Sample records for otite externa aguda

  1. Otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Wipperman, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Acute otitis externa (AOE) is most often infectious in origin, and can be easily treated with a combination of topical antibiotic and steroid preparations. Systemic antibiotics are rarely needed for AOE. Chronic otitis externa (COE) can be more difficult to treat, but if an underlying cause can be identified this condition can often be successfully managed. In both AOE and COE, prevention is fundamental. If patients are able to avoid precipitating factors, future episodes can often be averted. PMID:24439876

  2. Les antihistaminiques pour les enfants souffrant d’otite moyenne

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question L’otite moyenne est un problème très fréquent en pédiatrie et peut causer bien du stress à l’enfant et à ses parents. Les antihistaminiques et les décongestionnants ont-ils un rôle à jouer dans la prise en charge de l’otite moyenne aiguë ou de l’otite moyenne avec épanchement chez les enfants? Réponse Traditionnellement, les antihistaminiques et les décongestionnants ont été utilisés pour traiter l’otite moyenne; par ailleurs, de récentes lignes directrices, fondées sur des études dans lesquelles on a constaté des résultats négatifs, recommandent de ne pas les utiliser systématiquement. Aucune combinaison d’antihistaminique et de décongestionnant n’a été éprouvée comme ayant des bienfaits cliniquement significatifs, sans compter qu’il faut prendre en considération les effets indésirables possibles.

  3. Microbiology of otitis externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM B. CLARK; ITZHAK BROOK; DAVID BIANKI; DAVID H. THOMPSON

    1997-01-01

    Microbiologic and clinical data from 26 patients with otitis externa were prospectively evaluated. Specimens were processed for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial growth was noted in 23 specimens. A total of 33 aerobic and 2 anaerobic bacteria were recovered. Aerobic bacteria only were isolated in 21 (91%) patients, anaerobic bacteria only in 1 (4%), and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

  4. Complicated necrotizing otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Nawas, Mariam T; Daruwalla, Vistasp J; Spirer, David; Micco, Alan G; Nemeth, Alexander J

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing (malignant) otitis externa (NOE) is a rare and invasive infection originating in the external acoustic meatus seen most commonly in diabetes and other immunocompromised states. After a protracted course, disease can smolder and extend into the mastoid, skull base, dural sinuses, and intracranially. We present a case of NOE complicated by mastoiditis, dural sinus thrombosis, and Bezold's abscess in an uncontrolled diabetic presenting with a prolonged course of facial nerve palsy. We stress the importance of maintaining a high index of clinical suspicion for NOE in diabetic patients and offering timely, aggressive treatment to mitigate its complications. PMID:23927998

  5. Aspects epidemiologiques, cliniques et therapeutiques des otites externes: à propos de 801 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bathokedeou, Amana; Essobozou, Pegbessou; Akouda, Patassi; Essohanam, Boko; Eyawelohn, Kpémissi

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail etait de déterminer l’épidémiologie, la clinique et la thérapeutique des otites externes (OE). Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective d'une année menée du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2006 dans le service ORL du CHU-Tokoin. Huit cent un cas d'otite externe (OE) soit 11,9% des consultations étaient recensés. Le sexe féminin représentait 476 cas (59,42%). Le sex ratio était de 0,68. L’âge moyen des patients était de 25,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 05 mois et 81 ans. La tranche d’âge de 0-15 ans était la plus fréquente avec 360 cas (45%). L'allergie dans 74 cas (60,66%), la lésion de grattage dans 24 cas (19,67%), les corps étrangers du conduit auditif externe dans 18 cas (14,75%) et la natation dans 6 cas (4,92%) étaient les facteurs favorisants. L'otalgie dans 638 cas (79,65%) était le symptôme le plus fréquent. Les différentes formes cliniques des otites externes se répartissaient comme suit: otite externe diffuse dans 612 cas (76,40%), furoncle du CAE 126 dans cas (15,73%), otomycose dans 58 cas (7,24%), zona du conduit auditif externe dans 3 cas (0,37%) et otite externe nécrosante dans 2 cas (0,25%). Les gouttes auriculaires étaient administrées à tous les patients. L’évolution avait noté 799 patients (99,75%) guéris sans complication, un cas de décès et un cas de guérison avec séquelle. Traitée correctement, l'otite externe guérit sans complication. Son éviction passe par une sensibilisation des populations sur l'entretien du conduit auditif externe. PMID:25379111

  6. Water related otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Kujundzi?, Milodar; Braut, Tamara; Manestar, Dubravko; Cattunar, Albert; Malvi?, Goran; Vukeli?, Jelena; Puselja, Zeljko; Linsak, Dijana Tomi?

    2012-09-01

    Water influences skin inflammation of the external auditory canal. The common term for this illness is "swimmer's ear". Contributory factors are length of exposure to water, type of water and water pollution. The aim of the study was to compare risks for contracting the disease between patients with different exposure to swimming pool water. A retrospective case-control analysis of patients at the ENT-clinic was performed. Swimmers and water polo players swam in a swimming pool chlorinated by an automatic swimming pool cleaning system. Water sport players had a higher risk for ear skin inflammation than football players. Senior football players compared with players younger than 13 were not at increased risk. Swimmers and water polo players older than 13 were at higher risk. Swimmers were at higher risk than football players as well as water polo players. There was no difference for the risk of otitis externa between swimmers and water polo players. Swimmers and water polo players compared with other patients of the ENT-clinic were at higher risk than football players. Frequent and longer exposure to water has been proved to increase the risk of external auditory canal inflammation. PMID:23213950

  7. Malignant otitis externa with skull base osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Illing, E; Zolotar, M; Ross, E; Olaleye, O; Molony, N

    2011-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa associated with skull base osteomyelitis is a condition seen classically in the elderly, diabetic patient. This disease is difficult to manage, often requiring long-term antibiotic therapy. Here we present such a case, seen in a 74- year-old lady. Initially, she was treated for a number of years in the outpatient department with intermittent ear complaints, but eventually required a hospital admission that lasted for 6 months due to a severe malignant otitis externa complicated by skull base osteomyelitis. We will discuss the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, imaging and management of this life-threatening clinical entity. PMID:24950586

  8. Otitis Externa: Review and Clinical Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. DAVID OSGUTHORPE; DAVID R. NIELSEN

    Otitis externa can take an acute or a chronic form, with the acute form affecting four in 1,000 persons annually and the chronic form affecting 3 to 5 percent of the population. Acute disease commonly results from bacterial (90 percent of cases) or fungal (10 percent of cases) over- growth in an ear canal subjected to excess moisture or to

  9. Necrotizing otitis externa caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Soldati; A. Mudry; P. Monnier

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of malignant necrotizing otitis externa (MNOE) caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is usually a non-pathogenic microorganism. The patient is an otherwise healthy, nondiabetic 58-year-old white man.\\u000a Contributory history began in 1994 after surgery for bilateral exostoses of the external auditory canals. Between April 1994\\u000a and May 1998 persistent otalgia occurred, with progressive mixed hearing losses, purulent

  10. Ophthalmomyiasis Externa: Case Report of the Clinicopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Pather, Sugeshnee; Botha, Louis M; Hale, Martin J; Jena-Stuart, Shirely

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the infestation of the superficial external ocular structures by fly larvae. This is a particularly rare condition, which has nevertheless been reported in several countries worldwide. Presented herein are the clinicopathologic features of ophthalmomyiasis externa which occurred in an adult patient. The patient responded well to treatment following thorough ophthalmological examination and prompt diagnosis. PMID:24533424

  11. Mastoiditis mimicry: retro-auricular cellulitis related to otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Block, Stan L

    2014-09-01

    Retro-auricular cellulitis associated with otitis externa is now the great mimicker of mastoiditis. It may be the most common cause of this specific cellulitis/auricular protrusion when it is associated with otitis externa. This column presents six cases of children who presented with peri-auricular redness, four of whom had protuberant ear and retro-auricular cellulitis. PMID:25198440

  12. Otitis externa complicated with chloramphenicol ear drops-induced perichondritis.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, I; Johan, Kb; Hashim, Hz; Nik Othman, Na

    2014-01-01

    Otitis externa is a common condition of the ear. It is manifested as narrowing of the lumen owing to the edematous swelling of the ear canal lining. Perichondritis may occur independently or as a complication of the otitis externa. We report a case of perichondritis after using a topical ear drop. Changing the medication provides immediate resolution of the condition. PMID:25606295

  13. The joint in vitro action of polymyxin B and miconazole against pathogens associated with canine otitis externa from three European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Silvia; Meyer, Michael; Voget, Michael; Cieslicki, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine otitis externa, an inflammation of the external ear canal, can be maintained and worsened by bacterial or fungal infections. For topical treatment, combinations of anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial ingredients are mainly used. Hypothesis/Objectives This study was conducted to elucidate the in vitro activity of polymyxin B and miconazole against clinical bacterial isolates from three European countries, to investigate possible differences in sensitivity and to assess drug interactions. Animals Seventeen strains of Escherichia coli, 24 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 25 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with diagnosed otitis externa had been isolated in Germany, France and Italy. Methods Drug activities were evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration. The potentiation of polymyxin B plus miconazole was calculated using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). An FICI ?0.5 defined synergy. Furthermore, geographical variations in the FICI and MIC were assessed by statistical analysis. Results Bacterial susceptibilities were comparable in different European countries, because there were no significant MIC and FICI variations (P > 0.05). As a single agent, polymyxin B had bactericidal activity against most E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains and, in higher concentrations, against S. pseudintermedius strains. Miconazole was bactericidal against all Staphylococcus strains. Synergy was demonstrated against strains of E. coli and P. aeruginosa (FICI = 0.25 and 0.50, respectively), whereas overall there was no interaction against S. pseudintermedius strains (FICI = 1.25). Proteus mirabilis strains were not inhibited by each of the drugs individually or by their combination. Conclusions and clinical importance In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and miconazole against E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates indicates a rationale for applying both agents in combination to treat otitis externa when infected with these types of bacteria. Résumé Contexte L'otite externe canine, une inflammation du conduit auriculaire externe, peut être entretenue et aggravée par les infections bactériennes ou fongiques. Pour le traitement topique, les associations d'anti-inflammatoires et d'antimicrobiens sont principalement utilisées. Hypothèses/Objectifs Cette étude a été menée pour déterminer l'activité in vitro de la polymyxine B et du miconazole contre les souches bactériennes cliniques isolées dans trois pays européens, d'étudier les différences possibles de sensibilité et de déterminer les interactions médicamenteuses. Sujets Dix-sept souches d'Escherichia coli, 24 souches de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 24 souches de Proteus mirabilis et 25 souches de Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ont été isolées de chiens atteints d'otite externe en Allemagne, France et Italie. Résultats L'activité des molécules a été évaluée par la concentration minimale inhibitrice (CMI) et la concentration minimale bactéricide. La potentialisation de la polymyxine B et du miconazole a été calculée par l'indice de concentration inhibitrice fractionnaire (FICI). Un FICI ? 0.5 définissait la synergie. En outre, les variations géographiques dans le FICI et la CMI étaient évaluées par analyses statistiques. Résultats Les sensibilités bactériennes étaient comparables dans les différents pays européens parce qu'aucune différence significative n'a été mise en évidence entre les variations de CMI et de FICI (P > 0.05). La polymyxine B en tant que seul agent avait une activité bactéricide contre la plupart des souches de E. coli et P. aeruginosa, et, à plus forte concentration, contre

  14. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa. PMID:24226755

  15. Clinical practice guideline: acute otitis externa executive summary.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth R; Cannon, C Ron; Roland, Peter S; Simon, Geoffrey R; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Huang, William W; Haskell, Helen W; Robertson, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    The American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the updated Clinical Practice Guideline: Acute Otitis Externa, as a supplement to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 8 recommendations developed address appropriate diagnosis of acute otitis externa (AOE) and the use of oral and topical antimicrobials and highlight the need for adequate pain relief. An updated guideline is needed due to new clinical trials, new systematic reviews, and the lack of consumer participation in the initial guideline development group. PMID:24492208

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen as an adjuvant treatment for malignant otitis externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillips JS; Jones SEM

    Background: Malignant, or necrotising, otitis externa is a potentially fatal infection of the external ear canal and surrounding soft tissue and bone. It may be complicated by involvement of cranial nerves, principally the facial nerves and the contents of the jugular foramen. It is an uncommon condition mainly found in the elderly or in diabetics. Objective: To assess the effectiveness

  17. Cotton-tip applicators as a leading cause of otitis externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moshe Nussinovitch; Ayelet Rimon; Benjamin Volovitz; Eyal Raveh; Dario Prais; Jacob Amir

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Otitis externa (OE), also known as “swimmer’s ear”, is an inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal. Many risk factors have been identified, mainly excessive moisture in the canal from swimming. Study design\\/methods: To study the leading risk factors of otitis externa. Eighty-seven children aged 3.5–12 years (mean 68±6.5 months) who were diagnosed with otitis externa from December

  18. Cervical internal carotid Artery pseudoaneurysm complicating malignant otitis externa: First case report.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew; Rizk, Habib; Carroll, William; Lambert, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare complication of head and neck infections. To date, three cases of petrous ICA pseudoaneurysm have been described as a complication of otogenic infection, including only one secondary to malignant otitis externa. We present here the first case of cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm as a complication of malignant otitis externa, and stress the importance of timely diagnosis to avoid fatal outcomes. Laryngoscope, 125:733-735, 2015. PMID:25124769

  19. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    PubMed Central

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  20. Skull based osteomyelitis due to postsurgery malignant otitis externa presenting as stroke

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nicola; Syed, Irfan; Garth, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Malignant or necrotising otitis externa is a rare but potentially fatal disease. The classic presentation is one of severe, unremitting, throbbing otalgia, which may progress to osteomyelitis, especially in the elderly diabetic or immunocompromised patient. The case described is of a 72-year-old immunocompetent, non-diabetic man who presented with facial weakness, dysphagia and weight loss. The admitting diagnosis or impression was that of a cerebrovascular event. The eventual diagnosis was that of skull based osteomyelitis secondary to malignant otitis externa complicating mastoid surgery. PMID:22696765

  1. The relation of patient satisfaction with treatment of otitis externa to clinical outcomes: Development of an instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Shikiar; Michael T. Halpern; Mary McGann; Cynthia S. Palmer; Mindell Seidlin

    1999-01-01

    This survey was undertaken to develop a short, comprehensive measure of patient satisfaction with pharmacologic treatment for otitis externa and to assess the relationships between satisfaction, disease symptoms, and medication side effects. Otitis externa was diagnosed in 41 patients recruited from 6 sites; 34 patients completed and returned the study instruments and were included in the study. Patients or their

  2. Aproximación a la identidad matsiguenka a partir de las influencias externas. Primeros acercamientos 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Marggraff

    Resumen. En el transcurso de la historia, los matsiguenka del río Urubamba y del Manú sufrie- ron influencias externas e impactos en diferentes grados. En los años setenta, su espacio de vida, que antes era relativamente homogéneo, fue dividido por decisiones políticas y económicas dando origen a comunidades nativas tituladas pero en muchos casos fraccionadas. Asimismo, actualmente existe en la

  3. Fungal otitis externa as a cause of tympanic membrane perforation: a case series.

    PubMed

    Song, James Eingun; Haberkamp, Thomas J; Patel, Riddhi; Redleaf, Miriam I

    2014-08-01

    We describe a series of 11 patients--8 men and 3 women, aged 18 to 70 years (mean: 46.0)--who had fungal otitis externa that had been complicated by a tympanic membrane perforation. These patients had been referred to us for evaluation of chronic, mostly treatment-refractory otitis externa, which had manifested as otorrhea, otalgia, and/or pruritus. Seven of the 11 patients had no history of ear problems prior to their current condition. Five patients had been referred to us by a primary care physician and 4 by an otolaryngologist; the other 2 patients were self-referred. All patients were treated with a thorough debridement of the ear and one of two antifungal medication regimens. Eight of the 11 patients experienced a complete resolution of signs and symptoms, including closure of the tympanic membrane perforation. The other 3 patients underwent either a tympanoplasty (n = 2) or a fat-graft myringotomy (n = 1) because the perforation did not close within a reasonable amount of time. This series demonstrates that the nonspecific signs and symptoms of fungal otitis externa can make diagnosis difficult for both primary care physicians and general otolaryngologists. This study also demonstrates that most cases of tympanic membrane perforation secondary to fungal otitis externa will resolve with cleaning of the ear and proper medical treatment. Therefore, most patients with this condition will not require surgery. PMID:25181663

  4. Synchronous Malignant Otitis Externa and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Chin, R. Y.; Nguyen, T. B. V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To discuss the management of a squamous cell carcinoma in the presence of malignant otitis externa. Study Design. We present only the third reported case in the literature of a synchronous tumour with malignant otitis externa in the literature. Methods. A case report and review of malignant otitis externa and squamous cell carcinomas of the external auditory canal are discussed. Results. A 66-year-old female is presented here with a 2-month history of a painful, discharging left ear refractory to standard antibiotic therapy. Computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, technetium 99?m, and gallium citrate Ga67 scans were consistent with malignant otitis externa. Biopsy in the operating theatre revealed a synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Primary resection of the tumour and surrounding tissues was performed with concomitant treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusions. This is only the third case to be reported in the literature and highlights several important diagnostic and management issues of these two rare conditions. Both conditions may present in a similar manner on clinical assessment and radiological investigations. Aggressive management with surgical resection and treatment with appropriate intravenous antibiotics is necessary to give the best chance for cure. PMID:24194996

  5. 1/7 practicasexternas.alumnos@urjc.es Unidad de Prcticas Externas

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    término especificado. En el caso de ejemplo, para buscar unas prácticas de desarrollo software, en el SOLICITUD DE PLAZAS En el apartado Plataforma de Prácticas de la web de la Unidad de Prácticas Externas campo descripción pondremos %software% y pulsaremos sobre el botón Buscar (Figura 5). Figura 5

  6. Selectivity of Pesticides used in Integrated Apple Production to the Lacewing, Chrysoperla externa

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandre Pinho; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Lasmar, Olinto; Rezende, Denise Tourino; Marques, Márcio Candeias

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the toxicity of the pesticides abamectin 18 CE (0.02 g a.i. L-1), carbaryl 480 SC (1.73 g a.i. L-1), sulfur 800 GrDA (4.8 g a.i. L-1), fenitrothion 500 CE (0.75 g a.i. L-1), methidathion 400 CE (0.4 g a.i. L-1), and trichlorfon 500 SC (1.5 g a.i. L-1) as applied in integrated apple production in Brazil on the survival, oviposition capacity, and egg viability of the lacewing, Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. An attempt was made to study morphological changes caused by some of these chemicals, by means of ultrastructural analysis, using a scanning electronic microscope. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% adult mortality for both populations, avoiding evaluation of pesticides' effects on predator reproductive parameters. Abamectin and sulfur also affected the survival of these individuals with mortality rates of 10% and 6.7%, respectively, for adults from Bento Gonçalves, and were harmless to those from Vacaria at the end of evaluation. Trichlorfon was also harmless to adults from both populations. No compound reduced oviposition capacity. C. externa from Vacaria presented higher reproductive potential than those from Bento Gonçalves. In relation to egg viability, sulfur was the most damaging compound to both populations of C. externa. Ultrastructural analyses showed morphological changes in the micropyle and the chorion of eggs laid by C. externa treated with either abamectin or sulfur. The treatment may have influenced the fertilization of C. externa eggs and embryonic development. Sulfur was responsible for malformations in the end region of the abdomen and genitals of treated females. When applied to adults, abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon were harmless, while carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion were harmful, according to the IOBC classification. PMID:20879916

  7. Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23227759

  8. Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint caused by Aspergillus flavus infection as a complication of otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Lalee; Chacko, Rabin; Varghese, George M; Job, Anand

    2015-03-01

    Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a very rare complication of otitis externa that can lead to ankylosis and destruction of the joint. We report the case of a 74-year-old man who developed aspergillosis of the TMJ following otitis externa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of TMJ septic arthritis secondary to otitis externa caused by Aspergillus flavus. The patient was successfully managed with condylectomy, debridement, and drug treatment with voriconazole. PMID:25738723

  9. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B

    2013-01-01

    Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity. PMID:24145557

  10. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B

    2013-11-01

    Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity. PMID:24145557

  11. Effect of Binghuang ear drop treatment on otitis externa in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Suo-qiang; Yu, Ning; Guo, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Yue

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the pharmacodynamic effects of Binghuang ear drop on acute suppurative otitis externa in guinea pig model. Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups, with ten animals in each group. Group A animals had normal ear canal and Binghuang ear drops (two drops, B.I.D) were applied in both ears for 7 days; Group B animals had induced otitis externa and received identical prescription as group A; Group C had normal ear canal and were treated with normal saline (two drops, B.I.D) for 7 days. After the treatments, the external morphology of ear canals was observed and the paraffin sections of external auditory canal were prepared and examined under the microscope. The inflammatory manifestation and cell infiltration into the skin of group B was significantly attenuated after the Binghuang ear drops treatment. In contrast, no allergy or side effects were produced by Binghuang ear drops application in the animals with normal ear canals. Binghuang ear drops could be used to treat acute otitis externa by eliciting anti-bacterial effects. PMID:25269771

  12. The Littoral Station of Aguda, in the North of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.

    1995-03-01

    The public authorities have recently approved the building of a Littoral Station in Aguda, a small fishing village on the Atlantic coast, 15 km south of the River Douro estuary in the municipal area of Vila Nova de Gaia. The internal structure of the building involves a Fishery Museum exhibiting ancient and modern gear, a Public Aquarium displaying the local marine fauna and flora and a Research and Educational Department for marine biology, aquaculture and fishery. The project was drawn up by the architect João Paulo Peixoto, in collaboration with local engineers, and the author. In Aguda there is an active, small-scale fishery, based on traditional methods handed down from generation to generation. The almost unstudied local marine fauna and flora is characterized by a high diversity of invertebrates and a rich abundance of fish stocks. Easy access to a variety of marine biotopes is guaranteed by means of the local fishing-fleet, thus supporting the Station's programme of education and research.

  13. Fungal malignant otitis externa with facial nerve palsy: tissue biopsy AIDS diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jenny; Coulson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Fungal malignant otitis externa (FMOE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that is challenging to manage. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the low sensitivity of aural swabs and many antifungal drugs have significant side effects. We present a case of FMOE, where formal tissue sampling revealed the diagnosis and the patient was successfully treated with voriconazole, in addition to an up to date review of the current literature. We would recommend tissue biopsy of the external auditory canal in all patients with suspected FMOE in addition to routine microbiology swabs. PMID:24649388

  14. Fungal Malignant Otitis Externa with Facial Nerve Palsy: Tissue Biopsy Aids Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Fungal malignant otitis externa (FMOE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that is challenging to manage. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the low sensitivity of aural swabs and many antifungal drugs have significant side effects. We present a case of FMOE, where formal tissue sampling revealed the diagnosis and the patient was successfully treated with voriconazole, in addition to an up to date review of the current literature. We would recommend tissue biopsy of the external auditory canal in all patients with suspected FMOE in addition to routine microbiology swabs. PMID:24649388

  15. Temporal bone osteomyelitis: the relationship with malignant otitis externa, the diagnostic dilemma, and changing trends.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. PMID:24963511

  16. Treatment of acute otitis externa with ciprofloxacin otic 0.2% antibiotic ear solution

    PubMed Central

    Mösges, R; Nematian-Samani, M; Eichel, A

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective An inflammation of the cutis and subcutis of the external auditory canal is a primary symptom in cases of acute otitis externa. It is usually treated locally, since this type of therapy ensures a high concentration of the drug and interacts at the site of inflammation with no systemic effects. This systematic review compares the efficacy of treatment using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution with other therapeutic options. Methods After compiling a catalog of search terms, medical databases were searched systematically for randomized, controlled studies. This search initially yielded a total of 38 studies which were then evaluated by three independent reviewers. The number of studies was subsequently reduced to 14: six studies using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution, and eight studies using both 0.2% and 0.3% solutions. Results The studies included in the review demonstrate the statistical equivalence between the ciprofloxacin solution (0.2%) and the reference products PNH (a combination of polymyxin B, neomycin sulfate and hydrocortisone), auriculum powder, and a ciprofloxacin foam with respect to the cure rate. The research groups consistently observed high in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion This systematic review confirms the hypothesis of ciprofloxacin’s noninferiority in the treatment of otitis externa, in terms of the cure rate and microbiological eradication. PMID:21845055

  17. Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: The Relationship with Malignant Otitis Externa, the Diagnostic Dilemma, and Changing Trends

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. PMID:24963511

  18. A catecholaminergic neuron connecting the first two optic neuropiles (Lamina ganglionaris and Medulla externa) of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Elofsson; Dick Nässel; Harry Myhrberg

    1977-01-01

    The crustacean optic neuropiles, the lamina ganglionaris and especially the medulla externa, show a specific pattern of green fluorescence with the fluorescence histochemical method of Falck-Hillarp. Normally, only the terminals and the cell bodies fluoresce, but in reserpine-treated animals exogenous catecholamines are taken up by the whole adrenergic neuron and are thus visualized as a whole. Incubating crayfish optic neuropiles

  19. Entomopathogenic Activity of a Variety of the Fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, Recovered from the Elongate Hemlock Scale, Fiorinia externa

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, José A. P.; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Giordano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    A fungal epizootic in populations of Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) infesting hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae) in forests of the Northeastern US has been recently detected. The current known distribution of the epizootic spans 36 sites in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit. (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae) was the most prevalent fungus recovered from infected scales. Bioassays indicated that this C. acutatum variety is highly pathogenic to F. externa. Mortality rates of >90 and >55% were obtained for F. externa crawlers and settlers, respectively. Significantly lower mortality levels, ? 22%, were obtained when three other species of insects were assayed. C. gleosporioides has also been shown to have pathogenic activity towards a scale insect. The data suggest that C. acutatum var. fioriniae from F. externa epizootics in the US, and the previously reported C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae causing Orthezia praelonga epizootics in Brazil, may constitute distinct biotypes of Colletotrichum that have attained the ability to infect insects in addition to the commonly reported plant hosts. PMID:19613442

  20. Concurrent necrotising otitis externa and adenocarcinoma of the temporal bone: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Foden, Neil; Burgess, Christopher; Damato, Stephen; Ramsden, James

