplasm of the former is rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns and Golgi complexes, which produce numerous discrete dense secretory bodies. These products are released into the receiving canal crossing the extracellular cavity of secretory cells, extending over a series of long microvilli. The secretion is transported towards the lumen of the apical receptacle of the spermatheca or to that of the spermathecal duct by a connecting canal formed by the canal cells. It is enriched by material produced by the slender canal cells. Before mating, the sperm cells are enveloped by a thick glycocalyx produced at the level of the male accessory glands, but it is absent when they have reached the apical receptacle, and also in the spermathecal duct lumen. It is likely removed by secretions of the spermatheca. The eggs are fertilized at the level of the common oviduct where the spermathecal duct opens. Two micropyles at the dorsal side of the equator level possibly facilitate fertilization. The presence of these two micropyles is a presumably derived feature shared with Phasmatodea. The fine structure of the female reproductive system of Z. caudelli does not allow to assess the phylogenetic position at the present stage of knowledge. The enlarged calyx and the temporary presence of long fringes on the eggs are potential autapomorphies of Z. caudelli or may indicate relationships with other Zorotypus species. PMID:21996134

Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Gottardo, M; Machida, R; Mashimo, Y; Beutel, R G



Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.  


Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital form, a mixed fungal/bacterial infection, is treated with debridement, antibiotics and drying routine similar to the therapy of otitis externa. Nail infections by a variety of organisms may appear as onycholysis with or without paronychia and should be treated with the appropriate antibiotics. Tinea versicolor occurs in heat and humidity. Since Pityrosporum orbiculare is part of the normal flora it often recurs, necessitating regular treatment. Acute trauma injuries include contusions, black heel or petichiae of the heel, black toe (bleeding under the nail), 'jogger's nipple' caused by chafing, and foot blisters. Chronic trauma may result in calluses, corns and paronychia. Plantar corns can be disabling and may be caused by overly tight shoes or abnormalities in biomechanics; treatment includes restoring normal foot function and minimal surgical procedures. Paronychia is treated best by wedge resection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2180022

Conklin, R J



Staining methods applied to glycol methacrylate embedded tissue sections.  


The use of glycol methacrylate (GMA) avoids some technical artifacts, which are usually observed in paraffin-embedded sections, providing good morphological resolution. On the other hand, weak staining have been mentioned during the use of different methods in plastic sections. In the present study, changes in the histological staining procedures have been assayed during the use of staining and histochemical methods in different GMA-embedded tissues. Samples of tongue, submandibular and sublingual glands, cartilage, portions of respiratory tract and nervous ganglion were fixed in 4% formaldehyde and embedded in glycol methacrylate. The sections of tongue and nervous ganglion were stained by H&E. Picrosirius, Toluidine Blue and Sudan Black B methods were applied, respectively, for identification of collagen fibers in submandibular gland, sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cartilage (metachromasia) and myelin lipids in nervous ganglion. Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) method was used for detection of glycoconjugates in submandibular gland and cartilage while AB/PAS combined methods were applied for detection of mucins in the respiratory tract. In addition, a combination of Alcian Blue (AB) and Picrosirius methods was also assayed in the sublingual gland sections. The GMA-embedded tissue sections showed an optimal morphological integrity and were favorable to the staining methods employed in the present study. In the sections of tongue and nervous ganglion, a good contrast of basophilic and acidophilic structures was obtained by H&E. An intense eosinophilia was observed either in the striated muscle fibers or in the myelin sheaths in which the lipids were preserved and revealed by Sudan Black B. In the cartilage matrix, a strong metachromasia was revealed by Toluidine Blue in the negatively-charged glycosaminoglycans. In the chondrocytes, glycogen granules were intensely positive to PAS method. Extracellular glycoproteins were also PAS positive in the basal membrane and in the region occupied by the lamina externa and reticular fibers surrounding each smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels. In the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, acid and neutral mucins were histochemically detected by AB and PAS methods, respectively. Moreover, granules containing acid and neutral mucins were revealed in purple by AB and PAS concomitantly. In the sublingual gland sections, a distinct affinity of acid mucins by AB (in turquoise-blue) and collagen fibers by Picrosirius (in red) was obtained when these methods were combined. Although some routine dyes used in paraffin sections have showed a weak stain in historesin sections, our results showed that different dyes could be applied in GMA sections if modified staining procedures were assayed. Therefore, appropriate staining contrast and, thus, detection of one or different substances in a same section can be acquired in association to the good morphological resolution provided by GMA. PMID:14680922

