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Sample records for ottonia corcovadensis miq

  1. Composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis. PMID:26993082

  2. Investigation of local anesthetic and antimycobacterial activity of Ottonia martiana Miq. (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Cunico, Miriam M; Trebien, Herbert A; Galetti, Fábio C; Miguel, Obdulio G; Miguel, Marilis D; Auer, Celso G; Silva, Célio L; de Souza, Ana Olívia

    2015-01-01

    Ottonia martiana is a plant popularly known in Brazil by the use for toothache. Ethanolic extract (EE), hexane fraction (HF), dichloromethane fraction (DF) and piperovatine obtained from O. martiana were assayed in vitro and in vivo. The acute toxicity of EE was determined, and LD50 values of 164.5 and 65.0 mg/kg by the oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively, indicated a high toxicity for EE in vivo, explaining its popular use by topical administration only. A local anesthetic-like effect of EE and its fractions was observed in experimental models using pain induction, and such effect involved an analgesic action. The antimycobacterial activity of EE, HF, DF and piperovatine was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ATCC 27924. EE, HF, DF, and piperovatine showed a potential antimycobacterial effect with MICs of 16.0, 62.0, 62.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Piperovatine was more effective than the EE or the other fractions. The selectivity index (SI=IC50/MIC) values calculated for EE, HF, DF and piperovatine based on the MICs and the cytotoxicity against J774 macrophages (IC50 by MTT assay) revealed values of 6.43, 2.34, 1.5 and 9.66, respectively. PMID:26628019

  3. Experimental Validation of Two MIQ Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulman, David A.; Dawis, Rene V.

    1976-01-01

    Two Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) scales, Creativity and Independence were validated by experiment. Subjects (N=68) were exposed to four task conditions representing joint combinations of high or low levels of Creativity and Independence. The behavioral results were consistent with the subjects' MIQ score levels on the two scales,…

  4. [Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus transfer in Potamogeton malaianus Miq. decompostion].

    PubMed

    Han, Hong-Juan; Zhai, Shui-Jing; Hu, Wei-Ping

    2010-06-01

    Potamogeton malaianus Miq. is one of the dominant species of submerged aquatic vegetations in Lake Taihu, China. The decomposition of its debris and metabolic detritus is an important part of nutrients cycling in the lake water. Nitrogen and phosphorus transfer model in P. malaianus Miq. decomposition has been set up based on an indoor P. malaianus Miq. decomposition experiment to quantitatively characterize the decomposition process. It mainly focuses on the dissolving process of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in P. malaianus Miq., the degradation process of its organic nitrogen and phosphorus, and the boundary's adsorbing process of nitrogen and phosphorus in water. There are eight state variables in the model, including inorganic and organic nitrogen in P. malaianus Miq., inorganic and organic phosphorus in P. malaianus Miq., total nitrogen and total phosphorus in water, and nitrogen and phosphorus adsorbed on container boundary. The model calibration showed a good accordance with the observed results of P. malaianus Miq. decomposition experiment. The dissolve rates of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in P. malaianus Miq. are 0.04 d(-1) and 0.06 d(-1) respectively. And the decompose rates of these two state variables are 0.005 25 d(-1) and 0.010 44 d(-1) respectively. Model outputs show that 6.7% nitrogen and 35.8% phosphorus can release from P. malaianus Miq. in the former 5 days. Phosphorus release is prior to nitrogen due to the bigger inorganic/organic ratio of phosphorus than that of nitrogen in P. malaianus Miq., Decomposition of P. malaianus Miq. could be affected by water temperature, and the affection is slight when water temperature is lower according to the model. The model also showed that P. malaianus Miq. decomposition process has influences on water quality in the former days, which can be eliminated by adsorbing process later. PMID:20698260

  5. Abietane diterpenoids from Caryopteris incana (Thunb.) Miq.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sen-Miao; Chou, Gui-Xin; Yang, Qing-Shan; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Jian-Li

    2016-04-14

    Twelve new diterpenes, caryopincaolide A-L (1-4, 11-12, 16-19, 27-28), together with twenty-eight known diterpenes, have been isolated from the whole plant of Caryopteris incana (Thunb.) Miq. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, IR, X-ray crystal diffraction and mass spectroscopic data, as well as ECD calculations. All compounds were tested for in vitro dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity, with compounds 3, 4, 28, 29, and 40 exhibiting DPP-IV inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 54.2 to 228.9 μM. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 also showed potent activity toward the inhibition of the growth of human cancer cells and 1 can induce apoptosis in Hey and A-549 cells. PMID:26952788

  6. Determination of Heavy Metals in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Collected from Different Cultivation Regions

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yurong; Lai, Weiyong; Zhang, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    20 batches of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were collected from Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan province in China. The contents of heavy metals of As, Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were determined and compared. The results indicated that geographical source might be a major factor to influence the contents of heavy metals of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. Compared to the criteria of heavy metals, the contents of As, Hg, Pb, and Cd in almost all the samples were in accordance with The Green Trade Standards. The contents of Cu were higher than the criteria for heavy metals except the samples from Changxing town, Qiongzhong county, Maoyang town, Qiongzhong county, Wupo town, Tunchang county, and Nanlv town, Tunchang county, in Hainan province. The best cultivation regions of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. were from Changxing town, Qiongzhong county, Maoyang town, Qiongzhong county, Wupo town, Tunchang county, and Nanlv town, Tunchang county, in Hainan province. This research would provide the scientific basis for quality control and standardization of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. PMID:27293963

  7. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-06-25

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species. PMID:27297892

  8. Mycorrhizal Formation and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Hair Roots of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Takashi; Hirose, Dai; Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Watanabe, Naoaki; Kobayashi, Nobuo; Kurashige, Yuji; Karimi, Fraidoon; Ban, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    The root diameters as well as colonization and diversity of the root-associating fungi of Vaccinium oldhamii Miq. were investigated in order to obtain information on their mycorrhizal properties. The distal regions of roots had typical hair roots with diameters of less than 100 μm. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (ErMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) were frequently observed in the roots. Ascomycetes, particularly helotialean fungi, appeared to be dominant among the endophytic fungi of V. oldhamii roots. Furthermore, Rhizoscyphus ericae (Read) Zhuang & Korf and Oidiodendron maius Barron known as ErMF were detected more frequently than other fungal species. PMID:27297892

  9. Genetic transformation of the figwort, Scrophularia buergeriana Miq., an Oriental medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Park, S-U; Chae, Y-A; Facchini, P J

    2003-08-01

    Scrophularia buergeriana Miq. (figwort) contains a diverse group of bioactive natural products and is used to treat a variety of ailments, including fever, constipation, neuritis, and laryngitis. A transformation protocol was established for S. buergeriana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Kanamycin-resistant plants were regenerated from leaf explants co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain GV3101. The shoot regeneration medium was supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine and 70 mg l(-1) putrescine to improve the efficiency of organogenesis. Detection of the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, the presence of high levels of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transcripts and enzyme activity, and the histochemical localization of GUS confirmed the genetic transformation of S. buergeriana. This work demonstrates the potential of using A. tumefaciens to efficiently transfer foreign genes into a commercially and culturally important Oriental medicinal plant. PMID:12910369

  10. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts.

    PubMed

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  11. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  12. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Glehnia littoralis F.Schmidt ex Miq. (Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Oh Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Soonok; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq is an oriental medicinal herb belonging to Apiaceae family, and its dried roots and rhizomes are known to show various pharmacological effects. The complete chlorplast genome of G. littoralis was generated by de novo assembly using whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of G. littoralis was 147 467 bp in length and divided into four distinct regions: large single copy region (93 493 bp), small single copy region (17 546 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (18 214 bp). A total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes were predicted and accounted for 57.1% of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that G. littoralis is an herbal species closely related to Ledebouriella seseloides, an herbal medicinal plant. PMID:26367483

  13. Development of the Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure the oral health-related quality of life of young people with malocclusion: part 1 – qualitative inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neil; Hodges, Samantha J.; Hall, Melanie; Benson, Philip E.; Marshman, Zoe; Cunningham, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To seek the views of adolescents with malocclusion about how the appearance and arrangement of their teeth affects their everyday life and to incorporate these views into a new Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ). Methods: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 30 young people (10–16 years) referred for orthodontic treatment to two dental teaching hospitals. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Several themes and sub themes were identified and these were used to identify items to include in the new measure. Results: Three themes emerged which were: concerns about the appearance of their teeth, effect on social interactions and oral health/function. Participants expressed the view that their teeth did not look normal, causing them embarrassment and a lack of confidence, particularly when they were with their peers or having their photograph taken. Concerns regarding the potential effect of a malocclusion on oral health, in terms of food becoming stuck between crooked teeth, interferences when chewing and increased risk of damaging the teeth were also identified. The themes were used to generate individual items for inclusion in the questionnaire. Conclusions: Common themes relating to the impact of malocclusion on the lives of young people were identified and generated items for the new MIQ to measure the oral health-related quality of life of young people with malocclusion. Part 2 outlines the further development and testing of the MIQ. PMID:26747334

  14. The response of epiphytic microbes to habitat and growth status of Potamogeton malaianus Miq. in Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xianlei; Gao, Guang; Tang, Xiangming; Dong, Baili; Dai, Jiangyu; Chen, Dan; Song, Yuzhi

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of different habitats and plant growth status on abundance, biomass and community structure of epiphytic microbes, Potamogeton malaianus Miq. at two different habitats (Gonghu Bay and East Taihu) in Lake Taihu were collected in June, August and November (corresponding to the period of development of submerged macrophytes). The relative abundance of major epiphytic algae groups was determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the structures and dynamics of epiphytic bacteria were assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Results showed that the biomass of epiphytic microbes was not significant difference between the two sites, and the analysis of similarity found no significant intra-lake heterogeneity in community structure, but the temporal heterogeneity of epiphytic microbes was significant, which linked to the growth state of submerged macrophytes and water temperature. The difference in community structure between June and August was larger than that between August and November at each site, indicating that the growth status of submerged macrophytes has a greater impact on the community structure of epiphytic microbes than the seasonal variation of environmental conditions. PMID:23417888

  15. A new flavonol C-glycoside and a rare bioactive lignanamide from Piper wallichii Miq. Hand.-Mazz.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Xia, Wen; Han, En-Ji; Xiang, Lan

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical constituents of Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. and evaluate their biological activity. Compounds were isolated by various column chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical characteristics and spectral data. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibitory activity of the compounds were evaluated. Five compounds were obtained and identified as 8-C-β-D-glucopyranosylkaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 1, 2-dihydro-6,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-N(1), N(2)-bis-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2, 3-naphthalene dicarboxamide (2), goniothalactam (3), aristololactam A IIIa (4) and piperlonguminine (5). Compound 1 was a new flavonol C-glycoside, 2 was a rare lignanamide, which was isolated from the family Piperaceae for the first time, and compound 3 was isolated from this plant for the first time. Among them, 2 showed potent DPPH-scavenging activity, with IC50 of 31.38 ± 0.97 μmol·L(-1); Compounds 2, 3, and 4 showed AChE inhibitory activity at 100 μmol·L(-1), with inhibition rates of 28.57% ± 1.47%, 18.48% ± 2.41% and 17.4% ± 3.03%, respectively. PMID:24856762

  16. Rubus coreanus Miq. extract promotes osteoblast differentiation and inhibits bone-resorbing mediators in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2006-01-01

    To prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age, certain nutritional and pharmacological factors are needed. In the present study, the ethanol extract from the fruit of Rubus coreanus Miq. (RCE) was investigated for its effect on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. RCE (10approximately50 microg/ml) caused a significant elevation in cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen content, and osteocalcin secretion in the cells. The effect of RCE (50 microg/ml) in increasing cell viability, ALP activity, and collagen content was prevented by the presence of 10(-6) M cycloheximide and 10(-6) M tamoxifen, suggesting that RCE's effect results from a newly synthesized protein component and might be partly involved in estrogen action. We then examined the effect of RCE on the H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and production of local factors in osteoblasts. Treatment with RCE (10approximately50 microg/ml) decreased the 0.2 mM H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO) in osteoblasts. Our data indicate that the enhancement of osteoblast function by Rubus coreanus Miq. may result in the prevention of osteoporosis and inflammatory bone diseases. PMID:16883635

  17. The Medicinal Timber Canarium patentinervium Miq. (Burseraceae Kunth.) Is an Anti-Inflammatory Bioresource of Dual Inhibitors of Cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX)

    PubMed Central

    Mogana, R.; Teng-Jin, K.; Wiart, C.