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of an 81-year-old man who was diagnosed with a necrotising (malignant) otitis externa (NOE). Initial biopsies from the external auditory canal showed scanty squamous epithelium but no evidence of malignancy. Despite an initial improvement on intravenous antibiotics and subsequent discharge from hospital, the patient returned with worsening otalgia. Following readmission to the hospital, intravenous antibiotics were restarted. Despite this, the patient developed a lower motor neurone palsy of cranial nerve VII on the ipsilateral side of the pain. He was taken to the theatre for an exploration of the left mastoid with further biopsies. Adenocarcinoma was diagnosed histologically and the patient was started on palliative radiotherapy. This case adds to the known literature on metastatic disease in the temporal bone and highlights the need to exclude malignancy in cases of NOE. PMID:24197806

  1. Insecticide survival and behavioral avoidance in the lacewings Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, E M G; Corrêa, A S; Venzon, M; Guedes, R N C

    2010-11-01

    Insecticide impact on non-target species, such as insect predators and parasitoids, is an ever-growing concern in agriculture and recent studies have been shifting focus from lethal to sub-lethal effects since they may prevail in field conditions, although more difficult to assess. Synthetic insecticides are the main concern, but the recent spread of biopesticide use in agriculture draws attention, particularly the main botanical insecticide currently in use - azadirachtin. Here we assessed the lethal and behavioral sub-lethal response of predatory larvae of the lacewing species Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana to two frequently used synthetic insecticides, malathion and permethrin, and to the bioinsecticide azadirachtin. The recommended field concentration of the synthetic insecticides led to low survival time of lacewing larvae from both species, in contrast with azadirachtin. However, all three compounds led to 100% mortality of the lacewing larvae from both species. Insecticide repellence (i.e., avoidance without contact) was similar for both synthetic insecticides in both species, but azadirachtin was a stronger repellent for C. externa, but not C. cubana. In addition, insecticide irritability (i.e., avoidance after contact) occurred in both lacewing species to all three insecticides tested. The notion that natural compounds are safer than synthetic compounds to non-target species is refuted in the present study, which also detected significant irritability to all of the insecticides regardless of their origin, and species-specific repellence elicited particularly by azadirachtin. Therefore, bioinsecticides should not be exempted from risk assessment, and non-target sub-lethal effects should not be neglected when considering potential insecticide use in agriculture. PMID:20817256

  2. Hemmung der bakteriellen Adhäsion durch Lektinblockade bei durch Pseudomonas aeruginosa induzierter Otitis externa im Vergleich zur lokalen Therapie mit Antibiotika

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Steuer; H. Herbst; J. Beuth; G. Pulverer; R. Matthias

    1993-01-01

    Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden klinischen prospektiven Phase-II-Studie wurde bei 15 Patienten\\/innen mit durch Pseudomonas aeruginosa induzierter Otitis externa diffusa erstmals die Kenntnis des auf spezifischen Protein(Lektin)rezeptoren beruhenden Mechanismus der bakteriellen Adhäsion durch kompetitive Inhibition mittels spezifischer D-Galaktose\\/D-Mannose\\/N-Azetylneuraminsäure-Lösung therapeutisch genutzt. Patienten der Kontroll(Gentamicin)gruppe erhielten eine lokale Gazestreifenbehandlung mit einer handelsüblichen Genta-micinlösung. Die Therapieergebnisse sind, entsprechend dem Wilcoxonschen Rangsummentest, mit denen zu

  3. Comparative Analysis Between Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genotypes and Severity of Symptoms in Patients with Unilateral or Bilateral Otitis Externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghassan M. Matar; Hani S. Harakeh; Fatea Ramlawi; Issam Khneisser; Usamah Hadi

    2001-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done on 32 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These isolates were obtained from 22 patients who presented to the emergency room in a major medical center in Beirut, Lebanon,\\u000a during a 5-month period with the diagnosis of either unilateral or bilateral otitis externa. Patients had yellowish to greenish\\u000a discharge, moderate to severe external auditory

  4. Lessons learnt from the diagnosis and antimicrobial management of necrotising (malignant) otitis externa: our experience in a tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Williams, S P; Curnow, T L; Almeyda, R

    2014-01-01

    Necrotising otitis externa is an uncommon and aggressive infection of the external auditory canal with a tendency to present in the elderly and immunocompromised patient. We report a series of twenty-five patients admitted to our institution over a four-year period with this diagnosis. We review the diagnosis and antimicrobial management of these cases, and propose a treatment algorithm based on our experience. PMID:25090807

  5. A Novel Mycobacterium cosmeticum-Like Bacterium Isolated from the Ear Swab of a Patient with Otitis Externa

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Jeanette W. P.; Cheng, Janet W. S.; Jureen, Roland; Lin, Raymond T. P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the identification and characterization of a novel nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM), isolated from an ear swab of an adult male patient with chronic otitis externa. Genetically, the bacterium is most closely related to Mycobacterium cosmeticum; however, growth and biochemical features indicate that it is distinctly different. Here, we highlight for the first time an unusual NTM that is a probable cause of ear infection.

  6. Role of pH of External Auditory Canal in Acute Otitis Externa.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Aayush; Kumar, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Prospective and interventional. We studied the pH of external auditory canal (EAC) in normal individuals and patients with acute otitis externa (AOE), its variation with change of temperature and humidity, different symptoms and number of symptoms at presentation (Day 0) and various stages of treatment in 100 normal ears and forearms and 50 ears having AOE. The mean pH of normal EAC was 3.950 ± 1.199 while that of forearm was 4.775 ± 0.910. There was increase in the number of patients with increase in relative humidity, however, the change in the pH of EAC was statistically not significant (p > 0.05). Significant fall in pH was observed at 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. The normal EAC pH is relatively more acidic as compared to that of forearm skin and it became more alkaline in cases of AOE with reversion back to acidic pH after treatment. Acidification of the EAC is the only treatment required in most cases. No significant change in pH of ears was observed with changes of temperatures and humidity. PMID:24605308

  7. Neurons in the anterior olfactory nucleus pars externa detect right or left localization of odor sources

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Shu; Sato, Kenichiro; Kashiwadani, Hideki; Tsunoda, Koichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Mori, Kensaku

    2010-01-01

    Rodents can localize odor sources by comparing odor inputs to the right and left nostrils. However, the neuronal circuits underlying such odor localization are not known. We recorded neurons in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) while administering odors to the ipsilateral or contralateral (ipsi- or contra-) nostril. Neurons in the AON pars externa (AONpE) showed respiration phase-locked excitatory spike responses to ipsinostril-only stimulation with a category of odorants, and inhibitory responses to contranostril-only stimulation with the same odorants. Simultaneous odor stimulation of the ipsi- and contranostrils elicited significantly smaller responses than ipsinostril-only stimulation, indicating that AONpE neurons subtract the contranostril odor inputs from ipsinostril odor inputs. An ipsilateral odor source induced larger responses than a centrally located source, whereas an odor source at the contralateral position elicited inhibitory responses. These results indicate that individual AONpE neurons can distinguish the right or left position of an odor source by referencing signals from the two nostrils. PMID:20616091

  8. Skull base osteomyelitis in otitis externa: The utility of triphasic and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography bone scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Panda, Naresh Kumar; Das, Ashim; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    Background: Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) refers to infection that has spread beyond the external auditory canal to the base of the skull in advanced stages of otitis externa. Clinically, it may be difficult to differentiate SBO from severe otitis externa without bony involvement. This study was performed to determine the role of three phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) and single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in detecting SBO. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed records of 20 patients (14 M, 6 F) with otitis externa and suspected SBO. TPBS and SPECT/CT of the skull were performed. Findings were correlated with clinical, laboratory and diagnostic CT scan findings. Results: All patients were diabetic with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A total of 18 patients had bilateral and two unilateral symptoms. Cranial nerves were involved in eight patients and microbiological culture of ear discharge fluid positive in seven. Early images showed increased temporal vascularity in nine patients and increased soft-tissue uptake in 10, while delayed images showed increased bone uptake in 19/20 patients. Localized abnormal tracer uptake was shown by SPECT/CT in the mastoid temporal (15), petrous (11), sphenoid (3) and zygomatic (1) and showed destructive changes in five. Thus, TPBS was found positive for SBO in 10/20 patients and changed the management in four. Conclusion: Our study suggests that TPBS with SPECT/CT is a useful non-invasive investigation for detection of SBO in otitis externa. PMID:24163508

  9. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from dogs with chronic and acute otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Chiavassa, E; Tizzani, P; Peano, A

    2014-10-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast that is frequently involved as a secondary/perpetuating factor in canine otitis externa. Topical therapies with different antifungal agents, mainly azole compounds, are generally successful in controlling the yeast overgrowth, but treatment failure and rapid recurrences are common. This study compared the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates obtained from chronic and acute cases of otitis externa. The aim was to assess the possible onset of resistance mechanisms in isolates involved in long-lasting episodes with poor response to treatment. We evaluated the in vitro susceptibility to miconazole (MCZ) and clotrimazole (CTZ) of 42 isolates of M. pachydermatis obtained from dogs with chronic (group A, n = 25) and acute otitis (group B, n = 17), using a modified CLSI M27-A3 microdilution method. All isolates were inhibited by the antifungal agents employed, but Malassezia isolates from group A were significantly associated with higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for both agents (Median MIC values: MCZ group A 2 µg/ml, group B 1 µg/ml; CTZ group A 8 µg/ml, group B 4 µg/ml). These findings prove that these isolates had a reduced in vitro susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. However, it is unlikely that this could have any influence on the outcome of a topical treatment. Indeed, marketed products include concentrations of the tested agents that largely exceed even the highest MICs found in this study (in most cases at least 1,000 × the MIC, or greater). In conclusion, this study suggests that isolates of M. pachydermatis involved in chronic cases of canine external otitis and exposed to repeated antifungal treatments are unlikely to develop mechanisms of resistance of clinical relevance. PMID:25031085

  10. Antimicrobial effect of combinations of EDTA-Tris and amikacin or neomycin on the microorganisms associated with otitis externa in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Sparks; D. T. Kemp; R. E. Wooley; P. S. Gibbs

    1994-01-01

    Combinations of EDTA-Tris and two aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin and neomycin) were tested for synergistic activities against the microorganisms associated with otitis externa in dogs and for the solutions' stability over time. Synergistic activity was observed when EDTA-Tris plus amikacin and EDTA-Tris plus neomycin were tested againstStaphylococcus intermedius, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, andEscherichia coli, but not againstCandida albicans. Stability studies over

  11. A double-blind randomised clinical trial of the treatment of otitis externa using topical steroid alone versus topical steroid-antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Abelardo, E; Pope, L; Rajkumar, K; Greenwood, R; Nunez, D A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if the addition of topical antibiotic increases the efficacy of topical steroid in controlling otitis externa. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was performed from February 2003 to April 2005 in an otolaryngology emergency clinic (acute urban teaching hospital) in the United Kingdom. Patients were followed up for 2 weeks. Forty-five adults with otitis externa based on the presence of oedema, discharge or debris in the outer ear canal were recruited. The patients were randomised to one of the two treatment groups, namely using betamethasone sodium phosphate 0.1% (Vista-Methasone) or betamethasone sodium phosphate 0.1% with neomycin sulphate 0.5% (Vista-Methasone N), and were instructed to use the trial medication at three drops three times a day for 2 weeks. Subjects' visual analogue symptom scores (blockage, pain, discharge, and itching) for otitis externa pre-treatment (day 0) and post-treatment (day 15), percentage changes in visual analogue symptom scores as a result of treatment, proportion of patients whose symptom scores failed to improve or deteriorated on treatment were analysed. The two experimental arms demonstrated statistically similar presenting symptom scores at recruitment (mean symptom scores of 19.2 for betamethasone group and 28.7 for betamethasone-neomycin group). The mean symptom score change in response to treatment was 82.8 and 47.8% in the betamethasone-neomycin and betamethasone-alone groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in median percentage symptom score change in response to treatment. All patients in the betamethasone-neomycin group showed symptom improvement but in the betamethasone alone group, five patients got worse (Fishers exact, P = 0.05). Topical antibiotic-steroid combination therapy is superior to steroid-alone treatment for symptomatic control of otitis externa. PMID:18560873

  12. Acute otitis externa in divers working in the North Sea: a microbiological survey of seven saturation dives.

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Saturation diving is an important and widely used technique in the Offshore Oil Industry. During 1974-5 two saturation dives in the North Sea were terminated because of outbreaks of incapacitating otitis externa, and others were disrupted. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was consistently isolated from the ears of affected divers. Because complex work schedules were threatened seven subsequent dives were subjected to microbiological monitoring and control. Colonization of ear canal with P. aeruginosa or with other gram-negative bacilli occurred in 39 (67%) of the 58 divers studied, usually within 7 days of starting the dive. Data obtained by serotyping this isolations of P. aeruginosa suggested that a single infected diver may be the source of organisms which rapidly spread to his colleagues and throughout the living chambers, that the living chambers may constitute a reservoir of infection during and between dives, and that certain serotypes of P. aeruginosa are more likely than others to colonize the ear canal in the conditions of a saturation dive. The control measures used during the dives were only partially effective, but none of the divers suffered severe pain and all the dives were an operational success. PMID:405421

  13. Malignant otitis externa

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drainage from the ear that is yellow or green and smells bad Ear pain deep inside the ... Moore GP. Otolaryngology. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts ...

  14. Ajuda externa: Programa da 'troika' tem de ir evoluindo ao longo do tempo -Fernando Ulrich Lisboa, 20 set (Lusa) -O presidente do BPI, Fernando Ulrich, considerou hoje que o

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Ajuda externa: Programa da 'troika' tem de ir evoluindo ao longo do tempo - Fernando Ulrich Lisboa pelos pecadores a nível de cortes. Falando à margem da inauguração do Laboratório de Células Estaminais IST, que "o programa da 'troika' tem de ir evoluindo ao longo do tempo". Ulrich acrescentou mesmo

  15. Comparative effects of insecticides with different mechanisms of action on Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): lethal, sublethal and dose-response effects.

    PubMed

    Joao Zotti, Moises; Dionel Grutzmacher, Anderson; Heres Lopes, Isac; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-12-01

    The comprehensive knowledge that the delayed systemic and reproduction side effects can be even more deleterious than acute toxicity, has caused a shift in focus toward sublethal effects assessment on physiology and behavior of beneficial insects. In this study, we assessed the risks posed by some insecticides with different mode of action through lethal and delayed systemic sublethal effects on the pupation, adult emergence, and reproduction of the chrysopid Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), an important predator in pest biological control. The maximum field recommended dose (MFRD) and twice (2×MFRD) for chlorantraniliprole, tebufenozide, and pyriproxyfen were harmless to C. externa. In contrast, all the tested chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) were highly detrimental to the predator, despite of their lack of acute lethal toxicity. Therefore, the safety assumed by using IGRs toward beneficial insects is not valid for chrysopids. Dose-response data showed that although all CSIs have a similar mechanism of action, the relative extent of toxicity may differ (novaluron > lufenuron > teflubenzuron). For CSIs, the delayed systemic effects became obvious at adult emergence, where the predicted no observable effect dose (NOED) was 1/2 048 of the MFRD for novaluron (0.085 ng/insect), and 1/256 of the MFRD for both lufenuron (0.25 ng/insect) and teflubenzuron (0.6 ng/insect). Finally, this work emphasized the significance of performing toxicity risk assessments with an adequate posttreatment period to avoid underestimating the toxicities of insecticides, as the acute lethal toxicity assays may not provide accurate information regarding the long-range effects of hazardous compounds. PMID:23956013

  16. Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov., isolated from otitis externa of a dog, and emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium Collins et al. 1983 emend. Yassin et al. 2011.

    PubMed

    Hijazin, Muaz; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Sammra, Osama; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Zschöck, Michael

    2012-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on an unidentified Arcanobacterium-like Gram-stain-positive bacterium isolated from otitis externa of a dog. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Arcanobacterium and was most closely related to the type strains of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (97.2 %), Arcanobacterium hippocoleae (96.5 %) and Arcanobacterium phocae (96.4 %). The presence of the major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)) supported the affiliation of this strain to the genus Arcanobacterium. The polar lipid profile contained the major lipids phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified phospholipid (PL2). Major fatty acids were C(14 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(18 : 0), C(18 : 1)?9c and C(18 : 2)?6,9c/anteiso-C(18 : 0) (detected as a summed feature). C(10 : 0) and C(12 : 0) were present in minor amounts. The results of physiological and biochemical testing clearly distinguished the unknown bacterium from other species of the genus Arcanobacterium. Based on these tests, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in the novel species Arcanobacterium canis sp. nov. The type strain of Arcanobacterium canis is P6775(T) (= CCM 7958(T) = CCUG 61573(T) = CIP 110339(T)). An emended description of the genus Arcanobacterium is also provided. PMID:22081713

  17. The politicisation of traditional Polish Jewry: Orthodox German rabbis and the founding of Agudas Ho?Ortodoksim and Dos yidishe vort in Gouvernement?General Warsaw, 1916–18

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Grill

    2009-01-01

    In 1916, in the midst of the First World War, Orthodox German rabbis Dr Emanuel Carlebach and Dr Pinchas Kohn played a crucial role in founding and developing the organisation of an Orthodox party in Poland named Agudas Ho?Ortodoksim. These attempts to politicize traditional Polish Jewry were opposed by a significant part of Polish Jewry. While some circles of traditional

  18. Testicular microlithiasis: is it a benign condition with malignant potential? otite u., webb j.a.w., et al

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall G Rowland

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the findings of testicular ultrasonography (US) in patients referred for testicular symptoms including pain, swelling and infertility, and to determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis™ and its relevance to the development of testicular cancer. METHODS: Records of 3.026 patients referred for testicular US between 1994 and 1999 were evaluated. The indications for testicular US diagnosis, management and

  19. Etiological Significance of Candida Albicans in Otitis Externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay J. Jadhav; M. Pal; G. S. Mishra

    2003-01-01

    A study covering 79 patients (42 males, 37 females) of different age groupsclinically diagnosed as otomycosis were investigated mycologically to elucidatethe role of Candia albicans, an opportunistic polymorphic yeast, in otitisexterna. C. albicans was diagnosed as the sole pathogen in two patients(1 male and 1 female) aged 18 and 20 years, respectively. The organism wasrepeatedly demonstrated in the aural specimens

  20. Otitis Externa Associated with Malassezia sympodialis in Two Cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. CRESPO; M. L. ABARCA; F. J. CABANES

    2000-01-01

    Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts that form an integral part of animal and human cutaneous microbiota (19). They are also considered important medical yeasts because they are etiological agents of chronic skin disorders and have been reported with increasing frequency as causative agents of life- threatening, iatrogenic, catheter-related sepsis both in immu- nocompromised individuals (1) and low-birth-weight neonates receiving parenteral

  1. SECCIN EXTERNA DE METODOLOGA Y TEORA DE LA CIENCIA

    E-print Network

    and Tolmachev). Nova Science Publishers New York (2004) 18: 112. RESÚMENES DE PARTICIPACIÓN EN CONGRESOS NACIONALES E INTERNACIONALES Rojo, O. Ethics and Informatics: Reasons of concern (con R.V. Jimenez). 4th

  2. Cholesteatoma and meningoencephalitis in a dog with chronic otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ashleigh W; Estey, Chelsie M; McDonough, Sean; Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia; Larsen, Meegan; Stokol, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    A 10-year-old female spayed German Shepherd dog, with a year-long history of recurrent left ear infections, was presented for progressive ataxia, head tilt, and pain on opening of the mouth. On physical examination, a large amount of ceruminous debris was present in the left ear and multiple neurologic defects localizing to the cerebellum and vestibular system were identified. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a minimally contrast-enhancing mass within the left bulla, an intracranial space-occupying, heterogeneously contrast-enhancing lesion at the level of the left cerebello-medullary junction, and contrast enhancement of the ipsilateral meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a marked mixed cell pleocytosis (nucleated cell count 655 cells/?L). The mass was visualized within the horizontal ear canal by otoscopic examination and a biopsy was taken. Impression smears of the biopsy contained many anucleate keratinized squamous epithelial cells, mild mixed inflammation, and few presumptive fibroblasts. With the provided clinical history and MRI findings, a cytologic diagnosis of cholesteatoma was made. A ventral bulla osteotomy was performed, and histopathologic examination of resected tissue confirmed the cytologic diagnosis of cholesteatoma. The dog's clinical symptoms improved postoperatively, but the dog died of unrelated causes, 3.5 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the cytologic features of a cholesteatoma, which is a nonneoplastic, but locally invasive epidermoid cyst, in the middle ear of dogs. PMID:25385218

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DE TOXICIDADE AGUDA: ESTRATÉGIAS APÓS A \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marize C. Valadares

    The present work discuss about the evaluation of the acute systemic toxicity post deletion of the LD50 test (median lethal dose). The three alternative animal tests now employed, the Fixed Dose Procedure, the Acute Toxic Class Method and the Up and Down Procedure, give rise to significant improvements in animal welfare. Although, the total replacement of animal tests it is

  4. Central Skull Base Osteomyelitis in Patients without Otitis Externa: Imaging Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. Chang; Nancy J. Fischbein; Roy A. Holliday

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Skull base osteomyelitis typically arises as a complication of ear infection in older diabetic patients, involves the temporal bone, and has Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the usual pathogen. Atypical skull base osteomyelitis arising from the sphenoid or occipital bones without associated external otitis occurs much less frequently and initially may have headache as the only symptom. The purpose

  5. Atypical Lipid-Dependent Malassezia Species Isolated from Dogs with Otitis Externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. CRESPO; M. L. ABARCA; F. J. CABANES

    Species of the genus Malassezia inhabit the skin of humans and many other warm-blooded vertebrates (20). Their most important physiological feature is their lipophilic nature, be- cause they have the property of using lipids as a source of carbon. In fact, with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis, the remaining species of the genus have an absolute require- ment in vitro

  6. Acute Otitis Externa: Efficacy and Tolerability of N-Chlorotaurine, a Novel Endogenous Antiseptic Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Neher; Markus Nagl; Elisabeth Appenroth; Martin Wischatta; Franz Reisigl; Martin Schindler; Hanno Ulmer; Kurt Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study's objective was to test the tolerability and efficacy of the endogenous antiseptic N-chlorotaurine (NCT) in comparison with a stan- dard clinical treatment according to a phase IIb clin- ical trial protocol. Study Design: The antimicrobial agent NCT was compared with the antibiotic compo- nent drops Otosporin (containing neomycin, poly- myxin B, and hydrocortisone) for topical treatment of

  7. [Long-term study "Neurodermatitis therapy using urea-containing Externa". Experience report of a pediatrician].

    PubMed

    Schweingel, D

    1992-01-01

    The experience gained in the pediatric sector within the framework of a neurodermatitis study on the use of urea and urea/hydrocortisone combinations will be reported. Particularly in young children, these preparations yield very good results, even after short-term use. The compliance of the patients is increased because, using alternating therapy, these preparations quickly make it possible for the patients to responsibly help determine their own therapy. The active participation of the parents in therapy makes it easier for the therapist to improve access to the psychosomatic environment of the disease. The consistent use of urea/hydrocortisone and urea preparations is a valuable enhancement of an all-encompassing neurodermatic therapy. PMID:1555939

  8. Insecticide survival and behavioral avoidance in the lacewings Chrysoperla externa and Ceraeochrysa cubana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. G. Cordeiro; A. S. Corrêa; M. Venzon; R. N. C. Guedes

    Insecticide impact on non-target species, such as insect predators and parasitoids, is an ever-growing concern in agriculture and recent studies have been shifting focus from lethal to sub-lethal effects since they may prevail in field conditions, although more difficult to assess. Synthetic insecticides are the main concern, but the recent spread of biopesticide use in agriculture draws attention, particularly the

  9. Dacriocistorrinostomía externa realizada en el consultorio bajo anestesia locorregional y sedación

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Benatar-Haserfaty; M. P. Monleón de la Calle; A. Sanz-López; A. Muriel García

    Summary OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of early complications of outpatient external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and patient satisfaction with the anesthetic technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 58 patients undergoing external DCR. We analyzed demographic variables, ASA physical status, level of sedation achieved, postoperative pain, systemic complications, intraoperative bleeding, duration of surgery, time until discharge home, and patient and

  10. Ahorro privado, apertura externa y liberalización financiera en la América Latina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis R. Casillas

    1993-01-01

    Resumen. La premisa básica de este trabajo es que el ahorro voluntario privado es el sustento y el resguardo del futuro crecimiento y desarrollo regionales. Sin embargo, por definición, un desequilibrio entre el ahorro e inversión lleva a la trasmisión del ahorro internacional. Su efecto en las balanzas de pagos de los países es inmediato. La globalización de las finanzas

  11. [Postnatal developmental changes in the posterior cranial fossa area. I. Facies posterior partis petrosae (porus et meatus acusticus internus, fossa subarcuata, apertura externa aqueductus vestibuli, apertura externa canaliculi cochleae)].

