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Sample records for otite externa aguda

  1. Les antihistaminiques pour les enfants souffrant d’otite moyenne

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question L’otite moyenne est un problème très fréquent en pédiatrie et peut causer bien du stress à l’enfant et à ses parents. Les antihistaminiques et les décongestionnants ont-ils un rôle à jouer dans la prise en charge de l’otite moyenne aiguë ou de l’otite moyenne avec épanchement chez les enfants? Réponse Traditionnellement, les antihistaminiques et les décongestionnants ont été utilisés pour traiter l’otite moyenne; par ailleurs, de récentes lignes directrices, fondées sur des études dans lesquelles on a constaté des résultats négatifs, recommandent de ne pas les utiliser systématiquement. Aucune combinaison d’antihistaminique et de décongestionnant n’a été éprouvée comme ayant des bienfaits cliniquement significatifs, sans compter qu’il faut prendre en considération les effets indésirables possibles.

  2. Otitis externa - bacteriological survey.

    PubMed

    Feinmesser, R; Wiesel, Y M; Argaman, M; Gay, I

    1982-01-01

    Otitis externa is one of the most common problems faced by the otolaryngologist, and in some clinics constitutes up to 40% of patients. Although not lethal, it may be a most debilitating disease. The external ear is an epithelium-lined cul-de-sac with many sweat and cerumeniferous glands whose secretions are an excellent medium for bacterial growth. Bacterial surveys done in the USA and in Israel 30 years ago proved Staphylococcus aureus to be the major pathogen. During the years the major pathogen changed, and in recent surveys Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the dominant pathogenic bacterium. The purpose of this article is to present the results of a bacteriological survey done in Israel on patients suffering from otitis externa in the years 1979-1980. A discussion is presented with regard to the meaning of the review. We tried to establish whether a certain factor could be considered to be the cause of otitis externa. PMID:7099575

  3. Oestrus ovis ophthalmomyiasis externa.

    PubMed

    Reingold, W J; Robin, J B; Leipa, D; Kondra, L; Schanzlin, D J; Smith, R E

    1984-01-01

    Oestrus ovis, the sheep nasal botfly, is the most common cause of ophthalmomyiasis externa in North America. In the United States, most cases occur on Catalina Island. The symptoms of acute infestation with this organism resemble those of catarrhal conjunctivitis and the condition is considered to be self-limiting. Treatment consists of careful removal of the organisms and topical administration of corticosteroid and antibiotic drugs to relieve the symptoms and prevent bacterial contamination. We recently examined a 17-year-old woman who had visited Catalina Island and later developed acute O. ovis ophthalmomyiasis externa. To determine the incidence of chronic complications, we performed ophthalmic examinations on 15 Catalina Island residents who had had documented O. ovis ophthalmomyiasis externa before 1981. We found no evidence of persistent infestation or intraocular penetration by these organisms. PMID:6696023

  4. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Swimming Healthy Water Home Share Compartir "Swimmer’s Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention Swimmer's ear (also known as ... Health with CDC: Keep Your Ears Dry Swimmer’s Ear Prevention Tips DO keep your ears as dry ...

  5. Aspects epidemiologiques, cliniques et therapeutiques des otites externes: à propos de 801 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bathokedeou, Amana; Essobozou, Pegbessou; Akouda, Patassi; Essohanam, Boko; Eyawelohn, Kpémissi

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail etait de déterminer l’épidémiologie, la clinique et la thérapeutique des otites externes (OE). Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective d'une année menée du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2006 dans le service ORL du CHU-Tokoin. Huit cent un cas d'otite externe (OE) soit 11,9% des consultations étaient recensés. Le sexe féminin représentait 476 cas (59,42%). Le sex ratio était de 0,68. L’âge moyen des patients était de 25,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 05 mois et 81 ans. La tranche d’âge de 0-15 ans était la plus fréquente avec 360 cas (45%). L'allergie dans 74 cas (60,66%), la lésion de grattage dans 24 cas (19,67%), les corps étrangers du conduit auditif externe dans 18 cas (14,75%) et la natation dans 6 cas (4,92%) étaient les facteurs favorisants. L'otalgie dans 638 cas (79,65%) était le symptôme le plus fréquent. Les différentes formes cliniques des otites externes se répartissaient comme suit: otite externe diffuse dans 612 cas (76,40%), furoncle du CAE 126 dans cas (15,73%), otomycose dans 58 cas (7,24%), zona du conduit auditif externe dans 3 cas (0,37%) et otite externe nécrosante dans 2 cas (0,25%). Les gouttes auriculaires étaient administrées à tous les patients. L’évolution avait noté 799 patients (99,75%) guéris sans complication, un cas de décès et un cas de guérison avec séquelle. Traitée correctement, l'otite externe guérit sans complication. Son éviction passe par une sensibilisation des populations sur l'entretien du conduit auditif externe. PMID:25379111

  6. Clinical and microbiological features of otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Hawke, M; Wong, J; Krajden, S

    1984-10-01

    A prospective study of 40 cases of acute otitis externa and 99 cases of chronic otitis externa in unselected patients revealed that otitis externa affects males and females with a similar frequency. The peak incidence occurs in the summer and early fall months of the year. Exposure to water, previous use of ear drops, and cotton-tipped applicators predisposed to both acute and chronic otitis externa. Hearing aid ear molds appear to be a predisposing factor in the development of chronic otitis externa. Pain, itching, discharge, and hearing loss were the most common presenting complaints in both acute and chronic otitis externa. The discharge in chronic otitis externa is more commonly purulent, whereas in acute otitis externa it is more commonly mucoid. The tympanic membrane is not frequently involved in acute otitis externa; however, in chronic otitis externa changes in the tympanic membrane were more often encountered. Most infections were of a pure bacterial origin, primarily Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Fungi were the causative organisms more commonly in chronic otitis externa than in acute otitis externa (Figure 7). It was found that previous usage of ear drops was more often associated with otomycosis in acute otitis externa and yet was not related to a higher frequency of otomycosis in chronic otitis externa. The presence of a foreign material, such as an ear mold, was associated with a greater frequency of mixed infections (bacteria and fungi) in the group with chronic otitis externa. The presence of a greenish discharge or foul odor was not related to any particular organism. PMID:6544842

  7. L'otite moyenne chronique cholestéatomateuse de l'enfant: à propos de 30 cas

    PubMed Central

    Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2015-01-01

    Le cholstéatome de l'oreille moyenne est une otite chronique qualifiée de dangereuse en raison de ses risques évolutifs et de ses complications potentiellement graves pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital. L’évolution du cholestèatome est sensiblement différente entre l'adulte et l'enfant, avec une agressivité particulière des cholestèatomes pédiatriques nécessitant ainsi une prise en charge adéquate. Le but de notre travail est d'analyser à travers une revue bibliographique les particularités des otites moyennes chroniques cholestèatomateuses chez 30 enfants pris en charge dans le service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. Le traitement est exclusivement chirurgical, actuellement, la plupart des auteurs optent pour l'utilisation d'une technique fermée en première intention chez l'enfant PMID:26401218

  8. Acute otitis externa in children

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Colin J.; Smith, Christine H.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Question In the summer months I see many children with uncomplicated acute otitis externa (AOE). I am aware of the multiple ototopical preparations. Which is the best first-line agent to treat AOE, and is there a role for an oral antibiotic? Answer There are no specific Canadian guidelines for the management of AOE. However, current American guidelines promote initial ototopical therapy without systemic antibiotics for uncomplicated AOE; suggest there is little difference between the various ototopical preparations; and recommend the choice of treatment be based on the specific clinical situation. In practice, this often results in prescribing an antibiotic-steroid formulation for 7 to 10 days. This ototopical treatment option is supported by a recent Cochrane review that has documented the superiority of an antibiotic-steroid combination when compared with placebo or acetic acid in providing clinical resolution of AOE. PMID:23152458

  9. Pattern of otitis externa in Kaduna Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Thomas Samdi; Bemu, Alfred Nicholas; Grema, Umar Sambo; Kirfi, Abdullahi Musa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Otitis externa (OE) is an inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal (EAC), the auricle, or both this condition has been reported to be found in all age groups. The aims and objectives were, study/determine the prevalence of Otitis externa in the specialist otolaryngology clinic in National Ear Care Center Kaduna, study the pattern of presentation among patients with otitis externa in the specialist otolaryngology clinic in National Ear Care Center Kaduna, and evaluate the choice of drug treatment for otitis externa in the specialist otolaryngology clinic in National Ear Care Center Kaduna. Methods Data of patients diagnosed with otitis externa between January 2009 and March 2013 were extracted from the recorded cases of ear disease seen within the same period. The ages, sex/ gender, complains(symptoms), duration of symptoms, clinical examination findings, diagnosis, mode of drug treatment, number of visits and complication records were extracted from the case notes of the patients and analyzed descriptively using SPSS (Statistical package for Social Sciences) version. Results Out of 13,328 cases of ear diseases seen within the period under review, 133 cases were diagnosed with otitis externa across all age groups. Hospital prevalence stands at 1.0%. There were 81(60.9%) males and 52(39.1%) females in ratio 1.5:1. Children age 0-15 constitute 55(41.3%) while young adults and adults were 78(58.6%). The minimum age at presentation was one year, while maximum age was 64 years. Mean age was 24 years with a standard deviation of ± 1.12 Years. Ear pain as only presenting symptom was the major complain found in this study accounting for 68(51.1%). Acute diffuse otitis externa was the commonest diagnosis accounting for 101(75.9%) and associated clinical findings ranging from tragal tenderness, hyperaemia and oedema of ear canal in 57 (54.9%). Ear swab was not routinely done and only 6(15.8%) of the discharging ears had microscopy done and the organisms were Pseudomonas spp and klebsiella. Empirical treatment was the commonest treatment modality and about 91% of the patients had complete symptom resolution by second visit. Complication was observed in only one case of necrotizing otitis externa who was retro-viral positive. Conclusion Otitis externa accounted for small fraction of cases seen in our clinic (1%). Acute diffuse otitis externa is the commonest diagnosis made with symptoms ranging from ear pain, ear discharge, hearing loss and itchiness. Most patients were treated empirically with significant success within first two visits. No major complication was recorded within the period under study. PMID:26328002

  10. Heterotopic ossification in chronic fibrosing otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Elizabeth F; Bhutta, Mahmood F; Lavy, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Acquired external auditory canal atresia is a rare complication of chronic inflammatory otitis, and is generally fibrous or soft tissue in nature. Here, we present the first reported case of heterotopic ossification within chronic fibrosing otitis externa in a 25-year-old male patient with a childhood history of granular myringitis and failed tympanoplasty. A calcified mass was demonstrated adjacent to the tympanic membrane on CT imaging, and surgical exploration revealed a cohesive bar of bone traversing the medial external auditory canal. Drill canaloplasty and split-thickness skin graft coverage of the lateral tympanic membrane resulted in an improvement in the pure tone average from 79 to 55 dB. As the treatment for chronic fibrosing otitis externa involves the surgical widening of the external auditory canal, we alert surgeons to the possibility of cohesive bone formation as a potential cause of navigational confusion and inadvertent over- or under-drilling of the canal stenosis. PMID:26429555

  11. Heterotopic ossification in chronic fibrosing otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, Elizabeth F.; Bhutta, Mahmood F.; Lavy, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Acquired external auditory canal atresia is a rare complication of chronic inflammatory otitis, and is generally fibrous or soft tissue in nature. Here, we present the first reported case of heterotopic ossification within chronic fibrosing otitis externa in a 25-year-old male patient with a childhood history of granular myringitis and failed tympanoplasty. A calcified mass was demonstrated adjacent to the tympanic membrane on CT imaging, and surgical exploration revealed a cohesive bar of bone traversing the medial external auditory canal. Drill canaloplasty and split-thickness skin graft coverage of the lateral tympanic membrane resulted in an improvement in the pure tone average from 79 to 55 dB. As the treatment for chronic fibrosing otitis externa involves the surgical widening of the external auditory canal, we alert surgeons to the possibility of cohesive bone formation as a potential cause of navigational confusion and inadvertent over- or under-drilling of the canal stenosis. PMID:26429555

  12. Experimental treatment of recurrent otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Mileva, M.H.; Pencheva, D.V.; Bryaskova, R.G.; Genova-Kalou, P.D.; Kantardjiev, T.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of the hybrid material based on polyvinyl alcohol and silver nanoparticles (PVA/AgNps) in the treatment of the otitis externa as an additional component in the commercial product “Betazon Trio”. It was established that the experimental creamy formula with silver concentration 600 mg/L is suitable for recovery of the microbial homeostasis when it is administrated once daily in dose 1 ml over a period of 14 days. PMID:26623362

  13. Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplamic diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites

    PubMed Central

    Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

    2013-01-01

    Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics. PMID:23591518

  14. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa. PMID:24226755

  15. Otitis Externa Associated with Malassezia sympodialis in Two Cats

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The lipid-dependent species Malassezia sympodialis was isolated from two cats with otitis externa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of lipid-dependent species of the genus Malassezia associated with skin disease in domestic animals. PMID:10699037

  16. The joint in vitro action of polymyxin B and miconazole against pathogens associated with canine otitis externa from three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Silvia; Meyer, Michael; Voget, Michael; Cieslicki, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine otitis externa, an inflammation of the external ear canal, can be maintained and worsened by bacterial or fungal infections. For topical treatment, combinations of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial ingredients are mainly used. Hypothesis/Objectives This study was conducted to elucidate the in vitro activity of polymyxin B and miconazole against clinical bacterial isolates from three European countries, to investigate possible differences in sensitivity and to assess drug interactions. Animals Seventeen strains of Escherichia coli, 24 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 25 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with diagnosed otitis externa had been isolated in Germany, France and Italy. Methods Drug activities were evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration. The potentiation of polymyxin B plus miconazole was calculated using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). An FICI ≤0.5 defined synergy. Furthermore, geographical variations in the FICI and MIC were assessed by statistical analysis. Results Bacterial susceptibilities were comparable in different European countries, because there were no significant MIC and FICI variations (P > 0.05). As a single agent, polymyxin B had bactericidal activity against most E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains and, in higher concentrations, against S. pseudintermedius strains. Miconazole was bactericidal against all Staphylococcus strains. Synergy was demonstrated against strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 and 0.50, respectively), whereas overall there was no interaction against S. pseudintermedius strains (FICI = 1.25). Proteus mirabilis strains were not inhibited by each of the drugs individually or by their combination. Conclusions and clinical importance In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and miconazole against E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates indicates a rationale for applying both agents in combination to treat otitis externa when infected with these types of bacteria. Résumé Contexte L'otite externe canine, une inflammation du conduit auriculaire externe, peut être entretenue et aggravée par les infections bactériennes ou fongiques. Pour le traitement topique, les associations d'anti-inflammatoires et d'antimicrobiens sont principalement utilisées. Hypothèses/Objectifs Cette étude a été menée pour déterminer l'activité in vitro de la polymyxine B et du miconazole contre les souches bactériennes cliniques isolées dans trois pays européens, d'étudier les différences possibles de sensibilité et de déterminer les interactions médicamenteuses. Sujets Dix-sept souches d'Escherichia coli, 24 souches de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 souches de Proteus mirabilis et 25 souches de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ont été isolées de chiens atteints d'otite externe en Allemagne, France et Italie. Résultats L'activité des molécules a été évaluée par la concentration minimale inhibitrice (CMI) et la concentration minimale bactéricide. La potentialisation de la polymyxine B et du miconazole a été calculée par l'indice de concentration inhibitrice fractionnaire (FICI). Un FICI ≤ 0.5 définissait la synergie. En outre, les variations géographiques dans le FICI et la CMI étaient évaluées par analyses statistiques. Résultats Les sensibilités bactériennes étaient comparables dans les différents pays européens parce qu'aucune différence significative n'a été mise en évidence entre les variations de CMI et de FICI (P > 0.05). La polymyxine B en tant que seul agent avait une activité bactéricide contre la plupart des souches de E. coli et P. aeruginosa, et, à plus forte concentration, contre les souches de S. pseudintermedius. Le miconazole était bactéricide contre toutes les souches de S. pseudintermedius. Une synergie a été mise en évidence contre les souches de E. coli et P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 et 0.50, respectivement), alors qu'aucune interaction n'a été mise en évidence contre les souches de S. pseudintermedius (FICI = 1.25). Les souches de Proteus mirabilis n'ont été inhibées par aucune des molécules, individuellement ou en association. Conclusions et importance clinique La synergie in vitro de la polymyxine B et du miconazole contre les souches d'E. coli et de P. aeruginosa justifie l'application de la combinaison des deux agents dans le traitement de l'otite externe lors d'infection par ces bactéries. Resumen Introducción la otitis externa canina, inflamación del canal auditivo externo, puede perpetuarse y empeorar debido a la presencia de infecciones bacterianas o fúngicas. Para el tratamiento tópico se utilizan fundamentalmente combinaciones de ingredientes antiinflamatorios y antimicrobianos. Hipótesis/objetivos este estudio se condujo para elucidar la actividad in vitro de polimixina B y miconazol frente a aislados clínicos bacterianos de tres países europeos, investigar posibles diferencias en sensibilidad y analizar interacciones de fármacos. Animales diecisiete cepas de Escherichia coli, 24 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 cepas de Proteus mirabilis y 25 cepas de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius de perros diagnosticados con otitis externa asilados de Alemania, Francia e Italia. Métodos se evaluó la actividad de los fármacos mediante la concentración inhibitoria minima (MIC) y la concentración bactericida minima. La potenciación de polimixina B y miconazol se calculó usando el índice de concentración fraccional inhibitoria (FICI). Un FICI≤ 0,5 definía sinergismo. Además se analizaron estadísticamente las variaciones en la FICI y MIC dependiendo de la región de origen. Resultados la susceptibilidad bacteriana fue comparable en los diferentes países europeos ya que no hubo diferencias significativas en MIC y FICI (P > 0,05). Como agente único la polimixina B tuvo actividad antimicrobiana frente a la mayoría de cepas de E. coli y P. aeruginosa, y a mayores concentraciones frente a cepas de S. pseudintermedius. El miconazol fue bactericida frente a todas las cepas de Staphylococcus. Se observó sinergismo frente a cepas de E. coli y P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 y 0,50, respectivamente), mientras en general no hubo sinergismo frente a las cepas de S. pseudintermedius (FICI = 1.25). Cepas de Proteus mirabilis no fueron inhibidas por los fármacos individualmente ni en combinación. Conclusiones e importancia clínica el sinergismo in vitro de la polimixina B y el miconazol frente a aislados de E. coli y P. aeruginosa indica un motivo para utilizar ambos agentes en combinación para tratar casos de otitis externa producidos por infecciones con estas bacterias. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Die canine Otitis externa, eine Entzündung des äußeren Ohrkanals, kann durch eine bakterielle Infektion oder durch eine Infektion mit Hefepilzen aufrechterhalten bzw. verschlimmert werden. Zur topischen Behandlung werden hauptsächlich Kombinationen aus entzündungshemmenden und antimikrobiellen Wirkstoffen verwendet. Hypothese/Ziele Diese Studie wurde durchgeführt, um die in vitro Aktivität von Polymyxin B und Mikonazol gegenüber klinischen Bakterienisolaten aus drei europäischen Ländern zu beleuchten und um mögliche Unterschiede in der Sensibilität zu untersuchen und um Interaktionen von Medikamenten zu beurteilen. Tiere Siebzehn Stämme von Escherichia coli, 24 Stämme von Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 Stämme von Proteus mirabilis und 25 Stämme von Staphylokokkus pseudintermedius von Hunden mit einer diagnostizierten Otitis externa waren in Deutschland, Frankreich und Italien isoliert worden. Methoden Die Wirkstoffaktivitäten wurden mittels minimaler inhibitorischer Konzentration (MIC) und minimaler bakterizider Konzentration evaluiert. Die Potenzierung von Polymyxin B plus Mikonazol wurde mittels „Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index” (FICI) kalkuliert. Ein FICI ≤ 0,5 definierte eine Synergie. Weiters wurden geographische Variationen des FICI und der MIC mittels statistischer Analyse beurteilt. Ergebnisse Die bakteriellen Empfindlichkeiten waren in den verschiedenen europäischen Ländern vergleichbar, da keine signifikanten Unterschiede bei MIC und FICI bestanden (P > 0,05). Als alleiniger Wirkstoff zeigte Polymyxin B eine bakterizide Wirkung gegenüber den meisten E. coli und P. aeruginosa Stämmen und, in höheren Konzentrationen, gegenüber S. pseudintermedius Stämmen. Eine Synergie wurde gegen E. coli und P. aeruginosa Stämme (FICI = 0.25 bzw. 0,50) demonstriert, während insgesamt keine Interaktion gegen S. pseudintermedius Stämme (FICI = 1.25) bestand. Proteus mirabilis Stämme wurden von keinem dieser Wirkstoffe, weder individuell noch in Kombination, inhibiert. Schlussfolgerungen und klinische Bedeutung Eine in vitro Synergie von Polymyxin B und Mikonazol gegenüber E. coli und P. aeruginosa Isolaten bekräftigt die Argumentation dafür, beide Wirkstoffe in Kombination zu verwenden, um eine Otitis externa, bei der diese Bakterien vorkommen, zu behandeln. PMID:23721182

  17. A rare and sinister variant of a common ailment: Fungal malignant otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Lilic, N; Mowjood, MT; Wong, MHW

    2012-01-01

    A recent case report in this journal highlighted the pathophysiology and management of bacterial malignant otitis externa (MOE) (1). We describe the case of an elderly gentleman who had a delayed diagnosis of fungal MOE with advanced diseased at time of diagnosis. This case highlights the changing microbiology of this serious disease and the difficulty in diagnosis given the rarity of this form of otitis externa relative to its uncomplicated form. PMID:24960790

  18. Deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus externa promotes sleep.

    PubMed

    Qiu, M H; Chen, M C; Wu, J; Nelson, D; Lu, J

    2016-05-13

    The basal ganglia, a network of subcortical structures, play a critical role in movements, sleep and mental behavior. Basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease affect sleep. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease can ameliorate sleep disturbances. Our series of previous studies lead the hypothesis that dopamine, acting on D2 receptors on the striatopallidal terminals, enhances activity in the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and promotes sleep. Here, we tested if DBS in the GPe promotes sleep in rats. We found that unilateral DBS (180Hz at 100μA) in the GPe in rats significantly increased both non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep compared to sham DBS stimulation. The EEG power spectrum of sleep induced by DBS was similar to that of the baseline sleep, and sleep latency was not affected by DBS. The GPe is potentially a better site for DBS to treat both insomnia and motor disorders caused by basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:26917269

  19. Risk of otitis externa after swimming in recreational fresh water lakes containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    van Asperen, I. A.; de Rover, C. M.; Schijven, J. F.; Oetomo, S. B.; Schellekens, J. F.; van Leeuwen, N. J.; Collé, C.; Havelaar, A. H.; Kromhout, D.; Sprenger, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an outbreak of otitis externa was due to bathing in recreational fresh water lakes and to establish whether the outbreak was caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the water. DESIGN--Matched case-control study. SETTING--The Achterhoek area, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--98 cases with otitis externa and 149 controls matched for age, sex, and place of residence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Odds ratios for type of swimming water and frequency of swimming; presence of P aeruginosa in ear swabs and fresh water lakes. RESULTS--Otitis externa was strongly associated with swimming in recreational fresh water lakes in the previous two weeks (odds ratio 15.5 (95% confidence interval) 4.9 to 49.2) compared with non-swimming). The risk increased with the number of days of swimming, and subjects with recurrent ear disease had a greatly increased risk. The lakes met the Dutch bathing water standards and those set by the European Commission for faecal pollution in the summer of 1994, but P aeruginosa was isolated from all of them, as well as from the ear swabs of 78 (83%) of the cases and 3 (4%) of the controls. CONCLUSIONS--Even when current bathing water standards are met, swimming can be associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa because of exposure to P aeruginosa. People with recurrent ear disease should take special care when swimming in waters containing P aeruginosa. PMID:8520277

  20. Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Márcio Candeias

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

  1. Atypical Lipid-Dependent Malassezia Species Isolated from Dogs with Otitis Externa

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of dogs with chronic otitis externa, lipid-dependent Malassezia species were isolated in three dogs. These species were identified as Malassezia furfur and M. obtusa but showed atypical assimilation patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of lipid-dependent species of the genus Malassezia in association with canine otitis. PMID:10835009

  2. Study of lipid in the ear canal in canine otitis externa with Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, A; Sukegawa, T; Mizumoto, N; Tani, H; Miyamoto, T; Sasai, K; Baba, E

    2000-11-01

    An epidemiological investigation of 120 canine otitis externa cases in 1,370 dogs was done on the incidence rate, ear pinna shapes, breeds and their relationships. Eighty-five cases (12.6%) in 672 dogs with pendulous ears and 35 cases (5.0%) in 698 dogs with erect ears had otitis externa, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.05). Ninety-five auditory cerumen specimens were cultured for Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis) and analyzed for concentrations of major fatty acids. Although rates of cases positive for M. pachydermatis in both ear pinna shapes were almost the same, i.e. 55.2% in the pendulous group and 53.6% in the erect group, the average total fatty acid level of the pendulous ear group was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that in the erect ear group after dismissing extraordinary levels in the Siberian husky. Isolated M. pachydermatis strains were examined for the effects of fatty acid supplementation on their growth. The majority of the strains utilized fatty acids and grew faster in fatty acid supplemented broth. These results suggest that M. pachydermatis, the predominant causative agent of canine otitis externa, prefers the auditory canal of dogs with lipid-rich earwax and grows fast, but growth strongly depends upon the canine breed. PMID:11129861

  3. Impact of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M I; Sanchez, N; Pineda, S; Chi, H; Ronco, A

    2009-09-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies have used life table analysis to evaluate the toxicity of pesticides on beneficial organisms. This study is the first report of the effect of the herbicide glyphosate on a predator insect, Chrysoperla externa, using a demographic approach. This predator is associated to soybean pests and has a potential role as a biological control agent in the Neotropical Region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on the development, fertility and demography of C. externa, treated orally by ingestion of glyphosate-dipped eggs of Sitotroga cerealella in laboratory conditions. The data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Development from third larval instar to pupae and adult longevity were shorter in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Adult pre-reproductive period was longer in glyphosate-treatment than in the control. Fecundity and fertility were deeply reduced, as well, being fertility greater affected. A high important reduction was registered in all population parameters. Most eggs from glyphosate-treated cohort looked abnormal, smaller than control, dehydrated and became black 2d after oviposition. In addition, adults developed tumours in the abdomen region at 20d after emergence, being the effect more drastic in females than males. It is beyond the scope of our study to speculate on the effects of this herbicide on C. externa field populations. However, it seems likely that populations under continuous use of glyphosate would be exposed at greater detrimental effects in the long term. PMID:19577273

  4. Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: The Relationship with Malignant Otitis Externa, the Diagnostic Dilemma, and Changing Trends

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. PMID:24963511

  5. Treatment of acute otitis externa with ciprofloxacin otic 0.2% antibiotic ear solution

    PubMed Central

    Mösges, R; Nematian-Samani, M; Eichel, A

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective An inflammation of the cutis and subcutis of the external auditory canal is a primary symptom in cases of acute otitis externa. It is usually treated locally, since this type of therapy ensures a high concentration of the drug and interacts at the site of inflammation with no systemic effects. This systematic review compares the efficacy of treatment using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution with other therapeutic options. Methods After compiling a catalog of search terms, medical databases were searched systematically for randomized, controlled studies. This search initially yielded a total of 38 studies which were then evaluated by three independent reviewers. The number of studies was subsequently reduced to 14: six studies using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution, and eight studies using both 0.2% and 0.3% solutions. Results The studies included in the review demonstrate the statistical equivalence between the ciprofloxacin solution (0.2%) and the reference products PNH (a combination of polymyxin B, neomycin sulfate and hydrocortisone), auriculum powder, and a ciprofloxacin foam with respect to the cure rate. The research groups consistently observed high in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion This systematic review confirms the hypothesis of ciprofloxacin’s noninferiority in the treatment of otitis externa, in terms of the cure rate and microbiological eradication. PMID:21845055

  6. Entomopathogenic Activity of a Variety of the Fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, Recovered from the Elongate Hemlock Scale, Fiorinia externa

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, José A. P.; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Giordano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    A fungal epizootic in populations of Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) infesting hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae) in forests of the Northeastern US has been recently detected. The current known distribution of the epizootic spans 36 sites in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit. (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae) was the most prevalent fungus recovered from infected scales. Bioassays indicated that this C. acutatum variety is highly pathogenic to F. externa. Mortality rates of >90 and >55% were obtained for F. externa crawlers and settlers, respectively. Significantly lower mortality levels, ≤ 22%, were obtained when three other species of insects were assayed. C. gleosporioides has also been shown to have pathogenic activity towards a scale insect. The data suggest that C. acutatum var. fioriniae from F. externa epizootics in the US, and the previously reported C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae causing Orthezia praelonga epizootics in Brazil, may constitute distinct biotypes of Colletotrichum that have attained the ability to infect insects in addition to the commonly reported plant hosts. PMID:19613442

  7. Diagnosis and medical treatment of otitis externa in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L S

    2002-12-01

    Otitis externa is no longer viewed as an isolated disease of the ear canal, but is a syndrome that is often a reflection of underlying dermatological disease. Causes are classified as predisposing (increase the risk of otitis); primary (directly induce otitis), secondary (contribute to otitis only in an abnormal ear or in conjunction with predisposing factors) and perpetuating (result from inflammation and pathology in ear, prevent resolution of otitis). Common primary causes include foreign bodies, hypersensitivity (particularly atopy and food allergy), keratinisation disorders (most commonly primary idiopathic seborrhoea and hypothyroidism) and earmites, particularly in cats. A systematic diagnostic procedure is required to identify causes and contributing factors. This should include history, clinical examination, otoscopy and cytology in all cases and culture and sensitivity as well as otitis media assessment and biopsy in severe and recurrent cases. Ancillary tests may be required depending on the underlying cause. Treatment consists of identifying and addressing predisposing and primary factors; cleaning the ear canal; topical therapy; systemic therapy where necessary; client education; follow-up; and preventive and maintenance therapy as required. PMID:12665128

  8. Comparison of lipid profiles of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa and without clinical symptoms of disease.