    2013-01-01

    The barks and leaves extracts of Canarium patentinervium Miq. (Burseraceae Kunth.) were investigated for cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition via in vitro models. The corresponding antioxidative power of the plant extract was also tested via nonenzyme and enzyme in vitro assays. The ethanolic extract of leaves inhibited the enzymatic activity of 5-LOX, COX-1, and COX-2 with IC50 equal to 49.66 ± 0.02 μg/mL, 0.60 ± 0.01 μg/mL, and 1.07 ± 0.01 μg/mL, respectively, with selective COX-2 activity noted in ethanolic extract of barks with COX-1/COX-2 ratio of 1.22. The ethanol extract of barks confronted oxidation in the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assay with EC50 values equal to 0.93 ± 0.01 μg/mL, 2.33 ± 0.02 μg/mL, and 67.00 ± 0.32 μg/mL, respectively, while the ethanol extract of leaves confronted oxidation in β-carotene bleaching assay and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay with EC50 value of 6.04 ± 0.02 μg/mL and IC50 value of 3.05 ± 0.01 μg/mL. The ethanol extract acts as a dual inhibitor of LOX and COX enzymes with potent antioxidant capacity. The clinical significance of these data is quite clear that they support a role for Canarium patentinervium Miq. (Burseraceae Kunth.) as a source of lead compounds in the management of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25937987

  18. Antioxidant Activities and Anti-Cancer Cell Proliferation Properties of Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.), Shashanbo (V. bracteatum Thunb.) and Blueberry Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Hirotoshi; Kunitake, Hisato; Kawasaki-Takaki, Ryoko; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Masao; Komatsu, Haruki; Yukizaki, Chizuko

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are abundant in blueberries, and while there are many studies concerning the bioactive compound of fruit, it is only recently that the wild Vaccinium species has attracted attention for their diverse and abundant chemical components. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactive compounds of blueberry cultivars and wild species found in Japan. Among the five extracts of the Vaccinium species, Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii Miq.) was found to be the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HL-60 human leukemia cells in vitro. Although all ethanol extracts showed a growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 cells, the degree of the effects differed among the species. The extract of Natsuhaze induced apoptotic bodies and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Of the extracts tested, that of Natsuhaze contained the largest amount of total polyphenols and showed the greatest antioxidant activity, but the anthocyanin content of Natsuhaze was similar to that of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum Ait.). The results showed that total polyphenols contributed to the high antioxidant activity and growth inhibitory effect on HL-60 human leukemia cells of Natsuhaze extract. PMID:27137366

  19. Synergistic Interaction of Methanol Extract from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Leaf in Combination with Oxacillin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591

    PubMed Central

    Sandra, Vimashiinee

    2016-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum (CO) Miq. has been considered as one of the most sought-after plant species in Sarawak, Malaysia, due to its nutritional and pharmacological benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of crude methanol and acetone extracts from CO leaves in combination with oxacillin, vancomycin, and linezolid, respectively, against MRSA ATCC 33591 as preliminary study has reported its potential antistaphylococcal activity. The broth microdilution assay revealed that both methanol and acetone extracts were bactericidal with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 312.5 μg/mL and 156.25 μg/mL and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 625 μg/mL and 312.5 μg/mL, respectively. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) indices were obtained via the chequerboard dilution assay where methanol extract-oxacillin, acetone extract-oxacillin, methanol extract-linezolid, and acetone extract-linezolid combinations exhibited synergism (FIC index ≤ 0.5). The synergistic action of the methanol extract-oxacillin combination was verified by time-kill analysis where bactericidal effect was observed at concentration of 1/8 × MIC of both compounds at 9.6 h compared to oxacillin alone. As such, these findings postulated that both extracts exert their anti-MRSA mechanism of action similar to that of vancomycin and provide evidence that the leaves of C. odontophyllum have the potential to be developed into antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:27006659

  20. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Cheng Yuon, Lau

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil. PMID:22685623

  1. Synergistic Interaction of Methanol Extract from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Leaf in Combination with Oxacillin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591.

    PubMed

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Sandra, Vimashiinee

    2016-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum (CO) Miq. has been considered as one of the most sought-after plant species in Sarawak, Malaysia, due to its nutritional and pharmacological benefits. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction of crude methanol and acetone extracts from CO leaves in combination with oxacillin, vancomycin, and linezolid, respectively, against MRSA ATCC 33591 as preliminary study has reported its potential antistaphylococcal activity. The broth microdilution assay revealed that both methanol and acetone extracts were bactericidal with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 312.5 μg/mL and 156.25 μg/mL and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 625 μg/mL and 312.5 μg/mL, respectively. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) indices were obtained via the chequerboard dilution assay where methanol extract-oxacillin, acetone extract-oxacillin, methanol extract-linezolid, and acetone extract-linezolid combinations exhibited synergism (FIC index ≤ 0.5). The synergistic action of the methanol extract-oxacillin combination was verified by time-kill analysis where bactericidal effect was observed at concentration of 1/8 × MIC of both compounds at 9.6 h compared to oxacillin alone. As such, these findings postulated that both extracts exert their anti-MRSA mechanism of action similar to that of vancomycin and provide evidence that the leaves of C. odontophyllum have the potential to be developed into antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:27006659

  2. Protective effects of alpinae oxyphyllae fructus (Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ) water-extracts on neurons from ischemic damage and neuronal cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Koo, Byung-Soo; Lee, Won-Chang; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2004-02-01

    Alpinae Oxyphyllae Fructus (Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ) (Korean name Ik-Jj-In) is a medicinal plant used in Korea for the treatment of various symptoms accompanying hypertension and cerebrovascular disorders. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Alpinae Oxyphyllae Fructus water-extracts (AOF) on a cultured primary neuron cell system, cell cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in Abeta treatment conditions. Cell killing was significantly enhanced by addition of increasing concentrations of Abeta. Pretreatment of AOF attenuated in cell killing enhanced by increasing concentrations of Abeta. Abeta-induced cell death was protected by the application of water extract of AOF in a dose-dependent manner, and concentrations of 50 to 100 micro g/ml had a significant effect compared to exposure of Abeta only. AOF has been shown to protect primary cultured neurons from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated glutamate toxicity. The evidence indicated that AOF protects neurons against ischemia-induced cell death. Oral administration of AOF into mice prevented ischemia-induced learning disability and rescued hippocampal CA1 neurons from lethal ischemic damage. The neuroprotective action of exogenous AOF was also confirmed by counting synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. The presence of AOF in neuron cultures did not repress a NMDA receptor-mediated increase in intracellular Ca(2+), but rescued the neurons from NO-induced death. AOF may exert its neuroprotective effect by reducing the NO-mediated formation of free radicals or antagonizing their toxicity. PMID:15022167

  3. The Effects of Sesquiterpenes-Rich Extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. on Amyloid-β-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Neuronal Abnormalities in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shao-Huai; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Liu, Ai-Jing; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kai-Shun

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of medicine which can also be used as food, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has a long clinical history in China. A variety of studies demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity effects of chloroform (CF) extract from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla. In order to further elucidate the possible mechanisms of CF extract which mainly contains sesquiterpenes with neuroprotection on the cognitive ability, mice were injected with Aβ1−42 and later with CF in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of CF enhanced the cognitive performances in behavior tests, increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-β (Aβ), and reversed the activation of microglia, degeneration of neuronal acidophilia, and nuclear condensation in the cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that CF ameliorates learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the activation of microglia and degeneration of neuronal acidophilia to reinforce cholinergic functions. PMID:25180067

  4. Development of the Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure the oral health-related quality of life of young people with malocclusion: part 2 – cross-sectional validation

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Philip E.; Cunningham, Susan J.; Shah, Nahush; Gilchrist, Fiona; Baker, Sarah R.; Hodges, Samantha J.; Marshman, Zoe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test the items, identified through qualitative inquiry that might form the basis of a new Malocclusion Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) to measure the oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of young people with malocclusion. Methods: Piloting with 13 young people reduced the number of items from 37 to 28. Cross-sectional testing involved a convenience sample aged 10–16 years, attending the Orthodontic Department of the Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, Sheffield. The fit and function of the initial MIQ questions were examined using item response theory. Results: 184 participants (113 females; 71 males) completed a questionnaire (response 85%), seven participants were excluded due to missing responses. The mean age of participants was 12·9 years (SD 1·4) and they had a wide range of malocclusions. The majority were White British (67·4%). Data from 47 participants were used to analyse test–retest reliability. Rasch analysis was undertaken, which further reduced the number of items in the questionnaire from 28 to 17. Unidimensionality of the scale was confirmed. The analysis also identified that the original 5-point response scale could be reduced to three points. The new measure demonstrated good criterion validity (r = 0·751; P < 0·001) and construct validity with the two global questions (‘Overall bother’ ρ = 0·733 and ‘Life overall’ ρ = 0·701). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0·906) and test–retest reliability Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0·78; 95% CI 0·61–0·88) were also good. Conclusion: Cross-sectional testing has shown the new MIQ to be both valid and reliable. Further evaluation is required to confirm the generalisability as well as the ability of the new measure to detect change over time (responsiveness). PMID:26745783

  5. Protective effect of total aralosides of Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (TASAES) against diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats during the early stage, and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Shugang; Zhou, Guihua; Zhang, Xuexin; Zhang, Wenjie