    PubMed

    Lang, J; Hofmann, S; Maier, R; Schafhauser, O

    1981-01-01

    1. In the newborn the lateral edge of the internal acoustic pore is located about 13.3 mm, in the 2-year-old about 22.5 mm and in the adults about 28.5 (22 to 34) mm from the paramedian plane of the skull. Also the mean distance from the lateral wall of the skull increases from about 13 to 30 mm in the postnatal period. 2. Without the postnatal development of height and width of the internal acoustic pore the postnatal extension (from a mean value of 5 mm in the newborn to about 10 mm in the 15- to 17-year-old) also the postnatal development of height and width of the internal acoustic meatus were measured. 3. Size, width and position of the subarcuata fossa, the external aperture of the aqueduct of the vestibulum just as the external aperture of the cochlear canaliculus were determined. The results were discussed in detail with the datas of former investigators. PMID:7286595

  12. ESTUDIO DE LA VALIDEZ INTERNA Y EXTERNA DE UN CUESTIONARIO SOBRE CONDUCTAS PROBLEMÁTICAS PARA LA CONVIVENCIA SEGÚN EL PROFESOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Peralta; M. D. Sánchez; M. V. Trianes

    2003-01-01

    A poll based on the analyses of discipline reports was made up. These reports are given by teachers of two public high schools in Almeria. Starting from this material, a questionnaire including the following categories was elaborated: undisciplined, antisocial, bullying and disruptive behaviour. The objective of this study is to analyse the validity and reliability of such instrument for the

  13. Study on human ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis larva, in Sirte-Libya: parasite features, clinical presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Fouad M; El-Barghathi, Adam; El-Ahwal, Abdalla; El-Bagar, Shaban

    2006-04-01

    Oestrus ovis larva is by far the commonest cause of human ophthalmomyiasis. The larva usually limits it's activity to the conjunctiva and cornea, but, penetration of the eye is a potential complication. Misdiagnosis is common and the condition of acute catarrhal conjunctivitis is ascribed to other causes. The study included 20 patients referred to university hospital of Sirte, Libya. Results showed that the condition was more common among adult male shepherds and farmers in rural areas. Important criteria for diagnosis were; sudden mobile foreign body sensation with abrupt itching and lacrimation occurring in endemic area, in warm months even without history of fly strike. Effective treatment consisted of mechanical removal of the larva by the cotton swap mounting technique which resulted in rapid improvement. Suffocation of residual larvae was mediated by use of liberal amounts of topical antibiotics. Slit lamp examination of larva showed that it was small, translucent, avoid the light beam and easily overlooked. Detailed microscopic examination of larval surface structures revealed a multi-component attachment apparatus consisting of oral hooks, inter-segmental spines, caudal spines and a multi-layered spiny thoracic complex described for the first time. These injurious structures are believed to be responsible through inflicting direct mechanical damage for the observed haemorrhage, ulceration or even the potential invasion, as these changes were more obvious in neglected cases. So, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid complications. PMID:16605116

  14. Efeitos da suplementação aguda de aspartato de arginina na fadiga muscular em voluntários treinados

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Pombo Sales; Carlos Eduardo César Miné; Andréia Dellú Franco; Érika Lima Rodrigues; Renato de Souza e Silva; José Carlos Cogo; Rodrigo A. B. Lopes-Martins; Rodrigo Lazo Osorio; Wellington Ribeiro

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO A atividade física influi em mecanismos específicos responsá- veis pela redução da produção de força e conseqüentemente à fadiga. A preocupação em melhorar o desempenho físico tem sido propostos; observamos que estudos dão atenção para reduzir acú- mulos dos metabólitos que diminuem a fadiga durante o exercício físico intenso, usando aminoácidos conhecidos por induzir mudan- ças metabólicas, entre eles

  15. Contaminación atmosférica, asma bronquial e infecciones respiratorias agudas en menores de edad, de La Habana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Romero-Placeres; Pedro Más-Bermejo; Marina Lacasaña-Navarro; Martha María Téllez Rojo-Solís; Juan Aguilar-Valdés; Isabelle Romieu

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To identify the relationship between emergen- cy visits for acute respiratory illnesses, acute bronchial asth- ma crisis (ABAC) and acute respiratory infections (ARI), in children less than 14 years of age, and the daily changes of air pollutant levels, in two central hospitals of Havana City, between October 1st 1996 and March 16 1998. Material and Methods. An ecological

  16. Alteraciones anatomo-patológicas en un flamenco común (phoenicopterus roseus) por intoxicación aguda por plomo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romero D; Martínez-López E; Navas I; María-Mojica P; Peñalver J; García-Fernández AJ

    2007-01-01

    Pathological alterations in the common flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) due to acute lead intoxication. The presence of lead in the environment is an undisputable fact. Furthermore, it is a serious health concern as it affects not only the well-being of animals, but also that of human beings. Plumbism is a type of intoxication that can affect any animal species. In wild

  17. Op\\/op mice defective in production of functional colony-stimulating factor-1 lack macrophages in muscularis externa of the small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. Mikkelsen; L. Thuneberg

    1999-01-01

    The osteopetrotic (op\\/op) mutant mouse possesses an inactivating mutation in the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) gene, which results in the absence of certain macrophages and in osteopetrosis, following a lack of osteoclasts. Studies of the op\\/op mouse indicate that CSF-1-dependent tissue macrophages may belong to a trophic and\\/or scavenger subpopulation, which through their effect on other cell types can significantly affect

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484k - Prednisolone and neomycin suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the dosage to 1 drop 2 to 4 times daily. For otitis externa, place 2 to 6 drops in the external ear canal...traumatic keratitis and conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa. (3) Limitations. Federal law...

  19. Creencias y conocimientos de un grupo de médicos sobre el manejo de la alimentación del niño con diarrea aguda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Corral-Terrazas; Homero Martínez; Samuel Flores-Huerta; Ma Ximena Duque-L; Bernardo Turnbull; Margarita Levario-Carrillo

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To identify the beliefs and knowledge of a group of rural physicians on the dietary management of children under five years of age, with acute diarrhea. Physicians' die- tary management was compared with that recommended by the World Health Organization. Material and Methods. A cognitive anthropology study was carried out from July

  20. Evolution of sex determination systems with heterogametic males and females in silene.

    PubMed

    Slancarova, Veronika; Zdanska, Jana; Janousek, Bohuslav; Talianova, Martina; Zschach, Christian; Zluvova, Jitka; Siroky, Jiri; Kovacova, Viera; Blavet, Hana; Danihelka, Jiri; Oxelman, Bengt; Widmer, Alex; Vyskot, Boris

    2013-12-01

    The plant genus Silene has become a model for evolutionary studies of sex chromosomes and sex-determining mechanisms. A recent study performed in Silene colpophylla showed that dioecy and the sex chromosomes in this species evolved independently from those in Silene latifolia, the most widely studied dioecious Silene species. The results of this study show that the sex-determining system in Silene otites, a species related to S. colpophylla, is based on female heterogamety, a sex determination system that is unique among the Silene species studied to date. Our phylogenetic data support the placing of S. otites and S. colpophylla in the subsection Otites and the analysis of ancestral states suggests that the most recent common ancestor of S. otites and S. colpophylla was most probably dioecious. These observations imply that a switch from XX/XY sex determination to a ZZ/ZW system (or vice versa) occurred in the subsection Otites. This is the first report of two different types of heterogamety within one plant genus of this mostly nondioecious plant family. PMID:24299418

  1. La evaluación de materiales didácticos para la educación a distancia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN RAMÓN BAUTISTA; RINA MARTÍNEZ ROMERO; MILA SAINZ IBAÑEZ

    The evaluation of teaching malerials for dista nce education is requi red by both tite accountabilfty process and tite need of professional development. lite particulorities associated to distance education imply that tite models usually applied to otiter models of education cannot be used without tite appropriate attjusttnent. Vais article presents a double theoretical frame both on evaluation and on distance

  2. Pour obtenir le grade de DOCTEUR DE L'UNIVERSIT DE GRENOBLE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lamya le 10 décembre 2010 MECANISMES MOLECULAIRES DE LA BIOGENESE DU PILUS CHEZ STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE FRAN�AIS : Streptococcus pneumoniae est un pathogène majeur chez l'homme, responsable d'otites, de: Molecular Mechanisms of the pneumococcal pilus biogenesis RESUME EN ANGLAIS Streptococcus pneumoniae

  3. Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

  4. Uso precoz de la ventilación mecánica no invasiva en pacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria hipercápnica aguda ingresados en una sala de neumología: estudio prospectivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aydin Ciledag; Akin Kaya; Buket Basa Akdogan; Pinar Akin Kabalak; Zeynep P. Onen; Elif Sen; Banu Gulbay

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIn recent years, the optimal location for noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) has been a matter of debate. Our aim was to detect the effectiveness of NIMV in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) in respiratory ward and factors associated with failure.

  5. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Ear Infections > Swimmer's ... Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa — commonly known as swimmer's ear — is ...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484k - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and squalane topical-otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...externa and as adjunctive therapy in management of chronic otitis externa. The product may also be used for treating moist dermatitis in dogs. (3) Limitations. Tetracaine and neomycin have the potential to sensitize. If signs of irritation...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484k - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and squalane topical-otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...externa and as adjunctive therapy in management of chronic otitis externa. The product may also be used for treating moist dermatitis in dogs. (3) Limitations. Tetracaine and neomycin have the potential to sensitize. If signs of irritation...

  8. Facial Cleanliness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Care: Protect Your Eyes Dental Hygiene "Swimmer’s Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention Print page Get email updates To receive ... Pinworms Pubic Lice ("Crabs") Ringworm (Tinea) Swimmer's Ear (otitis externa) Scabies Trachoma Information for Specific Groups Public Public ...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1044d - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...in dogs in the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa and canine infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria...i) For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa the drug is administered by instillation of...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... For treating infections, allergic, and traumatic keratitis, conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats.1 (3) Limitations. All topical ophthalmic preparations...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin, hydrocortisone, and tetracaine otic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory conditions of the external ear canal, acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...bacterial, mycotic, and inflammatory dermatoses and otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) In treating dermatoses...four drops per square inch) twice daily. In treating otitis externa, five to 15 drops of the drug should be...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin and hydrocortisone ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...For the treatment of infections, allergic and traumatic keratitis, conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... For treating infections, allergic, and traumatic keratitis, conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats.1 (3) Limitations. All topical ophthalmic preparations...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin, thiabendazole, and dexamethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...4 drops per square inch) twice daily. In treating otitis externa, instill 5 to 15 drops in the ear twice daily. Treat...bacterial, mycotic, and inflammatory dermatoses and otitis externa. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...bacterial, mycotic, and inflammatory dermatoses and otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) In treating dermatoses...four drops per square inch) twice daily. In treating otitis externa, five to 15 drops of the drug should be...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...bacterial, mycotic, and inflammatory dermatoses and otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) In treating dermatoses...four drops per square inch) twice daily. In treating otitis externa, five to 15 drops of the drug should be...

  18. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses...relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic...

  19. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses...relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484g - Neomycin sulfate-thiabendazole-dexamethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...bacterial, mycotic, and inflammatory dermatoses and otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) In treating dermatoses...four drops per square inch) twice daily. In treating otitis externa, five to 15 drops of the drug should be...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... For treating infections, allergic, and traumatic keratitis, conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats.1 (3) Limitations. All topical ophthalmic preparations...

  2. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the relief of pruritis and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses...relief of pruritis and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... For treating infections, allergic, and traumatic keratitis, conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats.1 (3) Limitations. All topical ophthalmic preparations...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin, prednisolone, and tetracaine otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ear canal 2 or 3 times daily. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa; as treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear conditions caused by or associated...

  5. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses...relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic...

  6. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic dermatoses...relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain superficial acute and chronic...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin B, and hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B. ...dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B....

  8. 21 CFR 524.1044d - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...for use in dogs in the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa and canine infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin. (2)(i) For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa the drug is...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...useful in treating such conditions as acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. It is indicated as...neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...traumatic keratitis and conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning...be reduced to 1 drop 2 to 4 times daily. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...useful in treating such conditions as acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. It is indicated as...neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...traumatic keratitis and conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning...be reduced to 1 drop 2 to 4 times daily. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the...

  13. Has cerumen a protective role in recurrent external otitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yavuz Selim Pata; Candan Ozturk; Yucel Akbas; Kemal Gorur; Murat Unal; Cengiz Ozcan

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the bactericidal activity of the cerumen in patients with recurrent otitis externa.Materials and methods: Cerumen samples were collected from 2 groups. Group A (n = 20) consisted of patients with recurrent otitis externa (2 or more acute otitis externa attack in the current year) and group B (n = 30) consisted of cerumen from a healthy population.

  14. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...traumatic keratitis and conjunctivitis, acute otitis externa, and chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. (2) For beginning...be reduced to 1 drop 2 to 4 times daily. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...useful in treating such conditions as acute otitis externa and, to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. It is indicated as...neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops may be placed in the...

  16. Niobian rutile from the McGuire granitic pegmatite, Park County, Colorado: Solid solution, exsolution, and oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RON CHAPMAN; WILLIAM B. SIMMONS; LEONARD E. CHACKOWSKY

    Coarse crystals of niobian rutile occur in the hydrothermally altered core-margin zone of the McGuire granitic pegmatite, Park County, Colorado, associated with potassium feldspar, quartz, bi- otite, ilmenite, and monazite-(Ce). Primary homogeneous niobian rutile, with Fe 3+ ? Fe 2+ and a small excess of (Fe,Mn) over the amount required to compensate the incorporation of (Nb,Ta,W), under- went three stages

  17. The effect of an internal versus external focus of attention on the learning of a tennis backhand

    E-print Network

    Maddox, Melinda Dianne

    1999-01-01

    to test the viability of the externaVinternal focus findings for a sport skill was made by Wulf, Lauterbach, and Toole (1999). They had participants perform a golf pitch shot while focusing either on the swing of their arms (i. e. , internal focus.... The pretest data revealed no significant differences in the accuracy scores between the external and internal focus conditions, F (1, 37) & l. Form. The movement form scores for ExternaVField-dependent, ExternaVField- independent, Interna...

  18. Digestive System general organization throughout

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    Digestive System general organization throughout: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa digestive glands salivary pancreas liver (lobes: right, left, caudate, quadrate, diaphragmatic surface, bare

  19. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...use . For the treatment of otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations...

  4. 5-HT-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Elofsson

    1983-01-01

    An immunocytochemical technique with the use of three different antibodies raised against serotonin was applied to localize the immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Immunoreactive neurons were found in three optic ganglia (medulla externa, interna and terminalis). They appeared in three layers of the medulla externa and interna. The medulla terminalis displayed three prominent

  5. Reproductive Stage of the Life Cycle in the Rhizocephalan Barnacle Polyascus polygenea (Crustacea: Cirripedia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M. Korn; A. I. Shukalyuk; A. V. Trofimova; V. V. Isaeva

    2004-01-01

    The specific features of the reproductive stage of the life cycle have been studied in the rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea, a parasite of the coastal crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus. It is shown that a single crab can bear 1 to 8 externae of P. polygenea. The fecundity of the parasite depends on the size of the externae and their number on

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...conditions as acute otitis externa in dogs and to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs. It also is effective in treating anal gland infections and moist dermatitis in the dog and is a useful dressing for minor cuts, lacerations, abrasions, and...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...conditions as acute otitis externa in dogs and to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs. It also is effective in treating anal gland infections and moist dermatitis in the dog and is a useful dressing for minor cuts, lacerations, abrasions, and...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...conditions as acute otitis externa in dogs and to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs. It also is effective in treating anal gland infections and moist dermatitis in the dog and is a useful dressing for minor cuts, lacerations, abrasions, and...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...conditions as acute otitis externa in dogs and to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs. It also is effective in treating anal gland infections and moist dermatitis in the dog and is a useful dressing for minor cuts, lacerations, abrasions, and...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin, isoflupredone, and tetracaine ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs and to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs. It also is effective in treating anal gland infections and moist dermatitis in the dog and is a useful dressing for minor cuts, lacerations, abrasions, and...

  11. Gradenigo's syndrome--surgical management in a child.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Hassan Nabeel; Akhtar, Shabbir; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2011-04-01

    Otits media is a common problem. Some of its complications that were seen frequently in the preantibiotic era are rare today. We report a case of an 8 year boy who presented with earache, retro-orbital pain and diplopia secondary to a sixth nerve palsy--Gradenigo's syndrome. In this syndrome infection from the middle ear spreads medially to the petrous apex of the temporal bone. Work-up includes CT scan of the temporal bones. Timely management with intravenous antibiotics (+ surgery) is needed to prevent intra-cranial complications. PMID:21465982

  12. Annotated chromosome counts of Czechoslovak plants (16–30) (Materials for “Flóra ?SSR”—2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Holub; Josef M?sí?ek

    1971-01-01

    Chromosome counts of the following 15 taxa are given:Eupatorium cannabinum, Gypsophila fastigiata, Helianthemum grandiflorum subsp.obscurum, Helictotrichon desertorum subsp.basalticum, Impatiens parviflora, Inula hirta, Jurinea mollis, Kernera saxatilis, Lembotropis nigricans subsp.nigricans, Malva alcea subsp.excisa, Myosotis nemorosa, Otites pseudotites subsp.cuneifolia, Plantago atrata subsp.carpatica, P. atrata subsp.sudetica, Poa badensis. The chromosome numbers ofHelictotrichon desertorum (as subsp.basalticum) andPlantago atrata subsp.sudetica are given for the first

  13. A Case of Transient, Isolated Cranial Nerve VI Palsy due to Skull Base Osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Brijesh; Souqiyyeh, Anas; Ali, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25045551

  14. A Case of Transient, Isolated Cranial Nerve VI Palsy due to Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ammar

    2014-01-01

    Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy. PMID:25045551

  15. Trade and Financial Liberalization Given External Shocks and Inconsistent Domestic Policies (La libéralisation commerciale et financière: incidence de l'environnement extérieur et effets des politiques intérieures mal adaptées) (Liberalización comercial y financiera en un contexto de perturbaciones externas y de políticas internas incongruentes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsin S. Khan; Roberto Zahler

    1985-01-01

    There is general puzzlement in both academic and policymaking circles about the supposed failure of the liberalization experiments that were undertaken in the mid- to late 1970s by some developing countries, particularly those located in the Southern Cone of Latin America (Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay). Initially these countries were in general commended for undertaking steps to remove restrictions on trade

  16. Otitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Ear infection; Infection - ear ... affect the inner or outer parts of the ear. The condition is classified according to whether it ... long period of time (chronic). Otitis externa (swimmer's ear). Involves the outer ear and ear canal. A ...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ovariohysterectomies. The product may also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute moist dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis in dogs. (2) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ovariohysterectomies. The product may also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute moist dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis in dogs. (2) Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  3. Comparison of three methods for control of postoperative pain in dogs after total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy

    E-print Network

    Buback, Janice Lynelle

    1995-01-01

    provide superior postoperative analgesia. Thirty-one dogs with chronic otitis externa were included in the study. Nineteen dogs were cocker spaniels, with 10 other breeds represented. Ten dogs had previous ear surgery. Dogs were randomly assigned to three...

  4. 21 CFR 522.960c - Flumethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...acute and chronic dermatoses of varying etiology to help control associated pruritus, irritation, and inflammation; otitis externa in conjunction with topical medication; allergic states, e.g., hives, urticaria, and insect bites; and...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin, isoflupredone, tetracaine, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...following ear trimming, castrating, and such surgical procedures as ovariohysterectomies. For the treatment of acute otitis externa, acute moist dermatitis, and interdigital dermatitis in dogs. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts...

  6. Tyrosine phosphatase TpbA controls rugose colony formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by dephosphorylating diguanylate cyclase TpbB

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    with ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary and peritoneal dial- ysis catheters, bacterial keratitis, otitis externa, burns, and lungs [1]. Persistence of this bacterium is linked to its ability to form bio- films

  7. 21 CFR 522.960c - Flumethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...acute and chronic dermatoses of varying etiology to help control associated pruritus, irritation, and inflammation; otitis externa in conjunction with topical medication; allergic states, e.g., hives, urticaria, and insect bites; and...

  8. 21 CFR 522.960c - Flumethasone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...acute and chronic dermatoses of varying etiology to help control associated pruritus, irritation, and inflammation; otitis externa in conjunction with topical medication; allergic states, e.g., hives, urticaria, and insect bites; and...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin, betamethasone, and clotrimazole ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...drops for dogs weighing 30 lb or more. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria...

  10. "Thatness", transaction and craft: the development of John Dewey's esthetics

    E-print Network

    Kallo, Joseph Sandor

    1998-01-01

    noise' prompts an investigation which reveals the harmless nature of its cause. Our experience of the room in James's "Does Consciousness Exist?" marks the beginning of an inquiry into the relations which mark the experience as internal or externa...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...drops for dogs weighing 30 lb or more. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of acute and chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...castrating, and such surgical procedures as ovariohysterectomies. The product may also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute moist dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis in dogs. (2) Federal law restricts this drug...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...castrating, and such surgical procedures as ovariohysterectomies. The product may also be used in the treatment of acute otitis externa in dogs, acute moist dermatitis and interdigital dermatitis in dogs. (2) Federal law restricts this drug...

  14. PUERTORRIQUENA VII12 SANJUAN 1980

    E-print Network

    Sankoff, David

    a influencias linguisticas externas, el ana lisis de su lenguaje nos puede proporcionar datos valiosos sobre la dominicano. Contacto con el espanol Aunque la comunidad americana reside en Samaria desde ha ce tres anos 0

  15. Extending ACT-R 6.0 Dan Bothell

    E-print Network

    .0 System Lisp based Framework Tcl/Tk GUI Meta-process(es) Module Definitions Contr ol Contr ol General Lisp Externa l Sim Contr ol Clock Event queue Event Event Event #12;Devices · By default a device expected

  16. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcer, superficial wounds...dirt, or other detritus. When treating infections of the anal gland, the drug should be introduced into the orifice of...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcer, superficial wounds...dirt, or other detritus. When treating infections of the anal gland, the drug should be introduced into the orifice of...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin, amphomycin, and hydrocortisone ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...daily. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcers, superficial wounds, and superficial abscesses associated with bacterial...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcer, superficial wounds...dirt, or other detritus. When treating infections of the anal gland, the drug should be introduced into the orifice of...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Acute otitis externa, furunculosis, folliculitis, pruritus, anal gland infections, erythema, decubital ulcer, superficial wounds...dirt, or other detritus. When treating infections of the anal gland, the drug should be introduced into the orifice of...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone aceponate, miconazole nitrate, gentamicin sulfate otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone aceponate, miconazole nitrate, gentamicin sulfate otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone, miconazole, and gentamicin otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis,...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis,...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... . For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1044d - Gentamicin and betamethasone ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Indications for use. For the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa and infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis,...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  13. 21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...chronic canine otitis externa associated with yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis , formerly Pityrosporum canis ) and/or bacteria susceptible to gentamicin. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484h - Neomycin, penicillin, polymyxin, hydrocortisone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Indications for use . Treatment of summer eczema, atopic dermatitis, interdigital eczema, and otitis externa caused by bacteria susceptible to neomycin, penicillin, and polymyxin B. (3) Limitations . For use in dogs only. Shake drug...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1445 - Miconazole, polymixin B, and prednisolone suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... For the treatment of canine otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order...

  17. Earache.

    PubMed

    Conover, Keith

    2013-05-01

    Earache, a common emergency department presentation, may be caused by a variety of conditions, some distant from the ear. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, otitis externa, otitis media with ruptured tympanic membrane or tympanostomy tubes, malignant otitis externa, mastoiditis and petrositis, traumatic ruptured tympanic membrane, cerumen impactions, and foreign bodies in the ears. PMID:23601480

  18. REDES DE COMPUTADORES UFPB / CCT / DSC / PSN, 2001 * Parte 2: Arquitetura -Camada de Aplicao * Pg. 1

    E-print Network

    Cirne, Walfredo

    REDES DE COMPUTADORES © UFPB / CCT / DSC / PSN, 2001 * Parte 2: Arquitetura - Camada de Aplicação * Pág. 1 2.5 A CAMADA DE APLICAÇÃO ! A camada de aplicação fornece os serviços "reais" de rede para os sistema de computação seguro. Você meramente tem de desconectar seu sistema de qualquer rede externa, e

  19. Semana 24-28 de Agosto, 2009 Highlights 102

    E-print Network

    transmisión colinérgica, como es la enfermedad de Alzheimer, a partir de moléculas "líder" de origen natural Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Polit cnico Nacional, Apartado 14-740, M xico, D. F., 07000 M xico J. Med Avanzados del Instituto Polit cnico Nacional., Secci n Externa de Farmacolog a, Centro de Investigaci n y

  20. Incidence and burden of earaches due to recreational swimming: Results from a nationwide study ofover 50,000 respondents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Earaches and ear pain due to outer ear infections (otitis externa) are common following swimming and can result in time lost from work and school and visits to the physician or hospital. Objectives: Determine the proportion of self-reported earache attributable to ma...

  1. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...weighing more than 35 lb; applied twice daily for up to 14 days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  2. Numerical Relaxation Approach for Solving the General Ginzburg-Landau Equations for Type-Ii Superconductors

    E-print Network

    WANG, ZD; Hu, Chia-Ren.

    1991-01-01

    . Rnd ches t e curves p butions o h h Rpproac the distri ic ba From tic geld ext'1 magne ~e comppute Hext the externa ~, as&~?tical field ~ h;?al relaiioower cri dformof t eviscretizeon the d )2(~ . + 2Ffield critical kin od namic c ext...

  3. Intellectual virtues, responsibility, and justification

    E-print Network

    Mihut, Cristian Florin

    1999-01-01

    how epistemic responsibility is connected to the exercise of externaUy reliable inteHectual virtues. I argue that both these accounts fail to establish a convincing connection, and even if the connection would be established, it would not hold...

  4. [The treatment of acute inflammation of the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Turovski?, A B; Ivo?lov, A I; Shadrin, G B; Lavrova, A S

    2014-01-01

    The authors propose the differential approach to the treatment of acute inflammation of otitis media and otitis externa taking into consideration etiology of the disease. Its clinical form and stage. Special attention is given to the method of local treatment including the use of various eardrops. The results of their comparative assessment are presented. PMID:25246213

  5. Control orientation and social perception of an alcoholic population

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Robert Millard

    1975-01-01

    persons than more internal handi- capped subjects. "Externa1s were said to have a lesser tendency to deny threatening stimuli, while internals were seen as more threatened because of the challenge to control that a handicap represents [Lef- court, 1973...

  6. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...weighing more than 35 lb; applied twice daily for up to 14 days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  7. Electric Utility Demand-Side Evaluation Methodologies

    E-print Network

    Treadway, N.

    ;' ' Finally, the Societal Test is used to estimate impacts on society at large. The equations are specified such that either a social rate of time preference or a market discount rate may be used. In certain cases, it is required that externa1ities...

  8. Site location of fat migration during cooking of beef loin steaks with external fat still attached

    E-print Network

    Goihl, Diane Marie

    1989-01-01

    RIGHT Rw Cw Cw POSTERIOR ~ C wo = cooked without external fat trim (0. 0 cm) * A wo = raw witho ut externa I fat trim (0. 0 cm) * C w = cooked with external lat trim (0. 64 cm) *R w = raw with external latlrim(0, 64 cm) Fig. 1 - Two paired, bee...