Cerri, P S; Sasso-Cerri, E



Progress in the prognosis of adult Hodgkin's lymphoma in the past 35 years through clinical trials in Argentina: a GATLA experience.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends in complete remission (CR) rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) through 35 years of Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) clinical trials. A total of 1,254 adult patients with Hodgkin's Lymphoma were evaluated according to seven consecutive protocols. This 35-year study was divided into three phases. The patients in the first phase (1968-1985) were treated with CVPP (cyclophosphamide/vinblastine/procarbazine/prednisone) plus involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT). In the CVPP regimen, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine were administered intravenously on day 1 and prednisone and procarbazine were administered orally on days 1-14 every 28 days. The second phase (1986-1996) used mainly reinforced CVPP with cyclophosphamide and vinblastine on days 1-8 plus IFRT. The third phase (1997-2003) used ABVD(doxorubicin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine) plus IFRT. In clinical stage I/II, the CR rate was 86% in 252 patients treated in the first phase and DFS and OS were 57% and 78% at 5 years and 50% and 71% at 10 years. The second phase had 148 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 91%, 5-year DFS and OS were 78% and 90%, and 10-year DFS and OS were 70% and 83%. The third phase had 182 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 95%, 5-year DFS and OS were 87% and 96%, and 10-year DFS and OS were not reached. The statistical difference was P = 0.016 in terms of CR and P < 0.001 in terms of DFS and OS. In the first phase of 394 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 71%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 37% and 62%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 32% and 53%. In the second phase of 164 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 84%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 66% and 80%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 60% and 75%. In the third phase of 114 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 88% and DFS and OS at 5 years were 60% and 90%. The DFS and OS were not reached at 10 years. The differences among the 3 phases in CR, DFS and OS were highly significant (P < 0.001). PMID:15453925

Pavlovsky, Santiago; Lastiri, Francisco



Simultaneous follow-up of mouse colon lesions by colonoscopy and endoluminal ultrasound biomicroscopy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the potential use of colonoscopy and endoluminal ultrasonic biomicroscopy (eUBM) to track the progression of mouse colonic lesions. METHODS: Ten mice were treated with a single azoxymethane intraperitoneal injection (week 1) followed by seven days of a dextran sulfate sodium treatment in their drinking water (week 2) to induce inflammation-associated colon tumors. eUBM was performed simultaneously with colonoscopy at weeks 13, 17-20 and 21. A 3.6-F diameter 40 MHz mini-probe catheter was used for eUBM imaging. The ultrasound mini-probe catheter was inserted into the accessory channel of a pediatric flexible bronchofiberscope, allowing simultaneous acquisition of colonoscopic and eUBM images. During image acquisition, the mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and kept in a supine position over a stainless steel heated surgical waterbed at 37?°C. Both eUBM and colonoscopic images were captured and stored when a lesion was detected by colonoscopy or when the eUBM image revealed a modified colon wall anatomy. During the procedure, the colon was irrigated with water that was injected through a flush port on the mini-probe catheter and that acted as the ultrasound coupling medium between the transducer and the colon wall. Once the acquisition of the last eUBM/colonoscopy section for each animal was completed, the colons were fixed, paraffin-embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Colon images acquired at the first time-point for each mouse were compared with subsequent eUBM/colonoscopic images of the same sites obtained in the following acquisitions to evaluate lesion progression. RESULTS: All 10 mice had eUBM and colonoscopic images acquired at week 13 (the first time-point). Two animals died immediately after the first imaging acquisition and, consequently, only 8 mice were subjected to the second eUBM/colonoscopy imaging acquisition (at the second time-point). Due to the advanced stage of colonic tumorigenesis, 5 animals died after the second time-point image acquisition, and thus, only three were subjected to the third eUBM/colonoscopy imaging acquisition (the third time-point). eUBM was able to detect the four layers in healthy segments of colon: the mucosa (the first hyperechoic layer moving away from the mini-probe axis), followed by the muscularis mucosae (hypoechoic), the submucosa (the second hyperechoic layer) and the muscularis externa (the second hypoechoic layer). Hypoechoic regions between the mucosa and the muscularis externa layers represented lymphoid infiltrates, as confirmed by the corresponding histological images. Pedunculated tumors were represented by hyperechoic masses in the mucosa layer. Among the lesions that decreased in size between the first and third time-points, one of the lesions changed from a mucosal hyperplasia with ulceration at the top to a mucosal hyperplasia with lymphoid infiltrate and, finally, to small signs of mucosal hyperplasia and lymphoid infiltrate. In this case, while lesion regression and modification were observable in the eUBM images, colonoscopy was only able to detect the lesion at the first and second time-points, without the capacity to demonstrate the presence of lymphoid infiltrate. Regarding the lesions that increased in size, one of them started as a small elevation in the mucosa layer and progressed to a pedunculated tumor. In this case, while eUBM imaging revealed the lesion at the first time-point, colonoscopy was only able to detect it at the second time-point. All colonic lesions (tumors, lymphoid infiltrate and mucosal thickening) were identified by eUBM, while colonoscopy identified just 76% of them. Colonoscopy identified all of the colonic tumors but failed to diagnose lymphoid infiltrates and increased mucosal thickness and failed to differentiate lymphoid infiltrates from small adenomas. During the observation period, most of the lesions (approximately 67%) increased in size, approximately 14% remained unchanged, and 19% regressed. CONCLUSION: Combining eUBM with colonoscopy improves the diagnosis and the follow-up

Soletti, Rossana C; Alves, Kelly Z; de Britto, Marcelo AP; de Matos, Dyanna G; Soldan, Monica; Borges, Helena L; Machado, Joao C



Vertebral column and associated elements in dipnoans and comparison with other fishes: development and homology.  


A vertebral column consisting of a persistent notochord and ossified arcocentra is the primitive condition for Gnathostomata; it still persists in primitive actinopterygians and sarcopterygians. Advanced actinopterygians and sarcopterygians develop numerous types of centra that include, among others, the presence of holocentrum, chordacentrum, and autocentrum. The chordacentrum, a mineralization or calcification of the fibrous sheath of the notochord, is only found in actinopterygians, whereas an autocentrum is a synapomorphy of teleosts above Leptolepis coryphaenoides. The chordacentrum, formed by migration of cartilaginous cells from the arches into the fibrous sheath of the notochord and usually covered by a thin calcification, is a unique feature of chondrichthyans. The actinopterygian chordacentrum and the chondrichthyan chordacentrum are not homologous. The postcaudal cartilaginous centrum is only known in postcaudal vertebrae of living dipnoans. The holocentrum is present in certain fossil dipnoans and actinopterygians, where it has been independently acquired. It is formed by proliferation of cartilage cells around the elastica externa of the notochord. These cells later ossify, forming a compact centrum. A vertebral column formed by a persistent notochord without vertebral centra is the primitive pattern for all vertebrates. The formation of centra, which is not homologous among vertebrate groups, is acquired independently in some lineages of placoderms, most advanced actinopterygians, and some dipnoans and rhipidistians. Several series of structures are associated with the vertebral column such as the supraneurals, interhaemals, radials, and ribs. In living dipnoans median neural spine, "supraneural," and dorsal radial result from growth and distal differentiation of one median cartilage into two or three median bones during ontogeny. The median neural spine articulates with the neural arch and fuses with it in the caudal vertebrae early in ontogeny. Two bones differentiate in the anterior abdominal vertebrae, i.e., the proximal neural spine and the distal "supraneural." Three bones differentiate in front of the dorsal fin, i.e., the proximal neural spine, the middle "supraneural", and the distal radial; the same pattern is observed in front of the anal fin (the proximal haemal spine, the middle interhaemal, and the distal radial). Considering that the three dorsal (and also the three ventral) bones originate from growth of only one cartilage, they cannot be serial homologs of the neural spines, or "supraneural." They are linear homologs of the median neural cartilage in living dipnoans. The development of these elements differs within osteichthyans from sarcopterygians to actinopterygians, in which the neural spine originates as a continuation of the basidorsal arcualia and in which the supraneural and radial originate from independent cartilages that appear at different times during early ontogeny. The ribs of living dipnoans are unique in that they are not articulated with parapophyses, like in primitive fossil dipnoans, but a remnant of the ventral arcuale surrounded by a small arcocentrum remains at its base. A true caudal fin is absent in living dipnoans. The postcaudal cartilages extend to the caudal tip of the body separating dorsal and ventral rays (or the camptotrichia). Actinotrichia are present in young dipnoans. They are also known in extant actinistians and actinopterygians. They probably represent the primitive state for teleostomes. In contrast, the camptotrichia are unique for extant dipnoans (and probably Carboniferous and younger dipnoans). Lepidotrichia apparently developed many times among osteichthyans. PMID:11746457

Arratia, G; Schultze, H P; Casciotta, J