    2009-01-01

    Total aralosides of Aralia elata (Miq) Seem (TASAES) from Chinese traditional herb Longya Aralia chinensis L was found to improve cardiac function. The present study was to determine the protective effects of TASAES on diabetic cardiomyopathy, and the possible mechanisms. Therefore, a single dose of streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in Wister rats. Diabetic rats were immediately treated with low, medium and high doses of TASAES at 4.9, 9.8 mg/kg and 19.6 mg/kg body weight by gavage, respectively, for eight weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by in situ hemodynamic measurements, and patch clamp for the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa2+-L) and transient outward K+ channel current (Ito). Histopathological changes were observed under light and electron microscope. The expression of pro-fibrotic factor, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was monitored using immunohistochemistry staining. Compared with diabetic group, medium and high doses, but not low dose, of TASAES showed a significant protection against diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction, shown by increased absolute value of left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and maximum rates of pressure development (±dp/dtmax), and enhanced amplitude of ICa2+-L (P < 0.05). Histological staining indicated a significant inhibition of diabetes-caused pathological changes and up-regulation of CTGF expression (P < 0.05). The results suggest that TASAES prevents diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and pathological damage through up-regulating ICa2+-L in cardiac cells and decreasing CTGF expression. PMID:19381071

  6. Immunotoxic sesquiterpene lactone from Carpesium rosulatum Miq.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-In; Zee, Okpyo

    2011-06-01

    The whole plants of Carpesium rosulatum were chloroform extracted and the isolated sesquiterpene lactones and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The structures and stereochemistry of these compounds were established on the basis of analysis of spectra including mp, [α](D)(25), IR, UV, EI-MS, MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and some chemical transformations as follows: 1 (4β,10α-dihydroxy-guaia-8α,12-olide), 2 (4β,10α-dihydroxy-1(2),11 (13)-guaiadien -8α,12-olide), 3 (3β,8β-dihydroxy-1α,5α-guaian-10(14)-ene-6α,12-olide). 4 (2β,5-epoxy-5,10-dihydroxy-6α,9β-diangeloyloxy-germacran-8α,12-olide) The chloroform extracted had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 13.11 ppm and an LC(90) value of 20.33 ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against A. aegypti. PMID:20738151

  7. Anthocyanin fingerprinting of true bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interest in black raspberry products has been increasing due to its flavor and potential health benefits. While black raspberries grown in North America are Rubus occidentalis L., there has been some confusion regarding the identity of black raspberry grown in Korea (known as bokbunja; R. corean...

  8. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit Parts in Rabbits Fed High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Shakirin, Faridah Hanim; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Amom, Zulkhairi; Yuon, Lau Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of C. odontophyllum (CO) fruit parts was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Forty-nine rabbits, which were randomly divided into seven groups of seven animals (n = 7), received a diet containing different parts of CO fruit parts for 8 weeks. The groups were as follows: (1) normal diet: NC group and (2) hypercholesterolemic diet: PC, HS (10 mg/kg/day simvastatin), HPO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the pulp of CO), HKO (20 g kg−1 oil extracted from the kernel of CO), HF (50 g kg−1 fullfat pulp of CO), and HD (50 g kg−1 defatted pulp of CO). Among these groups, rabbits receiving defatted pulp of CO showed the greatest cholesterol lowering effect as it had reduced plasma LDL-C, TC, and thiobarbiturate reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of high dietary fiber and antioxidants activity are potential factors contributing to the cholesterol lowering effect. Consequently, these results indicate the potential use of CO defatted pulp as a cholesterol lowering and antioxidant agent. PMID:22811751

  9. Novel microsatellite markers acquired from Rubus coreanus Miq. and cross-amplification in other Rubus species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-An; Song, Jae Young; Choi, Heh-Ran; Chung, Jong-Wook; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Jung-Ro; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Myung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3%) type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%). The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry). These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species. PMID:25867828

  10. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Basal Asterid Ardisia polysticta Miq. and Comparative Analyses of Asterid Plastid Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chuan; Hu, Jer-Ming; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-01-01

    Ardisia is a basal asterid genus well known for its medicinal values and has the potential for development of novel phytopharmaceuticals. In this genus of nearly 500 species, many ornamental species are commonly grown worldwide and some have become invasive species that caused ecological problems. As there is no completed plastid genome (plastome) sequence in related taxa, we sequenced and characterized the plastome of Ardisia polysticta to find plastid markers of potential utility for phylogenetic analyses at low taxonomic levels. The complete A. polysticta plastome is 156,506 bp in length and has gene content and organization typical of most asterids and other angiosperms. We identified seven intergenic regions as potentially informative markers with resolution for interspecific relationships. Additionally, we characterized the diversity of asterid plastomes with respect to GC content, plastome organization, gene content, and repetitive sequences through comparative analyses. The results demonstrated that the genome organizations near the boundaries between inverted repeats (IRs) and single-copy regions (SCs) are polymorphic. The boundary organization found in Ardisia appears to be the most common type among asterids, while six other types are also found in various asterid lineages. In general, the repetitive sequences in genic regions tend to be more conserved, whereas those in noncoding regions are usually lineage-specific. Finally, we inferred the whole-plastome phylogeny with the available asterid sequences. With the improvement in taxon sampling of asterid orders and families, our result highlights the uncertainty of the position of Gentianales within euasterids I. PMID:23638113

  11. Genome Sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum Phage PPWS1, Isolated from Japanese Horseradish [Eutrema japonicum (Miq.) Koidz] Showing Soft-Rot Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kashihara, Misako; Horiike, Tokumasa; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Dohra, Hideo; Netsu, Osamu; Tsuyumu, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and its lytic bacteriophage PPWS1 were isolated from a Japanese horseradish rhizome with soft rot. Sequencing of the phage genomic DNA suggested that PPWS1 is a new species of the family Podoviridae and has high similarity to the bacteriophage Peat1 infectious to P. atrosepticum. PMID:27103734

  12. Simultaneous determination of five bioactive secolignans in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of Peperomia dindygulensis Miq. extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-zhi; Liang, Jing-yu; Wen, Hong-mei; Shan, Chen-xiao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra fast performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five bioactive secolignans in Peperomia dindygulensis extract, including peperomin A, peperomin B, peperomin C, 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 4″-hydroxypeperomin C in rat plasma. Arctigenin was used as the internal standard. The separation was performed on an Innovation™ Polar-RP C18 column by a gradient elution within a runtime of 7min. The mobile phase consisted of A (methanol) and B (0.1% formic acid in water) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The detection was accomplished by using positive ion TurboIonSpray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear for all analytes over investigated range with all correlation coefficients greater than 0.9972. The lower limits of quantification were 1.1ng/mL for peperomin A, 1.24ng/mL for peperomin B, 1.02ng/mL for peperomin C, 1.91ng/mL for 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 1.27ng/mL for 4″-hydroxypeperomin C. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) was within 15% and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -11.7% to 10.3%. This simple and sensitive method was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of peperomin A, peperomin B, peperomin C, 4″-hydroxypeperomin B and 4″-hydroxypeperomin C in rat plasma after oral administration of P. dindygulensis extract. PMID:24295907

  13. Study on the destructive effect to inherent quality of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. (Zhebeimu) by sulfur-fumigated process using chromatographic fingerprinting analysis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baozhong; Huang, Linfang; Chen, Shilin

    2012-04-15

    The after-harvesting sun-dried processing of Fritillariae thunbergii bulbus (Zhebeimu) was the traditional treatment for commodity. Over recent decades the natural drying process for bulbus of Fritillariae has been replaced by sulfur-fumigation for reducing the drying duration and pest control. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (UPLC-ELSD) fingerprinting analysis and major alkaloids determination to investigate the potential damaging effect of the sulfur-fumigating process. The experimental conditions were as follows: Chromatography was proceeded on Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column; the linear gradient elution was conducted with mobile phase prepared from acetonitrile-0.02% triethylamine; the drift tube temperature was set at 40°C with a nitrogen flow-rate of 30psi, and the spray parameter was set 40%. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (R>0.9991) within the tested range. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, limit of detection and quantification. The study also has shown that sulfur-fumigated samples had significant loss of the main active compounds and a more destructive fingerprint profile when compared to the sun-dried samples. PMID:22326548

  14. Effects of Payena dasyphylla (Miq.) on hyaluronidase enzyme activity and metalloproteinases protein expressions in interleukin-1β stimulated human chondrocytes cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyaluronidases have been found as the target enzymes in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) disease. While there is still no curative treatment for this disease, recent studies on the treatment of OA were focused on the effectiveness of natural products which are expected to improve the symptoms with minimal side effects. The aim of this study was to screen selected Malaysian plants on their anti-hyaluronidase activity as well as to evaluate the active plant and its derived fractions on its potential anti-arthritic and antioxidant activities. Methods A total of 20 methanolic crude extracts (bark and leaf) from ten different plants were screened using a colorimetric hyaluronidase enzymatic assay. The active plant extract (Payena dasyphylla) was then studied for its hyaluronidase inhibitory activity in the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulated human chondrocytes cell line (NHAC-kn) using zymography method. The Payena dasyphylla methanolic bark extract was then fractionated into several fractions in where the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction was evaluated for its inhibitory effects on the HYAL1 and HYAL2 gene expressions using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. While the MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expressions were evaluated using western blot method. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of the three fractions as well as the antioxidant property of the EA fraction were also evaluated. Results Bark extract of Payena dasyphylla (100 μg/ml) showed the highest inhibitory activity against bovine testicular hyaluronidase with 91.63%. The plant extract also inhibited hyaluronidase expression in the cultured human chondrocyte cells in response to IL-1β (100 ng/ml). Similarly, treatment with Payena dasyphylla ethyl acetate (EA) fraction (100 μg/ml) inhibited the HYAL1 and HYAL2 mRNA gene expressions as well as MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expression in a dose dependent manner. Payena dasyphylla EA fraction has demonstrated the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content with 168.62 ± 10.93 mg GAE/g and 95.96 ± 2.96 mg RE/g respectively as compared to water and hexane fractions. In addition, the Payena dasyphylla EA fraction showed strong antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 11.64 ± 1.69 μg/mL. Conclusion These findings have shown that Payena dasyphylla might contained potential phenolic compounds that inhibiting the key enzyme in osteoarthritis development, which is the hyaluronidase enzyme through interruption of HYAL1 and HYAL1 gene expressions. The degradation of cartilage could also be inhibited by the plant through suppression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein expressions. We also reported that the inhibitory effect of Payena dasyphylla on hyaluronidase activity and expression might be due to its anti-oxidant property. PMID:23971790

  15. Alpinate oxyphyllae fructus (Alpinia Oxyphylla Miq) extracts inhibit angiotensin-II induced cardiac apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Ming; Tsai, Chuan-Te; Wang, Chiun-Chuang Roger; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Ray-Jade; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We used a traditional Chinese medicine, alpinate oxyphyllae fructus (AOF), to evaluate its effect on Ang II-induced cardiac apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Ang II-treated H9c2 cells were administered AOF of 20-100 µg/mL concentrations. Ang II significantly increased TUNEL-positive nuclei in the H9c2 cells, effect was inhibited by AOF administration in both pre-treated and post-treated H9c2 cells. Caspases 9 and 3 activities were increased by Ang II and downregulated by AOF administration, especially in pre-treatment. AOF treatment reversed Ang II-induced mitochondria membrane potential instability in H9c2 cells as observed by JC-1 stain assay. Furthermore, pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and cytochrome c increased and decreased respectively under AOF administration. The levels of p-Bad anti-apoptotic protein were significantly increased after AOF treatment. This study indicates that mitochondrial dependent apoptosis induced by Ang II. PMID:23391902

  16. Effect of media compositions on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, growth and fatty acid content in mycelium extracts of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 from Taxus Sumatrana (Miq.) de Laub.