  9. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...weighing more than 35 lb; applied twice daily for up to 14 days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  10. Polyimide Capacitive Humidity Sensors

    E-print Network

    Lofgren, H.; Mills, F.

    1988-01-01

    an both sides of the film. lhen the printed film is heat-, cut to eize anl mxlnted in a housirg externaZly aowssible metdl cmbcb. 'Ihe dthg qcitive sensor can be mmted an a cwt M. Ihe - is ahcwn in Figure 4. - wh-l the relative hlnnidity -1...

  11. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin and silver sulfadiazine otic emulsion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...weighing more than 35 lb; applied twice daily for up to 14 days. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  12. Occurrence and Population Size of Malassezia spp. in the External Ear Canal of Dogs and Cats Both Healthy and with Otitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Cafarchia; Sabrina Gallo; Gioia Capelli; Domenico Otranto

    2005-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are commensal organisms of human and animal skin that occasionally act as pathogens; lipid-dependent species are associated with human skin disorders. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence, risk factors and population size of different species of Malassezia in the external ear canal of dogs and cats with and without otitis externa. Between 2001 and

  13. SISTEMAS DE RECOMENDACIÓN EN EL COMERCIO ELECTRÓNICO Y LA E-EDUCACIÓN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLAUDIA CONSTANZA CABAL CRUZ; FRANCISCO J. MARTÍNEZ LÓPEZ; VALENTÍN MOLINA MORENO

    2010-01-01

    Resumen La cantidad de información disponible y su dispersión, hace que los individuos acudan a fuentes de información externas a la hora de tomar decisiones de compra o cuando están buscando información con fines académicos y\\/o investigativos, a fin de obtener recomendaciones que optimicen el uso de sus recursos. En el contexto de internet, se han desarrollado aplicaciones denominadas Sistemas

  14. El desarrollo sostenible y los recursos naturales no renovables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elkin Vargas Pimiento

    1997-01-01

    El presente artículo se compone de los siguientes aspectos: -La caracterización de los recursos naturales no renovables como objeto de estudio en la disciplina económica, mostrando su importancia para el desarrollo de la civilización industrial y la calidad de vida y advirtiendo que se trata de recursos que existen en una cantidad limitada, localizados en las parles más externas de

  15. Page 1 of 9 Curriculum Vitae (Apr' 2014)

    E-print Network

    Aragón Alcaraz, Juan Luis

    Murcia (Spain) followed by a 1-year postdoctoral stay as a Visiting Assistant Professor and Researcher interests are focused on CMP architectures, core processor microarchitecture, energy-efficient and reliable). FELLOWSHIPS & GRANTS RECEIVED Mar'13 ­ July'13 Research Mobility Fellowship (Beca para Estancias Externas de

  16. O IMAGINÁRIO BRASILEIRO, HUMOR E SÁTIRA: CONTEXTO ADEQUADO À RECEPÇÃO DAS OBRAS DE MARK TWAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Idegar Alves BARREIRO

    2005-01-01

    Este texto enfoca o contexto brasileiro de fins de 1800 às primeiras décadas de 1900, apresentando características culturais, sociais e políticas do Brasil naquele período, mostrando uma sociedade em transformação, susceptível a influências externas, especialmente norte- americanas. Evidenciamos, também, o humor e a sátira como parte integrante na formação do imaginário brasileiro. Parte final daquele período coincide com a Belle

  17. Integracin de ERNCs a los sistemas elctricos chilenos

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Incorporación de ERNC en la matriz energética de Chile Cámara de Diputados de Chile y Ministerio de Energía Santiago, 6 Mayo 2013 Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile #12 · A una visión integral técnica-ambiental-social #12;Las renovables reducen la dependencia externa Fuente

  18. Evaluacin de Diseo 2009 del Programa I. DATOS DE IDENTIFICACIN DEL PROGRAMA

    E-print Network

    Presupuesto B00 Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Yoloxóchitl Bustamante Díez , Directora General D00 Instituto este análisis puedan retroalimentar el diseño y la gestión del programa VII. Costo total de la evaluación externa, especificando la fuente de financiamiento. Costo total: $500,000 Fuente de financiamiento

  19. Evaluacin Especfica de Desempeo 2009 del Programa I. DATOS DE IDENTIFICACIN DEL PROGRAMA

    E-print Network

    General de Presupuesto B00 Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Yoloxóchitl Bustamante Díez , Directora General, que contribuya a la toma de decisiones. VII. Costo total de la evaluación externa, especificando la fuente de financiamiento. Costo total: 169,000 Fuente de financiamiento: Recursos Presupuestales 2010 de

  20. Estudo sobre as alterações da função sexual em mulheres com lesão medular resistentes na cidade de Ribeirão Preto\\/SP Study of sexual function alterations in women with spinal cord injuries in the city of Ribeirao Preto, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Canova Sodré; Ana Cristina

    2008-01-01

    nível de ensino fundamental (49%), analfabetismo (9%). Apresentaram etiologia traumática (100%), nível lombar (53%), seguido do cervical (27%), torácica (16%) e sacral (4%,). Das causas externas constatamos acidente automobilístico (29%), 12% de queda, em terceiro encontra-se o ferimento por arma de fogo (FAF), levantamento de peso, atropelamento e acidente de motocicleta 8% cada, mergulho em águas rasas e espancamento, com

  1. PROCESSES AFFECTING THE FATE OF OIL IN THE SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using research results reported from oil spills, laboratory experiments and microcosm studies, this review outlines the many processes controlling the behavior of petroleum in marine waters. The fate of oil spilled at sea depends on the composition of the oil, and on such externa...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

  5. LA DECISIÓN DE INNOVAR DE LAS EMPRESAS TURÍSTICAS: UN ANÁLISIS EMPÍRICO DE LA INDUSTRIA HOSTELERA \\/ THE INNOVATION DECISION OF TOURISM FIRMS: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. López-Fernández; A. M. Serrano-Bedia; R Gómez-López

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza los factores de índole tanto interna como externa que pueden ser determinantes en la decisión de emprender actividades innovadoras en las empresas hosteleras. Para llevar a cabo la contrastación empírica de las hipótesis propuestas se ha utilizado un modelo de regresión logística binaria. El estudio empírico utiliza una muestra de 443 empresas que forman parte de la

  6. DESTACADOS CONTENIDOS FORMACIN Y COLABORACIN

    E-print Network

    Formación institucional 23 Asesoría externa 24 Otras labores de calidad 25 Colaboración 27 Internacional.CSIC. Anatomía de un repositorio 48 Anexo: nombres y acrónimos de institutos/centros CSIC 49 #12;DESTACADOS 24.CSIC Resultado del Fondo institucional para publicar en acceso abierto: 55 artículos en Biomed Central y en Royal

  7. Organic synthesis via magnetic attraction: benign and sustainable protocols using magnetic nanoferrites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetic nano-catalysts have been prepared using simple modification of iron ferrites wherein their quasi-homogeneous state, because of nm size range, facilitates the catalysis process as increased surface is available for reaction; the easy separation of the catalysts by externa...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin and betamethasone otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

  10. Pictorial Review Computed Tomography Imaging of the Temporal

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    but it should still be evaluated on images in cases of possible involvement by disease processes such as infection in otitis externa or developmental anomaly. The lateral third of the external auditory canal bone. The external auditory canal is lined by closely adherent skin which contains hair follicles

  11. Sulphide quinone reductase contributes to hydrogen sulphide metabolism in murine peripheral tissues but not in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Linden, DR; Furne, J; Stoltz, GJ; Abdel-Rehim, MS; Levitt, MD; Szurszewski, JH

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is gaining acceptance as a gaseous signal molecule. However, mechanisms regarding signal termination are not understood. We used stigmatellin and antimycin A, inhibitors of sulphide quinone reductase (SQR), to test the hypothesis that the catabolism of H2S involves SQR. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH H2S production and consumption were determined in living and intact mouse brain, liver and colonic muscularis externa using gas chromatography and HPLC. Expressions of SQR, ethylmalonic encephalopathy 1 (Ethe1) and thiosulphate transferase (TST; rhodanese) were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS In the colonic muscularis externa, H235S was catabolized to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, and stigmatellin reduced both the consumption of H235S and formation of [35S]-thiosulphate. Stigmatellin also enhanced H2S release by the colonic muscularis externa. In the brain, catabolism of H235S to [35S]-thiosulphate and [35S]-sulphate, which was stigmatellin-insensitive, partially accounted for H235S consumption, while the remainder was captured as unidentified 35S that was probably bound to proteins. Levels of mRNA encoding SQR were higher in the colonic muscularis externa and the liver than in the brain. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These data support the concept that termination of endogenous H2S signalling in the colonic muscularis externa occurs via catabolism to thiosulphate and sulphate partially via a mechanism involving SQR. In the brain, it appears that H2S signal termination occurs partially through protein sequestration and partially through catabolism not involving SQR. As H2S has beneficial effects in animal models of human disease, we suggest that selective inhibition of SQR is an attractive target for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21950400

  12. El Régimen de Especialización Industrial argentino: ¿política industrial de nueva generación o mera transferencia de recursos?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Sirlin; Facultad de Ciencias

    1999-01-01

    La combinación de una apertura comercial acelerada con una aguda apreciación del tipo de cambio fue el contexto, a partir de 1991, en que la industria argentina tuvo que desarrollar su proceso de reestructuración productiva. La insuficiencia de las fuerzas espontáneas del mercado para catalizar este proceso de transformación llevó al gobierno argentino a aplicar una serie de medidas tendientes

  13. Influência da utilização da órtese de tornozelo durante atividades do voleibol: avaliação eletromiográfica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jefferson Rosa Cardoso; Christiane de Souza Macedo Guerino; Marcelo Bannwart Santos; Thiago André Del Arco Mustafá; Anália Rosário Lopes; Marcelo Costa de Paula

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO Entorse de tornozelo é a lesão aguda mais freqüentemente en- contrada no voleibol. Com o intuito de prevenir a ocorrência de lesões de tornozelos, foram desenvolvidos equipamentos profilá- ticos, como as órteses. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o de- sempenho dos músculos do tornozelo (tibial anterior, fibular longo e gastrocnêmio - porção medial e lateral) por meio da

  14. Sarcoma granulocítico de sistema nervoso central pós transplante de medula óssea: relato de caso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cláudio Esteves Tatsui; Andrei Koerbel; Daniel Monte-Serrat Prevedello; João Candido Araújo; Léo Fernando da Silva Ditzel; Luis Fernando Bleggi-Torres

    2002-01-01

    RESUMO - Sarcoma granulocítico é tumor sólido, constituído por células precursoras de granulócitos, localizado em sítio extra medular. Geralmente surge precedendo uma leucemia mielóide aguda ou concomitantem ente a ela, sendo considerado fator de mau prognóstico. Tem como principais modalidades terapêuticas a radioterapia e a quimioterapia. Um caso de sarcoma granulocítico intracraniano ocorrido seis meses após transplante de medula óssea

  15. UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARAN -SETOR DE CINCIAS DA SADE SIBI -BIBLIOTECA DE CINCIAS DA SADE -SD

    E-print Network

    Paraná, Universidade Federal do

    --is there a link? NDT Plus, p.1-2, 2009. 2009 PubMed Artigo José Gastão Rocha de Carvalho et al. Reserva renal em Medline Artigo José Gastão Rocha de Carvalho et al. Alterações ponderais no pós-transplante renal. Revista, 2006. 2006 Lilacs Medline Artigo #12;José Gastão Rocha de Carvalho et al. Insuficiência renal aguda

  16. CIAA -2011 Diviso de Astrofsica

    E-print Network

    estruturas visíveis durante eclipses totais. #12;Cromosfera - imagem de Ca II #12;Cromosfera - imagem de H mais externa e tênue · Extende-se por milhões de km · Visível apenas durante eclipses totais Raios-X em abundância · Matéria na forma de plasma · RA - arcos magnéticos #12;Coroa solar - Eclipse

  17. Conferencia de Consenso sobre la braquiterapia en cáncer de mama en estadios iniciales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guedea; L. Arribas; F. Casquero; C. Cinos; V. Crispin; A. Gracia; J. L. Guinot; I. Monteiro-Grillo; V. Munoz; J. Pera; A. Polo; L. Linares; H. Marsiglia; J. J. Mazeron

    2003-01-01

    Resumen  Existe una controversia desde hace décadas sobre el papel de la sobredosis después de la radioterapia externa en el tratamiento\\u000a conservador de cáncer de mama inicial. En el caso de comparar la supervivencia y el control local de un tratamiento conservador\\u000a frente a la mastectomía, existen en la literatura 5 estudios randomizados1–5 y un metaanálisis6 que demuestran que la radioterapia

  18. LICENCIATURA EN ADMINISTRACIN Y DIRECCIN DE EMPRESAS CALENDARIO DE EXMENES 2012/13

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    -may 5-jul Opt. 9071 Análisis Financiero 1 Cuat 29-oct 17-ene 10-jul Opt. 9118 Auditoría Externa 1 Cuat Datos Financieros (9014) 1 Cuat. 26-oct 23-ene 8-jul Opt. 9131 Comportamiento del Consumidor 1 Cuat 19 Historia Empresarial 1 Cuat 26-nov 22-ene 28-jun Opt. 9068 Instituciones y Mercados Financieros 1 Cuat 10

  19. Variation in Plant Defense against Invasive Herbivores: Evidence for a Hypersensitive Response in Eastern Hemlocks ( Tsuga canadensis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Radville; Arielle Chaves; Evan L. Preisser

    2011-01-01

    Herbivores can trigger a wide array of morphological and chemical changes in their host plants. Feeding by some insects induces\\u000a a defensive hypersensitive response, a defense mechanism consisting of elevated H2O2 levels and tissue death at the site of herbivore feeding. The invasive hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (‘HWA’) and elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa (‘EHS’) feed on eastern hemlocks;

  20. Range expansion and population dynamics of co-occurring invasive herbivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan L. Preisser; Alexandra G. Lodge; David A. Orwig; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2008-01-01

    Although a range of studies have suggested that competition plays a critical role in determining herbivore assemblages, there\\u000a has been little work addressing the nature of interactions between competing invasive herbivores. We report the results of\\u000a research on the hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (‘HWA’) and elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa (‘EHS’), invasive herbivores that both feed on eastern hemlock

  1. Otalgia in children.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, A. K.; Fong, J. H.; Leong, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    Otalgia is a common symptom in the pediatric age group. The most common cause is acute otitis media, followed by otitis externa. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis can be established by a thorough history and a careful otologic examination. When the otologic findings are normal and the etiology is obscure, a thorough work-up to determine the source of referred pain is essential. Laboratory investigations are usually not necessary. Treatment should always be directed at the underlying cause. PMID:10881475

  2. In vitro and in vivo activity of a killer peptide against Malassezia pachydermatis causing otitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Immediato, Davide; Paola, Giancarlo Di; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Otranto, Domenico; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-05-01

    In order to overcome the limitations inherent in current pharmacological treatments for Malassezia pachydermatis, the cause of otitis externa in dogs, the efficacy of a killer decapeptide (KP) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Sixteen dogs with naturally occurring M. pachydermatis otitis externa were enrolled, and the in vitro fungicidal activity of KP was evaluated using yeasts recovered from these animals. The therapeutic activity was evaluated in four groups of four animals each. The dogs were topically treated with KP (150 ?l, 2 mg/ml) three times per week (group A) or every day (group B), treated with a scramble peptide every day (group C), or left untreated (group D). Assessment of clinical signs (pruritus, erythema, and lichenification and/or hyperpigmentation), expressed as mean of the total clinical index score (mTCIS), the population size of M. pachydermatis at the cytological examination (mean number of yeast cells at 40× magnification [mYC]), and culture testing (mean number of log10 CFU/swab [mCFU]), were conducted daily from the first day of treatment (T0) until two consecutive negative cultures (mCFU ? 2). KP showed an in vitro fungicidal effect against M. pachydermatis isolates, with an MFC90 value of 1 ?g/ml. The mTCIS, mYC and mCFU were negative only in animals in group B after T8. Daily administration of KP for 8 days was safe and effective in controlling both clinical signs and the population size of M. pachydermatis causing otitis externa, thus offering an alternative to the currently available therapeutic or prophylactic protocols for recurrent cases of Malassezia otitis in dogs. PMID:24625672

  3. Microstructure Features of Proventriculus and Ultrastructure of the Gastric Gland Cells in Chinese Taihe Black-bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Ge, T; Peng, S; Zhong, S; Zhou, Z

    2014-11-28

    To investigate microstructure of proventriculus and ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells from Chinese Taihe black-bone silky fowl (BSF), the proventriculus of 4-week-old BSF was sampled. Conventional histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used in this study. The wall of the Taihe BSF proventriculus was consisted of four layers, the mucous, submucosa, muscularis externa and the serosa as others birds. The muscularis externa of the birds' proventriculus contained three layers. Much of the melanin was present in loose connective tissue of lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis externa unlike others. In addition, the ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells was observed by TEM. There was only one kind of gland cell, for example oxynticopeptic cell in proventriculus of Taihe BSF. The oxynticopeptic cells contained numerous mitochondria, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (CRER), intracellular canaliculi (IC) that secrete hydrochloric acid and small amounts of pepsinogen granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was irregular cisternae with ribosomes and surrounded tightly the mitochondria along their configuration. The electron-dense pepsinogen granules were round with various sizes. The neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells were closed up with tight junction and gap junction. The inter-space between the neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells was stenosis or was filled with electron-dense extracellular substance. In conclusion, the gastric gland cells of Chinese Taihe BSF proventriculus were only oxynticopeptic cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, but no parietal cells and chief cells of mammal. The gastric gland cells of proventriculus were underdeveloped compared with those of mammals. PMID:25430887

  4. External Ophthalmomyiasis Due to Dermatobia hominis Masquerading As Orbital Cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Alsaif, Norah; Liao, Sophie; Tse, David T

    2014-09-15

    Human parasitization by oestrid flies is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case of ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Dermatobia hominis infestation in a 10-year-old female. Misdiagnosis resulted in a delay in treatment, which can be potentially devastating in cases of orbital or ocular involvement. The treatment of choice is early surgical removal of the larvae to minimize the inflammatory response and the extent of surgery. Patients should also be screened for multiple sites of cutaneous infestation. When the organism is completely excised, the prognosis is good. PMID:25226095

  5. An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of intermediate filaments in the ovary of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Madekurozwa, M-C

    2007-10-01

    The immunohistochemical localization of the intermediate filaments desmin, vimentin and smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the ovary of the emu was described in the present study. The cortical region of the ovary contained developing and atretic primordial, pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic follicles. Vimentin immunostaining was demonstrated in the granulosa cell layer of primordial, pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic developing and atretic follicles. An interesting finding of the present study was the localization of SMA in fibroblasts located in the theca externa of late vitellogenic follicles. The presence of SMA in these fibroblasts suggests that they possess characteristics of smooth muscle cells. PMID:17845222

  6. Vibrant Soundbridge rehabilitation of conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lüers, Jan-Christoffer; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2014-12-01

    The Vibrant Soundbridge is the world's most often implanted active middle ear implant or hearing aid. During the last few years, the device indications have expanded from sensorineural hearing loss to conductive and mixed hearing loss. Titanium couplers have led to improved contact of the floating mass transducer with the middle ear structures. The resulting hearing gain is satisfying for most patients, but so far, there is no clear audiologic advantage over conventional hearing aids. Currently, the indications are mainly related to intolerance of conventional hearing aids (eg, chronic otitis externa), severe mixed hearing loss with a destructed middle ear and certain medical diagnosis (eg, congenital atresia). PMID:25282039

  7. Management of osteomyelitis of the skull base

    SciTech Connect

    Benecke, J.E. Jr. (Otologic Medical Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Osteomyelitis of the skull base is the most severe form of malignant otitis externa. As a result of having treated 13 patients with skull base osteomyelitis over a 4-year period, we have developed a method of staging and monitoring this malady using gallium and technetium scanning techniques. Stage I is localized to soft tissues, stage II is limited osteomyelitis, and stage III represents extensive skull base osteomyelitis. All stages are treated with appropriate antipseudomonal antibiotics. The duration of therapy depends upon the clearing of inflammation as shown on the gallium scan. Each case must be looked at independently and not subjected to an arbitrary treatment protocol.

  8. Optimum management of the discharging ear.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, J; Bickerton, R C

    1992-02-01

    Discharge from the ear can be the result of many disease processes. The ear may discharge blood, pus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or wax. Keratosis obturans, stenosis of the external meatus and benign tumours of the external meatus all lead to wax build-up, which may cause recurrent attacks of otitis externa. Malignant tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and tumours of ceruminous gland origin may also present with discharge. Tumours should be excluded by submitting all material removed from the external canal for histological examination. Single or multiple abscesses (known as furuncles) may occur in the hair follicles in the skin of the external acoustic meatus (EAM). Compulsive scratching, hearing aids and foreign bodies placed in the ear predispose to otitis externa, which is also often associated with infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and faecal organisms. Management may be with aluminium acetate 14%, topical antibiotic/steroid drops, a gauze wick soaked with icthammol 10% in glycerin or polymyxin B sulphate--neomycin sulphate--hydrocortisone acetate cream placed into the EAM and replaced every 24 to 48 hours, or systemic antibiotics according to severity. Malignant (necrotising) otitis externa causes progressive destruction of the temporal bone, and cranial nerve palsies (usually facial first). Treatment is limited debridement of infected bone, accompanied by intravenous aminoglycosides, and local antibiotic treatment and aural cleanout or oral ciprofloxacin. Middle ear conditions causing discharge include acute otitis media, infected grommets, traumatic perforations and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as tumours of the ear canal skin and middle ear, radiation-induced otitis externa and osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, tuberculosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, spontaneous or post-traumatic CSF leaks, Wegeners granulomatosis and immune deficiency states. Topical application of aminoglycoside antibiotics to the middle ear of laboratory animals such as rats, guinea pigs and chinchillas causes sensorineural hearing loss, an effect rarely seen clinically in humans. If the external acoustic meatus and tympanic membrane are obscured by discharge cotton buds, microsuction equipment or syringing are used to remove it. It is often useful to initiate treatment (usually with topical drops, wicks or an oral antibiotic) with a provisional diagnosis. A full examination and adequate visualisation of the tympanic membrane must eventually be performed, if necessary under anaesthesia, or else serious progressive conditions may be neglected. The most useful initial investigation is a swab sent for bacteriological assessment; other investigations are usually indicated by clinical findings and the provisional diagnosis. PMID:1372220

  9. Phaeohyphomycosis and onychomycosis due to Chaetomium spp., including the first report of Chaetomium brasiliense infection.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Mencl, Karel; Skorepova, Magdalena; Lyskova, Pavlina; Zalabska, Eva

    2011-10-01

    Chaetomium species have been rarely described as aetiological agents of invasive and dermatomycotic infections in humans. The majority of cases have been reported within the last two decades. Treatment failed in most of these cases. In this paper we present two cases in which Chaetomium spp. can be clearly identified as an aetiological agent in pathological conditions. In the first report, we describe a new aetiological agent, Chaetomium brasiliense, which was implicated in a case of otitis externa in a patient with spinocellular carcinoma basis cranii. The patient had been repeatedly treated for relapsing otitis externa and had previously undergone surgery several times for otitis media. The fungal aetiology was confirmed by repeated positive culture and histologic studies. The second case involved onychomycosis with strikingly brown nail discoloration due to Chaetomium globosum in an otherwise healthy patient. The nail lesion was successfully cured by oral terbinafine. The determination of both species was supported by sequencing of rDNA regions. The morphological aspect of Chaetomium spp. identification is also discussed. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that both isolates were susceptible to terbinafine and azole derivates except fluconazole. Amphotericin B was effective only against the C. brasiliense strain. We review the literature to summarize clinical presentations, histologic findings, and treatment strategies. PMID:21466265

  10. The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users.

    PubMed

    Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor

    2014-05-01

    Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated. PMID:24948963

  11. In vitro growth versus inhibition of growth of Malassezia pachydermatis in the presence of the antibacterial drug gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Baroni, Adone; Parisi, Annamaria; Borriello, Flavia Elena; Caputo, Pina; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Nizza, Sandra; Nocera, Francesca Paola; Fiorito, Filomena; De Martino, Luisa

    2015-02-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal cutaneous microbiota of most warm-blooded vertebrates and is associated with otitis externa and seborrhoeic dermatitis in dogs and cats. In this study, we evaluated the growth capacity of nine M. pachydermatis strains on Sabouraud medium in the presence of a high concentration of gentamicin. Strains of M. pachydermatis cultured on Sabouraud medium in the presence of 50 and 100 µg gentamicin ml(-1) displayed different growth patterns such as growth or lack of growth. We hypothesized that this difference in growth of M. pachydermatis strains was correlated with the different genotypes of the strains. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied for genetic typing of M. pachydermatis isolates, derived from the external ears of house pet cats suffering from otitis externa. The M. pachydermatis strains were cultured on commercial or home-made Sabouraud medium supplemented or not with gentamicin. RAPD analysis demonstrated a genetic heterogeneity between each strain. In particular, five out of nine strains tested were able to form colonies in the presence of gentamicin. However, a correlation between M. pachydermatis genotype and growth capacity in the presence of gentamicin was not widely demonstrated. PMID:25627206

  12. The clinical implications of ear canal debris in hearing aid users

    PubMed Central

    Orji, Foster Tochukwu; O. Onyero, Emmanuel; Agbo, Christian Ejiofor

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The ear irritations suffered by hearing aid (HA) users are yet to be related to the clinical state of canal. We undertook this study to examine the nature of debris and the microbial flora of ears of hearing aid users, as well as evaluate the determinant factors of ear irritation in this population. Methods : An observational clinical study was carried out involving 32 unilateral hearing aid users recruited from ENT clinic of a tertiary referral center. Each subject underwent otoscopic assessment of canal debris and microbial analysis of swab cultures taken from the hearing aid-wearing ear and contralateral normal ear without hearing aid. Results : Canal debris [wax (28%), fungal deposits (19%), bacteria exudates (13%)]. as well as microorganisms were identified in significant number of ears with hearing aids than ears without hearing aid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006 respectively). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the commonest identified bacteria. Others were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Intolerable irritations of hearing aid wearing ears were significantly associated with bacterial and fungal otitis externa, and ear discharge (P = 0.005, 0.02, 0.03 respectively). Conclusions : This study demonstrates that using hearing aid alters the ear canal flora; increases risk of both fungal and bacterial otitis externa, as well as encourage wax debris formation, with resultant ear irritations. To ensure compliance their ears should periodically be attended to, by de-waxing or given topical antimicrobial agents where indicated. PMID:24948963

