Sample records for otite externa aguda

  1. OTITIS EXTERNA

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Charles W.

    1949-01-01

    Otitis externa is a widespread condition which may occur in many different forms. Allergic reactions, bacteria, pathologic changes secondary to seborrheic dermatitis, and fungi, singly or in association with each other, are among the causative factors considered. In the treatment of this condition, the diversity of causative factors which may be present must be recognized and evaluated; after one factor has been eliminated, another often remains to be conquered. The apparent confusion of reports regarding etiology and treatment is in fact due to confusion regarding the fundamental nature of the condition. Good results usually can be obtained by careful evaluation of the factors in each case and adaptation of treatment to the circumstances. PMID:18116233

  2. Acute otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Hui, Charles Ps

    2013-02-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as 'swimmer's ear', is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present. PMID:24421666

  3. Malignant otitis externa

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dye (if you are prone to getting external ear infections). After swimming, place 1 or 2 drops of a mixture of 50% alcohol and 50% vinegar in each ear to help dry the ear and prevent infection. Treat acute otitis externa completely. Do not stop treatment sooner ...

  4. Kontaktsensibilisierungen auf Externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Erdmann; H.-F. Merk

    2003-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Im folgenden Übersichtsartikel sollen Kontaktsensibilisierungen auf topisch applizierbare Medikamente--v. a. topische Dermatika--sowie auf Externa im weitesten Sinn beschrieben werden. Insbesondere Hautpflegeprodukte stellen wegen ihrer häufigen Anwendung und großen Verbreitung eine besondere Sensibilisierungsquelle dar. So spielen Duft- und Konservierungsstoffe als Inhaltsstoffe insbesondere von Kosmetika als häufige Auslöser von Kontaktallergien weltweit eine bedeutende Rolle. Wegen des überaus breiten Spektrums an Wirk-

  5. Aspects epidemiologiques, cliniques et therapeutiques des otites externes: à propos de 801 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bathokedeou, Amana; Essobozou, Pegbessou; Akouda, Patassi; Essohanam, Boko; Eyawelohn, Kpémissi

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail etait de déterminer l’épidémiologie, la clinique et la thérapeutique des otites externes (OE). Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective d'une année menée du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2006 dans le service ORL du CHU-Tokoin. Huit cent un cas d'otite externe (OE) soit 11,9% des consultations étaient recensés. Le sexe féminin représentait 476 cas (59,42%). Le sex ratio était de 0,68. L’âge moyen des patients était de 25,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 05 mois et 81 ans. La tranche d’âge de 0-15 ans était la plus fréquente avec 360 cas (45%). L'allergie dans 74 cas (60,66%), la lésion de grattage dans 24 cas (19,67%), les corps étrangers du conduit auditif externe dans 18 cas (14,75%) et la natation dans 6 cas (4,92%) étaient les facteurs favorisants. L'otalgie dans 638 cas (79,65%) était le symptôme le plus fréquent. Les différentes formes cliniques des otites externes se répartissaient comme suit: otite externe diffuse dans 612 cas (76,40%), furoncle du CAE 126 dans cas (15,73%), otomycose dans 58 cas (7,24%), zona du conduit auditif externe dans 3 cas (0,37%) et otite externe nécrosante dans 2 cas (0,25%). Les gouttes auriculaires étaient administrées à tous les patients. L’évolution avait noté 799 patients (99,75%) guéris sans complication, un cas de décès et un cas de guérison avec séquelle. Traitée correctement, l'otite externe guérit sans complication. Son éviction passe par une sensibilisation des populations sur l'entretien du conduit auditif externe. PMID:25379111

  6. Acute otitis externa in children

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Colin J.; Smith, Christine H.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Question In the summer months I see many children with uncomplicated acute otitis externa (AOE). I am aware of the multiple ototopical preparations. Which is the best first-line agent to treat AOE, and is there a role for an oral antibiotic? Answer There are no specific Canadian guidelines for the management of AOE. However, current American guidelines promote initial ototopical therapy without systemic antibiotics for uncomplicated AOE; suggest there is little difference between the various ototopical preparations; and recommend the choice of treatment be based on the specific clinical situation. In practice, this often results in prescribing an antibiotic-steroid formulation for 7 to 10 days. This ototopical treatment option is supported by a recent Cochrane review that has documented the superiority of an antibiotic-steroid combination when compared with placebo or acetic acid in providing clinical resolution of AOE. PMID:23152458

  7. Otitic hydrocephalus associated with lateral sinus thrombosis and acute mastoiditis in children.

    PubMed

    Kuczkowski, Jerzy; Dubaniewicz-Wybieralska, Miros?awa; Przewo?ny, Tomasz; Narozny, Waldemar; Mikaszewski, Bogus?aw

    2006-10-01

    The incidence of intracranial complications of acute otitis media (AOM) has decreased and the need for operative and medical treatment is declined during the antibiotic era. To describe pathognomonic signs, evaluation management, operative findings, clinical course and outcome of otitic hydrocephalus and lateral sinus thrombosis as complications of AOM and mastoiditis in pediatric patients. Two children, 9 and 13 years old, with the diagnosis of OH and TK and MRI findings are presented. Intracranial complications in children resulted from unsuccessful treatment of AOM, which led to acute mastoiditis and lateral sinus thrombosis. Both of the presented children had thrombus in their sigmoid sinus preoperatively, demonstrated by MRI, causing decreased blood flow. Both patients underwent a mastoidectomy and delamination of sigmoid sinus with puncture of sinuses. After medical and surgical treatment, blood flow through the sinus increased significantly. In both cases signs of increased intracranial pressure ceased. The clinical presentation of otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis (LST) as a complication of acute otitis media (AOM) can be masked by antibiotic treatment. The episodes of vomiting, headache, visual impairment and a history of AOM seem to be indicative for otitic hydrocephalus. MRI scans of patients with similar symptoms should be carefully studied to facilitate the early diagnosis of dural sinus thrombosis with increased intracranial pressure. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging play a major role in determining diagnosis and treatment plans in this intracranial complications. Management included systemic antibiotics, short-term heparin anticoagulation and surgical decompression. In our patients intensive i.v. antibiotic treatment, steroids, anticoagulants and surgery led to a significant improvement in the clinical condition. PMID:16899305

  8. Mastoiditis mimicry: retro-auricular cellulitis related to otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Block, Stan L

    2014-09-01

    Retro-auricular cellulitis associated with otitis externa is now the great mimicker of mastoiditis. It may be the most common cause of this specific cellulitis/auricular protrusion when it is associated with otitis externa. This column presents six cases of children who presented with peri-auricular redness, four of whom had protuberant ear and retro-auricular cellulitis. PMID:25198440

  9. DIRECTRICES PARA PRCTICAS EXTERNAS UNIVERSIDAD AUTNOMA DE MADRID

    E-print Network

    Pazos, Florencio

    DIRECTRICES PARA PRÁCTICAS EXTERNAS UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MADRID #12;Directrices para prácticas externas UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MADRID 2 Estas directrices se han elaborado a partir del documento instituciones para la realización de dichas prácticas." En esta línea, la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid asume

  10. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa. PMID:24226755

  11. ACCESO PLATAFORMA UNIDAD DE PRCTICAS EXTERNAS "TRABAJO FIN DE GRADO"

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    ACCESO PLATAFORMA UNIDAD DE PRÁCTICAS EXTERNAS "TRABAJO FIN DE GRADO" (GUÍA PARA ALUMNOS) #12;Para poder acceder a la plataforma El alumno deberá entrar en la página web principal de la Universidad: www entrar en el menú "Trabajo Fin de Grado", desde el cual podrá acceder a la plataforma. Acceda con su

  12. Universidad Autnoma de Madrid Oficina de Prcticas Externas y Orientacin para el Empleo

    E-print Network

    Pazos, Florencio

    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid UAM Oficina de Prácticas Externas y Orientación para el Empleo Edificio Plaza Mayor, 1.ª Planta. C/ Einstein, 3 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid 28049 Madrid (España;Universidad Autónoma de Madrid UAM Oficina de Prácticas Externas y Orientación para el Empleo Edificio Plaza

  13. Protocolo de espacios para unidades externas 1 PROTOCOLO DE ESPACIOS PARA PERSONAL Y

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Protocolo de espacios para unidades externas 1 PROTOCOLO DE ESPACIOS PARA PERSONAL Y ESTANCIAS DE UNIDADES EXTERNAS INDICE: ­ Acceso al protocolo de espacios para externos ­ ¿Cómo acceder al protocolo? ­ Solicitud de clave ­ Pasos necesarios para cumplimentar el protocolo de espacios ­ Página principal del

  14. Treatment of canine otitis externa using video otoscopy.

    PubMed

    Usui, Reiko; Usui, Ryoichi; Fukuda, Minako; Fukui, Emiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2011-09-01

    Otitis externa in 27 toy poodles and 40 miniature dachshunds was treated using a video otoscope. A distinct concavity (external tympanic concavity) was observed at the junction between the ventral part of the external surface of the tympanum and the ear canal to which a considerable amount of hair and debris had adhered. All hair and debris adhering to the external tympanic concavity were removed, and systemic antibiotic and antifungal agents were administered, after which all of the dogs recovered. The pattern of hair growth observed in the external tympanic concavity could be characterized according to the breed of dog. All of the toy poodles presented with curly hairs, while the miniature dachshunds had upright or flat-lying hairs. PMID:21597241

  15. Premios Vicedecanato de Prcticas Externas 2011 La Facultad de Ciencias Econmicas y Empresariales

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Premios Vicedecanato de Prácticas Externas 2011 La Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales Empresas / Economía: JOVEMPA · Ciencias Empresariales: COOPERATIVA CAJA RURAL CENTRAL DE ORIHUELA y Dirección de Empresas / Economía: AUREN AUDITORES LEVANTE Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y

  16. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamed Zamankhan Malayeri; Shahram Jamshidi; Taghi Zahraei Salehi

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial\\u000a culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases.\\u000a Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology,\\u000a bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility

  17. Skull based osteomyelitis due to postsurgery malignant otitis externa presenting as stroke

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nicola; Syed, Irfan; Garth, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Malignant or necrotising otitis externa is a rare but potentially fatal disease. The classic presentation is one of severe, unremitting, throbbing otalgia, which may progress to osteomyelitis, especially in the elderly diabetic or immunocompromised patient. The case described is of a 72-year-old immunocompetent, non-diabetic man who presented with facial weakness, dysphagia and weight loss. The admitting diagnosis or impression was that of a cerebrovascular event. The eventual diagnosis was that of skull based osteomyelitis secondary to malignant otitis externa complicating mastoid surgery. PMID:22696765

  18. 1/7 practicasexternas.alumnos@urjc.es Unidad de Prcticas Externas

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    SOLICITUD DE PLAZAS En el apartado Plataforma de Prácticas de la web de la Unidad de Prácticas Externas, podrá visualizar un recuadro azul que le servirá para acceder a la plataforma de prácticas. Para entrar.urjc.es (Figura 1). Figura 1.- Acceso a la plataforma #12;2/7 practicasexternas.alumnos@urjc.es Unidad de

  19. Aproximación a la identidad matsiguenka a partir de las influencias externas. Primeros acercamientos 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Marggraff

    Resumen. En el transcurso de la historia, los matsiguenka del río Urubamba y del Manú sufrie- ron influencias externas e impactos en diferentes grados. En los años setenta, su espacio de vida, que antes era relativamente homogéneo, fue dividido por decisiones políticas y económicas dando origen a comunidades nativas tituladas pero en muchos casos fraccionadas. Asimismo, actualmente existe en la

  20. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tomy, Rose Mary; Prabhu, Padma B

    2013-01-01

    Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT) showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity. PMID:24145557

  1. Ophthalmomyiasis externa: three cases caused by Oestrus ovis larvae in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cal??kan, Sinan; Ugurba?, S?lay Cantürk; Sa?d?k, Murat

    2014-10-01

    Ocular involvement of parasitic infections includes external, internal and orbital ophthalmomyiasis. Oestrus ovis (sheep botfly) is the most common cause of ophthalmomyiasis externa. Living in warm climates, particularly in agricultural districts, is a risk factor. Although external ophthalmomyiasis can be treated by removal of the infecting larva(e) and topical drug treatment, the risk remains of its presence leading to further contamination for other people. We describe three cases of external ophthalmomyiasis due to infestation with the first instar larvae of O. ovis An awareness of larval conjunctivitis in endemic areas may avoid misdiagnosis and allow immediate management to prevent complications. PMID:24705772

  2. Fungal Malignant Otitis Externa with Facial Nerve Palsy: Tissue Biopsy Aids Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Fungal malignant otitis externa (FMOE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that is challenging to manage. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the low sensitivity of aural swabs and many antifungal drugs have significant side effects. We present a case of FMOE, where formal tissue sampling revealed the diagnosis and the patient was successfully treated with voriconazole, in addition to an up to date review of the current literature. We would recommend tissue biopsy of the external auditory canal in all patients with suspected FMOE in addition to routine microbiology swabs. PMID:24649388

  3. Treatment of acute otitis externa with ciprofloxacin otic 0.2% antibiotic ear solution

    PubMed Central

    Mösges, R; Nematian-Samani, M; Eichel, A

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective An inflammation of the cutis and subcutis of the external auditory canal is a primary symptom in cases of acute otitis externa. It is usually treated locally, since this type of therapy ensures a high concentration of the drug and interacts at the site of inflammation with no systemic effects. This systematic review compares the efficacy of treatment using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution with other therapeutic options. Methods After compiling a catalog of search terms, medical databases were searched systematically for randomized, controlled studies. This search initially yielded a total of 38 studies which were then evaluated by three independent reviewers. The number of studies was subsequently reduced to 14: six studies using a ciprofloxacin 0.2% solution, and eight studies using both 0.2% and 0.3% solutions. Results The studies included in the review demonstrate the statistical equivalence between the ciprofloxacin solution (0.2%) and the reference products PNH (a combination of polymyxin B, neomycin sulfate and hydrocortisone), auriculum powder, and a ciprofloxacin foam with respect to the cure rate. The research groups consistently observed high in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion This systematic review confirms the hypothesis of ciprofloxacin’s noninferiority in the treatment of otitis externa, in terms of the cure rate and microbiological eradication. PMID:21845055

  4. Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis: The Relationship with Malignant Otitis Externa, the Diagnostic Dilemma, and Changing Trends

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Cheng; Yeh, Chien-Fu; Shiao, An-Suey; Tu, Tzong-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-five patients hospitalized for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone between 1990 and 2011 were divided into two study groups: group 1 was patients collected from 1990 to 2001 and group 2 was composed of patients between 2002 and 2011. Clinical diagnostic criteria and epidemiologic data were analyzed to illustrate the altering features of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. Group 1 patients were characterized by high prevalence of diabetes and more commonly suffered from otalgia, otitis externa and granulation tissue in the external auditory canal and higher positive culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Noticeable changing trends were found between both groups, including declining prevalence of diabetes, fewer patients complaining of pain or presenting with otitis externa, and canal granulation, and increased variety of pathogens in group 2. We should highlight the index of clinical suspicion for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, even in nondiabetic or immunocompetent patients. Painless otorrhea patients were also at risk of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone, especially patients with previous otologic operation. Increased multiplicity of pathogens amplified the difficulty of diagnosis for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. PMID:24963511

  5. A catecholaminergic neuron connecting the first two optic neuropiles (Lamina ganglionaris and Medulla externa) of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf Elofsson; Dick Nässel; Harry Myhrberg

    1977-01-01

    The crustacean optic neuropiles, the lamina ganglionaris and especially the medulla externa, show a specific pattern of green fluorescence with the fluorescence histochemical method of Falck-Hillarp. Normally, only the terminals and the cell bodies fluoresce, but in reserpine-treated animals exogenous catecholamines are taken up by the whole adrenergic neuron and are thus visualized as a whole. Incubating crayfish optic neuropiles

  6. Entomopathogenic Activity of a Variety of the Fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, Recovered from the Elongate Hemlock Scale, Fiorinia externa

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, José A. P.; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Giordano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    A fungal epizootic in populations of Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) infesting hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae) in forests of the Northeastern US has been recently detected. The current known distribution of the epizootic spans 36 sites in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit. (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae) was the most prevalent fungus recovered from infected scales. Bioassays indicated that this C. acutatum variety is highly pathogenic to F. externa. Mortality rates of >90 and >55% were obtained for F. externa crawlers and settlers, respectively. Significantly lower mortality levels, ? 22%, were obtained when three other species of insects were assayed. C. gleosporioides has also been shown to have pathogenic activity towards a scale insect. The data suggest that C. acutatum var. fioriniae from F. externa epizootics in the US, and the previously reported C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae causing Orthezia praelonga epizootics in Brazil, may constitute distinct biotypes of Colletotrichum that have attained the ability to infect insects in addition to the commonly reported plant hosts. PMID:19613442

  7. Functional relationship of longitudinal and circular layers of the muscularis externa of the rabbit large intestine

    PubMed Central

    McKirdy, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    1. The functional relationship of the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscularis externa of the rabbit large intestine has been studied in a flat preparation. 2. Evidence is presented that mechanical activity can be recorded independently and simultaneously from the two muscle layers of the flat preparation. Such evidence accrues mainly from results obtained from the flat preparation in response to various drugs. 3. During spontaneous rhythmic contractions and during the response to pelvic (parasympathetic) nerve stimulation, both layers show similar activity, never opposite or reciprocal activity. 4. In this flat preparation, the mechanism controlling the level of sustained tension (i.e. `tone') may be dissociable, within limit, from the mechanism controlling rhythmic contractions. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4650938

  8. Randomized controlled trial on the treatment of otitis externa with one per cent silver nitrate gel.

    PubMed

    van Hasselt, Piet; Gudde, Hugo

    2004-02-01

    Otitis externa (OE) and especially otomycosis can be very persistent and difficult to control. In the present study the efficacy of treatment of OE with a single instillation in the ear canal of one per cent silver nitrate in three per cent hypromellose gel compared to 0.1 per cent silver nitrate gel was tested in a single-blinded randomized controlled parallel group study. The outcome measure was complete resolution of the OE after one week. Forty-four patients with refractory, bacterial as well as fungal, OE entered the study, comprising 30 ears in each treatment arm. Eight patients defaulted from follow-up, five ears in each treatment arm. A single instillation of one per cent silver nitrate gel cured 23 (92 per cent) of 25 ears with OE, whereas with 0.1 per cent silver nitrate gel seven (28 per cent) of 25 ears treated were cured (Fisher-exact test, p-exact = 0.00010). In a non-controlled series of 120 ears 93.3 per cent needed only a single instillation of one per cent silver nitrate gel while another five per cent were cured after a second instillation a week later. There were no adverse reactions. OE can be treated effectively with instillation of one per cent silver nitrate gel and is particularly useful in recalcitrant otomycosis. The treatment method saves both cost and time. PMID:14979943

  9. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  10. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G.; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint. PMID:23997267

  11. Acute otitis externa in divers working in the North Sea: a microbiological survey of seven saturation dives.

    PubMed Central

    Alcock, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    Saturation diving is an important and widely used technique in the Offshore Oil Industry. During 1974-5 two saturation dives in the North Sea were terminated because of outbreaks of incapacitating otitis externa, and others were disrupted. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was consistently isolated from the ears of affected divers. Because complex work schedules were threatened seven subsequent dives were subjected to microbiological monitoring and control. Colonization of ear canal with P. aeruginosa or with other gram-negative bacilli occurred in 39 (67%) of the 58 divers studied, usually within 7 days of starting the dive. Data obtained by serotyping this isolations of P. aeruginosa suggested that a single infected diver may be the source of organisms which rapidly spread to his colleagues and throughout the living chambers, that the living chambers may constitute a reservoir of infection during and between dives, and that certain serotypes of P. aeruginosa are more likely than others to colonize the ear canal in the conditions of a saturation dive. The control measures used during the dives were only partially effective, but none of the divers suffered severe pain and all the dives were an operational success. PMID:405421

  12. Host plant associations of an entomopathogenic variety of the fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, recovered from the elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, José A P; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Schwarzberg, Lora; Giordano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    A fungal epizootic has been detected in populations of the scale Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), of several northeastern states. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae), a well-known plant pathogen, was the most commonly recovered fungus from these infected scales. This is the second report of a Colletotrichum sp. infecting scale insects. In Brazil C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae recovered from Orthezia praelonga is under development as a biopesticide for citrus production. C. acutatum was detected growing endophytically in 28 species of plants within the epizootic areas. DNA sequences of the High Mobility Box at the MAT 1-2, mating type gene indicate that Colletotrichum sp. isolates recovered from scale insects and plants within epizootic areas were identical. Results from plant bioassays showed that this entomopathogenic Colletotrichum variety grew endophytically in all of the plants tested without causing external symptoms or signs of infection, with the exception of strawberry plants where mild symptoms of infection were observed. The implications of these findings with respect to the use of this fungus as a biological control agent are discussed. PMID:19613851

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. Ex Poir. (Hypericaceae) against strains causing otitis externa in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Moulari, B; Pellequer, Y; Chaumont, J P; Guillaume, Y C; Millet, J

    2007-03-01

    Otitis externa in dogs and cats is always caused by a combination of yeasts and bacteria, among which the most important are Malassezia pachydermatis, Staphylococcus intermedius and Pseudomonas species. These organisms often develop resistance to classical antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of an ethyl acetate leaf extract of Harungana madagascariensis against the organisms cited, to carry out the phytochemical investigation of this extract and to determine its bioactive chemical class using dilution techniques, the bioautography method and the standard phytochemical method described by Harborne (1973). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and anthracenic derivatives. The bioassay showed that the antimicrobial properties may be attributed to astilbin, a flavanone derivative identified on the basis of its spectroscopic data. The results suggest that the extract could be used in an antimicrobial preparation effective against the whole range of organisms incriminated in otitis externa in dogs and cats, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 250 microg/ml. PMID:17385560

  14. Pooled analysis of two clinical trials comparing the clinical outcomes of topical ciprofloxacin\\/dexamethasone otic suspension and polymyxin B\\/neomycin\\/hydrocortisone otic suspension for the treatment of acute otitis externa in adults and children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ateequr Rahman; Shafeequr Rizwan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the clinical outcome of patients receiving topical ciprofloxacin 0.3%\\/dexamethasone 0.1% (CD) otic suspension with that of those receiving polymyxin B\\/neomycin\\/ hydrocortisone (PNH) otic suspension for the treatment of acute otitis externa (AOE).Methods: Data from 2 institutional review board-approved, multicenter, observer-masked, parallel-group, randomized, noninferiority clinical trials conducted at 76 institutions across the United States between

  15. Enhancing plant resistance at the seed stage: low concentrations of methyl jasmonate reduce the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta but do not alter the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa.

    PubMed

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Paudel, Sulav; Rajotte, Edwin G; Felton, Gary W; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2014-10-01

    Plants express inducible direct and indirect defenses in response to herbivory. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related signaling compounds referred to as jasmonates play a central role in regulating defense responses to a wide range of herbivores.We assessed whether treating tomato seeds with 0.8 mM of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) affected the performance of the leaf miner Tuta absoluta, and whether possible changes in volatile profiles altered the behavior of its predator Chrysoperla externa. MeJA-treatment significantly lengthened larval development and decreased the pupal weight of T. absoluta. Herbivory alone increased the emissions of ?-pinene, 6-methyl 5-hepten-2-one, ?-myrcene, (E)-?-ocimene, isoterpinolene, TMTT, (Z)-3-hexenyl butyrate, and hexyl salicylate. MeJA seed treatment significantly decreased the emissions of ?-cubebene from undamaged and herbivore-infested plants. In addition, the emissions of several compounds were lower in the absence of herbivory. Chrysoperla. externa preferred odors from herbivore-infested plants over those from control plants, regardless of the MeJA-treatment, and they did not show any preference for herbivore-infested plants for any of the MeJA-treatments. Our results show preliminary evidence that the treatment of tomato seeds with MeJA can reduce the performance of Tuta absoluta, and that the chemical differences observed in plant VOC profiles do not alter the behavior of the model predator. PMID:25319361

  16. Diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis externa by dermatoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Naimer, Sody A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.

    2014-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis in humans caused by the larvae of the sheep nasal botfly (Oestrus ovis) and is a rare phenomenon in Israel. We describe the utilization of the dermatoscope as a diagnostic tool for the facilitation of early diagnosis of conjunctivitis due to the infestation of the eyes by the sheep nasal botfly in two patients. After the physical removal of the larvae with the help of a cotton swab applicator under a slit lamp examination and the topical use of antibiotics, the clinical symptoms improved within 1–2 days. Undoubtedly the dermatoscope played a crucial role leading to the definitive diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention. PMID:25396095

  17. Unidad de Prcticas Externas practicasexternas.empresas@urjc.es

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    ). - Pulsar sobre el enlace Solicitud de Convenio de Colaboración Educativa: De este modo accederá a la página remitirá su Usuario y Contraseña para acceder a la plataforma. Nº Empleados: Señalar el número aproximado solicitar datos adicionales para la firma de un convenio de cooperación educativa, necesario para la acogida

  18. SECCIN EXTERNA DE TOXICOLOGA Personal acadmico y temas de investigacin

    E-print Network

    , señalización redox. Mecanismos de citotoxicidad por estrés oxidativo y estado antioxidante intracelular, regulación de GSH y otros antioxidantes. Inducción de muerte celular por apoptosis inducida por agentes

  19. SECCIN EXTERNA DE TOXICOLOGA Personal acadmico y temas de investigacin

    E-print Network

    . Mecanismos de citotoxicidad por estrés oxidativo y estado antioxidante intracelular, regulación de GSH y otros antioxidantes. Inducción de muerte celular por apoptosis inducida por agentes citotóxicos y

  20. Externa otitis caused by the Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria apiosperma

    PubMed Central

    Neji, Sourour; Ines, Hadrich; Houaida, Trabelsi; Malek, Mnejja; Fatma, Cheikhrouhou; Hayet, Sellami; Fattouma, Makni; Mounôm, Ghorbel; Ali, Ayadi

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of otomycosis caused by the Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria apiosperma in an immunocompetent 32 years old man who was suffering from hypoacusia and purulent otorrhea. Isolates were identified as Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria sp. on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Pseudallescheria apiosperma was correctly identified by PCR sequencing of ITS regions and ?-tubulin gene. In this case the contamination could be due to intensive activity of gardening with poor hygiene. PMID:24432231

  1. Externa otitis caused by the Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria apiosperma.

    PubMed

    Neji, Sourour; Ines, Hadrich; Houaida, Trabelsi; Malek, Mnejja; Fatma, Cheikhrouhou; Hayet, Sellami; Fattouma, Makni; Mounôm, Ghorbel; Ali, Ayadi

    2013-04-29

    We report a case of otomycosis caused by the Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria apiosperma in an immunocompetent 32 years old man who was suffering from hypoacusia and purulent otorrhea. Isolates were identified as Graphium stage of Pseudallescheria sp. on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Pseudallescheria apiosperma was correctly identified by PCR sequencing of ITS regions and ?-tubulin gene. In this case the contamination could be due to intensive activity of gardening with poor hygiene. PMID:24432231

  2. Otitis Externa Associated with Malassezia sympodialis in Two Cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. CRESPO; M. L. ABARCA; F. J. CABANES

    2000-01-01

    Malassezia species are lipophilic yeasts that form an integral part of animal and human cutaneous microbiota (19). They are also considered important medical yeasts because they are etiological agents of chronic skin disorders and have been reported with increasing frequency as causative agents of life- threatening, iatrogenic, catheter-related sepsis both in immu- nocompromised individuals (1) and low-birth-weight neonates receiving parenteral

  3. Pancreatitis aguda asociada a angioedema hereditario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Marín García; Angel Ceballos Torres; Antonio Ruiz Serrato; Miguel Ángel García Ordóñez

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an infrequent, recurrent, and potentially lethal disorder caused by a deficiency of C1 inhibitor or its activity. Abdominal pain secondary to bowel edema is common in these patients. However, a thorough literature search yielded only six previously reported cases of pancreatitis associated with this entity.

  4. Mastoiditis aguda infantil. Estudio retrospectivo y revisión de la literatura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rodríguez Paramás; F. García de Pedro; A. Encinas; M. Gutiérrez Triguero

    Objective: To review our experience and results in the diagnosis and treatment of acute mastoiditis, a patho- logy with an increasing incidence in the recent years. Me- thods: The study reviewed 49 pediatric patients diagnosed and treated of acute mastoiditis between 1994 and 2003 in our hospital. We summarize epidemiologic, laboratory and clinical features. Results: The mean age was 2.5

  5. HEMORRAGIA DIGESTIVA ALTA AGUDA NO VARICOSA: TRATAMIENTO DE LA RECIDIVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magna Adolfina Maidana; Sandra Elizabet Sesin; Marcos Ormella; Fernando David Boudot

    The upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the loss of blood into the light of digestive tract, caused by lesions, localized between the upper esophageal sphincter and the treiz angle. The recurrence, is defined as the presence of haematemesis or haemorrhagic signs of activity (hematico gastric aspirates and \\/ or melena) associated of hypovolaemia (PAS<100mmHg and \\/ or FC> 100 lat. \\/

  6. A case of orbital apex syndrome in a patient with malignant otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Baig, Rashid; Khan, Qazi Assad; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Awan, Sohail; Ahmad, Khabir

    2013-02-01

    A rare case of skull base infection with a rapid clinical course leading to visual loss and eventually death in a poorly-controlled diabetic patient is presented. A 37-year-old woman presented with a history of visual loss and painful protrusion of the right eye for the preceding 3 days.This was accompanied by vertigo and right-side facial weakness. The patient had perception of light in her right eye and 20/25 (presenting visual acuity) in the fellow eye, accompanied by right-side proptosis, total ophthalmoplegia, optic disc pallor and central retinal artery occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of oedema with soft-tissue thickening in the right external auditory canal along with evidence of fluid within the middle ear cavity and mastoid air cells on the right side. A diagnosis of Orbital Apex Syndrome was made and treatment initiated. PMID:23894912

  7. THE DISCOVERY OF QUASISOFT AND SUPERSOFT SOURCES IN EXTERNA L GALAXIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. DI STEFANO; A. K. H. KONG

    We apply a uniform procedure to select very soft sources from point sources observed by Chandrain 4 galaxies. This sample includes one elliptical galaxy (NGC 4967), 2 face-on spirals (M101 and M83), and an interacting galaxy (M51). We report on some intriguing results, including the following. (1) We have found very soft X-ray sources (VSSs) in every galaxy. Some of

  8. Licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Befunde an Augenmuskeln bei hereditärer Ophthalmoplegia congenita externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Fuchs; H. Gornig

    1968-01-01

    The light and electron microscope examination of the recto externo of two patients with ophthalmoplegia congenital externo total respectively subtotal resulted no independent muscular affection. The examined muscular fibres near the insertion are more voluminous than by the patients for medical control. The dissatified or relieved motility of the bulbus must be explained of nuclear or supranuclear innervation disturbances.

  9. Pauta de evaluacin externa 1. Grado de avance de los objetivos planteados

    E-print Network

    envolvido é bom e coerente com o de outros paises) e houve formação de doutores com teses de muito boa artigos foram publica- dos e/ou submetidos é muito boa. Cabe ressaltar que o aluno Pablo Guarino, membro: · No âmbito da pesquisa básica foram obtidos progressos importantes e resultados de boa qualidade. · No âmbito

  10. Atypical Lipid-Dependent Malassezia Species Isolated from Dogs with Otitis Externa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. CRESPO; M. L. ABARCA; F. J. CABANES

    Species of the genus Malassezia inhabit the skin of humans and many other warm-blooded vertebrates (20). Their most important physiological feature is their lipophilic nature, be- cause they have the property of using lipids as a source of carbon. In fact, with the exception of Malassezia pachydermatis, the remaining species of the genus have an absolute require- ment in vitro

  11. PREFIXO PARA LIGAES EXTERNAS -2529 10/05/2013 -10:59 FUNCIONARIOS RAMAL SALA FUNCIONARIOS RAMAL SALA

    E-print Network

    Solodov, Mikhail V.

    121 Ana Paula Rodrigues 5017 208 Manuela Cervo 5095 107 André Luiz P. Santos 5176 210 Marcela Soares 5280 244 Pedro Luis Darrigue de Faro5043 208 Cassia Pessanha 5006 204 Priscilla Fernandes Pomateli5099 Mibielli 5184 104 Fabio dos Santos Santos5046 244 Rogerio Dias Trindade 5137 351 Fabio Rosa 5184 104

  12. Nutrición basada en la evidencia en la pancreatitis aguda y la enfermedad hepática crónica estable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. de Luis Román

    2005-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a disease that, by definition, generates an increase in metabolism. This metabolic reaction, together with the anorexia produced by the disease, clearly increases morbidity and mortality secondary to malnutrition.Malnutrition affects almost 70% of patients with cirrhosis, with a consequent increase in complications. The present review aims to evaluate the utility of the use of total parenteral nutrition

  13. Contaminación atmosférica, asma bronquial e infecciones respiratorias agudas en menores de edad, de La Habana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Romero-Placeres; Pedro Más-Bermejo; Marina Lacasaña-Navarro; Martha María Téllez Rojo-Solís; Juan Aguilar-Valdés; Isabelle Romieu

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To identify the relationship between emergen- cy visits for acute respiratory illnesses, acute bronchial asth- ma crisis (ABAC) and acute respiratory infections (ARI), in children less than 14 years of age, and the daily changes of air pollutant levels, in two central hospitals of Havana City, between October 1st 1996 and March 16 1998. Material and Methods. An ecological

  14. Mastoiditis aguda: experiencia en los últimos 10 años en hospital terciario del sur de España

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Croche Santander; A. Porras González; I. Obando Santaella

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionAn increase in both the incidence and severity of acute mastoiditis (AM) has been recently recorded in many different geographical areas. Causes remain unclear.This study aims to evaluate our clinical and epidemiological data in paediatric patients with AM and to compare them with recent reports.

  15. Comparative short-term efficacy of Oridermyl® auricular ointment and Revolution® selamectin spot-on against feline Otodectes cynotis and its associated secondary otitis externa

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Josée; Bédard, Christian; Moreau, Maxim; Sauvé, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of Oridermyl® (acaricidal/antibiotic/antifungal/anti-inflammatory ointment) and Revolution® (selamectin spot-on) was compared in a blinded randomized study on 24 adult cats with otoacariasis. Twelve cats were treated once daily for 10 d with Oridermyl® and 12 cats were treated on Day 0 with Revolution®. Otitis was assessed with cytological counts of mean number of bacteria and yeast on Days 0 and 10, and scored clinically every other day. All auricular secretions were removed for mite count on Day 10. On Day 0, cytological examination confirmed the presence of secondary bacterial (24/24) and fungal (21/24) infections. No live mites were observed otoscopically after Day 4 and in auricular secretions at Day 10 in both groups. On Day 10, secondary infections were resolved for all cats treated with Oridermyl® but were present in all cats treated with Revolution®. Improvement in clinical signs of otitis over time was superior in the Oridermyl® group (P < 0.001). PMID:23277643

  16. FIXAÇÃO ESQUELÉTICA EXTERNA PARA ARTRODESE DE JOELHO EM PAPAGAIO (Amazona aestiva) EXTERNAL SKELETAL FIXATION FOR ARTHRODESIS OF THE KNEE JOINT IN PARROT (Amazona aestiva)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ciência Rural; Santa Maria; Marcelo Meller Alievi; Ricardo Alexandre Hippler; Luiz Giacomelli; Luciana Guimarães; João Eduardo Schossler

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY A five-month-old Amazon parrot ( Amazona aestiva), weighting 320g, was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria presenting rotational deformities of the right limb distal leg. A knee joint luxation was identified in the radiographic exam. Arthrodesis was performed using transarticular external skeletal fixation. Sixty days after the surgery, there was complete osseous

  17. Evolution of sex determination systems with heterogametic males and females in silene.

    PubMed

    Slancarova, Veronika; Zdanska, Jana; Janousek, Bohuslav; Talianova, Martina; Zschach, Christian; Zluvova, Jitka; Siroky, Jiri; Kovacova, Viera; Blavet, Hana; Danihelka, Jiri; Oxelman, Bengt; Widmer, Alex; Vyskot, Boris

    2013-12-01

    The plant genus Silene has become a model for evolutionary studies of sex chromosomes and sex-determining mechanisms. A recent study performed in Silene colpophylla showed that dioecy and the sex chromosomes in this species evolved independently from those in Silene latifolia, the most widely studied dioecious Silene species. The results of this study show that the sex-determining system in Silene otites, a species related to S. colpophylla, is based on female heterogamety, a sex determination system that is unique among the Silene species studied to date. Our phylogenetic data support the placing of S. otites and S. colpophylla in the subsection Otites and the analysis of ancestral states suggests that the most recent common ancestor of S. otites and S. colpophylla was most probably dioecious. These observations imply that a switch from XX/XY sex determination to a ZZ/ZW system (or vice versa) occurred in the subsection Otites. This is the first report of two different types of heterogamety within one plant genus of this mostly nondioecious plant family. PMID:24299418

  18. Intracranial complications of acute mastoiditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Go; Joseph M Bernstein; Andrew L de Jong; Marcelle Sulek; Ellen M Friedman

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Oral antibiotic use may have changed the incidence and microbiology of otitic intracranial complications. We reviewed cases of acute mastoiditis to document: (1) incidence of intracranial complications; (2) risk factors; and (3) identify pathologic organisms. Methods: A retrospective study of children at a tertiary care children's hospital with acute mastoiditis from July, 1986 through June, 1998. Results: 118 children

  19. Bezold's abscess arising with recurrent cholesteatoma 20 years after the first surgery: with a review of the 18 cases published in Japan since 1960

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasue Uchida; Hiromi Ueda; Tsutomu Nakashima

    2002-01-01

    The classic Bezold's abscess was described as a deep neck abscess arising from an acute mastoiditis. With the pervasive use of antibiotics, the incidence of otitic suppurative complications including Bezold's abscess has dramatically decreased today. This decreased incidence has led to decreased familiarity and a subsequent increased delay in diagnosis. Otolaryngologists must recognize that intervening in benign processes such as

  20. La evaluación de materiales didácticos para la educación a distancia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN RAMÓN BAUTISTA; RINA MARTÍNEZ ROMERO; MILA SAINZ IBAÑEZ

    The evaluation of teaching malerials for dista nce education is requi red by both tite accountabilfty process and tite need of professional development. lite particulorities associated to distance education imply that tite models usually applied to otiter models of education cannot be used without tite appropriate attjusttnent. Vais article presents a double theoretical frame both on evaluation and on distance

  1. Evaluación de la Eficacia y Tolerancia de una Solución Topical Externa en gotas en base a Flumetrina al 1% (Ectickol ® Pour On)* para el control de infestaciones por Ctenocephalides canis en Cuyes de la Sierra Central

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Tang Ploog; Fabián Ruiz Herrera; Luis Rodríguez Izaguirre

    This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and tolerance of an external solution for implementation in drops, based on Flumethrin 1% (Ectickol ® Pour On) at a dose of 1 mg \\/ kg. liveweight, which in practice is equivalent to two drops per kg live weight applied on the back for treating flea in twenty (20) guinea pigs in the

  2. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISHCOLUMBIA U B C U T SFind UBC0 Repotfs-1 on0 -the Webe at www.externaI-affairs.ubc.ca/paweb/reports/0 0 0 -..

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    , hearawelcoming address from Piper and be entertained by the UBC Symphony Orchestra con- ducted by Jesse Reid. President Martha Piper set the tone for herterm of office whenshedis- pensed with the formal trappingsofthe of a speech in which Piper told the audi- encethat UBC is poisedtobecome C a n a d a ' sp r e - e m i n e n

  3. Estudo de infecções respiratórias agudas virais em crianças atendidas em um centro pediátrico em Salvador (BA) Hospital study of acute respiratory infections in children of Northeast Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Edna; Araújo Moura; Leda Solano de Freitas; Dulce Helena Ribeiro; Eduardo Antônio; Gonçalves Ramos

    From January to December 1998, 482 cases of acute respiratory infections in children attended at the emergence or pediatric wards of Centro Pediátrico Professor Hosannah de Oliveira, of Universidade Federal da Bahia, in Salvador (Brazil), were analysed. The aim of this study was to know data about the role of viruses in these infections. Nasopharyngeal secretions were examined for viruses

  4. Bartonelosis aguda en niños: Estudio de 32 casos en el Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño y el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (Período 1993-2003)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BREÑA CHÁVEZ; Judith Patricia; Ciro Peregrino; HERNÁNDEZ DIAZ; Herminio Renán; CASTILLO DÍAZ; María Esther; POZO TOVAR; Wilfredo Erlán

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: To determine the epidemiology, clinical presentation, data of laboratory and treatment of Bartonellosis in children. Material and methods: We evaluated clinical histories of 32 patients with acute Bartonellosis, who were seen at Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño and the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 1993 to 2003. Results: The mean age was 9.8 years, 72% of patients

  5. Intoxicaciones agudas en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital universitario de nivel III: cambios producidos en los últimos 10 años

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pastó Cardona L; Martorell Puigserver C; Mercadal Orfila G; Machí Ribes JJ; Jódar Massanès R; Servicio de Farmacia

    2007-01-01

    III universitary hospital: changes produced in the last 10 years. The aim was to evaluate the epidemiological changes in the acute poisonings (AP) between 1994 and 2004. For this purpose, all the cases attended at the Emergency Service with the diagnosis of acute poisoning were studied, by means of a transverse descriptive analytical study developed in two periods of one

  6. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1) The drug is indicated for the relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial...dog. It is also indicated for the relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain...

  7. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...for use —(i) Dogs. For the relief of pruritis and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial acute...dermatoses. (ii) Cats. For the relief of pruritis and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain...

  8. 21 CFR 524.981b - Fluocinolone acetonide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1) The drug is indicated for the relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with otitis externa and certain superficial...dog. It is also indicated for the relief of pruritus and inflammation associated with acute otitis externa and certain...

  9. Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a green bottle fly.

    PubMed

    Kalezi?, Tanja; Stojkovi?, Milenko; Vukovi?, Ivana; Spasi?, Radoslava; Andjelkovic, Marko; Stanojlovi?, Svetlana; Boži?, Marija; Džami?, Aleksandar

    2014-07-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the result of infestation of the conjunctiva by the larval form or maggots of flies from the order Diptera. If not recognized and managed appropriately, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis). We present the first case, to our knowledge, of ophthalmomyiasis externa in an elderly woman from Belgrade caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen--a green bottle fly. PMID:25022307

  10. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this drug...

  11. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...use. For the treatment of otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations....

  12. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...use . For the treatment of otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterococcus faecalis ). (3) Limitations...

  13. enero-marzo2006Cinvestav75Noticias Ceremonia de reconocimiento a la labor del

    E-print Network

    Ariel Álvarez Morales Ingeniería Genética Cinvestav-Irapuato Dr. Gerardo Hernández García Jefe de la Bioquímica Dr. Guillermo Elizondo Azuela Sección Externa de Toxicología Dra. Ruth Mercado Maldonado

  14. Reproductive Stage of the Life Cycle in the Rhizocephalan Barnacle Polyascus polygenea (Crustacea: Cirripedia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M. Korn; A. I. Shukalyuk; A. V. Trofimova; V. V. Isaeva

    2004-01-01

    The specific features of the reproductive stage of the life cycle have been studied in the rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea, a parasite of the coastal crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus. It is shown that a single crab can bear 1 to 8 externae of P. polygenea. The fecundity of the parasite depends on the size of the externae and their number on

  15. 5-HT-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Elofsson

    1983-01-01

    An immunocytochemical technique with the use of three different antibodies raised against serotonin was applied to localize the immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of the crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Immunoreactive neurons were found in three optic ganglia (medulla externa, interna and terminalis). They appeared in three layers of the medulla externa and interna. The medulla terminalis displayed three prominent

  16. CINÉTICA DE ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES POR ALFACE EM HIDROPONIA - NFT - COM DUAS CONCENTRAÇÕES DA SOLUÇÃO NUTRITIVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. S. Matias; N. N. Cometti; M. S. Fernandes

    A absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas pode ser descrita por parâmetros cinéticos: Vmax (máxima velocidade de absorção do nutriente por unidade de raiz), Km (concentração externa na qual a velocidade de absorção é a metade da máxima) e Cmin (concentração externa na qual o fluxo líquido de íons é zero). O uso de parâmetros cinéticos pode auxiliar tanto na seleção

  17. Cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne - étude rétrospective à propos de 145 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Chihani, Mehdi; Nadour, Karim; Moujahid, Mountassir; Touati, Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Ammar, Haddou

    2014-01-01

    L'otite moyenne chronique cholestéatomateuse représente une entité fréquente et dangereuse en chirurgie otologique, mettant en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel auditif et exposant à des complications redoutables justifiant pleinement le recours exclusif à un traitement chirurgical et à un suivi post-opératoire rigoureux. Dans le but de mettre le point sur les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutives de cette pathologie, nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, étalée sur 11 ans et portant sur 145 cas de cholestéatome de l'oreille moyenne opérés au sein du service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. PMID:25120876

  18. Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Cooperación Educativa entre la entidad y la universidad que dará la cobertura jurídica necesaria al estudiante oferta de prácticas, la Unidad de Prácticas Externas pone a disposición de las entidades una plataforma

  19. SERVICIO DE ALUMNADO MEMORIA 2012-13

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    convenios de cooperación educativa para la realización de prácticas externas Apoyo a los Centros en la planteado para el horizonte de 2013-14 son los siguientes: Creación de una plataforma web de formularios

  20. 21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone, miconazole, and gentamicin otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone aceponate, miconazole nitrate, gentamicin sulfate otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1132 - Hydrocortisone aceponate, miconazole nitrate, gentamicin sulfate otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...For the treatment of otitis externa in dogs associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ). (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis,...

  4. Reconocimiento Estadistico de Patrones Johan Van Horebeek

    E-print Network

    Van Horebeek, Johan

    aprender f() + definir x Aprendizaje (Aprendizaje m´aquina): a partir de informacion externa al sistema (=ambiente), resolver una tarea de forma eficiente. El sistema se conoce como un sistema experto. #12;14 3

  5. 21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa ], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis,...

  6. Earache

    MedlinePLUS

    ... short time or be ongoing. Related conditions include: Otitis media Swimmer's ear Malignant otitis externa ... Practice Guideline: The Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Pediatrics . 2013;131(3): e964-e999. Coker TR, ...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...consecutive days. (2) Indications for use . For the treatment of otitis externa associated with susceptible strains of yeast (Malassezia pachydermatis ) and bacteria (coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and...

  8. La promoción teatral comunitaria en México

    E-print Network

    Navarro Sada, Francisco

    1992-10-01

    , esto es, la participación de los miembros de las comunidades en la creación de sus propios espectáculos teatrales con el apoyo y la asesoría externa cuando es necesario, de tal manera que la apropiación de la experiencia fortalece el desarrollo...

  9. PUERTORRIQUENA VII12 SANJUAN 1980

    E-print Network

    Sankoff, David

    a influencias linguisticas externas, el ana lisis de su lenguaje nos puede proporcionar datos valiosos sobre la dominicano. Contacto con el espanol Aunque la comunidad americana reside en Samaria desde ha ce tres anos 0

  10. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  11. Uso de Imagens de Satlite para Comparao da Organizao Espacial Urbana entre as Cidades de Braslia e So Paulo no Ensino Fundamental

    E-print Network

    a organização espacial urbana do Brasil, os alunos do 7º do Ensino Fundamental, utilizam as imagens CBERS para mais aguda no Brasil no início do século XX. Na década de 1940 o Brasil apresentava-se com apenas 31

  12. Evolution of reproductive systems in the genus Silene.

    PubMed

    Desfeux, C; Maurice, S; Henry, J P; Lejeune, B; Gouyon, P H

    1996-04-22

    The genus Silene contains both hermaphrodite, gynodioecious and dioecious species, dioecy being represented in three sections of the genus. To locate the events of change of reproductive systems, we compared ITS sequences of 22 species of Silene chosen throughout the whole genus, and four putative outgroup species. Gynodioecy, which is the most common reproductive system within the genus Silene and in closely related genera such as Saponaria and Dianthus, is proposed to be ancestral in the genus. Dioecy has evolved at least twice: once in the section containing S. latifolia, and once in the clade containing S. otites and S. acaulis ssp. bryoides. Evolution towards hermaphroditism, associated with evolution of selfing has also occurred at least twice, in S. gallica and S. comica. PMID:18386410

  13. Hyperparasitism of the cryptoniscid isopod Liriopsis pygmaea on the lithodid Paralomis granulosa from the Beagle Channel, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lovrich, Gustavo A; Roccatagliata, Daniel; Peresan, Laura

    2004-01-28

    A total of 29,570 false king crab Paralomis granulosa were sampled from the Beagle Channel (54 degrees 51'S, 68 degrees 12'W), Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, between July 1996 and August 1998. Crab size varied from 6.8 to 111.2 mm carapace length (CL). A few crabs parasitized by the rhizocephalan Briarosaccus callosus were found; prevalences of externae (the rhizocephalan reproductive body) and scars (the mark left on the host after the death of the parasite) were 0.28 and 0.16%, respectively. Of 85 externae examined, 55 were non-ovigerous and 30 ovigerous. The cryptoniscid isopod Liriopsis pygmaea infested 36.5% of the B. callosus examined. The most abundant stage was the cryptonicus larva, accounting for 208 of the 238 L. pygmaea recovered. Cryptonisci showed a highly aggregated distribution. A total of 92.7% of cryptonicsci were recovered inside empty externae, suggesting that the latter were attractive to cryptonisci. Early subadult females of L. pygmaea were rare; only 3 individuals occurred inside 1 ovigerous externa. Eight late subadult and 18 adult females were found on 3 and 7 non-ovigerous externae, respectively; in addition, 1 aberrant late subadult was found on 1 ovigerous externa. In the Beagle Channel, the population of P. granulosa harbours 3 different parasites: the bopyrid isopod Pseudione tuberculata, which reaches highest prevalence at 10 to 20 mm CL, the rhizocephalan B. callosus, with highest prevalence at 20 to 40 mm CL, and the cryptoniscid isopod L. pygmaea, which mainly infests rhizocephalan on crabs >40 mm CL. PMID:15038454

  14. Trabajo Fin de Grado Sesin Informativa 14 Enero 2014

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    : Libre elección (Preacuerdo) ­ 2ª FASE: Asignación en la plataforma de TFG #12;1ª Fase: libres acuerdos): Plataforma TFG · Apertura plataforma: 14 de marzo al 31 de marzo ­ www.urjc.es/practicas_externas/tfg.html ­ www.fcjs.urjc.es Enlace: Acceso a la plataforma- Asignación Tema Trabajo Fin de Grado · No intervienen

  15. Satlites brasileiros de observao da Terra: balano e perspectivas Jos Carlos Neves Epiphanio1

    E-print Network

    , Brasil epiphanio@dsr.inpe.br Abstract. This paper describes the status and characteristics of Brazilian O Brasil é um país de grandes dimensões territoriais e diversidade de características físicas sistemas sob domínio de fontes externas ao país. Historicamente, o Brasil tem sido importador líquido de

  16. El Desempleo en la década del ´90 - Consecuencias de las Reformas y Globalización en América Latina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Sturm

    La década de los noventa fue un período de transformación para gran parte de Latinoamérica, debido al proceso de reformas que se instauraron. A la vez, se le sumó la globalización, que venía rigiendo como concepto en boga en los países desarrollados. El objetivo de este trabajo, es presentar de que forma la apertura externa y la liberalización financiera y

  17. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin and betamethasone otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

  19. SISTEMA DE GESTIN ENERGTICA DE LA URJC

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Energética Evitar la insostenibilidad ambiental Evitar la dependencia externa de la variación de los precios ­ Que sea respetuoso con el medio ambiente y cumpla los compromisos internacionales asumidos por el país Formación Compromiso Mejora Continua Comunicación Objetivos y metas Instalaciones y Compras Recursos e

  20. MINISTRIO DA EDUCAO UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARAN

    E-print Network

    Paraná, Universidade Federal do

    COMPRAS, CONTRATOS E PATRIMÔNIO PREGÃO ELETRÔNICO Nº 142/2013 =SRP VALIDADE 13/01/14 a 12/01/15 AQUISIÇÃO COMPRAS, CONTRATOS E PATRIMÔNIO superfície de agitação; Estrutura externa em folha de confeccionada em do ambiente ( Vibrações ). A Série Premium é o modelo mais requintado, graças ao seu acabamento

  1. 21 CFR 524.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate otic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...the treatment of acute and chronic otitis externa caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs, instill three to eight drops...For the treatment of infected superficial lesions caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin in dogs and cats, apply a...

  2. PROCESSES AFFECTING THE FATE OF OIL IN THE SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using research results reported from oil spills, laboratory experiments and microcosm studies, this review outlines the many processes controlling the behavior of petroleum in marine waters. The fate of oil spilled at sea depends on the composition of the oil, and on such externa...

  3. Influência do óleo de linhaça sobre o desempenho e a qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Janete Gouveia de Souza; José Humberto Vilar da Silva; Carlos Bôa-Viagem Rabello; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Raul da Cunha Lima Neto

    2008-01-01

    RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a influência da adição de óleo de linhaça em substituição ao óleo de soja em rações para poedeiras semipesadas sobre o desempenho e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Utilizaram-se 192 poedeiras da linhagem Bovans Godline com 29 semanas de idade, distribuídas em seis tratamentos, que consistiram de uma dieta controle

  4. ANALISIS COMPARATIVO DE LA GOBERNABILIDAD DE MERCADOS DE GENERACION ELECTRICA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    ANALISIS COMPARATIVO DE LA GOBERNABILIDAD DE MERCADOS DE GENERACION ELECTRICA Hugh Rudnick y concepto base de este trabajo es el de gobernabilidad. Se refiere al proceso de toma de decisiones en una gobernabilidad interna de un OED puede ser un substituto para la regulación externa sobre el mercado. Parámetros

  5. Metodologia de la Programacion II Flujos de datos

    E-print Network

    Castillo, Luis

    paso de la informaci´on entre el b´ufer y el dispositivo lo realiza el sistema operativo. dispositivo texto y sin formato. Ser capaz de guardar informaci´on en memoria externa y recuperarla (tanto texto sistema ope- rativo deber´ia realizarse de una forma est´andar para que los programas sean portables. La

  6. Rangeland Resource Management for Texans: Strategic Planning for Success (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Fox, William E.

    2004-12-22

    evitar que la empresa alcance sus metas? ?Qu? tan s?lida es la hoja de balance de la empresa? ?Pueden rendir mayores beneficios los mercados existentes? Examen Externo. Las fuerzas externas que no est?n bajo el control directo del administrador a menudo...

  7. Metodologa de codiseo hardware-software para la computacin paralela distribuida dentro de un chip

    E-print Network

    Autònoma de Barcelona, Universitat

    Virtual Machine (PVM) o Message Passing Interface (MPI). Mientras que la otra fase, el principal objetivo su sistema de memoria, cuya implementación física final se realizará en dispositivos reconfigurables, como ARM, PowerPC, MicroBlaze, NIOSII · Sistema de memoria, on-chip RAM, memorias SSRAM externas

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01... 524.1484f Section 524.1484f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...neomycin-susceptible organisms and/or allergy. In otitis externa, 2 to 6 drops...

  10. Economia, desenvolupament i cooperaci (curs 2009-2010) Codi: 3067 (Segon quadrimestre)

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    mercado de capitales. · El problema de la deuda externa. · El desarrollo sostenible y el desafio Objetivos de la cumbre del Milenio (II) · La visión economicista del Desarrollo: el PIB per capita · El concepto del Desarrollo Humano del PNUD · El enfoque de los Derechos Humanos en el Desarrollo

  11. RESOLUCI DE LA CONVOCATRIA DE PERMISOS DE MOBILITAT DEL PDI

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    RESOLUCIÓ DE LA CONVOCATÒRIA DE PERMISOS DE MOBILITAT DEL PDI CURS 2011-2012 Acord núm.111/2011 del Consell de Govern pel qual s'aprova la resolució de la convocatòria de permisos de mobilitat del PDI curs Acadèmic Juliol de 2011 RESOLUCIÓ DE LA CONVOCATÒRIA DE PERMISOS DE MOBILITAT EXTERNA DEL PDI 2011

  12. CONSELL DE GOVERN 20 de juliol de 2011

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    .2. Resolució de la convocatòria de llicències sabàtiques del PDI per al curs 2011-2012. 10.3. Resolució de la convocatòria de permisos de mobilitat externa del PDI per al curs 2011- 2012. 10.4. Resolució de la. Convocatòria 2010. 10.6. Canvi d'adscripció funcional PDI. 10.7. Assignació departaments de referència al PDI

  13. El rendimiento escolar y los trastornos emocionales y comportamentales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Lozano González; Eduardo García Cueto

    2000-01-01

    Este tr abajo evalúa los trastornos emocionales y comportamentales existente entre el alumnado de un centro de enseñanza secundaria, utilizando el Youth Self Report (YSR), obser vando que las mujeres presentan una patología interna diferente a la de los hombres, más externa. Además, se centra en có - mo este tipo de patología incide en el rendimiento escolar, valorado por

  14. Semana 24-28 de Agosto, 2009 Highlights 102

    E-print Network

    transmisión colinérgica, como es la enfermedad de Alzheimer, a partir de moléculas "líder" de origen natural Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Polit cnico Nacional, Apartado 14-740, M xico, D. F., 07000 M xico J. Med Avanzados del Instituto Polit cnico Nacional., Secci n Externa de Farmacolog a, Centro de Investigaci n y

  15. DEPARTAMENTO DE DIREITO EDITAL PARA CONCURSO DE ADMISSO POR TRANSFERNCIA

    E-print Network

    DEPARTAMENTO DE DIREITO EDITAL PARA CONCURSO DE ADMISSÃO POR TRANSFERÊNCIA EXTERNA E PORTADORES DE: - estar cursando até o 5º (quinto) período de Direito ou equivalente, nos casos de cursos seriados; - uma curso de Direito da PUC-Rio. (b) de IES estrangeira: - uma declaração pessoal, descrevendo os motivos de

  16. Vicerrectorado de Docencia Ordenacin Acadmica y Ttulos

    E-print Network

    Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

    Investigación de Mdos. Prado Román, Alberto Si PRÁCTICAS EXTERNAS Economía de la Empresa Economía Financiera y DE MÁSTER Economía de la Empresa Comercialización e Investigación de Mdos. Prado Román, Alberto Si de Mdos. Mercado Idoeta, Carmelo Si SELECCIÓN DE INVERSIONES Economía de la Empresa Economía

  17. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTNOMA DE MXICO SECRETARA DE DESARROLLO INSTITUCIONAL

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    licenciatura o de maestría, según el caso. En caso de tener una calificación inferior a 8.0 en los estudios ESTUDIOS DE POSGRADO Convocatoria de Ingreso al Programa de Becas para Estudios de Posgrado en la UNAM La Coordinación de Estudios de Posgrado convoca a los Programas de Posgrado que no cuenten con evaluación externa

  18. Universidad Autnoma de Madrid Universidad Autnoma de Madrid 13

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid www.uam.es Universidad Autónoma de Madrid 13 14 -- LÍNEAS) Universidad Autónoma de Madrid 2 Mejorar la orientación académica y apoyar las iniciativas emprendedoras y de Autónoma de Madrid 1 2 3 4 3 #12;DESARROLLO DE LA OFICINA DE PRÁCTICAS EXTERNAS Y ORIENTACIÓN PROFESIONAL

  19. Meningites de repetição por malformação de base de crânio com fístula Repeated meningitis due to skull base malformation with fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanderley Wesley Bonafé; Laura Mariana Martins; Ricardo Camillo de Almeida; Marisa Dolhnikoff

    RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar caso de meningite de repetição secun- dária à malformação da base do crânio, com fístula liquórica para a cavidade nasal. Descrição: Criança de 30 meses de idade chegou ao pron- to-socorro em mau estado geral, com quadro de pneumonia aguda, desidratação, marasmo e aumento do perímetro cefálico. Apresentava antecedente de meningites de repetição, sendo um episódio aos

  20. [Efficacy of racecadotril vs. smectite probiotics or zinc as an integral part of treatment of acute diarrhea in children under five years: A meta-analysis of multiple treatments].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro; Ortíz-Hernández, Anna Alejandra; Llamosas-Gallardo, Beatriz; Acosta-Bastidas, Mario A; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Diaz-García, Luisa; Anzo-Osorio, Anahí; Estevez-Jiménez, Juliana; Jiménez-Escobar, Irma; Vidal-Vázquez, Rosa Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Racional del estudio: A pesar de los grandes avances en su tratamiento, la diarrea aguda continúa representando un problema de salud pública en menores de cinco años. Existe poca sistematización en el tratamiento, y la mayor parte de publicaciones establecen comparaciones del coadyuvante con placebo. Objetivo: Analizar, mediante una revisión sistemática, la evidencia sobre la eficacia comparativa de los coadyuvantes para el tratamiento de la diarrea aguda y presentar las comparaciones a través de un meta-análisis de tratamientos múltiples. Métodos: Búsqueda sistematizada en múltiples bases de datos de todos los ensayos clínicos relacionados con la utilización de racecadotrilo, smectita, Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, Sacharomyces boulardii y zinc como coadyuvantes en diarrea aguda, evaluando como desenlace primario la duración de la diarrea. Estadísticamente la información se analizó a través de la estrategia de meta-análisis de tratamientos múltiples, evaluando la superioridad de cada medicamento mediante un análisis SUCRA. Resultados: Se demuestra la eficacia del racecadotrilo al compararlo con placebo y con el resto de los coadyuvantes analizados. La evaluación de la superioridad terapéutica situó al racecadotrilo en primer lugar, seguido por smectita y, después, L. reuteri. Conclusión: Desde el punto de vista de toma estratégica de decisiones en salud, el meta-análisis de tratamientos múltiples nos permite establecer la superioridad terapéutica del racecadotrilo como coadyuvante en el manejo integral de la diarrea aguda en menores de cinco años. PMID:26089269

  1. Influência da utilização da órtese de tornozelo durante atividades do voleibol: avaliação eletromiográfica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jefferson Rosa Cardoso; Christiane de Souza Macedo Guerino; Marcelo Bannwart Santos; Thiago André Del Arco Mustafá; Anália Rosário Lopes; Marcelo Costa de Paula

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO Entorse de tornozelo é a lesão aguda mais freqüentemente en- contrada no voleibol. Com o intuito de prevenir a ocorrência de lesões de tornozelos, foram desenvolvidos equipamentos profilá- ticos, como as órteses. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o de- sempenho dos músculos do tornozelo (tibial anterior, fibular longo e gastrocnêmio - porção medial e lateral) por meio da

  2. La forme pseudo tumorale de la tuberculose primitive du nasopharynx: à propos de deux nouvelles observations et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Touati, Mohammed; Aljalil, Abdelfettah; Chihani, Mehdi; Bouchentouf, Rachid; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2013-01-01

    La tuberculose primitive du nasopharynx est rare, nous présentons deux observations révélées par un aspect pseudo tumoral et à travers lesquelles nous soulevons le problème de diagnostic différentiel avec les lésions malignes du nasopharynx. La première observation concerne un jeune patient de 22 ans hospitalisé pour obstruction nasale bilatérale évoluant dans un contexte d'apyrexie et de conservation de l’état général. La nasofibrosopie et le scanner ont monté un processus tumoral évoquant une hypertrophie des végétations adénoïdes. Le deuxième cas est celui d'un homme de 45 ans tabagique chronique qui a présenté une adénopathie latérocervicale droite, une obstruction nasale et une otite séromuqueuse homolatérale. La nasophibroscopie et le scanner on montré un bourgeon tumoral postéro latéral droit du nasopharynx évoquant un carcinome nasopharyngé. Les biopsies du nasopharynx et les études histologiques, chez les deux patients, ont confirmé le diagnostic de tuberculose. La recherche d'autres localisations était négative. Le pronostic était favorable après 6 mois de traitement antibacillaire. La tuberculose primitive du cavum est rare, elle revêt le plus souvent des formes pseudotumorales et pose des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les tumeurs nasopharyngées, son pronostic sous traitement antibacillaire est. PMID:23565310

  3. Use of thyroid scintigraphy and pituitary immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of spontaneous hypothyroidism in a mature cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shauna L. Blois; Anthony C. G. Abrams-Ogg; Colleen Mitchell; Anthony Yu; Debbie Stoewen; Brandon N. Lillie; Matti Kiupel

    2010-01-01

    A 12-year old, castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented with a 2-year history of poor hair coat, seborrhea, generalized pruritus and otitis externa. Low circulating concentrations of total serum thyroxine (TT4) and free thyroxine (fT4) and an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone concentration supported a diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Thyroid scintigraphy did not show uptake of radioactive technetium in the thyroid

  4. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf’s essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A.B.; Silva, T.; Franco, E.S.; Rabelo, S.A.; Lima, E.R.; Mota, R.A.; da Câmara, C.A.G.; Pontes-Filho, N.T.; Lima-Filho, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf’s essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 ?g/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals. PMID:24031476

  5. Els Briòfits de les basses de l?Albera, Alt Empordà

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brugués; Rosa M. Cros; Creu Casas i Sicart; Cecília Sérgio

    2001-01-01

    Hem estudiat unes basses i unes depressions temporalment inundades en les quals, en evaporar- se l'aigua, sobre el sòl emergit, s'hi observa una elevada diversitat i abundància de briòfits. Per a la distribució dels briòfits hem establert tres zones concèntriques en relació amb el grau d'humitat. En la més externa i excepcionalment inundada, hi destaquen les hepàtiques Riccia gougetiana i

  6. La función de la intermediaria en Yo también hablo de la rosa

    E-print Network

    Kerr, R. A.

    1978-10-01

    un bestiario mientras que habla de los valores simbólicos de los animales que se representan allí. Según un crítico que estudia los bestiarios tradicionales, el objeto principal de su empleo es "to convey by animal imagery a doctrinal and moral... lesson."4 La utilización del bestiario por la Intermediaria parece tener una función didác tica. Los primeros animales, el perro y el gato, representan la integridad física y espiritual. Así restablecen el concepto de la integración interna y externa...

  7. The Mechanism of Amino Acid Efflux from Seed Coats of Developing Pea Seeds as Revealed by uptake Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelina de Jong; Judith W. Koerselman-Kooij; Jolanda A. M. J. Schuurmans; Adrianus C. Borstlap

    The uptake of amino acids by excised seed coat halves of devel- oping seeds of pea (Pisum sativum 1.) was characterized. The influx of i-valine and i-glutamic acid was proportional to their externa1 concentration, with coefficients of proportionality (k) of 11 .O and 7.1 pmol g-' fresh weight min-' M-', respectively. The influx of i-lysine could be analyzed into a

  8. Immunocytochemical demonstration of contractile cells in the human ovarian follicle.

    PubMed

    Walles, B; Gröschel-Stewart, U; Kannisto, P; Owman, C; Sjöberg, N O; Unsicker, K

    1990-07-15

    Actin- and myosin-like immunoreactivity is found in cells located in the theca externa of the follicle wall of the human ovary, and corresponding to previously observed myoid cells. The immunocytochemical observation provides direct structural evidence that non-vascular contractile cells are also present in the follicle wall in humans. As expected, perifollicular blood vessels showed a positive immunoreaction for actin and myosin in their smooth muscle walls. PMID:2197116

  9. Conferencia de Consenso sobre la braquiterapia en cáncer de mama en estadios iniciales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Guedea; L. Arribas; F. Casquero; C. Cinos; V. Crispin; A. Gracia; J. L. Guinot; I. Monteiro-Grillo; V. Munoz; J. Pera; A. Polo; L. Linares; H. Marsiglia; J. J. Mazeron

    2003-01-01

    Resumen  Existe una controversia desde hace décadas sobre el papel de la sobredosis después de la radioterapia externa en el tratamiento\\u000a conservador de cáncer de mama inicial. En el caso de comparar la supervivencia y el control local de un tratamiento conservador\\u000a frente a la mastectomía, existen en la literatura 5 estudios randomizados1–5 y un metaanálisis6 que demuestran que la radioterapia

  10. Differential diagnosis of mastoid hypocellularity in human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Stefan; Kierdorf, Uwe; Schultz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Mastoid hypocellularity is frequently used as an indicator of chronic otits media in paleopathological investigations. The condition can be caused by a poor development of air cells during infancy and early childhood (primary hypocellularity) or by obliteration of air cells with bone during later life (secondary hypocellularity). We performed a macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic study of pneumatization patterns in 151 mastoid processes of individuals from an early-medieval cemetery in Germany, with emphasis on the architecture of the nonpneumatized portion of hypocellular mastoid processes. Two types of primary mastoid hypocellularity were distinguished. The first was characterized by a poorly defined boundary between the pneumatized portion and the nonpneumatized portion and a trabecular thickening in the spongy bone of the latter. The second showed a well-defined boundary between the pneumatized portion and the nonpneumatized portion and normal spongy bone architecture in the latter. The key feature for the diagnosis of secondary hypocellularity was the recognition of the walls of former air cells. Our observations closely match the histopathological findings by Wittmaack (Wittmaack: Uber die normale und die pathologische Pneumatisation des Schläfenbeins. Jena: Gustav Fischer [1918]), who developed a concept of the normal pneumatization process of the temporal bone and the pathogenesis of aberrant pneumatization. We agree with Wittmaack's view that two types of primary mastoid hypocellularity can be distinguished morphologically. Regarding the pathogenesis of these types, we, however, conclude that Wittmaack's concept needs to be revised and updated. Further studies are required to establish the relationship between morphological findings in cases of mastoid hypocellularity and the health status of individuals. PMID:19479818

  11. Differences in Clinical and Laboratory Findings between Group D and Non-Group D Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Gastroenteritis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heung Keun; Rhie, Kyuyol; Yeom, Jung Sook; Park, Ji Sook; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Ki Ryeon; Park, Jung Je

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in clinical features and laboratory findings between group D and non-group D non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) gastroenteritis in children. Methods A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with NTS confirmed by culture study was performed. The clinical features and laboratory findings of group D and non-group D NTS were compared. Results From 2003 to 2012, 75 cases were diagnosed as NTS at our center. The number of group D and non-group D patients was 45 and 30, respectively. The mean age was higher in group D than in non-group D patients (5.1 years vs. 3.4 years, p=0.038). Headaches were more frequently observed (p=0.046) and hematochezia was less frequently observed (p=0.017) in group D than in non-group D NTS gastroenteritis patients. A positive Widal test result was observed in 53.3% of group D and 6.7% of non-group D NTS cases (O-titer, p=0.030; H-titer, p=0.039). There were no differences in white blood cell counts, level of C-reactive protein and rate of antimicrobial resistance between group D and non-group D cases. Conclusion The more severe clinical features such as headache, fever, and higher Widal titers were found to be indicative of group D NTS gastroenteritis. Additionally, group D NTS gastroenteritis was more commonly found in older patients. Therefore, old age, fever, headache, and a positive Widal test are more indicative of group D NTS than non-group D NTS gastroenteritis. Pathophysiological mechanisms may differ across serologic groups. PMID:26157693

  12. Microstructure Features of Proventriculus and Ultrastructure of the Gastric Gland Cells in Chinese Taihe Black-bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Ge, T; Peng, S; Zhong, S; Zhou, Z

    2014-11-28

    To investigate microstructure of proventriculus and ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells from Chinese Taihe black-bone silky fowl (BSF), the proventriculus of 4-week-old BSF was sampled. Conventional histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used in this study. The wall of the Taihe BSF proventriculus was consisted of four layers, the mucous, submucosa, muscularis externa and the serosa as others birds. The muscularis externa of the birds' proventriculus contained three layers. Much of the melanin was present in loose connective tissue of lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis externa unlike others. In addition, the ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells was observed by TEM. There was only one kind of gland cell, for example oxynticopeptic cell in proventriculus of Taihe BSF. The oxynticopeptic cells contained numerous mitochondria, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (CRER), intracellular canaliculi (IC) that secrete hydrochloric acid and small amounts of pepsinogen granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was irregular cisternae with ribosomes and surrounded tightly the mitochondria along their configuration. The electron-dense pepsinogen granules were round with various sizes. The neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells were closed up with tight junction and gap junction. The inter-space between the neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells was stenosis or was filled with electron-dense extracellular substance. In conclusion, the gastric gland cells of Chinese Taihe BSF proventriculus were only oxynticopeptic cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, but no parietal cells and chief cells of mammal. The gastric gland cells of proventriculus were underdeveloped compared with those of mammals. PMID:25430887

  13. 2030 OCARTS Plan Report 

    E-print Network

    Association of Central Oklahoma Governments

    2006-01-01

    (incluyendo zapatos, botas, sombrero y guantes) cuando cuida a la parvada. ? El encargado de la paravada y otros cuidadores no deben entrar a los corrales de otras parvada de aves. ? No permita que visitantes entren ni se acerquen a los gallineros o a los... de la luz, el personal que recoge y transporta aves y el personal de servicio deben vestir ropa pro- tectora externa incluyendo botas y sombrero. ? Controle los veh?culos que entran al local para recoger o entregar aves, entregar pienso, entregar...

  14. Cytologic evaluation of otic exudates.

    PubMed

    Chickering, W R

    1988-07-01

    The multifactorial nature of otitis externa requires accurate etiologic information to ensure therapeutic success. The collection and preparation of cytologic samples of otic exudates are simple to perform, and information of immediate diagnostic and therapeutic value can be attained. Evidence of epidermal hyperplasia and increased glandular secretory activity suggests a noninfectious cause. Large numbers of microorganisms and infiltrating leukocytes confirm the presence of infection. The presence of ear mites, particularly O. cynotis, is always significant. Abnormal epithelial cells that appear singly or in sheets and clusters support the diagnosis of neoplasia; the extent of cell differentiation determines malignancy. Inflammatory cells and acantholytic keratinocytes from vesicular otic lesions suggest autoimmune skin disease. PMID:3264954

  15. Management of osteomyelitis of the skull base

    SciTech Connect

    Benecke, J.E. Jr. (Otologic Medical Group, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Osteomyelitis of the skull base is the most severe form of malignant otitis externa. As a result of having treated 13 patients with skull base osteomyelitis over a 4-year period, we have developed a method of staging and monitoring this malady using gallium and technetium scanning techniques. Stage I is localized to soft tissues, stage II is limited osteomyelitis, and stage III represents extensive skull base osteomyelitis. All stages are treated with appropriate antipseudomonal antibiotics. The duration of therapy depends upon the clearing of inflammation as shown on the gallium scan. Each case must be looked at independently and not subjected to an arbitrary treatment protocol.

  16. Tick Control (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Merchant, Michael E.

    2002-08-23

    personas y ani- males. Encuentros con las garrapatas ocurren com?nmente cuando se viaja por campos y bosques infestados por ellas. Para evitar la posibilidad de mordedura o enfermedad, las garrapatas se deben quitar los m?s pronto posible. La garrapata... marr?n del perro es la m?s com?n en las ?reas urbanas. Los perros y sus perreras deben ser tratados antes de que las garrapatas lleguen a ser un problema. Los animales infestados deben tratarse por un veterinario. Si la infestaci?n es aguda, los perros...

  17. Otomycosis in iran: a review.

    PubMed

    Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53. PMID:25633436

  18. [Chitin Synthase 2 (CHS2) gene of Malassezia species].

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui

    2005-01-01

    Malassezia species have been recognized as members of the microbiological flora of human and animal skin; they are also considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of folliculitis, atopic dermatitis and otitis externa. Therefore, the molecular characteristics were investigated to clarify the epidemiology and the pathogenesis of diseases associated with Malassezia species in human and animals. Molecular investigation was made of 105 clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis from dogs and cats by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chitin synthase 2 (CHS2) gene sequence analyses. The RAPD analysis and CHS2 gene analysis indicated that clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis were divided into four distinct genetic types (A, B, C and D). Type A was isolated from lesions of atopic dermatitis, flea allergic dermatitis, otitis externa, pyoderma and seborrheic (dermatitidis) in dogs and cats, and might be predominant on this. The phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of CHS2 gene fragments of standard strains of 11 Malassezia species showed 11 distinct clusters of this species. PMID:16094288

  19. Gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology in alpers disease.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Raj P; Fligner, Corinne; Maghsoodi, Bita; Jaffe, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    Alpers disease is a recessive mitochondrial disorder caused by mutations in POLG1 and characterized primarily by progressive neurological and hepatic degeneration. Intestinal dysmotility is a frequent symptom, but it is often overshadowed by other clinical manifestations. The onset and progression of Alpers disease vary; however, most patients die during childhood, often before a specific diagnosis has been established. The gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology of 4 patients, obtained largely from postmortem specimens, showed distinctive eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules in a subset of enteric ganglia and patchy atrophy of small intestinal muscularis externa. The cytoplasmic inclusions corresponded to abnormal mitochondria, which have been reported previously in another mitochondrial disorder (mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy) but not in Alpers disease. Recognition of these distinctive light microscopic findings, in an appropriate clinical setting, should prompt the evaluation of an underlying primary mitochondriopathy. PMID:21451360

  20. Crosstalk between Muscularis Macrophages and Enteric Neurons Regulates Gastrointestinal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Paul Andrew; Koscsó, Balázs; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; Stevanovic, Korey; Berres, Marie-Luise; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Leboeuf, Marylene; Li, Xiu-Min; Mucida, Daniel; Stanley, E. Richard; Dahan, Stephanie; Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Merad, Miriam; Bogunovic, Milena

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal peristalsis is a dynamic physiologic process influenced by dietary and microbial changes. It is tightly regulated by complex cellular interactions; however, our understanding of these controls is incomplete. A distinct population of macrophages is distributed in the intestinal muscularis externa. We demonstrate that in the steady state muscularis macrophages regulate peristaltic activity of the colon. They change the pattern of smooth muscle contractions by secreting bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which activates BMP receptor (BMPR) expressed by enteric neurons. Enteric neurons, in turn, secrete colony stimulatory factor 1 (CSF1), a growth factor required for macrophage development. Finally, stimuli from microbial commensals regulate BMP2 expression by macrophages and CSF1 expression by enteric neurons. Our findings identify a plastic, microbiota-driven, crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons, which controls gastrointestinal motility. PMID:25036630

  1. Bilateral Temporal Bone Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: Radiologic Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Mira A.; Matsumoto, Jane; Carr, Carrie M.; Eckel, Laurence J.; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A.

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder with an unpredictable clinical course and highly varied clinical presentation ranging from single system to multisystem involvement. Although head and neck involvement is common in LCH, isolated bilateral temporal bone involvement is exceedingly rare. Furthermore, LCH is commonly misinterpreted as mastoiditis, otitis media and otitis externa, delaying diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic management. To improve detection and time to treatment, it is imperative to have LCH in the differential diagnosis for unusual presentations of the aforementioned infectious head and neck etiologies. Any lytic lesion of the temporal bone identified by radiology should raise suspicion for LCH. We hereby describe the radiologic findings of a case of bilateral temporal bone LCH, originally misdiagnosed as mastoiditis. PMID:24478812

  2. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  3. Upregulation of Defensins in Burn Sheep Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Poindexter, Brian J.; Klein, Gordon L.; Milner, Stephen M.; Bick, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to visualize and localize the sheep antimicrobials, ?-defensins 1, 2, and 3, (SBD-1, SBD-2, SBD-3), sheep neutrophil defensin alpha (SNP-1), and the cathelicidin LL-37 in sheep small intestine after burn injury, our hypothesis being that these compounds would be upregulated in an effort to overcome a compromised endothelial lining. Response to burn injury includes the release of proinflammatory cytokines and systemic immune suppression that, if untreated, can progress to multiple organ failure and death, so protective mechanisms have to be initiated and implemented. Methods: Tissue sections were probed with antibodies to the antimicrobials and then visualized with fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies and subjected to fluorescence deconvolution microscopy and image reconstruction. Results: In both the sham and burn samples, all the aforementioned antimicrobials were seen in each of the layers of small intestine, the highest concentration being localized to the epithelium. SBD-2, SBD-3, and SNP-1 were upregulated in both enterocytes and Paneth cells, while SNP-1 and LL-37 showed increases in both the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers of the muscularis externa following burn injury. Each of the defensins, except SBD-1, was also seen in between the muscle layers of the externa and while burn caused slight increases of SBD-2, SBD-3, and SNP-1 in this location, LL-37 content was significantly decreased. Conclusion: That while each of these human antimicrobials is present in multiple layers of sheep small intestine, SBD-2, SBD-3, SNP-1, and LL-37 are upregulated in the specific layers of the small intestine. PMID:20076788

  4. Localization of the Sensory Neurons and Mechanoreceptors Required for Stretch-Evoked Colonic Migrating Motor Complexes in Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P.; Spencer, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    The pacemaker and pattern generator that underlies the cyclical generation of spontaneous colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) has recently been identified to lie within the myenteric plexus and/or muscularis externa. Neither the mucosa, nor the release of substances from the mucosa were found to be required for the spontaneous generation of CMMCs. However, it is known that stretch applied to the colonic wall can also evoke CMMCs and since stretch of the gut wall is known to stimulate the mucosa, it is not clear whether release of substances from the mucosa and/or submucosal plexus are required for stretch-evoked CMMCs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether circumferential stretch-evoked CMMCs require the presence of the mucosa and/or submucosal plexus in isolated mouse colon. Spontaneous CMMCs were recorded from full length sheet preparations of colon in vitro. Graded circumferential stretch (at a rate of 100??m/s) applied to a 15-mm segment of mid–distal colon reliably evoked a CMMC, which propagated to the oral recording site. Sharp dissection to remove the mucosa and submucosal plexus from the entire colon did not prevent spontaneous CMMCs and circumferential stretch-evoked CMMCs were still reliably evoked by circumferential stretch, even at significantly lower thresholds. In contrast, in intact preparations, direct stimulation of the mucosa (without accompanying stretch) proved highly inconsistent and rarely evoked a CMMC. These observations lead to the inescapable conclusion that the sensory neurons activated by colonic stretch to initiate CMMCs lie in the myenteric plexus, while the mechanoreceptors activated by stretch, lie in the myenteric ganglia and/or muscularis externa. Stretch activation of these mechanoreceptors does not require release of any substance(s) from the mucosa, or neural inputs arising from submucosal ganglia. PMID:22203805

  5. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  6. Distribution of divalent metal transporter-1 in the monkey basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, E; Ong, W Y; Connor, J R

    2004-01-01

    An accumulation of iron occurs in the brain with age, and it is thought that this may contribute to the pathology of certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we elucidated the distribution of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) in the monkey basal ganglia by immunocytochemistry, and compared it with the distribution of ferrous iron in these nuclei by Turnbull's Blue histochemical staining. We observed a general correlation between levels of DMT1, and iron staining. Thus, regions such as the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra pars reticulata contained dense staining of DMT1 in astrocytic processes, and were also observed to contain large numbers of ferrous iron granules. The exceptions were the globus pallidus externa and interna, which contained light DMT1 staining, but large numbers of ferrous iron granules. The thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra pars compacta contained neurons that were lightly stained for DMT1, but few or no iron granules. The high levels of DMT1 expression in some of the nuclei of the basal ganglia, particularly the caudate nucleus, putamen, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, may account for the high levels of iron in these regions. PMID:15381278

  7. Comportamiento dinámico de asteroides en la región 23 < a < 26 UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López García, F.

    Los Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) pueden ser una fuente de origen de los cometas de corto período. Muchos de los KBOs observados parecen provenir, al igual que el sistema Pluton-Charonte, de órbitas resonantes con Neptuno. Los Centauros son objetos que dinámicamente provienen de órbitas inestables cuyo semieje mayor se encuentra entre las órbitas de Júpiter y Neptuno. Pudiera ser que estos cuerpos fueron expulsados desde la región del cinturón de Kuiper y se encuentran en un proceso de ``scattering" debido a los efectos gravitacionales de los planetas gigantes. Su tiempo de vida dinámico es de algunos millones de años. La evolución orbital de los objetos trans-Neptunianos nos permite conocer su comportamiento anterior, por eso, es importante su relación dinámica con la evolución orbital de Neptuno. El objeto de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento dinámico de partículas test que se encuentran entre las resonancias 3:2 con Neptuno y 2:3 con Urano, las cuales comprenden una región de 2 UA aproximadamente. Los primeros resultados indican que la mayoría de los objetos ficticios son eyectados hacia la parte externa del Sistema Solar, mientras que sólo una parte pequeña del total de objetos estudiados, aproximadamente un 7%, son eyectados hacia la parte interna del Sistema Solar, y en algunos casos sus órbitas pueden cruzar la órbita de los planetas terrestres.

  8. Food restriction beginning at lactation interferes with the cellular dynamics of the mucosa and colonic myenteric innervation in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Schoffen, João Paulo F; Vicentini, Fernando A; Marcelino, Carolina G; Araújo, Eduardo J A; Pedrosa, Maria M D; Natali, Maria R M

    2014-12-01

    The effects of food restriction (FR) on the morphoquantitative aspects of the wall and myenteric neurons of the proximal colon in adult rats were analysed. FR was imposed by duplication of the experimental brood size in relation to the control brood during lactation. The FR group received a 50% reduction of food from weaning until 90 days of age. Samples of the colon underwent histological processing to morphometrically analyze the crypts, muscularis mucosae, tunica mucosa, and muscularis externa. We determined the number of goblet cells and serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells, and morphoquantitatively studied the myenteric neuronal population. FR caused hypertrophy in the tunica mucosa, increase in crypt depth and in the muscular layer of the mucosa, a decrease in the thickness of the tunica muscularis and in the number of goblet cells and an increase in serotoninergic cells. A higher neuronal density in the ganglia and a reduction of the cell profile area were observed in the FR group. FR imposed since lactation led to hypertrophy of the tunica mucosa, a reduction of neutral mucin production, atrophy of the tunica muscularis, and an increase in the survival neuronal in adult rats, attributable to an increase in the number of serotoninergic enteroendocrine cells in mucosa. PMID:25590720

  9. Occurrence of L- and D-crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoforms in the eyestalk X-organ/sinus gland complex during the ontogeny of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Laetitia; Grousset, Evelyse; Charmantier, Guy; Spanings-Pierrot, Céline

    2004-09-01

    We studied the ontogeny of the eyestalk structure and of the L-CHH and d-Phe3-CHH synthesis in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex by light microscopy and immunocytochemistry in the freshwater crustacean Astacus leptodactylus. The optic ganglia start to differentiate in embryos at EI 190 microm (EI: eye index; close to 410 microm at hatching). At EI 270 microm, the three medullae (externa, interna, and terminalis) and the lamina ganglionaris are present and are organized as in the adult eyestalk. The L-CHH was localized in perikarya of neuroendocrine cells, in their tracts, and in SG from the metanauplius stage to the adult. The d-Phe3-CHH was visualized in XO perikarya, in their tracts and in SG of embryos from EI 350 microm and in all later studied stages. Co-localization of both CHH stereoisomers always occurred in the d-Phe3-CHH-producing cells. These results show that the synthesis of CHH enantiomers starts during the embryonic life in A. leptodactylus, and that the d-isomer is synthesized later than its L-counterpart. We discuss the post-translational isomerization as a way to generate hormonal diversity and the putative relation between d-Phe3-CHH synthesis and the ability to osmoregulate, occurring late during the embryonic life of Astacus leptodactylus. PMID:15314080

  10. Description and host relationships of Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from the heron Nycticorax nycticorax in Peru.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M; Heckmann, R A

    1991-04-01

    Polymorphus spindlatus n. sp. is described from the black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, in Lake Titicaca, Peru. It is distinguished from all 27 known species of the subgenus Polymorphus by its spindle-shaped proboscis and its trunk shape, the anterior 2/3 of which is ovoid, tapering into a tubular posterior end. It resembles Polymorphus brevis (=Arhythmorhynchus brevis), which is, however, longer and considerably more slender, and has smaller and more numerous proboscis hooks per row and smaller eggs. It is separated also from Polymorphus swartzi, Polymorphus striatus, Polymorphus contortus, and Polymorphus cincli by its proboscis armature (usually 18 longitudinal rows of 11-13 hooks each), among other characters. Histopathological sections of host tissue show well defined localized damage including hemorrhaging with subsequent phagocyte cell migration (granular tissue). The lumen of the host intestine is obstructed and villi show compression. The proboscis of P. spindlatus extends through the intestinal mucosa and submucosa, displacing the smooth muscle layers of the muscularis externa. Fibrosis also was observed. PMID:2010853

  11. The anatomy of the arterial supply of the thoracic limb of the porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, S; Aydin, A; Dinç, G

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the arterial supply and branches of the thoracic limb of the porcupine. With this aim, five (three male and two female) adult porcupines were used. The vascular tree of the thoracic limb was injected through the common carotid arteries with coloured latex. The a. thoracica externa arose from the a. axillaris at the level of the fourth rib. It divided into two branches and went to the m. cutaneus trunci and the m. pectoralis ascendens. The a. subscapularis came off the a. thoracodorsalis. Later, the a. circumflexa humeri caudalis et cranialis, the three muscular branches and the a. circumflexa scapulae arose from the a. subscapularis. The a. profunda brachii arose together with the a. bicipitalis from the same truncus. The a. collateralis ulnaris left from the a. brachialis independently. Rete carpi dorsale was formed by the a. radialis. the r. carpeus dorsalis of the a. collateralis ulnaris and the a. interossea caudalis. Arcus palmaris profundus was formed by the r. profundus of the a. interossea caudalis and the r. palmaris profundus of the a. radialis. In conclusion, despite a partial resemblance to that in the rat, the distribution of the thoracic limb arteries in the porcupine was found to be completely different from that of other mammals. These findings represent, to our knowledge, the first study on the distribution of thoracic limb arteries in the porcupine. PMID:11688736

  12. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated manifestations in otolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    lacovou, Emily; Vlastarakos, Petros V.; Papacharalampous, George; Kampessis, George; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. PMID:24470939

  14. Canine aural cholesteatoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Banco, Barbara; Grieco, Valeria; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Martino, Pieranna; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Giudice, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Canine aural cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that forms in the middle ear cavity as a rare complication of otitis media but the aetiopathogenesis remains controversial. In the present study, 13 cases of canine aural cholesteatoma were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically and compared with cases of chronic otitis. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed using the following monoclonal antibodies: anti-cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16, 8/18, and 19, and anti-Ki67. The proliferative indexes (PIs) of cholesteatomata and otitis epithelium were calculated as the percentage of Ki67 positive nuclei/total nuclei. Histologically, the cholesteatomata were composed of a hyperplastic, hyperkeratotic epithelium (matrix) resting on a fibrous perimatrix, infiltrated by inflammatory cells and devoid of cutaneous adnexa. Immunohistochemically, the cholesteatoma epithelium was CK14- and CK16-positive, and CK8/18- and CK19-negative. A similar pattern of CK expression was found in otitis externa. In otitis media, ciliated epithelium stained CK8/18- and CK19-positive in all layers, CK14-positive in the basal layers, and CK16-negative. The mean PIs in cholesteatomata and otitides were 18.8 and 17.8, respectively. The immunohistochemical pattern of CK expression in cholesteatomata, when compared with chronic otitis, was suggestive of hyperproliferative epithelium, but its origin could not be demonstrated. Comparable PI values were obtained in cholesteatoma and in chronic otitis, which confirmed that Ki67 is a valuable indicator of a hyperproliferative state, but not a predictor of aggressiveness. PMID:24775276

  15. Neural control of dopamine neurotransmission: implications for reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Hyland, Brian I; Wickens, Jeffery R

    2012-04-01

    In the past few decades there has been remarkable convergence of machine learning with neurobiological understanding of reinforcement learning mechanisms, exemplified by temporal difference (TD) learning models. The anatomy of the basal ganglia provides a number of potential substrates for instantiation of the TD mechanism. In contrast to the traditional concept of direct and indirect pathway outputs from the striatum, we emphasize that projection neurons of the striatum are branched and individual striatofugal neurons innervate both globus pallidus externa and globus pallidus interna/substantia nigra (GPi/SNr). This suggests that the GPi/SNr has the necessary inputs to operate as the source of a TD signal. We also discuss the mechanism for the timing processes necessary for learning in the TD framework. The TD framework has been particularly successful in analysing electrophysiogical recordings from dopamine (DA) neurons during learning, in terms of reward prediction error. However, present understanding of the neural control of DA release is limited, and hence the neural mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Inhibition is very conspicuously present among the inputs to the DA neurons, with inhibitory synapses accounting for the majority of synapses on DA neurons. Furthermore, synchronous firing of the DA neuron population requires disinhibition and excitation to occur together in a coordinated manner. We conclude that the inhibitory circuits impinging directly or indirectly on the DA neurons play a central role in the control of DA neuron activity and further investigation of these circuits may provide important insight into the biological mechanisms of reinforcement learning. PMID:22487041

  16. Trichobilharzia mergi sp. nov. (Trematoda: Digenea: Schistosomatidae), a visceral schistosome of Mergus serrator (L.) (Aves: Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Kolá?ová, Libuše; Skírnisson, Karl; Ferté, Hubert; Jouet, Damien

    2013-06-01

    Parasitological investigations on red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator L.) in Iceland revealed digenean flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. Adult worms were detected in blood vessels of the large intestine and eggs were deposited in the mucosa and surrounded by granulomatous reactions. Traditional morphological methods showed that the flukes have very slender filiform bodies, males are equipped with a short gynaecophoric canal and both suckers and spatulate ends are present on each sex. Among characteristics of the flukes which render them morphologically distinct from other Trichobilharzia species are: i) males-well developed vesicula seminalis (v.s.) consisting of a short v.s. externa and a significantly longer (approx. 3 times) v.s. interna, unusually well developed genital papilla and localization of the first testis a relatively long distance posterior to the gynaecophoric canal; ii) eggs-small and elongated with slightly rounded poles and a short terminal spine. DNA taxonomic techniques confirmed that a new species had been identified, Trichobilharzia mergi sp. n. The sequence data were deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JX456151 to JX456172. Comparison of the results with our previously published data on characterization of DNA of cercariae isolated from freshwater lymnaeid snails showed that larval development of T. mergi is associated with Radix balthica L. (=Radix peregra Müller, 1774;=Radix ovata Draparnaud, 1805). PMID:23501058

  17. Morphological studies on the venous drainage of the trachea in the neck of sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, R E; Maguire, J; Morris, S E; Traber, D L; Herndon, D N

    1989-01-01

    Systemic venous drainage of the cervical portion of the trachea from the cricoid cartilage to the sternal notch was observed in 50 adult sheep. In all animals, the first five to six tracheal rings starting at the cricoid cartilage were drained by the thyroid veins (v. thyroideae) bilaterally to the external jugular veins (v. jugularis externa). A venous complex draining the remaining cervical portion of the trachea was observed only on the left side of the trachea. This complex drained to the cranial vena cava (vena cava cranialis). India ink or Evans blue dye were infused into small vessels draining this area for verification. Variations in this venous complex were classified into three types based upon length of trachea drained. Type I was found in 26%, type II found in 58%, and type III found in 16% of the sheep studied and drained 23 +/- 5%, 58 +/- 11% and 78 +/- 10% of the cervical portion of the trachea, respectively. Blood flow from this area of the trachea was 85 +/- 28 mL/min/100 g wet issue. This study identified and classified the venous drainage of the cervical portion of the trachea in sheep. Images Fig. 14 PMID:2766145

  18. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  19. SPECT imaging in evaluating extent of malignant external otitis: case report

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Tu'Meh, S.S.; Piwnica-Worms, D.; Holman, B.L.

    1987-03-01

    Otitis externa, a benign inflammatory process of the external auditory canal, is general responsive to local therapy. Some patients however, develop a less controllable disease leading to chondritis and osteomyelitis of the base of the skull. The direct invasive characteristic of the disease has led to the descriptive term malignant external otitis (MEO), more appropriately called necrotizing or invasive external otitis. Malignant external otitis is caused by an aggressive pseudomonas or proteus infection that almost exclusively occurs in elderly diabetic patients. The primary imaging modalities previously used in the diagnosis and evaluation of MEO were standard planar scintigraphic techniques with technetium-99M (/sup 99m/Tc) bone agents and gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga), and pluridirectional tomography. The advent of high resolution computed tomography (CT) effectively allowed demonstration of the soft tissue extension and bone destruction associated with MEO, but still suffered from the low sensitivity constraints of all radiographic techniques in determining early inflammatory bone involvement. Recent work suggests that scintigraphic detection of MEO with /sup 99m/Tc-MDP and /sup 67/Ga, combined with the cross-sectional resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be of value in planning treatment of this inflammatory condition.

  20. Heat-induced formulation inhomogeneity of a three-component suspension.

    PubMed

    Toongsuwan, Siriporn; Li, Luk-Chiu; Chang, Hung-Chih; Stephens, Dennis; Robinson, Dan

    2004-08-01

    A suspension formulation containing sarafloxacin HCl, triamcinolone acetonide, and clotrimazole was developed for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The potency for the three active ingredients in this suspension was monitored at 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C for up to 3 months. The potencies of triamcinolone and clotrimazole were found unchanged, but the potency of sarafloxacin HCl in the samples stored at 40 degrees C for 1 month varied significantly between samples. However, assay inconsistency for sarafloxacin HCl was not seen in samples stored at 25 degrees C. Under an optical microscope, large crystals were found in the 40 degrees C stability samples but not in the 25 degrees C samples. The large crystals in 40 degrees C samples were identified as sarafloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This finding suggests that crystal growth of sarafloxacin took place at 40 degrees C during storage, leading to the formation of larger crystals and the consequent sampling nonuniformity and assay inconsistency. The solid-state properties of these crystals were further evaluated using hot-stage microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results indicate that the crystal growth of sarafloxacin was most likely attributed to a change in the hydration form of sarafloxacin. PMID:15491051

  1. Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head.

    PubMed

    Foster, Allison; Morandi, Federica; May, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports describing the prevalence of ear diseases in dogs have primarily been based on dogs presenting with clinical signs of disease. The prevalence of subclinical ear disease remains unknown. The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of lesions consistent with middle and external ear disease in dogs presented for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of the head and/or cranial cervical spine at our hospital during the period of July 2011 and August 2013. For each included dog, data recorded were signalment, CT findings, diagnosis, and treatment. A total of 199 dogs met inclusion criteria. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were referred for evaluation of suspected ear disease and 27 dogs (13.5%) had histories or physical examination findings consistent with otitis externa. A total of 163 dogs (81.9%) had CT lesions consistent with external ear disease (i.e. ear canal mineralization, external canal thickening, and/or narrowing of the external canal). Thirty-nine dogs (19.5%) had CT lesions consistent with middle ear disease (i.e. soft tissue attenuating/fluid material in the tympanic bullae, bulla wall thickening or lysis, and/or periosteal proliferation of the temporal bone). Findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of external and middle ear disease in dogs could be higher than that previously reported. PMID:25046431

  2. Neural and muscular control functions of the gut in odontocetes: morphologic evidence in beaked whales and beluga whales.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C J

    1993-01-01

    The present data provide some new and unique, gastrointestinal morphologic findings in two species of toothed whales, the Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) and the beluga or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas), which are discussed relative to their atypical feeding behavior and alimentary tract functions. Specifically, the findings show myenteric neural modifications and muscularis externa structural specializations which may support voluntary and involuntary fore- and hindgut behavior. Histologic evidence of intercalation-like striations in the gastric and colonic musculature was discovered, as well as an unusual massive size of the colonic myenteric plexuses. These observations, which are not evident in terrestrial mammalian gastrointestinal tracts, may help explain the unusual upper gastrointestinal tract motility such as ingestion-by-sucking in the absence of prehensile teeth and processing of ingesta in a multi-compartmentalized pyloric stomach. Further, the hindgut modifications may help explain the animal's acute, rectal discharge escape mechanism, likened to squid inking, which seems to be an evolved function of some cetaceans. PMID:8292985

  3. Um supressor de fundo térmico para a câmara infravermelha CamIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, F.; Laporte, R.

    2003-08-01

    O ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels na câmara infravermelha do NexGal (CamIV) que operamos no OPD/LNA contém contribuições provenientes do sistema de coleta de fluxo propriamente dito - sendo esta a parte que interessa para as medidas astronômicas - e contribuições da obstrução central, sistema de suporte do espelho secundário e região exterior à pupila de entrada do telescópio. Estas últimas contribuições são devi-das à emissão de corpo negro à temperatura ambiente e aumentam exponencialmente para comprimentos de onda maiores que 2 micra (banda K, no infravermelho próximo). Embora a resultante pode ser quantificada e subtraída dos sinais relevantes, sua variância se adiciona à variância do sinal, e pode ser facilmente a contribuição domi-nante para a incerteza final das medidas, tornando ineficiente o processo de extração de informação e degradando a sensibilidade da câmara. A maneira clássica de resolver esse problema em sistemas ópticos que operam no infravermelho, onde os efeitos da emissão térmica do ambiente são importantes, é restringir o ângulo sólido subtendido pelos pixels individuais exclusivamente aos raios provenientes do sistema óptico. Para tanto, projeta-se uma imagem real, bastante reduzida, da pupila de entrada do sistema óptico num anteparo que transmita para o sistema de imageamento só o que interessa, bloqueando as contribuições das bordas externas à pupila de entrada, obstrução central do telescópio e sistema de suporte. Como a projeção é realizada em ambiente criogênico, a contribuição térmica espúria é efetivamente eliminada. Nós optamos por um sistema do tipo Offner para implementar na prática esta função. Trata-se de um sistema baseado em espelhos esféricos, bastante compacto e ajustado por construção. A opção por espelhos do mesmo material que o sistema de suporte (Alumínio) minimiza a dilatação diferencial, crítica nesse tipo de aplicação. Apresentamos as soluções detalhadas do projeto óptico-mecânico, bem como uma análise de flexões e desempenho em termos de qualidade de imagem.

  4. Mast Cells and Gastrointestinal Dysmotility in the Cystic Fibrosis Mouse

    PubMed Central

    De Lisle, Robert C.; Meldi, Lauren; Roach, Eileen; Flynn, Maureen; Sewell, Racquel

    2009-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) has many effects on the gastrointestinal tract and a common problem in this disease is poor nutrition. In the CF mouse there is an innate immune response with a large influx of mast cells into the muscularis externa of the small intestine and gastrointestinal dysmotility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of mast cells in gastrointestinal dysmotility using the CF mouse (Cftrtm1UNC, Cftr knockout). Methodology Wild type (WT) and CF mice were treated for 3 weeks with mast cell stabilizing drugs (ketotifen, cromolyn, doxantrazole) or were treated acutely with a mast cell activator (compound 48/80). Gastrointestinal transit was measured using gavage of a fluorescent tracer. Results In CF mice gastric emptying at 20 min post-gavage did not differ from WT, but was significantly less than in WT at 90 min post-gavage. Gastric emptying was significantly increased in WT mice by doxantrazole, but none of the mast cell stabilizers had any significant effect on gastric emptying in CF mice. Mast cell activation significantly enhanced gastric emptying in WT mice but not in CF mice. Small intestinal transit was significantly less in CF mice as compared to WT. Of the mast cell stabilizers, only doxantrazole significantly affected small intestinal transit in WT mice and none had any effect in CF mice. Mast cell activation resulted in a small but significant increase in small intestinal transit in CF mice but not WT mice. Conclusions The results indicate that mast cells are not involved in gastrointestinal dysmotility but their activation can stimulate small intestinal transit in cystic fibrosis. PMID:19172182

  5. The current practice trends in pediatric bone-anchored hearing aids in Canada: a national clinical and surgical practice survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) in the 1980s, the practices of surgeons who implant these hearing aids have become varied; different indications and surgical techniques are utilized depending on the surgeon and institution. The objective of the current study is to describe the clinical and surgical practices of otolaryngologists in Canada who perform pediatric BAHA operations. Methods A detailed practice questionnaire was devised and sent to all members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Those who performed pediatric BAHA surgeries were asked to participate. Results Twelve responses were received (response rate of 80%). All of the respondents identified congenital aural atresia to be an indication for pediatric BAHAs. Other indications were chronic otitis externa or media with hearing loss (92%), allergic reactions to conventional hearing aids (75%), congenital fixation or anomaly of ossicular chain (67%), and unilateral deafness (25%). Minor complications, such as skin reactions, were reported in 25% of cases, while major complications were very rare. There was great variability with regards to surgical techinque and post-operative management. The extent of financial support for the BAHA hardware and device also varied between provinces, and even within the same province. Conclusion There is a lack of general consensus regarding pediatric BAHA surgeries in Canada. With such a small community of otolaryngologists performing this procedure, we are hopeful that this survey can serve as an impetus for a national collaboration to establish a set of general management principles and inspire multi-site research ventures. PMID:23815797

  6. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders. PMID:24723855

  7. Andrenocorticotropin and ?-lipotropin in the hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Nivaler, G; Zimmerman, EA; Defendini, R; Liotta, AS; Kreiger, DT; Brownstein, MJ

    1979-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin and ?-lipotropin (?-LPH) have been localized by immunoperoxidase methods in nerve cells and fibers of the hypothalamus and brain stem of the ewe. 6-?m sections were immunostained first for either ACTH or ?-LPH. The reaction products and the antibody complexes were then eluted completely from the tissue, and the same section was immunostained for the second peptide. Absorption of the primary antisera with a variety of peptide fragments of ACTH and ?-LPH demonstrated, immunocytochemically as well as by radioimmunoassay, that the ACTH and ?-LPH antisera were directed to the COOH- and NH(2)-termini of the peptides, respectively. Neither antiserum recognized any portion of the heterologous peptide. In the sequential staining procedure on the same tissue section, preincubation of the antisera with the homologous peptide abolished the staining, whereas preincubation with the heterologous peptide did not affect it, regardless of the order followed. Every nerve cell in the arcuate nucleus that contained ACTH also contained ?-LPH, but ?-LPH cells appeared, probably falsely, to be twice as numerous as ACTH cells. ?-LPH-positive fibers in and beyond the hypothalamus were also more numerous and stained more intensively than ACTH fibers. The salient exception was fibers in the infundibular zona externa, where the opposite was true. Our observations establish that ACTH and ?-LPH are contained in the same nerve cells They stongly favor biosynthesis in brain, probably from a common precursor molecule, as has been demonstrated in the pituitary gland. The complexity of the cytologic distribution pattern described suggests that the two peptides are not processed in the same manner by the nerve cell. PMID:225334

  8. Effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation of STN afferent axons during DBS in Parkinson's disease: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Guiyeom; Lowery, Madeleine M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that subthalamic nucleus (STN)-Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may exert at least part of its therapeutic effect through the antidromic suppression of pathological oscillations in the cortex in 6-OHDA treated rats and in parkinsonian patients. STN-DBS may also activate STN neurons by initiating action potential propagation in the orthodromic direction, similarly resulting in suppression of pathological oscillations in the STN. While experimental studies have provided strong evidence in support of antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons, it is difficult to separate relative contributions of antidromic and orthodromic effects of STN-DBS. The aim of this computational study was to examine the effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation on neural firing patterns and beta-band (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the STN and cortex during DBS of STN afferent axons projecting from the cortex. High frequency antidromic stimulation alone effectively suppressed simulated beta activity in both the cortex and STN-globus pallidus externa (GPe) network. High frequency orthodromic stimulation similarly suppressed beta activity within the STN and GPe through the direct stimulation of STN neurons driven by DBS at the same frequency as the stimulus. The combined effect of both antidromic and orthodromic stimulation modulated cortical activity antidromically while simultaneously orthodromically driving STN neurons. While high frequency DBS reduced STN beta-band power, low frequency stimulation resulted in resonant effects, increasing beta-band activity, consistent with previous experimental observations. The simulation results indicate effective suppression of simulated oscillatory activity through both antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons and direct orthodromic stimulation of STN neurons. The results of the study agree with experimental recordings of STN and cortical neurons in rats and support the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons. PMID:24678296

  9. Effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation of STN afferent axons during DBS in Parkinson's disease: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guiyeom; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that subthalamic nucleus (STN)-Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may exert at least part of its therapeutic effect through the antidromic suppression of pathological oscillations in the cortex in 6-OHDA treated rats and in parkinsonian patients. STN-DBS may also activate STN neurons by initiating action potential propagation in the orthodromic direction, similarly resulting in suppression of pathological oscillations in the STN. While experimental studies have provided strong evidence in support of antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons, it is difficult to separate relative contributions of antidromic and orthodromic effects of STN-DBS. The aim of this computational study was to examine the effects of antidromic and orthodromic activation on neural firing patterns and beta-band (13-30 Hz) oscillations in the STN and cortex during DBS of STN afferent axons projecting from the cortex. High frequency antidromic stimulation alone effectively suppressed simulated beta activity in both the cortex and STN-globus pallidus externa (GPe) network. High frequency orthodromic stimulation similarly suppressed beta activity within the STN and GPe through the direct stimulation of STN neurons driven by DBS at the same frequency as the stimulus. The combined effect of both antidromic and orthodromic stimulation modulated cortical activity antidromically while simultaneously orthodromically driving STN neurons. While high frequency DBS reduced STN beta-band power, low frequency stimulation resulted in resonant effects, increasing beta-band activity, consistent with previous experimental observations. The simulation results indicate effective suppression of simulated oscillatory activity through both antidromic stimulation of cortical neurons and direct orthodromic stimulation of STN neurons. The results of the study agree with experimental recordings of STN and cortical neurons in rats and support the therapeutic potential of stimulation of cortical neurons. PMID:24678296

  10. Localization of the renin-angiotensin system in the bovine ovary: cyclic variation of the angiotensin II receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Schauser, K H; Nielsen, A H; Winther, H; Dantzer, V; Poulsen, K

    2001-12-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II may modulate reproductive function in the bovine ovary. Therefore, expression and localization of a local ovarian renin-angiotensin system (RAS) were investigated by elucidating the influence of the estrus cycle, pregnancy, and the presence of follicular cysts. Receptor analysis and autoradiography were used to characterize and localize Ang II receptors. Cyclic variations in the density of ovarian Ang II receptors were found with a higher value in estrus than in diestrus. The density in ovaries with follicular cysts was in the same order of magnitude as in estrus. The Ang II receptor type 2 (AT(2)) dominated in all three groups. Autoradiography showed that the majority of antral follicles and follicular cysts had intense AT(2) receptor binding in the theca externa. Binding was less intense in the theca interna, whereas there was no binding in the granulosa layer. In the corpora lutea, the AT(2) receptor was dominant in the capsule and in connective tissue infoldings, whereas no binding was observed in the luteal tissue. The type 1 Ang II receptor (AT(1)) was dominant in the stroma and showed no cyclic changes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was detected in all aspirated follicular fluids and homogenates of ovarian tissue. Autoradiography showed that most of the ACE was localized on endothelial cells. Renin immunoreactivity was found in granulosa and thecal cells of antral follicles and in luteal cells. Furthermore, solitary cells in the stroma, presumably macrophages, displayed intense staining. Our finding of cyclic changes support the concept of an active and regulated RAS in the bovine ovary. PMID:11717127

  11. Cystic fibrosis mouse model-dependent intestinal structure and gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Bazett, Mark; Honeyman, Lisa; Stefanov, Anguel N; Pope, Christopher E; Hoffman, Lucas R; Haston, Christina K

    2015-06-01

    Mice with a null mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) gene show intestinal structure alterations and bacterial overgrowth. To determine whether these changes are model-dependent and whether the intestinal microbiome is altered in cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse models, we characterized the ileal tissue and intestinal microbiome of mice with the clinically common ?F508 Cftr mutation (FVB/N Cftr (tm1Eur)) and with Cftr null mutations (BALB/c Cftr (tm1UNC) and C57BL/6 Cftr (tm1UNC)). Intestinal disease in 12-week-old CF mice, relative to wild-type strain controls, was measured histologically. The microbiome was characterized by pyrosequencing of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene and intestinal load was measured by RT-PCR of the 16S rRNA gene. The CF-associated increases in ileal crypt to villus axis distention, goblet cell hyperplasia, and muscularis externa thickness were more severe in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftr (tm1UNC) mice than in the FVB/N Cftr (tm1Eur) mice. Intestinal bacterial load was significantly increased in all CF models, compared to levels in controls, and positively correlated with circular muscle thickness in CF, but not wild-type, mice. Microbiome profiling identified Bifidobacterium and groups of Lactobacillus to be of altered abundance in the CF mice but overall bacterial frequencies were not common to the three CF strains and were not correlative of major histological changes. In conclusion, intestinal structure alterations, bacterial overgrowth, and dysbiosis were each more severe in BALB/c and C57BL/6 Cftr (tm1UNC) mice than in the FVB/N Cftr (tm1Eur) mice. The intestinal microbiome differed among the three CF mouse models. PMID:25721416

  12. Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Cheng, Suzan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Donald, Paul J. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

  13. Quantifying the Neural Elements Activated and Inhibited by Globus Pallidus Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew D.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2008-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is an effective therapy option for controlling the motor symptoms of medication-refractory Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Despite the clinical successes of GPi DBS, the precise therapeutic mechanisms are unclear and questions remain on the optimal electrode placement and stimulation parameter selection strategies. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional computational model of GPi-DBS in nonhuman primates to investigate how membrane channel dynamics, synaptic inputs, and axonal collateralization contribute to the neural responses generated during stimulation. We focused our analysis on three general neural elements that surround GPi-DBS electrodes: GPi somatodendritic segments, GPi efferent axons, and globus pallidus pars externa (GPe) fibers of passage. During high-frequency electrical stimulation (136 Hz), somatic activity in the GPi showed interpulse excitatory phases at 1–3 and 4–5.5 ms. When including stimulation-induced GABAA and AMPA receptor dynamics into the model, the somatic firing patterns continued to be entrained to the stimulation, but the overall firing rate was reduced (78.7 to 25.0 Hz, P < 0.001). In contrast, axonal output from GPi neurons remained largely time-locked to each pulse of the stimulation train. Similar entrainment was also observed in GPe efferents, a majority of which have been shown to project through GPi en route to the subthalamic nucleus. The models suggest that pallidal DBS may have broader network effects than previously realized and the modes of therapy may depend on the relative proportion of GPi and/or GPe efferents that are directly affected by the stimulation. PMID:18768645

  14. EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION OF THE BILE ACID RECEPTOR GPBAR1 (TGR5) IN THE MURINE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Daniel P.; Godfrey, Cody; Cattaruzza, Fiore; Cottrell, Graeme S.; Kirkland, Jacob G.; Pelayo, Juan Carlos; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Corvera, Carlos U.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bile acids (BAs) regulate cells by activating nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. GpBAR1 is a membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptor that can mediate the rapid, transcription-independent actions of BAs. Although BAs have well-known actions on motility and secretion, nothing is known about the localization and function of GpBAR1 in the gastrointestinal tract. Methods We generated an antibody to the C-terminus of human GpBAR1, and characterized the antibody by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of HEK293-GpBAR1-GFP cells. We localized GpBAR1 immunoreactivity (IR) and mRNA in the mouse intestine, and determined the mechanism by which BAs activate GpBAR1 to regulate intestinal motility. Key Results The GpBAR1 antibody specifically detected GpBAR1-GFP at the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells, and interacted with proteins corresponding in mass to the GpBAR1-GFP fusion protein. GpBAR1-IR and mRNA were detected in enteric ganglia of the mouse stomach and small and large intestine, and in the muscularis externa and mucosa of the small intestine. Within the myenteric plexus of the intestine, GpBAR1-IR was localized to ~50% of all neurons and to >80% of inhibitory motor neurons and descending interneurons expressing nitric oxide synthase. Deoxycholic acid, a GpBAR1 agonist, caused a rapid and sustained inhibition of spontaneous phasic activity of isolated segments of ileum and colon by a neurogenic, cholinergic and nitrergic mechanism, and delayed gastrointestinal transit. Conclusions and Inferences GpBAR1 is unexpectedly expressed in enteric neurons. BAs activate GpBAR1 on inhibitory motor neurons to release nitric oxide and suppress motility, revealing a novel mechanism for the actions of BAs on intestinal motility. PMID:20236244

  15. Localization of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 1 in enteric neurons, dorsal root ganglia, and the spinal cord of the rat.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Graeme S; Roosterman, Dirk; Marvizon, Juan-Carlos; Song, B; Wick, Elizabeth; Pikios, Stella; Wong, Helen; Berthelier, Claire; Tang, Yat; Sternini, Catia; Bunnett, Nigel W; Grady, Eileen F

    2005-09-26

    Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) comprise a receptor for calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and intermedin. Although CGRP is widely expressed in the nervous system, less is known about the localization of CLR and RAMP1. To localize these proteins, we raised antibodies to CLR and RAMP1. Antibodies specifically interacted with CLR and RAMP1 in HEK cells coexpressing rat CLR and RAMP1, determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Fluorescent CGRP specifically bound to the surface of these cells and CGRP, CLR, and RAMP1 internalized into the same endosomes. CLR was prominently localized in nerve fibers of the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, muscularis externa and lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of rats. CLR was detected at low levels in the soma of enteric, dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and spinal neurons. RAMP1 was also localized to enteric and DRG neurons and the dorsal horn. CLR and RAMP1 were detected in perivascular nerves and arterial smooth muscle. Nerve fibers containing CGRP and intermedin were closely associated with CLR fibers in the gastrointestinal tract and dorsal horn, and CGRP and CLR colocalized in DRG neurons. Thus, CLR and RAMP1 may mediate the effects of CGRP and intermedin in the nervous system. However, mRNA encoding RAMP2 and RAMP3 was also detected in the gastrointestinal tract, DRG, and dorsal horn, suggesting that CLR may associate with other RAMPs in these tissues to form a receptor for additional peptides such as adrenomedullin. PMID:16082677

  16. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  17. Extracellular matrices of the avian ovarian follicle. Molecular characterization of chicken perlecan.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Susanna; Osanger, Andreas; Bajari, Tarek M; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Halfter, Willi; Nimpf, Johannes; Schneider, Wolfgang J

    2004-05-28

    In egg-laying species, such as the chicken, the mode of transport of lipoprotein particles from the capillary plasma to endocytic receptors on the oocyte surface is largely unknown. Here we show by molecular characterization that the large prominent heparan sulfate proteoglycan of extracellular matrices, termed perlecan or HSPG2 (the product of the hspg2 gene), is a component of ovarian follicles that may participate in this process. However, although normally a major HSPG of basement membranes or basal laminae, in chicken follicles, perlecan is absent from the membranous structure between the theca interna and granulosa cell layers, which to date has been considered a bona fide basement membrane. Rather, the protein is localized in the extracellular matrix of theca externa cells, which produce this HSPG. Furthermore, in chicken testes, perlecan is localized in the peritubular spaces but in less organized fashion than the classical basement membrane components, agrin and laminin. All five domains and structural hallmarks of chicken perlecan (4071 residues) have been conserved in its mammalian counterparts. We have produced the recombinant domain II (containing low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-like binding repeats) of chicken perlecan and demonstrate its capacity to bind LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins ultimately destined for uptake into oocytes via members of the low density lipoprotein receptor family. Binding to perlecan heparan sulfate side chains may facilitate the interaction of lipoproteins with domain II. Based on the current results and on domain-domain interactions revealed by recent ultrastructural investigations of the LDL receptor, nidogen, and laminin (Rudenko, G., Henry, L., Henderson, K., Ichtchenko, K., Brown, M. S., Goldstein, J. L., and Deisenhofer, J. (2002) Science 298, 2353-2358 and Takagi, J., Yang, Y., Liu, J. H., Wang, J. H., and Springer, T. A. (2003) Nature 424, 969-974), we propose a novel role of perlecan in mediating plasma-to-oocyte surface transport of VLDL particles. PMID:15016830

  18. Ceruminal diffusion activities and ceruminolytic characteristics of otic preparations – an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations. PMID:23574753

  19. Morbidity and Outcomes of Foreign Travelers in Zakynthos Island, Greece: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Plessa, Eleni; Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Xanthopoulos, Dimitrios; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is satisfactory recording of diseases affecting travelers visiting developing countries, little is known regarding morbidity of travelers when visiting developed countries. We sought to evaluate the morbidity of foreign travelers in Zakynthos, a popular Greek island attracting large number of foreign tourists every summer. Methods Data from foreign travelers that accommodated in Zakynthos and sought medical services from the private offices of Zante Medical Care from May 1 to October 30 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Two thousand six hundred and eighty-eight patients were included in the study. The mean age (±SD) of the patients whom the age was recorded was 29.6 (±18.3) and 51.5% of them were from 18 to 40 years old. Disorders of the respiratory tract (32.7%), dermatologic conditions (21.1%), musculoskeletal injuries (16.4%), and gastrointestinal disorders (16.3%) were the four most prevalent clinical categories among patients. Ear disorder was the most common syndromic description (14.5%) among which 81.2% were ear infections; otitis externa and otitis media were diagnosed in 8.5% and 3.3% patients in total. The most common specific diagnosis was gastroenteritis (14.3%). Insect bite and sunburn were the most common diagnosis (6.5% and 3.8%, respectively) among patients with a dermatologic condition. Ear infection was the most common diagnosis in pediatric patients. Conclusion Disorders mainly of the upper respiratory tract were the predominant causes of illness among foreign travelers in Zakynthos. Traveler's diarrhea was the most common specific diagnosis but the prevalence within the total population was not very high. PMID:24728297

  20. Anionic sites in the glomerular basement membrane. In vivo and in vitro localization to the laminae rarae by cationic probes

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Cationized ferritin (CF) of narrow pI range (7.3-7.5) and the basic dye ruthenium red (RR) have been used as cationic probes to partially characterize anionic sites previously demonstrated in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). When CF was given i.v. to normal rats and the left kidney was fixed by perfusion 15 min thereafter, clusters of CF molecules were found throughout the lamina rara interna (LRI), lamina rara externa (LRE), and mesangial matrix distributed at regular (approximately 60 nm) intervals. When kidneys were perfused with aldehyde fixative containing RR, small (20 nm) RR-stained particles were seen in the same locations distributed with the same 60 nm repeating pattern, forming a quasiregular, lattice-like arrangement. Fine (approximately 3 nm) filaments connected the sites and extended between them and the membranes of adjoining endothelial and epithelial cells. When CF was given i.v. followed by perfusion with RR in situ, both probes localized to the same sites. CF remained firmly bound after prolonged perfusion with 0.1-0.2 M KCl or NaCl. It was displaced by perfusion with buffers of high ionic strength (0.4-0.5 M KCl) or pH (less than 3.0 or greater than 10.0). CF also bound (clustered at approximately 60 nm intervals) to isolated GBM's, and binding was lost when such isolated GBM's were treated with buffers of high ionic strength or pH. These experiments demonstrate the existence of a quasi- regular, lattice-like network of anionic sites in the LRI and LRE and the mesangial matrix. The sites are demonstrable in vivo (by CF binding), in fixed kidneys (by RR staining), and in isolated GBM's (by CF binding). The results obtained with CF show that the binding of CF (and probably also RR) to the laminae rarae is electrostatic in nature since it is displaced by treatment with buffers of high ionic strength or pH. With RR the sites resemble in morphology and staining properties the proteoglycan particles found in connective tissue matrices and in association with basement membranes in several other locations. PMID:90048

  1. Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilia, P A; Swain, R P; Williams, A V; Loadholt, C B; Ainsworth, S K

    1985-12-01

    The cationic ultrastructural tracer polyethyleneimine (PEI: pI approximately equal to 11.0), binds electrophysically to uniformly spaced discrete electron-dense anionic sites present in the laminae rarae of the rat glomerular basement membrane (GBM), mesangial reflections of the GBM, Bowman's capsule, and tubular basement membranes when administered intravenously. Computer-assisted morphometric analysis of glomerular anionic sites reveals that the maximum concentration of stainable lamina rara externa (lre) sites (21/10,000 A GBM) occurs 60 minutes after PEI injection with a site-site interspacing of 460 A. Lamina rara interna (lri) sites similarly demonstrate a maximum concentration (20/10,000 A GBM) at 60 minutes with a periodicity of 497 A. The concentration and distribution of anionic sites within the lri was irregular in pattern and markedly decreased in number, while the lre possesses an electrical field that is highly regular at all time intervals analyzed (15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes). Immersion and perfusion of renal tissue with PEI reveals additional heavy staining of the epithelial and endothelial cell sialoprotein coatings. PEI appears to bind to glomerular anionic sites reversibly: ie, between 60 and 180 minutes the concentration of stained sites decreases. At 300 minutes, the interspacing once again approaches the 60-minute concentration. This suggests a dynamic turnover or dissociation followed by a reassociation of glomerular negatively charged PEI binding sites. In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria. PEI does not induce proteinuria in rats, nor does it produce glomerular morphologic alterations when ten times the tracer dosage is administered intravenously. These findings indicate that the choice of ultrastructural charge tracer, the method of administering the tracer, and the time selected for analysis of tissue after administration of tracer significantly influences results. Morphometric analysis of the distribution of glomerular anionic sites in nonproteinuric rats provides a method of evaluating quantitative alterations of the glomerular charge barrier in renal disease models. PMID:4073220

  2. Supplementation of direct-fed microbials as an alternative to antibiotic on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Kang, H K; Akter, N; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Na, J C; Jong, H B; Choi, H C; Suh, O S; Kim, W K

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 800 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross × Ross) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment (50 birds/replicate pen). The 4 dietary treatments fed for 35 d were a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 0.1% virginiamycin, as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP); control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained Lactobacillus reuteri (DFM 1); and control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained a mixture of L. reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DFM 2). Results showed that dietary AGP and DFM supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the BW gain of broilers during 0 to 21 d. The feed intake was reduced, whereas the feed conversion was improved significantly when birds were fed DFM 2 at 0 to 7 d of age. The white blood cell and monocyte levels were significantly higher in the DFM 2 group compared with the control. In addition, feeding DFM significantly (P < 0.05) increased the plasma immunoglobulin levels where a higher level was observed in DFM 2 compared with those of the other treatments. Neither DFM nor AGP treatments affected the cecal Lactobacillus and Salmonella content; however, cecal Escherichia coli content significantly decreased in broiler chickens fed DFM and AGP. The ileal villus height, and width and total thickness of muscularis externa were significantly increased when birds were fed DFM compared with AGP and control. These results indicate that the dietary supplementation of DFM increases the growth performance of birds at an early age, stimulates the immune response, decreases the number of E. coli, and improves the ileal morphology of broiler chickens. Thus, DFM that contained a mixture of several beneficial microorganisms could be a viable alternative to antibiotics in the broiler diets. PMID:23873556

  3. Gastrointestinal morphology and function in turkeys fed diets diluted with whole grain wheat.

    PubMed

    Zdunczyk, Z; Jankowski, J; Mikulski, D; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Sosnowska, E; Juskiewicz, J

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that moderate dilution of turkey diets with whole grain wheat (up to 22.5%) improves gastrointestinal function, thus contributing to sustained growth performance. A total of 900 male turkeys were allocated to 5 dietary treatments: basal diet (BD), BD diluted with low levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat, and BD diluted with high levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat (GH and WH, respectively). At successive stages of the experiment, diets containing 5 and 15%, 7.5 and 17.5%, 10 and 20%, 12.5 and 22.5% of wheat in different physical form were fed to turkeys aged 5 to 8, 9 to 12, 13 to 16, and 17 to 18 wk, divided into subgroups with low and high dietary levels of wheat, respectively. Dietary dilution with different levels of wheat did not reduce the BW gain of turkeys and did not deteriorate feed conversion despite a decrease in the amino acid content of diets. In comparison with BD, diet GH increased the thickness of the muscularis externa and the depth of cecal crypts (P < 0.05), increased Bacteria domain, and decreased Salmonella counts (P < 0.001), increased butyric acid concentrations, and decreased the levels of putrefactive compounds in the cecal digesta (P < 0.001). In comparison with BD, diet WH improved feed efficiency (P = 0.002) and contributed to significant (P < 0.01) changes in the parameters of gastrointestinal function, including lower pH of gizzard digesta, increased depth of jejunal crypts, lower ammonia concentrations, and lower pH of intestinal digesta, increased Bacteria and Bifidobacterium counts, decreased Salmonella counts, and higher concentrations of butyric acid and total short-chain fatty acids. In comparison with diet GH, diet WH enhanced the activity of bacterial ?-glucosidase and ?-glucosidase as well as ?-galactosidase, reduced the activity of ?-glucuronidase, and increased total fatty acid concentrations, mainly acetic acid levels, in the cecal digesta (P < 0.01). The observed changes indicate that diet supplementation with wheat grain enhances gastrointestinal function, thus improving feed conversion in turkeys. PMID:23776267

  4. Gap junction blockers attenuate beta oscillations and improve forelimb function in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Phookan, Sujoy; Sutton, Alexander C; Walling, Ian; Smith, Autumn; O'Connor, Katherine A; Campbell, Joannalee C; Calos, Megan; Yu, Wilson; Pilitsis, Julie G; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Shin, Damian S

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by akinesia, bradykinesia, resting tremors and postural instability. Although various models have been developed to explain basal ganglia (BG) pathophysiology in PD, the recent reports that dominant beta (?) oscillations (12-30Hz) in BG nuclei of PD patients and parkinsonian animals coincide with motor dysfunction has led to an emerging idea that these oscillations may be a characteristic of PD. Due to the recent realization of these oscillations, the cellular and network mechanism(s) that underlie this process remain ill-defined. Here, we postulate that gap junctions (GJs) can contribute to ? oscillations in the BG of hemiparkinsonian rats and inhibiting their activity will disrupt neuronal synchrony, diminish these oscillations and improve motor function. To test this, we injected the GJ blockers carbenoxolone (CBX) or octanol in the right globus pallidus externa (GPe) of anesthetized hemiparkinsonian rats and noted whether subsequent changes in ? oscillatory activity occurred using in vivo electrophysiology. We found that systemic treatment of 200mg/kg CBX attenuated normalized GPe ? oscillatory activity from 6.10±1.29 arbitrary units (A.U.) (pre-CBX) to 2.48±0.87 A.U. (post-CBX) with maximal attenuation occurring 90.0±20.5min after injection. The systemic treatment of octanol (350mg/kg) also decreased ? oscillatory activity in a similar manner to CBX treatment with ? oscillatory activity decreasing from 3.58±0.89 (pre-octanol) to 2.57±1.08 after octanol injection. Next, 1?l CBX (200mg/kg) was directly injected into the GPe of anesthetized hemiparkinsonian rats; 59.2±19.0min after injection, ? oscillations in this BG nucleus decreased from 3.62±1.17 A.U. to 1.67±0.62 A.U. Interestingly, we were able to elicit ? oscillations in the GPe of naive non-parkinsonian rats by increasing GJ activity with 1?l trimethylamine (TMA, 500nM). Finally, we systemically injected CBX (200mg/kg) into hemiparkinsonian rats which attenuated dominant ? oscillations in the right GPe and also improved left forepaw akinesia in the step test. Conversely, direct injection of TMA into the right GPe of naive rats induced contralateral left forelimb akinesia. Overall, our results suggest that GJs contribute to ? oscillations in the GPe of hemiparkinsonian rats. PMID:25622779

  5. Progress in the prognosis of adult Hodgkin's lymphoma in the past 35 years through clinical trials in Argentina: a GATLA experience.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Santiago; Lastiri, Francisco

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends in complete remission (CR) rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) through 35 years of Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) clinical trials. A total of 1,254 adult patients with Hodgkin's Lymphoma were evaluated according to seven consecutive protocols. This 35-year study was divided into three phases. The patients in the first phase (1968-1985) were treated with CVPP (cyclophosphamide/vinblastine/procarbazine/prednisone) plus involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT). In the CVPP regimen, cyclophosphamide and vinblastine were administered intravenously on day 1 and prednisone and procarbazine were administered orally on days 1-14 every 28 days. The second phase (1986-1996) used mainly reinforced CVPP with cyclophosphamide and vinblastine on days 1-8 plus IFRT. The third phase (1997-2003) used ABVD(doxorubicin/bleomycin/vinblastine/dacarbazine) plus IFRT. In clinical stage I/II, the CR rate was 86% in 252 patients treated in the first phase and DFS and OS were 57% and 78% at 5 years and 50% and 71% at 10 years. The second phase had 148 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 91%, 5-year DFS and OS were 78% and 90%, and 10-year DFS and OS were 70% and 83%. The third phase had 182 patients with clinical stage I/II disease, and the CR rate was 95%, 5-year DFS and OS were 87% and 96%, and 10-year DFS and OS were not reached. The statistical difference was P = 0.016 in terms of CR and P < 0.001 in terms of DFS and OS. In the first phase of 394 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 71%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 37% and 62%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 32% and 53%. In the second phase of 164 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 84%, DFS and OS at 5 years were 66% and 80%, and DFS and OS at 10 years were 60% and 75%. In the third phase of 114 patients with clinical stage III/IV disease, the CR rate was 88% and DFS and OS at 5 years were 60% and 90%. The DFS and OS were not reached at 10 years. The differences among the 3 phases in CR, DFS and OS were highly significant (P < 0.001). PMID:15453925

  6. Tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas

    PubMed Central

    Tornero, O. Berbel; García, J.A. Ortega; Tortajada, J. Ferrís i; Castell, J. García; Colomer, J. Donat i; Soldin, O.P.; Soler, J.L. Fuster

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La asociación entre tumores y malformaciones congénitas está bien establecida, pero no existen datos exclusivos en el período neonatal y se desconocen los mecanismos subyacentes que generan dicha relación. Objetivos Este trabajo tiene dos objetivos: primero, analizar la frecuencia de los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, y segundo, comentar las posibles hipótesis etiopatogénicas de la relación entre ambas entidades. Materiales y método Estudio retrospectivo de las historias clínicas de los tumores neonatales, en el Hospital Universitario Materno- Infantil La Fe de Valencia, desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 1999. Selección y descripción de las variedades histológicas asociadas a malformaciones congénitas. Éstas se han agrupado siguiendo los criterios de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades CIE-9, códigos 740.0–759.9. Revisión sistemática bibliográfica de los últimos 25 años, obtenida del Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science y Embase. El perfil de búsqueda utilizado fue la combinación de “neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms” y “congenital malformations/birth defects”. Resultados Se identificaron 72 tumores neonatales (2,8 % del total de tumores pediátricos diagnosticados en dichos años) y 15 de ellos (20,8 %) asociados a malformaciones congénitas, enfermedades o síndromes congénitos. Las asociaciones entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas fueron las siguientes: a) angioma en 3 pacientes: con dos cardiopatías congénitas y una atresia de coanas-laringomalacia; b) neuroblastoma en 2 pacientes: uno con riñón en herradura y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con cardiopatía congénita; c) teratoma en 2 pacientes: uno con fisura palatina y anomalías vertebrales, y otro con metatarso varo; d) tumor del sistema nervioso central en un paciente con hernia de Bochdaleck; e) tumor cardíaco en 4 pacientes con esclerosis tuberosa; f) leucemia aguda en un paciente con síndrome de Down y cardiopatía congénita; g) tumor renal en un caso con hidrocefalia triventricular, y h) tumor adrenal en un caso con hemihipertrofia. En la bibliografía específica, las publicaciones engloban tumores de diferentes épocas pediátricas y sin unanimidad de criterios para clasificar las malformaciones congénitas. Apenas existen datos en el período neonatal y la asociación entre ambas entidades se obtiene de registros de instituciones médicas. La prevalencia oscila entre el 15 y el 31,6 %. Las hipótesis etiopatogénicas que explican la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas están basadas en las exposiciones prenatales (preconcepcionales y transplacentarias) a factores de riesgo potencialmente mutagénicos y carcinogénicos. Conclusiones Probablemente, los tumores neonatales se asocian con mayor frecuencia a malformaciones congénitas que los tumores diagnosticados en épocas posteriores de la vida. Para conocer la prevalencia real de la asociación entre tumores neonatales y malformaciones congénitas, es necesario unificar los criterios de inclusión y definición de ambas entidades. La obtención de una minuciosa historia medioambiental en todos los tumores neonatales asociados a malformaciones congénitas, donde se detallen y registren todos los factores de riesgo constitucionales y ambientales, es fundamental para mejorar nuestros escasos conocimientos de los mecanismos prenatales subyacentes y avanzar en su prevención. PMID:18559198

  7. Application of the groundwater-balance equation to indicate interbasin and vertical flow in two semi-arid drainage basins, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.

    2000-09-01

    An analysis of horizontal inflow and outflow in the groundwater-budget equation and the significance for interbasin flow are presented. Two field cases in Mexico, one in the Baja California peninsula and another in central Mexico, highlight the influence of interbasin flow. A significant proportion (approximately 70%) of the ed (thermal) groundwater probably originates outside the drainage basin. A conclusion is that a groundwater-balance study is an unsatisfactory method for determining some parameters, such as storativity (S). Specifically, the groundwater-balance approach provides unreliable results when vertical inflow is ignored or cannot be adequately defined. Vertical flow is indicated by the presence of groundwater temperatures as much as 23 °C higher than ambient temperature. Regional faults could be the pathways for upward flow. When vertical inflow is ignored, uncertainty in the estimation of the storativity through regional groundwater-balance calculation results. On the basis of the groundwater-balance equation, a value of S=0.19 appears to represent the confined condition of the developed part of the aquifer; this result is several orders of magnitude higher than would be reasonable according to the geological conditions. Findings are useful in evaluating whether a groundwater resource is being "overexploited". Conclusions are instructive in the application of transient-flow computer models, in which vertical flow of less dense water from beneath is not included. Résumé. L'article présente une analyse des entrées et des sorties horizontales dans l'équation du bilan d'une nappe et leur signification dans les écoulements entre bassins. Deux exemples provenant du Mexique, l'un dans la péninsule de Basse Californie, l'autre dans le centre du Mexique, mettent en lumière l'influence de l'écoulement entre bassins, où une proportion significative (environ 70%) de l'eau souterraine extraite, thermale, a probablement son origine hors du bassin. Une conclusion est qu'une étude par bilan de la nappe est une méthode qui n'est pas satisfaisante pour déterminer certains paramètres comme le coefficient d'emmagasinement. En particulier, l'approche par le bilan de la nappe donne des résultats qui ne sont pas fiables lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale ou que l'on ne peut pas la définir correctement. L'existence d'une drainance verticale est prouvée par des températures de l'eau souterraine pouvant être supérieures de 23 °C à la température ambiante. Des failles régionales peuvent permettre ces écoulements vers le haut. Lorsque l'on ignore la drainance verticale, on introduit une incertitude sur l'estimation de l'emmagasinement à partir des calculs du bilan régional de la nappe. Sur la base de l'équation du bilan de la nappe, une valeur de S=0,19 semble représenter les conditions captives de la partie développée de l'aquifère ce résultat est plus élevé, de plusieurs ordres de grandeur, que celui que l'on peut raisonnablement attendre des conditions géologiques. Ces résultats sont utiles pour évaluer si une ressource en eau souterraine est "surexploitée". Ces conclusions sont intéressantes lorsque l'on applique des modèles d'écoulement transitoire dans lesquels on ne prend pas en compte la drainance verticale d'une eau plus légère remontant. Resumen. En este trabajo, se investigan las entradas y salidas de flujo horizontal en la ecuación de balance de agua subterránea, así como el papel que desempeñan en el flujo entre cuencas. Se analizan dos ejemplos de México, uno en la Península de Baja California y otro en la parte central del país. En ambos, destaca la influencia del flujo entre cuencas, ya que se estima que una parte importante (aproximadamente el 70%) del agua termal extraída procede de una cuenca superficial externa. Se concluye que el método basado en cálculos de balance de agua subterránea no es satisfactorio para determinar algunos parámetros, como, por ejemplo, el coeficiente de almacenamiento (S). En particular, la ecuación de ba