    PubMed

    Czyzewska, Urszula; Siemieniuk, Magdalena; Pyrkowska, Aleksandra; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Bieganska, Malgorzata; Dabrowska, Iwona; Bartoszewicz, Marek; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Tylicki, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis can cause infections of the skin and mucous membranes, especially in animals. It becomes a problem also in medicine. It is considered that metabolic disorders as well as hormonal and immunological status of the host promote diseases caused by M. pachydermatis. Here we consider whether specific features of fungi could also favour infections. We checked whether there are differences in lipid profiles between strains obtained from dogs with otitis externa and strains obtained from healthy dogs. Lipid profiles were determined using thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All analyses were carried out on 32 strains derived from dogs with otitis externa and 31 strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of disease. The results show that strains isolated from dogs without symptoms of otitis externa are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids. They contain significantly more behenic and lignoceric acids on medium without addition of lipids, and more oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids on medium with lipids supplementation. These strains have also a higher content of esters of ergosterol and triglycerides. Data obtained show differences which may be specific features of M. pachydermatis-specific strains related to the ability of infection, which could be not directly related of the host condition. PMID:26559663

  9. Clinical evaluation of an antiinflammatory and antioxidant diet effect in 30 dogs affected by chronic otitis externa: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Centenaro, Sara; Beribè, Francesca; Laus, Fulvio; Cerquetella, Matteo; Spaterna, Andrea; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this evaluation study was to assess the possible role of a specific nutraceutical diet in relieving main clinical symptoms of chronic bilateral otitis externa (occlusion of ear canal, erythema, discharge quantity, and odor) in 30 adult dogs. Thirty dogs of different breeds (mean age ± SEM; 6.03 ± 0.15 years and mean weight ± SEM; 32.01 ± 1.17 Kg; 53.3 % males, 46.6 % females) with evident chronic clinical otitis symptoms were equally divided and randomly assigned to receive either the nutraceutical diet (ND group) or a standard diet (SD group) over a period of 90 days. In all cases a topical pharmacological treatment was given. The nutraceutical diet, also endowed with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, significantly decreased the mean score intensity of all symptoms after 90 days of intervention (P < 0.0001) with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis infection which was only slightly reduced. Our investigation is one of the few evidence-based results where a commercial nutraceutical diet has been proven effective, in combination with drugs, in relieving otitis externa-related symptoms. This study opens new insights into otitis externa clinical management providing evidence of efficacy of a combined therapy with drugs and a specific nutraceutical diet. PMID:26743397

  10. Development and Reproduction of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Fed on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Vectoring Potato leafroll virus (PLRV).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Freire, B C; Carvalho, G A; Oliveira, R L; Medina, P; Budia, F

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) while feeding on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) acting as a vector of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). In laboratory experiments, three different diets were offered ad libitum to C. externa during the larval period: M. persicae fed on PLRV-infected potato leaves, M. persicae fed on uninfected potato leaves, and eggs of the factitious prey Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as the control. The following parameters were studied: the developmental time and survival rate of the larval and pupal stages, the sex ratio, the proportion of fertile females, female fecundity and egg viability, and the survival curve of the first 30 days after adult emergence. PLRV-infected aphids influenced the C. externa larval developmental time and survival compared to PLRV-uninfected aphids and A. kuehniella eggs. The pupal developmental time of C. externa was shorter when fed on aphids compared to A. kuehniella eggs, but no differences were recorded between the PLRV-infected and uninfected aphid diets. Additionally, no differences were observed for pupal survival and reproduction. However, adult survival was affected by the prey type, as 75% of C. externa control adults remained alive at an age of 30 days compared to 51 and 54% for those fed on PLRV-uninfected and infected aphids, respectively. PMID:26395997

  11. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) from off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan) with remarks on its single brood externae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2015-09-01

    Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. infests Pagurixus hermit crabs inhabiting rocky shores off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan). This species is clearly distinguishable from Peltogasterella gracilis (Boschma, 1927): the stalk emerges from the middle part of the externa in the present species and P. sulcata (Lilljeborg, 1859), while the stalk in P. gracilis emerges from the posterior end of the externae. The new species differs from P. sulcata based on the morphology of the mantle aperture. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. repeatedly produces single brood externae that have not been previously observed in species belonging to the suborder Kentrogonida Delage, 1884. We also determined partial sequences of the COI gene and 16S rRNA gene of the new species for use as molecular markers for species identification. PMID:26249520

  12. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with chronic and acute otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Chiavassa, E; Tizzani, P; Peano, A

    2014-10-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast that is frequently involved as a secondary/perpetuating factor in canine otitis externa. Topical therapies with different antifungal agents, mainly azole compounds, are generally successful in controlling the yeast overgrowth, but treatment failure and rapid recurrences are common. This study compared the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates obtained from chronic and acute cases of otitis externa. The aim was to assess the possible onset of resistance mechanisms in isolates involved in long-lasting episodes with poor response to treatment. We evaluated the in vitro susceptibility to miconazole (MCZ) and clotrimazole (CTZ) of 42 isolates of M. pachydermatis obtained from dogs with chronic (group A, n = 25) and acute otitis (group B, n = 17), using a modified CLSI M27-A3 microdilution method. All isolates were inhibited by the antifungal agents employed, but Malassezia isolates from group A were significantly associated with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for both agents (Median MIC values: MCZ group A 2 µg/ml, group B 1 µg/ml; CTZ group A 8 µg/ml, group B 4 µg/ml). These findings prove that these isolates had a reduced in vitro susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. However, it is unlikely that this could have any influence on the outcome of a topical treatment. Indeed, marketed products include concentrations of the tested agents that largely exceed even the highest MICs found in this study (in most cases at least 1,000 × the MIC, or greater). In conclusion, this study suggests that isolates of M. pachydermatis involved in chronic cases of canine external otitis and exposed to repeated antifungal treatments are unlikely to develop mechanisms of resistance of clinical relevance. PMID:25031085

  13. Acute otitis externa in divers working in the North Sea: a microbiological survey of seven saturation dives.

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Saturation diving is an important and widely used technique in the Offshore Oil Industry. During 1974-5 two saturation dives in the North Sea were terminated because of outbreaks of incapacitating otitis externa, and others were disrupted. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was consistently isolated from the ears of affected divers. Because complex work schedules were threatened seven subsequent dives were subjected to microbiological monitoring and control. Colonization of ear canal with P. aeruginosa or with other gram-negative bacilli occurred in 39 (67%) of the 58 divers studied, usually within 7 days of starting the dive. Data obtained by serotyping this isolations of P. aeruginosa suggested that a single infected diver may be the source of organisms which rapidly spread to his colleagues and throughout the living chambers, that the living chambers may constitute a reservoir of infection during and between dives, and that certain serotypes of P. aeruginosa are more likely than others to colonize the ear canal in the conditions of a saturation dive. The control measures used during the dives were only partially effective, but none of the divers suffered severe pain and all the dives were an operational success. PMID:405421

  14. Poor-quality water in swimming pools associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hajjartabar, M

    2004-01-01

    There are many large and small public outdoor and indoor swimming pools in Tehran that hundreds of people use, especially on hot summer days. The bacteriological quality of the water of some of these pools was assayed over a period of about one year (2001-2002). To assess if these swimming pools were a health risk to users, eleven public swimming pools, in the east and northeast of the city, were examined, and the exposed people were monitored. Samples of swimming-pool waters were examined for colony counts, Escherichia coli and coliforms. In addition, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from nine (81.8%) of those pools. P. aeruginosa grew in seven (63.6%) of the swimming-pool water samples. In two (18.2%) other samples, in addition to P. aeruginosa, high rates of total bacterial count, total coliforms and faecal coliform counts were also found. At the same time, users of the swimming pools were asked to complete a questionnaire. Ear swabs were collected from 179 users with a history of ear problems during the previous two weeks. An adequate control group was chosen randomly from those who never used the investigated pools. P. aeruginosa was isolated from the ear swabs of 142 (79.3%) of the cases, as well as from 4% of the controls. Results were matched for age, sex, duration of time spent in the pools, place of occurrence and other useful information. Investigation of the contaminated swimming pools revealed that chlorination was often inadequate, especially when high numbers of people led to overuse of the pools. Although the results of this research showed that otitis externa was strongly associated with the swimming pools, due to P. aeruginosa, an extensive follow-up study is needed to determine the other possible health risks associated with public pools. PMID:15318488

  15. Malignant otitis externa

    MedlinePLUS

    ... destroy the bones. The infection may affect the cranial nerves, brain, or other parts of the body if ... nervous system (neurological) exam may show that the cranial nerves are affected. If there is any drainage, the ...

  16. First identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from dogs with otitis externa in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Dziva, Francis; Wint, Crystal; Auguste, Tennille; Heeraman, Carolyn; Dacon, Cherrelle; Yu, Priscilla; Koma, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Otitis externa is a common inflammatory ear disease in dogs caused by a variety of pathogens, and coagulase-positive staphylococci are frequently isolated from such infections. Objective To identify antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and methicillin-resistant strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed over 2 years on 114 client-owned dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a primary complaint of ear infections. Swabs were obtained from both ears and cultured for staphylococci which were subsequently confirmed as coagulase-positive using rabbit plasma. Antimicrobial susceptibility assays were assessed on all isolates followed by subsequent genetic analysis for species identification and detection of the mecA gene. Results Sixty-five coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 114 client-owned dogs. The isolates exhibited resistance against neomycin (58.5%), streptomycin (49.2%), penicillin (49.2%), polymyxin B (44.6%), tetracycline (36.9%), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (33.8%), kanamycin (33.8%), doxycycline (32.3%), norfloxacin (23.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (20%), ciprofloxacin (20%), enrofloxacin (18.5%), gentamicin (16.9%), and cephalothin (9.2%). Forty (61.5%) of the isolates were resistant to at least three or more antimicrobials and 10 were sensitive to all. Using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay based on species-specific regions of the thermonuclease (nuc) gene, 38/65 (58.5%) isolates were classified as Staphylococcus aureus, 23/65 (35.4%) as S. pseudintermedius, 2/65 (3.1%) as S. intermedius, and 2/65 (3.1%) as S. schleiferi. Analysis for the mecA gene revealed two positive isolates of S. pseudintermedius which were oxacillin-resistant, representing a first report of such organisms in the Caribbean. Conclusion Despite the relatively high prevalence of multidrug-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in Trinidad, these are largely susceptible to gentamicin consistent with use in clinical practice. The first detection of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs is likely to have implications on the treatment options for otitis externa in dogs and potential public health significance. PMID:26715379

  17. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  18. Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov., isolated from otitis externa of a dog, and emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium Collins et al. 1983 emend. Yassin et al. 2011.

    PubMed

    Hijazin, Muaz; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Sammra, Osama; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Zschöck, Michael

    2012-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on an unidentified Arcanobacterium-like Gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from otitis externa of a dog. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Arcanobacterium and was most closely related to the type strains of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (97.2 %), Arcanobacterium hippocoleae (96.5 %) and Arcanobacterium phocae (96.4 %). The presence of the major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)) supported the affiliation of this strain to the genus Arcanobacterium. The polar lipid profile contained the major lipids phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified phospholipid (PL2). Major fatty acids were C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(18 : 0), C(18 : 1)ω9c and C(18 : 2)ω6,9c/anteiso-C(18 : 0) (detected as a summed feature). C(10 : 0) and C(12 : 0) were present in minor amounts. The results of physiological and biochemical testing clearly distinguished the unknown bacterium from other species of the genus Arcanobacterium. Based on these tests, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in the novel species Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov. The type strain of Arcanobacterium canis is P6775(T) (= CCM 7958(T) = CCUG 61573(T) = CIP 110339(T)). An emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium is also provided. PMID:22081713

  19. Enhancing plant resistance at the seed stage: low concentrations of methyl jasmonate reduce the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta but do not alter the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa.

    PubMed

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Paudel, Sulav; Rajotte, Edwin G; Felton, Gary W; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2014-10-01

    Plants express inducible direct and indirect defenses in response to herbivory. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related signaling compounds referred to as jasmonates play a central role in regulating defense responses to a wide range of herbivores.We assessed whether treating tomato seeds with 0.8 mM of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) affected the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta, and whether possible changes in volatile profiles altered the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa. MeJA-treatment significantly lengthened larval development and decreased the pupal weight of T. absoluta. Herbivory alone increased the emissions of ?-pinene, 6-methyl 5-hepten-2-one, ?-myrcene, (E)-?-ocimene, isoterpinolene, TMTT, (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate, and hexyl salicylate. MeJA seed treatment significantly decreased the emissions of ?-cubebene from undamaged and herbivore-infested plants. In addition, the emissions of several compounds were lower in the absence of herbivory. Chrysoperla. externa preferred odors from herbivore-infested plants over those from control plants, regardless of the MeJA-treatment, and they did not show any preference for herbivore-infested plants for any of the MeJA-treatments. Our results show preliminary evidence that the treatment of tomato seeds with MeJA can reduce the performance of Tuta absoluta, and that the chemical differences observed in plant VOC profiles do not alter the behavior of the model predator. PMID:25319361

  20. Diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis externa by dermatoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Naimer, Sody A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.

    2014-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis in humans caused by the larvae of the sheep nasal botfly (Oestrus ovis) and is a rare phenomenon in Israel. We describe the utilization of the dermatoscope as a diagnostic tool for the facilitation of early diagnosis of conjunctivitis due to the infestation of the eyes by the sheep nasal botfly in two patients. After the physical removal of the larvae with the help of a cotton swab applicator under a slit lamp examination and the topical use of antibiotics, the clinical symptoms improved within 1–2 days. Undoubtedly the dermatoscope played a crucial role leading to the definitive diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention. PMID:25396095

  1. Cholesteatoma and meningoencephalitis in a dog with chronic otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ashleigh W; Estey, Chelsie M; McDonough, Sean; Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Larsen, Meegan; Stokol, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    A 10-year-old female spayed German Shepherd dog, with a year-long history of recurrent left ear infections, was presented for progressive ataxia, head tilt, and pain on opening of the mouth. On physical examination, a large amount of ceruminous debris was present in the left ear and multiple neurologic defects localizing to the cerebellum and vestibular system were identified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a minimally contrast-enhancing mass within the left bulla, an intracranial space-occupying, heterogeneously contrast-enhancing lesion at the level of the left cerebello-medullary junction, and contrast enhancement of the ipsilateral meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a marked mixed cell pleocytosis (nucleated cell count 655 cells/?L). The mass was visualized within the horizontal ear canal by otoscopic examination and a biopsy was taken. Impression smears of the biopsy contained many anucleate keratinized squamous epithelial cells, mild mixed inflammation, and few presumptive fibroblasts. With the provided clinical history and MRI findings, a cytologic diagnosis of cholesteatoma was made. A ventral bulla osteotomy was performed, and histopathologic examination of resected tissue confirmed the cytologic diagnosis of cholesteatoma. The dog's clinical symptoms improved postoperatively, but the dog died of unrelated causes, 3.5 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the cytologic features of a cholesteatoma, which is a nonneoplastic, but locally invasive epidermoid cyst, in the middle ear of dogs. PMID:25385218

  2. Three cases of ophthalmomyiasis externa by sheep botfly Oestrus ovis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Dono, Mariella; Bertonati, Maria Rosa; Poggi, Roberto; Teneggi, Elena; Maddalo, Francesco; Via, Fabrizio; Orlandi, Rita; Maroli, Michele; Roncella, Silvio; Fedeli, Franco; Battolla, Enrico

    2005-10-01

    Human infection with the sheep nasal botfly Oestrus ovis is sporadic and is often the consequence of an accidental deposit of the larvae by an adult botfly in the eye. This infestation results in external ophthalmomyiasis that, although a very rare condition, is more common among people living close to farming communities. We report three cases of O. ovis infestation which occurred in Italy in a limited area of La Spezia province (Le Cinque Terre), Italy during summer 2004. None of the patients had contact with wild or farm animals. PMID:16386021

  3. [Postnatal developmental changes in the posterior cranial fossa area. I. Facies posterior partis petrosae (porus et meatus acusticus internus, fossa subarcuata, apertura externa aqueductus vestibuli, apertura externa canaliculi cochleae)].

    PubMed

    Lang, J; Hofmann, S; Maier, R; Schafhauser, O

    1981-01-01

    1. In the newborn the lateral edge of the internal acoustic pore is located about 13.3 mm, in the 2-year-old about 22.5 mm and in the adults about 28.5 (22 to 34) mm from the paramedian plane of the skull. Also the mean distance from the lateral wall of the skull increases from about 13 to 30 mm in the postnatal period. 2. Without the postnatal development of height and width of the internal acoustic pore the postnatal extension (from a mean value of 5 mm in the newborn to about 10 mm in the 15- to 17-year-old) also the postnatal development of height and width of the internal acoustic meatus were measured. 3. Size, width and position of the subarcuata fossa, the external aperture of the aqueduct of the vestibulum just as the external aperture of the cochlear canaliculus were determined. The results were discussed in detail with the datas of former investigators. PMID:7286595

  4. Treatment of otitis externa associated with Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii in a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) with an acetic and boric acid commercial solution.

    PubMed

    Martel, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank

    2009-06-01

    A 5-year-old lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) was presented with scaly crusts around both external ear openings and exudate present around the left ear. The bird had been treated with ivermectin and enrofloxacin without success. A pure culture of Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii was isolated from both ears. After susceptibility testing, a treatment of an acetic and boric acid solution administered topically 3 times daily was prescribed. The scaly appearance disappeared after 14 days of treatment and C kroppenstedtii could not be reisolated. PMID:19673461

  5. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > For Parents > Swimmer's Ear (Otitis ... español Otitis del nadador (otitis externa) About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa — commonly known as swimmer's ear — is ...

  6. Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

  7. Intra cranial complications of tuberculous otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, M.; Johnny, J. Carlton

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections in the world. It is seen that tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is almost secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we have tried to deal with all the aspects of the intra cranial complications of TOM such as tuberculoma, otitic hydrocephalus, brain abscess and tuberculous meningitis. The aspects covered in this review are the pathology, clinical features, and investigations of the intra cranial manifestations. PMID:26015748

  8. Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Externa) Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Pneumocystis Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Immunizations Flu Center ...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1044d - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa and canine infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin. (2)(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa the... from the treatment area of the external ear. (ii) For the treatment of canine infected...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1044d - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa and canine infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin. (2)(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa the... from the treatment area of the external ear. (ii) For the treatment of canine infected...

  11. 75 FR 4692 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Miconazole, Polymixin B, and Prednisolone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... treatment of otitis externa in dogs. DATES: This rule is effective January 29, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... prednisolone acetate) Otic Suspension in dogs for the treatment of otitis externa associated with ] susceptible... in 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs--(1) Amount. Instill five drops in...

  12. 75 FR 16346 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Orbifloxacin, Mometasone Furoate Monohydrate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs... of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis) and... posaconazole. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in Sec. 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in...

  13. 76 FR 78150 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Hydrocortisone Aceponate, Miconazole Nitrate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... externa in dogs. DATES: This rule is effective December 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa M... treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis...) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs--(1) Amount. Instill 1.0 mL in the affected ear...

  14. Pseudotumor cerebri.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, S

    2001-10-01

    Probable cases of pseudotumor cerebri were described more than a hundred years ago. A great deal of controversy existed regarding proper terminology and disease characterization. The clinical entity was doubtful before the routine use of ventriculography in the 1930s. Throughout history, many terms have been used, including serous meningitis, pseudotumor cerebri, otitic hydrocephalus, angioneurotic hydrocephalus, toxic hydrocephalus, meningeal hypertension, hypertensive meningeal hydrops, pseudoabscess, intracranial hypertension of unknown cause, papilledema of indeterminate etiology, intracranial pressure without brain tumor, benign intracranial hypertension, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. PMID:11594936

  15. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin and betamethasone otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill... of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use—(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to.... (ii) For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use—(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to.... (ii) For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin...

  18. Otitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Ear infection; Infection - ear ... affect the inner or outer parts of the ear. The condition is classified according to whether it ... long period of time (chronic). Otitis externa (swimmer's ear). Involves the outer ear and ear canal. A ...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the external ear canal... hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be stopped.1 (3) Federal law restricts...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use—(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to.... (ii) For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use—(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to.... (ii) For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin...

  2. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  3. Cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne - étude rétrospective à propos de 145 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Chihani, Mehdi; Nadour, Karim; Moujahid, Mountassir; Touati, Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Ammar, Haddou

    2014-01-01

    L'otite moyenne chronique cholestéatomateuse représente une entité fréquente et dangereuse en chirurgie otologique, mettant en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel auditif et exposant à des complications redoutables justifiant pleinement le recours exclusif à un traitement chirurgical et à un suivi post-opératoire rigoureux. Dans le but de mettre le point sur les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives de cette pathologie, nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, étalée sur 11 ans et portant sur 145 cas de cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne opérés au sein du service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. PMID:25120876

  4. Genotyping and characterisation of the secretory lipolytic enzymes of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates collected from dogs

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Hideshi; Kumeda, Yuko; Yokoigawa, Kumio; Hosomi, Koji; Kozaki, Shunji; Mukamoto, Masafumi; Kohda, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malassezia species are commensals of normal skin microbial flora of humans and animals. These may become pathogenic under certain conditions such as those associated with atopic dermatitis or otitis externa in dogs. Material and methods Isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis were obtained from 27 dogs with healthy external ears and 32 dogs with otitis externa. Isolates were characterised on the basis of their first internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and internal spacer 1 (IGS1) sequences. Their extracellular lipase and phospholipase activity were also analysed. Three types of phospholipase inhibitor were used to identify the subclasses of phospholipase associated with otitis externa. Results The clinical isolates were classified into three ITS and three IGS1 sequence types. No significant differences in pathogenicity were detected among the ITS or IGS1 genotypes, and all of the isolates exhibited similar levels of lipase activity. The isolates derived from the dogs with otitis externa showed significantly higher phospholipase activity than those obtained from the dogs with healthy external ears. A phospholipase D inhibitor reduced the phospholipase activity of the isolates obtained from the dogs with otitis externa. Conclusions This study did not show any significant differences in pathogenicity among the ITS or IGS1 genotypes but does suggest that phospholipase D might be one of the virulence factors involved in the inflammation of the external ear caused by M. pachydermatis. PMID:26392911

  5. [Descriptive study of infectious ear disease in relation to summer].

    PubMed

    Burgos Sánchez, A; Menaches Guardiola, M I; Gras Albert, J R; Talavera Sánchez, J

    2000-01-01

    A descriptive study was made of infectious ear disease (including diffuse otitis externa, otomycosis, acute-on-chronic otitis media, and superinfection of a radical mastoidectomy cavity) in relation to changes of weather and habits in summer. During the months of June, July, and August 1996, 179 patients were evaluated in the emergency room of the Alicante General University Hospital, Spain. Average patient age at presentation was 30.52 (+/- 20.08) years and 56% were men. The most frequent disease was diffuse otitis externa (78%) followed by acute-on-chronic otitis media (12%), otomycosis (8%), and superinfection of a radical mastoidectomy cavity (2%). The most frequently involved microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diffuse otitis externa, Aspergillus niger and Candida in otomycosis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus in acute-on-chronic otitis media. Patients were treated by cleaning detritus and secretions, usually followed by topical antibiotics for a maximum period of one week. PMID:10799927

  6. Hyperparasitism of the cryptoniscid isopod Liriopsis pygmaea on the lithodid Paralomis granulosa from the Beagle Channel, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lovrich, Gustavo A; Roccatagliata, Daniel; Peresan, Laura

    2004-01-28

    A total of 29,570 false king crab Paralomis granulosa were sampled from the Beagle Channel (54 degrees 51'S, 68 degrees 12'W), Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, between July 1996 and August 1998. Crab size varied from 6.8 to 111.2 mm carapace length (CL). A few crabs parasitized by the rhizocephalan Briarosaccus callosus were found; prevalences of externae (the rhizocephalan reproductive body) and scars (the mark left on the host after the death of the parasite) were 0.28 and 0.16%, respectively. Of 85 externae examined, 55 were non-ovigerous and 30 ovigerous. The cryptoniscid isopod Liriopsis pygmaea infested 36.5% of the B. callosus examined. The most abundant stage was the cryptonicus larva, accounting for 208 of the 238 L. pygmaea recovered. Cryptonisci showed a highly aggregated distribution. A total of 92.7% of cryptonicsci were recovered inside empty externae, suggesting that the latter were attractive to cryptonisci. Early subadult females of L. pygmaea were rare; only 3 individuals occurred inside 1 ovigerous externa. Eight late subadult and 18 adult females were found on 3 and 7 non-ovigerous externae, respectively; in addition, 1 aberrant late subadult was found on 1 ovigerous externa. In the Beagle Channel, the population of P. granulosa harbours 3 different parasites: the bopyrid isopod Pseudione tuberculata, which reaches highest prevalence at 10 to 20 mm CL, the rhizocephalan B. callosus, with highest prevalence at 20 to 40 mm CL, and the cryptoniscid isopod L. pygmaea, which mainly infests rhizocephalan on crabs >40 mm CL. PMID:15038454

  7. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease. PMID:26611929

  8. Organic synthesis via magnetic attraction: benign and sustainable protocols using magnetic nanoferrites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic nano-catalysts have been prepared using simple modification of iron ferrites wherein their quasi-homogeneous state, because of nm size range, facilitates the catalysis process as increased surface is available for reaction; the easy separation of the catalysts by externa...

  9. Incidence and burden of earaches due to recreational swimming: Results from a nationwide study ofover 50,000 respondents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Earaches and ear pain due to outer ear infections (otitis externa) are common following swimming and can result in time lost from work and school and visits to the physician or hospital. Objectives: Determine the proportion of self-reported earache attributable to ma...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  14. Use of a murine endometriosis interna model for the characterization of compounds that effectively treat human endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    OTTO, CHRISTIANE; SCHKOLDOW, JENNY; KRAHL, ELISABETH; FUCHS, IRIS; ULBRICH, HANNES-FRIEDRICH

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, estrogen-dependent disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrium either in the pelvic cavity (endometriosis externa) or within the uterus (endometriosis interna, adenomyosis). Key symptoms are pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility. Established rodent animal models used for drug research in endometriosis have certain limitations. Since rodents do not menstruate, they cannot develop endometriosis externa spontaneously, but they suffer from endometriosis interna. There is growing evidence that human endometriosis externa and interna represent two faces of the same disease. Both are estrogen-dependent and respond to similar treatment paradigms. Here, we addressed the question whether a murine endometriosis interna model may also be suitable for the characterization of drugs employed in human endometriosis. We examined the effects of danazol, Faslodex and cetrorelix in SHN mice that developed endometriosis interna after pituitary grafting. The GnRH antagonist cetrorelix and the estrogen receptor antagonist Faslodex, which negatively interfered with estrogen-mediated signaling, completely inhibited endometriosis interna, whereas danazol, an androgenic progestin, showed significant therapeutic activity in the majority of SHN mice. We conclude that this murine endometriosis interna model may be a valuable complement to established endometriosis externa models to support drug research in human endometriosis. PMID:22969904

  15. PROCESSES AFFECTING THE FATE OF OIL IN THE SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using research results reported from oil spills, laboratory experiments and microcosm studies, this review outlines the many processes controlling the behavior of petroleum in marine waters. The fate of oil spilled at sea depends on the composition of the oil, and on such externa...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin, prednisolone, and tetracaine otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484f Neomycin, prednisolone, and tetracaine otic suspension. (a... otitis externa; as treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear conditions caused by or associated...

  17. Sulphide quinone reductase contributes to hydrogen sulphide metabolism in murine peripheral tissues but not in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Linden, DR; Furne, J; Stoltz, GJ; Abdel-Rehim, MS; Levitt, MD; Szurszewski, JH

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is gaining acceptance as a gaseous signal molecule. However, mechanisms regarding signal termination are not understood. We used stigmatellin and antimycin A, inhibitors of sulphide quinone reductase (SQR), to test the hypothesis that the catabolism of H2S involves SQR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H2S production and consumption were determined in living and intact mouse brain, liver and colonic muscularis externa using gas chromatography and HPLC. Expressions of SQR, ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 (Ethe1) and thiosulphate transferase (TST; rhodanese) were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS In the colonic muscularis externa, H235S was catabolized to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, and stigmatellin reduced both the consumption of H235S and formation of [35S]-thiosulphate. Stigmatellin also enhanced H2S release by the colonic muscularis externa. In the brain, catabolism of H235S to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, which was stigmatellin-insensitive, partially accounted for H235S consumption, while the remainder was captured as unidentified 35S that was probably bound to proteins. Levels of mRNA encoding SQR were higher in the colonic muscularis externa and the liver than in the brain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data support the concept that termination of endogenous H2S signalling in the colonic muscularis externa occurs via catabolism to thiosulphate and sulphate partially via a mechanism involving SQR. In the brain, it appears that H2S signal termination occurs partially through protein sequestration and partially through catabolism not involving SQR. As H2S has beneficial effects in animal models of human disease, we suggest that selective inhibition of SQR is an attractive target for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21950400

  18. Facilitators of implementing occupation based practice among Iranian occupational therapists: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khayatzadeh Mahani, Mohammad; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Occupation-Based Practice (OBP) is a central core of occupational therapy (OT).It refers to using a meaningful occupation based on the client’s interests, needs, health and participation in daily life. This study aimed to explore the facilitators of implementing OBP among Iranian occupational therapists. Methods: Fourteen occupational therapists participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the sampling method was purposeful. The interviews were continued until data saturation was reached, and data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis using constant comparative analysis. Results: Our analysis explored two themes: Factors attributed to context, and factors attributed to therapists. The first theme consisted of three subthemes: Educational programs of OT department, public information about OBP and clinical setting compatible with OBP. The second theme also contained three subthemes including: Positive attitude regarding effectiveness of OBP, emphasis on client- centered and family- centered practice and convincing the clients to utilize OBP. Conclusion: The facilitators of implementing OBP are attributed to factors internal to the therapists as well as to issues in the external environment and context. Understanding these factors will help occupational therapists, OT educational staff, administrators and rehabilitation team members to facilitate the implementation of OBP. PMID:26913270

  19. Formulation of Thermosensitive in situ Otic Gel for Topical Management of Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Shau, P. A.; Dangre, P. V.; Potnis, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics and antiinflammatory agents are the primary and main therapeutic categories in the treatment of otitis media. One of the simpler and feasible approaches of minimizing the problem of repeated use and subsequent resistance is development of sustained release formulation. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to develop a sustained release in situ gel formulation containing combination of broad spectrum antibiotic and antiinflammatory agents for the management of otits media. The prolonged release is achieved by phase transition of Poloxamer 407 (in situ) from sol to gel at a physiological temperature in combination with viscosity imparting agent Natrasol 250 and Klucel HF. The formulation P3N3 (19% w/v Poloxamer 407, 1.5% w/v Natrasol 250) and P3K3 (19% w/v Poloxamer 407, 1.5% w/v Klucel HF) showed mucoadhesive strength 37.17±0.32×103 and 38.12±0.13×103 dyne/cm2, respectively, and gel strength 2.1 and 2 cm, respectively. Both these formulations indicated good drug content and viscosity besides a good gelling ability. The in vitro diffusion has demonstrated prolongation of release of both the drugs over a period of 8 h.