  13. Preferential distribution of anionic sites on the basement membrane and the abluminal aspect of the endothelium in fenestrated capillaries

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Cationized ferritin (CF) was injected interstitially to study the distribution of anionic sites on the basement membrane and abluminal aspect of the endothelium in the fenestrated capillaries of the mouse pancreas and intestinal mucosa. Extensive, but uneven removal of the basement membrane was obtained by collagenase perfusion of the vasculature before CF labeling. In the absence of collagenase treatment, CF label was essentially restricted to the lamina rara externa of the basement membrane and occurred in clusters distributed in a relatively ordered planar lattice. After collagenase digestion, labeling of the lamina rara interna and of the abluminal aspect of the endothelium became possible. In the lamina rara interna, the CF label occurred in clusters with a distribution comparable to that found in the lamina rara externa. On the abluminal aspect of the endothelium, the plasmalemma proper was extensively, though variably, labeled. Coated pits were heavily labeled, whereas the membranes and stomatal diaphragms of plasmalemmal vesicles and transendothelial channels remained free of CF decoration. In contradistinction with the heavy labeling of their luminal aspects, the abluminal surface of the fenestral diaphragms were free of any CF decoration. Pronase treatment removed all anionic sites detectable by CF binding. The findings establish the existence of differentiated microdomains on the abluminal aspect of the endothelial plasmalemma and suggest that the capillary wall selects permeant macromolecules according to charge, in addition to size. PMID:6815207

  14. Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Lyskova, Pavlina; Frisvad, Jens C; Peterson, Stephen W; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-08-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of ?-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were reidentified as A. carneus (sect. Terrei) and A. flavus (sect. Flavi). Three isolates from nail scrapings were identified as A. tritici, a verified agent of nondermatophyte onychomycosis. One isolate from toenail was determined to be A. candidus and the two isolates belonged to a hitherto undescribed species, Aspergillus pragensis sp. nov. This species is well supported by phylogenetic analysis based on ?-tubulin and calmodulin gene and is distinguishable from other members of sect. Candidi by red-brown reverse on malt extract agar, slow growth on Czapek-Dox agar and inability to grow at 37°C. A secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents using the Etest and disc diffusion method. Overall sect. Candidi members are highly susceptible to common antifungals. PMID:24951723

  15. Dynamics of interleukin-1 production in middle ear fluid during acute otitis media treated with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Barzilai, A; Leibovitz, E; Laver, J H; Piglansky, L; Raiz, S; Abboud, M R; Fliss, D M; Leiberman, A; Dagan, R

    1999-01-01

    In an ongoing prospective study, IL-1 concentrations were measured in 78 children (aged 3-36 months) with acute otitis media receiving antibiotics. Middle ear fluid IL-1 concentrations were determined using ELISA kits. Ninety-eight middle ear fluid samples were obtained by tympanocentesis at enrollment (day 1) and 43 samples were collected on days 4-5. Ninety-two pathogens were isolated in 77/98 samples obtained on day 1: 55 Haemophilus influenzae, 34 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 Moraxella catarrhalis and 1 Streptococcus pyogenes. Among 37 paired samples initially culture-positive, eradication of the pathogen was achieved on day 4-5 in 20 while pathogens were still present in 17. On day 1, IL-1 was detected in 61/77 (79%) culture-positive samples vs 9/21 (43%) culture-negative ones (P = 0.003). The mean +/- SD middle ear fluid concentration of IL-1 on day 1 was significantly higher in culture-positive (316 +/- 508 pg/ml) than in culture-negative samples (111 +/- 245 pg/ml) (P = 0.01). When paired samples were evaluated, IL-1 decreased on days 4-5 in 13/20 (65%) ears where bacterial eradication was achieved, but also in 11/19 (58%) with persistent or new infection. The mean IL-1 concentrations decreased on days 4-5 in the 20 samples from ears where bacterial eradication was achieved (330 +/- 460 vs 118 +/- 294 pg/ml, P = 0.1) but also in the 17 samples where it was not (465 +/- 660 vs 232 +/- 289 pg/ml, P = 0.02). No significant differences were found between day 1 and days 4-5 in the mean IL-1 concentrations measured in patients with H. influenzae vs S. pneumoniae or concomitant H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae. It was concluded that: 1) IL-1 was detected in the middle ear fluid of most patients with acute otitis media; 2) significantly higher IL-1 concentrations were found in patients with culture-positive than in those with culture-negative acute otits media; 3) IL-1 concentrations decreased on days 4-5 of antibiotic therapy, whether the pathogen was eradicated or not. PMID:10378127

  16. Red eye: Rule out Ophthalmomyiasis too

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pankaj; Rathore, Mahesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Premchand; Lakhtakia, Sujata; Chalisgaonkar, Charudatt; Dwivedi, Anamika

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis is the infestation of human eye by the larvae of certain flies. Sheep botfly commonly manifests as Ophthalmomyiasis externa when there is conjunctival involvement or rarely as Opthalmomyiasis interna when there is larval penetration into the eyeball. It appears to be more common than what has been indicated by previously published reports. We present a report of seven cases of Ophthalmomyiasis by Oestrus ovis, from central India who presented with features of conjunctivitis varying between mild to severe. The larvae were seen in bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva and also entangled in lashes with discharge. Since the larvae are photophobic, it is prudent to look for them in the fornices and also in discharge. Prompt removal of the larvae from the conjunctiva helps in relieving the symptoms and also prevents serious complications. Taxonomic identification of the species is important to estimate the risk of globe penetration by the larvae. PMID:23803482

  17. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-03-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  18. Ear problems and injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Cassaday, Kacie; Vazquez, Gerardo; Wright, Justin M

    2014-01-01

    The ear is an unique organ--the principal structure involved in both hearing and balance. Although not common, problems with the ear may be encountered in specific sporting populations. Common conditions affecting the ear in the athlete include otitis externa, an infection of the external ear; external auditory canal exostoses, or abnormal bony growths in the canal; and otitis media, an infection of the middle ear. Given its position on the head, the ear is subject to trauma, often resulting in an auricular hematoma. Divers, due to pressure changes on descent and ascent, are subject to both ear barotrauma and ear decompression sickness. This article will discuss recognition, treatment, and prevention of these conditions affecting the ear in the athlete. PMID:24412886

  19. Foramen of Huschke (tympanicum) in a Nigerian male with articular soft-tissue herniation into the external auditory meatus.

    PubMed

    Olarinoye-Akorede, S A; Olanrewaju, I S; Suleiman, A O

    2014-01-01

    The protrusion of articular soft-tissue from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) into the external ear in the absence of trauma, neoplasm or inflammation is rare. We present below a Nigerian adult male with retrodiscal herniation of soft-tissues of the TMJ into the external auditory meatus through a persistent foramen of Huschke. We are not aware of any reports of this developmental defect or its prevalence in the Nigerian medical literature. Therefore, this case is presented to heighten the index of suspicion of physicians when managing patients with otorrhea and otalgia; which is often primarily diagnosed or misdiagnosed as otitis externa. This will help avoid complications associated with the anomaly, some of which could be very serious. PMID:25287039

  20. Bilateral Temporal Bone Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Radiologic Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Mira A.; Matsumoto, Jane; Carr, Carrie M.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A.

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder with an unpredictable clinical course and highly varied clinical presentation ranging from single system to multisystem involvement. Although head and neck involvement is common in LCH, isolated bilateral temporal bone involvement is exceedingly rare. Furthermore, LCH is commonly misinterpreted as mastoiditis, otitis media and otitis externa, delaying diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic management. To improve detection and time to treatment, it is imperative to have LCH in the differential diagnosis for unusual presentations of the aforementioned infectious head and neck etiologies. Any lytic lesion of the temporal bone identified by radiology should raise suspicion for LCH. We hereby describe the radiologic findings of a case of bilateral temporal bone LCH, originally misdiagnosed as mastoiditis. PMID:24478812

  1. Stability of non-aqueous topical tetracaine and clotrimazole solutions in polypropylene droptainer bottles.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Timothy B; Neumann, William L; Kolling, William M

    2013-01-01

    Tetracaine topical solution may improve patient adherence with topical clotrimazole therapy for fungal otitis externa. The chemical stability of tetracaine 1% and combination clotrimazole 1% with tetracaine 1% topical solutions was determined using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 were used as anhydrous solvents. Standard curves for tetracaine and clotrimazole were linear with r2 > or = 0.999. Clotrimazole did not degrade in either propylene glycol or polyethylene glycol 400 throughout the 90-day study period. Tetracaine degraded significantly in propylene glycol but not in polyethylene glycol 400. A beyond-use date of 90 days is supported for tetracaine and the combination clotrimazole-tetracaine solution in polyethylene glycol 400. A beyond-use date of 60 days is supported for tetracaine and the combination clotrimazole-tetracaine in propylene glycol. PMID:24579301

  2. Medical illnesses and injuries encountered during surfing.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kenneth S; Zoltan, Todd B; Achar, Suraj A

    2006-09-01

    Surfing is an exciting sport enjoyed in many coastal communities around the globe. Participants are prone to various conditions ranging from acute injuries to conditions borne from chronic environmental exposure. Lacerations, contusions, sprains, and fractures are the common types of acute traumatic injury. Injury from the rider's own surfboard is the prevailing mechanism of injury. Interaction with marine animals may lead to injury through envenomation. Although jellyfish stings are common, no definitive treatment strategy has been proven most effective in dealing with such stings. Exposure to jellyfish and other nematocyst-containing larvae can cause a reaction known as seabather's eruption. Stingrays and coral reefs present further hazards to the surfboard rider. Infection of wounds is often seen and should be treated with fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins to cover Vibrio species, along with Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Otologic sequelae of surfing include auditory exostoses, ruptured tympanic membrane, and otitis externa. PMID:16934209

  3. Applications of disease benchmarks and case presentations.

    PubMed

    Pill, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    A large dataset of integrated pharmacy and medical claims, extracted from independent third-party databases, is being combined with disease benchmarking technology to facilitate analysis of inpatient, outpatient, ancillary services, and pharmaceutical utilization and costs. The Disease Benchmarks Program was developed to create opportunities for health care decision makers to evaluate the entire health care continuum in a disease-specific fashion. The Benchmarks program is valuable because of its flexibility and because it depicts what is occurring in clinical practice. It can be customized and also show regional variations in treatment. The possible applications of benchmarking applications are discussed in the case presentations of otitis externa, acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes, and Sjorgren's syndrome. PMID:15667243

  4. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva.

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, M S; Nilssen, A C; Lyslo, A; Syrdalen, P; Dannevig, L

    1991-01-01

    Two boys with ophthalmomyiasis caused by the first instar larva of the reindeer warble fly Hypoderma tarandi are reported. Both were 9 years old and came from the coast of northern Norway. One had ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior and one eye had been removed because of progressive pain and blindness. Histological examination showed the remains of a fly larva. The second boy had ophthalmomyiasis externa with a tumour in the upper eyelid, and histological examination showed a warble with a well preserved larva. Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi. Images PMID:2030144

  5. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of /sup 125/I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility.

  7. A novel BTK gene mutation creates a de-novo splice site in an X-linked agammaglobulinemia patient.

    PubMed

    Chear, Chai Teng; Ripen, Adiratna Mat; Mohamed, Sharifah Adlena Syed; Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh

    2015-04-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), encoded by the BTK gene, is a cytoplasmic protein critical in B cell development. Mutations in the BTK gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), a primary immunodeficiency with characteristically low or absent B cells and antibodies. This report describes a five year-old boy who presented with otitis externa, arthritis, reduced immunoglobulins and no B cells. Flow cytometry showed undetectable monocyte BTK expression. Sequencing revealed a novel mutation at exon 13 of the BTK gene which created a de novo splice site with a proximal 5 nucleotide loss resulting in a truncated BTK protein. The patient still suffered from ear infection despite intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In this study, mosaicism was seen only in the mother's genomic DNA. These results suggest that a combination of flow cytometry and BTK gene analysis is important for XLA diagnosis and carrier screening. PMID:25680287

  8. Metatarsus primus varus: including various clinicoradiologic feautres of the female foot.

    PubMed

    Price, G F

    1979-01-01

    Metatarsus primus varus occurs in feet which have a normal 1--2 intermetatarsal angle. Fifty-two Caucasian females, average age 18 years, were analyzed radiologically for 1--2 and 1--5 intermetatarsal angles and for metatarsophalangeal and first interphalangeal joint angles. Measurement of the 1--5 rather than the 1--2 intermetatarsal angel is a more reliable indicator of first metatarsal varus. Valgus at the first interphalangeal joint is normally greater than that at the first metatarsophalangeal joint and excessive first interphalangeal valgus (valgus interphalangeus) is significantly linked with the presence of ossia tibiale externa. The high arch foot tends either to feature valgus interphalangeus or become excessively broad. The anatomy of the ungual tuberosity is highly variable. PMID:535278

  9. Mast Cells Play No Role in the Pathogenesis of Postoperative Ileus Induced by Intestinal Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J.; Farro, Giovanna; Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Némethova, Andrea; de Vries, Annick; Liston, Adrian; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimwer; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Matteoli, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal manipulation (IM) during abdominal surgery results in intestinal inflammation leading to hypomotility or ileus. Mast cell activation is thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of postoperative ileus (POI). However, this conclusion was mainly drawn using mast cell-deficient mouse models with abnormal Kit signaling. These mice also lack interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) resulting in aberrant gastrointestinal motility even prior to surgery, compromising their use as model to study POI. To avoid these experimental weaknesses we took advantage of a newly developed knock-in mouse model, Cpa3Cre/+, devoid of mast cells but with intact Kit signaling. Design The role of mast cells in the development of POI and intestinal inflammation was evaluated assessing gastrointestinal transit and muscularis externa inflammation after IM in two strains of mice lacking mast cells, i.e. KitW-sh/W-sh and Cpa3Cre/+ mice, and by use of the mast cell stabilizer cromolyn. Results KitW-sh/W-sh mice lack ICC networks and already revealed significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit even before surgery. IM did not further delay intestinal transit, but induced infiltration of myeloperoxidase positive cells, expression of inflammatory cytokines and recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils into the muscularis externa. On the contrary, Cpa3Cre/+ mice have a normal network of ICC and normal gastrointestinal. Surprisingly, IM in Cpa3Cre/+ mice caused delay in gut motility and intestinal inflammation as in wild type littermates mice (Cpa3+/+). Furthermore, treatment with the mast cell inhibitor cromolyn resulted in an inhibition of mast cells without preventing POI. Conclusions Here, we confirm that IM induced mast cell degranulation. However, our data demonstrate that mast cells are not required for the pathogenesis of POI in mice. Although there might be species differences between mouse and human, our results argue against mast cell inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to shorten POI. PMID:24416383

  10. Ultrastructural observations of previtellogenic ovarian follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii.

    PubMed

    Beyo, Reston S; Sreejith, Parameswaran; Divya, Lekha; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2007-04-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the previtellogenic follicles of the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii, of the Western Ghats of India, were observed. Both species follow a similar seasonal reproductive pattern. The ovaries contain primordial follicles throughout the year with previtellogenic, vitellogenic, or postvitellogenic follicles, depending upon the reproductive status. The just-recruited primordial follicle includes an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of follicle and thecal cells. The differentiation of the theca into externa and interna layers, the follicle cells into dark and light variants, and the appearance of primordial yolk platelets and mitochondrial clouds in the ooplasm mark the transition of the primordial follicle into a previtellogenic follicle. During further development of the previtellogenic follicle the following changes occur: i) the theca loses distinction as externa and interna; ii) all the follicle cells become the dark variant and increase in the complexity of ultrastructural organization; iii) the nucleus of the oocyte transforms into the germinal vesicle and there is amplification of the nucleoli; iv) the primordial yolk platelets of the cortical cytoplasm of the oocyte increase in abundance; v) the mitochondrial clouds fragment and the mitochondria move away from the clouds, leaving behind the cementing matrix, which contains membrane-bound vesicles of various sizes, either empty or filled with a lipid material; vi) the perivitelline space appears first as troughs at the junctional points between the follicle cells and oocyte, which subsequently spread all around to become continuous; vii) macrovilli and microvilli develop from the follicle cells and oocyte, respectively; and viii) the precursor material of the vitelline envelop arrives at the perivitelline space. The sequential changes in the previtellogenic follicles of two species of caecilians are described. PMID:17345639

  11. Prevalence of Disorders Recorded in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England

    PubMed Central

    O?Neill, Dan G.; Church, David B.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Thomson, Peter C.; Brodbelt, Dave C.

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3–10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1–8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7–34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8–34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

  12. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    PubMed

    O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P?=?0.001), obesity (P?=?0.006) and skin mass lesion (P?=?0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P?=?0.002), overgrown nails (P?=?0.004), degenerative joint disease (P?=?0.005), obesity (P?=?0.001) and lipoma (P?=?0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported herein. PMID:24594665

  13. Poly-L-lysine-gold probe for the detection of anionic sites in normal glomeruli and in idiopathic and experimentally-induced nephrosis. A comparative ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, P.; Gingras, D.; Bendayan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Anionic sites play a key role in the charge selectivity of glomerular filtration as well as in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the visceral epithelium and podocytes. Alterations in these sites are believed to be a major factor underlying human idiopathic nephrosis and puromycin-nephrosis in the rat. The poly-L-lysine-gold complex was used for the ultrastructural detection of anionic sites in renal glomeruli of patients with idiopathic nephrosis as well as of rats with puromycin-induced nephrosis, allowing for study of the changes occurring in the anionic sites during nephrosis and for the comparison between human disease and this experimental model. In both normal human and rat controls, the probe was detected on epithelial and endothelial cell surfaces and on the glomerular basement membrane, mainly in both laminae rarae. In proteinuric rats, a decrease in labeling intensity was noted on podocyte membranes and in the lamina rara externa, with a corresponding increase in the more central areas of the glomerular basement membrane. These changes were not as evident in proteinuric humans. Furthermore, a reduction in labeling density was noted in the glomerular basement membrane of proteinuric animals, although this could not be substantiated in human tissues. Poly-L-lysine-gold is a useful probe for anionic sites in fixed tissues, and allows for comparison between human disease and its experimental counterpart. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8424459

  14. Changing Trends of HIV/AIDS in Otorhinolaryngology with CD4 (+) Count Correlation.

    PubMed

    Kirti, Y K; Yashveer, J K; Poorey, V K

    2015-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the vital cells of the immune system eventually leading to a fall in the cell mediated immunity. As the disease progresses CD4 (+) (cluster of differentiation4) cells reduce, therefore is a good indicator of the ongoing disease process [1]. HIV infection has myriads of disease presentation; the aim of our study was to correlate the otorhinolaryngological manifestations with the CD4 (+) counts. A clinical study, of 100 HIV positive patients was done from 2008 to 2011. A clinical evaluation revealed 76 % incidence of otorhinolaryngological findings. Oropharyngeal manifestations were the commonest, seen in 48 %, predominantly oropharyngeal candidiasis. Neck nodes were found in 20 % of the patients. 31 % had otological manifestations of which retracted tympanic membrane (eustachian tube dysfunction) was the commonest. 18 % had nasal symptoms of which rhinosinusitis was the commonest being 14 %. The mean CD4 (+) count was below 200 in patients who presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis, otitis externa and epistaxis. With the use and availability of HAART (Highly active antiretroviral therapy) more and more patients with higher CD4 (+) count are presenting with a different spectrum of more subtle disease manifestations, with lower incidence of the classical diseases like candidiasis. A routine otorhinolaryngological evaluation at every visit with high index of suspicion can help in better disease control and give a better quality of life. PMID:25621247

  15. Expression of cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of induced ovarian cysts.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Lorente, Juan A; Ortega, Hugo H

    2004-01-01

    Several experimental models have been developed for the study of the polycystic ovarian syndrome in the rat. In the present study, the syndrome was induced by exposure to constant light, and the expression of cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed the immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA) by image analysis to evaluate the expression of intermediate filaments (vimentin, desmin, cytokeratins, gliofibrillary acidic protein and neurofilaments) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in cystic ovaries in relation to normal ovaries. The granulosa cell layer of cystic follicles had a significantly greater IHCSA for vimentin than the normal antral follicles. This difference was also significant between atretic and antral follicles. Cytokeratins showed a very low expression in the granulosa cells of antral follicles of control ovaries while in granulosa cells of atretic and cystic follicles they showed a significantly higher IHCSA. Immunohistochemical localization of desmin and alpha-SMA was restricted to the theca externa. Immunoreactivity for gliofibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament was negative. The highest intensity in the staining with vimentin and cytokeratins observed in the granulosa cells of the cystic follicles is probably due to structural and functional changes that occur during the process of cystogenesis and they could be associated with intense changes in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins that may be essential to the proper cellular functioning. PMID:15604534

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dose response and bathing water infection.

    PubMed

    Roser, D J; van den Akker, B; Boase, S; Haas, C N; Ashbolt, N J; Rice, S A

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the opportunistic pathogen mostly implicated in folliculitis and acute otitis externa in pools and hot tubs. Nevertheless, infection risks remain poorly quantified. This paper reviews disease aetiologies and bacterial skin colonization science to advance dose-response theory development. Three model forms are identified for predicting disease likelihood from pathogen density. Two are based on Furumoto & Mickey's exponential 'single-hit' model and predict infection likelihood and severity (lesions/m2), respectively. 'Third-generation', mechanistic, dose-response algorithm development is additionally scoped. The proposed formulation integrates dispersion, epidermal interaction, and follicle invasion. The review also details uncertainties needing consideration which pertain to water quality, outbreaks, exposure time, infection sites, biofilms, cerumen, environmental factors (e.g. skin saturation, hydrodynamics), and whether P. aeruginosa is endogenous or exogenous. The review's findings are used to propose a conceptual infection model and identify research priorities including pool dose-response modelling, epidermis ecology and infection likelihood-based hygiene management. PMID:24229610

  17. Further characteristics of Arcanobacterium canis, a novel species of genus Arcanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Sammra, O; Balbutskaya, A; Zhang, S; Hijazin, M; Nagib, S; Lämmler, C; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Kostrzewa, M; Timke, M

    2013-12-27

    Comparable to previously conducted phenotypical and genotypical investigations characterizing Arcanobacterium canis, a newly described species with the type strain A. canis DSM 25104 isolated from an otitis externa of a dog, four additional A. canis strains isolated from infections of three dogs and one cat could reliably be identified by phenotypic properties, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and by sequencing the genomic targets 16S rDNA, 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, 23S rDNA, and the genes rpoB and gap. All four A. canis investigated in the present study were isolated from the infected animals together with several other bacterial species indicating that the pathogenic importance of A. canis remains unclear. However, the detection of peptidic spectra by MALDI-TOF MS and the presented phenotypic and genotypic approaches might help to identify A. canis in future and might elucidate the role this species plays in infections of dogs and cats. PMID:24144861

  18. SPECT imaging in evaluating extent of malignant external otitis: case report

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Tu'Meh, S.S.; Piwnica-Worms, D.; Holman, B.L.

    1987-03-01

    Otitis externa, a benign inflammatory process of the external auditory canal, is general responsive to local therapy. Some patients however, develop a less controllable disease leading to chondritis and osteomyelitis of the base of the skull. The direct invasive characteristic of the disease has led to the descriptive term malignant external otitis (MEO), more appropriately called necrotizing or invasive external otitis. Malignant external otitis is caused by an aggressive pseudomonas or proteus infection that almost exclusively occurs in elderly diabetic patients. The primary imaging modalities previously used in the diagnosis and evaluation of MEO were standard planar scintigraphic techniques with technetium-99M (/sup 99m/Tc) bone agents and gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga), and pluridirectional tomography. The advent of high resolution computed tomography (CT) effectively allowed demonstration of the soft tissue extension and bone destruction associated with MEO, but still suffered from the low sensitivity constraints of all radiographic techniques in determining early inflammatory bone involvement. Recent work suggests that scintigraphic detection of MEO with /sup 99m/Tc-MDP and /sup 67/Ga, combined with the cross-sectional resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be of value in planning treatment of this inflammatory condition.

  19. Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

  20. Histological Study of the External, Middle and Inner Ear of Horses.

    PubMed

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2014-10-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

  1. Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.