    PubMed

    Artanti, Nina; Tachibana, Sanro; Kardono, Leonardus B S

    2014-07-01

    The active α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 were found to be the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). These compounds have potential as antidiabetic agents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of various media composition on growth (mycelium dry weight) and the fatty acids content (μg mg(-1) mycelium DW) of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, the experiments were set up by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions and desaturase and fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the media. Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 grown on potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as control. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were (range from 43.9 ± 2.5 to 88.6 ± 5.2%) at 10 μg mL(-1). This activity seemed to correlate with the unsaturated fatty acids content of the samples. Different sugars as carbon source experiment showed that xylose gave the highest growth (938.7 ± 141.6 mg). However, the highest fatty acids content was obtained from fructose medium which containing linoleic acid (38.8 ± 4.9 μ g mg(-1) DW). Soluble starch gave better growth (672.5 ± 62.3 mg) but very low fatty acids content (2.8 ± 0.1 μg mg(-1) DW) was obtained. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. Fatty acids production was better as compared to beef extract and soytone. This is the first report of various media compositions on fatty acids content in Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:26035936

  17. 32 CFR 855.2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... proposal or agreement to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Installations (SAF/MII), who holds decision... for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (SAF/MIQ). The Air Force Real Estate Agency...

  18. 32 CFR 855.2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... proposal or agreement to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Installations (SAF/MII), who holds decision... for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (SAF/MIQ). The Air Force Real Estate Agency...

  19. 32 CFR 855.2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proposal or agreement to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Installations (SAF/MII), who holds decision... for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (SAF/MIQ). The Air Force Real Estate Agency...

  20. 32 CFR 855.2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... proposal or agreement to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Installations (SAF/MII), who holds decision... for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (SAF/MIQ). The Air Force Real Estate Agency...

  1. 32 CFR 855.2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... proposal or agreement to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Installations (SAF/MII), who holds decision... for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (SAF/MIQ). The Air Force Real Estate Agency...

  2. Measuring Visual Function Using the MultiQuity System: Comparison with an Established Device

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, John M.; Dennison, Jessica; Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Kuchling, Robert; O'Regan, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To compare measures of visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) from the Thompson Xpert 2000 and MultiQuity (MiQ) devices. Methods. Corrected distance VA (CDVA) and CS were measured in the right eye of 73 subjects, on an established system (Thompson Xpert) and a novel system (MiQ 720). Regression was used to convert MiQ scores into the Thompson scale. Agreement between the converted MiQ and Thompson scores was investigated using standard agreement indices. Test-retest variability for both devices was also investigated, for a separate sample of 24 subjects. Results. For CDVA, agreement was strong between the MiQ and Thomson devices (accuracy = 0.993, precision = 0.889, CCC = 0.883). For CS, agreement was also strong (accuracy = 0.996, precision = 0.911, CCC = 0.907). Agreement was unaffected by demographic variables or by presence/absence of ocular pathology. Test-retest agreement indices for both devices were excellent: in the range 0.88–0.96 for CDVA and in the range 0.90–0.98 for CS. Conclusion. MiQ measurements exhibit strong agreement with corresponding Thomson measurements, and test-retest results are good for both devices. Agreement between the two devices is unaffected by age or ocular pathology. PMID:25580278

  3. Evaluation for Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Cornus Species and Hybrids Using a Leafy Disk Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a leaf disk assay, eight cultivars or/and breeding lines in Cornus florida L., C. kousa (Buerger ex Miq.) Hance, five cultivars in C. kousa × C. florida, one cultivar in C. kousa × C. nuttallii Aud. and one cultivar in (C. kousa × C. nuttallii) × C. kousa were evaluated for resistance to powde...

  4. The Effect of Movement Imagery Training on Learning Forearm Pass in Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…

  5. Manual for the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire. Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation: XXVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Evan G.; And Others

    The Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) is a 210-item pair-comparison instrument designed to measure 20 vocationally relevant need dimensions: (1) ability utilization, (2) achievement, (3) activity, (4) advancement, (5) authority, (6) company policies and practices, (7) compensation, (8) co-workers, (9) creativity, (10) independence, (11)…

  6. A revision of the genus Osmoxylon (Araliaceae) in Palau, including two new species

    PubMed Central

    Costion, Craig M.; Plunkett, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osmoxylon Miq. (Araliaceae) is revised for Palau, Micronesia including descriptions of two new taxa Osmoxylon leidichii Costion, sp. nov. and Osmoxylon ngardokense Costion, sp. nov. Full descriptions are provided for all four Palau species, along with diagnostic field keys. PMID:26884705

  7. A revision of the genus Osmoxylon (Araliaceae) in Palau, including two new species.

    PubMed

    Costion, Craig M; Plunkett, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Osmoxylon Miq. (Araliaceae) is revised for Palau, Micronesia including descriptions of two new taxa Osmoxylon leidichii Costion, sp. nov. and Osmoxylon ngardokense Costion, sp. nov. Full descriptions are provided for all four Palau species, along with diagnostic field keys. PMID:26884705

  8. Assessing the Work Personalities of Mentally Retarded Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofquist, Lloyd H.; Dawis, Rene V.

    A series of studies were conducted to modify the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) and the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) for use with mentally retarded individuals. Modification of the GATB consisted of eliminating answer sheets, increasing practice, individual administration, untimed administration, removal of verbally loaded items,…

  9. Oleanane-type Triterpene Saponins from Glochidion glomerulatum.

    PubMed

    Thu, Vu Kim; Thanga, Nguyen Van; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Yen, Pham Hai; Minh, Chau Van; Kiem, Phan Van; Kim, Nan Young; Park, Seon Ju; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpene saponins, named glomeruloside I (1) and glomeruloside II (2), were isolated from the leaves of Glochidion glomerulatum (Miq.) Boerl. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS data, and chemical methods. PMID:26197505

  10. The Intersection of Imagery Ability, Imagery Use, and Learning Style: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolles, Gina; Chatfield, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the intersection of the individual's imagery ability, imagery use in dance training and performance, and learning style. Thirty-four intermediate-level ballet and modern dance students at the University of Oregon completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-3 (LSI-3). The four…

  11. Salininema proteolyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic rare actinomycete isolated from wetland soil, and emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Nikou, Mahdi Moshtaghi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Rasouli, Mehrnoush; Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh; Schumann, Peter; de la Haba, Rafael R; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-stain-positive actinobacterial strain, Miq-4T, was isolated from soil around Meighan wetland in the centre of Iran. Strain Miq-4T was strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The isolate grew in the presence of 3–15 % (w/v) NaCl, at 20–40 °C and pH 6.0–11.0. The optimum NaCl, temperature and pH for growth were 7.0 %, 30 °C and 7.0–8.5, respectively. The cell wall of strain Miq-4T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid and glucose and ribose as the whole-cell sugars. The polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. Strain Miq-4T synthesized cellular fatty acids of anteiso- and iso-branched types, including anteiso-C17 : 0, anteiso- C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0, and the major respiratory quinone was MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and characteristic patterns of 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides revealed that strain Miq-4T belongs to the family Glycomycetaceae and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity with Haloglycomyces albus YIM 92370T (94.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain Miq-4T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Salininema proteoliyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is Miq-4T ( = IBRC-M 10908T = LMG 28391T). An emended description of the family Glycomycetaceae is also proposed in order to include features of the new genus. PMID:26219545

  12. Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) missile accident site mitigation review

    SciTech Connect

    McCulla, W.H.; Rea, K.H.; Plannerer, H.N.

    1996-05-22

    In December 1995, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was requested by SAF/MIQ to review the information associated with the BOMARC missile accident site and the November 16, 1992 Record of Decision (ROD). The purpose of this review was, {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis} to help ensure our plans call for using the most efficient and up-to-date technology in our cleanup, and to ensure our plans to ship the contaminated waste meet all regulatory requirements.{close_quotes}

  13. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25532337

  14. Langmuir films of an amide extracted from Piperaceae and its interaction with phospholipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, P. A.; Oliveira, O. N.; Aroca, R. F.; Chierice, G. O.; Constantino, C. J. L.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, we investigate Langmuir monolayers from an amide extracted from dried roots of Ottonia propinqua, a native Brazilian plant believed to exhibit anesthetic and hallucinogen activities. In addition to producing monolayers from the amide itself, we probe the molecular-level action of the amide on phospholipids employed as simple membrane models. The surface pressure-molecular area ( π- A) isotherms for the amide were little affected by a number of subphase conditions. Almost no changes were observed upon varying the compression speed, spreading volume onto the surface, ions in the subphase, ionic strength and the solution solvent. However, stronger effects occurred when the subphase temperature and pH were altered, as the isotherms were shifted to larger areas with increasing temperatures and decreasing pHs. These results are discussed in terms of the molecular packing adopted by the amide at the air-water interface. In the mixed films with arachidic acid, the area per molecule varied linearly with the concentration of amide, probably due to phase separation. On the other hand, in the mixed films with dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), small amounts of the amide were sufficient to change the π- A isotherms significantly. This points to a strong molecular-level interaction, probably between the phosphate group in the zwitterion of DPPC and the nitrogen from the amidic group.

  15. [Medical history as an academic subject at the Bamberg University].

    PubMed

    Locher, W

    2000-01-01

    A full program of medicine was taught at the Catholic University of Bamberg (founded 1648 as the Academia Ottonia) from 1773 through 1803. Within this period of time, the History of Medicine was taught from 1790 through 1795 by Johann Baptist Dominicus Fin(c)k. This paper elucidates how in this instance protestant universities served as models for catholic universities. Interestingly, it was not the medical faculty itself which developed an interest in teaching medical history. Rather, it was Adalbert Friedrich Marcus (1753-1816), physician-in-waiting of the Prince-Bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal and medical officer in the principality of Bamberg since June 22, 1790, who was charged by the Prince-Bishop with developing guidelines for medical education. The start of the History of Medicine lectures brought with it a heated dispute about an appropriate textbook. The discussion is evidence of a transition from historiography understood as an account of learned doctors of the past to a study of history in a modern sense. PMID:11068514

  16. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Harper, Tisha; Georges, Karla; Bridgewater, Elmo

    2001-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs. PMID:11737880

  17. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants. PMID:21736535

  18. Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Wright, C I; Van-Buren, L; Kroner, C I; Koning, M M G

    2007-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the health and wellness benefits of herbs and botanicals. This is with good reason as they might offer a natural safeguard against the development of certain conditions and be a putative treatment for some diseases. One such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). One class of clinical medicines used to lower blood pressure are known as diuretics and work by increasing the excretion of urine from the body as well as the amount of sodium in urine. There are a growing number of studies purporting diuretic effects with traditional medicines. The aim of this article was to review these studies and identify which extracts promote diuresis (which we assessed on terms of urine excreted and urinary sodium excretion) and also to identify the research needs in this area. We identified a number of species and genuses reporting diuretic effects. Of these, the most promising, at the present time, are the species Foeniculum vulgare, Fraxinus excelsior, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Petroselinum sativum and Spergularia purpurea, and species from the genuses Cucumis (Cucumis melo and Cucumis trigonus), Equisetum (Equisetum bogotense, Equisetum fluviatile, Equisetum giganteum, Equisetum hiemale var. affine and Equisetum myriochaetum), Lepidium (Lepidium latifolium and Lepidium sativum), Phyllanthus (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus corcovadensis and Phyllanthus sellowianus) and Sambucus (Sambucus mexicana and Sambucus nigra). However, there the number of studies is limited and we recommend that further studies be conducted to confirm reported effects. Such evidence is needed to provide scientific credence to the folklore use of traditional medicines and even be helpful in the development of future medicines, treatments and treatment guidelines. PMID:17804183

  19. Mechanistic studies of the transport of peimine in the Caco-2 cell model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihua; Lu, Xueping; Liang, Xinli; Hong, Dandan; Guan, Zhiyu; Guan, Yongmei; Zhu, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for its expectorant, antitussive, antiinflammatory and analgesic properties. Moreover, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that F. thunbergii Miq. has efficacy in the treatment of leukemia and cancers of the liver and cervix. Although the alkaloid, peimine, is largely responsible for these pharmacological effects, it has very low oral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption of peimine in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Having demonstrated that peimine is non-toxic to Caco-2 cells at concentrations <200 μmol/L, the effect of peimine concentration, pH, temperature, efflux transport protein inhibitors and EDTA-Na2 on peimine transport were studied. The results show that peimine transport is concentration-dependent; that at pH 6.0 and 7.4, the Papp(AP-BL) of peimine is not significantly different but the Papp(BL-AP)) is; that both Papp(AP-BL) and Papp(BL-AP) at 4 °C are significantly higher than their corresponding values at 37 °C; that the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, increase absorption of peimine; and that EDTA-Na2 has no discernible effect. In summary, the results demonstrate that the intestinal absorption of peimine across Caco-2 cell monolayers involves active transport and that peimine is a substrate of P-gp. PMID:27006896

  20. First evidence of cynipids from the Oceanian Region: the description of Lithonecrus papuanus a new genus and species of cynipid inquiline from Papua New Guinea (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Synergini).

    PubMed

    Nieves-Aldrey, J L; Butterill, P T

    2014-01-01

    Lithonecrus papuanus Nieves-Aldrey & Butterill, a new genus and species of inquiline oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini), is described from material reared from galls on Lithocarpus celebicus (Miq.) Rehd., collected in Papua New Guinea. The new genus and species is the first record of a cynipid from Papua New Guinea and the whole  Oceanian biogeographic region,  and represents the easternmost oriental record of a cynipid wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). The new genus is similar to Saphonecrus Dalla Torre & Kieffer, and to the recently described Lithosaphonecrus Tang, Melika & Bozsó, but differs from these genera in several important diagnostic characters. Taxonomic affinities and differences with related genera and species and biogeographical implications are discussed.  PMID:25112248

  1. [Evolution of the origin of strain of Shancigu (Rhizoma Pleionis)].

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyan; Song, Xiangwen; Han, Bangxing; Fang, Shiying

    2015-05-01

    Shancigu (Rhizome Pleionis) was first recorded in the Ben cao shiyi (Supplements to Chinese Materia Medica). The source of the strain of this medicinal was unclear because of its too simple description in the medical books in the Tang and Song dynasties. Its original plant could be Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino, Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker and so on. The original plant of Shanciguwas Tulipaedulis since the Ming dynasty to the Republican period. The name of "Guangcigu" began to appear in the Republican period because of the changes of its processing method. The original plants evolved into Cremastra appendiculata, Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe and Pleione yunnanensis Rolfe, with Tulipa edulisas the original plant of Guangcigu (Bulbus of Tulipasedulis). It is found that only the Tulipaedulis is the unequivocal origin with the longest medicinal history through sorting out of the original plants of Shancigu. Hence, it is suggested that Tulipa edulis should be recovered as the original strain of Shancigu. PMID:26420522

  2. Isolation and antifungal activity of kakuol, a propiophenone derivative from Asarum sieboldii rhizome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Moon, Surk Sik; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2005-08-01

    An antifungal substance active against Colletotrichum orbiculare (Berk & Mont) Arx was isolated from the methanol extracts of Asarum sieboldii (Miq) Maek rhizomes. High-resolution MS, NMR and UV spectral data confirmed that the antifungal substance is kakuol, 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone. Colletotrichum orbiculare was most sensitive to kakuol, with MIC of 10 microg ml(-1). Kakuol also completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr and Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arthur at 50 microg ml(-1) and 30 microg ml(-1), respectively. However, no antimicrobial activity was found against yeast and bacteria even at 100 microg ml(-1). Kakuol exhibited a protective activity against the development of anthracnose disease on cucumber plants. The control efficacy of kakuol against the anthracnose disease was in general somewhat less than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothalonil. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of kakuol against C. orbiculare infection. PMID:15846774

  3. Hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activities from Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi; Du, Guang-Jian; Qi, Lian-Wen; Williams, Stainley; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Devil’s Club Oplopanax horridus (Sm.) Miq. is a widely used folk medicine in the Pacific Northwest such as Alaska and British Columbia for treating a variety of ailments including arthritis, cold, fever, infections, diabetes and cancer. Aim of the study To investigate hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activity from Devil’s Club O. horridus. Materials and methods The root bark of O. horridus (Sm.) Miq was isolated by chromatographic techniques. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods and comparison with published data. The anti-proliferation of isolated hydrophobic constituents in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human colon cancer SW-480 and HCT-116 cells were tested. The potential mechanism of anti-proliferation was also investigated using cell cycle and apoptosis assays. Results and discussion Six compounds were isolated and structurally identified as 9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol, 1-acetate (1), oplopandiol acetate (2), falcarindiol (3), oplopandiol (4), trans-nerolidol (5) and t-cadinol (6). These compounds showed potential anticancer activities on human breast cancer and colon cancer cells, of which compound 3 possesses the strongest activity. Further cell cycle and apoptosis test by flow cytometry showed the polyacetylenes 1–4 induced HCT-116 cell arresting in G2/M phase and inhibited proliferation by the induction of apoptosis at both earlier and later stage. Conclusion These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of O. horridus as well as some of the isolated compounds in the treatment of cancer. PMID:20723598

  4. An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method for preparative separation of minor alkaloids by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui-Hong; Hou, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bei; Pan, Hui-Qin; Yang, Wenzhi; Qi, Peng; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-08-28

    An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR. PMID:26209189

  5. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in

  6. Mixture Toxicity of SN2-Reactive Soft Electrophiles: 3. Evaluation of Ethyl α-Halogenated Acetates with α-Halogenated Acetonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Pöch, G.; Schultz, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Mixture toxicity for each of four ethyl α-halogenated acetates (ExACs) with each of three α-halogenated acetonitriles (xANs) was assessed. Inhibition of bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri was measured after 15, 30 and 45-min of exposure. Concentration-response curves were developed for each chemical at each exposure duration and used to develop predicted concentration-response curves for the dose-addition and independence models of combined effect. Concentration-response curves for each mixture and each exposure duration were then evaluated against the predicted curves, using three metrics per model: 1) EC50-based additivity quotient (AQ) or independence quotient (IQ) values, 2) mean AQ (mAQ) or mean IQ (mIQ) values, calculated by averaging the EC25, EC50 and EC75 AQ or IQ values, and 3) deviation values from additivity (DV-A) or independence (DV-I). Mixture toxicity for ethyl iodoacetate (EIAC) was dose-additive with each of the xANs at all exposure durations and was often consistent with independence as well. The same was true for mixture toxicity of ethyl bromoacetate (EBAC) with each xAN. However, for the two more slowly reactive chemicals ethyl chloroacetate (ECAC) and ethyl fluoroacetate (EFAC) mixture toxicity with each xAN only became consistent with dose-addition upon increasing exposure duration. Consistency with independence for both ECAC and EFAC with the xANs was essentially limited to the EC50-IQ metric; thereby demonstrating the utility of calculating the mean quotient (mAQ, mIQ) and deviation value (DV-A, DV-I) metrics. Upon review of these findings with those from the first two papers in the series, the results suggest that instances in which mixture toxicity was not consistent with dose-addition relate: 1) to differences in the capability of the chemicals to form strong H-bonds with water and 2) to differences in relative reactivity and time-dependent toxicity levels of the chemicals. PMID:24368709

  7. Modulation of Actinidia arguta fruit ripening by three ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuehua; Xu, Fangxu; Feng, Xuqiao; MacArthur, Roseline Love

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postharvest application of 1-methylecyclopropene (1-MCP), 1-pentylcyclopropene (1-PentCP) and 1-octylcyclopropene (1-OCP), two structural analogues of 1-MCP, on Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch. ex. Miq. Fruit post-harvest ripening and antioxidant activity. The results showed that these two structural analogues, just as 1-MCP, exerted their effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The most effective concentration of 1-MCP, 1-PentCP or 1-OCP treatment was 1.2 μl L(-1), 1.2 μl L(-1) and 0.8 μl L(-1), respectively. But, 0.8 μl L(-1) 1-OCP was found to be more potent in postponing the appearances of respiration rate peak and ethylene production peak, delaying the softening and weight loss, suppressing the activities of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), maintaining higher glutathione (GSH) content, activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), though slightly inferior to 1.2 μl L(-1) 1-MCP. PMID:25466039

  8. Antiplatelet aggregation and platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonistic activities of the essential oils of five Goniothalamus species.

    PubMed

    Moharam, Bushra Abdulkarim; Jantan, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Fasihuddin bin; Jalil, Juriyati

    2010-08-01

    Nine essential oils, hydrodistilled from different parts of five Goniothalamus species (G. velutinus Airy-Shaw, G. woodii Merr., G. clemensii Ban, G. tapis Miq. and G. tapisoides Mat Salleh) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation in human whole blood using an electrical impedance method and their inhibitory effects on platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding with rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bark oil of G. velutinus was the most effective sample as it inhibited both arachidonic acid (AA) and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 93.6 and 87.7 microg/mL, respectively. Among the studied oils, the bark oils of G. clemensii, G. woodii, G. velutinus and the root oil of G. tapis showed significant inhibitory effects on PAF receptor binding, with IC(50 )values ranging from 3.5 to 10.5 microg/mL. The strong PAF antagonistic activity of the active oils is related to their high contents of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids, and the individual components in the oils could possibly produce a synergistic effect in the overall antiplatelet activity of the oils. PMID:20714290

  9. Different cell death responses induced by eupomatenoid-5 in MCF-7 and 786-0 tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Longato, Giovanna Barbarini; Fiorito, Giovanna Francisco; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; de Oliveira Sousa, Ilza Maria; Tinti, Sirlene Valério; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; Padilha, Rafael José Ribeiro; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2015-08-01

    Natural products remain an important source of new drugs, including anticancer drugs. Recently, our group reported the anticancer activity of eupomatenoid-5 (eup-5), a neolignan isolated from Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. var. regnellii leaves. In vitro studies demonstrated that MCF-7 (breast) and 786-0 (kidney) were among the cancer cell lines most sensitive to eup-5 treatment. The current results demonstrate that mitochondrial membrane depolarization and generation of reactive oxygen species are implicated in eup-5-mediated cytotoxic effects on these cancer cells lines. In MCF-7 cells, eup-5 led to phosphatidylserine externalization and caspase activation, whereas the same did not occur in 786-0 cells. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a reduction of microvilli density, as well as cell morphology alterations. Moreover, treated MCF-7 cells exhibited well-characterized apoptosis alterations, while treated 786-0 cells exhibited characteristics of programmed necroptosis process. These findings support the possibility that different mechanisms may be targeted by eup-5 in cell death response. PMID:25882683

  10. In vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zong-Fan; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus). The results showed that the efficacies of methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were found to be, in this order, more effective than others with the 48 h-EC(50) and EC(90) values of 3.5 and 6.9, 6.0 and 8.4, 7.4 and 11.2 mg/L, respectively, followed by ethyl acetate extract of R. cimicifugae and chloroform extract of R. peucedani with EC(50) 189.2 and 240.4 mg/L. The promising methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were subjected to acute toxicity tests for the evaluation of their safety to the host. After 48-h exposure, the mortalities of goldfish were recorded, and the established LC(50) values were 10.1-, 4.2-, and 8.4-fold higher than the corresponding EC(50). These results indicated that the three extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis exhibit potential to be used as preferred natural antiparasitics for the control of the D. intermedius, especially for the methanolic one. PMID:21153837

  11. Uptake of metals and metalloids by plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Hoang Ha; Sakakibara, Masayuki; Sano, Sakae; Mai, Trong Nhuan

    2011-02-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation and phytomining potential of 10 plant species growing naturally at one of the largest lead-zinc mines in Northern Vietnam. Total concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic were determined in the plant and in associated soil and water in and outside of the mine area. The results indicate that hyperaccumulation levels (mg kg(-1) dry weight) were obtained in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (1140) and Pteris vittata L. (3750) for arsenic, and in Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (1130), Potamogeton oxyphyllus Miq. (4210), and P. vittata (1020) for lead. To the best of our knowledge, the present paper is the first report on metal accumulation and hyperaccumulation by H. cordata, A. houstonianum, and P. oxyphyllus. Based on the obtained concentrations of metals, bioconcentration and translocation factors, as well as the biomass of these plants, the two latter species and P. vittata are good candidates for phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and multi-metals. None of the collected plants was suitable for phytomining, given their low concentrations of useful metals (e.g., silver, gallium, and indium). PMID:21227580

  12. Immunotoxicity activity from various essential oils of Angelica genus from South Korea against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-02-01

    The leaves of Angelica anomala Lallemant, Angelica cartilagino-marginata var. distans (Nakai) Kitag, Angelica czernevia (Fisch. et Meyer) Kitagawa, Angelica dahurica Benth. et Hooker, Angelica decursiva (Miq.) Franch. & Sav, Angelica fallax Boissieu, Angelica gigas Nakai, Angelica japonica A. gray were essential oil extracted and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The Angelica anomala, A. cartilagino-marginata var. distans, A. czernevia, A. dahurica, A. decursiva, A. fallax, A. gigas, A. japonica essential oil yield were 4.13, 4.83, 4.45, 3.25, 4.11, 4.73, 4.34 and 4.21%. The A. dahurica essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with a lethal concentration 50 (LC₅₀) value of 43.12 ppm and an LC₉₀ value of 65.23 ppm. The above indicates that essential oil contents may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21506693

  13. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community. PMID:21562693

  14. Anticholinesterase, antioxidant activity and phytochemical investigation into aqueous extracts from five species of Agrimonia genus.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, Renata; Švajdlenka, Emil; Jankovská, Dagmar

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous extracts of aerial flowering parts of five Agrimonia species (Rosaceae): Agrimonia coreana Nakai, Agrimonia japonica (Miq.) Koidz, Agrimonia procera Wallr., Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Agrimonia leucantha Kunze were investigated on their antioxidant activity, measured using five different methods; the best was the extract from A. procera with IC50 values from 6 to 29 μg/mL. All the extracts displayed inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) at the tested concentration of 100 μg/mL. We found the highest inhibition of cholinesterase in the extract of A. japonica with inhibition 70.4% for AChE and 79.8% for BuChE. These findings are statistically significant in comparison with those of other extracts (p < 0.001). The phytochemical analyses showed that the antioxidant activity of Agrimonia extracts can be affected especially by hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP)-glucose and quercetin glycosides, and inhibition of cholinesterases by apigenin, luteolin and quercetin glycosides. PMID:26235662

  15. Diagnostic PCR of dermatophytes--an overview.

    PubMed

    Gräser, Yvonne; Czaika, Viktor; Ohst, Torsten

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of onychomycosis is increasing steadily, sevenfold alone in the US within the last twenty years. An important aspect in this development is the demographic development of the human population of the industrial countries like Germany. A fast and accurate laboratory diagnosis is essential for successful treatment because 50% of the cases are misdiagnosed when relying on the clinical appearance only. The current diagnosis of dermatophytosis, based on direct microscopy and culture of the clinical specimen, is problematic given the lacking specificity of the former and the length of time needed for the latter. Molecular techniques can help to solve these problems. In recent years, a number of in-house PCR assays have been developed to identify dermatophytes directly from clinical specimens. Based on the "Mikrobiologisch-infektiologischen Qualitätsstandards (MIQ) für Nukleinsäure-Amplifikationstechniken" and the MIQE guideline (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments) 11 studies are reviewed which were published between 2007 and 2010. The present article evaluates the quality of the PCR assays regarding false positive and false negative results due to contamination, PCR format, statistical analysis, and diagnostic performance of the studies. It shows that we are only at the beginning of providing high quality PCR diagnosis of dermatophytes. PMID:23013298

  16. Eriophyes species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) inhabiting lime trees (Tilia spp.: Tiliaceae)--supplementary description and morphological variability related to host plants and female forms.

    PubMed

    Soika, Grazyna; Kozak, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Three poorly known species of the subfamily Eriophyinae living on Tilia spp. (Tiliaceae) are illustrated and supplementary descriptions are provided. Two of them, Eriophyes exilis (Nalepa 1892) and Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa 1918), were recorded both in vein angle galls on leaves of Tilia platyphyllos Scop. and in erinea on leaves of Tilia tomentosa Moench, Tilia americana L. 'Moltkei', Tilia americana var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loudon, Tilia cordata Mill., Tiliajaponica (Miq.) Simonk., Tilia petiolaris DC. and Tilia zamoyskiana Wr6bl. The third species, Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa 1890, was found in nail galls on leaves of T platyphyllos, T americana and T. cordata. All of these Eriophyes species showed noticeable morphological differences between protogyne and deutogyne females in terms of the number of dorsal annuli, location of setae d, length of setae e and 3a, distance between tubercles 3a and the length and pattern of the prodorsal shield. Based on a comparative morphological analysis of this original data with that published by A. Nalepa, new synonyms for the following species are proposed: Erophyes exilis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes leiosoma Nalepa syn. nov.; Eriophyes nervalis (Nalepa) = Eriophyes tiliaceus Nalepa syn. nov., Eriophyes tiliae Nalepa = Eriophyes rudis Nalepa syn. nov. = Eriophyes tomentosae Nalepa syn. nov. A key to all studied Eriophyes species living on lime trees is included. PMID:26213770

  17. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and β-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were α-copaene (28.3%), α-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil. PMID:24712088

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Provides Insight into Stolon Formation in Tulipa edulis.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Zhu, Yunhao; Yang, Xiaohua; Sun, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker is an important medicinal plant with a variety of anti-cancer properties. The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and possesses a unique morphology. To explore the molecular mechanism of stolon formation, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptomes of stolons at three developmental stages. In the present study, 15.49 Gb of raw data were generated and assembled into 74,006 unigenes, and a total of 2,811 simple sequence repeats were detected in T. edulis. Among the three libraries of stolons at different developmental stages, there were 5,119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation. This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis. PMID:27064558

  19. Facial expression recognition in perceptual color space.

    PubMed

    Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation. PMID:22575677

  20. [The variable spectrum of cutaneous Lyme borreliosis. Diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, H

    2012-05-01

    Lyme borreliosis can affect almost all human organs. Erythema migrans is the first and most frequent manifestation in 80-90% of patients in the early stage of localized skin infection. Besides the typical clinical appearance, many atypical variants can be observed. The solitary borrelial lymphocytoma is much less common and occurs mostly in children. Due to improvement in the early recognition of Lyme borreliosis, the diagnosis is made in the disseminated and late stage in only 10-20% of patients. Multiple erythemata migrantia indicating the hematogenous dissemination of B. burgdorferi remain frequently unrecognized. Late stages of infection feature chronic plasma-cell rich cutaneous inflammation and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans in its edematous to atrophic forms. Cultivation or DNA detection of B. burgdorferi in skin biopsies are options to prove unusual skin manifestations. Serological detection of Borrelia-specific IgG- and IgM antibodies should be performed according to the two step protocol with ELISA and immunoassay according to the criteria of the MIQ 12. Serological tests have limited utility for follow-up. Antibiotic therapy is very effective if performed according to evidence-based protocols, such as the AWMF guidelines. PMID:22573314

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Provides Insight into Stolon Formation in Tulipa edulis

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Zaibiao; Guo, Qiaosheng; Zhu, Yunhao; Yang, Xiaohua; Sun, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Tulipa edulis (Miq.) Baker is an important medicinal plant with a variety of anti-cancer properties. The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and possesses a unique morphology. To explore the molecular mechanism of stolon formation, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the transcriptomes of stolons at three developmental stages. In the present study, 15.49 Gb of raw data were generated and assembled into 74,006 unigenes, and a total of 2,811 simple sequence repeats were detected in T. edulis. Among the three libraries of stolons at different developmental stages, there were 5,119 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional annotation analysis based on sequence similarity queries of the GO, COG, KEGG databases showed that these DEGs were mainly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes, such as material and energy metabolism, hormone signaling, cell growth, and transcription regulation. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the DEGs were consistent with the transcriptome data, which further supported a role for the DEGs in stolon formation. This study provides novel resources for future genetic and molecular studies in T. edulis. PMID:27064558

  2. Flavonoids from Artocarpus anisophyllus and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Lathiff, Siti Mariam Abdul; Jemaon, Noraini; Abdullah, Siti Awanis; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur

    2015-03-01

    Two new prenylated flavonoids, 4',5-dihydroxy-6,7-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)-2'-methoxy-8-γ,γ-dimethylallylflavone 1 and 3'-hydroxycycloartocarpin 2 along with six known flavonoids, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-prenylflavanone 3, isobavachalcone 4, pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A 5, artocarpin 6, chaplashin 7 and cycloartocarpin 8 were isolated for the first time from the leaves and the heartwoods of Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq. The structures of isolated flavonoids were elucidated spectroscopically using 1D and 2D NMR, FTIR, MS, UV and also by comparison with literature data. These flavonoids were screened for their antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate crude extracts together with 3'-hydroxycycloartocarpin 2, pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A 5 and artocarpin 6 showed DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity with SC50 values of 80.2, 40.0, 152.9, 20.2 and 140.0 μg/mL in 30 min, respectively. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A 5 exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity against tyrosinase from mushroom with IC50 values of 60.5 μg/mL. PMID:25924513

  3. Ripe fruit of Rubus coreanus inhibits mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Choi, Phil Hyung; Yoo, Jin-Su; Jeon, Hoon; Chae, Byeong-Suk; Park, Jeong-Suk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Tae-Yong

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of a water extract of the ripe fruits of Rubus coreanus Miq. (Rosaceae) (RFRC) on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation and studied the possible mechanism of action. Mast cell-mediated allergic disease is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. RFRC dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and serum histamine release in mice. RFRC reduced the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated local allergic reaction, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. RFRC attenuated histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and human mast cells by the reduction of intracellular calcium. RFRC decreased the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and the calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human mast cells. The inhibitory effect of RFRC on cytokine production was nuclear factor (NF)-κB- and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent. In addition, RFRC suppressed the activation of caspase-1. Our findings provide evidence that RFRC inhibits mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory reactions, and for the involvement of calcium, NF-κB, MAPKs and caspase-1 in these effects. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro anti-allergic inflammatory effects of RFRC provide affirmative proof of a possible therapeutic application of this agent in allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:22075758

  4. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  5. Pharmacokinetic study of isocorynoxeine metabolites mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lizhu; Zang, Bin; Qi, Wen; Chen, Fangfang; Wang, Haibo; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Isocorynoxeine (ICN) is one of the major bioactive tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids found in Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. that is widely used for the treatment of hypertension, vascular dementia, and stroke. The present study was undertaken to assess the plasma pharmacokinetic characteristics of major ICN metabolites, and the role of simulated gastric and intestinal fluid (SGF and SIF), human and rat liver microsomes (HLMs and RLMs), and seven recombinant human CYP enzymes in the major metabolic pathway of ICN. A rapid, sensitive and accurate UHPLC/Q-TOF MS method was validated for the simultaneous determination of ICN and its seven metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of ICN at 40mg/kg. It was found that 18.19-dehydrocorynoxinic acid (DCA) and 5-oxoisocorynoxeinic acid (5-O-ICA) were both key and predominant metabolites, rather than ICN itself, due to the rapid and extensive metabolism of ICN in vivo. The further study indicated that ICN was mainly metabolized in human or rat liver, and CYPs 2C19, 3A4 and 2D6 were the major enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of ICN to DCA and 5-O-ICA in human. These findings are of significance in understanding of the pharmacokinetic nature of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids, and provide helpful information for the clinical co-administration of the herbal preparations containing U. rhynchophylla with antihypertensive drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. PMID:27094112

  6. Corynoxine, a natural autophagy enhancer, promotes the clearance of alpha-synuclein via Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei-Lei; Song, Ju-Xian; Lu, Jia-Hong; Yuan, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Liang-Feng; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Li, Min

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates (namely Lewy bodies) in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is the major component of Lewy bodies in PD patients, and impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal system has been linked to its accumulation. In our previous study, we identified an oxindole alkaloid Corynoxine B (Cory B), isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese), as a Beclin-1-dependent autophagy inducer. In this work, we show that Cory, an enantiomer of Cory B, also induces autophagy in different neuronal cell lines, including N2a and SHSY-5Y cells, which is paralleled with increased lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D. In vivo, Cory promotes the formation of autophagosomes in the fat bodies of Drosophila. By inducing autophagy, Cory promotes the clearance of wild-type and A53T α-syn in inducible PC12 cells. Interestingly, different from its enantiomer Cory B, Cory induces autophagy through the Akt/mTOR pathway as evidenced by the reduction in the levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-p70 S6 Kinase. Collectively, our findings provide experimental evidence for developing Cory as a new autophagy enhancer from Chinese herbal medicine, which may have potential application in the prevention or treatment of PD. PMID:24522518

  7. Analysis of the essential oil of Dipsacus japonicus flowering aerial parts and its insecticidal activity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Jiang, Guo Hua; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Qi Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Dipsacus japonicus Miq. (Dipsacaceae) at the flowering stage was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forty-six compounds, accounting for 96.76% of the total oil, were identified and the main compounds of the essential oil were linalool (11.78%), trans-geraniol (8.58%), 1,8-cineole (7.91%), beta-caryophyllene (5.58%), alpha-terpineol (5.32%), beta-selinene (5.15%), and spathulenol (5.04%). The essential oil of D. japonicus possessed contact toxicity against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 18.32 microg/ adult and 13.45 microg/adult, respectively. The essential oil of D. japonicus also exhibited pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC50 = 10.11 mg/l air) and T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 5.26 mg/l air). Of the three major compounds, 1,8-cineole exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity than the crude essential oil against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 2.96 mg/l air and 4.86 mg/l air, respectively. PMID:23659168

  8. Use of video observation and motor imagery on jumping performance in national rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Claudia; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Piazza, Marina; Tsopani, Despina; Giombini, Arrigo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a mental training protocol could improve gymnastic jumping performance. Seventy-two rhythmic gymnasts were randomly divided into an experimental and control group. At baseline, experimental group completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire Revised (MIQ-R) to assess the gymnast ability to generate movement imagery. A repeated measures design was used to compare two different types of training aimed at improving jumping performance: (a) video observation and PETTLEP mental training associated with physical practice, for the experimental group, and (b) physical practice alone for the control group. Before and after six weeks of training, their jumping performance was measured using the Hopping Test (HT), Drop Jump (DJ), and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ). Results revealed differences between jumping parameters F(1,71)=11.957; p<.01, and between groups F(1,71)=10.620; p<.01. In the experimental group there were significant correlations between imagery ability and the post-training Flight Time of the HT, r(34)=-.295, p<.05 and the DJ, r(34)=-.297, p<.05. The application of the protocol described herein was shown to improve jumping performance, thereby preserving the elite athlete's energy for other tasks. PMID:25457420

  9. Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  10. Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  11. Genetic diversity and origin of Potamogeton anguillanus (Potamogetonaceae) in Lake Biwa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iida, Satoko; Kadono, Yasuro

    2002-02-01

    We analyzed the genetic variation in Potamogeton anguillanus Koidz. and its putative parents, P. malaianus Miq. and P. perfoliatus L., at five allozyme loci of four enzymes to test the hypothesis of a hybrid origin for P. anguillanus, collected in Lake Biwa, Japan. Alleles diagnostic for either P. malaianus or P. perfoliatus were present at four loci. Of 13 single locus phenotypes (SLPs) of P. anguillanus, eight were phenotypes that were expected in F(1) hybrids between P. malaianus and P. perfoliatus. Two SLPs were different from those expected in F(1) hybrids but could have resulted from segregation of parental alleles in later generation hybrids. Each of the remaining three SLPs possessed one allele unique to P. anguillanus. Allozyme analyses thus supported the view that P. anguillanus was derived from hybridization between P. malaianus and P. perfoliatus. It seems likely that the genetic diversity of P. anguillanus found previously originated through multiple hybridizations and sexual processes in P. anguillanus. Other processes such as intragenic recombination, mutation, or hybridization with another lineage are also discussed with reference to the origin of unique alleles. PMID:12884043

  12. Cytotoxicity and antitumoral activity of dichloromethane extract and its fractions from Pothomorphe umbellata.

    PubMed

    Sacoman, J L; Monteiro, K M; Possenti, A; Figueira, G M; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2008-05-01

    The cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane crude extract (DCE), obtained from the aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq (Piperaceae), was evaluated against nine human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-ADR/RES, OVCAR-3, PC-3, HT-29, NCI-H460, 786-O, UACC-62, K-562). The DCE presented antiproliferative activity with good potency against all cell lines at low concentrations (between 4.0 and 9.5 microg/mL) and with selectivity (1.55 microg/mL) for the leukemia cell line (K-652). DCE (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg, ip) was also evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Both the survival number and the life span of the animals that died increased by at least 45 and 50%, respectively (8 animals per group), demonstrating P. umbellata extract potential anticancer activity. The results of the in vivo antitumor activity prompted the fractionation of the crude extract. The crude extract was submitted to dry column chromatography with dichloromethane-methanol (99:1). The column effluent fractions were extracted with methanol, dried under vacuum yielding fractions FR1 (less polar), FR2 (medium polarity), and FR3 (polar), which were analyzed for their growth inhibition or cytotoxic properties by a 48-h sulforhodamine B cell viability assay by measuring the total protein content. FR1 demonstrated high potency and cytotoxicity, a result compatible with the high toxicity of oxalic acid; FR2, containing 4-nerolidylcathecol, presented the lowest cytotoxic activity compared to the other two fractions but with selectivity for prostate cancer cell line; FR3, containing a mixture of steroids described in the literature as possessing various biological activities, also presented potent anticancer in vitro activity. These results suggest that P. umbellata DCE in vivo antitumor activity may be a consequence of the activity of different active principles. PMID:18545814

  13. Antioxidant, inhibition of α-glucosidase and suppression of nitric oxide production in LPS-induced murine macrophages by different fractions of Actinidia arguta stem

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehak; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Mihae; Kim, Jaehun; Kim, Daeho; Kim, Sunpyo; Kim, Gur-Yoo; Kim, Songmun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    In traditional systems of medicine, fruits, leaves, and stems of Actinidia arguta (Sieb. et Zucc.) Planch. ex Miq. have been used to treat various inflammatory diseases. The present study determined the proximate composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic potential of A. arguta stem. Phenolic composition of hot water extract and its sub-fractions was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent method. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Anti-inflammatory activity of different fractions was investigated through the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/ml) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, inhibition of α-glucosidase activity of hot water extract was determined using p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG) as a substrate. Ethyl acetate (557.23 mg GAE/g) fraction contains higher level of total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay showed a strong activity for ethyl acetate (IC50 of 14.28 μg/ml) and n-butanol fractions (IC50 of 48.27 μg/ml). Further, ethyl acetate fraction effectively inhibited NO production in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than other fractions (nitrite level to 32.14 μM at 200 μg/ml). In addition, hot water extract of A. arguta stem exhibited appreciable inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme with IC50 of 1.71 mg/ml. The obtained results have important consequence of using A. arguta stem toward the development of effective anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:25473361

  14. A novel nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum modulates Candida albicans biofilm.

    PubMed

    Curvelo, J A R; Marques, A M; Barreto, A L S; Romanos, M T V; Portela, M B; Kaplan, M A C; Soares, R M A

    2014-05-01

    Candidiasis is a major opportunistic fungal infection in humans, and its incidence has increased steadily over the last two decades. Candida albicans, the main species of the genus, has a large arsenal of virulence attributes that contribute to successful infections, such as dimorphism and biofilm formation. The adverse effects of eukaryotic antimicrobial therapies associated with an increase in resistance to the compounds presently available have boosted efforts to improve the therapeutic arsenal against candidiasis with a newer and cheaper range of drugs. In this study, a novel nerolidol-rich essential oil (EO) derived from Piper claussenianum (Miq.) C. DC., Piperaceae, was tested on the growth, transition (yeast to hyphae), formation and stability of biofilms produced by C. albicans. Both inflorescence and leaf EOs were evaluated and revealed MIC values ranging from 0.04 to 0.1 % and 0.2 to 1.26 %, respectively. Furthermore, leaf EO managed to downregulate the yeast-to-hyphae transition by 81 %, as well as reducing biofilm formation by about 30 and 50 % after incubation for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The EO was also able to reduce the viability of pre-formed biofilm by 63.9 %. Finally, the association between the leaf EO and fluconazole was evaluated and revealed an interesting synergistic effect. Taken together, these results demonstrate that this novel compound could be a promising agent and could reinforce the arsenal of therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of candidiasis. Furthermore, it may represent a novel and natural source of nerolidol, which could be of interest pharmaceutically. PMID:24523158

  15. Contrasting seasonal leaf habits of canopy trees between tropical dry-deciduous and evergreen forests in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsushi; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Ladpala, Phanumard; Staporn, Duriya; Panuthai, Samreong; Gamo, Minoru; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2006-05-01

    We compared differences in leaf properties, leaf gas exchange and photochemical properties between drought-deciduous and evergreen trees in tropical dry forests, where soil nutrients differed but rainfall was similar. Three canopy trees (Shorea siamensis Miq., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob. and Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer) in a drought-deciduous forest and a canopy tree (Hopea ferrea Lanessan) in an evergreen forest were selected. Soil nutrient availability is lower in the evergreen forest than in the deciduous forest. Compared with the evergreen tree, the deciduous trees had shorter leaf life spans, lower leaf masses per area, higher leaf mass-based nitrogen (N) contents, higher leaf mass-based photosynthetic rates (mass-based P(n)), higher leaf N-based P(n), higher daily maximum stomatal conductance (g(s)) and wider conduits in wood xylem. Mass-based P(n) decreased from the wet to the dry season for all species. Following onset of the dry season, daily maximum g(s) and sensitivity of g(s) to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees, whereas both properties decreased in the evergreen tree during the dry season. Photochemical capacity and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II (PSII) also remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees even after the onset of the dry season. In contrast, photochemical capacity decreased and NPQ increased in the evergreen tree during the dry season, indicating that the leaves coped with prolonged drought by down-regulating PSII. Thus, the drought-avoidant deciduous species were characterized by high N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, high water use and photoinhibition avoidance, whereas the drought-tolerant evergreen was characterized by low N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, conservative water use and photoinhibition tolerance. PMID:16452078

  16. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  17. Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

  18. Nerve Regeneration Potential of Protocatechuic Acid in RSC96 Schwann Cells by Induction of Cellular Proliferation and Migration through IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ju, Da-Tong; Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chung, Li-Chin; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-12-31

    Peripheral nerve injuries, caused by accidental trauma, acute compression or surgery, often result in temporary or life-long neuronal dysfunctions and inflict great economic or social burdens on the patients. Nerve cell proliferation is an essential process to restore injured nerves of adults. Schwann cells play a crucial role in endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate, migrate and provide trophic support to axons via expression of various neurotrophic factors, such as the nerve growth factor (NGF), especially after nerve injury. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, isolated from the kernels of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq (AOF), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine the fruits of which are widely used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-salivation and anti-diarrheatic. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms by which PCA induces Schwann cell proliferation by activating IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt pathway. Treatment with PCA induces phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/serine - threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway, and activates expression of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis after 18 h of treatment showed that proliferation of the RSC96 cells was enhanced by PCA treatment. The PCA induced proliferation was accompanied by modulation in the expressions of cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A. Knockdown of PI3K using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and inhibition of IGF-IR receptor resulted in the reduction in cell survival proteins. The results collectively showed that PCA treatment promoted cell proliferation and cell survival via IGF-I signaling. PMID:26717920

  19. Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of isoquinoline alkaloids from three Cryptocarya species (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Wan Othman, Wan Nurul Nazneem; Liew, Sook Yee; Khaw, Kooi Yeong; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-09-15

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia among older adults. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are two enzymes involved in the breaking down of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Inhibitors for these enzymes have potential to prolong the availability of acetylcholine. Hence, the search for such inhibitors especially from natural products is needed in developing potential drugs for Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigates the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of compounds isolated from three Cryptocarya species towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Nine alkaloids were isolated; (+)-nornantenine 1, (-)-desmethylsecoantofine 2, (+)-oridine 3, (+)-laurotetanine 4 from the leaves of Cryptocarya densiflora BI., atherosperminine 5, (+)-N-methylisococlaurine 6, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine 7 from the bark of Cryptocarya infectoria Miq., 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 and (+)-reticuline 9 from the bark of Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight. In general, most of the alkaloids showed higher inhibition towards BChE as compared to AChE. The phenanthrene type alkaloid; 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8, exhibited the most potent inhibition against BChE with IC50 value of 3.95μM. Analysis of the Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plot of BChE activity over a range of substrate concentration suggested that 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 exhibited mixed-mode inhibition with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.72μM. Molecular docking studies revealed that 2-methoxyatherosperminine 8 docked well at the choline binding site and catalytic triad of hBChE (butyrylcholinesterase from Homo sapiens); hydrogen bonding with Tyr 128 and His 438 residues respectively. PMID:27492195

  20. Protocatechuic Acid from Alpinia oxyphylla Induces Schwann Cell Migration via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 Activation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Da-Tong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Paul, Catherine Reena; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Chien-Chung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chang, Yung-Ming; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ (Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus, AOF) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb whose fruits is widely used to prepare tonics and is used as an aphrodisiac, anti salivary, anti diuretic and nerve-protective agent. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound was isolated from the kernels of AOF. This study investigated the role of PCA in promoting neural regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nerve regeneration is a complex physiological response that takes place after injury. Schwann cells play a crucial role in the endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate and migrate. The role of PCA in Schwann cell migration was determined by assessing the induced migration potential of RSC96 Schwann cells. PCA induced changes in the expression of proteins of three MAPK pathways, as determined using Western blot analysis. In order to determine the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) pathways in PCA-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production, the expression of several MAPK-associated proteins was analyzed after siRNA-mediated inhibition assays. Treatment with PCA-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation that activated the downstream expression of PAs and MMPs. PCA-stimulated ERK1/2, JNK and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by individual pretreatment with siRNAs or MAPK inhibitors (U0126, SP600125, and SB203580), resulting in the inhibition of migration and the uPA-related signal pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that PCA extract regulate the MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38)/PA (uPA, tPA)/MMP (MMP2, MMP9) mediated regeneration and migration signaling pathways in Schwann cells. Therefore, PCA plays a major role in Schwann cell migration and the regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve. PMID:26119854

  1. Analysis of nine compounds from Alpinia oxyphylla fruit at different harvest time using UFLC-MS/MS and an extraction method optimized by orthogonal design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The dried fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq have been widely used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of diarrhea and enuresis in China. Medicinal chemistry studies revealed that the tepenes, diphenylheptanes and flavones were the main components. Therefore, these three kinds of components should be chosen as the bioactive marker compounds for the quality control of A. oxyphylla fruits. Moreover, multiple active components has been widely recognized to be a more feasible method for the quality control of herbal medicines. This study firstly provided a better method for comprehensive component analysis of A. oxyphylla fruits. Meanwhile, the different harvest time was also evaluated. Results The solvent-to-sample ratio was the most important factor comparing with solvent, extraction time and temperature. The highest yield of nine compounds was achieved with 70% ethanol-water and a solvent-to-sample ratio of 20:1 at 60°C for 30 min. The optimized analytical method for ultra fast high performance liquid chromatography (UFLC) was a gradient elution using water containing 0.04‰ formic acid (A) and methanol containing 0.04‰ formic acid (B), at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Using this optimized method, nine compounds were simultaneously separated and quantified by UFLC coupled with tandem electro-spray ionized mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Conclusions The contents of the six bioactive compounds were reported in A. oxyphylla for the first time. The contents of nine compounds of different harvest time fruits of A. oxyphylla were assessed under the optimized extraction and UFLC-MS/MS analytical conditions, and the 45-day culture fruit had the highest content levels. PMID:23915886

  2. Eriophyoid mites from Northeast China (Acari: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    We describe and illustrate herein one new genus and eighteen new eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) collected in northeast China. They are: Shevtchenkella huzhongiensis sp. nov. on Ulmus davidiana Planch. var. japonica (Sarg. ex Rehder) Nakai (Ulmaceae), Shevtchenkella jingboicus sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Calepitrimerus flexuosus sp. nov. on Spiraea flexuosa Fisch. ex Cambess. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus maximowiczii sp. nov. on Crataegus maximowiczii Schneid. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus pilosus sp. nov. on Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus yichunensis sp. nov. on Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A.Br. (Rosaceae), Cupacarus oxyphyllus sp. nov. on Euonymus oxyphyllus Miq. (Cel-astraceae), Epitrimerus sambucus sp. nov. on Sambucus williamsii Hance (Caprifoliaceae), Epitrimerus wuyingensis sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Longisolenidionus amurensis gen. nov & sp. nov. on Tilia amurensis Rupr. (Tiliaceae), Phyllocoptes jiagedaqiensis sp. nov. on Cunninghamia sp. (Taxodiaceae), Aculops huzhongensis sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Sali-caceae), Aculus huzhongsalixus sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Salicaceae), Tetra angelica sp. nov. on Angelica sp. (Apiaceae), Tetra jiagedaqia sp. nov. on Lespedeza sp. (Fabaceae), Vittacus mandshurica sp. nov. on Corylus sieboldiana Blume var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid. (Betulaceae), Vittacus cannabus sp. nov. on Cannabis sativa L. (Moraceae), and Peralox dentatis sp. nov. on Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae). Two species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. abiesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) and R. fabris (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) were reassigned to Nalepella, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, and other characteristics of Nalepella. One species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. fargesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) was reassigned to Pentaporca, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, opisthosoma with five ridges and other characteristics of Pentaporca. At the same time, four new eriophyoid