  20. La forme pseudo tumorale de la tuberculose primitive du nasopharynx: à propos de deux nouvelles observations et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Touati, Mohammed; Aljalil, Abdelfettah; Chihani, Mehdi; Bouchentouf, Rachid; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2013-01-01

    La tuberculose primitive du nasopharynx est rare, nous présentons deux observations révélées par un aspect pseudo tumoral et à travers lesquelles nous soulevons le problème de diagnostic différentiel avec les lésions malignes du nasopharynx. La première observation concerne un jeune patient de 22 ans hospitalisé pour obstruction nasale bilatérale évoluant dans un contexte d'apyrexie et de conservation de l’état général. La nasofibrosopie et le scanner ont monté un processus tumoral évoquant une hypertrophie des végétations adénoïdes. Le deuxième cas est celui d'un homme de 45 ans tabagique chronique qui a présenté une adénopathie latérocervicale droite, une obstruction nasale et une otite séromuqueuse homolatérale. La nasophibroscopie et le scanner on montré un bourgeon tumoral postéro latéral droit du nasopharynx évoquant un carcinome nasopharyngé. Les biopsies du nasopharynx et les études histologiques, chez les deux patients, ont confirmé le diagnostic de tuberculose. La recherche d'autres localisations était négative. Le pronostic était favorable après 6 mois de traitement antibacillaire. La tuberculose primitive du cavum est rare, elle revêt le plus souvent des formes pseudotumorales et pose des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les tumeurs nasopharyngées, son pronostic sous traitement antibacillaire est. PMID:23565310

  1. Infection respiratoire aigüe et statut nutritionnel chez les enfants de 0-5 ans: cas des cliniques universitaires de Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Ngombe, Léon Kabamba; Mbombo-Ditunga; Kameya, Nduwa; Malingo, Aimé Abasiko; Kayomb, Nathalie Kaj; ea Ngolomba, Jean Ngolomba; Nday, David Kakez; Numbi, Luboya

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent les données d'une étude rétrospective de 153 dossiers d'enfants hospitalisés dans le service de pédiatrie des Cliniques Universitaires de Lubumbashi/RD Congo pour IRA. En ce qui nous concerne, les IRA chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans représentent 26,11% de l'effectif, dont 17,75% âgés de moins d'un an. Le sexe masculin est légèrement prédominant (85 contre 68) et près de 70% des enfants ont un statut nutritionnel précaire. La répartition mensuelle connaît des pics en mars et octobre. Les diagnostiques notifiés sont: rhinite(16,3%),Amygdalite(5,9%),Otite Moyenne Aigue(0,7%),Laryngite (3,3%), Rhinopharyngite (39,2%), Pharyngite (6,5%), Bronchite (7,2%), Bronchopneumonie (5,9%), Pneumonie(2,6%) et Bronchiolite (12,4%).Tous les cas ont bien évolués sous traitement. Le but de ce travail est de déterminer la fréquence des IRA et le statut nutritionnel des enfants ayant été admis dans le service des pédiatries aux C.U.L. PMID:25995789

  2. Use of ototopical antibiotics in treating 3 common ear diseases.

    PubMed

    Hannley, M T; Denneny, J C; Holzer, S S

    2000-06-01

    Prompted by rising rates of antibiotic resistance, lack of standardized treatment regimens, and new treatment alternatives, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery convened an expert consensus panel to consider recommendations for the responsible use of antibiotics in chronic suppurative otitis media, tympanostomy tube otorrhea, and otitis externa. The Panel concluded that in the absence of systemic infection or serious underlying disease, topical antibiotics alone constitute first-line treatment for most patients with these conditions, finding no evidence that systemic antibiotics alone or in combination with topical preparations improve treatment outcomes compared with topical antibiotics alone. Topical preparations should be selected on the basis of expected bacteriology and informed knowledge of the risk-benefit of each available preparation. The use of nonototoxic preparations in treating acute otitis externa (when the tympanic membrane is perforated or its status is unknown), chronic suppurative otitis media, and tympanostomy tube otorrhea should be considered. PMID:10828818

  3. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf’s essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A.B.; Silva, T.; Franco, E.S.; Rabelo, S.A.; Lima, E.R.; Mota, R.A.; da Câmara, C.A.G.; Pontes-Filho, N.T.; Lima-Filho, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf’s essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 ?g/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals. PMID:24031476

  4. Strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens from clinical material.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, B; Lapage, S P; Malnick, H

    1975-01-01

    Eight strains of Pseudomonas putrefaciens have been received from among 466 strains of Pseudomonas submitted to the Computer Trials Laboratory for identification over the last eight years. Two of the strains of P. putrefaciens from patients with otitis media and otitis externa respectively appear to have played a pathogenic role. The biochemical characteristics of these eight strains were compared with those of seven culture collection strains. PMID:1127110

  5. Pseudomonas dermatitis/folliculitis associated with pools and hot tubs--Colorado and Maine, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    2000-12-01

    During 1999-2000, outbreaks of Pseudomonas aeruginosa dermatitis and otitis externa associated with swimming pool and hot tub use occurred in Colorado and Maine. This report summarizes these outbreaks and provides recommendations for swimming pool and hot tub operation and maintenance, particularly when using offsite monitoring of water disinfectant and pH levels or when cyanuric acid is added to pools as a chlorine stabilizer. PMID:11130858

  6. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf's essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi).

    PubMed

    Silva, A B; Silva, T; Franco, E S; Rabelo, S A; Lima, E R; Mota, R A; da Câmara, C A G; Pontes-Filho, N T; Lima-Filho, J V

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf's essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 ?g/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals. PMID:24031476

  7. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Megan E.; Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Lee, Kenneth W.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  8. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Megan E; Vickers, T Winston; Clifford, Deana L; Garcelon, David K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Lee, Kenneth W; King, Julie L; Duncan, Calvin L; Boyce, Walter M

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ? 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  9. Differential diagnosis of mastoid hypocellularity in human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Stefan; Kierdorf, Uwe; Schultz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Mastoid hypocellularity is frequently used as an indicator of chronic otits media in paleopathological investigations. The condition can be caused by a poor development of air cells during infancy and early childhood (primary hypocellularity) or by obliteration of air cells with bone during later life (secondary hypocellularity). We performed a macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic study of pneumatization patterns in 151 mastoid processes of individuals from an early-medieval cemetery in Germany, with emphasis on the architecture of the nonpneumatized portion of hypocellular mastoid processes. Two types of primary mastoid hypocellularity were distinguished. The first was characterized by a poorly defined boundary between the pneumatized portion and the nonpneumatized portion and a trabecular thickening in the spongy bone of the latter. The second showed a well-defined boundary between the pneumatized portion and the nonpneumatized portion and normal spongy bone architecture in the latter. The key feature for the diagnosis of secondary hypocellularity was the recognition of the walls of former air cells. Our observations closely match the histopathological findings by Wittmaack (Wittmaack: Uber die normale und die pathologische Pneumatisation des Schläfenbeins. Jena: Gustav Fischer [1918]), who developed a concept of the normal pneumatization process of the temporal bone and the pathogenesis of aberrant pneumatization. We agree with Wittmaack's view that two types of primary mastoid hypocellularity can be distinguished morphologically. Regarding the pathogenesis of these types, we, however, conclude that Wittmaack's concept needs to be revised and updated. Further studies are required to establish the relationship between morphological findings in cases of mastoid hypocellularity and the health status of individuals. PMID:19479818

  10. Differences in Clinical and Laboratory Findings between Group D and Non-Group D Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Gastroenteritis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heung Keun; Rhie, Kyuyol; Yeom, Jung Sook; Park, Ji Sook; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Ki Ryeon; Park, Jung Je

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in clinical features and laboratory findings between group D and non-group D non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) gastroenteritis in children. Methods A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with NTS confirmed by culture study was performed. The clinical features and laboratory findings of group D and non-group D NTS were compared. Results From 2003 to 2012, 75 cases were diagnosed as NTS at our center. The number of group D and non-group D patients was 45 and 30, respectively. The mean age was higher in group D than in non-group D patients (5.1 years vs. 3.4 years, p=0.038). Headaches were more frequently observed (p=0.046) and hematochezia was less frequently observed (p=0.017) in group D than in non-group D NTS gastroenteritis patients. A positive Widal test result was observed in 53.3% of group D and 6.7% of non-group D NTS cases (O-titer, p=0.030; H-titer, p=0.039). There were no differences in white blood cell counts, level of C-reactive protein and rate of antimicrobial resistance between group D and non-group D cases. Conclusion The more severe clinical features such as headache, fever, and higher Widal titers were found to be indicative of group D NTS gastroenteritis. Additionally, group D NTS gastroenteritis was more commonly found in older patients. Therefore, old age, fever, headache, and a positive Widal test are more indicative of group D NTS than non-group D NTS gastroenteritis. Pathophysiological mechanisms may differ across serologic groups. PMID:26157693

  11. Microstructure Features of Proventriculus and Ultrastructure of the Gastric Gland Cells in Chinese Taihe Black-bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Ge, T; Peng, S; Zhong, S; Zhou, Z

    2016-02-01

    To investigate microstructure of proventriculus and ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells from Chinese Taihe black-bone silky fowl (BSF), the proventriculus of 4-week-old BSF was sampled. Conventional histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used in this study. The wall of the Taihe BSF proventriculus was consisted of four layers, the mucous, submucosa, muscularis externa and the serosa as others birds. The muscularis externa of the birds' proventriculus contained three layers. Much of the melanin was present in loose connective tissue of lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis externa unlike others. In addition, the ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells was observed by TEM. There was only one kind of gland cell, for example oxynticopeptic cell in proventriculus of Taihe BSF. The oxynticopeptic cells contained numerous mitochondria, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (CRER), intracellular canaliculi (IC) that secrete hydrochloric acid and small amounts of pepsinogen granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was irregular cisternae with ribosomes and surrounded tightly the mitochondria along their configuration. The electron-dense pepsinogen granules were round with various sizes. The neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells were closed up with tight junction and gap junction. The inter-space between the neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells was stenosis or was filled with electron-dense extracellular substance. In conclusion, the gastric gland cells of Chinese Taihe BSF proventriculus were only oxynticopeptic cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, but no parietal cells and chief cells of mammal. The gastric gland cells of proventriculus were underdeveloped compared with those of mammals. PMID:25430887

  12. In vitro and in vivo activity of a killer peptide against Malassezia pachydermatis causing otitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Immediato, Davide; Paola, Giancarlo Di; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-05-01

    In order to overcome the limitations inherent in current pharmacological treatments for Malassezia pachydermatis, the cause of otitis externa in dogs, the efficacy of a killer decapeptide (KP) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Sixteen dogs with naturally occurring M. pachydermatis otitis externa were enrolled, and the in vitro fungicidal activity of KP was evaluated using yeasts recovered from these animals. The therapeutic activity was evaluated in four groups of four animals each. The dogs were topically treated with KP (150 ?l, 2 mg/ml) three times per week (group A) or every day (group B), treated with a scramble peptide every day (group C), or left untreated (group D). Assessment of clinical signs (pruritus, erythema, and lichenification and/or hyperpigmentation), expressed as mean of the total clinical index score (mTCIS), the population size of M. pachydermatis at the cytological examination (mean number of yeast cells at 40× magnification [mYC]), and culture testing (mean number of log10 CFU/swab [mCFU]), were conducted daily from the first day of treatment (T0) until two consecutive negative cultures (mCFU ? 2). KP showed an in vitro fungicidal effect against M. pachydermatis isolates, with an MFC90 value of 1 ?g/ml. The mTCIS, mYC and mCFU were negative only in animals in group B after T8. Daily administration of KP for 8 days was safe and effective in controlling both clinical signs and the population size of M. pachydermatis causing otitis externa, thus offering an alternative to the currently available therapeutic or prophylactic protocols for recurrent cases of Malassezia otitis in dogs. PMID:24625672

  13. Hamster thecal cells express muscle characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Self, D.A.; Schroeder, P.C.; Gown, A.M.

    1988-08-01

    Contraction of the follicular wall about the time of ovulation appears to be a coordinated event; however, the cells that mediate it remain poorly studied. We examined the theca externa cells in the wall of hamster follicles for the presence of a functional actomyosin system, both in developing follicles and in culture. We used a monoclonal antibody (HHF35) that recognizes the alpha and gamma isoelectric variants of actin normally found in muscle, but not the beta variant associated with non-muscle sources, to evaluate large preovulatory follicles for actin content and composition. Antibody staining of sectioned ovaries showed intense circumferential reactivity in the outermost wall of developing follicles. Immunoblots from two-dimensional gels of theca externa lysates demonstrated the presence of the two muscle-specific isozymes of actin. Immunofluorescence of cultured follicular cells pulse-labeled with (3H) thymidine (for autoradiographic detection of DNA replication) revealed the presence, in many dividing cells, of actin filaments aligned primarily along the longitudinal axis of the cells. In cultures exposed to the calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-4) M) for varying periods (5 min to 1 h), contraction of many individual muscle-actin-positive cells was observed. Immunofluorescence of these cells, fixed immediately after ionophore-induced contraction, revealed compaction of the actin filaments. Our findings demonstrate that the cells of the theca externa contain muscle actins from an early stage and that these cells are capable of contraction even while proliferating in subconfluent cultures. They suggest that follicular growth may include a naturally occurring developmental sequence in which a contractile cell type proliferates in the differentiated state.

  14. Use of thyroid scintigraphy and pituitary immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of spontaneous hypothyroidism in a mature cat.

    PubMed

    Blois, Shauna L; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Mitchell, Colleen; Yu, Anthony; Stoewen, Debbie; Lillie, Brandon N; Kiupel, Matti

    2010-02-01

    A 12-year old, castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented with a 2-year history of poor hair coat, seborrhea, generalized pruritus and otitis externa. Low circulating concentrations of total serum thyroxine (TT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) and an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone concentration supported a diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Thyroid scintigraphy did not show uptake of radioactive technetium in the thyroid area. Treatment with levothyroxine resulted in clinical improvement. Recurrence of dermatitis 8 months after onset of treatment resulted in euthanasia of the cat. On post-mortem examination, thyroid tissue was not identified on gross or histological examination. Pituitary immunohistochemistry identified hyperplasia of chromophobe cells. PMID:19695915

  15. Fotometría CCD en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Seggewiss, W.; Ostrov, P.; Solivella, G. R.

    La región de Vela-Puppis contiene varios cúmulos cuyo estudio puede brindarnos información acerca de la cinemática y el estado evolutivo de la población estelar en las zonas externas del disco galáctico. A través de observaciones CCD en los filtros UBV en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58 (?2000= 8h 14m 41s, ?2000=-31o 57'), se han determinado por primera vez los parámetros fundamentales de este cúmulo tales como distancia, enrojecimiento y edad. Se analiza también la estructura de su secuencia principal y la presencia de gigantes y binarias.

  16. [ORL].

    PubMed

    Marchal, F

    2015-01-21

    This 2014 version of news in ENT--established by reading more than 10,000 abstracts published in 2014--will focuss this year on two main topics that are trendy: Robotic surgery in ENT, and e-cigarette. Of course, other subjects will be treated as well, in the format of guidelines, like for otitis externa, tinnitus, ear grommets, Bell's palsy, children's sinusitis, topical treatments in sinusitis, or dangers of radiation on kids. Some interesting mobile applications will be as well presented. PMID:25831614

  17. Purification of dendritic cell and macrophage subsets from the normal mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Koscsó, Balázs; Gowda, Kavitha; Schell, Todd D; Bogunovic, Milena

    2015-06-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes are essential for protecting against pathogens breaching the intestinal mucosa and maintaining the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. The mononuclear phagocyte family of the healthy intestine is represented by a small population of hematopoietic cells including dendritic cells and macrophages. Distinct mononuclear phagocyte subsets strategically accumulate within and below the mucosal epithelium and are distributed in the submucosa and muscularis externa. Shaped by its unique microenvironment, each mononuclear phagocyte subset is developmentally and functionally unique and phenotypically distinct. Here we summarize our recent advances on identifying and purifying various intestinal mononuclear phagocyte subsets by flow cytometry in the context of their developmental properties and location within the intestinal tissue. PMID:25796561

  18. Management of osteomyelitis of the skull base

    SciTech Connect

    Benecke, J.E. Jr. )

    1989-12-01

    Osteomyelitis of the skull base is the most severe form of malignant otitis externa. As a result of having treated 13 patients with skull base osteomyelitis over a 4-year period, we have developed a method of staging and monitoring this malady using gallium and technetium scanning techniques. Stage I is localized to soft tissues, stage II is limited osteomyelitis, and stage III represents extensive skull base osteomyelitis. All stages are treated with appropriate antipseudomonal antibiotics. The duration of therapy depends upon the clearing of inflammation as shown on the gallium scan. Each case must be looked at independently and not subjected to an arbitrary treatment protocol.

  19. Impacto del Seguro Popular en el gasto catastrófico y de bolsillo en el México rural y urbano, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Galárraga, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el efecto del Seguro Popular (SP) sobre la incidencia del gasto catastrófico en salud (GCS) y sobre el gasto de bolsillo en salud (GBS) en el mediano plazo. Material y métodos Con base en la Encuesta de Evaluación del Seguro Popular (2005–2008), se analizaron los resultados del efecto del SP en la cohorte rural para dos años de seguimiento (2006 y 2008) y en la cohorte urbana para un año (2008). Resultados A nivel conglomerado no se detectaron efectos del SP. A nivel hogar se encontró que el SP tiene un efecto protector en el GCS y en el GBS en consulta externa y hospitalización en zonas rurales; y efectos significativos en la reducción de GBS en consulta externa en zonas urbanas. Conclusiones El SP se muestra como un programa efectivo para proteger a los hogares contra gastos de bolsillo por motivos de salud en el mediano plazo. PMID:22282205

  20. Esophagotomy in the pony: comparison of surgical techniques and form of feed.

    PubMed

    Stick, J A; Slocombe, R F; Derksen, F J; Scott, E A

    1983-11-01

    Esophageal healing was studied in 12 ponies after cervical esophagotomy. The esophagus was sutured, feed and water were withheld for 48 hours, and then all ponies were permitted to eat. In group I (n = 6), a longitudinal esophagotomy was made. In group II (n = 6), a rotational esophagotomy was made with the mucosal incision 180 degrees away from the incision in the esophageal muscle. Three ponies in each group were fed a soft diet ad libitum for 9 days, and then were allowed access to hay and grain. The remaining ponies were fed hay and grain. The esophagotomies of all hay-fed ponies dehisced and healed by second intention, whereas esophagotomies healed by first intention in the ponies given a soft diet. Endoscopic and radiographic examinations indicated that the progression of healing in the present study was a function of diet (form of food), rather than surgical technique. The cross-sectional width of the muscularis externa at the incision site was 39.6% greater in mash-fed ponies than in hay-fed ponies. Based on density-dependent image analysis, average elastin content and reticulin fiber of the submucosa and muscularis externa at the incision were not influenced by the form of feed or surgical technique, although elastin fiber regeneration did not occur at the site of the incision. PMID:6359981

  1. [A case of cavernous sinus aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Hase, Tomomi; Kurita, Hideharu; Matsumoto, Eiji; Kuroda, Hajime; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Shinoda, Souji

    2013-10-01

    We reported a case of cavernous sinus aspergillosis. A 62-year-old man complained of trigeminal neuralgia in the right V1 region. Neurological examination on admission showed ptosis, loss of light reflex and ophthalmoplegia externa in the right side. MRI enhanced with gadolinium demonstrated sphenoid sinusitis and mass lesion in the right cavernous sinus. MRA revealed right internal carotid artery occlusion. An open biopsy using the extradural temporopolar approach was performed. Pus discharge was observed from the cavernous sinus and histological examination showed hypha of Aspergillus. With early voriconazole treatment, the patient had improvement in headache, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia externa. Cavernous sinus aspergillosis is often found after sphenoiditis. It results in invasion to an internal carotid artery and worsens the patient's prognosis by cerebral infarction, so early diagnosis and treatment are important. We should consider aspergillosis as one of the differential diagnoses of a mass in the cavernous sinus. The epidural approach to this lesion was available to obviate aspergillus dissemination into the medullary cavity. PMID:24091462

  2. Histochemical localization and characterization of AKP, ACP, NSE, and POD from cultured Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiye; Sun, Xiuqin; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Hushan

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the distribution of four enzymes involved in the immune response of Apostichopus japonicus. We collected samples of the tentacles, papillate podium, integument, respiratory tree, and digestive tract and stained them for acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), non-specific esterase (NSE) and peroxidase (POD) activity. The distribution and content of ACP, AKP, NSE, and POD differed among the tissues. The coelomic epithelium of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer of respiratory tree were positive for ACP activity. The coelomic epithelium and cuticular layer of the tentacle, papillate podium, and integument and the mucous layer and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive or weakly positive for AKP activity. Almost all the epithelial tissues stained positive, strongly positive, or very strongly positive for NSE activity. The cuticular layer of the tentacle and integument and the mucous layer, tunica submucosa, and tunica externa of the respiratory tree and digestive tract stained positive for POD activity. We hypothesize that these enzymes play a role in the immune response in A. japonicus.

  3. Otomycosis in iran: a review.

    PubMed

    Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53. PMID:25633436

  4. In vitro growth versus inhibition of growth of Malassezia pachydermatis in the presence of the antibacterial drug gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Baroni, Adone; Parisi, Annamaria; Borriello, Flavia Elena; Caputo, Pina; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Nizza, Sandra; Nocera, Francesca Paola; Fiorito, Filomena; De Martino, Luisa

    2015-02-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal cutaneous microbiota of most warm-blooded vertebrates and is associated with otitis externa and seborrhoeic dermatitis in dogs and cats. In this study, we evaluated the growth capacity of nine M. pachydermatis strains on Sabouraud medium in the presence of a high concentration of gentamicin. Strains of M. pachydermatis cultured on Sabouraud medium in the presence of 50 and 100 µg gentamicin ml(-1) displayed different growth patterns such as growth or lack of growth. We hypothesized that this difference in growth of M. pachydermatis strains was correlated with the different genotypes of the strains. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates, derived from the external ears of house pet cats suffering from otitis externa. The M. pachydermatis strains were cultured on commercial or home-made Sabouraud medium supplemented or not with gentamicin. RAPD analysis demonstrated a genetic heterogeneity between each strain. In particular, five out of nine strains tested were able to form colonies in the presence of gentamicin. However, a correlation between M. pachydermatis genotype and growth capacity in the presence of gentamicin was not widely demonstrated. PMID:25627206

  5. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more reliable eradication of β-hemolytic streptococci is desirable. In cases of allergy or incompatibility of penicillin, cephalosporins or macrolides (e.g. Erythromycin-estolate) are valuable alternatives. PMID:26755048

  6. Stepwise enforcement of the notochord and its intersection with the myoseptum: an evolutionary path leading to development of the vertebra?

    PubMed

    Grotmol, Sindre; Kryvi, Harald; Keynes, Roger; Krossøy, Christel; Nordvik, Kari; Totland, Geir K

    2006-09-01

    The notochord constitutes the main axial support during the embryonic and larval stages, and the arrangement of collagen fibrils within the notochord sheath is assumed to play a decisive role in determining its functional properties as a fibre-wound hydrostatic skeleton. We have found that during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon stepwise changes occur in the configuration of the collagen fibre-winding of the notochord sheath. The sheath consists of a basal lamina, a layer of type II collagen, and an elastica externa that delimits the notochord; and these constituents are secreted in a specific order. Initially, the collagen fibrils are circumferentially arranged perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, and this specific spatial fibril configuration is maintained until hatching when the collagen becomes reorganized into distinct layers or lamellae. Within each lamella, fibrils are parallel to each other, forming helices around the longitudinal axis of the notochord, with a tangent angle of 75-80 degrees to the cranio-caudal axis. The helical geometry shifts between adjacent lamellae, forming enantiomorphous left- and right-handed coils, respectively, thus enforcing the sheath. The observed changes in the fibre-winding configuration may reflect adaptation of the notochord to functional demands related to stage in ontogeny. When the vertebral bodies initially form as chordacentra, the collagen lamellae of the sheath in the vertebral region are fixed by the deposition of minerals; in the intervertebral region, however, they represent a pre-adaptation providing torsional stability to the intervertebral joint. Hence, these modifications of the sheath transform the notochord per se into a functional vertebral column. The elastica externa, encasing the notochord, has serrated surfaces, connected inward to the type II collagen of the sheath, and outward to type I collagen of the mesenchymal connective tissue surrounding the notochord. In a similar manner, the collagen matrix of the neural and haemal arch cartilages is tightly anchored to the outward surface of the elastic membrane. Hence, the elastic membrane may serve as an interface between the notochord and the adjacent structures, with an essential function related to transmission of tensile forces from the musculature. The interconnection between the notochord and the myosepta is discussed in relation to function and to evolution of the arches and the vertebra. Contrary to current understanding, this study also shows that notochord vacuolization does not result in an increased elongation of the embryo, which agrees with the circular arrangement of type II collagen that probably only enables a restricted increase in girth upon vacuolization, not aiding elongation. As the vacuolization occurs during the egg stage, this type of collagen disposition, in combination with an elastica externa, also probably facilitates flexibility and curling of the embryo. PMID:16928203

  7. Stepwise enforcement of the notochord and its intersection with the myoseptum: an evolutionary path leading to development of the vertebra?

    PubMed Central

    Grotmol, Sindre; Kryvi, Harald; Keynes, Roger; Krossøy, Christel; Nordvik, Kari; Totland, Geir K

    2006-01-01

    The notochord constitutes the main axial support during the embryonic and larval stages, and the arrangement of collagen fibrils within the notochord sheath is assumed to play a decisive role in determining its functional properties as a fibre-wound hydrostatic skeleton. We have found that during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon stepwise changes occur in the configuration of the collagen fibre-winding of the notochord sheath. The sheath consists of a basal lamina, a layer of type II collagen, and an elastica externa that delimits the notochord; and these constituents are secreted in a specific order. Initially, the collagen fibrils are circumferentially arranged perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, and this specific spatial fibril configuration is maintained until hatching when the collagen becomes reorganized into distinct layers or lamellae. Within each lamella, fibrils are parallel to each other, forming helices around the longitudinal axis of the notochord, with a tangent angle of 75–80° to the cranio-caudal axis. The helical geometry shifts between adjacent lamellae, forming enantiomorphous left- and right-handed coils, respectively, thus enforcing the sheath. The observed changes in the fibre-winding configuration may reflect adaptation of the notochord to functional demands related to stage in ontogeny. When the vertebral bodies initially form as chordacentra, the collagen lamellae of the sheath in the vertebral region are fixed by the deposition of minerals; in the intervertebral region, however, they represent a pre-adaptation providing torsional stability to the intervertebral joint. Hence, these modifications of the sheath transform the notochord per se into a functional vertebral column. The elastica externa, encasing the notochord, has serrated surfaces, connected inward to the type II collagen of the sheath, and outward to type I collagen of the mesenchymal connective tissue surrounding the notochord. In a similar manner, the collagen matrix of the neural and haemal arch cartilages is tightly anchored to the outward surface of the elastic membrane. Hence, the elastic membrane may serve as an interface between the notochord and the adjacent structures, with an essential function related to transmission of tensile forces from the musculature. The interconnection between the notochord and the myosepta is discussed in relation to function and to evolution of the arches and the vertebra. Contrary to current understanding, this study also shows that notochord vacuolization does not result in an increased elongation of the embryo, which agrees with the circular arrangement of type II collagen that probably only enables a restricted increase in girth upon vacuolization, not aiding elongation. As the vacuolization occurs during the egg stage, this type of collagen disposition, in combination with an elastica externa, also probably facilitates flexibility and curling of the embryo. PMID:16928203

  8. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  9. First isolation of Stephanoascus ciferrii from a cat.

    PubMed

    Kano, R; Makimura, K; Kushida, T; Nomura, M; Yamaguchi, H; Hasegawa, A

    2000-01-01

    The present study deals with the first isolation of Stephanoascus ciferrii from a cat. A 2-year-old female Persian cat weighing 2.25 kg was referred to an animal hospital with a chief complaint of otitis externa of the left ear. Microscopic examination of specimen from the left ear disclosed yeast cells. The colony of the clinical isolate was cream-colored, rough, raised and wrinkled. The microscopic examination of the clinical isolate revealed abundant branched and septated mycelia with small ramified chains of oval blastoconidia, variable in size, and arranged alongside the hyphae. Amplification of the isolate DNA with LSU rDNA primers yielded a fragment of about 570 bp, whose nucleotide sequence of the isolate showed 100% similarity to that of Stephanoascus ciferrii in the GenBank database. Therefore, the isolate was identified as Stephanoascus ciferrii, confirming the result of mycological examination by molecular analysis. PMID:11021402

  10. Temporal bone metastasis as a sign of relapsing chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Aljafar, Hadeel M.; Alsuhibani, Sari S.; Alahmari, Mohammad S.; Alzahrani, Musaed A.