    PubMed

    Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported. PMID:25046431

  2. Epineurial repair of an iatrogenic facial nerve neurotmesis after total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in a dog with concurrent cranio-mandibular osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Ignacio; Espadas, Irene; Hammond, Gawain; Pratschke, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old male entire West Highland white terrier was referred to the Small Animal Hospital at the University of Glasgow for bilateral, chronic, medically unresponsive otitis media and externa. A history of cranio-mandibular osteopathy was also reported. Bilateral total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy was performed with the aid of a pneumatic burr. Extensive bone proliferation was present bilaterally originating from the caudal mandibular ramus and tympanic bulla which incorporated the horizontal canal on each side. The right facial nerve was identified leaving the stylomastoid foramen and running in a cranial direction through a 1.5 cm diameter cuff of bone surrounding the horizontal canal and external acoustic meatus. Despite careful dissection, a facial nerve neurotmesis ensued which required microsurgical epineurial repair. Neurologic examination performed 12 h post-operatively revealed abnormalities consistent with right facial nerve paralysis. At 3 months, the facial nerve function was found to have improved significantly and was assessed to be normal four months after surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this clinical communication described the first reported clinical case where unilateral facial nerve paralysis resulting from iatrogenic facial nerve neurotmesis was successfully treated by microsurgical epineurial repair. PMID:25686402

  3. Glyceryl monooleate-based otic delivery system of ofloxacin: release profile and bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Samer; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Sallam, Alsayyed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the preparation and characterization of glyceryl monooleate- (GMO) based drug delivery system containing ofloxacin for the treatment of otitis externa. Acetate buffer (pH 4.5) containing dissolved ofloxacin was added to molten GMO as an aqueous phase, this resulted in the formation of a cubic and a reverse hexagonal phases. The release behavior of ofloxacin from the drug delivery system was studied using three different methods. The mechanism of drug release using paddles/dissolution apparatus and Franz diffusion cells followed Higuchi and Fickian diffusion models; whereas intrinsic release rate method showed zero-order kinetics. The intrinsic release rate was estimated and found to be 187.2?µg/cm(2)/h. The release mechanisms were similar irrespective of the loaded ofloxacin amount, however, the higher drug load displayed higher release rate. The drug delivery system was proven to be microbiologically effective by using agar diffusion method, against Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The GMO/ofloxacin formulation was stable for 6 months after preparation at room temperature as measured with respect to phase stability and antibacterial activity. PMID:24392877

  4. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  5. Improving the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Ee Ting; Tidman, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis usually starts at puberty with a peak incidence at 40 years of age and is more common in males. Patients develop symmetrical, well demarcated, dull or yellowish red patches and plaques with overlying adherent, yellowish greasy scales. Seborrhoeic dermatitis has a distinctive distribution in areas rich in sebaceous glands - the scalp, eyebrows, glabella, nasolabial and nasofacial folds, cheeks, peri-auricular skin, pre-sternal and interscapular areas. It may occur in flexures, especially the axillae, groin, anogenital skin, infra-mammary skin and the umbilicus. Some patients may develop blepharitis with erythematous eyelids and destruction of eyelash follicles. Patients with HIV infection, neurological diseases, including parkinsonism and cranial nerve palsies, have a higher incidence of seborrhoeic dermatitis. Patients presenting with sudden onset severe seborrhoeic dermatitis should be screened for risk factors for HIV. Patients should be referred in the following situations: diagnostic uncertainty - consider other differential diagnoses; failure to respond to first-line treatment after four weeks - consider secondary changes e.g. bacterial infection, flexural intertrigo, lichenification, otitis externa; and severe/widespread disease. Patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis have a good prognosis, particularly infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, which usually remits within a few weeks or months and does not recur. PMID:24689165

  6. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

    2010-06-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio.La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  7. Adrenergic Stimulation Mediates Visceral Hypersensitivity to Colorectal Distension following Heterotypic Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Winston, John H.; Xu, Guang-Yin; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic stress exacerbates or causes relapse of symptoms such as abdominal pain and cramping in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated whether chronic stress increases plasma norepinephrine and sensitizes colon-specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by increasing the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the colon wall. Methods Heterotypic chronic stress (HeCS) was induced in male Wistar rats and neurologic and molecular responses were analyzed. Tissues were analyzed for NGF expression. Results HeCS significantly increased the visceromoter response to colorectal distension; expression of NGF increased in colonic muscularis externa and mucosa/submucosa. Rheobase decreased, resting membrane potential was depolarized, and electrogenesis of action potentials increased in colon-specific thoracolumbar DRG neurons. Luminal administration of resiniferatoxin in distal colon, systemic administration of anti-NGF antibody, or inhibition of the NGF receptor TrkA by k252A or antisense oligonucleotides in thoracolumbar DRG blocked the chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension. Blockade of ?1/?2- and ?1/?2-adrenergic receptors prevented the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity and increased expression of NGF in the colon wall. HeCS did not induce any inflammatory response in the colon wall. Conclusion The peripheral stress mediator norepinephrine induces visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in response to HeCS by increasing the expression of NGF in the colon wall, which sensitizes primary afferents in the absence of an inflammatory response. PMID:19800336

  8. Description and host relationships of Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from the heron Nycticorax nycticorax in Peru.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M; Heckmann, R A

    1991-04-01

    Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. is described from the black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, in Lake Titicaca, Peru. It is distinguished from all 27 known species of the subgenus Polymorphus by its spindle-shaped proboscis and its trunk shape, the anterior 2/3 of which is ovoid, tapering into a tubular posterior end. It resembles Polymorphus brevis (=Arhythmorhynchus brevis), which is, however, longer and considerably more slender, and has smaller and more numerous proboscis hooks per row and smaller eggs. It is separated also from Polymorphus swartzi, Polymorphus striatus, Polymorphus contortus, and Polymorphus cincli by its proboscis armature (usually 18 longitudinal rows of 11-13 hooks each), among other characters. Histopathological sections of host tissue show well defined localized damage including hemorrhaging with subsequent phagocyte cell migration (granular tissue). The lumen of the host intestine is obstructed and villi show compression. The proboscis of P. spindlatus extends through the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, displacing the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis externa. Fibrosis also was observed. PMID:2010853

  9. The Cancer Drug Tamoxifen: A Potential Therapeutic Treatment for Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Guptarak, Jutatip; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Sadygov, Rovshan G.; Zivadinovic, Dragoslava; Paulucci-Holthauzen, Adriana A.; Vergara, Leoncio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamoxifen (TMX) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that can mimic the neuroprotective effects of estrogen but lacks its systemic adverse effects. We found that TMX (1?mg/day) significantly improved the motor recovery of partially paralyzed hind limbs of male adult rats with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI), thus indicating a translational potential for this cancer medication given its clinical safety and applicability and the lack of currently available treatments for SCI. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of TMX for SCI, we used proteomic analyses, Western blots and histological assays, which showed that TMX treatment spared mature oligodendrocytes/increased myelin levels and altered reactive astrocytes, including the upregulation of the water channels aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a novel finding. AQP4 increases in TMX-treated SCI rats were associated with smaller fluid-filled cavities with borders consisting of densely packed AQP4-expressing astrocytes that closely resemble the organization of normal glia limitans externa (in contrast to large cavities in control SCI rats that lacked glia limitans-like borders and contained reactive glial cells). Based on our findings, we propose that TMX is a promising candidate for the therapeutic treatment of SCI and a possible intervention for other neuropathological conditions associated with demyelination and AQP4 dysfunction. PMID:24004276

  10. The cypris larvae of the parasitic barnacle Heterosaccus lunatus (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala): some laboratory observations.

    PubMed

    Walker; Lester

    2000-11-20

    Heterosaccus lunatus parasitizes the portunid crab, Charybdis callianassa in Moreton Bay, Australia. With the host crabs maintained at 22.5 degrees C this sacculinid rhizocephalan released larval broods every 6-7 days. During July-August 1996 and particularly August 1999 such broods showed the change-over from male only larvae in the early broods to females only in the later broods. As the host crabs were maintained under similar aquarium conditions in both years it is concluded that the light/dark cycle is the principal cue triggering this larval sex reversal. Oogenesis in the parasite externa is somehow controlled to produce two different sized ova - male larvae develop from large ova and females from small ova. A working hypothesis outlining how sex is probably determined for the larvae of sacculinids is erected. H. lunatus is considered the ideal sacculinid for the further experimental work necessary to verify the proposed sex-determining mechanism and its control processes. Measurements of the maximum swimming speeds of H. lunatus male and female cyprids showed the larger males to be the faster in absolute terms (27.95 compared with 17.60 mm s(-1), respectively), however, the calculated relative speeds were almost identical at approximately 90 body lengths s(-1). Settlement experiments confirmed that female H. lunatus cyprids settle only on the gills of C. callianassa; these cyprids needed to be at least 2 days old before they were able to settle. PMID:11077064

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa on vinyl-canvas inflatables and foam teaching aids in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Schets, F M; van den Berg, H H J L; Baan, R; Lynch, G; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-12-01

    Swimming pool-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections mainly result in folliculitis and otitis externa. P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on surfaces in the swimming pool environment. The presence of P. aeruginosa on inflatables and foam teaching aids in 24 public swimming pools in the Netherlands was studied. Samples (n = 230) were taken from 175 objects and analysed for P. aeruginosa by culture. Isolated P. aeruginosa were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion. P. aeruginosa was detected in 63 samples (27%), from 47 objects (27%) in 19 (79%) swimming pools. More vinyl-canvas objects (44%) than foam objects (20%) were contaminated, as were wet objects (43%) compared to dry objects (13%). Concentrations were variable, and on average higher on vinyl-canvas than on foam objects. Forty of 193 (21%) P. aeruginosa isolates from 11 different objects were (intermediate) resistant to one or more of 12 clinically relevant antibiotics, mostly to imipenem and aztreonam. The immediate risk of a P. aeruginosa infection from exposure to swimming pool objects seems limited, but the presence of P. aeruginosa on pool objects is unwanted and requires attention of pool managers and responsible authorities. Strict drying and cleaning policies are needed for infrequently used vinyl-canvas objects. PMID:25473987

  12. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the sheep bot fly Oestrus ovis in northern Iraq.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Andrew R; Schatz, Scott; Laubach, Harold

    2004-08-01

    Myiasis is the feeding of fly larvae on vertebrates. The sheep bot fly larva of Oestrus ovis is a mammalian parasite of the skin, nose, ears, and eyes. When the larvae infest and feed on the structures of the eye, the condition is termed ophthalmomyiasis. Most often this infestation is limited to the external structures of the eye and is referred to as ophthalmomyiasis externa. The features of this condition are severe local inflammation, positive foreign body sensation, erythema, and lacrimation. Vision may or may not be reduced, depending on involvement of the cornea. A 20-year-old white male soldier sought treatment for an inflamed eye and an irritated cornea OS. His eyelids were swollen with marked periorbital edema and conjunctival erythema OS. On slitlamp examination, small whitish organisms were viewed on the conjunctiva OS. The organisms were removed, preserved, and sent to Nova Southeastern University where they were identified as O. ovis first-stage larvae. The patient was treated with antibiotic ointment, and the inflammation resolved within 1 week. O. ovis has a worldwide distribution, and although sheep are the preferred host, humans may also serve as an intermediate host in the organism's life cycle. This case represents one of several reports of ophthalmomyiasis in the Middle East caused by O. ovis. U.S. troops stationed in Iraq and surrounding areas are vulnerable to eye infestation by fly larvae, and health care providers need to include this condition in their differential diagnosis of anterior segment inflammatory disorders. PMID:15300116

  13. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of growth factors in the follicular wall of normal and cystic ovaries of sows.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Fjf; Reis Junior, J L; Blume, G R; Gimeno, E J; Rey, F; Ortega, H H

    2015-04-01

    The expression of growth factors was evaluated immunohistochemically in normal and cystic ovaries of sows. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA) was quantified by image analysis to analyse the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary and cystic follicles. IGF-I immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC), moderate in the theca interna (TI) and mild in the theca externa (TE) of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the labelling to IGF-I in the GC of the follicular and luteinized cysts. In the normal follicles, the reactivity for IGF-II was very similar to pattern noted in IGF-I. There was reduction of the IHCSAs in the GC of the follicular and luteinized cysts, but the decrease was not significant. The staining of the IGF-II in the TI and TE of the cysts was increased, in comparison with normal follicles. The IHCSAs for VEGF were higher in the GC and TE of the normal follicles in contrast to TI, but this difference was noted only in the tertiary follicle. The VEGF reactivity increased in the GC of the cysts, in relation to normal follicles. The results of the current study show that the formation of ovarian cysts in sows is associated with alterations in the immunohistochemical expression of some growth factors. PMID:25676567

  15. Tension receptors with vagal afferent fibres in the proximal duodenum and pyloric sphincter of sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, D F; Iggo, A

    1984-01-01

    Single-unit afferent activity was recorded from the hepatic-duodenal branch of the vagus nerve of chloralose-anaesthetized sheep during acute electrophysiological experiments. The impulse activity of sixty-seven slowly adapting mechanoreceptors situated in the muscularis externa of the proximal duodenum and pyloric sphincter was synchronous with alterations in electromyographic and tension records. Afferent units were excited during passive distension, compression and drug-induced increases in muscle tension, thus satisfying the criteria for 'in series' tension receptors (Iggo, 1955). From the responses to compression some evidence was found for the existence of separate populations of tension receptors with different mechanical thresholds. Two fibre populations were found: non-myelinated (0.70 +/- 0.26 S.D. ms-1) and myelinated (7.6 +/- 1.6 S.D. m s-1). Mucosal application of solutions of hydrochloric acid, volatile fatty acids, alkali and amino acids, and mucosal probing modified the activity of most units. These changes were reduced by anaesthesia of the mucosa. It is concluded that tension receptors in the sheep duodenum occupy a position 'in series' with longitudinal muscle, and that their activity can be modified by the particulate and chemical composition of chyme by a mechanism involving local nerve plexuses. The activity of tension receptors is compared with that of two other mechanoreceptor classes located serosally (five units) and in the lesser omentum (eleven units). Receptors in neither of these two classes were directly excited by active contraction of the duodenum. PMID:6481643

  16. Interstitial cells of Cajal, macrophages and mast cells in the gut musculature: morphology, distribution, spatial and possible functional interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are recognized as pacemaker cells for gastrointestinal movement and are suggested to be mediators of neuromuscular transmission. Intestinal motility disturbances are often associated with a reduced number of ICC and/or ultrastructural damage, sometimes associated with immune cells. Macrophages and mast cells in the intestinal muscularis externa of rodents can be found in close spatial contact with ICC. Macrophages are a constant and regularly distributed cell population in the serosa and at the level of Auerbach’s plexus (AP). In human colon, ICC are in close contact with macrophages at the level of AP, suggesting functional interaction. It has therefore been proposed that ICC and macrophages interact. Macrophages and mast cells are considered to play important roles in the innate immune defence by producing pro-inflammatory mediators during classical activation, which may in itself result in damage to the tissue. They also take part in alternative activation which is associated with anti-inflammatory mediators, tissue remodelling and homeostasis, cancer, helminth infections and immunophenotype switch. ICC become damaged under various circumstances – surgical resection, possibly post-operative ileus in rodents – where innate activation takes place, and in helminth infections – where alternative activation takes place. During alternative activation the muscularis macrophage can switch phenotype resulting in up-regulation of F4/80 and the mannose receptor. In more chronic conditions such as Crohn’s disease and achalasia, ICC and mast cells develop close spatial contacts and piecemeal degranulation is possibly triggered. PMID:20132411

  17. CASE REPORT Treatment of Otophyma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, K. S.; Pollock, J.; Hasham, S.; Brotherston, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Otophyma is a rare condition that can present as the end stage of any chronic inflammatory disease affecting the ear such as rosacea, eczema, or otitis externa. It can result in conductive hearing loss, low self-esteem, and social embarrassment. This report highlights a case of otophyma treated successfully using a full-thickness skin graft. Methods: We present a case of a 41-year-old lady referred to our department with a 23-year history of bilateral otophyma. During this time, her hearing progressively diminished as the swelling occluded her external auditory meatus. She had been unsuccessfully managed for years with topical emollients, steroids, and regular ear toileting. Result: She was treated by excision of the phymatous tissue and full-thickness grafting, which resulted in a patent external auditory meatus and an improvement in her hearing. Conclusions: The use of a full-thickness skin graft is one of the many treatment options available for the treatment of otophyma. We present a literature review on this uncommon condition and a discussion on the various treatment options available to the patient. PMID:23641297

  18. Simulation with pharmacological agents of radiation damage to small intestinal villi

    SciTech Connect

    Indran, M.; Boyle, F.C.; Carr, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation induces damage to intestinal villi, resulting in a progressive decline in villous height and changes in topography. Gamma and neutron radiation are reported to cause changes in the structure of smooth muscle and nerve twigs of the intestinal wall. It is possible, therefore, that villous collapse may be due partly to changes in the underlying stromal elements as a result of damage to nerve or muscle. To test this hypothesis, mice were treated with the drug reserpine which is known to affect the neural control of intestinal smooth muscle function and the small intestine was examined for topographical and histological changes. Two dose levels of reserpine were used and a group of mice were exposed to a single dose of whole body 15 Gy X-irradiation. Comparable villous collapse was observed in each group. Resin embedded semi-thin sections revealed changes in the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis externa after each treatment, suggesting a correlation between villous collapse and smooth muscle damage in response to both irradiation and drug treatment.

  19. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Schoffen, João Paulo F; Vicentini, Fernando A; Marcelino, Carolina G; Araújo, Eduardo J A; Pedrosa, Maria M D; Natali, Maria R M

    2014-12-01

    The effects of food restriction (FR) on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa. PMID:25590720

  20. Trichobilharzia mergi sp. nov. (Trematoda: Digenea: Schistosomatidae), a visceral schistosome of Mergus serrator (L.) (Aves: Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Kolá?ová, Libuše; Skírnisson, Karl; Ferté, Hubert; Jouet, Damien

    2013-06-01

    Parasitological investigations on red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator L.) in Iceland revealed digenean flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. Adult worms were detected in blood vessels of the large intestine and eggs were deposited in the mucosa and surrounded by granulomatous reactions. Traditional morphological methods showed that the flukes have very slender filiform bodies, males are equipped with a short gynaecophoric canal and both suckers and spatulate ends are present on each sex. Among characteristics of the flukes which render them morphologically distinct from other Trichobilharzia species are: i) males-well developed vesicula seminalis (v.s.) consisting of a short v.s. externa and a significantly longer (approx. 3 times) v.s. interna, unusually well developed genital papilla and localization of the first testis a relatively long distance posterior to the gynaecophoric canal; ii) eggs-small and elongated with slightly rounded poles and a short terminal spine. DNA taxonomic techniques confirmed that a new species had been identified, Trichobilharzia mergi sp. n. The sequence data were deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JX456151 to JX456172. Comparison of the results with our previously published data on characterization of DNA of cercariae isolated from freshwater lymnaeid snails showed that larval development of T. mergi is associated with Radix balthica L. (=Radix peregra Müller, 1774;=Radix ovata Draparnaud, 1805). PMID:23501058

  1. Determinação da composição química em nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.; Maciel, W. J.

    2003-08-01

    Existe um gradiente radial de abundâncias no disco galáctico, cujo comportamento é razoavelmente bem conhecido para distâncias galactocêntricas entre 3 e 10 kpc. Foi obtido a partir de resultados derivados de nebulosas planetárias, regiões HII e estrelas, como as estrelas quentes de tipo O, B e aglomerados abertos. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento deste gradiente radial na região externa do disco, conhecida como anticentro galáctico, reportamos aqui os resultados finais da análise de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias na direção do anticentro, observadas no LNA e no ESO entre 1995 e 2000. O uso de nebulosas planetárias permite o cálculo das abundâncias de elementos traçadores da evolução química do disco como oxigênio, argônio e neônio com o uso de técnicas de espectroscopia nebular. Os resultados indicam uma distribuição de abundâncias distinta daquela encontrada na vizinhança solar, mostrando que o gradiente radial diminui sensivelmente para distâncias galactocêntricas maiores que 10 kpc. Este resultado está de acordo com os mais recentes modelos de evolução química do disco, que prevêem uma diminuição ou mesmo um desaparecimento do gradiente radial no bordo externo do disco galáctico. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  2. Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.

    2003-08-01

    ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

  3. Un modelo general de eyección de materia estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotstein, N. O.

    Posiblemente, la más directa y dramática evidencia de la pérdida de masa por parte de diferentes objetos astrofísicos la constituye el fenómeno de eyección persistente de materia. En el caso particular de las estrellas, las características y los mecanismos que impulsan a sus atmósferas externas hacia el medio interestelar varían a lo largo del diagrama evolutivo. En parte por este motivo, en parte por las dificultades matemáticas involucradas, es muy difícil elaborar un modelo que pueda dar cuenta de los diferentes mecanismos que originan e impulsan el viento estelar. Cabe entonces preguntarse si es posible desarrollar un único modelo en el que estos mecanismos puedan ser considerados (y variados) como parámetros externos que responden a las características de cada región de la secuencia evolutiva. La respuesta es que, en función de la geometría del campo electromagnético involucrado, todo depende de la simetría del problema. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis detallado de una de tales simetrías, discutiendo en particular los resultados obtenidos a la luz de las observaciones disponibles.

  4. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  5. Distribution of divalent metal transporter-1 in the monkey basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, E; Ong, W Y; Connor, J R

    2004-01-01

    An accumulation of iron occurs in the brain with age, and it is thought that this may contribute to the pathology of certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we elucidated the distribution of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) in the monkey basal ganglia by immunocytochemistry, and compared it with the distribution of ferrous iron in these nuclei by Turnbull's Blue histochemical staining. We observed a general correlation between levels of DMT1, and iron staining. Thus, regions such as the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra pars reticulata contained dense staining of DMT1 in astrocytic processes, and were also observed to contain large numbers of ferrous iron granules. The exceptions were the globus pallidus externa and interna, which contained light DMT1 staining, but large numbers of ferrous iron granules. The thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra pars compacta contained neurons that were lightly stained for DMT1, but few or no iron granules. The high levels of DMT1 expression in some of the nuclei of the basal ganglia, particularly the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, may account for the high levels of iron in these regions. PMID:15381278

  6. Noises-induced toggle switch and stability in a gene regulation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chunhua; Yang, Tao; Han, Qinglin; Zhang, Chun; Tian, Dong; Wang, Hua

    2014-08-01

    It is well-known that noises are inevitable in gene regulatory networks due to the low-copy numbers of molecules and environmental fluctuations. In this paper, we investigate the stationary probability distribution (SPD) between both low (OFF state) and high (ON state) protein levels and mean first passage time (MFPT) in an abstract model of the Myc/E2F/miR-17-92 network presented by Aguda et al., PNAS 105, 19678 (2008), where the gene expression is assumed to be disturbed simultaneously by intrinsic and extrinsic noises that were correlated. Our results show that (i) the OFF state is enhanced by the extrinsic noise (D), while the ON state is enhanced by the intrinsic noise (Q) or cross-correlation between two noises (?); (ii) for the cases of negative or no cross-correlation (??0.0), the increase of the noise intensity (D or Q) leads to a decline of the MFPT and enhances the probability of toggle switch to the OFF state; (iii) but for the case of positive cross-correlation (?>0.0), the MFPT as a function of the noise intensity (D or Q) exhibits a maximum, this maximum for MFPT identifies the characteristic of noise enhanced stability of the ON state and (iv) the cross-correlation between two noises can enhance stability of the ON state.

  7. Microvascular circulation of the cecum in horses.

    PubMed

    Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Julian, D; Hinds, D M

    1991-09-01

    The microvascular circulation of the cecum was studied in 15 adult horses, using microangiography and light microscopy combined with gross studies and scanning electron microscopy of vascular replicas. After heparinization, the horses were euthanatized and the cecum was transected at the cecocolic junction. Blood was flushed free of the circulation with isotonic NaCl and the cecal lumen was slightly distended. In 6 horses, the vascular system was injected with a modified radiopaque medium and evaluated radiographically. Sections evaluated radiographically were also prepared for histologic examination by standard methods. Eight horses were injected with 1 of 2 types of plastics and studied grossly or by scanning electron microscopy. In 1 additional horse, the lateral and medial arteries were injected with different colored plastic for gross studies. The lateral and medial cecal arteries appear to supply the respective areas of the cecum with minimal mixing of the 2 circulations. The major vascular supply to the cecal apex appeared to be through the medial cecal artery. Both the lateral and medial cecal arteries gave rise to cecal retia, which formed a mesh-like network around the respective veins. Vessels from these retia supplied the cecal tissue and the cecal lymph nodes. The continuation of the retia was through long terminal arteries that coursed around the circumference in the submucosa, forming an extensive submucosal plexus. This plexus supplied both the mucosa, and the tunica muscularis and serosa. Vessels within the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the muscularis externa ran parallel to the muscle fibers, and consequently, perpendicular to each other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1952348

  8. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  9. Analysis of Long-Term Diet Changes in Tropical Seabirds Using Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchis, I.; Ballance, L.

    2010-12-01

    A clear understanding of ecosystem response to past environmental changes will provide more accurate interpretations of current ecosystem trends. With this mindset, we investigated the effects of the 1976/77 regime shift in the Pacific Ocean on a tropical pelagic community of apex predators. Using study skins from museum collections from 1960 to 2006, we measured stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes for a suite of ecologically and phylogenetically diverse seabirds from the eastern Pacific warm pool. In this region, seabirds generally forage by depending on subsurface predators to drive prey to the surface or by associating with oceanographic features that increase productivity or aggregate prey in space and time. We found that annual ?15N means from Sooty Terns’ (Onychoprion fuscatus) feathers decreased by 2.98‰, while all other species did not show any significant trends over the study period. Annual ?13C means from feathers of Sooty Terns, Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula) and Juan Fernandez Petrels (Petrodroma externa) decreased by an average of 1.02‰, at rates between 0.01 and 0.02 ?13C‰ per year-1. Our results do not suggest a response of the seabird community to the 1976/77 regime shift. Instead, they are consistent with a trophic shift and/or change in foraging area for Sooty Terns and a long-term decrease in feather ?13C for the eastern Pacific warm pool seabird community. This long-term decrease in feather ?13C is most likely due to the Suess effect and less likely due to a decline in primary productivity of the system. We hypothesize that a deepening trend in thermocline depth in the eastern Pacific warm pool affected Sooty Terns more than other species in the subsurface predator-dependent guild that depend less on smaller subsurface predators like skipjack tuna.

  10. Smooth muscle differentiation in normal human ovaries, ovarian stromal hyperplasia and ovarian granulosa-stromal cells tumors.

    PubMed

    Santini, D; Ceccarelli, C; Leone, O; Pasquinelli, G; Piana, S; Marabini, A; Martinelli, G N

    1995-01-01

    An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigation on the presence of "smooth muscle differentiation" in stromal ovarian tissue was carried out in 10 adult granulosa cell tumors, six juvenile granulosa cell tumors, six thecoma/fibrothecomas, six cases of stromal hyperplasia, and in 10 normal ovaries. For immunohistochemistry, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were processed using anti-alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SM actin) and anti-desmin as primary monoclonal antibodies. All adult granulosa cell tumors and juvenile granulosa cell tumors showed an intense alpha-SM actin immunoreaction, but weaker for desmin. Immunostain was diffuse in six out of 10 and five out of six adult granulosa cell tumors and juvenile granulosa cell tumors, respectively. Ultrastructurally, intermediate filaments focally converging into well developed desmosomes as well as peripheral bundles of myofilaments were documented both in adult granulosa cell tumors and juvenile granulosa cell tumors. In thecoma/fibrothecomas and stromal hyperplasia, alpha-SM actin and desmin expression was minimal or absent; on electron microscopy some "myoid" features and myofibroblasts were also seen. In normal ovaries, alpha-SM actin was found intensely expressed in the theca externa, focally identified in cortex-medulla, and unstained in the theca interna layer. Immunoreaction increased during folliculogenesis, going from a thin positive alpha-SM actin layer around secondary follicles to a strong diffuse stain in mature follicles. Our immunohistochemical and ultrastructural results indicate that a "smooth muscle differentiation" is a typical component of the specialized gonadal stromal tissue. A diffuse and focally alpha-SM actin is constantly present in granulosa cell tumors and thecoma/fibrothecomas, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7731938

  11. Alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SM actin) in normal human ovaries, in ovarian stromal hyperplasia and in ovarian neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Czernobilsky, B; Shezen, E; Lifschitz-Mercer, B; Fogel, M; Luzon, A; Jacob, N; Skalli, O; Gabbiani, G

    1989-01-01

    An immunohistochemical investigation of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SM actin) using the monoclonal anti-alpha-SM-1 antibody was carried out in 15 normal ovaries, in three ovaries with stromal hyperplasia and in 27 neoplastic ovaries. In selected cases the pattern of actin isoforms was examined by means of 2 D-gel electrophoresis. In addition, the tissues were stained for vimentin and desmin. In normal ovaries alpha-SM actin was found in the inner cortex and in the theca externa. In ovarian stromal hyperplasia expression of alpha-SM actin was minimal or absent. In primary and metastatic epithelial tumors there was positive stromal staining for alpha-SM actin, especially in the vicinity of epithelial elements. This tended to be more widespread in malignant neoplasms. Thecomas did not express alpha-SM-actin and could thus be differentiated from leiomyomas which stained intensely for alpha-SM actin. Only focal stromal staining of alpha-SM actin was observed in granulosa and germ cell tumors. In all the tissues studied blood vessels were strongly positive for alpha-SM actin. Desmin, although present in the stroma of most of the specimens, was less abundant than alpha-SM actin. We concluded that alpha-SM actin is a component of the normal human ovary where it may contribute to the contractility of its stroma. Its absence in the normal outer cortex and theca interna, and in stromal hyperplasia and thecoma implies that sex hormones do not constitute a stimulus for alpha-SM actin production in the ovary. Among neoplasms it is most widely represented in the stroma of epithelial tumors in which it may reflect stromal stimulation mediated by neoplastic epithelium. PMID:2567550

  12. Per-endoscopic trans-tympanic traction for the management of feline aural inflammatory polyps: a case review of 37 cats.

    PubMed

    Greci, Valentina; Vernia, Erika; Mortellaro, Carlo M

    2014-08-01

    Feline aural inflammatory polyps are benign growths originating from the tympanic cavity or the Eustachian tube. They usually occur in young cats, which present either signs of otitis externa and otitis media, or respiratory signs, depending on the direction of polyp growth. Neurological signs are also reported. Simple traction and ventral bulla osteotomy (VBO) are the most common techniques used for treating this condition in cats; corticosteroids are recommended to reduce risk of recurrence given the inflammatory nature of the disease. The most common complications after treatment are Horner's syndrome, polyp recurrence and facial nerve paralysis. The aim of this report is to describe the per-endoscopic trans-tympanic traction (PTT) technique for treating feline aural inflammatory polyps and to report the short- and long-term follow-up of this procedure. PTT allowed resolution of the aural inflammatory polyps in 94% of cats during a mean long-term outcome of 19 months. Three cats (8%) developed Horner's syndrome immediately after the PTT procedure, which resolved within a few weeks, and five cats had polyp recurrence (13.5%). Only two cats had a poor outcome and were diagnosed with chronic otitis media at 22 months, and chronic otitis media and polyp recurrence at 46 months after the PTT procedure, respectively. PTT was shown to be an effective technique for treating aural inflammatory polyps and registered fewer neurological complications (8%) than VBO (57-81%) or simple traction (43%), and a recurrence percentage (13.5%) similar to VBO (0-33%) and much lower than traction alone (57%). PMID:24366845

  13. Morbidity and Outcomes of Foreign Travelers in Zakynthos Island, Greece: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Plessa, Eleni; Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Xanthopoulos, Dimitrios; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is satisfactory recording of diseases affecting travelers visiting developing countries, little is known regarding morbidity of travelers when visiting developed countries. We sought to evaluate the morbidity of foreign travelers in Zakynthos, a popular Greek island attracting large number of foreign tourists every summer. Methods Data from foreign travelers that accommodated in Zakynthos and sought medical services from the private offices of Zante Medical Care from May 1 to October 30 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Two thousand six hundred and eighty-eight patients were included in the study. The mean age (±SD) of the patients whom the age was recorded was 29.6 (±18.3) and 51.5% of them were from 18 to 40 years old. Disorders of the respiratory tract (32.7%), dermatologic conditions (21.1%), musculoskeletal injuries (16.4%), and gastrointestinal disorders (16.3%) were the four most prevalent clinical categories among patients. Ear disorder was the most common syndromic description (14.5%) among which 81.2% were ear infections; otitis externa and otitis media were diagnosed in 8.5% and 3.3% patients in total. The most common specific diagnosis was gastroenteritis (14.3%). Insect bite and sunburn were the most common diagnosis (6.5% and 3.8%, respectively) among patients with a dermatologic condition. Ear infection was the most common diagnosis in pediatric patients. Conclusion Disorders mainly of the upper respiratory tract were the predominant causes of illness among foreign travelers in Zakynthos. Traveler's diarrhea was the most common specific diagnosis but the prevalence within the total population was not very high. PMID:24728297

  14. Update on new medicinal applications of gentamicin: evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changhua; Chen, Yumin; Wu, Pinpin; Chen, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    Gentamicin (GM) was discovered in 1963 and was introduced into parenteral usage in 1971. Since then, GM has been widely used in medicinal applications. The Food and Drug Administration of the United States approved the routine prescription of GM to treat the following infectious disorders: infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., Pseudomonas spp.; Staphylococcus infectious disease; bacterial meningitis; bacterial sepsis of newborns; bacterial septicemia; infection of the eye, bone, skin and/or subcutaneous tissue; infective endocarditis; peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis due to Pseudomonas and other gram-negative organisms; peritonitis due to gastrointestinal tract infections; respiratory tract infections; and urinary tract infectious disease. GM is an old antibiotic and is used widely beyond its FDA-labeled indications as follows: actinomycotic infection; Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteremia with pyelonephritis; appendicitis; cystic fibrosis; diverticulitis; adjunct regimen for febrile neutropenia; female genital infection; uterine infection; postnatal infection; necrotizing enterocolitis in fetus or newborn; osteomyelitis; pelvic inflammatory disease; plague; gonorrhea; tularemia; prophylaxis of post-cholecystectomy infection, transrectal prostate biopsy, and post-tympanostomy-related infection; malignant otitis externa; and intratympanically or transtympanically for Ménière's disease. GM is also used in combination regimens, such as with beta-lactam antibiotics to treat mixed infection and with bacteriophage to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections. It is also added to medical materials, such as GM-loaded cement spacers for osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint-associated infections. Overall, there are many medicinal applications for GM. To reduce the development of GM-resistant bacteria and to maintain its effectiveness, GM should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected as being caused by susceptible bacteria. In the future, we believe that GM will be used more widely in combination therapy and applied to medical materials for clinical applications. A definitive, appropriately powered study of this antibiotic and its clinical applications is now required, especially in terms of its effectiveness, safety, and cost. PMID:24216440

  15. Intestinal metabolism of ethinyloestradiol and paracetamol in vitro: studies using Ussing chambers.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, S M; Back, D J; Orme, M L

    1987-01-01

    The intestinal mucosal metabolism of ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and paracetamol (P) has been studied in vitro in Ussing chambers. Histologically normal jejunum or ileum was obtained from 19 patients undergoing various resections. The muscularis externa was stripped off the mucosa and the mucosal sheets mounted between two perspex chambers. Tissue viability was routinely assessed by measurement of the transmural potential difference. The percentage of steroid in the serosal chamber, 2 h after addition of EE2 (2 microCi; 80 ng) to the mucosal chamber was 2.3 +/- 0.8% (mean +/- s.d.) which comprised unconjugated drug (0.4 +/- 0.3%), sulphate conjugates (0.7 +/- 0.5%) and glucuronides (0.9 +/- 0.8%). In the mucosal chamber, 56.6 +/- 11.4% was unconjugated steroid, 33.3 +/- 12.4% sulphate conjugates and 2.1 +/- 2.3% glucuronides. Small amounts of the oxidation products 2-hydroxy and 16-hydroxy-EE2 were present. At 2 h, the percentage of paracetamol in the serosal chamber was 3.2 +/- 1.4% (of added P; 2 microCi; 50 ng) of which 0.5 +/- 0.3% was paracetamol sulphate (PS) and 0.1% was paracetamol glucuronide (PG). In the mucosal chamber 2.4 +/- 0.8% and 1.0 +/- 0.2% was present as PS and PG respectively. The total amount of paracetamol conjugated was approximately 4.0%. When paracetamol in the mucosal chamber was increased to 50 micrograms (i.e. by a factor of 1000) there was a decrease in the percentage of added drug metabolized to PS and an increase in formation of PG. The glucuronide:sulphate ratio was increased from 0.34 to 3.56. Competition for sulphation was evident when both paracetamol and EE2 were presented to the intestinal mucosa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:3606932

  16. Ciprofloxacin: an oral quinolone for the treatment of infections with gram-negative pathogens. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents. Canadian Infectious Disease Society.

    PubMed Central

    Louie, T J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize the use of ciprofloxacin, a synthetic fluoroquinolone, in community and hospital practice, and to minimize overprescribing by providing an overview of the literature and recommendations for appropriate use. OPTIONS: First-line treatment for infections in which ciprofloxacin is shown to be effective, treatment with oral ciprofloxacin rather than parenteral therapy with another drug, and step-down therapy with oral ciprofloxacin after initial parenteral treatment. OUTCOMES: In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of articles concerning ciprofloxacin, including in-vitro and pharmacokinetic studies using recognized standard methods with appropriate controls and published in recognized peer-reviewed journals, and randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trials. VALUES: The Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society (CIDS) and a recognized expert (T.J.L.) recommended use of ciprofloxacin to treat infections against which it has proved effective both in vitro and in randomized controlled trials. They took into account its value as an oral replacement for other drugs given parenterally and development of resistance. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: With more appropriate use of ciprofloxacin there will be less development of resistant pathogens. For certain infections patients who would otherwise require admission to hospital could be treated at home and patients initially admitted for parenteral therapy could be discharged sooner on oral therapy with ciprofloxacin. RECOMMENDATIONS: Ciprofloxacin may be considered as first-line treatment for a number of infections in which gram-negative pathogens are proven or strongly suspected, including complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, bacterial diarrhea, selected bone and joint infections, malignant otitis externa, bronchopulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and selected pneumonia cases. VALIDATION: The paper was prepared, reviewed and revised by the Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the CIDS. It was then reviewed and revised further by the Council of the CIDS. SPONSOR: The CIDS is solely responsible for developing, funding and endorsing these guidelines. PMID:8313286

  17. Ca2+ role in myogenic and neurogenic activities of canine ileum circular muscle.

    PubMed

    Cayabyab, F S; deBruin, H; Jiménez, M; Daniel, E E

    1996-12-01

    The role of Ca2+ in myogenic and neural activation in canine ileum circular muscle (CM) was studied during simultaneous recordings of contractile and electrical activity in cross-sectioned slabs of muscularis externa or of isolated CM with deep muscular plexus (DMP) intact. Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution abolished inhibitory junction potentials (IJP) and contractions before changes in CM membrane potentials and while slow waves (SW) persisted at lower amplitude and frequency. This medium abolished SW more rapidly in isolated CM than in intact muscle strips and affected triggered SW (TSW) by 100-ms pulses recorded near myenteric plexus or near DMP differentially in the full-thickness preparation; TSW did not occur in isolated CM. Ni2+, a nonselective Ca2+ channel antagonist, left IJP unchanged and reduced contractions, frequencies, and amplitudes of spontaneous SW and TSW, but increased their durations. Nifedipine abolished contractions but SW, TSW, and IJP were unaffected. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) increased SW frequency, produced spikes on SW plateaus, and increased CM tone, but did not affect IJP or resting membrane potentials. In nifedipine-pretreated strips, CPA decreased SW frequencies and amplitudes, evoked less tone, depolarized membrane potentials, and left IJP unaltered. The neuronal N-type Ca2+ channel blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA abolished IJP, without affecting SW or TSW. We conclude that Ca2+ influx, not through L- or N-type Ca2+ channels, helps initiate ileal SW; L-type Ca2+ channels provide Ca2+ for contraction and N-type Ca2+ channels provide Ca2+ for IJP mediator release. Frequencies of SW may be modulated by uptake of Ca2+ into pacemaker stores. PMID:8997250

  18. Ceruminal diffusion activities and ceruminolytic characteristics of otic preparations – an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations. PMID:23574753

  19. Optimizing a basal bark spray of dinotefuran to manage armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Christmas tree plantations.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Richard S

    2010-10-01

    The armored scales Fiorinia externa Ferris and Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are increasingly damaging to Christmas tree plantings in southern New England. The systemic insecticide dinotefuran was investigated for selectively suppressing armored scale populations relative to their natural enemies in cooperating growers' fields in 2008 and 2009. Banded soil application of dinotefuran resulted in poor control. However, a dinotefuran spray applied to the basal 25 cm of trunk resulted in its absorption through the bark, translocation to the foliage, and good efficacy. The basal bark spray did not significantly impact the activity of predators Chilocorus stigma (Say) or Cybocephalus nipponicus Enrody-Younga and in 2009 showed a dosage-dependent improvement in the percentage of scales parasitized by Encarsia citrina Craw. A field dosage-response factorial experiment revealed that a 0.25% (vol:vol) addition of a surfactant with dinotefuran did not enhance insecticidal effect. Probit-transformed scale population reduction relative to the untreated check was subjected to linear regression analysis; reduction of scale populations was proportional to the log of insecticide dosage, whereas basal bark spray efficacy declined in proportion to the cube of tree height. The regression equation can be used to optimize dosage relative to tree height. Excellent efficacy resulted from basal bark spray application dates of 28 April (prebud break) to mid-June, but earlier spray timing within that treatment window had fewer crawlers discoloring new growth with their short-lived feeding. A basal bark spray of dinotefuran is well suited for integration with natural enemies to manage armored scales in Christmas tree plantations. PMID:21061974

  20. Signal enhancement in the output stage of the basal ganglia by synaptic short-term plasticity in the direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Mikael; Kamali Sarvestani, Iman; Ekeberg, Örjan; Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren

    2013-01-01

    Many of the synapses in the basal ganglia display short-term plasticity. Still, computational models have not yet been used to investigate how this affects signaling. Here we use a model of the basal ganglia network, constrained by available data, to quantitatively investigate how synaptic short-term plasticity affects the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr), the basal ganglia output nucleus. We find that SNr becomes particularly responsive to the characteristic burst-like activity seen in both direct and indirect pathway striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN). As expected by the standard model, direct pathway MSNs are responsible for decreasing the activity in SNr. In particular, our simulations indicate that bursting in only a few percent of the direct pathway MSNs is sufficient for completely inhibiting SNr neuron activity. The standard model also suggests that SNr activity in the indirect pathway is controlled by MSNs disinhibiting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) via the globus pallidus externa (GPe). Our model rather indicates that SNr activity is controlled by the direct GPe-SNr projections. This is partly because GPe strongly inhibits SNr but also due to depressing STN-SNr synapses. Furthermore, depressing GPe-SNr synapses allow the system to become sensitive to irregularly firing GPe subpopulations, as seen in dopamine depleted conditions, even when the GPe mean firing rate does not change. Similar to the direct pathway, simulations indicate that only a few percent of bursting indirect pathway MSNs can significantly increase the activity in SNr. Finally, the model predicts depressing STN-SNr synapses, since such an assumption explains experiments showing that a brief transient activation of the hyperdirect pathway generates a tri-phasic response in SNr, while a sustained STN activation has minor effects. This can be explained if STN-SNr synapses are depressing such that their effects are counteracted by the (known) depressing GPe-SNr inputs. PMID:23801960

  1. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C.; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders. PMID:24723855

  2. Activity of neurons in monkey globus pallidus during oculomotor behavior compared with that in substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Shin, SooYoon; Sommer, Marc A

    2010-04-01

    The basal ganglia are a subcortical assembly of nuclei involved in many aspects of behavior. Three of the nuclei have high firing rates and inhibitory influences: the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), globus pallidus interna (GPi), and globus pallidus externa (GPe). The SNr contains a wide range of visual, cognitive, and motor signals that have been shown to contribute to saccadic eye movements. Our hypothesis was that GPe and GPi neurons carry similarly diverse signals during saccadic behavior. We recorded from GPe, GPi, and SNr neurons in monkeys that made memory-guided saccades and found that neurons in all three structures had increases or decreases in activity synchronized with saccade generation, visual stimulation, or reward. Comparing GPe neurons with GPi neurons, we found relatively more visual-related activity in GPe and more reward-related activity in GPi. Comparing both pallidal samples with the SNr, we found a greater resemblance between GPe and SNr neurons than that between GPi and SNr neurons. As expected from a known inhibitory projection from GPe to SNr, there was a general reversal of sign in activity modulations between the structures: bursts of activity were relatively more common in GPe and pauses more common in SNr. We analyzed the response fields of neurons in all three structures and found relatively narrow and lateralized fields early in trials (during visual and saccadic events) followed by a broadening later in trials (during reward). Our data reinforce an emerging, new consensus that the GPe and GPi, in addition to the SNr, contribute to oculomotor behavior. PMID:20107133

  3. Eradication of elephant ear mites (Loxoanoetus bassoni) in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Jeff; DiVincenti, Louis

    2012-03-01

    Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects. PMID:22448521

  4. Multiple osteosclerotic lesions in an Iron Age skull from Switzerland (320-250 BC)--an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Langer, Rupert; Ross, Steffen; Nielsen, Ebbe; Lösch, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The single Hochdorf burial was found in 1887 during construction work in the Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland. It dates from between 320 and 250 BC. The calvarium, the left half of the pelvis and the left femur were preserved. The finding shows an unusual bony alteration of the skull. The aim of this study was to obtain a differential diagnosis and to examine the skull using various methods. Sex and age were determined anthropologically. Radiological examinations were performed with plain X-ray imaging and a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner. For histological analysis, samples of the lesion were taken. The pathological processing included staining after fixation, decalcification, and paraffin embedding. Hard-cut sections were also prepared. The individual was female. The age at death was between 30 and 50 years. There is an intensely calcified bone proliferation at the right side of the os frontalis. Plain X-ray and CT imaging showed a large sclerotic lesion in the area of the right temple with a partly bulging appearance. The inner boundary of the lesion shows multi-edged irregularities. There is a diffuse thickening of the right side. In the left skull vault, there is a mix of sclerotic areas and areas which appear to be normal with a clear differentiation between tabula interna, diploë and tabula externa. Histology showed mature organised bone tissue. Radiological and histological findings favour a benign condition. Differential diagnoses comprise osteomas which may occur, for example, in the setting of hereditary adenomatous polyposis coli related to Gardner syndrome. PMID:23897004

  5. Functional Assessment of Intestinal Motility and Gut Wall Inflammation in Rodents: Analyses in a Standardized Model of Intestinal Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Vilz, Tim O.; Overhaus, Marcus; Stoffels, Burkhard; von Websky, Martin; Kalff, Joerg C.; Wehner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract is a common reason for a variety of human diseases. Animal research models are critical in investigating the complex cellular and molecular of intestinal pathology. Although the tunica mucosa is often the organ of interest in many inflammatory diseases, recent works demonstrated that the muscularis externa (ME) is also a highly immunocompetent organ that harbours a dense network of resident immunocytes.1,2 These works were performed within the standardized model of intestinal manipulation (IM) that leads to inflammation of the bowel wall, mainly limited to the ME. Clinically this inflammation leads to prolonged intestinal dysmotility, known as postoperative ileus (POI) which is a frequent and unavoidable complication after abdominal surgery.3 The inflammation is characterized by liberation of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-64 or IL-1? or inhibitory neurotransmitters like nitric oxide (NO).5 Subsequently, tremendous numbers of immunocytes extravasate into the ME, dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and monocytes and finally maintain POI.2 Lasting for days, this intestinal paralysis leads to an increased risk of aspiration, bacterial translocation and infectious complications up to sepsis and multi organ failure and causes a high economic burden.6 In this manuscript we demonstrate the standardized model of IM and in vivo assessment of gastrointestinal transit (GIT) and colonic transit. Furthermore we demonstrate a method for separation of the ME from the tunica mucosa followed by immunological analysis, which is crucial to distinguish between the inflammatory responses in these both highly immunoactive bowel wall compartments. All analyses are easily transferable to any other research models, affecting gastrointestinal function. PMID:22990580

  6. Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Cheng, Suzan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Donald, Paul J. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

  7. Biochemical analysis and immunohistochemical examination of a GnRH-like immunoreactive peptide in the central nervous system of a decapod crustacean, the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Okumura, Takuji; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2009-12-01

    We examined whether a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptide exists in the central nervous system (CNS) of the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. The displacement curve obtained for serially diluted extracts of the kuruma prawn brain paralleled the chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) standard curve obtained by cGnRH-II TR-FIA using the anti-cGnRH-II antibody, which cross-reacts not only with cGnRH-II but also with lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) and octopus GnRH (octGnRH). Extracts of kuruma prawn brains and eyestalks showed a similar retention time to synthetic lGnRH-II and octGnRH in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. Using this antibody, we detected GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies in the anterior-most part of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain), the protocerebrum. Furthermore, GnRH-like-ir fibers were observed in the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum. In the eyestalk, GnRH-like-ir cell bodies were detected in the medulla interna, and GnRH-like-ir fibers were distributed in the medulla interna, medulla externa, and lamina ganglionalis. In the thoracic ganglion, GnRH-like-ir fibers, but not GnRH-like-ir cell bodies, were detected. No GnRH-like-ir cell bodies or fibers were detected in the abdominal ganglion or ovary. Thus, we have shown the existence and distribution of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the kuruma prawn. PMID:19968471

  8. Modeling the Contributions of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus to Spatial Navigation Using Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Deepika; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN)-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of [1], a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze. PMID:23110073

  9. Performance evaluation of primary care services for the treatment of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daiane Medeiros da; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Sá, Lenilde Duarte de; Wysocki, Anneliese Domingues; Scatena, Lucia Marina; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2014-12-01

    Objective Evaluating the performance of primary care services for the treatment of tuberculosis according to the assessment referential of health services (structure/process) in Cabedelo, a port city in the state of Paraíba. Method An evaluation quantitative, cross-sectional study, in which were carried out 117 interviews with health professionals using a structured instrument. The analysis was based on the construction of indicators using a standardized value for the reduced variable (z=1). Results The structural indicators showed regular performance for the following variables: professional training, access to record instruments and coordination with other services. The process indicators related to external actions and information about the disease had unsatisfactory performance. The directly observed treatment and the flows of reference/counter-reference had regular performance. Conclusion The focused professional qualification, the fragmentation of practices and the unsystematic home care constitute obstacles for carrying out actions aimed at providing expanded, continuous and resolute care.??Objetivo Avaliar o desempenho dos serviços de Atenção Básica para o tratamento da tuberculose segundo o referencial de avaliação dos serviços de saúde (estrutura/processo) em Cabedelo, município portuário da Paraíba. Método Pesquisa avaliativa, quantitativa, de corte transversal onde foram realizadas 117 entrevistas com os profissionais de saúde, através de um instrumento estruturado. A análise pautou-se na construção de indicadores, utilizando-se valor padronizado para a variável reduzida (z=1). Resultados Os indicadores estruturais apresentaram desempenho regular para as variáveis: capacitação profissional; acesso a instrumentos de registro; articulação com outros serviços. Quanto ao processo, os indicadores relacionados às ações externas e informações sobre a doença apresentaram desempenho insatisfatório. O tratamento diretamente observado e os fluxos de referência/contrarreferência tiveram desempenho regular. Conclusão A qualificação profissional focalizada, a fragmentação das práticas e a atenção domiciliária assistemática, constituem em obstáculos para o desempenho de ações voltadas à prestação do cuidado ampliado, contínuo e resolutivo. PMID:25626504

  10. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.Fundamento: As urgências cardiovasculares são causas importantes de procura por atendimento médico, sendo fundamentais a rapidez e a precisão no diagnóstico para diminuir sua morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso da ecocardiografia direcionada como complemento diagnóstico ao exame físico em um serviço terciário de emergências clínicas. Métodos: Foram incluídos cem pacientes adultos sem doenças cardíacas ou pulmonares conhecidas que procuraram atendimento de urgência com queixas cardiológicas. Foram excluídos pacientes com alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma ou febre. A ecocardiografia direcionada foi realizada logo após a avaliação inicial do paciente na sala de emergência, com aparelho ultraportátil GE Vscan, avaliando subjetivamente: dimensões das cavidades, função sistólica ventricular, fluxos intracardíacos pelo mapeamento de fluxo em cores, pericárdio e aorta. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi 61 ± 17 anos. O quadro clínico inicial foi dor torácica (52 pacientes), dispneia (32 pacientes), arritmia/avaliação da função ventricular (dez pacientes), hipotensão/tontura (cinco pacientes) e edema periférico (um paciente). Em 28 pacientes a ecocardiografia direcionada confirmou a hipótese diagnóstica inicial: 19 pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, cinco com síndrome coronariana aguda, dois com tromboembolismo pulmonar e dois com tamponamento cardíaco. Em 17 pacientes, a ecocardiografia direcionada alterou o diagnóstico, afastando a hipótese clínica inicial em dez casos com suspeita de insuficiência cardíaca, dois com suspeita de tromboembolismo pulmonar, dois com hipotensão a esclarecer, e em cada um dos três restantes com suspeitas de síndrome coronariana aguda, tamponamento cardíaco e dissecção de aorta. Conclusão: A ecocardiografia direcionada ultraportátil em serviço de emergências clínicas pode definir rapidamente o diagnóstico e, com isso, é possível iniciar mais precocemente o tratamento adequado. PMID:25352461

  11. [Surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes in Argentina from 2005 to 2010 during the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine era].