    2015-01-01

    Otologic manifestations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are common presentations. However, temporal bone metastasis is rarely described as a sign of relapsing CLL. A 65-year-old male diabetic patient known to have CLL on remission presented to the outpatient otolaryngology clinic with a one month history of progressive bilateral otalgia and right otorrhea, despite multiple courses of antibiotics. He was admitted with suspicion of malignant otitis externa. Left ear showed large hemorrhagic bullae on the posterior segment of tympanic membrane. Left sided facial paralysis developed on the third day of admission. Full recovery of facial paralysis is achieved by 10 days course of corticotherapy. Histological examination of middle ear tissue biopsy showed infiltration by monotonous small lymphoid cells, showing round nuclei, condensed chromatin suggestive of CLL. Although rare, unusual otologic manifestations should raise the suspicion of a temporal bone metastasis as a sign of relapsing CLL. PMID:26446337

  11. Ear problems and injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassaday, Kacie; Vazquez, Gerardo; Wright, Justin M

    2014-01-01

    The ear is an unique organ--the principal structure involved in both hearing and balance. Although not common, problems with the ear may be encountered in specific sporting populations. Common conditions affecting the ear in the athlete include otitis externa, an infection of the external ear; external auditory canal exostoses, or abnormal bony growths in the canal; and otitis media, an infection of the middle ear. Given its position on the head, the ear is subject to trauma, often resulting in an auricular hematoma. Divers, due to pressure changes on descent and ascent, are subject to both ear barotrauma and ear decompression sickness. This article will discuss recognition, treatment, and prevention of these conditions affecting the ear in the athlete. PMID:24412886

  12. Features of in vitro ultrasound biomicroscopic imaging and colonoscopy for detection of colon tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Alves, Kelly Z; Borges, Helena L; Soletti, Rossana C; Viana, Anália L P; Petrella, Lorena I; Soldan, Mônica; Chagas, Vera L; Schanaider, Alberto; Machado, João C

    2011-12-01

    The present work tested the capability of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), at 45 MHz, to provide cross-sectional images with appropriate resolution and contrast to detect tumors and determine their penetration depths on the colon of mice, Mus musculus (Linnaeus 1758), treated with carcinogen for colon tumor induction. B-mode images were obtained, in vitro, from each animal (13 treated and 4 untreated) colon opened longitudinally and immersed in saline solution at room temperature. Prior to UBM inspection, all animals were also examined by colonoscopy. The layers of normal colon identified by UBM are: mucosa (hyperechoic), muscularis mucosae (hypoechoic), submucosa (hyperechoic) and muscularis externa (hypoechoic). UBM images of colon lesions presented structures corresponding to tumors (hyperechoic), lymphoid hyperplasia (hypoechoic) and polypoid tumors (hyperechoic). Additionally, tumoral lesion invasion through the colon was also identified. When compared with histopathologic analysis, all colon lesions detected by UBM were confirmed, while colonoscopic findings had two false negatives. PMID:22033129

  13. Movimiento regular y caótico en cúmulos globulares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Los cúmulos globulares exhiben diferentes grados de elipticidad y se mueven en el campo gravitatorio de la galaxia a la que pertenecen. Las órbitas de sus estrellas no necesitan, por ello, conservar la energía ni el momento angular, y resulta probable la presencia de movimientos caóticos. Como paso preliminar de una investigación más extensa, presentamos aquí los resultados de un estudio de órbitas estelares en un cúmulo globular levemente triaxial que describe una órbita circular dentro de una galaxia. Las órbitas se investigan utilizando dos métodos: 1) La clasificación por frecuencias de D.D. Carpintero y L.A. Aguilar (1998, MNRAS, en prensa), y 2) Los exponentes de Lyapunov (subrutina LIAMAG, gentilmente suministrada por D. Pfenniger). Utilizando diversos espacios de condiciones iniciales, investigamos las familias de órbitas de las estrellas del cúmulo. Confirmamos la presencia de órbitas caóticas, particularmente en las zonas externas del cúmulo, y discutimos su importancia para la estructura del cúmulo.

  14. Stability of non-aqueous topical tetracaine and clotrimazole solutions in polypropylene droptainer bottles.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Timothy B; Neumann, William L; Kolling, William M

    2013-01-01

    Tetracaine topical solution may improve patient adherence with topical clotrimazole therapy for fungal otitis externa. The chemical stability of tetracaine 1% and combination clotrimazole 1% with tetracaine 1% topical solutions was determined using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 were used as anhydrous solvents. Standard curves for tetracaine and clotrimazole were linear with r2 > or = 0.999. Clotrimazole did not degrade in either propylene glycol or polyethylene glycol 400 throughout the 90-day study period. Tetracaine degraded significantly in propylene glycol but not in polyethylene glycol 400. A beyond-use date of 90 days is supported for tetracaine and the combination clotrimazole-tetracaine solution in polyethylene glycol 400. A beyond-use date of 60 days is supported for tetracaine and the combination clotrimazole-tetracaine in propylene glycol. PMID:24579301

  15. [Infection complicated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Ken-ichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are believed to be suspected to be immunocompromized hosts. Many reports have pointed out that diabetic patients are susceptible to certain infections such as surgical site infections, malignant otitis externa, mucormycosis, and necrotizing fasciitis. But their etiology seems to be non-uniform, heterogenous and individualized. Above all, obesity-related infections are also increasing accompanied with the recent rising incidence of obesity. Further studies should be addressed about the relationships between infections and diabetes which include the factors of body mass index, life style, degree of diabetes complications, and poor glycemic control duration. They could live a normal life the same as healthy subjects if good glycemic control is achieved without hypoglycemia. PMID:26666157

  16. Genes, Environment, and Humor Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    2000-10-31

    OAK-B135 The product, which culminates a two-year curriculum development project is a 152-page curriculum module dealing with genes, environment, and human behavior for use in high school biology classrooms. BSCS began the Project in January 1997 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. Development work included the input of an externa; advisory commitee, external reviewers, a panel of writers, and national field testing. BSCS printed 20,000 copies of the module. To date, over 11,000 teachers have requested and received copies of the module free of charge . The curriculum exposes students to methods used to study behavioral genetics and examines the impact of this research on society

  17. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas. PMID:19178778

  18. Precise circuitry links bilaterally symmetric olfactory maps.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Tan, Jie; Qin, Chang; Lu, Yao; Ding, Cheng; Luo, Minmin

    2008-05-22

    Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a common receptor gene converge onto one or a few glomeruli with stereotyped positions within the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB), producing a map of approximately 1800 olfactory columns representing approximately 1000 odorant receptors. Here, we report that this precise olfactory map is maintained over several synapses that ultimately cross MOB hemispheres to link bilateral isofunctional olfactory columns. Focal injection of tracer into genetically identified glomeruli revealed an exquisite topography that involves a bilateral connection via the anterior olfactory nucleus pars externa (AONpE) that links isofunctional olfactory columns in the contralateral MOB. Physiological and behavioral assays revealed an important role for the AONpE in bilateral exchange of odorant-specific information. These results indicate that the interbulbar link through the AONpE integrates bilateral olfactory sensory maps and exchanges olfactory information, positioning it as a unique model system for studying interhemispheric connections. PMID:18498741

  19. Expression of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the developing rat spinal cord: an immunocytochemical study of the spinal cord glial system.

    PubMed

    Oudega, M; Marani, E

    1991-12-01

    The glial system in the developing rat spinal cord was studied using immunocytochemistry. Antibodies to vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used. At E11, vimentin was first found in the membrana limitans externa. In the matrix layer, short vimentin protrusions were found near the membrana limitans externa at E12. In addition, vimentin was scattered throughout the matrix layer, where it was also present as vimentin-positive tangles. Later in development, vimentin immunoreactivity was distributed in a distinct radial pattern in the matrix layer. During the first postnatal weeks, vimentin was replaced by GFAP which is therefore expressed in a similar radial pattern. This orderly structural organisation of vimentin and GFAP in the matrix layer could indicate the involvement of both proteins in morphogenetic processes such as neuron migration and cell organisation. In the mantle layer, a distinct radial vimentin immunoreactivity was replaced by GFAP immunoreactivity during the first 2 postnatal weeks. In addition, GFAP fibres appeared first, at E18, in the ventral mantle layer associated with the motor neuron columns. These glial fibres originated from a local source. In the dorsal mantle layer, GFAP-positive fibres were oriented tangentially, which is different from the overall radial arrangement. This expression pattern may be related to the ingrowth of primary afferents. In the ventral and dorsal raphe, a major vimentin expression was replaced by a minor presence of GFAP. Within the white matter, a vimentin-positive radial pattern was demonstrated which, after birth, was replaced by GFAP. This palisading pattern suggested an involvement of both proteins in the development and guidance of the ascending and descending spinal cord fibre systems. The general transition from the expression of vimentin to the expression of GFAP in the rat spinal cord takes place during the first 3 postnatal weeks. PMID:1817147

  20. Is transmission electron microscopy (TEM) a promising approach for qualitative and quantitative investigations of polymyxin B and miconazole interactions with cellular and subcellular structures of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Malassezia pachydermatis?

    PubMed

    Voget, Michael; Lorenz, Dorothea; Lieber-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Hauck, Ruediger; Meyer, Michael; Cieslicki, Michael

    2015-12-31

    Antimicrobial therapy using a combination of polymyxin B and miconazole is effective against the main bacterial pathogens associated with otitis externa in dogs, and a synergistic effect of both drugs has been shown previously. The objective of the present investigation was to visualize ultrastructural changes after exposure of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Malassezia pachydermatis to polymyxin B and miconazole by transmission electron microscopic (TEM). For this, cultures of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis were exposed to polymyxin B and miconazole, alone or in combination for 24h. Ultrastructural changes were observed most frequently in the cell envelope of the four microorganisms. Exposure to polymyxin B seemed to cause more damage than miconazole within the range of concentrations applied. Treatment resulted in changes of the cell size: in E. coli, cell size increased significantly after treatment with either compound alone; in P. aeruginosa, cell size decreased significantly after treatment with polymyxin B and with miconazole; exposure of S. pseudintermedius to miconazole caused a decrease in cell size; in M. pachydermatis, cell size increased significantly after treatment with polymyxin B.; in E.coli, S. pseudintermedius and M. pachydermatis, cell size changed highly significant, in P. aeruginosa significantly after exposure to the combination of both compounds. In conclusion, by using a different approach than previous investigations, this study confirmed a clear combinatory effect of polymyxin B and miconazole against the tested microorganisms involved in canine otitis externa. It is the first time that visualization technologies were applied to compare the effect of single drugs to their combinatory effects on cellular and subcellular entities of selected bacterial and yeast species. PMID:26527257

  1. Neuron-macrophage crosstalk in the intestine: a “microglia” perspective

    PubMed Central

    Verheijden, Simon; Schepper, Sebastiaan De; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal macrophages are strategically located in different layers of the intestine, including the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa, where they perform complex tasks to maintain intestinal homeostasis. As the gastrointestinal tract is continuously challenged by foreign antigens, macrophage activation should be tightly controlled to prevent chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Unraveling the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the tissue-specific control of macrophage activation is crucial to get more insight into intestinal immune regulation. Two recent reports provide unanticipated evidence that the enteric nervous system (ENS) acts as a critical regulator of macrophage function in the myenteric plexus. Both studies clearly illustrate that enteric neurons reciprocally interact with intestinal macrophages and are actively involved in shaping their phenotype. This concept has striking parallels with the central nervous system (CNS), where neuronal signals maintain microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, in a quiescent, anti-inflammatory state. This inevitably evokes the perception that the ENS and CNS share mechanisms of neuroimmune interaction. In line, intestinal macrophages, both in the muscularis externa and (sub)mucosa, express high levels of CX3CR1, a feature that was once believed to be unique for microglia. CX3CR1 is the sole receptor of fractalkine (CX3CL1), a factor mainly produced by neurons in the CNS to facilitate neuron-microglia communication. The striking parallels between resident macrophages of the brain and intestine might provide a promising new line of thought to get more insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling macrophage activation in the gut. PMID:26528133

  2. Noninflammatory upregulation of nerve growth factor underlies gastric hypersensitivity induced by neonatal colon inflammation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingjie; Winston, John H; Sarna, Sushil K

    2016-02-01

    Gastric hypersensitivity is one of the key contributors to the postprandial symptoms of epigastric pain/discomfort, satiety, and fullness in functional dyspepsia patients. Epidemiological studies found that adverse early-life experiences are risk factors for the development of gastric hypersensitivity. Preclinical studies found that neonatal colon inflammation elevates plasma norepinephrine (NE), which upregulates expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the muscularis externa of the gastric fundus. Our goal was to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which NE upregulates the expression of NGF in gastric hypersensitive (GHS) rats, which were subjected previously to neonatal colon inflammation. Neonatal colon inflammation upregulated NGF protein, but not mRNA, in the gastric fundus of GHS rats. Western blotting showed upregulation of p110γ of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1), pAKT(Ser473), and phosphorylated 4E-binding protein (p4E-BP1)(Thr70), suggesting AKT activation and enhanced NGF protein translation. AKT inhibitor MK-2206 blocked the upregulation of NGF in the fundus of GHS rats. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), the major NGF-degrading protease, was suppressed, indicating that NGF degradation was impeded. Incubation of fundus muscularis externa with NE upregulated NGF by modulating the protein translation and degradation pathways. Yohimbine, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, upregulated plasma NE and NGF expression by activating the protein translation and degradation pathways in naive rats. In contrast, a cocktail of adrenergic receptor antagonists suppressed the upregulation of NGF by blocking the activation of the protein translation and degradation pathways. Our findings provide evidence that the elevation of plasma NE induces NGF expression in the gastric fundus. PMID:26608656

  3. Mast Cells Play No Role in the Pathogenesis of Postoperative Ileus Induced by Intestinal Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J.; Farro, Giovanna; Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Némethova, Andrea; de Vries, Annick; Liston, Adrian; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimwer; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Matteoli, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal manipulation (IM) during abdominal surgery results in intestinal inflammation leading to hypomotility or ileus. Mast cell activation is thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of postoperative ileus (POI). However, this conclusion was mainly drawn using mast cell-deficient mouse models with abnormal Kit signaling. These mice also lack interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) resulting in aberrant gastrointestinal motility even prior to surgery, compromising their use as model to study POI. To avoid these experimental weaknesses we took advantage of a newly developed knock-in mouse model, Cpa3Cre/+, devoid of mast cells but with intact Kit signaling. Design The role of mast cells in the development of POI and intestinal inflammation was evaluated assessing gastrointestinal transit and muscularis externa inflammation after IM in two strains of mice lacking mast cells, i.e. KitW-sh/W-sh and Cpa3Cre/+ mice, and by use of the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn. Results KitW-sh/W-sh mice lack ICC networks and already revealed significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit even before surgery. IM did not further delay intestinal transit, but induced infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells, expression of inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils into the muscularis externa. On the contrary, Cpa3Cre/+ mice have a normal network of ICC and normal gastrointestinal. Surprisingly, IM in Cpa3Cre/+ mice caused delay in gut motility and intestinal inflammation as in wild type littermates mice (Cpa3+/+). Furthermore, treatment with the mast cell inhibitor cromolyn resulted in an inhibition of mast cells without preventing POI. Conclusions Here, we confirm that IM induced mast cell degranulation. However, our data demonstrate that mast cells are not required for the pathogenesis of POI in mice. Although there might be species differences between mouse and human, our results argue against mast cell inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to shorten POI. PMID:24416383

  4. Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii.

    PubMed

    Beyo, Reston S; Sreejith, Parameswaran; Divya, Lekha; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2007-04-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the previtellogenic follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii, of the Western Ghats of India, were observed. Both species follow a similar seasonal reproductive pattern. The ovaries contain primordial follicles throughout the year with previtellogenic, vitellogenic, or postvitellogenic follicles, depending upon the reproductive status. The just-recruited primordial follicle includes an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of follicle and thecal cells. The differentiation of the theca into externa and interna layers, the follicle cells into dark and light variants, and the appearance of primordial yolk platelets and mitochondrial clouds in the ooplasm mark the transition of the primordial follicle into a previtellogenic follicle. During further development of the previtellogenic follicle the following changes occur: i) the theca loses distinction as externa and interna; ii) all the follicle cells become the dark variant and increase in the complexity of ultrastructural organization; iii) the nucleus of the oocyte transforms into the germinal vesicle and there is amplification of the nucleoli; iv) the primordial yolk platelets of the cortical cytoplasm of the oocyte increase in abundance; v) the mitochondrial clouds fragment and the mitochondria move away from the clouds, leaving behind the cementing matrix, which contains membrane-bound vesicles of various sizes, either empty or filled with a lipid material; vi) the perivitelline space appears first as troughs at the junctional points between the follicle cells and oocyte, which subsequently spread all around to become continuous; vii) macrovilli and microvilli develop from the follicle cells and oocyte, respectively; and viii) the precursor material of the vitelline envelop arrives at the perivitelline space. The sequential changes in the previtellogenic follicles of two species of caecilians are described. PMID:17345639

  5. PHLS primary care consultation--infectious disease and primary care research and service development priorities.

    PubMed

    McNulty, C A; Smith, G E; Graham, C

    2001-03-01

    In 1999 for the first time the PHLS undertook a questionnaire survey of general practitioners' views of the burden of infectious disease and the priorities for research and development of infectious disease services within the PHLS. Three hundred and seventy-one (38%) of 979 questionnaires mailed to chairs of primary care groups in England, and general practitioners in research networks, were returned. Service areas: computer transfer of laboratory results was considered of greatest priority. Guidance on antibiotic usage, guidance on infectious diseases and education for general practitioners were ranked two, three and four. Burden of infectious disease in primary care: upper respiratory tract infections, tonsillitis/pharyngitis, otitis media/externa and acute cough were placed one, three, four and seven respectively. Urinary tract infections were ranked second and dyspepsia/Helicobacter pylori fifth. Leg ulcers, diarrhoea, genital chlamydia infection and vaginal discharge were other diseases considered to cause a large burden of ill-health. Genital chlamydia, tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori and meningococci were ranked one, two, three, and five in the NHS opportunity to affect the burden of ill-health. Priorities for improvements to diagnostic tests, evidence on which to base treatment and guidance: chronic fatigue/ME was ranked top in these areas. The other top ten syndromes ranked in order were genital chlamydia infections, antibiotic resistance surveillance, vaginal discharge, leg ulcers, sinusitis, otitis media/externa, dyspepsia/Helicobacter pylori, Creutzfeld Jacob Disease, and tonsillitis. This consultation exercise has highlighted broad areas for future PHLS involvement in primary care. In order to make progress, further consultation is needed with groups of GPs, and other relevant bodies. Particularly for the areas ranked in the top ten, the type of further PHLS involvement needs to be defined. For some syndromes (chronic fatigue and leg ulcers) this may be writing guidance and for others (respiratory tract infections) more treatment trials are required. The purposes and possible methods of communicable disease surveillance in general practice should be the subject of additional consultation. PMID:11467013

  6. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    PubMed

    O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

  7. Prevalence of Disorders Recorded in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England

    PubMed Central

    O′Neill, Dan G.; Church, David B.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Thomson, Peter C.; Brodbelt, Dave C.

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3–10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1–8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7–34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8–34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

  8. Neurological and cellular regulation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress and colonic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Winston, J H; Sarna, S K

    2013-09-17

    The role of inflammation in inducing visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in ulcerative colitis patients remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that acute ulcerative colitis-like inflammation does not induce VHS. However, it sets up molecular conditions such that chronic stress following inflammation exaggerates single-unit afferent discharges to colorectal distension. We used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce ulcerative colitis-like inflammation and a 9-day heterotypic chronic stress protocol in rats. DSS upregulated Nav1.8 mRNA in colon-responsive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, TRPV1 in colonic muscularis externae (ME) and BDNF in spinal cord without affecting the spike frequency in spinal afferents or VMR to CRD. By contrast, chronic stress did not induce inflammation but it downregulated Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 mRNA in DRG neurons, and upregulated TRPA1 and nerve growth factor in ME, which mediated the increase of spike frequency and VMR to CRD. Chronic stress following inflammation exacerbated spike frequency in spinal afferent neurons. TRPA1 antagonist suppressed the sensitization of afferent neurons. DSS-inflammation did not affect the composition or excitation thresholds of low-threshold and high-threshold fibers. Chronic stress following inflammation increased the percent composition of high-threshold fibers and lowered the excitation threshold of both types of fibers. We conclude that not all types of inflammation induce VHS, whereas chronic stress induces VHS in the absence of inflammation. PMID:23806714

  9. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  10. [Aniseikonia reduces binocular summation in the VECP].

    PubMed

    Krause, K; Gerding, H; Timmermann, M; Kauffmann, T

    1995-04-01

    The binocular summation effect of human VECP (increase in amplitude from about 4.0 microV to about 5.4 microV) was proved and optimized in 32 subjects. Stimulus parameters: TV steady-state pattern reversal (7.0 Hz); pattern size 1 degree; stimulus contrast 5% (higher stimulus contrasts reduced considerably the selectivity of the binocular summation effect); 96 sweeps averaging (Nicolet Compaq Four); position of electrodes: 10% and 30% above Protuberantia occipitalis externa of nasioninion distance. Aniseikonia of 7 to 52% was generated by means of small Galilei telescopes. Because of comparatively large interindividual variance within the series of subjects, no decrease in binocular VECP amplitude could be demonstrated at an aniseikonia less than 52%. On one woman subject, a significant reduction in amplitude (5% level) at 14%, 26% and 52% aniseikonia was apparent, but not at 7%. Thus, for this subject, it was possible to correlate the results with the clinically known limits of toleration for aniseikonia. This result was confirmed by more than 60% of the subjects in the test group. PMID:7780270

  11. Glyceryl monooleate-based otic delivery system of ofloxacin: release profile and bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Samer; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Sallam, Alsayyed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the preparation and characterization of glyceryl monooleate- (GMO) based drug delivery system containing ofloxacin for the treatment of otitis externa. Acetate buffer (pH 4.5) containing dissolved ofloxacin was added to molten GMO as an aqueous phase, this resulted in the formation of a cubic and a reverse hexagonal phases. The release behavior of ofloxacin from the drug delivery system was studied using three different methods. The mechanism of drug release using paddles/dissolution apparatus and Franz diffusion cells followed Higuchi and Fickian diffusion models; whereas intrinsic release rate method showed zero-order kinetics. The intrinsic release rate was estimated and found to be 187.2 µg/cm(2)/h. The release mechanisms were similar irrespective of the loaded ofloxacin amount, however, the higher drug load displayed higher release rate. The drug delivery system was proven to be microbiologically effective by using agar diffusion method, against Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The GMO/ofloxacin formulation was stable for 6 months after preparation at room temperature as measured with respect to phase stability and antibacterial activity. PMID:24392877

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa on vinyl-canvas inflatables and foam teaching aids in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Schets, F M; van den Berg, H H J L; Baan, R; Lynch, G; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-12-01

    Swimming pool-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections mainly result in folliculitis and otitis externa. P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on surfaces in the swimming pool environment. The presence of P. aeruginosa on inflatables and foam teaching aids in 24 public swimming pools in the Netherlands was studied. Samples (n = 230) were taken from 175 objects and analysed for P. aeruginosa by culture. Isolated P. aeruginosa were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion. P. aeruginosa was detected in 63 samples (27%), from 47 objects (27%) in 19 (79%) swimming pools. More vinyl-canvas objects (44%) than foam objects (20%) were contaminated, as were wet objects (43%) compared to dry objects (13%). Concentrations were variable, and on average higher on vinyl-canvas than on foam objects. Forty of 193 (21%) P. aeruginosa isolates from 11 different objects were (intermediate) resistant to one or more of 12 clinically relevant antibiotics, mostly to imipenem and aztreonam. The immediate risk of a P. aeruginosa infection from exposure to swimming pool objects seems limited, but the presence of P. aeruginosa on pool objects is unwanted and requires attention of pool managers and responsible authorities. Strict drying and cleaning policies are needed for infrequently used vinyl-canvas objects. PMID:25473987

  13. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  14. Horner's syndrome in dogs and cats: 100 cases (1975-1985).

    PubMed

    Kern, T J; Aromando, M C; Erb, H N

    1989-08-01

    The medical records of 74 dogs and 26 cats with Horner's syndrome (HS) that were admitted to the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine between January 1975 and October 1985 were reviewed. In dogs, but not cats, HS was associated significantly (P less than 0.01) with increasing age. Dogs with hypothyroidism (defined liberally but not rigorously), intracranial neoplasia, or thoracic neoplasia, cats with otitis media/interna (defined liberally), and dogs and cats with brachial plexus root avulsion were at greater risk for developing HS than were animals that were hit by a car. Dogs and cats with otitis externa were at less risk of developing HS than were animals that were hit by a car. The cause of HS could not be determined in 50% of dogs and 42.3% of cats. The results of topical adrenergic drug testing in dogs were inconclusive in localizing lesion site. In dogs and cats, HS appeared to be unassociated with gender, breed, or right vs left side. The important causes of HS in dogs and cats were trauma (hit by car), brachial plexus root avulsion, intracranial and thoracic neoplasia, and otitis media/interna. PMID:2768065

  15. Changes in bacteriology of discharging ears.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Chu, Chih-Kai; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2002-09-01

    A bacteriological study on 161 consecutive out-patients presenting with otorrhoea was performed prospectively at a local teaching hospital in Taiwan between August 2000 and June 2001. A total of 177 isolates were recovered. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 77 (43.5 per cent) isolates, and non-Staphylococcus aureus in 100 (56.5 per cent) isolates. Pseudomas sp was found to be the most common pathogen (28.8 per cent) in the non-Staphylococcus aureus group. Staphylococcus aureus had become more common than Pseudomonas aeruginosa in acute otitis externa, granular myringitis, and chronic otitis media in Taiwan. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was also an increasing problem in all three disease entities. The prevalence of community-acquired MRSA infections in discharging ears was found to be 13.7 per cent (22/161). MRSAs were highly susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, fusidic acid, and minocycline. More studies should be done to determine the susceptibility of MRSA to ofloxacin in the future. PMID:12437801

  16. Description of Enterococcus canis sp. nov. from dogs and reclassification of Enterococcus porcinus Teixeira et al. 2001 as a junior synonym of Enterococcus villorum Vancanneyt et al 2001.

    PubMed

    De Graef, E M; Devriese, L A; Vancanneyt, M; Baele, M; Collins, M D; Lefebvre, K; Swings, J; Haesebrouck, F

    2003-07-01

    Strains from anal swabs and chronic otitis externa in dogs were shown to be phylogenetically related to the Enterococcus faecium species group. They shared a number of phenotypic characteristics with these species, but they could be easily differentiated by biochemical reactions. In addition, the canine strains were unusual in their nearly complete failure to grow on sodium azide-containing enterococci-selective media and in their Voges-Proskauer reactions (usually negative). By using 16S rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization of representative strains, as well as tDNA interspacer gene PCR and SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, the group of canine strains was shown to constitute a novel enterococcal species. The name Enterococcus canis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with LMG 12316T (= CCUG 46666T) as the type strain. Concurrently, the taxonomic situation and nomenclatural position of Enterococcus porcinus were investigated. As no phenotypic or genotypic differences were found between this species and Enterococcus villorum, the name E. porcinus is considered to be a junior synonym of E. villorum. PMID:12892128

  17. Un modelo general de eyección de materia estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstein, N. O.

    Posiblemente, la más directa y dramática evidencia de la pérdida de masa por parte de diferentes objetos astrofísicos la constituye el fenómeno de eyección persistente de materia. En el caso particular de las estrellas, las características y los mecanismos que impulsan a sus atmósferas externas hacia el medio interestelar varían a lo largo del diagrama evolutivo. En parte por este motivo, en parte por las dificultades matemáticas involucradas, es muy difícil elaborar un modelo que pueda dar cuenta de los diferentes mecanismos que originan e impulsan el viento estelar. Cabe entonces preguntarse si es posible desarrollar un único modelo en el que estos mecanismos puedan ser considerados (y variados) como parámetros externos que responden a las características de cada región de la secuencia evolutiva. La respuesta es que, en función de la geometría del campo electromagnético involucrado, todo depende de la simetría del problema. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis detallado de una de tales simetrías, discutiendo en particular los resultados obtenidos a la luz de las observaciones disponibles.

  18. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)—48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001–2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007–2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor. PMID:26618759

  19. Changes in the Population of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Dissemination of Antimicrobial-Resistant Phenotypes in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Duim, Birgitta; Verstappen, Koen M; Broens, Els M; Laarhoven, Laura M; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Hordijk, Joost; de Heus, Phebe; Spaninks, Mirlin; Timmerman, Arjen J; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), which is often multidrug resistant (MDR), has recently emerged as a threat to canine health worldwide. Knowledge of the temporal distribution of specific MRSP lineages, their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and their association with clinical conditions may help us to understand the emergence and spread of MRSP in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the yearly proportions of MRSP lineages and their antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes in the Netherlands and to examine possible associations with clinical conditions. MRSP was first isolated from a canine specimen submitted for diagnostics to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University in 2004. The annual cumulative incidence of MRSP among S. pseudintermedius increased from 0.9% in 2004 to 7% in 2013. MRSP was significantly associated with pyoderma and, to a lesser extent, with wound infections and otitis externa. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 478 MRSP isolates yielded 39 sequence types (ST) belonging to 4 clonal complexes (CC) and 15 singletons. CC71 was the dominant lineage that emerged since 2004, and CC258, CC45, and several unlinked isolates became more frequent during the following years. All but two strains conferred an MDR phenotype, but strains belonging to CC258 or singletons were less resistant. In conclusion, our study showed that MDR CC71 emerged as the dominant lineage from 2004 and onward and that less-resistant lineages were partly replacing CC71. PMID:26582835

  20. Comportamiento dinámico de asteroides en la región 23 < a < 26 UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.

    Los Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) pueden ser una fuente de origen de los cometas de corto período. Muchos de los KBOs observados parecen provenir, al igual que el sistema Pluton-Charonte, de órbitas resonantes con Neptuno. Los Centauros son objetos que dinámicamente provienen de órbitas inestables cuyo semieje mayor se encuentra entre las órbitas de Júpiter y Neptuno. Pudiera ser que estos cuerpos fueron expulsados desde la región del cinturón de Kuiper y se encuentran en un proceso de ``scattering" debido a los efectos gravitacionales de los planetas gigantes. Su tiempo de vida dinámico es de algunos millones de años. La evolución orbital de los objetos trans-Neptunianos nos permite conocer su comportamiento anterior, por eso, es importante su relación dinámica con la evolución orbital de Neptuno. El objeto de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento dinámico de partículas test que se encuentran entre las resonancias 3:2 con Neptuno y 2:3 con Urano, las cuales comprenden una región de 2 UA aproximadamente. Los primeros resultados indican que la mayoría de los objetos ficticios son eyectados hacia la parte externa del Sistema Solar, mientras que sólo una parte pequeña del total de objetos estudiados, aproximadamente un 7%, son eyectados hacia la parte interna del Sistema Solar, y en algunos casos sus órbitas pueden cruzar la órbita de los planetas terrestres.

  1. In vitro activity of climbazole, clotrimazole and silver-sulphadiazine against isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A

    1997-06-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast-like, mainly zoophilic fungus, also known as Malassezia canis. It can be isolated in 20-50% from normal ear cerumen specimen from dogs or cats and has an even higher prevalence in non-suppurative otitis externa in animal species such as these. The genus Malassezia contains the two species M. furfur, a mainly anthropophilic fungus which physiologically occurs on human skin, and M. pachydermatis. We performed Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)-testings of 40 clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis against climbazole (CLIM), clotrimazole (CLOT) and silver-sulphadiazine (SILV). While CLOT and CLIM are broad-spectrum antimycotics of the azole-type, SILV is a sulphonamide compound with antibacterial and antimycotic properties used topically in veterinary medicine. For CLIM, the range of MICs was between < 0.06 and 1 micrograms/ml with an empirical median mean of 0.06 microgram/ml; for CLOT the range was between < 0.06 and 32 micrograms/ml (mean = 4 micrograms/ml), respectively. The MICs for SILV ranged between 0.25 and > 64 micrograms/ml (mean = 16 micrograms/ml) against all tested strains. In conclusion, the two azole-antimycotics CLIM and CLOT showed good in vitro activity against M. pachydermatis. The activity of CLIM was even higher than that of CLOT, which might be due to the better water solubility of CLIM. The activity of SILV was significantly lower. PMID:9230670

  2. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine Dermatitis Secondary to Corynebacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Boynosky, Nicole Ann; Stokking, Laura B

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are considered nonpathogenic in canine dermatitis; however, potential clinical significance has been demonstrated in canine otitis externa and from a dog bite wound in a human. Objectives of this study were to identify the predominant Corynebacterium species present in lesions of canine dermatitis, assess pathogenic role, determine antimicrobial susceptibility, and evaluate clinical response. Of 37 isolates identified as Corynebacterium, 31 were Corynebacterium auriscanis . Most Corynebacterium isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (97%), tetracyclines (92%), and amikacin (89%); isolate susceptibilities to β-lactams, trimethoprim-sulfonamides, and fluoroquinolones were <50%. Most cultures grew mixed populations of bacteria; C. auriscanis was the only organism isolated in three patients. At recheck, 2-8 wk after initial presentation, pleomorphic rods were absent or significantly decreased in all patients. Two of three C. auriscanis isolates were obtained in pure culture and were evaluable, meaning patient had an initial exam and recheck examination. Both patients were already on antimicrobials to which C. auriscanis was resistant in vitro. Both improved after doxycycline administration. C. auriscanis may act as an opportunistic pathogen in canine dermatitis and may not respond to antimicrobial therapy based on susceptibilities for other organisms in mixed infections. Occasionally, Corynebacterium isolated alone may be pathogenic. PMID:26535455

  3. Ultrastructural study of normal rat glomeruli by the quick-freezing and deep-etching method.

    PubMed

    Hora, K

    1991-09-01

    The ultrastructural features of isolated normal rat glomeruli were investigated using a new splitting technique and the quick-freezing and deep-etching (QF-DE) method. Examinations were also made of in vivo normal rat glomeruli by the QF-DE method to visualize the glomeruli under near natural conditions. Freeze-fractured capillary loops were observed from the capillary lumen or the urinary space. Foot processes were found to be freeze-fractured horizontally, obliquely or vertically to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and a glomerular slit diaphragm, which consisted of sheet-like, ladder-like and zipper-like substructures, was clearly identified. The GBM was classified into three zones, which might correspond to those seen in ultrathin sections, including the lamina densa and laminae rarae externa and interna. The lamina densa was composed of a meshwork filled with fine particles, which might represent products of insoluble proteins. In the laminae rarae, filamentous structures consisting of irregular networks could be observed connecting glomerular endothelial or epithelial cells with the lamina densa. Furthermore, the above findings were obtained from investigations at various consecutive levels of freeze-fractured capillary loops from various angles. The three-dimensional ultrastructure of the glomeruli could be demonstrated at high resolution by the QF-DE method. PMID:1774840

  4. Further characteristics of Arcanobacterium canis, a novel species of genus Arcanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Sammra, O; Balbutskaya, A; Zhang, S; Hijazin, M; Nagib, S; Lämmler, C; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Kostrzewa, M; Timke, M

    2013-12-27

    Comparable to previously conducted phenotypical and genotypical investigations characterizing Arcanobacterium canis, a newly described species with the type strain A. canis DSM 25104 isolated from an otitis externa of a dog, four additional A. canis strains isolated from infections of three dogs and one cat could reliably be identified by phenotypic properties, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, 23S rDNA, and the genes rpoB and gap. All four A. canis investigated in the present study were isolated from the infected animals together with several other bacterial species indicating that the pathogenic importance of A. canis remains unclear. However, the detection of peptidic spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the presented phenotypic and genotypic approaches might help to identify A. canis in future and might elucidate the role this species plays in infections of dogs and cats. PMID:24144861

  5. Detection of cationic and non-cationic markers in the rat glomerulus by electron probe analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, P; Ríha, I; Starý, V

    1989-01-01

    Acidic glycans (glomerular polyanion substances) in the rat kidney were visualized ultrastructurally by three cationic markers: colloidal iron, ruthenium red, and polyethylenimine-phosphotungstic acid (PEI-PTA). Heavy metal atoms (Fe, Ru and W) were detected in ultrathin sections by energy-dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Characteristic peaks of the locally bound elements were obtained in spectra derived from the dense structures seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)--i.e. the glycocalyx of podocytes and/or the polyanion sites in the lamina rara externa of the glomerular basement membrane. Weaker signals were emitted by some extraglomerular structures. This finding may reflect a low concentration of glycans in structures lacking apparent density by TEM, and/or incomplete specificity of the markers, partial dislocation of reactive substances or the presence of an endogenous element (Fe). Experimental argyrosis was elicited by the peroral administration of silver nitrate. Dense Ag precipitates were seen chiefly in the lamina densa and characteristic peaks of silver were displayed in this site by EPMA, and was best demonstrated in non-contrasted sections. A single i.v. injection of Ag proteinate failed to produce glomerular pigmentation. The only dense granular product in tubular cells yielded characteristic peaks of Fe (endogenous siderosomes) but EPMA excluded detectable amounts of silver. PMID:2475968

  6. Topographical relationships between catecholamine- and neuropeptide-containing fibers in the median eminence of the newt, Triturus alpestris. An ultrastructural immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Corio, M; Thibault, J; Peute, J

    1990-03-01

    Dopaminergic and peptidergic nerve fibers were simultaneously demonstrated with a double-labeling technique at the ultrastructural level. The first antibody, raised against tyrosine hydroxylase, was applied during the preembedding phase and visualized with the peroxidase method. The second antibody, raised against one of the peptides met-enkephalin, somatostatin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), was applied to the ultrathin sections and visualized with gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG. The fibers of both categories were present in the zona externa of the median eminence, frequently contacting the basal lamina of the portal vessels. In addition, topographical relationships between different types of nerve fibers were observed in the perivascular areas, although there were no morphological signs of synaptic specializations. Using serial sections, it could be established that one GnRH-fiber contacted both a dopaminergic fiber and a fiber immunoreactive for met-enkephalin. The observations support earlier physiological data concerning the regulation of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis, with special emphasis on the release of neurohormones in the median eminence of the newt. PMID:1969331

  7. Variations in prevalence of viral, bacterial, and rhizocephalan diseases and parasites of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    Prevalence of blue crab diseases and parasites has not been consistently monitored in the Gulf of Mexico. To establish current prevalence levels and to more fully understand population dynamics, commercial landing trends, and effects of future natural and anthropogenic disasters on animal health, we measured the prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Loxothylacus texanus, shell disease, and Vibrio spp. in blue crabs collected from Louisiana in 2013 and the beginning of 2014. We used PCR to detect WSSV and L. texanus infections, visual gross diagnosis for L. texanus externae and shell disease, and standard microbiological culture techniques and biochemical testing for Vibrio spp. We found no crabs infected with WSSV or L. texanus. Absence of L. texanus parasitization was expected based on the sampled salinities and the sampling focus on large crabs. Shell disease was present at a level of 54.8% and was most prevalent in the winter and summer and least prevalent in the spring. Vibrio spp. were found in the hemolymph of 22.3% of the crabs and prevalence varied by site, season, and sex. Additionally, three of 39 crabs tested were infected with reo-like virus. PMID:25769514

  8. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

    2010-06-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio.La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  9. The "skin-skull-brain model": a new instrument for the study of gunshot effects.

    PubMed

    Thali, M J; Kneubuehl, B P; Zollinger, U; Dirnhofer, R

    2002-02-18

    In order to create and study wound morphology, a "skin-skull-brain model" had to be designed which would make the laboratory reproduction of a real ballistic injury possible. To simulate the human skin, an artificial skin (a silicon cap) is used. This silicon scalp contains synthetic fibers (artificial leather) to simulate the collagen and fat of the scalp. The artificial skull is a layered polyurethane sphere (19 cm o.d.; and 5, 6, or 7 mm thick) constructed in a specially designed form with a Tabula externa, Tabula interna, and a porous Diploe sandwiched in between. The periostium of the artificial skull is made of latex. This elastic latex layer prevents the bone fragments from scattering after the model has been struck by gunfire. The brain itself is simulated with ordnance gelatin, 10% at 4 degrees C, a material well known in wound ballistics. Gunshots were fired at a distance of 10 m from the model. During the evaluation of the "skin-skull-brain model", it was possible to show that injuries inflicted to this model are fully comparable to the morphology of equivalent real gunshot injuries. Using the "skin-skull-brain model" has some significant advantages: the model is inexpensive, easy to construct, instantly available for use, and eliminates ethics conflicts. The main advantage of such a model is, in comparison with biological substances, the high reproducibility of inflicted traumas. PMID:11909661

  10. Spatial distribution of neural activity in the anterior olfactory nucleus evoked by odor and electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    KAY, RACHEL B.; MEYER, ELIZABETH AMORY; ILLIG, KURT R.; BRUNJES, PETE C.

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that complex odorant stimuli are parsed into separate data streams in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, yielding a combinatorial “odotopic map.” However, this pattern does not appear to be maintained in the piriform cortex, where stimuli appear to be coded in a distributed fashion. The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) is intermediate and reciprocally interconnected between these two structures, and also provides a route for the interhemispheric transfer of olfactory information. The present study examined potential coding strategies used by the AON. Rats were exposed to either caproic acid, butyric acid, limonene, or purified air and the spatial distribution of Fos-immunolabeled cells was quantified. The two major subregions of the AON exhibited different results. Distinct odor-specific spatial patterns of activity were observed in pars externa, suggesting that it employs a topographic strategy for odor representation similar to the olfactory bulb. A spatially distributed pattern that did not appear to depend on odor identity was observed in pars principalis, suggesting that it employs a distributed representation of odors more similar to that seen in the piriform cortex. PMID:21165975

  11. Nigrostriatal Dopamine Acting on Globus Pallidus Regulates Sleep.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Yao, Qiao-Ling; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Chen, Michael C; Lu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Lesions of the globus pallidus externa (GPe) produce a profound sleep loss (∼45%) in rats, suggesting that GPe neurons promote sleep. As GPe neuronal activity is enhanced by dopamine (DA) from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), we hypothesized that SNc DA via the GPe promotes sleep. To test this hypothesis, we selectively destroyed the DA afferents to the caudoputamen (CPu) using 6-hydroxydopamine and examined changes in sleep-wake profiles in rats. Rats with 80-90% loss of SNc neurons displayed a significant 33.7% increase in wakefulness (or sleep reduction). This increase significantly correlated with the extent of SNc DA neuron loss. Furthermore, these animals exhibited sleep-wake fragmentation and reduced diurnal variability of sleep. We then optogenetic-stimulated SNc DA terminals in the CPu and found that 20-Hz stimulation from 9 to 10 PM increased total sleep by 69% with high electroencephalograph (EEG) delta power. We finally directly optogenetic-stimulated GPe neurons and found that 20-Hz stimulation of the GPe from 9 to 10 PM increased total sleep by 66% and significantly increased EEG delta power. These findings elucidate a novel circuit for DA control of sleep and the mechanisms of abnormal sleep in BG disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. PMID:25316334

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial-Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pools and Hot Tubs

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Jonathan K.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21%) were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate), aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate), ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen. PMID:21556203

  13. Virtual otoscopy for evaluating the inner ear with a fluid-filled tympanic cavity in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngkwon; Jeong, Jimo; Lee, Haebeom; Kim, Minsu; Kim, Namsoo

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of virtual otoscopy (VO) imaging was evaluated in five dogs with experimentally induced otitis media, two control dogs, and two canine patients with otitis media. VO images of the tympanic cavity and ossicles were generated with commercially available software using raw computed tomography (CT) data. Eight out of 10 ears inoculated with pathogen exhibited obvious clinical signs associated with otitis externa. CT images revealed soft tissue density material occupying the tympanic bulla compatible with otitis media in three dogs with experimentally induced otitis media and two patients. No remarkable features were observed on the radiographs. Four different VO views (ear canal, tympanic bulla, eustachian tube, and ossicular chain) were created. Promontory, cochlea window, tympanic, and septum bulla as well as ossicles were easily and clearly distinguished except for the incus and stapes of the clinical patients. VO images were not more suitable than images created with conventional CT for accurately diagnosing otitis media in this study. However, it appears that VO could be more feasible for assessing the complex structure of the inner ear in dogs with fluid-filled tympanic cavities since fluid accumulation within the tympanic bulla did not affect the evaluation of bony tissue in the middle ear on VO images. PMID:23271184

  14. On Equilibrium Figures for Ideal Fluids in the Form of Confocal Ellipsoids Rotating with Common Angular Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, F. J.; Cisneros, J.; Montalvo, D.

    1990-06-01

    RESUMEN Se demuestra la existencia de figuras de equilibrio para un cuerpo fluido, autogravitante y libre de presi6n externa, que consiste de dos elipsoides confocales de distiiita densidad que giran con velocidad angular comun. El analisis muestra que a cada valor asignado a la densidad relativa del cuerpo, le corresponde un solo grado de achatamiento, es decir, no puede existir una sene. Otra conclusi6n es que Ia densidad relativa posee un inferior (tal que la densidad del elipsoide interior es ligeramente mayor que el doble de Ia del exterior) y al respecto se ofrece una explicaci6n semicualitativa. Se asume que el flufdo es ideal e incompresible. ABSTRACT For a self-gravitating free from external pressure fluid body, consisting of two homogeneous Co nfo cal ellipsoids of different density rotating with common angular velocity, we demonstrate the existence of equilibrium figures. No senes is possible, however, since the rotating body attains, for given values of its relative density, a unique degree of flattening. In addition, the analysis shows that there is a lower limit to the relative density (in which case the density of the interior ellipsoid is only slightly larger than twice the density of the exterior one) and a semi-qualitative explanation on the subject is offered. The fluids are assumed ideal and incompressible. Key words: HYDRODYNAMICS

  15. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA.

    PubMed

    Vickers, T Winston; Clifford, Deana L; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Duncan, Calvin L; Gaffney, Patricia M; Boyce, Walter M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)-48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001-2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (? 4 years) foxes captured in 2007-2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor. PMID:26618759

  16. Glomerular basement membrane anionic charge site changes early in aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, J. D.; Sisson-Ross, S.; Vernier, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Alterations of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) anionic (charge sites, CSs) in the development of proteinuria in a model of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in man (puromycin aminonucleoside nephrotic syndrome [PAN] in the rat) were assessed quantitatively and sequentially early after disease induction. GBM CSs (known to consist mainly of heparan sulfate-rich proteoglycans) were stained in vivo and, in a separate group of animals by an in vitro method, with the cationic marker polyethyleneimine (PEI) studied by electron microscopic examination. Four hours after administration of PAN, there was a significant decrease in GBM lamina rara externa CSs: 18 +/- 0.7 versus 22.0 +/- 2.2 per 1000 nm GBM in controls by PEI injection and 17.2 +/- 2.7 versus 21.1 +/- 1.6 per 1000 nm GBM in controls by PEI in vitro staining. This CS alteration coincided with changes in glomerular epithelial cell morphologic characteristics (increased cytoplasmic organelles and rough endoplasmic reticulum) and preceded the detection of foot process broadening (at 24 hours) and increased urinary albuminuria (suggested at 12-24 hours, statistically significant at 36-48 hours). These results suggest that GBM CS-heparan sulfate proteoglycan alterations consisting of either decreased number and/or less anionic charge occur early in PAN and support a role for glomerular epithelial cell maintenance of GBM CS for normal glomerular function. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3789094

  17. Critical Roles of the Direct GABAergic Pallido-cortical Pathway in Controlling Absence Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Ma, Tao; Wu, Shengdun; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xia, Yang; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG), serving as an intermediate bridge between the cerebral cortex and thalamus, are believed to play crucial roles in controlling absence seizure activities generated by the pathological corticothalamic system. Inspired by recent experiments, here we systematically investigate the contribution of a novel identified GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway, projecting from the globus pallidus externa (GPe) in the BG to the cerebral cortex, to the control of absence seizures. By computational modelling, we find that both increasing the activation of GPe neurons and enhancing the coupling strength of the inhibitory pallido-cortical pathway can suppress the bilaterally synchronous 2–4 Hz spike and wave discharges (SWDs) during absence seizures. Appropriate tuning of several GPe-related pathways may also trigger the SWD suppression, through modulating the activation level of GPe neurons. Furthermore, we show that the previously discovered bidirectional control of absence seizures due to the competition between other two BG output pathways also exists in our established model. Importantly, such bidirectional control is shaped by the coupling strength of this direct GABAergic pallido-cortical pathway. Our work suggests that the novel identified pallido-cortical pathway has a functional role in controlling absence seizures and the presented results might provide testable hypotheses for future experimental studies. PMID:26496656

  18. Potential sites of interaction between catecholamines and LHRH in the sheep brain.

    PubMed

    Lehman, M N; Karsch, F J; Silverman, A J

    1988-01-01

    A combined immunoperoxidase/immunofluorescence procedure was used to examine potential sites of overlap between catecholamine and LHRH systems in the brains of ewes sacrificed during either anestrous or the breeding season. Cells and fibers immunoreactive for either tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) were visualized in the same sections as immunopositive LHRH perikarya and fibers. TH- and DBH-positive varicosities in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus appeared to contact both LHRH cell bodies and their dendrites. Clusters of TH-positive cells and fibers were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, and partially overlapped the location of immunoreactive LHRH fibers in that structure. Immunoreactive TH and LHRH fibers were densely interspersed within the zona externa of the median eminence, particularly within its lateral portion. No obvious qualitative differences were apparent in either the distribution of catecholamine cells and fibers or their overlap with LHRH elements between the brains of anestrous and breeding season ewes. These observations suggest the possibility of catecholaminergic synaptic inputs onto LHRH neurons in the ewe, as well as the potential for interaction between catecholamines and LHRH at the level of the median eminence. PMID:2893658

  19. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    PubMed

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

  20. Simulation with pharmacological agents of radiation damage to small intestinal villi

    SciTech Connect

    Indran, M.; Boyle, F.C.; Carr, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation induces damage to intestinal villi, resulting in a progressive decline in villous height and changes in topography. Gamma and neutron radiation are reported to cause changes in the structure of smooth muscle and nerve twigs of the intestinal wall. It is possible, therefore, that villous collapse may be due partly to changes in the underlying stromal elements as a result of damage to nerve or muscle. To test this hypothesis, mice were treated with the drug reserpine which is known to affect the neural control of intestinal smooth muscle function and the small intestine was examined for topographical and histological changes. Two dose levels of reserpine were used and a group of mice were exposed to a single dose of whole body 15 Gy X-irradiation. Comparable villous collapse was observed in each group. Resin embedded semi-thin sections revealed changes in the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis externa after each treatment, suggesting a correlation between villous collapse and smooth muscle damage in response to both irradiation and drug treatment.

  1. Determinação da composição química em nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Existe um gradiente radial de abundâncias no disco galáctico, cujo comportamento é razoavelmente bem conhecido para distâncias galactocêntricas entre 3 e 10 kpc. Foi obtido a partir de resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias, regiões HII e estrelas, como as estrelas quentes de tipo O, B e aglomerados abertos. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento deste gradiente radial na região externa do disco, conhecida como anticentro galáctico, reportamos aqui os resultados finais da análise de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro, observadas no LNA e no ESO entre 1995 e 2000. O uso de nebulosas planetárias permite o cálculo das abundâncias de elementos traçadores da evolução química do disco como oxigênio, argônio e neônio com o uso de técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Os resultados indicam uma distribuição de abundâncias distinta daquela encontrada na vizinhança solar, mostrando que o gradiente radial diminui sensivelmente para distâncias galactocêntricas maiores que 10 kpc. Este resultado está de acordo com os mais recentes modelos de evolução química do disco, que prevêem uma diminuição ou mesmo um desaparecimento do gradiente radial no bordo externo do disco galáctico. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  2. Changing Trends of HIV/AIDS in Otorhinolaryngology with CD4 (+) Count Correlation.

    PubMed

    Kirti, Y K; Yashveer, J K; Poorey, V K

    2015-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the vital cells of the immune system eventually leading to a fall in the cell mediated immunity. As the disease progresses CD4 (+) (cluster of differentiation4) cells reduce, therefore is a good indicator of the ongoing disease process [1]. HIV infection has myriads of disease presentation; the aim of our study was to correlate the otorhinolaryngological manifestations with the CD4 (+) counts. A clinical study, of 100 HIV positive patients was done from 2008 to 2011. A clinical evaluation revealed 76 % incidence of otorhinolaryngological findings. Oropharyngeal manifestations were the commonest, seen in 48 %, predominantly oropharyngeal candidiasis. Neck nodes were found in 20 % of the patients. 31 % had otological manifestations of which retracted tympanic membrane (eustachian tube dysfunction) was the commonest. 18 % had nasal symptoms of which rhinosinusitis was the commonest being 14 %. The mean CD4 (+) count was below 200 in patients who presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis, otitis externa and epistaxis. With the use and availability of HAART (Highly active antiretroviral therapy) more and more patients with higher CD4 (+) count are presenting with a different spectrum of more subtle disease manifestations, with lower incidence of the classical diseases like candidiasis. A routine otorhinolaryngological evaluation at every visit with high index of suspicion can help in better disease control and give a better quality of life. PMID:25621247

  3. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?

    PubMed

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  4. Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Cheng, Suzan; Donald, Paul J.; Purdy, James A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

  5. Signal enhancement in the output stage of the basal ganglia by synaptic short-term plasticity in the direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Mikael; Kamali Sarvestani, Iman; Ekeberg, Örjan; Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren

    2013-01-01

    Many of the synapses in the basal ganglia display short-term plasticity. Still, computational models have not yet been used to investigate how this affects signaling. Here we use a model of the basal ganglia network, constrained by available data, to quantitatively investigate how synaptic short-term plasticity affects the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr), the basal ganglia output nucleus. We find that SNr becomes particularly responsive to the characteristic burst-like activity seen in both direct and indirect pathway striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN). As expected by the standard model, direct pathway MSNs are responsible for decreasing the activity in SNr. In particular, our simulations indicate that bursting in only a few percent of the direct pathway MSNs is sufficient for completely inhibiting SNr neuron activity. The standard model also suggests that SNr activity in the indirect pathway is controlled by MSNs disinhibiting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) via the globus pallidus externa (GPe). Our model rather indicates that SNr activity is controlled by the direct GPe-SNr projections. This is partly because GPe strongly inhibits SNr but also due to depressing STN-SNr synapses. Furthermore, depressing GPe-SNr synapses allow the system to become sensitive to irregularly firing GPe subpopulations, as seen in dopamine depleted conditions, even when the GPe mean firing rate does not change. Similar to the direct pathway, simulations indicate that only a few percent of bursting indirect pathway MSNs can significantly increase the activity in SNr. Finally, the model predicts depressing STN-SNr synapses, since such an assumption explains experiments showing that a brief transient activation of the hyperdirect pathway generates a tri-phasic response in SNr, while a sustained STN activation has minor effects. This can be explained if STN-SNr synapses are depressing such that their effects are counteracted by the (known) depressing GPe-SNr inputs. PMID:23801960

  6. Optimizing a basal bark spray of dinotefuran to manage armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Christmas tree plantations.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Richard S

    2010-10-01

    The armored scales Fiorinia externa Ferris and Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are increasingly damaging to Christmas tree plantings in southern New England. The systemic insecticide dinotefuran was investigated for selectively suppressing armored scale populations relative to their natural enemies in cooperating growers' fields in 2008 and 2009. Banded soil application of dinotefuran resulted in poor control. However, a dinotefuran spray applied to the basal 25 cm of trunk resulted in its absorption through the bark, translocation to the foliage, and good efficacy. The basal bark spray did not significantly impact the activity of predators Chilocorus stigma (Say) or Cybocephalus nipponicus Enrody-Younga and in 2009 showed a dosage-dependent improvement in the percentage of scales parasitized by Encarsia citrina Craw. A field dosage-response factorial experiment revealed that a 0.25% (vol:vol) addition of a surfactant with dinotefuran did not enhance insecticidal effect. Probit-transformed scale population reduction relative to the untreated check was subjected to linear regression analysis; reduction of scale populations was proportional to the log of insecticide dosage, whereas basal bark spray efficacy declined in proportion to the cube of tree height. The regression equation can be used to optimize dosage relative to tree height. Excellent efficacy resulted from basal bark spray application dates of 28 April (prebud break) to mid-June, but earlier spray timing within that treatment window had fewer crawlers discoloring new growth with their short-lived feeding. A basal bark spray of dinotefuran is well suited for integration with natural enemies to manage armored scales in Christmas tree plantations. PMID:21061974

  7. Acute stress-induced colonic tissue HSP70 expression requires commensal bacterial components and intrinsic glucocorticoid.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kaori; Zhang, Xiumin; Ono, Yusuke; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2009-01-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSPs) has a protective effect in cells under stress. Physical stressors, such as restraint, induce HSPs in colonic tissue in vivo, but the mechanism of HSP induction is not yet clear. Because commensal bacteria support basal expression of colon epithelial HSP70, we postulated that stress responses may enhance the interaction of commensal bacteria and the colonic tissue. Restraining C57BL/6 mice for 2h effectively induced HSP70 in colonic epithelia. Both blockade of stress-induced glucocorticoid by RU486 or elimination of commensal bacteria by antibiotics independently abrogated restraint-induced HSP70 augmentation. Oral administration of LPS to commensal-depleted mice restored restraint-induced HSP70 augmentation. Because TLR4 expression was absent from the epithelial surface, and was limited to lamina propria and muscularis externa, we examined how LPS reaches the lamina propria. Alexa-LPS administered in the colonic lumen was only detected in the lamina propria of the restrained mice. Expression of the tight junction component ZO-1 in the epithelia, which regulates the passage of luminal substances through the epithelia, was reduced after restraint, but reversed by RU486. In conclusion, HSP70 induction in colonic epithelial cells under restraint requires both stress-induced glucocorticoid and luminal commensal bacteria, and LPS plays a significant role. Glucocorticoid-dependent attenuation of epithelial tight junction integrity may facilitate the access of LPS into the lamina propria, where TLR4, known to be required for HSP70 induction, is abundantly expressed. Sophisticated regulation of colonic protection against stressors involving the general stress response and the luminal environment has been demonstrated. PMID:18760344

  8. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  9. Expression of leptin and its receptor genes in the ovarian follicles of cycling and early pregnant pigs.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, N; Kaminski, T; Siawrys, G; Przala, J

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a polypeptide hormone produced primarily by adipocytes. It has been implicated in the regulation of satiety and energy homeostasis. Leptin has been suggested to play a role in reproduction based on its involvement in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine pathways. The aim of the present study was to localize the cellular distribution of leptin and the long isoform of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) genes in porcine ovarian antral follicles and to compare the expression levels of leptin and OB-Rb mRNAs in porcine granulosa cells (GC), theca interna (TIC) and theca externa (TEC) cells during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and in early pregnancy. The expression of leptin and OB-Rb genes was detected in GC, TIC and TEC. Significantly higher levels of leptin gene expression in GC were observed during the mid- and late-luteal phases of the cycle than on days 30 to 32 of pregnancy. On days 14 to 16 of pregnancy, leptin mRNA expression was higher than that on days 14 to 16 of the cycle. The expression of the OB-Rb gene in GC and TEC increased during pregnancy in comparison with the analyzed luteal phases of the cycle. Our results validate the hypothesis that locally produced leptin plays a role in the regulation of porcine reproduction at the ovarian level and exerts a direct effect on porcine follicles. The differences in OB-Rb gene expression in porcine GC and theca cells also suggest that their sensitivity to leptin varies in the ovaries of pregnant and cyclic pigs. PMID:23031202

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency promotes the development of necrotizing enterocolitis-like intestinal injury in a newborn mouse model.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stephanie; Wong, Ronald J; Jang, Kyu Yun; Kalish, Flora; Chisholm, Karen M; Zhao, Hui; Vreman, Hendrik J; Sylvester, Karl G; Stevenson, David K

    2013-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is typified by mucosal destruction, which subsequently can lead to intestinal necrosis. Prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization are the main risk factors and, combined with other stressors, can cause increased intestinal permeability, injury, and an exaggerated inflammatory response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates intestinal protection due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects of its products carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and bilirubin. This study investigates a possible role of HO-1 in the pathogenesis of NEC using a newborn mouse model. We induced NEC-like intestinal injury in 7-day-old HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1 Het, Hmox1(+/-)) and wild-type (Wt, Hmox1(+/+)) mice by gavage feeding and hypoxic exposures. Control (Con) pups of both genotypes were dam-fed. Intestines of HO-1 Het Con pups appeared predisposed to injury, with higher histological damage scores, more TUNEL-positive cells, and a significant reduction in muscularis externa thickness compared with Wt Con pups. The increase in HO activity after HO-1 induction by the substrate heme or by hypoxic stress was significantly impaired in HO-1 Het pups. After induction of intestinal injury, HO-1 Het pups displayed significantly higher NEC incidence (78 vs. 43%), mortality (83 vs. 54%), and median scores (2.5 vs. 1.5) than Wt NEC pups. PCR array analyses revealed increased expressions of IL-1β, P-selectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, collagen type XVIII-α1, serpine 1, and others in NEC-induced HO-1 Het ileal and jejunal tissues. We conclude that a partial HO-1 deficiency promotes experimental NEC-like intestinal injury, possibly mediated by exaggerated inflammation and disruption in tissue repair. PMID:23578787

  11. Epidemiology of Otologic Diagnoses in United States Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Kozin, Elliott D.; Sethi, Rosh K.V.; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Kaplan, Alyson; del Portal, Daniel A.; Gray, Stacey T.; Shrime, Mark G.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Otologic complaints may place a significant burden on emergency departments (EDs) in the United States; however, few studies have comprehensively examined this discrete patient population. We aim to identify utilization of EDs by patients with primary otologic complaints. Study Design Retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2009 through 2011. Methods The NEDS database was queried for patient encounters with a primary otologic diagnosis based on ICD9 codes (380–389). Weighted estimates for demographic, diagnostic characteristics, SES, and trends over time were extracted. Predictors of mortality and admission were determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results A weighted total of 8,611,282 visits between 2009 and 2011 were attributed to otologic diagnoses, representing 2.21% of all ED visits. Stratified by patient age, otologic diagnoses encompassed 1.01% and 6.79% of all adult and pediatric ED visits, respectively. The majority of patients were treated and released (98.17%). The average age of patients presenting with an otologic complaint was 17.9 years (Standard Error [SE] = 0.23). Overall, 62.7% of patients that presented with an otologic complaint were 0–17 years old. The most common diagnoses among all age groups included otitis media NOS (60.6%), infected otitis externa NOS (11.8%), and otalgia NOS (6.8%). Conclusions We provide a comprehensive overview of otologic complaints that are an overlooked diagnostic category in public health research. NEDS data demonstrates significant number of visits related to otologic complaints, especially in the pediatric population, that are non-emergent. PMID:25702897

  12. Update on new medicinal applications of gentamicin: evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changhua; Chen, Yumin; Wu, Pinpin; Chen, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    Gentamicin (GM) was discovered in 1963 and was introduced into parenteral usage in 1971. Since then, GM has been widely used in medicinal applications. The Food and Drug Administration of the United States approved the routine prescription of GM to treat the following infectious disorders: infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., Pseudomonas spp.; Staphylococcus infectious disease; bacterial meningitis; bacterial sepsis of newborns; bacterial septicemia; infection of the eye, bone, skin and/or subcutaneous tissue; infective endocarditis; peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis due to Pseudomonas and other gram-negative organisms; peritonitis due to gastrointestinal tract infections; respiratory tract infections; and urinary tract infectious disease. GM is an old antibiotic and is used widely beyond its FDA-labeled indications as follows: actinomycotic infection; Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteremia with pyelonephritis; appendicitis; cystic fibrosis; diverticulitis; adjunct regimen for febrile neutropenia; female genital infection; uterine infection; postnatal infection; necrotizing enterocolitis in fetus or newborn; osteomyelitis; pelvic inflammatory disease; plague; gonorrhea; tularemia; prophylaxis of post-cholecystectomy infection, transrectal prostate biopsy, and post-tympanostomy-related infection; malignant otitis externa; and intratympanically or transtympanically for Ménière's disease. GM is also used in combination regimens, such as with beta-lactam antibiotics to treat mixed infection and with bacteriophage to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections. It is also added to medical materials, such as GM-loaded cement spacers for osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint-associated infections. Overall, there are many medicinal applications for GM. To reduce the development of GM-resistant bacteria and to maintain its effectiveness, GM should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected as being caused by susceptible bacteria. In the future, we believe that GM will be used more widely in combination therapy and applied to medical materials for clinical applications. A definitive, appropriately powered study of this antibiotic and its clinical applications is now required, especially in terms of its effectiveness, safety, and cost. PMID:24216440

  13. The Mouse Olfactory Peduncle

    PubMed Central

    Brunjes, Peter C; Kay, Rachel B; Arrivillaga, J. P

    2012-01-01

    The olfactory peduncle, the region connecting the olfactory bulb with the basal forebrain, contains several neural areas that have received relatively little attention. The present work includes studies that provide an overview of the region in the mouse. An analysis of cell soma size in pars principalis (pP) of the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) revealed considerable differences in tissue organization between mice and rats. An unbiased stereological study of neuron number in the cell-dense regions of pars externa (pE) and pP of the AON of 3, 12 and 24 month-old mice indicated that pE has about 16,500 cells in 0.043 mm3and pP about 58,300 cells in 0.307 mm3. Quantitative Golgi studies of pyramidal neurons in pP suggested that mouse neurons are similar though smaller to those of the rat. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that all peduncular regions (pE, pP, the dorsal peduncular cortex, ventral tenia tecta, and anterior olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex) have cells that express either calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y or cholecystokinin (antigens commonly co-expressed by subspecies of GABAergic neurons), though the relative numbers of each cell type differs between zones. Finally, an electron microscopic comparison of the organization of myelinated fibers in lateral olfactory tract in the anterior and posterior peduncle indicated that the region is less orderly in mice than in the rat. The results provide a caveat for investigators who generalize data between species as both similarities and differences between the laboratory mouse and rat were observed. PMID:21618219

  14. Partial chemical characterization of the anionic sites in the basal lamina of fenestrated capillaries.

    PubMed

    Simionescu, M; Simionescu, N; Palade, G E

    1984-11-01

    The distribution of anionic sites in the basal laminae of the blood capillaries of the murine pancreas was studied in specimens fixed in ruthenium red (RR)-glutaraldehyde mixtures. The sites appeared as discrete, small (6 to 18 nm) particles distributed throughout the three laminae but concentrated primarily in the lamina rara externa, in which--spaced 80-100 nm apart--they formed a planar, partially ordered lattice comparable to that revealed by cationized ferritin in previous studies (M. Simionescu, N. Simionescu, and G. E. Palade, 1982, J. Cell Biol. 95, 425-434). The chemical nature of the anionic sites was explored by incubating fresh tissue specimens in solutions of selected enzymes before fixation in RR-glutaraldehyde mixtures. Pronase P and papain removed completely the anionic sites and left behind an extensively degraded and disorganized basal lamina. Trypsin caused the removal of anionic sites only, did not degrade the rest of the basal lamina, but detached it completely from the endothelium. Chondroitinase ABC reduced slightly the size and the surface density of RR-stainable particles, and detached focally the rest of the basal lamina from the endothelium and pericytes. Crude heparinase caused a nearly complete removal of anionic sites, and pure heparitinase gave comparable but less extensive results. Similar effects were recorded on the basal laminae of smooth muscle fibers and pancreatic acini and ducts. The results indicate that the anionic sites of all basal laminae examined are contributed primarily by heparin sulfate proteoglycans and trace amounts of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. PMID:6521660

  15. The current practice trends in pediatric bone-anchored hearing aids in Canada: a national clinical and surgical practice survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) in the 1980s, the practices of surgeons who implant these hearing aids have become varied; different indications and surgical techniques are utilized depending on the surgeon and institution. The objective of the current study is to describe the clinical and surgical practices of otolaryngologists in Canada who perform pediatric BAHA operations. Methods A detailed practice questionnaire was devised and sent to all members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Those who performed pediatric BAHA surgeries were asked to participate. Results Twelve responses were received (response rate of 80%). All of the respondents identified congenital aural atresia to be an indication for pediatric BAHAs. Other indications were chronic otitis externa or media with hearing loss (92%), allergic reactions to conventional hearing aids (75%), congenital fixation or anomaly of ossicular chain (67%), and unilateral deafness (25%). Minor complications, such as skin reactions, were reported in 25% of cases, while major complications were very rare. There was great variability with regards to surgical techinque and post-operative management. The extent of financial support for the BAHA hardware and device also varied between provinces, and even within the same province. Conclusion There is a lack of general consensus regarding pediatric BAHA surgeries in Canada. With such a small community of otolaryngologists performing this procedure, we are hopeful that this survey can serve as an impetus for a national collaboration to establish a set of general management principles and inspire multi-site research ventures. PMID:23815797

  16. Podocytic cytoskeletal disaggregation and basement-membrane detachment in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, C. I.; Cameron, R.; Munk, S.; Levy, J.

    1993-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside--(PAN) treated rats develop acute nephrotic syndrome, mimicking human minimal lesion disease. In PAN nephrosis, podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is the most likely cause of massive proteinuria in this model. To elucidate further the mechanisms of PAN-induced cellular dysfunction, new methods were employed to visualize podocyte cytoskeletal aggregation and to measure fibrillar attachment to the GBM. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 4/group) received a single tail-vein injection of PAN (75 mg/kg). On days 1, 2, 3, and 5 following injection, 24-hour urine collections were obtained for creatinine clearance, albuminuria, and total proteinuria. Then kidneys from each group were fixed by perfusion. Podocytic cytoskeleton was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Subepithelial GBM staining and attachment fiber number, observed on digitized images of transmission electron micrographs, were quantitated with computer-based density analysis. A significant reduction in attachment fiber number in the GBM lamina rara externa occurred by day 5. On scanning electron micrographs, the secondary and tertiary podocytic processes were observed to be formed by highly aggregated cytoskeleton, which became partially disaggregated by day 3, was totally absent by day 5, and normalized by day 20. Immunogold staining revealed that actin and vinculin localized to the tertiary podocytic processes in the normal state were dispersed into the cell body following PAN. Podocyte cytoskeletal disaggregation precedes, and detachment from the GBM occurs simultaneously with, the onset of massive proteinuria in the PAN model. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8494056

  17. Intramural distribution of regulatory peptides in the sigmoid-recto-anal region of the human gut.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, G L; Adrian, T E; Allen, J M; Soimero, L; Cancellieri, A; Yeats, J C; Blank, M; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of regulatory peptides was studied in the separated mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa taken at 10 sampling sites encompassing the whole human sigmoid colon (five sites), rectum (two sites), and anal canal (three sites). Consistently high concentrations of VIP were measured in the muscle layer at most sites (proximal sigmoid: 286 (16) pmol/g, upper rectum: 269 (17), a moderate decrease being found in the distal smooth sphincter (151 (30) pmol/g). Values are expressed as mean (SE). Conversely, substance P concentrations showed an obvious decline in the recto-anal muscle (mid sigmoid: 19 (2.0) pmol/g, distal rectum: 7.1 (1.3), upper anal canal: 1.6 (0.6)). Somatostatin was mainly present in the sigmoid mucosa and submucosa (37 (9.3) and 15 (3.5) pmol/g, respectively) and showed low, but consistent concentrations in the muscle (mid sigmoid: 2.2 (0.7) pmol/g, upper anal canal: 1.5 (0.8]. Starting in the distal sigmoid colon, a distinct peak of tissue NPY was revealed, which was most striking in the muscle (of mid sigmoid: 16 (3.9) pmol/g, upper rectum: 47 (7.8), anal sphincter: 58 (14)). Peptide YY was confined to the mucosa and showed an earlier peak (upper sigmoid: 709 (186) pmol/g, mid-distal sigmoid: 1965 (484)). A clear differential distribution of regulatory peptides was thus shown in the region studied. A possible role is suggested for NPY and VIP containing nerves in the effector control of the human internal anal sphincter. PMID:2454876

  18. The role of the extracellular matrix in neoplastic glial invasion of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, C J

    1996-09-01

    Intrinsic tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) are generally derived from the glial cells: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells. Although such tumours rarely metastasize to distant organs, they show a marked propensity for local invasion of the surrounding nervous tissue. Sub-populations of neoplastic glia may migrate several millimetres away from main tumour mass into the contiguous CNS parenchyma, resulting in poor demarcation of the tumour. These migratory, so-called "guerrilla" cells give rise to recurrent tumours following surgical debulking and adjuvant radio- and chemo-therapeutic intervention. As in other organs, tumour cell invasion is, in part, facilitated by interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM); however, apart from the vascular basal lamina and the glia limitans externa, the CNS lacks a well-defined ECM. Invading neoplastic cells must, therefore, provide their own ECM, a process which may be stimulated by such agents as gangliosides or growth factors. Glioma cell-derived laminin and hyaluronic acid may provide the most important substrates for invasion, cell adhesion to these substrates being achieved largely through integrin receptors (the function of which may be determined by interaction with cell surface gangliosides) and CD44, respectively. Modulation of these ECM components is facilitated by a variety of proteinases including the matrix metalloproteinases and hyaluronidase, the activity of which is also thought to stimulate angiogenesis. Interference with the mechanisms which promote glioma cell adhesive properties may provide suitable targets for novel anti-invasive therapies. These might include ECM components, growth factors, gangliosides, integrin receptors and proteases and their inhibitors. PMID:9181059

  19. Homeostatic and therapeutic roles of VIP in smooth muscle function: myo-neuroimmune interactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Sarna, Sushil K

    2009-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that spontaneous release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from enteric neurons maintains homeostasis in smooth muscle function in mild inflammatory insults and that infusion of exogenous VIP has therapeutic effects on colonic smooth muscle dysfunction in inflammation. In vitro experiments were performed on human colonic circular smooth muscle tissues and in vivo on rats. The incubation of human colonic circular smooth muscle strips with TNF-alpha suppressed their contractile response to ACh and the expression of the pore-forming alpha(1C) subunit of Ca(v)1.2 channels. VIP reversed both effects by blocking the translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus and its binding to the kappaB recognition sites on halpha(1C)1b promoter. The translocation of NF-kappaB was inhibited by blocking the degradation of IkappaBbeta. Induction of inflammation by a subthreshold dose of 17 mg/kg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats moderately decreased muscularis externa concentration of VIP, and it had little effect on the contractile response of circular smooth muscle strips to ACh. The blockade of VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptors 1/2 during mild inflammatory insult significantly worsened the suppression of contractility and the inflammatory response. The induction of more severe inflammation by 68 mg/kg TNBS induced marked suppression of colonic circular muscle contractility and decrease in serum VIP. Exogenous infusion of VIP by an osmotic pump reversed these effects. We conclude that the spontaneous release of VIP from the enteric motor neurons maintains homeostasis in smooth muscle function in mild inflammation by blocking the activation of NF-kappaB. The infusion of exogenous VIP mitigates colonic inflammatory response and smooth muscle dysfunction. PMID:19661154

  20. Ciprofloxacin: an oral quinolone for the treatment of infections with gram-negative pathogens. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents. Canadian Infectious Disease Society.

    PubMed Central

    Louie, T J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize the use of ciprofloxacin, a synthetic fluoroquinolone, in community and hospital practice, and to minimize overprescribing by providing an overview of the literature and recommendations for appropriate use. OPTIONS: First-line treatment for infections in which ciprofloxacin is shown to be effective, treatment with oral ciprofloxacin rather than parenteral therapy with another drug, and step-down therapy with oral ciprofloxacin after initial parenteral treatment. OUTCOMES: In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of articles concerning ciprofloxacin, including in-vitro and pharmacokinetic studies using recognized standard methods with appropriate controls and published in recognized peer-reviewed journals, and randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trials. VALUES: The Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society (CIDS) and a recognized expert (T.J.L.) recommended use of ciprofloxacin to treat infections against which it has proved effective both in vitro and in randomized controlled trials. They took into account its value as an oral replacement for other drugs given parenterally and development of resistance. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: With more appropriate use of ciprofloxacin there will be less development of resistant pathogens. For certain infections patients who would otherwise require admission to hospital could be treated at home and patients initially admitted for parenteral therapy could be discharged sooner on oral therapy with ciprofloxacin. RECOMMENDATIONS: Ciprofloxacin may be considered as first-line treatment for a number of infections in which gram-negative pathogens are proven or strongly suspected, including complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, bacterial diarrhea, selected bone and joint infections, malignant otitis externa, bronchopulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and selected pneumonia cases. VALIDATION: The paper was prepared, reviewed and revised by the Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the CIDS. It was then reviewed and revised further by the Council of the CIDS. SPONSOR: The CIDS is solely responsible for developing, funding and endorsing these guidelines. PMID:8313286

  1. Pontine Infarct Presenting with Atypical Dental Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Rajat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Singh, Abhishek B

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain’ most commonly occurs due to dental causes like caries, gingivitis or periodontitis. Other common causes of ‘orofacial pain’ are sinusitis, temporomandibular joint(TMJ) dysfunction, otitis externa, tension headache and migraine. In some patients, the etiology of ‘orofacial pain’ remains undetected despite optimal evaluation. A few patients in the practice of clinical dentistry presents with dental pain without any identifiable dental etiology. Such patients are classified under the category of ‘atypical odontalgia’. ‘Atypical odontalgia’ is reported to be prevalent in 2.1% of the individuals. ‘Atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’ can result from the neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis, trigeminal neuralgia and herpes infection. Trigeminal neuralgia has been frequently documented as a cause of ‘atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’. There are a few isolated case reports of acute pontine stroke resulting in ‘atypical orofacial pain’ and ‘atypical odontalgia’. However, pontine stroke as a cause of atypical odontalgia is limited to only a few cases, hence prevalence is not established. This case is one, where a patient presented with acute onset atypical dental pain with no identifiable dental etiology, further diagnosed as an acute pontine infarct on neuroimaging. A 40 years old male presented with acute onset, diffuse teeth pain on right side. Dental examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) of the brain had an acute infarct in right pons near the trigeminal root entry zone(REZ). Pontine infarct presenting with dental pain as a manifestation of trigeminal neuropathy, has rarely been reported previously. This stresses on the importance of neuroradiology in evaluation of atypical cases of dental pain. PMID:26464604

  2. Morphological and molecular description of Tenuisentis niloticus (Meyer, 1932) (Acanthocephala: Tenuisentidae) from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae), in Burkina Faso, with emendation of the family diagnosis and notes on new features, cryptic genetic diversity and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Evans, R Paul; Boungou, Magloire; Heckmann, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Specimens described as Rhadinorhynchus niloticus Meyer, 1932 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from two male specimens collected from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) in the Egyptian Nile were later redescribed in the genus Tenuisentis Van Cleave, 1936 (Tenuisentidae) based on 12 specimens collected from the same host species in the White Nile. That redescription basically distinguished the two genera based on five traits but did not actually provide a formal description. His account left out information about cerebral ganglion, lemnisci, some reproductive structures, eggs, proboscis hook dissymmetry and roots, size of trunk and a few other structures. We provide (i) the first complete description of this species enhanced by SEM, molecular, and histo-pathological studies; (ii) expand the existing descriptions; (iii) correct questionable accounts advanced by Van Cleave on the cement gland and the hypodermal giant nuclei; and (iv) add descriptions of new features such as the para-receptacle structure which we also report from Paratenuisentis Bullock & Samuel, 1975, the only other genus in Tenuisentidae Van Cleave, 1936. The subsequent description of a few more specimens from the same host collected in Mali was more informative yet incomplete and at variance with our specimens from Burkina Faso. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) and nuclear (18S ribosomal RNA) gene relationships uncovered a cryptic species complex containing two lineages. Based on our studies, the family diagnosis is emended. The acanthocephalan causes damage to the host intestine as depicted in histopathological sections. The invading worm can extend from the mucosal layer to the muscularis externa of the host with subsequent tissue necrosis, villi compression, haemorrhaging and blood loss. PMID:26790681

  3. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C.; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders. PMID:24723855

  4. Age-related morphological changes in the basement membrane in the stria vascularis of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mitsuya; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kashio, Akinori; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Basement membrane anionic sites (BMAS) are involved in the selective transport of electrically charged macromolecules in cochlear capillaries. Using cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI), we examined age-related changes in BMAS in the cochleae of C57BL/6 mice. The mice were grouped according to age as follows: 3 days, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. In the right bony labyrinths, widths of the stria vascularis were measured in paraffin-embedded sections using light microscopy. The left bony labyrinths were immersed in a 0.5 % cationic PEI solution and embedded in epoxy resin. Ultrathin sections of the left cochlea were examined using transmission electron microscopy. A significant difference in stria vascularis width was observed between the 4-week-old and 12-month-old mice. The PEI distribution in the capillary and epithelial basement membranes (BMs) of the cochlea was observed. In all animals, PEI particles were evenly distributed in the capillary BM of the spiral ligament and in the subepithelial BM of Reissner's membrane. In the stria vascularis, PEI particles were evenly distributed in the capillary BM in 3-day-old mice. In 4- and 8-week-old mice, PEI particle sizes were markedly lower than those observed in 3-day-old mice. In 6- and 12-month-old mice, PEI particles were hardly detected in the strial capillary BM. In the strial capillary BM in these mice, the laminae rarae externa and interna disappeared, but the lamina densa became larger. We speculated that age-related changes of strial capillary BMAS may affect electrically charged macromolecule transport systems in the stria vascularis of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25555607

  5. [Complications Resulting from Taking Ear Impressions].

    PubMed

    Sugiuchi, Tomoko; Kodera, Kazuoki; Zusho, Hiroyuki; Asano, Yoshikazu; Kanesada, Keiko; Hayashida, Mitsuhiro; Kanaya, Koichiro; Tokumaru, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    In 2012, we carried out a study in a large sample to understand the secondary injuries caused during the taking ear impressions for hearing aids. This study is a follow-up of previous research conducted in 1986 (285 medical institutions) and 1999 (98 medical institutions). We posted a questionnaire survey to the otolaryngology departments of 3,257 medical institutions. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62.9% (2,050 of the 3,257 institutions), and the results indicated that 301 of the 2050 institutions (14.7%) had experience with secondary injuries, with a total of 460 cases reported. In 342 of the 460 cases (74.3%), the secondary injuries occurred at hearing-aid dealerships, followed by 67 cases (14.6%) at affiliated medical institutions, and 51 cases (11.1%) in other locations, including other medical institutions, rehabilitation counseling centers, and educational institutions. The most common type of secondary injury (298 cases, 64.8%) was caused by the presence of foreign bodies in the ear, which in turn was a result of complications occurring during the removal of residual ear impression material. Of these 298 cases, 32 required excision of the foreign bodies and surgical intervention under general anesthesia. The remaining 10 cases exhibited isolated tympanic membrane perforation without foreign body-related complications. Furthermore, 146 cases (31.7%) developed bleeding and otitis externa following removal of the ear impression, and there were reports of cases with bleeding that required long-term outpatient care and treatment. Therefore, since retention of a foreign body in the ear and tympanic membrane perforation can occur even in patients without a history of surgery or prior otologic history, adjustment of hearing aids requires prior otorhinolaryngological examination. Furthermore, because of the risk of secondary injury when taking ear impressions, this procedure must be performed with caution under the guidance of an otolaryngologist. PMID:26548100

  6. Anatomical, biochemical and physiological considerations of the colon in design and development of novel drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Vadlamudi, Harini Chowdary; Raju, Y Prasanna; Yasmeen, B Rubia; Vulava, Jayasri

    2012-11-01

    The colon is composed of four distinct layers such as serosa, muscularis externa, sub mucosa and mucosa. There exists a difference in the anatomy, neural and blood supply and absorption characteristics as the length of the colon is traversed. At birth the mucosal surface of the colon is similar to that of the small intestine but rapid changes occur with the loss of the villi leaving flat mucosa with deep crypts. The existence of receptors like muscarinic M3, cholecystokinin1, Eph, Erb B, estrogen (?, ?), gastrin releasing peptide, killer Ig like receptor, lymphocyte-endothelial receptor, notch, pregnane X, substance P and peroxisome proliferator-activated ? receptor can be utilized as a promising approach for targeting. The inner compact firm mucus is impervious to bacteria, making it a defensive barrier for the colossal bacterial load. The mucus thus provides innate immunity to maintain the homeostasis in colon. The physiological properties of the colon such as pH, transit time, luminal pressure of the colon, and the presence of microbial flora localized in the colon are utilized in the drug design. The drug delivery systems exploit enteric coating and biodegradable polymers to reach colon in an intact form by surpassing the barriers in the stomach and small intestine. The presence of azo-reductase, glucuronidase, dextranase, pectinase, glycosidase, polysaccharidase made it feasible to design prodrug and enzyme based drug delivery. Drug designing methodologies in colon specific drug delivery include pH- based systems, enzymedepended systems, timed- release systems and pressure/osmotically release systems. PMID:22920573

  7. Evolution of the basal ganglia: dual-output pathways conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Ericsson, Jesper; Robertson, Brita; Grillner, Sten

    2012-09-01

    The basal ganglia, including the striatum, globus pallidus interna and externa (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and substantia nigra pars compacta, are conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny and have been suggested to form a common vertebrate mechanism for action selection. In mammals, this circuitry is further elaborated by the presence of a dual-output nucleus, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and the presence of modulatory input from the cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We sought to determine whether these additional components of the mammalian basal ganglia are also present in one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates, the lamprey. We show, by using immunohistochemistry, tract tracing, and whole-cell recordings, that homologs of the SNr and PPN are present in the lamprey. Thus the SNr receives direct projections from inwardly rectifying γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic striatal neurons expressing substance P, but it is also influenced by indirect basal ganglia projections from the STN and potentially the GPe. Moreover, GABAergic SNr projection neurons are tonically active and project to the thalamus and brainstem motor areas. The homolog of the PPN contains both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons and is connected with all the nuclei of the basal ganglia, supporting its proposed role as part of an extended basal ganglia. A separate group of cholinergic neurons dorsal to the PPN corresponds to the descending mesencephalic locomotor region. Our results suggest that dual-output nuclei are part of the ancestral basal ganglia and that the PPN appears to have coevolved as part of a mechanism for action selection common to all vertebrates. PMID:22351244

  8. Effects of Oesophagostomum dentatum and dietary carbohydrates on morphology of the large intestine of pigs.

    PubMed

    Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Murrell, K D

    2003-10-01

    The effects of Oesophagostomum dentatum infection and dietary carbohydrates on the morphology and epithelial cell proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs were investigated experimentally. Thirty-two worm-free pigs (n=32) from a specific pathogen-free farm were randomly divided into four groups (A-D), of eight animals each. Pigs in groups A (control) and B (infected) were fed Diet 1, and pigs in groups C (control) and D (infected) were fed Diet 2. The two diets were formulated: Diet 1 (%) contained barley flour, oat husk meal plus soya bean meal (55:21:24) and Diet 2 (%) contained barley flour, inulin and sugar beet fibre (SBF) (80.1:7:12.9) plus soya bean meal (3:1) to contain carbohydrates from inulin and sugar beet fibre (SBF) that were readily fermentable in the large intestine. The two infected pig groups (16 pigs total) were inoculated with 6000 infective larvae of O. dentatum and all pigs, including the controls, were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. The combination of O. dentatum infection and highly fermentable dietary carbohydrates affected the mucosal architecture, the epithelial cell proliferation and mucin secretion of the large intestine. Infection had a significant influence on the crypt volume, height and density, and on muscularis externa at the proximal and middle colon. The changes in the affected gut sections were proportional to the number of worms present. However, these parameters appeared unaffected by those diets alone. In pigs without infection non-digestible dietary carbohydrates significantly influenced the tissue weight of colon. PMID:14519317

  9. Cystic fibrosis mouse model-dependent intestinal structure and gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bazett, Mark; Honeyman, Lisa; Stefanov, Anguel N.; Pope, Christopher E.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Haston, Christina K.

    2015-01-01

    Mice with a null mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) gene show intestinal structure alterations and bacterial overgrowth. To determine whether these changes are model-dependent and whether the intestinal microbiome is altered in cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse models, we characterized the ileal tissue and intestinal microbiome of mice with the clinically common ΔF508 Cftr mutation (FVB/N Cftrtm1Eur) and with Cftr null mutations (BALB/c Cftrtm1UNC and C57BL/6 Cftrtm1UNC). Intestinal disease in 12-week-old CF mice, relative to wild-type strain controls, was measured histologically. The microbiome was characterized by pyrosequencing of the V4–V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and intestinal load was measured by RT-PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. The CF-associated increases in ileal crypt to villus axis distention, goblet cell hyperplasia, and muscularis externa thickness were more severe in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftrtm1UNC mice than in the FVB/N Cftrtm1Eur mice. Intestinal bacterial load was significantly increased in all CF models, compared to levels in controls, and positively correlated with circular muscle thickness in CF, but not wild-type, mice. Microbiome profiling identified Bifidobacterium and groups of Lactobacillus to be of altered abundance in the CF mice but overall bacterial frequencies were not common to the three CF strains and were not correlative of major histological changes. In conclusion, intestinal structure alterations, bacterial overgrowth, and dysbiosis were each more severe in BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftrtm1UNC mice than in the FVB/N Cftrtm1Eur mice. The intestinal microbiome differed among the three CF mouse models. PMID:25721416

  10. Inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency rather than the loss of interstitial cells of Cajal causes smooth muscle dysfunction in W/Wv mice

    PubMed Central

    Winston, John H.; Chen, Jinghong; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2014-01-01

    The initial hypothesis suggested that the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) played an essential role in mediating enteric neuronal input to smooth muscle cells. Much information for this hypothesis came from studies in W/Wv mice lacking ICC. However, mast cells, which play critical roles in regulating inflammation in their microenvironment, are also absent in W/Wv mice. We tested the hypothesis that the depletion of mast cells in W/Wv mice generates inflammation in fundus muscularis externa (ME) that impairs smooth muscle reactivity to Ach, independent of the depletion of ICC. We performed experiments on the fundus ME from wild type (WT) and W/Wv mice before and after reconstitution of mast cells by bone marrow transplant. We found that mast cell deficiency in W/Wv mice significantly increased COX-2 and iNOS expression and decreased smooth muscle reactivity to Ach. Mast cell reconstitution or concurrent blockade of COX-2 and iNOS restored smooth muscle contractility without affecting the suppression of c-kit in W/Wv mice. The expression of nNOS and ChAT were suppressed in W/Wv mice; mast cell reconstitution did not restore them. We conclude that innate inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency in W/Wv mice impairs smooth muscle contractility independent of ICC deficiency. The impairment of smooth muscle contractility and the suppression of the enzymes regulating the synthesis of Ach and NO in W/Wv mice need to be considered in evaluating the role of ICC in regulating smooth muscle and enteric neuronal function in W/Wv mice. PMID:24550836

  11. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  12. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.Fundamento: As urgências cardiovasculares são causas importantes de procura por atendimento médico, sendo fundamentais a rapidez e a precisão no diagnóstico para diminuir sua morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso da ecocardiografia direcionada como complemento diagnóstico ao exame físico em um serviço terciário de emergências clínicas. Métodos: Foram incluídos cem pacientes adultos sem doenças cardíacas ou pulmonares conhecidas que procuraram atendimento de urgência com queixas cardiológicas. Foram excluídos pacientes com alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma ou febre. A ecocardiografia direcionada foi realizada logo após a avaliação inicial do paciente na sala de emergência, com aparelho ultraportátil GE Vscan, avaliando subjetivamente: dimensões das cavidades, função sistólica ventricular, fluxos intracardíacos pelo mapeamento de fluxo em cores, pericárdio e aorta. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi 61 ± 17 anos. O quadro clínico inicial foi dor torácica (52 pacientes), dispneia (32 pacientes), arritmia/avaliação da função ventricular (dez pacientes), hipotensão/tontura (cinco pacientes) e edema periférico (um paciente). Em 28 pacientes a ecocardiografia direcionada confirmou a hipótese diagnóstica inicial: 19 pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, cinco com síndrome coronariana aguda, dois com tromboembolismo pulmonar e dois com tamponamento cardíaco. Em 17 pacientes, a ecocardiografia direcionada alterou o diagnóstico, afastando a hipótese clínica inicial em dez casos com suspeita de insuficiência cardíaca, dois com suspeita de tromboembolismo pulmonar, dois com hipotensão a esclarecer, e em cada um dos três restantes com suspeitas de síndrome coronariana aguda, tamponamento cardíaco e dissecção de aorta. Conclusão: A ecocardiografia direcionada ultraportátil em serviço de emergências clínicas pode definir rapidamente o diagnóstico e, com isso, é possível iniciar mais precocemente o tratamento adequado. PMID:25352461

  13. Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves of low and elevated toxicities following exposure to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms in Portuguese estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were examined in 405 composite samples of Mytilus spp., Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus and Spisula solida collected between 2007 and 2012 from natural production areas in two estuaries (Aveiro and Mondego), two coastal lagoons (Óbidos and Formosa), and three open coastal areas (Aguda, Comporta and Culatra). Toxin concentrations were obtained from the biotoxin monitoring programme database. Episodes of PST toxicity in Portugal have been associated with Gymnodinium catenatum blooms. Toxin profiles for each species showed no trend over the surveyed years. In general, profiles differ only slightly among areas, except for Óbidos. However, toxin profiles in bivalves varied between low and elevated toxicities, corresponding to below and above the PST regulatory limit, respectively. The ratio R1=(C1+2):B1, which were the main toxins produced by G. catenatum cells, decreased considerably between elevated and low toxicity cockles, indicating the elimination of C1+2 or conversion of compounds into B1. R2=[(dcSTX)+(dcGTX2+3)]:[(C1+2)+(B1)], which represents the ratio of minor to major toxins in G. catenatum cells, increased substantially in wedge clams (D. trunculus) of low toxicity and less markedly in cockles (C. edule) and mussels (Mytilus spp.). These differences are interpreted as the predominance of a biotransformation phase after exposure to the algal bloom. The toxin profile of surf clams (S. solida) was dominated by decarbamoyl compounds, reflecting intense biotransformation during exposure to blooms. The higher ratio R2 in low toxicity samples suggests that elimination of the produced decarbamoyl toxins was slower than biotransformation. PMID:25616737

  14. Characterization of persistent follicles induced by prolonged treatment with progesterone in dairy cows: an experimental model for the study of ovarian follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo U; Stangaferro, Matías L; Gareis, Natalia C; Silvia, William J; Matiller, Valentina; Salvetti, Natalia R; Rey, Florencia; Barberis, Fabián; Cattaneo, Luciano; Ortega, Hugo H

    2015-10-15

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is a major factor contributing to poor reproductive efficiency of lactating dairy cows. The objective of the present study was to analyze the endocrine profile, growth dynamics, and histologic characteristics of persistent ovarian follicles-cysts developing in response to long-term administration of intermediate levels of progesterone. To this end, after synchronization of cows, a low dose of progesterone was administered for 5, 10, and 15 days after the expected day of ovulation in treated cows (groups P5, P10, and P15, respectively), using an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device. A significant increase in diameter was detected on Day 11 of progesterone treatment and thereafter (P < 0.05), and at Day 15 of persistence, the diameter of the persistent follicle reached a mean of 23 ± 0.6 mm. Microscopically, the persistent follicles had a complete granulosa, an intensely vascularized theca interna, and a collagenous theca externa layer. Temporal changes in the serum concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and FSH were detected (effects of time, P < 0.01). Progesterone treatment completely inhibited the LH preovulatory surge in treated cows and affected the basal concentration of LH. The pulse frequency remained high at 5 and 10 days of persistence and declined (P < 0.05) after 15 days of persistence. The LH pulse concentration and pulse amplitude had a significant reduction (P < 0.05) during follicular persistence. Changes in the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone in serum and follicular fluid were also observed. In serum, estradiol increased gradually from proestrus to Day 10 of follicular persistence (P < 0.05), progesterone showed an increase (P < 0.05) at Day 5 of follicular persistence, 17-hydroxyprogesterone showed a significant decrease at 5 days of follicular persistence in relation to proestrus, and testosterone showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) from proestrus and Day 5 of persistence through Day 15 of follicular persistence. Correlation between serum and follicular fluid steroid concentrations was significant for testosterone (P < 0.0001) and not significant for estradiol and progesterone. These findings indicate that ovarian cysts in COD are similar in many ways to the persistent follicles induced by progesterone, with an analogous hormonal and morphologic context, thus confirming a local role of subluteal levels of progesterone in COD pathogenesis and in the regulatory mechanisms of the ovarian function. PMID:26187329

  15. The fine structure of the female reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Gottardo, M; Machida, R; Mashimo, Y; Beutel, R G

    2012-01-01

    The general structure of the female genital system of Zorotypus caudelli is described. The ovarioles are of the panoistic type. Due to the reduction of the envelope (tunica externa) the ovarioles are in direct contact with the hemolymph like in some other insect groups, Plecoptera included. The calices are much larger in Z. caudelli then in Zorotypus hubbardi and their epithelial cells produce large amounts of secretions, probably protecting the surface of the eggs deposited on the substrate. Eggs taken from the calyx bear a series of long fringes, which are missing in the eggs found in the ovariole, and in other zorapteran species. The long sperm of Z. caudelli and the long spermathecal duct are likely related to a sexual isolating mechanism (cryptic female choice), impeding female re-mating. The apical receptacle and the spermathecal duct - both of ectodermal origin - consist of three cell types. In addition to the cells beneath the cuticle lining the lumen, two other cell types are visible: secretory and canal cells. The cytoplasm of the former is rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns and Golgi complexes, which produce numerous discrete dense secretory bodies. These products are released into the receiving canal crossing the extracellular cavity of secretory cells, extending over a series of long microvilli. The secretion is transported towards the lumen of the apical receptacle of the spermatheca or to that of the spermathecal duct by a connecting canal formed by the canal cells. It is enriched by material produced by the slender canal cells. Before mating, the sperm cells are enveloped by a thick glycocalyx produced at the level of the male accessory glands, but it is absent when they have reached the apical receptacle, and also in the spermathecal duct lumen. It is likely removed by secretions of the spermatheca. The eggs are fertilized at the level of the common oviduct where the spermathecal duct opens. Two micropyles at the dorsal side of the equator level possibly facilitate fertilization. The presence of these two micropyles is a presumably derived feature shared with Phasmatodea. The fine structure of the female reproductive system of Z. caudelli does not allow to assess the phylogenetic position at the present stage of knowledge. The enlarged calyx and the temporary presence of long fringes on the eggs are potential autapomorphies of Z. caudelli or may indicate relationships with other Zorotypus species. PMID:21996134

  16. Immunocytochemical localisation of microtubule-associated proteins 1b and 2 in the developing rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Oudega, M; Touri, F; Deenen, M G; Riederer, B M; Marani, E

    1995-12-01

    The straightforward anatomical organisation of the developing and mature rat spinal cord was used to determine and interpret the time of appearance and expression patterns of microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) 1b and 2. Immunoblots revealed the presence of MAP1b and 2 in the early embryonic rat spinal cord and confirmed the specificity of the used anti-MAP mouse monoclonal antibodies. The immunocytochemical data demonstrated a rostral-to-caudal and ventral-to-dorsal gradient in the expression of MAP1b/2 within the developing spinal cord. In the matrix layer, MAP1b was found in a distinct radial pattern distributed between the membrana limitans interna and externa between embryonal day (E)12 and E15. Immunostaining for vimentin revealed that this MAP1b pattern was morphologically and topographically different from the radial glial pattern which was present in the matrix layer between E13 and E19. The ventral-to-dorsal developmental gradient of the MAP1b staining in the spinal cord matrix layer indicates a close involvement of MAP1b either in the organisation of the microtubules in the cytoplasmatic extensions of the proliferating neuroblasts or neuroblast mitosis. MAP2 could not be detected in the developing matrix layer. In the mantle and marginal layer, MAP1b was abundantly present between E12 and postnatal day (P)0. After birth, the staining intensity for MAP1b gradually decreased in both layers towards a faint appearance at maturity. The distribution patterns suggest an involvement of MAP1b in the maturation of the motor neurons, the contralaterally and ipsilaterally projecting axons and the ascending and descending long axons of the rat spinal cord. MAP2 was present in the spinal cord grey matter between E12 and maturity, which reflects a role for MAP2 in the development as well as in the maintenance of microtubules. The present description of the expression patterns of MAP1b and 2 in the developing spinal cord suggests important roles of the two proteins in various morphogenetic events. The findings may serve as the basis for future studies on the function of MAP1b and 2 in the development of the central nervous system. PMID:8586570

  17. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.

    1997-11-01

    Despite the progress made in establishing the capabilities of the auditory system in several species of fish, significant questions remain regarding how sound reaches the ear and the nature of the coupling between the ear and various accessory structures. In this research, experimental measurements and theoretical modeling were used to examine the mechanical behavior of the peripheral auditory system of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). The experiments consisted of measuring the in vivo motion of the swimbladder, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths of an anesthetized and tethered fish, in response to an acoustic stimulus, using a noninvasive ultrasonic measurement system. The experimental results show strong coupling between the swimbladders, tripus, and saccule. At low frequencies, the swimbladders, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths move with the same amplitude and phase as the fish's body. At higher frequencies, multiple resonances occur in most swimbladder responses. The swimbladder resonance also appears in the sagitta response; the sagitta displacement ranges from 1 to 10 nm/Pa. The results of only a few tests indicate motion of the lagenar otolith, while no data show movement of the utricular otolith. The mathematical model of the dynamics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system is the first such model to include the swimbladder, Weberian apparatus, and saccule (including the hair cell ciliary bundles). The saccule model features only translation of the otolith in the direction of hair cell orientation. The model predicts the correct amplitude and phase relationships between the two swimbladder chambers and shows the coupling observed between the anterior swimbladder and the tripus. The model also predicts a high-pass filter effect due to the tunica externa compliance; however, the model low frequency cut-off seems insufficient to prevent a change in depth from overstimulating the Weberian apparatus. The model predicts a sagitta displacement on the order of 10 nm/Pa. Above 50 Hz, the relative displacement between the sagitta and sensory epithelium is primarily due to the Weberian apparatus. The phase relationships between the sagitta and sensory epithelium displacements vary with location of the acoustic source.

  18. Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilia, P A; Swain, R P; Williams, A V; Loadholt, C B; Ainsworth, S K

    1985-12-01

    The cationic ultrastructural tracer polyethyleneimine (PEI: pI approximately equal to 11.0), binds electrophysically to uniformly spaced discrete electron-dense anionic sites present in the laminae rarae of the rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangial reflections of the GBM, Bowman's capsule, and tubular basement membranes when administered intravenously. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of glomerular anionic sites reveals that the maximum concentration of stainable lamina rara externa (lre) sites (21/10,000 A GBM) occurs 60 minutes after PEI injection with a site-site interspacing of 460 A. Lamina rara interna (lri) sites similarly demonstrate a maximum concentration (20/10,000 A GBM) at 60 minutes with a periodicity of 497 A. The concentration and distribution of anionic sites within the lri was irregular in pattern and markedly decreased in number, while the lre possesses an electrical field that is highly regular at all time intervals analyzed (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes). Immersion and perfusion of renal tissue with PEI reveals additional heavy staining of the epithelial and endothelial cell sialoprotein coatings. PEI appears to bind to glomerular anionic sites reversibly: ie, between 60 and 180 minutes the concentration of stained sites decreases. At 300 minutes, the interspacing once again approaches the 60-minute concentration. This suggests a dynamic turnover or dissociation followed by a reassociation of glomerular negatively charged PEI binding sites. In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria. PEI does not induce proteinuria in rats, nor does it produce glomerular morphologic alterations when ten times the tracer dosage is administered intravenously. These findings indicate that the choice of ultrastructural charge tracer, the method of administering the tracer, and the time selected for analysis of tissue after administration of tracer significantly influences results. Morphometric analysis of the distribution of glomerular anionic sites in nonproteinuric rats provides a method of evaluating quantitative alterations of the glomerular charge barrier in renal disease models. PMID:4073220

  19. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo GeoB 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  20. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus responsible for human colonization and infection in an area of Italy with high density of pig farming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Livestock-Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) belonging to ST398 lineage, common among pigs and other animals, emerged in Central and Northern Europe, becoming a new risk factor for MRSA among farm workers. Strains belonging to ST398 can be responsible for human colonization and infection, mainly in areas with high livestock-farming. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) human colonization and infections in an area of the Lombardy Region (Italy), the Italian region with the highest density of pig farming. Methods In the period March-April 2010, 879 nasal swabs were taken from subjects at admission to a local hospital serving an area of the Lombardy Region devoted to agriculture and farming. In the period March 2010-February 2011, all MRSA strains from community-acquired infection (CAI) observed in the same hospital, were collected. Molecular characterization of the isolates included SCCmec typing, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results Out of 879 nasal swabs examined, 9 (1%) yielded MRSA. Five strains were assigned to sequence type (ST)398 (spa t899, 3 isolates; t108 and t2922, 1 isolate each) and were therefore categorized as LA-MRSA. The other 4 isolates were likely of hospital origin. No strains were positive for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes. Twenty MRSA isolates were detected from CAI, 17 were from skin and soft-tissue infections and 3 from other infections. An MRSA isolate from otitis externa was t899/ST398 and PVL-negative, hence categorized as LA-MRSA. Four isolates were assigned to t127/ST1. Eight strains were PVL-positive community acquired (CA)-MRSA and belonged to different clones, the most frequent being ST8. Conclusions In an area of Italy with high density of pig farming, LA-MRSA is able to colonize the population and rarely to produce infections. Typical CA-MRSA is more common than LA-MRSA among CAI. PMID:23731504

  1. Estudio de la formación de galaxias espirales en un modelo de agregación jerárquica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, P.; Saiz, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.

    El estudio de formación de galaxias espirales ha llevado al desarrollo de numerosos modelos teóricos (e.g. White & Rees 1978). En la actualidad, el modelo más aceptado predice la formación de una galaxia espiral a partir del colapso disipativo del gas en el pozo de potencial de un halo oscuro, conservando su momento angular específco (Fall & Efstathiou 1980). En los últimos años, ha sido posible realizar simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas, las cuales describen la evolución conjunta de la materia oscura y los bariones. Estos experimentos han señalado la dificultad de formar estructuras discoidales con propiedades consistentes con las observaciones, en modelos de agregación jerárquica. El problema principal se origina en la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de la componente disipativa, durante el proceso de ensamblaje de los objetos, a través de la fusión de subestructura (Navarro & Steinmetz 1997). Estos experimentos no incluían procesos de formación estelar. En este trabajo, se expondrán resultados de simulaciones hidrodinámicas cosmológicas, incluyendo formación estelar (Tissera et al 1997), donde ha sido posible reproducir objetos discoidales con contrapartida observacional. El elemento fundamental ha sido la formación de bulbos estelares, los cuales han evitado la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de los bariones. Se encontró que los discos exponenciales puramente gaseosos son altamente inestables y suceptibles de generar barras, responsables de la pérdida de momento angular y la caída violenta del gas hacia la región central. Estas inestabilidades son fácilmente inducidas durante interacciones y fusiones con objetos vecinos (Barnes & Hernquist 1996). Un bulbo estelar (o un objeto masivo y compacto) estabiliza el disco ante perturbaciones externas, asegurándole un potencial simétrico (Sellwood & Moore 1998, Van der Bosch 1998). En este caso, el gas en el disco no pierde completamente su momento angular intrínseco durante las fusiones, sino que, las sobrevive aportando una contribución distinta de cero, a partir de la cual el disco se regenera acretando en una segunda etapa, gas del halo de acuerdo al modelo tradicional de Fall & Efstathiou.

  2. Strategies for decreasing multidrug antibiotic resistance: role of ototopical agents for treatment of middle ear infections.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jerome O

    2002-10-01

    Change in the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antimicrobial agents is constant. The efficacy of a new drug may change as it is used in clinical settings, and resistant bacterial clones result from the encounter of drug and organism. Soon after the introduction of the sulfonamides in the mid-1930s, the first effective agents of the antimicrobial era, resistance of pneumococci and group A streptococci was evident. In each of the following decades, a different problem in multidrug resistance occurred among common bacterial pathogens: beta-lactamase-producing staphylococci in the 1950s; highly resistant gram-negative enteric bacteria in the 1960s; beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the 1970s; and multidrug-resistant pneumococci in the 1980s. Antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens is now a common clinical problem throughout the world, and its management is a part of routine office practice. Currently in the United States, about 25% of pneumococci are resistant to penicillin, and 25% of H influenzae and 90% of M catarrhalis produce beta-lactamase and would be inactivated by organisms producing the enzyme. The emergence of penicillin and multidrug-resistant pneumococci and beta-lactamase-producing strains of H influenzae and M catarrhalis have special importance for the management of infections of the middle ear. The widespread use of oral and parenteral antimicrobial drugs for appropriate and inappropriate uses has driven the emergence and spread of resistant organisms. This article discusses current susceptibility patterns of organisms involved in middle ear infections, risk factors associated with development of resistant strains, strategies for limiting the incidence and spread of resistant organisms and, as part of the strategy, use of ototopical rather than systemic antimicrobial drugs for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and acute otitis media (AOM) in children with tympanostomy tubes. Although many ototopical agents are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the indication of otitis externa, only ofloxacin otic is approved for treatment of CSOM in patients older than 12 years of age and AOM in children with tympanostomy tubes who are 1 year of age or older. PMID:12408220

  3. Extensional Detachment faulting in melange rocks. Plurikilometres migration by W the External Zone (Cordillera Bética, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Rodríguez, Jose; Mateos, Rosa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The synthesis and correlation of units carried out in the continuous geological map (Roldán et al., 2012), has revealed a fragmentation of the carbonate outcrops belong to the Subbetic Domain (García-Hernández et al., 1980). Subbetic NW verging thrust and fold axial traces have not lateral continuity and Jurassic carbonate outscrops appear as klippes on the olistotromic unit. These ductile structures that can be observed in the internal structure of these jurassic blocks are unrelated to the brittle-ductile deformation bands observed at the basal pelitic levels. Basal detachments are rooted in: a) the Olistostromic unit, a Upper Langhian-Lower Serravallian breccia constituted by gypsum-bearing clay and marls; b) Cretaceous-Tertiary marly sedimentary rocks (Rodríguez-Fernández, et al., 2013) . In both kind of rocks, cataclastic structures allows to infer a top-to-the WSW displacement. Paleostress measurements, made on these detachments levels, are compatible with a extensional regime (Roldán et al., 2012). At the same time, the analysis and interpretation of subsurface data (seismic surveys and borehole testing) shows that the Subbetic Domain (External Subbetic, Molina 1987) are affected by westward low-angle normal faults. A balanced cross-section, based on morphological and cartographic data in the area between Sierra de Cabra and Sierra de Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén), shows plurikilometric displacements which has been produced during Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian times. References: García-Hernández, M., López-Garrido, A.C., Rivas, P., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Vera, J.A. (1980): Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the zones of the Betic Cordillera. Geol. Mijnb. 59 (2). 155-168. Molina, J.M. (1987). Análisis de facies del Mesozoico en el Subbético. Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Granada. 518 p. Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Roldán, F. J., Azañón, J.M. y García-Cortés, A. (2013). El colapso gravitacional del frente orogénico a lpino en el Dominio Subbético durante el Mioceno medio-superior: El Complejo Extensional Subbético. Boletín Geológico y Minero, 124 (3): 477-504. Roldán, F.J., Azañón, J.M. y Rodríguez-Fernández, J. (2012): Desplazamiento extensional del Subbético entre las sierras de Cabra y Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén. Zonas Externas de la Cordillera Bética). VIII Congreso Geológico de España oviedo. GEOTEMAS, V-13: 484. Roldán, F.J., Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Villalobos, M., Lastra, J., Díaz-Pinto, G., Pérez Rodríguez, A.B. (2012). Zonas: Subbético, Cuenca del Guadalquivir y Campo de Gibraltar. In GEODE. Mapa Geológico Digital Continuo de España. Sistema de Información Geológica Continua: SIGECO. IGME. Editor Navas, J. Disponible en: http://cuarzo.igme.es/sigeco.default.htm

  4. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de los modelos no son afectados al incluir la nueva teoría de convección.

  5. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  6. Progress in the prognosis of adult Hodgkin's lymphoma in the past 35 years through clinical trials in Argentina: a GATLA experience.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Santiago; Lastiri, Francisco

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends in complete remission (CR) rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) through 35 years of Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) clinical trials. A total of 1,254 adult patients with Hodgkin's Lymphoma were evaluated according to seven consecutive protocols. This 35-year study was divided into three phases. The patients in the first phase (1968-1985) were treated with CVPP (cyclophosphamide/vinblastine/procarbazine/prednisone) plus involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT). In the CVPP regimen, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine were administered intravenously on day 1 and prednisone and procarbazine were administered orally on days 1-14 every 28 days. The second phase (1986-1996) used mainly reinforced CVPP with cyclophosphamide and vinblastine on days 1-8 plus IFRT. The third phase (1997-2003) used ABVD(doxorubicin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine) plus IFRT. In clinical stage I/II, the CR rate was 86% in 252 patients treated in the first phase and DFS and OS were 57% and 78% at 5 years and 50% and 71% at 10 years. The second phase had 148 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 91%, 5-year DFS and OS were 78% and 90%, and 10-year DFS and OS were 70% and 83%. The third phase had 182 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 95%, 5-year DFS and OS were 87% and 96%, and 10-year DFS and OS were not reached. The statistical difference was P = 0.016 in terms of CR and P < 0.001 in terms of DFS and OS. In the first phase of 394 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 71%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 37% and 62%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 32% and 53%. In the second phase of 164 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 84%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 66% and 80%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 60% and 75%. In the third phase of 114 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 88% and DFS and OS at 5 years were 60% and 90%. The DFS and OS were not reached at 10 years. The differences among the 3 phases in CR, DFS and OS were highly significant (P < 0.001). PMID:15453925

  7. Simultaneous follow-up of mouse colon lesions by colonoscopy and endoluminal ultrasound biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Soletti, Rossana C; Alves, Kelly Z; de Britto, Marcelo AP; de Matos, Dyanna G; Soldan, Mônica; Borges, Helena L; Machado, João C

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential use of colonoscopy and endoluminal ultrasonic biomicroscopy (eUBM) to track the progression of mouse colonic lesions. METHODS: Ten mice were treated with a single azoxymethane intraperitoneal injection (week 1) followed by seven days of a dextran sulfate sodium treatment in their drinking water (week 2) to induce inflammation-associated colon tumors. eUBM was performed simultaneously with colonoscopy at weeks 13, 17-20 and 21. A 3.6-F diameter 40 MHz mini-probe catheter was used for eUBM imaging. The ultrasound mini-probe catheter was inserted into the accessory channel of a pediatric flexible bronchofiberscope, allowing simultaneous acquisition of colonoscopic and eUBM images. During image acquisition, the mice were anesthetized with isoflurane and kept in a supine position over a stainless steel heated surgical waterbed at 37?°C. Both eUBM and colonoscopic images were captured and stored when a lesion was detected by colonoscopy or when the eUBM image revealed a modified colon wall anatomy. During the procedure, the colon was irrigated with water that was injected through a flush port on the mini-probe catheter and that acted as the ultrasound coupling medium between the transducer and the colon wall. Once the acquisition of the last eUBM/colonoscopy section for each animal was completed, the colons were fixed, paraffin-embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Colon images acquired at the first time-point for each mouse were compared with subsequent eUBM/colonoscopic images of the same sites obtained in the following acquisitions to evaluate lesion progression. RESULTS: All 10 mice had eUBM and colonoscopic images acquired at week 13 (the first time-point). Two animals died immediately after the first imaging acquisition and, consequently, only 8 mice were subjected to the second eUBM/colonoscopy imaging acquisition (at the second time-point). Due to the advanced stage of colonic tumorigenesis, 5 animals died after the second time-point image acquisition, and thus, only three were subjected to the third eUBM/colonoscopy imaging acquisition (the third time-point). eUBM was able to detect the four layers in healthy segments of colon: the mucosa (the first hyperechoic layer moving away from the mini-probe axis), followed by the muscularis mucosae (hypoechoic), the submucosa (the second hyperechoic layer) and the muscularis externa (the second hypoechoic layer). Hypoechoic regions between the mucosa and the muscularis externa layers represented lymphoid infiltrates, as confirmed by the corresponding histological images. Pedunculated tumors were represented by hyperechoic masses in the mucosa layer. Among the lesions that decreased in size between the first and third time-points, one of the lesions changed from a mucosal hyperplasia with ulceration at the top to a mucosal hyperplasia with lymphoid infiltrate and, finally, to small signs of mucosal hyperplasia and lymphoid infiltrate. In this case, while lesion regression and modification were observable in the eUBM images, colonoscopy was only able to detect the lesion at the first and second time-points, without the capacity to demonstrate the presence of lymphoid infiltrate. Regarding the lesions that increased in size, one of them started as a small elevation in the mucosa layer and progressed to a pedunculated tumor. In this case, while eUBM imaging revealed the lesion at the first time-point, colonoscopy was only able to detect it at the second time-point. All colonic lesions (tumors, lymphoid infiltrate and mucosal thickening) were identified by eUBM, while colonoscopy identified just 76% of them. Colonoscopy identified all of the colonic tumors but failed to diagnose lymphoid infiltrates and increased mucosal thickness and failed to differentiate lymphoid infiltrates from small adenomas. During the observation period, most of the lesions (approximately 67%) increased in size, approximately 14% remained unchanged, and 19% regressed. CONCLUSION: Combining eUBM with colonoscopy improves the diagnosis and the follow-up

  8. Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to document the types of diseases treated by the use of medicinal plants, their main applications and also to have a report of the major diseases treated at the Hospital of San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca Bolivia). Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on the use medicinal plants with 10 local informants, and categorized the kinds of diseases treated by traditional medicine. We obtained reports of cases treated at the Hospital of Huacareta in order to compare the use frequency of traditional medicine and allopathic medicine for the treatment of recurrent diseases in the area. Results Our survey identified 258 traditional medicine uses, spanning a total of 13 diseases categories and including 91 native and exotic plant species and one unidentified sample plant type. Gastrointestinal disorders (55%) were most frequently treated with medicinal plants, followed by afflictions of the musculoskeletal system (25%) and dermatological disorders (24%). Hospital information indicates that the most common diseases are acute respiratory infections (47%) and acute diarrheal diseases (37%). The herbal remedies were mostly used in the form of teas and decoctions. The informants used mainly native plant species, although exotic species has been introduced to the pharmacopoeia. Conclusions The treatment of gastrointestinal disorders is the primary objective of the medical ethnobotany of the inhabitants of Huacareta, while respiratory system diseases are mostly treated in the hospital. Looking at the data from the Hospital records we can infer that gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common diseases in the study area. For most respondents, traditional medicine is a reliable choice for the care of their illnesses. However, the preference of the population for either traditional medicine or allopathic medicine needs to be clarified in future comparative studies to obtain more convincing results. The results presented can be used as a base for subsequent work related to traditional medicine and its contribution to allopathic medicine in San Pablo de Huacareta. Resumen Introducción El objetivo del presente estudio fue documentar los tipos de enfermedades tratadas mediante el uso de plantas medicinales, sus aplicaciones principales y también tener un reporte de las enfermedades mayormente atendidas en el Hospital de San Pablo de Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). Métodos Se realizaron encuestas semiestructuradas a 10 informantes locales anotando los usos atribuidos a sus plantas medicinales, se agruparon las plantas por categorías de enfermedades tratadas en la medicina tradicional. Se obtuvieron reportes de casos tratados en el Hospital de Huacareta para poder relacionar el tratamiento de enfermedades recurrentes en la zona entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina occidental. Resultados Se reportaron 91 especies nativas y exóticas, además de un espécimen indeterminado exótico que intervienen en un total de 258 aplicaciones medicinales, las cuales son empleadas en un total de 13 categorías de enfermedades. Los desórdenes gastrointestinales (55%) son mayormente tratados mediante plantas medicinales, seguidas de las afecciones al sistema esqueleto-muscular (25%) y enfermedades dermatológicas (24%). La información del Hospital indica que las enfermedades más frecuentes son Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (47%) y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas (37%). Los remedios vegetales se emplean en forma de infusiones y cocciones principalmente. Se emplean mayormente plantas nativas, también se introdujo en la farmacopea médica el uso de plantas exóticas al lugar. Conclusiones El tratamiento de trastornos gastrointestinales constituye el objetivo primordial de la etnobotánica médica de los habitantes de Huacareta, las enfermedades del sistema respiratorio, son mayormente tratadas en el Hospital. Observando los datos del libro de consultas del Hospital, se puede inferir que los desórdenes gastrointestinales están entre las enfermedades más frecuentes en el área estudiada. Para la mayoría de los entrevistados, la medicina tradicional es una opción confiable para la atención de sus enfermedades. Sin embargo, la preferencia de los habitantes entre la medicina tradicional y la medicina alopática podría ser clarificada a partir de futuros estudios comparativos que permitan obtener resultados más convincentes. Los resultados expuestos pueden ser usados como una base de datos para posteriores trabajos relacionados a la medicina tradicional y su contribución con la medicina alopática en San Pablo de Huacareta. PMID:22856877

  9. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

  10. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em vários aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-anãs.

  11. Application of the groundwater-balance equation to indicate interbasin and vertical flow in two semi-arid drainage basins, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.

    2000-09-01

    An analysis of horizontal inflow and outflow in the groundwater-budget equation and the significance for interbasin flow are presented. Two field cases in Mexico, one in the Baja California peninsula and another in central Mexico, highlight the influence of interbasin flow. A significant proportion (approximately 70%) of the ed (thermal) groundwater probably originates outside the drainage basin. A conclusion is that a groundwater-balance study is an unsatisfactory method for determining some parameters, such as storativity (S). Specifically, the groundwater-balance approach provides unreliable results when vertical inflow is ignored or cannot be adequately defined. Vertical flow is indicated by the presence of groundwater temperatures as much as 23 °C higher than ambient temperature. Regional faults could be the pathways for upward flow. When vertical inflow is ignored, uncertainty in the estimation of the storativity through regional groundwater-balance calculation results. On the basis of the groundwater-balance equation, a value of S=0.19 appears to represent the confined condition of the developed part of the aquifer; this result is several orders of magnitude higher than would be reasonable according to the geological conditions. Findings are useful in evaluating whether a groundwater resource is being "overexploited". Conclusions are instructive in the application of transient-flow computer models, in which vertical flow of less dense water from beneath is not included. Résumé. L'article présente une analyse des entrées et des sorties horizontales dans l'équation du bilan d'une nappe et leur signification dans les écoulements entre bassins. Deux exemples provenant du Mexique, l'un dans la péninsule de Basse Californie, l'autre dans le centre du Mexique, mettent en lumière l'influence de l'écoulement entre bassins, où une proportion significative (environ 70%) de l'eau souterraine extraite, thermale, a probablement son origine hors du bassin. Une conclusion est qu'une étude par bilan de la nappe est une méthode qui n'est pas satisfaisante pour déterminer certains paramètres comme le coefficient d'emmagasinement. En particulier, l'approche par le bilan de la nappe donne des résultats qui ne sont pas fiables lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale ou que l'on ne peut pas la définir correctement. L'existence d'une drainance verticale est prouvée par des températures de l'eau souterraine pouvant être supérieures de 23 °C à la température ambiante. Des failles régionales peuvent permettre ces écoulements vers le haut. Lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale, on introduit une incertitude sur l'estimation de l'emmagasinement à partir des calculs du bilan régional de la nappe. Sur la base de l'équation du bilan de la nappe, une valeur de S=0,19 semble représenter les conditions captives de la partie développée de l'aquifère ce résultat est plus élevé, de plusieurs ordres de grandeur, que celui que l'on peut raisonnablement attendre des conditions géologiques. Ces résultats sont utiles pour évaluer si une ressource en eau souterraine est "surexploitée". Ces conclusions sont intéressantes lorsque l'on applique des modèles d'écoulement transitoire dans lesquels on ne prend pas en compte la drainance verticale d'une eau plus légère remontant. Resumen. En este trabajo, se investigan las entradas y salidas de flujo horizontal en la ecuación de balance de agua subterránea, así como el papel que desempeñan en el flujo entre cuencas. Se analizan dos ejemplos de México, uno en la Península de Baja California y otro en la parte central del país. En ambos, destaca la influencia del flujo entre cuencas, ya que se estima que una parte importante (aproximadamente el 70%) del agua termal extraída procede de una cuenca superficial externa. Se concluye que el método basado en cálculos de balance de agua subterránea no es satisfactorio para determinar algunos parámetros, como, por ejemplo, el coeficiente de almacenamiento (S). En particular, la ecuación de balance de agua subterránea proporciona resultados poco fiables cuando el flujo vertical es ignorado o no puede ser evaluado de forma adecuada. El flujo vertical se identifica por un incremento de temperatura del agua subterránea, que puede llegar a superar la temperatura ambiental en hasta 23 °C. La presencia de fallas regionales y las extracciones pueden favorecer el flujo vertical. Cuando éste es ignorado, aumenta la incertidumbre en la estimación del coeficiente de almacenamiento mediante un balance de agua subterránea. El valor obtenido con este médodo (S=0,19) es característico de acuíferos libres, pero resulta varios órdenes de magnitud mayor que el que sería esperable teniendo en cuenta las condiciones hidrogeológicas. Estos hallazgos son útiles para evaluar si los recursos de agua subterránea están siendo "sobreexplotados". Las conclusiones obtenidas son instructivas de cara a la aplicación de modelos numéricos de flujo transitorio que no consideran el flujo vertical por densidad.

  12. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

  13. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Background: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. Objective: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between D-dimer and serum potassium in acute-onset AF (AAF). Methods: To investigate the potential correlation between the values of serum potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of all emergency department visits for AAF in 2013. Results: Among 271 consecutive AAF patients with D-dimer assessments, those with hypokalemia (n = 98) had significantly higher D-dimer values than normokalemic patients (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0.004). The rate of patients with D-dimer values exceeding the diagnostic cut-off was higher in the group of patients with hypokalemia than in those with normal serum potassium (26.5% versus 16.2%; p = 0.029). An inverse and highly significant correlation was found between serum potassium and D-dimer (r = -0.21; p < 0.001), even after adjustments for age and sex (beta coefficient -94.8; p = 0.001). The relative risk for a positive D-dimer value attributed to hypokalemia was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.63; p = 0.040). The correlation remained statistically significant in patients free from antihypertensive drugs (r = -0.25; p = 0.018), but not in those taking angiotensin-receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or diuretics. Conclusions: The inverse correlation between values of potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF provides important and complementary information about the thromboembolic risk of these patients.Fundamento: Valores de D-dímero são frequentemente aumentada em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) em comparação com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipocalemia desempenha um papel em várias doenças cardiovasculares, mas pouco se sabe sobre a associação com FA. Objetivo: As concentrações de D-dímero encontram-se frequentemente aumentadas em pacientes com FA, quando comparados com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipopotassemia desempenha um papel importante nas doenças cardiovasculares, porém, pouco é conhecido sobre sua associação com a FA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a correlação entre os níveis séricos de D-dímero e potássio na FA aguda (FAA). Métodos: Para investigar a existência de uma potencial correlação entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA, realizamos uma revisão retrospectiva de dados clínicos e laboratoriais relacionados a todas as visitas ao departamento de emergência devido à FAA, no ano de 2013. Resultados: Entre os 271 pacientes com FAA, aqueles com hipopotassemia (n = 98) mostraram aumento significativo nos níveis de D-dímero, quando comparados com pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0,004). A taxa de pacientes com níveis de D-dímero excedendo o valor limiar de diagnóstico foi maior no grupo de pacientes com hipopotassemia, quando comparado com o grupo de pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (26,5% versus 16,2%; p = 0,029). Detectamos uma correlação inversa e altamente significativa entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero (r = -0,21; p < 0,001), até mesmo após ajuste para idade e sexo (coeficiente beta -94,8; p = 0,001). O risco relativo de um valor positivo de D-dímero estar relacionado à hipopotassemia foi de 1,64 (95% CI, 1,02 to 2,63; p = 0,040). A correlação permaneceu estatisticamente significativa em pacientes livres de medicamentos hipertensivos (r = -0,25; p = 0,018), porém não nos pacientes em tratamento com bloqueadores do receptor de angiotensina, inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina e diuréticos. Conclusões: A correlação inversa existente entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA fornece informações importantes sobre o risco de tromboembolismo nestes pacientes. PMID:25494015

  14. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a cultura da batata podem ser de ordem agronómica, economica e comercial. Como exemplos destes podem ser citados: o uso racional de matérias orgânicos, esterco de curral e inorgânico fertilizantes. Efeito de materias orgnicânicos e N, P, K elementos minerais para produção da batata As necessidades em N, P, e K elementos minerais da batata são superidas pela aplicação apropriada de matérias orgânicos, esterco de currals, fertilizantes ao solo, combinada com a ambiente (Márton 2001a., 2001b.), época adequada e posição ideal de aplicá- lo. Efeito da materias orgânicos O suprimento de N á batateira provém principalmente da matéria orgânica do solo e do fertilizante aplicado (László 2000a., Márton et all. 2000.). Embora não seja muito praticado no Brasíl, a incorporação de esterco ao solo é fator de aumento da produção de tuberculos. Este resultado favorável poderia ser atribuído ao melhoramento da estrutura do solo, á maior retenção de água pelo e mesmo favorecendo o melhor desenvolvimento do sistema radicular da planta. A batata pode ser cultivada em todo tipo de solo desde que tenha boa drenagem e seja bem estruturado. Isto é tem que ser bem aerado e permitir o bom desenvolvimento dos órgãos subterráneos da batateira. Sem de matéria orgânicos e esterco de curral a tendencia de determinados solos formar crosta, oferecendo uma alta resisténcia mecánica á emergéncia das plantas, pode ser um determinante de stands desuniformes. A cause primaria da formação de crostas é a destruição dos agregados do solo pela excessiva manipulação mecánica resultando em aeração reduzida e aumento da densidade e coesão das particulas do solo. O encrostamento do solo pode ser reduzido através com matérias orgânicos. De maneira geral, a produção de tuberculos em solo de baixa potencialidade (aqueles em que a penetração das raizes é dificultada pela compactação, textura argilosa ou com camadas no solo) será menor do que nagueles com alta potencialidade (boa textura e adequada retenção de agua). Efeito do nitrogênio No Brazíl em todas regiões onde se cultiva batata é raro encontrar solos com elevado teor de nitrogênio e que não precisam de quantidades desta elemento. É o elemento que governa o padrão de desenvolvimento da planta, estimulando principalmente o crescimento da parte aérea (Kádár et all. 2000., László 2000.). Para se obter rendimento de tubérculos é necessário um rápido e curto periodo de desenvolvimento da parte aérea e uma fase de acúmulo maior possível. Para tanto, devem ser evitadas doses muito altas de nitrogênio e, principalmente, se aplicadas tardiamente, pois haverá demasiado desenvolvimento de folhas que demorarão mais a finalizar seu crescimento e maturação. Isto implicará na redução do periodo de intenso desenvolvimento dos tubérculos e armazenagem do amido, resultando em menor produção. Há risco para a saúde na ingestão de alimentos com altos teores de nitrato e nitrito, havendo preocupação com o efeito de doses mais altas de nitrogênio sobre os teores dos mesmos nos tuberculos. Embora haja diferenças entre cultivares, localidades e períodos de armazenamento, há estudos mostrando que a fertilização com até 150 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio não foi suficiente para propiciar niveis preocupantes de nitrato nos tuberculos colhidos. Efeito do fósforo A grande maioria dos solos brasileiros cultivados com batata apresentam limitações ao bom desenvolvimento e produção da cultura em função dos baixos níveis de fósforo. Isto significa que aumentos de produção quase sempre ocorrem quando o solo recebe adubação fosfatada (László 2001a.). Estes aumentos são mais marcantes em solos nunca antes adubados ou com baixo teor de fósforo. Nestes, dificilmente alcanca- se a produção máxima com níveis reduzidos de fósforo. Não seria exagerado supor níveis de 600 a 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5, como sendo aqueles que iriam proporcionar produção máximas, principalmente em solos mais ácidos e pobres em matéria orgânico. A adubação fosfatada é muito importante no crescimento inicial da planta e, além de aumentar a produção de tuberculos em peso e números, aumenta também a quantidade e qualidade do amido neles contidos e reduz perdas durante o armazenamento dos mesmos. A quantidade de fósforo a aplicar dependerá da análise do solo considerando- se principalmente o nível de P existente e a textura do solo. Solos de textura média e arenosa necessitam maior conteúdo de fósforo do que os de textura argilosa para serem considerandos solos de baixo, médio ou alto teor de fósfato. Efeito da potássica Embora seja o elemento mais absorbido pela batateira, nem sempre há resposta positiva da aduba potássica sobre o rendimento da cultura. Provavelmente isto esteja relacionado com níveis elevados deste elemento no solo (Kurnik et all. 2001.). Entretanto, em solos com médios e baixos teores de potássio, aumentos significativos são conseguidos. Por isto, as recomendações de adubação com potássio, nas diversas regiões do mundo, variam de 50-300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Resultados de trabalhos em brasiléiros têm demonstrado que a aduba potássica pode ser substituída pela aplicação de 150 m3 ha-1 de vinhaça de cana de açúcar. Ao elevar- se a dose de fertilização potássica deverá haver precaução para que a adubação magnesiana seja suficiente. O K além de aumentar a produção, em solos deficientes, aumenta também o tamanho dos tubérculos produzidos, e a proporção de tubérculos grandes. Deficiência no suprimento de potássio á planta pode acarretar produção de tubérculos com elevada susceptibilidade aos danos mecánicos pós-colheita. Os tubérculos injuriados enegrecem facilmente e este enegrecimento é inversamente proporcional á quantidade de potássio nos tuberculos. Ademais, quando fritos dão origem a um produto escuro, de baixa valor comercial. Manejo de adubação Diversos fatores como potencial de produção do solo, modo de aplicação do fertilizante dentre outro fatores afetam a resposta da batateira á aplicação de fertilizantes (Refschneider 1987.). Depreende- se pois que no estabelecimento de um nivel ideal de fertilização as variáveis planta, solo e condições climaticas devem ser visualizadas como um sistema pouco provável de ser homogeneo mesmo em nivel de fazenda. Como tal, generalizações a respeito de doses ou niveis de fertlização são difíceis de serem feitas, recomendações exigem julgamento hábil por parte do fazendeiro ou do tecnico responsavel pela cultura (Márton 2001a., 2001b.). Este julgamento será mais preciso conhecendo- se pontos que serão rápidamente discutidos a seguir. A taxa de absorção de nutrientes é governada pela concentração externa ou suprimento de nutrientes pelo solo e a demanda do nutriente criada pelo desenvolvimento e funcinamento normal dos diversos órgãos das plantas. O nivel de nutrientes na solução do solo deve ser suficiamente alto para que suas taxas de absorção não sejam limitantes ao crescimento. Por outro lado, não deve ser demasiado para causar excessiva absorção de outros nutrientes. Forte associação existe entre a absorção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da planta. De maneira geral, a fase de rapido desenvolvimento da cultura é acompanhada por um grande aumento na absorção de nutrientes com a taxa de absorção declinado quando a taxa de crescimento diminuiu. Normalmente todos os fertilizantes potássicos e fosfatados são adicionados ao solo na época do plantio. O nitrogênio normalmente é parcelado. Cerca de 2 por 3 do nível recomendado é colocado no sulco de plantio e o restante adicionado por ocasião da amontoa. É uma prática tradicinal e com pouco suporte experimental no condiõces brasileiras. Espera -se que a aplicação parcelada do nitrogênio e mesmo do potássio possem ser benéficas quando houver chuva excessiva ou irrigações mal executadas principalmente em solos mais arenosos onde poderá ocorrer a lixiviacão dos mesmos (Márton 2001a., 2001b.). O parcelamento poderá também ser benéfico quando elevados níveis de fertilizantes porém recomendandos e a aplicação por feita nos sulcos de plantio, pois evitar-se ia assim, elevada concentração salina em torno dos tubérculos plantados, embora a aplicação á lanco, em toda área, possa ser opção vantajosa. Quantidades corretas de fertilizantes, posição ideal e época certa de aplicação, combinadas adequadamente, definem o programa de adubação da batata. Esse programa é variável de acordo com o solo, a batata e condisões ambientais (Márton 2001a.). A dose de um elemento a ser aplicada em batata, é função da quantidade desse elemento suprida pelo solo e da percentagem de recuperação do elemento adicionado ao solo como fertilizante. Resultados experimentais comparando a aplicação de fertilizante á lanco ou localizado mostram respostas variadas sobre a produção. E possivel encontrar resultados iguais em ambos os métodos, de supremacia da aplicação á lanco ou da aplicação localizada (Kurnik et all. 2001.). Parece que baixas quantidades de fertilizantes são mais eficiemente utilizadas quando aplicação nos sulcos de plantios. Entretanto o potancial de produção pode ser aumentando com alta ou mesmo moderada quantidade de fertilizantes aplicados á lanço. A recomendação geral de colocar o adubo no sulco de plantio da batata merece ser questionada. É uma recomendação válida ao entender- se que a batata responde bastante á aplicação de fósforo, que os solos brasileiros tem alta capacidade de absorção de fósforo e que haverá maior proliferação de raízes na área fertilizada. Uma indagação aparece: um solo com baxa disponibilidade de fósforo fora da zona fertilizada permitiria o desenvolvimento ótimo da planta. Algumas evidéncias mostram, para outras espécies, que grande parte do sistema radicular, deve estar exposta ao fósforo para suprir as necessidades das plantas. Ademais, há um determinado valor de concentração de fósforo, na solução do solo, acima da qual a taxa de absorção não é aumentada. Essas considerações suscitam a possibilidade de questionar se a aplicação de fósforo em sulcos seria a forma mais eficiente de usá-lo quando se pretende alcancar elevadas produções. Deve-se lembrar entretanto, que solos tropicais, ainda com baixos teores fósforo e alta capacidade de adsorção, seria necessária dose muito elevada de P, quando aplicada á lanço, em todo o terreno. Se a aplicação localizada do fósforo pode, em parte, ser explicada, a do nitrogênio e potássio não são facilmente justificadas sob o aspecto de eficiéncia de utilização. Pelo contrário, ela pode ser questionada, principalmente pelas suas caracteristicas de difusão, pelo efeito que altas concentração de amónio e cloreto podem ter sobre a pressão osmotica da solução do solo junto aos tubérculos plantados, pelo efeito negativo do cloreto sobre a absorção de fósforo e também sobre a capacidade produtiva das plantas. Portanto, existe a possibilidade de ocorrer toxidez de amónio e de cloreto ao se aplicar doses altas dos fertilizantes nos sulcos de plantios. Isto pode determinar uma menor eficiéncia no uso dos fertilizantes. Materiais e Metodos: Nos desenvolverémos os três experimentos (i.e.: 1., 2., 3.) para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação com diferentes doságens do latossolo vermelho novo, do esterco de curral e do adubo fórmula 4N:14P:8K no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, da Brazília-DF no 1990. Caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo em faixa arado (dados estimados), e conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do esterco de curral e palha de arroz queimado (dados estimados): a., caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo latossolo vermelho (solo novo: nunca foi usado para produção da batata semente): CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1 com abastecer fraco destes elementos, b., conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do esterco de curral (qualidade médio): N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do palha de arroz queimado (palha de arroz foi queimado em um especial forno): N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. Nestas provas usarémos para controle a *mistura padrão. O este tratamento é a composição usual neste programa i.e.: 150 l de solo novo, 50 l de palha de arroz queimado, 50 l de esterco de curral, 350 gramas de cal e 300 gramas de adubo da fórmula 4N:14P:8K. Experimento 1. Efeito de diferentes misturas para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O experimento foi instalado considerando-se sete misturas de substrato (latossolo vermelho novo, esterco de curral, palha de arroz queimado) em 3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto com cinco repetições, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, na mésas experimentais em caso de vegetação. A cultivar foi a Achat, com plãntulas provenientes de cultura de tecidos. A data de plantio foi 18.04.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 "in vitro" plantulas com raiz embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado com ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 22 0C e humidade médio foi 68% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 04.07.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA. As misturas do substrato utilizadas foram como a seguir no Tabela 1. Experimento 2. Efeito de adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O experimento foi instalado considerando-se 9 dosagens de adubo da fórmula 4N:14P:8K com latossolo vermelho novo em 3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto com cinco repetições, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso na mésas experimentais em casa de vegetação. O adubo foi posicionando no solo de 4 cm abaixo de superficie do solo. A cultivar foi a Achat, com plãntulas provenientes de cultura de tecidos. A data de plantio foi 18.04.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 "in vitro" plantulas com raiz embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado com ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 22 0C e humidade médio foi 68% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 04.07.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA. As doságens de adubo foram como a seguir no Tabela 2. Experimento 3. Efeito de latossolo vermelho novo, palha de arroz queimado e adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Para pesquisar estes efeitos o experimento tipo de (2 x 6) foi instalado considerando-se as combinações entre duas misturas (i.e.: 1., 2.) e seis doságens de adubo complexo 4N:14P:8K, com três repetições, no delineamento experimental de bloco ao acaso, sendo 1 vaso (3000 cm3 volume de capacidade de vasos preto) por parcela na mésas experimentais em casa de vegetação. O adubo foi posicionando no solo de 4 cm abaixo de superficie do solo. A cultivar utilizada foi Baraka e o tamanho de tuberculos foi com 0-20 mm. A data de plantio foi 25.09.1990. Plantarémos em cada vaso 3-3 tuberculos com embaixo de 4cm de superficie da mistura no vasos. Irrigarémos com 12 mm quantidade da augua 2 vezes por semana. Para produção aplicarémos sistema de proteção de plantas como usados no Brasíl. Ambiente foi controlado ventilação automatizado. Temperatura médio foi 21 0C é humidade médio foi 66% durante de experimento. A data de colheta foi 14.12.1990. As pesagens foram feitos como peso fresco e matéria seca. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, MANOVA. Os manejos foram como a seguir no Tabela 3. Resultados e Discuscáo Experimento 1. Efeito de diferentes misturas para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação O tratamento 3. i.e.: mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm (tamanho de comercial), peso de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. Porém, não houve diferencas significativas para o numero tuberculos comerciais, i.e.: com 0-20 mm, para os tratamentos 2., 3., 4., e 5. Portanto, a mistura poderá ter uma composição entre 60 a 90% de latossolo vermelho novo, 6 a 24% de palha de arroz queimado e de 4 a 16% de esterco de curral. Não houve diferenca significativa entre a mistura padrão utilizada e as misturas incluidas nos extremos indicados anteriormente. Porém, a mistura padrão recebeu adubação quimica de 4N:14P:8K (3.6 grama vaso-1) e calcário na dosagem de 4.2 grama vaso-1, o que não aconteceu com as parcelas das misturas em analise. Experimento 2. Efeito de adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Há um efeito crescente das dóses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. Porém, a maior dóse não chegou a ultrapassar a mistura padrão. Experimento 3. Efeito de latossolo vermelho novo, palha de arroz queimado e adubo 4N:14P:8K para produção da batata semente pré- básica em casa de vegetação Efeitos de misturas As duas misturas (i.e.: 1 e 2) deram resultados significativos mais alto que a mistura padrão, em média 54 %. Entre as misturas 1 e 2, foi melhor a 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a mistura 1. (70% latossolo vermelho novo, 20% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Em caso de número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com a mistura 2. foi possivel aumentar geralmente os números de tuberculos em 77% que a mistura padrão. Efeitos de adubação 1. Área da folhas por planta entre manejo foi melhor de modo significativo a doságem de 3.6 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo (3103 cm2 plantas-1). 2. Peso fresco da folhas e de hastes por plantas as tendencias foram parecidos com o da área de folhas. 3. Peso fresco de raizis por planta até 7.2 grama vaso-1 diminuiu depois aumentou. 4. Peso fresco total de tuberculos por planta as crescentes doságens de um modo forte diminuiram a produção de tuberculos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 em 160% em os dois caso da mistura. 5. Peso de fitomassa fresco por planta foi melhor a 3.6 g vaso-1 (239 grama planta-1 em médio da dois mistura), depois os dados diminuirám. 6. Produção de biomassa fresco por planta a maxima produção (188 grama planta-1) foi obtida com 3.6 grama vaso-1. Deste ponto de modo forte caiu a produção. 7. Peso da matéria seca de folhas, hastes e raizis por planta somente em caso de mistura padrão o resultado foi significativo em relação aos outros tratamentos. 8. Péso da matéria seca de tuberculos total por planta modo significativo diminuiu a produção (0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 = 360%) em médio da duas misturas. 9. Biomassa produção de materia seca por planta modo significativo diminuiu para efeito de alta dosagens de adubo complexo (0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 = 158%) em médio da duas misturas. 10. Peso fresco de tuberculos com 0-20 mm as crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção em 213% em médio da duas misturas. 11. Peso fresco de tuberculos com 20 mm-1 as crescentes dosagens de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 diminuiram a produção assima de 250% em médio da duas misturas. 12. Numero de tuberculos 0-20 mm e 20 mm- por planta com os manejos de 0 e 18.0 grama vaso-1 foi possível aumentar em media 200% sobre a mistura padrão. Os manejo de 18.0 grama de adubo vaso-1 já causaram importante diminuição em relação caso a absoluto controle. 13. Numero total de tuberculos por planta entre manejos foi melhor a dosagem de 7.2 grama vaso-1 adubo complexo 4N:14P:8K comparando da mistura padrão. Nos verificamos-se que a mistura padrão sempre deu menor rasultados do que as outras misturas (i.e.: 1 e 2). Entre as misturas 1 e 2 a melhor foi a número 2. (80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral). Com esta mistura e com relação a mistura padrão, foi possível aumentar o número de tuberculos 0-20 mm com 77%. No caso do adubação, verificamos que grande quantidades de adubo acima de 7.2 grama vaso-1, de modo rigoroso diminuiu a produção de batata-semente pré- básica. Este fato deve ser considerado para a eleição das dosagens de adubos. Deve-se indicar o caso de número de tuberculos acima 20 mm-, onde em relação mistura padrão foi possivel aumentar em média 73% os resultados. Reconhecimento: Esta pesquisa foi apoio da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, Brasília-DF e Centro Pesquisa de Solo e Agroquímica do Academia Húngara de Ciências, Budapest References Kádár I-Márton L.-Horváth S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. Kurnik E.-Németh T.-Márton L.-Radimszki L. 2001. Effects of a new environment friendly deep fertilization system on a limy chernozem soil parameters. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press László M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László M. 2001b. Year and fertilization effect analysis in long field term experiments. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László M.-Imre K.-Jose E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99-106. László M.-Silva J.C.-Jose A.B. 2000b. Ecological friendly dragée technics on different crops and vegetables seeds. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 107-111. László M.-Silva J.B.C.-Jose A.B. 2000c. Ecological friendly dragée technics to sustainable precision agriculture. Fertilization in the Third Millenium. CASISCF. Beijing Márton L. 2000a. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Dissertation. University of Veszprém, Keszthely Márton L. 2000b. Effects of NPK fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield. Doctoral Ph.D Thesis. University of Veszprém, Keszthely Márton L. 2001a. Climete change effets on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield. Agrochemistry and Soil Science. Budapest. In press Márton L. 2001b. Climate change and fertilization effect analysis at the Tisza- river basin on rye yield. SZINET. University of Szent István. Gödöllő Márton L.-Kádár I.-Estáquio M.J. 2000. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH on soil fertility and soil conservation. ESSC. Man and Soil at the Third Millennium. Abstract Book. 195. Valencia Reifschneider F.J.B. 1987. Produção de batata. Linha Gráfica e Editora. Brasília. p. 239. Tabela 1. Tratamentos do experimento 1. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------------------ Numero de Composição em % Tratamento Solo novo Palha de arroz queimado Esterco de curral ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. 100 0 0 2. 90 6 4 3. 80 10 10 4. 70 18 12 5. 60 24 16 6. 50 30 20 7. 40 36 24 ----------------------------------------------------------------- Tabela 2. Tratamentos do experimento 2. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------- Numero de Adubo 4:14:8 N P2O5 K2O Tratamento Grama vaso-1 ------------------------------------------------------- 1. 0.0 0.000 0.000 0.000 2. 1.8 0.072 0.252 0.144 3. 3.6 0.144 0.504 0.288 4. 5.4 0.216 0.756 0.432 5. 7.2 0.288 1.008 0.576 6. 9.0 0.360 1.260 0.720 7. 10.8 0.432 1.512 0.864 8. 12.6 0.504 1.764 1.008 9. 14.4 0.576 2.016 1.152 ------------------------------------------------------- Tabela 3. Tratamentos do experimento 3. (Brasília-DF, 1990) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Num. de Mistura % Trat. Solo novo Palea de arr. Q Esterco de curral 4N:14P:8K g vaso-1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1. 70 20 10 0.0 2 70 20 10 3.6 3. 70 20 10 7.2 4. 70 20 10 10.8 5. 70 20 10 14.4 6. 70 20 10 18.0 7. 80 10 10 0.0 8. 80 10 10 3.6 9. 80 10 10 7.2 10. 80 10 10 10.8 11. 80 10 10 14.4 12. 80 10 10 18.0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------