    PubMed

    Efron, Adriana M; Moscoloni, María A; Reijtman, Vanesa R; Regueira, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in the immunization programs of many countries has greatly reduced this invasive disease and the carriage caused by this serotype, also increasing other capsular types and non-capsular isolations. There were 313 isolations of H. influenzae under study, which were recovered from a sterile site coming from pediatric and adult patients carrying the invasive disease. Patients were treated at 90 different hospitals belonging to the Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Meningitis e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas Bacterianas (National Lab Network for Meningitis and Acute Bacterial Respiratory Infections) from 2005 to 2010 for the following disorders: pneumonia, 40.3% (n=126), meningitis, 30.0% (n=94) and bacteremia, 26.5% (n=83). In pediatric patients (n=279), the highest frequency of isolations corresponded to children under the age of 2 years, 74.5% (n=208). Regarding type distribution, 61.3% corresponded to non-capsular H. influenzae (n=192), 20.1% to type b (n=63), 11.2% to type a (n=35), 4.8% to type f, and 2.6% to other types. Capsular H. influenzae was predominant in meningitis whereas non-capsular H. influenzae in pneumonia and bacteremia. The biotype was determined in 306 isolations. The totality (100%) of type a (n=35) was biotype II whereas 66.7% of type b (n=63) was biotype I. Slide agglutination and PCR tests were used in 220 isolations. There was a match of 0.982 (IC: 0.92-1.00) between them. During the last year, there was a great increase in type b, showing the importance of clinical and laboratory-based surveillance of the invasive disease caused by H. influenzae. PMID:24401777

  12. Supplementation of direct-fed microbials as an alternative to antibiotic on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Kang, H K; Akter, N; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Na, J C; Jong, H B; Choi, H C; Suh, O S; Kim, W K

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 800 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross × Ross) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment (50 birds/replicate pen). The 4 dietary treatments fed for 35 d were a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 0.1% virginiamycin, as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP); control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained Lactobacillus reuteri (DFM 1); and control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained a mixture of L. reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DFM 2). Results showed that dietary AGP and DFM supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the BW gain of broilers during 0 to 21 d. The feed intake was reduced, whereas the feed conversion was improved significantly when birds were fed DFM 2 at 0 to 7 d of age. The white blood cell and monocyte levels were significantly higher in the DFM 2 group compared with the control. In addition, feeding DFM significantly (P < 0.05) increased the plasma immunoglobulin levels where a higher level was observed in DFM 2 compared with those of the other treatments. Neither DFM nor AGP treatments affected the cecal Lactobacillus and Salmonella content; however, cecal Escherichia coli content significantly decreased in broiler chickens fed DFM and AGP. The ileal villus height, and width and total thickness of muscularis externa were significantly increased when birds were fed DFM compared with AGP and control. These results indicate that the dietary supplementation of DFM increases the growth performance of birds at an early age, stimulates the immune response, decreases the number of E. coli, and improves the ileal morphology of broiler chickens. Thus, DFM that contained a mixture of several beneficial microorganisms could be a viable alternative to antibiotics in the broiler diets. PMID:23873556

  13. Immunohistological localization and expression of alpha-actin in the baboon (Papio anubis) corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Khan-Dawood, F S; Yang, J; Dawood, M Y

    1997-01-01

    We have recently shown the presence of E-cadherin and of alpha- and gamma-catenins in human and baboon corpora lutea. These are components of adherens junctions between cells. The cytoplasmic catenins link the cell membrane-associated cadherins to the actin-based cytoskeleton. This interaction is necessary for the functional activity of the E-cadherins. Our aim therefore was to determine the presence of alpha-actin in the baboon corpus luteum, to further establish whether the necessary components for E-cadherin activity are present in this tissue. An antibody specific for the smooth muscle isoform of actin, alpha-actin, was used for these studies. The results using immunohistochemistry show that (a) alpha-actin is present in steroidogenic cells of the active corpus luteum, theca externa of the corpus luteum, cells of the vasculature, and the tunica albuginea surrounding the ovary. The intensity of immunoreactivity for alpha-actin varied, with the cells of the vasculature reacting more intensely than the luteal cells. A difference in intensity of immunoreactivity was also observed among the luteal cells, with the inner granulosa cells showing stronger immunoreactivity than the peripheral theca lutein cells. There was no detectable immunoreactivity in the steroidogenic cells of the atretic corpus luteum. However, in both the active and atretic corpora lutea, alpha-actin-positive vascular cells were dispersed within the tissue. (b) Total alpha-actin (luteal and non-luteal), as determined by Western blot analyses, does not change during the luteal phase and subsequent corpus luteum demise (atretic corpora lutea). (c) hCG stimulated the expression of alpha-actin and progesterone secretion by the early luteal phase (LH surge + 1-5 days) and mid-luteal phase (LH surge + 6-10 days) cells in culture, but only progesterone in the late luteal phase (LH surge + 11-15 days). The data show that alpha-actin is present in luteal cells and that its expression is regulated by hCG, thus suggesting that E-cadherin may form functional adherens junctions in the corpus luteum. PMID:9010471

  14. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa of cysts exhibited a similar cell DNA fragmentation to early atretic follicles. In the granulosa and theca interna, active caspase-3 shown similar immunostaining levels in tertiary and cystic follicles (p < 0.05). The granulosa cells presented high expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w in the tertiary and cystic follicles with diminishing intensity in the atretic follicles, except with Bcl-w where the intensity was maintained in the atretic follicles (p < 0.05). The expression of Bax was weak in the healthy and cystic follicles. In the theca interna, Bcl-2 expression was the same as the pattern found in the granulosa; no differences were found between tertiary and cystic follicles from both groups for Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. The expression of Bax in this layer was higher in the tertiary follicles of the treated animals (p < 0.05) while the values for cystic follicles were similar to those in the tertiary follicles of controls. The theca externa showed low expression of the pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition. PMID:19570211

  15. Management of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections by Different Medical Practices, Including Homeopathy, and Consumption of Antibiotics in Primary Care: The EPI3 Cohort Study in France 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Bégaud, Bernard; Rossignol, Michel; Avouac, Bernard; Lert, France; Rouillon, Frederic; Bénichou, Jacques; Massol, Jacques; Duru, Gerard; Magnier, Anne-Marie; Abenhaim, Lucien; Guillemot, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Prescribing of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) varies substantially in primary care. Objectives To describe and compare antibiotic and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs use, URTI symptoms' resolution and occurrence of potentially-associated infections in patients seeking care from general practitioners (GPs) who exclusively prescribe conventional medications (GP-CM), regularly prescribe homeopathy within a mixed practice (GP-Mx), or are certified homeopathic GPs (GP-Ho). Method The EPI3 survey was a nationwide population-based study of a representative sample of 825 GPs and their patients in France (2007–2008). GP recruitment was stratified by self-declared homeopathic prescribing preferences. Adults and children with confirmed URTI were asked to participate in a standardized telephone interview at inclusion, one-, three- and twelve-month follow up. Study outcomes included medication consumption, URTI symptoms' resolution and potentially-associated infections (sinusitis or otitis media/externa) as reported by patients. Analyses included calibration to account for non-respondents and groups were compared using multivate analyses adjusting for baseline differences with a propensity score. Results 518 adults and children with URTI (79.3% rhinopharyngitis) were included (36.9% response rate comparable between groups). As opposed to GP-CM patients, patients in the GP-Ho group showed significantly lower consumption of antibiotics (Odds ratio (OR)?=?0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.68) and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs (OR?=?0.54, 95% CI: 0.38–0.76) with similar evolution in related symptoms (OR?=?1.16, 95% CI: 0.64–2.10). An excess of potentially-associated infections (OR?=?1.70, 95% CI: 0.90–3.20) was observed in the GP-Ho group (not statistically significant). No difference was found between GP-CM and GP-Mx patients. Conclusion Patients who chose to consult GPs certified in homeopathy used less antibiotics and antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs for URTI than those seen by GPs prescribing conventional medications. No difference was observed in patients consulting GPs within mixed-practice. A non-statistically significant excess was estimated through modelling for associated infections in the GP-Ho group and needs to be further studied. PMID:24646513

  16. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.

    1997-11-01

    Despite the progress made in establishing the capabilities of the auditory system in several species of fish, significant questions remain regarding how sound reaches the ear and the nature of the coupling between the ear and various accessory structures. In this research, experimental measurements and theoretical modeling were used to examine the mechanical behavior of the peripheral auditory system of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). The experiments consisted of measuring the in vivo motion of the swimbladder, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths of an anesthetized and tethered fish, in response to an acoustic stimulus, using a noninvasive ultrasonic measurement system. The experimental results show strong coupling between the swimbladders, tripus, and saccule. At low frequencies, the swimbladders, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths move with the same amplitude and phase as the fish's body. At higher frequencies, multiple resonances occur in most swimbladder responses. The swimbladder resonance also appears in the sagitta response; the sagitta displacement ranges from 1 to 10 nm/Pa. The results of only a few tests indicate motion of the lagenar otolith, while no data show movement of the utricular otolith. The mathematical model of the dynamics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system is the first such model to include the swimbladder, Weberian apparatus, and saccule (including the hair cell ciliary bundles). The saccule model features only translation of the otolith in the direction of hair cell orientation. The model predicts the correct amplitude and phase relationships between the two swimbladder chambers and shows the coupling observed between the anterior swimbladder and the tripus. The model also predicts a high-pass filter effect due to the tunica externa compliance; however, the model low frequency cut-off seems insufficient to prevent a change in depth from overstimulating the Weberian apparatus. The model predicts a sagitta displacement on the order of 10 nm/Pa. Above 50 Hz, the relative displacement between the sagitta and sensory epithelium is primarily due to the Weberian apparatus. The phase relationships between the sagitta and sensory epithelium displacements vary with location of the acoustic source.

  17. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em vários aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-anãs.

  18. Psoriasis of the face and flexures.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Murphy, Gillian M; Austad, Joar; Ljungberg, Anders; Cambazard, Frederique; Duvold, Laetitia Bouérat

    2007-01-01

    Facial and flexural psoriasis may impair the quality of life of psoriatic patients considerably. For the adequate management of psoriasis it is important to pay attention to lesions at these sensitive sites, which require an approach different to that for lesions on other sites in several respects. An extensive literature search was carried out to collect evidence-based data on facial and flexural psoriasis with respect to epidemiology, clinical aspects, pathogenetic factors and various treatments. Subsequently, a panel of experts, the Copenhagen Psoriasis Working Group (CPWG), discussed these aspects and several recommendations were formulated reconciling the evidence-based data. Facial psoriasis occurs in 17-46% of psoriatics and flexural psoriasis is experienced by 6.8-36% of patients with psoriasis. Therefore, psoriasis at these sites cannot be regarded as a rare manifestation. Facial psoriasis is a prognostic marker indicating a poor prognosis of psoriasis. Facial and flexural psoriasis cannot be regarded as distinct disease entities but rather as site variations. The clinical features of facial psoriasis suggest that there are three subtypes: hairline psoriasis, sebo-psoriasis and true facial psoriasis. Otitis externa and ocular manifestations should not be neglected. Evidence that microbiological factors may be relevant to facial and flexural psoriasis is virtually absent. For facial psoriasis the response to UV radiation is variable. At least 5% of psoriatics have photosensitive psoriasis. In these patients photosensitive diseases such as lupus erythematodes and polymorphic light eruption have to be excluded. Based on the literature assessment and working group discussions the CPWG concluded the following. (1) Low-potency topical corticosteroids, vitamin D3 analogues and calcineurin inhibitors are first choice treatments in facial and flexural psoriasis. Evidence for the efficacy of the first two modalities is at level 3 while it is at level 1 for the third one. An individualized approach is indicated; for example, in case of corticosteroid side effects in the past the other two modalities should be selected and in unstable psoriasis prone to irritation, monotherapy with vitamin D3 analogues should be avoided. (2) Antimicrobial treatments are not indicated for facial and flexural psoriasis. (3) Dithranol and tar treatment are not indicated as first-line treatment but only if the first-line options fail. (4) In case topical therapies are not effective, phototherapy and systemic treatments are indicated. (5) For future drug development the combination of vitamin D3 analogues with low strength corticosteroids is recommended. PMID:17907013

  19. [Charge interactions of immune deposits in glomeruli (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Rossmann, P; Ríha, I; Sírová, M; Bilej, M; Matousovic, K; Bohdanecká, M

    1997-08-01

    An i.v. injection of 8-40 mg (kg cationized and heat-aggregated rabbit or human Ig (cat-aggr RIg,-HuIg; pI 9.5) elicited a strong diffuse linear fixation in rat glomerular capillaries revealed by one-step immunofluorescence or immunoenzyme histochemistry 1 and 2 h post-injection. Preferential binding to the lamina rara externa (LRE) was documented in ultrastructure by preembedding and postembedding assays (HRP-coupled antibody and protein A-colloidal gold, respectively). After 24 and 48 h the glomeruli were negative. Polyethylenimine (PEI)-reactive polyanion of LRE was significantly reduced 1 h after cat-aggr-Ig; depletion persisted even after 48 h. Non-cationized Ig aggregates did not bind to the glomerular capillaries. A subsequent i.p. injection of swine anti-rabbit-Ig antibody (SwAR, 15 mg i.p. after 4 h) produced the same linear binding of both two antigens which, however, persisted after 10 days and assumed a granular pattern. After presensitization with RIg (1-2 mg i.p. or s.c.; 4 days before cat-aggr RIg) the early linear fixation underwent a gradual transformation into the granular pattern and deposits of mesangial, rarely of epimembranous type were found 1 week after cat-aggr RIg and later. RIg and SwIg were proved in both types of deposits. After 2 weeks both rat Ig and C 3 were present, too. Rarefaction of deposits and their concentration in the vascular poles took place during 3 months, and deposits also appeared in the media of vas afferens. The antigen load did not produce an acute glomerulonephritis or significant proteinuria; slight focal mesangial sclerosis and a discrete increase in serum creatinine were noted after 2-3 months. To sum up: The one-shot charge interaction is prompt but short-lived whereas the local binding of additional proteins, especially after a specific preimmunization, significantly prolongs the contamination of glomeruli and promotes the build-up of immune complex-type deposits which gradually retreat to the mesangial stalk and vascular pole. PMID:9471398

  20. [Agents of otomycosis in Manisa region, Turkey, 1995-2011].

    PubMed

    De?erli, Kenan; Ecemi?, Talat; Günhan, K?vanç; Ba?kesen, Tolga; Kal, Elçin

    2012-01-01

    Otomycosis, which is otitis externa caused by fungi, is common throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. However, the epidemiologic data about the etiologic agents of otomycosis in Turkey is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the agents of otomycosis in patients living at Manisa region (located at western Anatolia of Turkey). A total of 2279 cases [1465 male, 813 female; age range 1-87 (mean: 41.7) years] who were clinically prediagnosed as otomycosis at Celal Bayar University Hospital, between February 1995 and July 2011, were included in the study. External ear swab samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis have been evaluated by routine mycological methods. Identification of mold-like fungi was based on colony morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure, whereas germ tube test, growth characteristics on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and API 20C AUX (bio-Mérieux, France) system were used for the identification of yeast-like fungi. Of the samples, 28% (638/2279) were found positive by direct microscopy and 24% (544/2279) by culture methods. Among culture-positive cases the isolation rates of mold-like and yeast-like fungi were 66% (359/544) and 34% (185/544), respectively. The number of distribution of the molds were as follows; Aspergillus niger (180), Aspergillus fumigatus (95), Aspergillus terreus (32), Aspergillus flavus (23), Aspergillus spp. (14), Penicillium spp. (13), Trichophyton spp. (T.rubrum 1, T.mentagrophytes 1); while this distribution was as follows for the yeasts; Candida tropicalis (97), Candida albicans (39), Candida parapsilosis (21), Candida glabrata (19), Candida kefyr (4), C.guilliermondii (2), Candida krusei (1), Geotrichum candidum (1) and Trichosporon capitatum (1). It was notable that 96% (344/359) of mold-like fungi were Aspergillus spp., and 99% (183/185) of yeast-like fungi were Candida spp. The results of this study indicated that the most frequent agents of otomycosis were non-dermatophyte species such as Aspergillus, followed by Candida. Dermatophytes were isolated in a small number of otomycosis cases. These data will provide support to the establishment of antifungal therapy guidelines for otomycosis. PMID:22399174

  1. Effects of PDE type 5 inhibitors on Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana Paula Cabral de; Modolo, Rodrigo; Moreno, Beatriz Vaz Domingues; Moreno, Heitor

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is a multifactorial disease characterized by blood pressure (BP) levels above goal (140/90 mmHg) in spite of the concurrent use of three or more antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Moreover, it is well known that RHTN subjects have high prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), which leads to increased risk of heart failure progression. This review gathers data from studies evaluating the effects of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors (administration of acute sildenafil and short-term tadalafil) on diastolic function, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in patients with RHTN. Acute study with sildenafil treatment found that inhibition of PDE-5 improved hemodynamic parameters and diastolic relaxation. In addition, short-term study with the use of tadalafil demonstrated improvement of LVDD, cGMP and BNP-32 levels, regardless of BP reduction. No endothelial function changes were observed in the studies. The findings of acute and short-term studies revealed potential therapeutic effects of IPDE-5 drugs on LVDD in RHTN patients.A Hipertensão arterial resistente (HAR) é uma doença multifatorial caracterizada por níveis pressóricos acima das metas (140/90 mmHg), a despeito de tratamento farmacológico otimizado de 3 ou mais fármacos anti-hipertensivos de diferentes classes. Pacientes diagnosticados como hipertensos resistentes apresentam alta prevalência de disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (DDVE) que proporciona risco aumentado para insuficiência cardíaca. Esta revisão reúne dados de estudos prévios avaliando os efeitos dos inibidores de fosfodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) (administração aguda de sildenafil e de curto prazo de tadalafil) na função diastólica e nos parâmetros bioquímicos e hemodinâmicos em pacientes com HAR. O estudo agudo com sildenafil demonstrou que a inibição da PDE-5 melhorou os parâmetros hemodinâmicos e de relaxamento diastólico. Além disso, o estudo curto prazo com o uso de tadalafil revelou melhora da DDVE e dos níveis de GMPc e BNP-32, independente de redução de pressão arterial. A função endotelial não apresentou alteração com ambos os tratamentos. Os resultados dos estudos agudo e de curto prazo sugerem efeitos terapêuticos potenciais dos fármacos inibidores da PDE-5 na disfunção diastólica em pacientes com HAR. PMID:25352458

  2. Relationship of plasma estradiol-17beta, total estrogen, and progesterone to estrus behavior in mithun (Bos frontalis) cows.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Mohan; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Prakash, B S

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to establish the characteristics of estrus behavior in mithun cows (n = 12) and (2) to determine the relationships between this behavior and the plasma concentrations of estradiol-17beta (E2), total estrogen, and progesterone. Estrus was detected by visual observations of estrus signs, per recta examination of genitalia and bull parading thrice a day for three consecutive cycles. Among the behavioral signs of estrus, the cow to be mounted by bull (100%) was the best indicator of estrus followed by standing to be mounted (92%). Per rectum examination of genital organs revealed relaxed and open os externa of cervix, turgid uterus, and ovaries having palpable follicles in all animals. The mean (+/-SEM) length of estrus cycle and duration of estrus were recorded to be 21.8 +/- 0.69 days and 12.6 +/- 1.34 h, respectively. Endocrine profiles during the peri-estrus period showed that the mean highest peak concentrations of E2 (27.29 +/- 0.79 pg/ml) and total estrogen (45.69 +/- 2.32 pg/ml) occurred at -3.90 +/- 2.27 and -3.89 +/- 2.26 h prior to the onset of estrus, respectively. Plasma progesterone concentration was basal (0.14 +/- 0.001 ng/ml) during the peri-estrus period. Plasma E2 and total estrogen were found to increase from 6 days before estrus to reach a peak level on the day of estrus and decline thereafter to basal level on day 3 of the cycle. The plasma progesterone concentration was the lowest on the day of estrus showing gradual increase to register a peak level on day 15 of the cycle. Estrus behavior was found to be positively correlated with the maximum peak concentration of E2 (r = 0.89; P < 0.0001) and total estrogen (r = 0.66; P = 0.019) during the peri-estrus period. The mean total estrogen concentration during the peri-estrus period was significantly correlated with estrus behavior (r = 0.60; P = 0.04). The correlations between the estrus behavior and E2:progesterone ratios at 6 days before the onset of estrus (r = 0.92) and on the day of estrus (r = 0.95) was significant. The total estrogen:progesterone ratios at 6 days before the onset of estrus and on the day of estrus were also positively correlated with the estrus behavior (r = 0.86 and 0.88). In conclusion, our results suggest that the maximum peak concentration of E2 and total estrogen and mean level of total estrogen during the peri-estrus period and the E2:progesterone and total estrogen:progesterone ratios on 6 days before the onset of estrus and on the day of estrus are the important factors contributing the behavioral manifestation of estrus in mithun cows. PMID:16490196

  3. Hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic sauvagine-like immunoreactivity in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, G C; Bountzioukas, S; Gonzalez, E S; McMaster, D; Ko, D; Lederis, K; Lukowiak, K

    1996-02-01

    In the present study, immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay were used to investigate the presence of sauvagine in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic areas of the central nervous system (CNS) of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) using a specific antiserum raised against synthetic non-conjugated sauvagine (SVG), a frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagei) skin peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family. Sauvagine-immunoreactive (SVG-ir) bipolar neurons were found in the nucleus of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis located in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. In the tectal mesencephalon, beaded SVG-ir fibres were present in the optic tectum, and in the torus semicircularis. Abundant SVG-ir varicose fibres were seen in the granulosa layer of the cerebellum, the nucleus isthmi, and the obex of the spinal cord. SVG-ir fibres were also seen by the alar plate of the rombencephalon. In the diencephalon, the antiserum stained parvocellular neurons of the preoptic nucleus (PON) which extended their dendrites into the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) of the third ventricle and projected their ependymofugal fibres to the zona externa (ZE) of the median eminence. Immunopositive fibres were also present in the medial forebrain bundle at the chiasmatic field, the posterior thalamus, the pretectal gray, and the ventrocaudal hypothalamus. In the telencephalon (forebrain), SVG-ir fibres were seen in the medial septum, the lateral septum, and the amygdala. The SVG immunoreactivity could not be detected after using the SVG antiserum previously immunoabsorbed with synthetic SVG (0.1 microM), but immunoblock of the antiserum with sucker (Catostomus commersoni) urotensin I (sUI), sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) urotensin I, sucker CRF, rat/human CRF, or ovine CRF (0.1-10 microM) did not eliminate visualization of the immunoreactivity. In radioimmunoassay, the SVG antiserum did not crossreact with sUI, or the SVG fragments SVG1-16, SVG16-27, and SVG26-34, but it recognized the C-terminal fragment SVG35-40. Crossreaction with mammalian ovine CRF and rat/human CRF was negligible. Both hypothalamic and mesencephalic extracts gave parallel displacement curves to SVG. The results suggest the presence in the bullfrog brain of a SVG-like neuropeptide, i.e., a peptide of the CRF family, that either is SVG or shares high homology with the C-terminus of that peptide. The function of this neuropeptide in amphibians is not known at this time, but based on its anatomical distribution to the ZE it could affect the release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or other substances from the amphibian pars distalis. Involvement of the SVG-like peptide in behavioural (forebrain), visual (thalamus-tegmentum mesencephali-pretectal gray-optic tectum), motor coordination (cerebellum), and autonomic (spinal) functions, as well as an undefined interaction with the CSF in the bullfrog, seems likely. PMID:8822168

  4. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

  5. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Background: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. Objective: D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between D-dimer and serum potassium in acute-onset AF (AAF). Methods: To investigate the potential correlation between the values of serum potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of all emergency department visits for AAF in 2013. Results: Among 271 consecutive AAF patients with D-dimer assessments, those with hypokalemia (n = 98) had significantly higher D-dimer values than normokalemic patients (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0.004). The rate of patients with D-dimer values exceeding the diagnostic cut-off was higher in the group of patients with hypokalemia than in those with normal serum potassium (26.5% versus 16.2%; p = 0.029). An inverse and highly significant correlation was found between serum potassium and D-dimer (r = -0.21; p < 0.001), even after adjustments for age and sex (beta coefficient -94.8; p = 0.001). The relative risk for a positive D-dimer value attributed to hypokalemia was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.63; p = 0.040). The correlation remained statistically significant in patients free from antihypertensive drugs (r = -0.25; p = 0.018), but not in those taking angiotensin-receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or diuretics. Conclusions: The inverse correlation between values of potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF provides important and complementary information about the thromboembolic risk of these patients.Fundamento: Valores de D-dímero são frequentemente aumentada em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) em comparação com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipocalemia desempenha um papel em várias doenças cardiovasculares, mas pouco se sabe sobre a associação com FA. Objetivo: As concentrações de D-dímero encontram-se frequentemente aumentadas em pacientes com FA, quando comparados com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipopotassemia desempenha um papel importante nas doenças cardiovasculares, porém, pouco é conhecido sobre sua associação com a FA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a correlação entre os níveis séricos de D-dímero e potássio na FA aguda (FAA). Métodos: Para investigar a existência de uma potencial correlação entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA, realizamos uma revisão retrospectiva de dados clínicos e laboratoriais relacionados a todas as visitas ao departamento de emergência devido à FAA, no ano de 2013. Resultados: Entre os 271 pacientes com FAA, aqueles com hipopotassemia (n = 98) mostraram aumento significativo nos níveis de D-dímero, quando comparados com pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0,004). A taxa de pacientes com níveis de D-dímero excedendo o valor limiar de diagnóstico foi maior no grupo de pacientes com hipopotassemia, quando comparado com o grupo de pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (26,5% versus 16,2%; p = 0,029). Detectamos uma correlação inversa e altamente significativa entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero (r = -0,21; p < 0,001), até mesmo após ajuste para idade e sexo (coeficiente beta -94,8; p = 0,001). O risco relativo de um valor positivo de D-dímero estar relacionado à hipopotassemia foi de 1,64 (95% CI, 1,02 to 2,63; p = 0,040). A correlação permaneceu estatisticamente significativa em pacientes livres de medicamentos hipertensivos (r = -0,25; p = 0,018), porém não nos pacientes em tratamento com bloqueadores do receptor de angiotensina, inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensin