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Sample records for outcome measure results

  1. Outcome-Based Vocational Rehabilitation: Measuring Valuable Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This case study illustrates one of the many possible ways to implement Kaufman's Organizational Elements Model (1992, 2000) for identifying and aligning organizational results and the means to achieve them. The model was applied in the context of a needs assessment effort between the Florida State University's Office for Needs Assessment &…

  2. Action Research: Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes. Results of the Final Phase (2011-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolly, Madina; Jonas, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Action Research on Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes (RAMAA) aims to develop, implement and collaborate on the creation of a methodological approach to measure acquired learning and study the various factors that influence its development. This report examines how RAMAA I has been implemented over the past four years in


  3. Validating the Measurement of Real-World Functional Outcomes: Phase I Results of the VALERO Study

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Philip D.; Raykov, Tenko; Twamley, Elizabeth; Vella, Lea; Heaton, Robert K.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cognitive deficits are associated with disability in people with schizophrenia so treatment of cognitive impairment has been proposed as an intervention to reduce disability. However, studies relying on patient self-report have found very minimal relationships between ratings of real-world functioning and cognitive performance, raising questions about the measurement of real-world functioning as a treatment outcome. The Validation of Everyday Real-world Outcomes (VALERO) study was conducted to evaluate functional rating scales and to identify the rating scale or scales most robustly related to performance-based measures of cognition and everyday living skills. Method 198 adults with schizophrenia were tested with the neurocognitive measures from the MATRICS Consensus cognitive Battery and performed the UCSD performance-based skills assessment-Brief and advanced finances subtest from the Everyday Functioning Battery. They and a friend, relative, clinician, or case manager also reported their everyday functioning on 6 ratings scales: Social Behavior Schedule, Social Adjustment Scale, Heinrichs Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, Specific Levels of Functioning, Independent Living skills Survey, and Life Skills Profile. Best judgment ratings were generated by an interviewer who administered the rating scales to patients and informants. Results Statistical analyses developed an ability latent trait that reflected scores on the three performance-based (i.e., ability) measures and canonical correlation analysis related interviewer ratings to the latent trait. The overall fit of the model with all six rating scales was good: ?2 = 78.100, df = 56, p = .027, and RMSEA = .078. Individual rating scales that did not improve the fit of the model were systematically deleted and a final model with two rating scales fit the data: ?2 = 32.059, df = 24, p = .126, RMSEA = .072. A regression analysis found that the Specific Levels of Functioning was a superior predictor of the three-performance based ability measures. Conclusions We found that systematic assessments of real world functioning are related to performance on neurocognitive and functional capacity measures. Of the six rating scales evaluated, the Specific Levels of Functioning (SLOF) was best in this study. Use of a single rating scale provides a very efficient assessment of real-world functioning that accounts for considerable variance in performance-based scores. PMID:21572166

  4. Are children improving? Results from outcome measurement in a large mental health system.

    PubMed

    Trask, Emily V; Garland, Ann F

    2012-05-01

    Standardized outcome assessment was implemented in a large county mental health system. This study examines changes in children's emotional and behavioral problems after 6 months of treatment and identifies factors associated with treatment improvement. Results from 3,215 youth indicated that externalizing and internalizing problems significantly decreased from intake to 6 months and that ethnicity, gender, and age were associated with caregiver-reported changes in symptomatology. While there was improvement associated with entry into treatment, the magnitude of symptom reduction was small to medium and not associated with amount of care, providing only limited support for the impact of routine out-patient care. PMID:21528436

  5. Measuring Wheelchair Intervention Outcomes: Development of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, William B; Miller, William C; Miller-Pogar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Provision of a wheelchair has immediate intuitive benefits; however, it can be difficult to evaluate which wheelchair and seating components best meet an individual’s needs. As well, funding agencies now prefer evidence of outcomes; and therefore measurement upon prescription of a wheelchair or its components is essential to demonstrate the efficacy of intervention. As no existing tool can provide individualized goal-oriented measure of outcome after wheelchair prescription, a research project was undertaken to create the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM). Method A mixed method research design was employed to develop the instrument, which used in-depth interviews of prescribers, individuals who use wheelchairs and their associates, supplemented by additional questions in which participant preferences in key areas of the measure were quantified. Results The WhOM is a client-specific wheelchair intervention measurement tool that is based on the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Function, Disability, and Health. It identifies desired outcomes at a participation level and also acknowledges concerns about body structure and function. Conclusion The new outcome instrument will allow clients to identify and evaluate the outcomes they wish to achieve with their wheelchairs and seating and provide clinicians a way to quantify outcomes of their interventions in a way that is meaningful to the client and potential funding sources. PMID:19263533

  6. Lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, including selective clinical outcome measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With an aging society and raised expectations, joint replacement surgery is likely to increase significantly in the future. The development of postoperative complications following joint replacement surgery (for example, infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and deep vein thrombosis) is also likely to increase. Despite considerable progress in orthopaedic surgery, comparing a range of biological markers with the ultimate aim of monitoring or predicting postoperative complications has not yet been extensively researched. The aim of this clinical pilot study was to test the hypothesis that lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation, non-specific markers of inflammation (primary objective) and selective clinical outcome measures (secondary objective). Methods Test subjects were scheduled for elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) orthopaedic surgery due to osteoarthritis (n = 10). Platelet counts and D-dimer concentrations were measured to assess any changes to coagulation function. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured as markers of non-specific inflammation. Patients were monitored regularly to assess for any signs of postoperative complications, including blood transfusions, oedema (knee swelling), wound infection, pain and fever. Results THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery resulted in similar changes of coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, suggestive of increased coagulation and inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in an increase in platelet (P = 0.013, THR) and D-dimer (P = 0.009, TKR) concentrations. Evidence of increased inflammation was demonstrated by an increase in CRP and ESR (P ≀ 0.05, THR and TKR). Four patients received blood transfusions (two THR and two TKR patients), with maximal oedema, pain and aural temperatures peaking between days 1 and 3 postoperatively, for both THR and TKR surgery. None of the patients developed postoperative infections. Conclusions The most noticeable changes in biological markers occur during days 1 to 3 postoperatively for both THR and TKR surgery, and these may have an effect on such postoperative clinical outcomes as oedema, pyrexia and pain. This study may assist in understanding the postoperative course following lower limb orthopaedic surgery, and may help clinicians in planning postoperative management and patient care. PMID:24206644

  7. Measures for improving treatment outcomes for patients with epilepsy--results from a large multinational patient-physician survey.

    PubMed

    Groenewegen, André; Tofighy, Azita; Ryvlin, Philippe; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Dedeken, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In this large-scale, multinational, descriptive survey, we sought to identify measures for improving treatment outcomes for individuals with epilepsy. As a framework, questions relating specifically to each of the five steps of the 'patient-physician journey', namely, patient identification (omitted in this survey), diagnosis, choice of drug, disease and drug information, and patient monitoring were asked. Overall, 337 physicians and 1150 patients across France, Germany, and the United States returned questionnaires. Results indicated that 16% of the patients were initially misdiagnosed. Treatment choice was driven by efficacy, safety, experience with a drug (physician only), and convenience (patient only). Physicians were identified as the primary source of information for patients, and, as expected, better informed patients were found to adhere better to their therapy than those who were less well informed. Approximately 50% of the patients had not seen their specialist in the last year, which indicates poor follow-up; furthermore, important topics such as seizures, treatment, and its side effects were not discussed at every visit. Specialists, but not primary care practitioners (PCPs), consistently reported discussing all topics more frequently than their patients, suggesting that specialists may overestimate the clarity of their questions. There was also substantial disparity in the reasons cited for nonadherence - patients overwhelmingly cited forgetfulness, while both PCPs and specialists cited complacency, forgetfulness, and tolerability. We also noted a disparity between physicians and their patients, as well as between PCPs and specialists, in their views on the impact of epilepsy on patients' lives. Our results indicate multiple opportunities to intervene at all stages of the patient-physician journey to improve treatment outcomes. We provide practical suggestions to achieve the most from these opportunities. PMID:24704566

  8. A novel simple measure correlates to the outcome in 57 patients with intracerebellar hematomas. Results of a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doukas, Alexandros; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Barth, Harald; Hedderich, Jürgen; Petridis, Athanasios K.; Mehdorn, H. Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of intracerebellar hemorrhages approaches 5–10% of all intracerebral hematomas. The clinical presentation varies from headaches and dizziness to rapid deterioration of consciousness to the point of coma in severe cases. In order to find some concrete criteria that could influence the prognosis of these patients, we performed this retrospective study. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the factors influencing the outcome of 57 patients with intracerebellar hematomas treated in our clinic in the last 7 years. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission, as well as other parameters as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, presence of malign tumors in the medical history, or the intake of anticoagulants were assessed as independent factors influencing the outcome of the patients. On the other hand, various computed tomography parameters on admission were also correlated with the clinical outcome such as, tight posterior fossa (TPF), volume of the hematoma, hydrocephalus, compression of the fourth ventricle, intraventricular bleeding, as well as the ratio of the maximal width of the hematoma in comparison to the width of the PF were taken into consideration. Results: The results of the study showed that patients with poor GCS on admission had also a poor Glasgow Outcome Score. Interestingly there was a statistically significant correlation between the maximal width of the hematoma in comparison to the width of the PF and the outcome of the patients. It could be also shown that the patients with intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, compression of the fourth ventricle over 50% of its maximal width and TPF, had a poor clinical outcome. Moreover, there was a statistically significant correlation of the volume of the hematoma and a poor clinical outcome. Conclusions: We introduced as a new factor that is, the cerebellar hemorrhage/PF ratio and found out that the value >35% was associated to an unfavorable outcome. PMID:26673852

  9. Measuring fall program outcomes.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Pat; Neily, Julia; Watson, Mary; Wright, Marilyn; Strobe, Karen

    2007-05-01

    Nurses help to ensure patient safety, which includes preventing falls and fall related injuries. The aging Veteran population, like the general population, is at risk for falls and fall related injuries whether at home, in hospitals or in long term care facilities. Nurses are leading practice innovations to systematically assess patients' risk for falls and implement population based prevention interventions. To determine the effectiveness of programs, data can be analyzed using a variety of statistical measures to determine program impacts. Thus, data analysis of fall rates by type of fall and severity of fall related injury can help facilities examine the effectiveness of their interventions and program outcomes. Examples of actual fall prevention programs and their approaches to measurement are showcased in this article. PMID:21848355

  10. Reliability of instrumented movement analysis as outcome measure in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: Results from a multitask locomotor protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarin, M.; Bovi, G.; Rabuffetti, M.; Mazzoleni, P.; Montesano, A.; Moroni, I.; Pagliano, E.; Marchi, A.; Marchesi, C.; Beghi, E.; Pareyson, D.

    2011-01-01

    Some neurodegenerative diseases at early stage may not drastically affect basic gait ability, whereas more demanding locomotor tasks are more prone to disease-induced abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the interday test–retest reliability, 4–6 weeks apart, of instrumented movement analysis on a group of 20 subjects with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease considering a set of kinematic and kinetic curves and related parameters obtained during natural walking (NW) and faster walking, heel and toe-walking, step ascending and descending. Results showed that the reliability was good for NW, with the exception of trunk curves, pelvic tilt and EMG profiles (moderate reliability), and trunk ROM in sagittal/transverse plane (poor reliability). Comparing our results with literature, CMT patients did not present a greater variability during NW than healthy subjects or patients with diseases of CNS. Additional locomotor tasks showed a slight reduction of reliability, although the moderate-to-good level shown in NW was almost never reduced to poor. Most of SEM values (absolute measurement errors) were smaller than 5°, a clinically acceptable threshold. In particular THS, an ankle joint related parameter computed across heel and toe-walking tasks, showed an optimal reliability (ICC = 0.95, SEM = 2.7°) and correlation with CMT clinical scores. Toe and heel-walking and step ascending tasks maximised the number of parameters with a moderate-to-good correlation with patients’ clinical status. We concluded that, in addition to natural walking, more challenging locomotor tasks are good candidates to provide reliable and sensitive outcome measures for CMT patients. PMID:21511477

  11. Outcome measurement in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark; Baxendine, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides a detailed description and critique of the development of routine outcome measurement (ROM) within New Zealand's mental health and addiction services. The paper will include a brief description of the New Zealand setting and the events that led to routine outcome measures, demographic and diagnostic characteristics of the population in New Zealand, characteristics of the New Zealand mental health and addictions services, a description of the outcome measures and rationale for their selection, the information collection protocol for the outcome measures, outcome data completion rates and aggregated outcome reporting uses, barriers and facilitators to the adoption of routine outcome measures in New Zealand, and current status and next steps. PMID:25832565

  12. Finding the Data: A Start-Up List of Outcome Measures with Annotations. A Companion Document to "The Case for Shifting to Results-Based Accountability."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett; Weitz, Judith

    Shifting to results-based accountability is a difficult stage in reforming family and children's services. Heretofore, these services have been more concerned with the number of clients seen or papers processed than in their clients' quality of life. This document should help communities find the data they need to measure qualitative outcomes. It…

  13. Evaluating more naturalistic outcome measures

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley; White, Charles C.; Giovannoni, Gavin; Glanz, Bonnie; Golubchikov, Victor; Hujol, Johnny; Jennings, Charles; Langdon, Dawn; Lee, Michelle; Legedza, Anna; Paskavitz, James; Prasad, Sashank; Richert, John; Robbins, Allison; Roberts, Susan; Weiner, Howard; Ramachandran, Ravi; Botfield, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this cohort of individuals with and without multiple sclerosis (MS), we illustrate some of the novel approaches that smartphones provide to monitor patients with chronic neurologic disorders in their natural setting. Methods: Thirty-eight participant pairs (MS and cohabitant) aged 18–55 years participated in the study. Each participant received an Android HTC Sensation 4G smartphone containing a custom application suite of 19 tests capturing participant performance and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Over 1 year, participants were prompted daily to complete one assigned test. Results: A total of 22 patients with MS and 17 cohabitants completed the entire study. Among patients with MS, low scores on PROs relating to mental and visual function were associated with dropout (p < 0.05). We illustrate several novel features of a smartphone platform. First, fluctuations in MS outcomes (e.g., fatigue) were assessed against an individual's ambient environment by linking responses to meteorological data. Second, both response accuracy and speed for the Ishihara color vision test were captured, highlighting the benefits of both active and passive data collection. Third, a new trait, a person-specific learning curve in neuropsychological testing, was identified using spline analysis. Finally, averaging repeated measures over the study yielded the most robust correlation matrix of the different outcome measures. Conclusions: We report the feasibility of, and barriers to, deploying a smartphone platform to gather useful passive and active performance data at high frequency in an unstructured manner in the field. A smartphone platform may therefore enable large-scale naturalistic studies of patients with MS or other neurologic diseases. PMID:26516627

  14. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  15. The effectiveness of providing peer benchmarked feedback to hip replacement surgeons based on patient-reported outcome measures—results from the PROFILE (Patient-Reported Outcomes: Feedback Interpretation and Learning Experiment) trial: a cluster randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Maria B; Browne, John P

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether providing surgeons with peer benchmarked feedback about patient-reported outcomes is effective in improving patient outcomes. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary care—Ireland. Participants Surgeons were recruited through the Irish Institute of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, and patients were recruited in hospitals prior to surgery. We randomly allocated 21 surgeons and 550 patients. Intervention Surgeons in the intervention group received peer benchmarked patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) feedback and education. Main outcome variable Postoperative Oxford Hip Score (OHS). Results Primary outcome data were available for 11 intervention surgeons with responsibility for 230 patients and 10 control surgeons with responsibility for 228 patients. The mean postoperative OHS for the intervention group was 40.8 (95% CI 39.8 to 41.7) and for the control group was 41.9 (95% CI 41.1 to 42.7). The adjusted effect estimate was ?1.1 (95% CI ?2.4 to 0.2, p=0.09). Secondary outcomes were the Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), EQ-5D and the proportion of patients reporting a problem after surgery. The mean postoperative HOOS for the intervention group was 36.2 and for the control group was 37.1. The adjusted effect estimate was ?1.1 (95% CI ?2.4 to 0.3, p=0.1). The mean postoperative EQ-5D for the intervention group was 0.85 and for the control group was 0.87. The adjusted effect estimate was ?0.02 (95% CI ?0.05 to 0.008, p=0.2). 27% of intervention patients and 24% of control patients reported at least one complication after surgery (adjusted OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.3, p=0.6). Conclusions Outcomes for patients operated on by surgeons who had received peer benchmarked PROMs data were not statistically different from the outcomes of patients operated on by surgeons who did not receive feedback. PROMs information alone seems to be insufficient to identify opportunities for quality improvement. Trial registration number ISRCTN 69032522. PMID:26231755

  16. Routine outcome measurement in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Philip; Pirkis, Jane; Coombs, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Australia has been implementing routine outcome measurement in its specialized public sector mental health services for over a decade. It uses a range of clinician-rated and consumer-rated measures that are administered at set times during episodes of inpatient, ambulatory and community residential episodes of care. Routine outcome measurement is now embedded in service delivery, and data are made available in a variety of ways to different audiences. These data are used by policy-makers and planners to inform decisions about system-wide reforms, by service managers to monitor quality and effectiveness, and by clinicians to guide clinical decision-making and to promote dialogue with consumers. Consumers, carers and the general community can use these data to ensure that services are accountable for the care they deliver. This paper describes the status quo in Australia with respect to routine outcome measurement, discusses the factors that led to its successful implementation, and considers the steps that are necessary for its continued development. PMID:25768326

  17. Results of a two-year pilot study of clinical outcome measures in collagen VI- and laminin alpha2-related congenital muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Meilleur, Katherine G; Jain, Minal S; Hynan, Linda S; Shieh, Ching-Yi; Kim, Eunice; Waite, Melissa; McGuire, Michelle; Fiorini, Courtney; Glanzman, Allan M; Main, Marion; Rose, Kristy; Duong, Tina; Bendixen, Roxanna; Linton, Melody M; Arveson, Irene C; Nichols, Carmel; Yang, Kelly; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Wagner, Kathryn R; North, Kathryn; Mankodi, Ami; Grunseich, Christopher; Hartnett, Elizabeth J; Smith, Michaele; Donkervoort, Sandra; Schindler, Alice; Kokkinis, Angela; Leach, Meganne; Foley, A Reghan; Collins, James; Muntoni, Francesco; Rutkowski, Anne; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2015-01-01

    Potential therapies are currently under development for two congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) subtypes: collagen VI-related muscular dystrophy (COL6-RD) and laminin alpha 2-related dystrophy (LAMA2-RD). However, appropriate clinical outcome measures to be used in clinical trials have not been validated in CMDs. We conducted a two-year pilot study to evaluate feasibility, reliability, and validity of various outcome measures, particularly the Motor Function Measure 32, in 33 subjects with COL6-RD and LAMA2-RD. In the first year, outcome measures tested included: Motor Function Measure 32 (MFM32), forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted sitting, myometry, goniometry, 10-meter walk, Egen Klassification 2, and PedsQL(TM) Generic and Neuromuscular Cores. In the second year, we added the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA), Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS), timed functional tests, Measure of Activity Limitations (ACTIVLIM), Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST), and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue subscale. The MFM32 showed strong inter-rater (0.92) and internal consistency (0.96) reliabilities. Concurrent validity for the MFM32 was supported by large correlations (range 0.623-0.936) with the following: FVC, NSAA, HFMS, timed functional tests, ACTIVLIM, and QUEST. Significant correlations of the MFM32 were also found with select myometry measurements, mainly of the proximal extremities and domains of the PedsQL(TM) scales focusing on physical health and neuromuscular disease. Goniometry measurements were less reliable. The Motor Function Measure is reliable and valid in the two specific subtypes of CMD evaluated, COL6-RD and LAMA2-RD. The NSAA is useful as a complementary outcome measure in ambulatory individuals. Preliminary concurrent validity of several other clinical outcome measures was also demonstrated for these subtypes. PMID:25307854

  18. Routine outcome measures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Puschner, Bernd; Becker, Thomas; Bauer, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    The German healthcare system offers comprehensive coverage for people with mental illness including inpatient, day hospital and outpatient services. These services are primarily financed through the statutory health and pension insurances. According to legal regulations, providers are required to base their services on current scientific evidence and to continuously assure the quality of their services. This paper gives an overview of recent initiatives to develop, evaluate and disseminate routine outcome measurement (ROM) in service settings in Germany. A large number of projects have shown outcome monitoring to be feasible, and that feedback of outcome may enhance routine care through an improved allocation of treatment resources. However, none of these initiatives have been integrated into routine care on a nationwide or trans-sectoral level, and their sustainability has been limited. This is due to various barriers in a fragmented mental health service system and to the lack of coordinated national or state-level service planning. The time is ripe for a concerted effort including policy-makers to pick up on these initiatives and move them towards wide-spread implementation in routine care accompanied by practice-oriented research including service user involvement. PMID:25800080

  19. Quality Markers in Cardiology. Main Markers to Measure Quality of Results (Outcomes) and Quality Measures Related to Better Results in Clinical Practice (Performance Metrics). INCARDIO (Indicadores de Calidad en Unidades Asistenciales del Área del Corazón): A SEC/SECTCV Consensus Position Paper.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón, José; Gonzålez-Juanatey, José Ramón; Pinto, Fausto; Cuenca Castillo, José; Badimón, Lina; Dalmau, Regina; Gonzålez Torrecilla, Esteban; López-Mínguez, José Ramón; Maceira, Alicia M; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Pomar Moya-Prats, José Luis; Sionis, Alessandro; Zamorano, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Cardiology practice requires complex organization that impacts overall outcomes and may differ substantially among hospitals and communities. The aim of this consensus document is to define quality markers in cardiology, including markers to measure the quality of results (outcomes metrics) and quality measures related to better results in clinical practice (performance metrics). The document is mainly intended for the Spanish health care system and may serve as a basis for similar documents in other countries. PMID:26315766

  20. Measuring Assistive Technology Outcomes in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edyburn, Dave

    2003-01-01

    This column examines issues associated with measuring assistive technology outcomes in writing. Following an introduction to assistive technology and writing, it looks specifically at design, measurement, analysis, and decision making factors in the process of creating an outcomes system for measuring the impact of assistive technology on writing.…

  1. Latest CMB Measurement Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James

    2014-01-01

    We have allocated time in this special session to capture the latest developments in balloon-borne and ground-based CMB measurements. The speaker for this oral presentation will be chosen at a later date in order to best highlight emerging results. This session also includes presentations from current CMB experiments in a parallel poster session. Time-permitting, the latest community plans for future CMB measurement facilities may also be discussed.

  2. Learning Outcomes across Disciplines and Professions: Measurement and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspersen, Joakim; Frűlich, Nicoline; Karlsen, Hilde; Aamodt, Per Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Learning outcomes of higher education are a quality tool in a changing higher education landscape but cannot be seen as neutral measures across professions and disciplines. Survey results from graduates and recent graduates indicate that prevailing measures of learning outcomes yield the same result within and across disciplinary and professional…

  3. Outcome Measurement of Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Lien, Chi-Shun; Chieh-Lung Chou, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common disease. The diagnosis of OAB is based on its symptoms without physiological markers of disease activity. Frequently used assessment methods for OAB include frequency volume chart; urodynamic studies; patient-reported outcomes questionnaires, such as the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire, King's Health Questionnaire, patient perception of bladder conditions; and OAB symptom score. The severity of OAB and degree of improvement after treatment can be obtained by comprehensive evaluation. However, a consensus of which evaluations should be used to define the severity of OAB is still lacking. We expect a proper OAB assessment with universal acceptance in the future. PMID:26676702

  4. Cancer Outcomes Measurement Working Group (COMWG)

    Cancer.gov

    The importance of outcomes assessment is increasingly recognized by multiple agencies involved in cancer research. To address the diverse needs of users, it is critical to assess the state of the science of outcomes measurement and identify priorities for future research and practice.

  5. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  6. Standardized Outcome Measurement for Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Consensus From the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM)

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert L; Spatz, Erica S; Kelley, Thomas A; Stowell, Caleb J; Beltrame, John; Heidenreich, Paul; Tresserras, Ricard; Jernberg, Tomas; Chua, Terrance; Morgan, Louise; Panigrahi, Bishnu; Rosas Ruiz, Alba; Rumsfeld, John S; Sadwin, Lawrence; Schoeberl, Mark; Shahian, David; Weston, Clive; Yeh, Robert; Lewin, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) outcomes consistently improve when they are routinely measured and provided back to physicians and hospitals. However, few centers around the world systematically track outcomes, and no global standards exist. Furthermore, patient-centered outcomes and longitudinal outcomes are under-represented in current assessments. Methods and Results The nonprofit International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) convened an international Working Group to define a consensus standard set of outcome measures and risk factors for tracking, comparing, and improving the outcomes of CAD care. Members were drawn from 4 continents and 6 countries. Using a modified Delphi method, the ICHOM Working Group defined who should be tracked, what should be measured, and when such measurements should be performed. The ICHOM CAD consensus measures were designed to be relevant for all patients diagnosed with CAD, including those with acute myocardial infarction, angina, and asymptomatic CAD. Thirteen specific outcomes were chosen, including acute complications occurring within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, or percutaneous coronary intervention; and longitudinal outcomes for up to 5 years for patient-reported health status (Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ-7], elements of Rose Dyspnea Score, and Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-2]), cardiovascular hospital admissions, cardiovascular procedures, renal failure, and mortality. Baseline demographic, cardiovascular disease, and comorbidity information is included to improve the interpretability of comparisons. Conclusions ICHOM recommends that this set of outcomes and other patient information be measured for all patients with CAD. PMID:25991011

  7. Challenges in Measuring Outcomes Following Digital Replantation

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    In the early period of replantation surgery, the emphasis was on digit survival. Subsequently, with better microsurgical techniques and instrumentation, the focus has shifted to function and in recent years to consideration of cost-effectiveness. Despite over 40 years of effort in refining digital replantation surgery, a rigorous evaluation of the outcomes of digital replantation has not been performed. This is because of the many confounding variables that influence outcome comparisons. These variables include the mechanism of injury (guillotine, crush, avulsion), the injury itself (total, near total, subtotal, partial amputation), and the surgical procedure (replantation, revascularization). In addition, the traditional outcome measures (two-point discrimination, range of motion, grip strength, or the ability to return to work) are reported inconsistently and vary widely among publications. All these factors make meaningful comparison of outcomes difficult. The recent emphasis on outcome research and cost-effectiveness necessitates a rethinking in the way we report outcomes of digital replantation. In this article, the authors summarize the challenges in assessing outcomes of digital replantation and explain the need to measure outcomes using rigorous clinical research designs that incorporate cost-effectiveness studies in the research protocol. PMID:24872766

  8. The Measurement of Human Relations Training Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezoff, Bob

    Various outcomes for individuals that result from human relations training are surveyed. Desirable individual outcomes cited by laboratory educators include: (1) sensitivity; (2) managing feelings; (3) managing motivations; (4) functional attitudes toward self; (5) functional attitudes toward others; and (6) interdependent behavior (Gibb 1971).…

  9. Patient reported outcome measures in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    Many interventions for neurogenic bladder patients are directed towards improving quality of life (QOL). Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are the primary method of evaluating QOL, and they provide an important quantification of symptoms which can’t be measured objectively. Our goal was to review general measurement principles, and identify and discuss PROMs relevant to neurogenic bladder patients. We identify two recent reviews of the state of the literature and updated the results with an additional Medline search up to September 1, 2015. Using the previous identified reviews, and our updated literature review, we identified 16 PROMs which are used for the assessment of QOL and symptoms in neurogenic bladder patients. Several are specifically designed for neurogenic bladder patients, such as the Qualiveen (for neurogenic bladder related QOL), and the Neurogenic Bladder Symptom Score (NBSS) (for neurogenic bladder symptoms). We also highlight general QOL measures for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI) which include questions about bladder symptoms, and incontinence PROMs which are commonly used, but not specifically designed for neurogenic bladder patients. It is essential for clinicians and researchers with an interest in neurogenic bladder to be aware of the current PROMs, and to have a basic understanding of the principals of measurement in order to select the most appropriate one for their purpose. PMID:26904409

  10. Patient reported outcome measures in neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Clark, Roderick; Welk, Blayne

    2016-02-01

    Many interventions for neurogenic bladder patients are directed towards improving quality of life (QOL). Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are the primary method of evaluating QOL, and they provide an important quantification of symptoms which can't be measured objectively. Our goal was to review general measurement principles, and identify and discuss PROMs relevant to neurogenic bladder patients. We identify two recent reviews of the state of the literature and updated the results with an additional Medline search up to September 1, 2015. Using the previous identified reviews, and our updated literature review, we identified 16 PROMs which are used for the assessment of QOL and symptoms in neurogenic bladder patients. Several are specifically designed for neurogenic bladder patients, such as the Qualiveen (for neurogenic bladder related QOL), and the Neurogenic Bladder Symptom Score (NBSS) (for neurogenic bladder symptoms). We also highlight general QOL measures for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI) which include questions about bladder symptoms, and incontinence PROMs which are commonly used, but not specifically designed for neurogenic bladder patients. It is essential for clinicians and researchers with an interest in neurogenic bladder to be aware of the current PROMs, and to have a basic understanding of the principals of measurement in order to select the most appropriate one for their purpose. PMID:26904409

  11. Review Committee on Outcomes: Survey Results, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, Alberta Education (previously Alberta Learning) appointed the Review Committee on Outcomes (RCO) to consult with Albertans to find out what they expected from the K-12 education system and how these expectations are being met. This report presents the main findings of the 2008 Satisfaction with Education in Alberta Surveys…

  12. Rectenna array measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-12-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining are demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array are demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  13. Reference Undulator Measurement Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; ,

    2011-08-18

    The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

  14. General Outcome Measures for Verbal Operants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Wolfe, Pamela; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    A general outcome measure (GOM) can be used to show progress towards a long-term goal. GOMs should sample domains of behavior across ages, be sensitive to change over time, be inexpensive and easy to use, and facilitate decision making. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior may benefit from the development of GOM. To develop GOM, we…

  15. The Development of NOAA Education Common Outcome Performance Measures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Council has embarked on an ambitious Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) project that will allow it to assess education program outcomes and impacts across the agency, line offices, and programs. The purpose of this internal effort is to link outcome measures to program efforts and to evaluate the success of the agency's education programs in meeting the strategic goals. Using an outcome-based evaluation approach, the NOAA Education Council is developing two sets of common outcome performance measures, environmental stewardship and professional development. This presentation will examine the benefits and tradeoffs of common outcome performance measures that collect program results across a portfolio of education programs focused on common outcomes. Common outcome performance measures have a few benefits to our agency and to the climate education field at large. The primary benefit is shared understanding, which comes from our process for writing common outcome performance measures. Without a shared and agreed upon set of definitions for the measure of an outcome, the reported results may not be measuring the same things and would incorrectly indicate levels of performance. Therefore, our writing process relies on a commitment to developing a shared set of definitions based on consensus. We hope that by taking the time to debate and coming to agreement across a diverse set of programs, the strength of our common measures can indicate real progress towards outcomes we care about. An additional benefit is that these common measures can be adopted and adapted by other agencies and organizations that share similar theories of change. The measures are not without their drawbacks, and we do make tradeoffs as part of our process in order to continue making progress. We know that any measure is necessarily a narrow slice of performance. A slice that may not best represent the unique and remarkable contribution of an individual program, but does reflect a variety of contributions along a single dimension across a large portfolio of programs. The process has ended up pushing our working group to call for even more measures, to capture an increasing number of dimensions that reflect the nature of the portfolio of programs. This past year we have been working on developing two sets of common outcome performance measures for professional development (PD) and stewardship education programs. The outcome we chose for PD programs was the use of what was learned in the educator's practice. The outcome we chose for stewardship programs was the stewardship behaviors that participants learn and practice. The measurement of these outcomes will inform whether our strategies are having their intended impact. By knowing how and how much these outcomes are occurring as a result of our program, we can improve program performance over time. The common outcome performance measures help demonstrate how these programs engage audiences in supporting NOAA's mission. As AGU climate literacy community continues to grow, it is important to consider an approach to demonstrate the community's contribution to the Nation's climate literacy. Development of common outcome performance measures is one approach that could help focus the community in meeting its goals.

  16. Outcome measures for primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J; Dörner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Ravaud, Philippe; Theander, Elke; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio

    2012-08-01

    Lymphocytic infiltration of different exocrine and non-exocrine epithelia is the pathological hallmark of primary Sjögren's syndrome, whereas involvement of salivary and lachrymal glands with the clinical counterpart of dry eye and dry mouth are the predominant features of the disease, together with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. In addition, systemic manifestations, like arthritis, skin vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, may also be present in a consistent number of patients. As result, clinical features in SS can be divided into two facets: the benign subjective but disabling manifestations such as dryness, pain and fatigue, and the systemic manifestations. In the past decades, a core set of domains, which included sicca symptoms, objective measurements of tear and saliva production, fatigue, quality of life, disease activity and damage was indicated as essential for outcome assessment in this disorder. Afterwards, great efforts have been made to develop valid tools for the assessment of different domains. Specific questionnaires such as the Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort (PROFAD) and Sicca Symptoms Inventory (SSI) have been proposed as dedicated tools for the evaluation of patients symptoms, whereas different composite indexes have been suggested for the assessment of disease activity and damage. Some of these preliminary studies served as bases of an international project supported by EULAR, aimed at developing two consensus disease activity indexes: the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patients Reported Index (ESSPRI), and the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI), a systemic activity index to assess systemic manifestations. A detailed and critical review of all these indexes is provided in this article. Both EULAR indexes showed, in recent studies, to be feasible, valid, and reliable instruments. After their final validation, which is currently in process, they could be used as consensus outcome criteria in therapeutic trials and in clinical practice. PMID:22365784

  17. Outcome measures in neuromuscular disease: is the world still flat?

    PubMed

    Lunn, Michael P; Van den Bergh, Peter Y K

    2015-09-01

    Valid, responsive, and meaningful outcome measures for the measurement of the impairment, activity limitations, and quality of life in patients with neuromuscular disease are crucial to identify the natural history of disease and benefits of therapy in clinical practice and trials. Although understanding of many aspects of neuromuscular diseases has advanced dramatically, the development of outcome measures has received less attention. The scales developed from Rasch theory by the PeriNomS Group represent the biggest significant shift in thought in neuromuscular outcome measures for decades. There remain problems with many of them, and further developments are required. However, incorporating them into our outcome sets for daily use and in clinical trials will lead to the more efficient capture of meaningful change and will result in better assessment of individuals and groups of patients in both clinical trials and neurological practice. PMID:26114965

  18. Applying Outcome Measurements: A Guide to Educational Outcome Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Ezra

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministries, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with the application of outcome…

  19. Biobehavioral Measures as Outcomes: A Cautionary Tale

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Christine R.; Woods, Diana Lynn; Devine, Elizabeth C.; Logan, Brent R.; Raff, Hershel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the use of biobehavioral measures as outcomes for healthcare intervention studies. Effect size (ES) values for salivary cortisol, and observation-based measures of pain and agitation are examined. Effects pre to post treatment were assessed separately for nursing home (NH) residents with and without acute psychotic symptoms. This study revealed large positive effects on both pain and agitation measures in the group with acute psychotic symptoms and small-to-medium positive effects on these same measures in the group without acute psychotic symptoms. In both of these groups the ES values were not consistently positive on the cortisol measures. Prior to determining if a measure can be used to estimate minimum clinically important differences, it is essential to consider if the biomarker will be responsive to therapy in the populations and contexts being studied. PMID:24158972

  20. Measuring Program Outcomes: Using Retrospective Pretest Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Clara C.; McGuigan, William M.; Katsev, Aphra R.

    2000-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 307 mothers of firstborn infants participating in a home-visitation, child abuse prevention program in a retrospective pretest methodology. Results shows that when response shift bias was present, the retrospective pretest methodology produced a more legitimate assessment of program outcomes than did the traditional


  1. Outcome Measures in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Marcalee S.; Anderson, Kim; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Blight, Andrew R.; Brannon, Ruth; Bryce, Thomas; Creasey, Graham; Catz, Amiram; Curt, Armin; Donovan, William; Ditunno, John; Ellaway, Peter; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Graves, Daniel E.; Haynes, Beth Ann; Heinemann, Allen W.; Jackson, Amie B.; Johnston, Mark; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Kleitman, Naomi; Krassioukov, Andrei; Krogh, Klaus; Lammertse, Daniel; Magasi, Susan; Mulcahey, MJ; Schurch, Brigitte; Sherwood, Arthur; Steeves, John D.; Stiens, Steven; Tulsky, David S.; van Hedel, Hubertus J.A.; Whiteneck, Gale

    2009-01-01

    Study Design review by the Spinal Cord Outcomes Partnership Endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations. Objectives assessment of current and evolving tools for evaluating human spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes for both clinical diagnosis and clinical research studies. Methods a framework for the appraisal of evidence of metric properties was used to examine outcome tools or tests for accuracy, sensitivity, reliability and validity for human SCI. Results imaging, neurological, functional, autonomic, sexual health, bladder/bowel, pain, and psycho-social tools were evaluated. Several specific tools for human SCI studies have or are being developed to allow the more accurate determination for a clinically meaningful benefit (improvement in functional outcome or quality of life) being achieved as a result of a therapeutic intervention. Conclusion significant progress has been made, but further validation studies are required to identify the most appropriate tools for specific targets in a human SCI study or clinical trial. PMID:19381157

  2. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group: formation of patient-centered outcome measures in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Levin, Adriane A; Armstrong, April W; Abernethy, April; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Bhushan, Reva; Garg, Amit; Merola, Joseph F; Maccarone, Mara; Christensen, Robin

    2015-02-01

    As quality standards are increasingly in demand throughout medicine, dermatology needs to establish outcome measures to quantify the effectiveness of treatments and providers. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group was established to address this need. Beginning with psoriasis, the group aims to create a tool considerate of patients and providers using the input of all relevant stakeholders in assessment of disease severity and response to treatment. Herein, we delineate the procedures through which consensus is being reached and the future directions of the project. PMID:25486914

  3. Comparative responsiveness of outcome measures for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Giesinger, K.; Hamilton, D.F.; Jost, B.; Holzner, B.; Giesinger, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to compare the responsiveness of various patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and clinician-reported outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) over a 2-year period. Methods Data were collected in a prospective cohort study of primary TKA. Patients who had completed Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS-12), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis (OA) index, EQ-5D, Knee Society Score and range of movement (ROM) assessment were included. Five time points were assessed: pre-operative, 2 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-operative. Results Data from 98 TKAs were available for analysis. Largest effect sizes (ES) for change from pre-operative to 2-month follow-up were observed for the Knee Society Score (KSS) Knee score (1.70) and WOMAC Total (?1.50). For the period from 6 months to 1 year the largest ES for change were shown by the FJS-12 (0.99) and the KSS Function Score (0.88). The EQ-5D showed the strongest ceiling effect at 1-year follow-up with 84.4% of patients scoring the maximum score. ES for the time from 1- to 2-year follow-up were largest for the FJS-12 (0.50). All other outcome measures showed ES equal or below 0.30. Conclusion Outcome measures differ considerably in responsiveness, especially beyond one year post-operatively. Joint-specific outcome measures are more responsive than clinician-reported or generic health outcome tools. The FJS-12 was the most responsive of the tools assessed; suggesting that joint awareness may be a more discerning measure of patient outcome than traditional PROMs. PMID:24262431

  4. Network meta-analysis of multiple outcome measures accounting for borrowing of information across outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Network meta-analysis (NMA) enables simultaneous comparison of multiple treatments while preserving randomisation. When summarising evidence to inform an economic evaluation, it is important that the analysis accurately reflects the dependency structure within the data, as correlations between outcomes may have implication for estimating the net benefit associated with treatment. A multivariate NMA offers a framework for evaluating multiple treatments across multiple outcome measures while accounting for the correlation structure between outcomes. Methods The standard NMA model is extended to multiple outcome settings in two stages. In the first stage, information is borrowed across outcomes as well across studies through modelling the within-study and between-study correlation structure. In the second stage, we make use of the additional assumption that intervention effects are exchangeable between outcomes to predict effect estimates for all outcomes, including effect estimates on outcomes where evidence is either sparse or the treatment had not been considered by any one of the studies included in the analysis. We apply the methods to binary outcome data from a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of nine home safety interventions on uptake of three poisoning prevention practices (safe storage of medicines, safe storage of other household products, and possession of poison centre control telephone number) in households with children. Analyses are conducted in WinBUGS using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Results Univariate and the first stage multivariate models produced broadly similar point estimates of intervention effects but the uncertainty around the multivariate estimates varied depending on the prior distribution specified for the between-study covariance structure. The second stage multivariate analyses produced more precise effect estimates while enabling intervention effects to be predicted for all outcomes, including intervention effects on outcomes not directly considered by the studies included in the analysis. Conclusions Accounting for the dependency between outcomes in a multivariate meta-analysis may or may not improve the precision of effect estimates from a network meta-analysis compared to analysing each outcome separately. PMID:25047164

  5. Measuring the Outcomes of a Pharmacy Continuing Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKennell, Thomas M; Grussing, Paul G.

    1979-01-01

    To determine if, as the result of a pharmacy continuing education program on professional liability, the behavior of participants would persist for eight months, a study was undertaken that measured three learning outcomes: knowledge of concepts; attitudes about professional standards and their relationship to malpractice; and self-reports of


  6. Patient-reported outcome measures after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, P. N.; Harris, J. D.; Noble, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A lack of connection between surgeons and patients in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has led to the search for the ideal patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to evaluate these procedures. We hypothesised that the desired psychometric properties of the ideal outcome tool have not been uniformly addressed in studies describing TKA PROMS. Methods A systematic review was conducted investigating one or more facets of patient-reported scores for measuring primary TKA outcome. Studies were analysed by study design, subject demographics, surgical technique, and follow-up adequacy, with the ‘gold standard’ of psychometric properties being systematic development, validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Results A total of 38 articles reported outcomes from 47 different PROMS to 85 541 subjects at 26.3 months (standard deviation 30.8) post-operatively. Of the 38, eight developed new scores, 20 evaluated existing scores, and ten were cross-cultural adaptation of existing scores. Only six of 38 surveyed studies acknowledged all ‘gold standard’ psychometric properties. The most commonly studied PROMS were the Oxford Knee Score, New Knee Society Score, Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Conclusions A single, validated, reliable, and responsive PROM addressing TKA patients’ priorities has not yet been identified. Moreover, a clear definition of a successful procedure remains elusive. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:120–127 PMID:26220999

  7. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section 410... MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146 Diabetes outcome measurements. (a)...

  8. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section 410... MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146 Diabetes outcome measurements. (a)...

  9. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section 410... MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146 Diabetes outcome measurements. (a)...

  10. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section 410... MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146 Diabetes outcome measurements. (a)...

  11. 42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section 410... MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146 Diabetes outcome measurements. (a)...

  12. Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hessl, David; Abbeduto, Leonard; Reiss, Allan L.; Beckel-Mitchener, Andrea; Urv, Tiina K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Progress in basic neuroscience has led to identification of molecular targets for treatment in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and other neurodevelopmental disorders, however, there is a gap in translation to targeted therapies in humans. One major obstacle to the demonstration of efficacy in human trials has been the lack of generally accepted endpoints to assess improvement in function in individuals with FXS. To address this problem, the NIH convened a meeting of leading scientists and clinicians with the goal of identifying and standardizing outcome measures for use as potential endpoints in clinical trials in FXS. Methods Participants in the meeting included FXS experts, experts in the design and implementation of clinical trials and measure development, and representatives from advocacy groups, industry, and federal agencies. Results The group generated recommendations for optimal outcome measures in cognitive, behavioral, and biomarker/medical domains, including additional testing and validation of existing measures, and development of new measures in areas of need. Although no one endpoint or set of endpoints could be identified that met all criteria as an optimal measure, recommendations are presented in this report. Conclusion The report is expected to guide the selection of measures in clinical trials and lead to the use of a more consistent battery of measures across trials. Further, this will help to direct research toward gaps in the development of validated FXS-specific outcome measures, and to assist with interpretation of clinical trial data by creating templates for measurement of treatment efficacy. PMID:24042082

  13. Applying Outcome Measurements: A Guide to Educational Outcome Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Ezra

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministries, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with the application of outcome


  14. General Outcome Measures for Verbal Operants

    PubMed Central

    Kubina, Richard M; Wolfe, Pamela; Kostewicz, Douglas E

    2009-01-01

    A general outcome measure (GOM) can be used to show progress towards a long-term goal. GOMs should sample domains of behavior across ages, be sensitive to change over time, be inexpensive and easy to use, and facilitate decision making. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior may benefit from the development of GOM. To develop GOM, we conducted a review of the literature on mands, tacts, echoics, and intraverbals. The four areas reviewed included (a) an examination of the participant's response form (i.e., vocal or nonvocal), (b) the type of prompt used, (c) types of materials used, and (d) timing of responses or sessions. Based on the review of the literature, we developed GOM for mands and tacts. This paper attempts to bridge the concept of GOMs with Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. PMID:22477427

  15. Measurement Services Association Questionnaire Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Lewis J.; Gillis, Rod

    This paper presents the results of a questionnaire sent to 211 Measurement Services Association members. Sixty-four centers responded. The main purpose of the questionnaire was to find out what hardware and software are used by testing centers throughout the country. Results indicate that 52 institutions use mainframe computers, 50 use…

  16. Learning Culture and Outcomes Measurement Practices in Community Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botcheva, Luba; White, Catherine Roller; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2002-01-01

    Studied learning culture and outcomes measurement in 25 community agencies serving children and youth. Findings indicate that although there is an awareness of the importance of outcomes evaluation, most agencies lack the resources for its systematic implementation. (SLD)

  17. The Day-to-Day Acute Effect of Wake Therapy in Patients with Major Depression Using the HAM-D6 as Primary Outcome Measure: Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martiny, Klaus; Refsgaard, Else; Lund, Vibeke; Lunde, Marianne; Sűrensen, Lene; Thougaard, Britta; Lindberg, Lone; Bech, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports day-to-day data for from a one-week intervention phase, part of a 9-weeks randomised parallel study with patient having major depression (data from weekly visits have been reported). Wake therapy (sleep deprivation) has an established antidepressant effect with onset of action within hours. Deterioration on the following night’s sleep is, however, common, and we used daily light therapy and sleep time stabilisation as a preventive measure. In particular, we evaluated the day-to-day acute effect of and tolerance to sleep deprivation and examined predictors of response. Methods Patients were assessed at psychiatric inpatient wards. In the wake group (n?=?36), patients did three wake therapies in combination with light therapy each morning together with sleep time stabilisation. In the exercise group (n?=?38), patients did daily exercise. Hamilton subscale scores were primary outcome (not blinded), secondary outcome was self-assessment data from the Preskorn scale and sleep. Results Patients in the wake therapy group had an immediate, large, stable, and statistically significant better antidepressant effect than patients in the exercise group with response rates at day5 of 75.0%/25.1% and remission rates of 58.6%/6.0%, respectively. The response and remission rates were diminished at day8 with response rates of 41.9%/10.1% and remission rates of 19.4%/4.7%, respectively. Patients and ward personnel found the method applicable with few side effects. Positive diurnal variation (mood better in the evening) predicted a larger response to wake therapy. In the wake group napping on days after intervention predicted greater deterioration on day8. Conclusions The intervention induced an acute antidepressant response without relapse between wake nights but with a diminishing effect after intervention. Development is still needed to secure maintenance of response. Avoiding napping in the days after wake therapy is important. Trial Registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00149110 PMID:23840645

  18. RASCH ANALYSIS OF CLINICAL OUTCOME MEASURES IN SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY

    PubMed Central

    CANO, STEFAN J.; MAYHEW, ANNA; GLANZMAN, ALLAN M.; KROSSCHELL, KRISTIN J.; SWOBODA, KATHRYN J.; MAIN, MARION; STEFFENSEN, BIRGIT F.; BÉRARD, CAROLE; GIRARDOT, FRANÇOISE; PAYAN, CHRISTINE A.M.; MERCURI, EUGENIO; MAZZONE, ELENA; ELSHEIKH, BAKRI; FLORENCE, JULAINE; HYNAN, LINDA S.; IANNACCONE, SUSAN T.; NELSON, LESLIE L.; PANDYA, SHREE; ROSE, MICHAEL; SCOTT, CHARLES; SADJADI, REZA; YORE, MACKENSIE A.; JOYCE, CYNTHIA; KISSEL, JOHN T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Trial design for SMA depends on meaningful rating scales to assess outcomes. In this study Rasch methodology was applied to 9 motor scales in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Methods Data from all 3 SMA types were provided by research groups for 9 commonly used scales. Rasch methodology assessed the ordering of response option thresholds, tests of fit, spread of item locations, residual correlations, and person separation index. Results Each scale had good reliability. However, several issues impacting scale validity were identified, including the extent that items defined clinically meaningful constructs and how well each scale measured performance across the SMA spectrum. Conclusions The sensitivity and potential utility of each SMA scale as outcome measures for trials could be improved by establishing clear definitions of what is measured, reconsidering items that misfit and items whose response categories have reversed thresholds, and adding new items at the extremes of scale ranges. PMID:23836324

  19. Breast Cancer EDGE Task Force Outcomes: Clinical Measures of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Shana; Gilchrist, Laura; Sander, Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is one of the most commonly reported impairments after breast cancer treatment affecting anywhere from 16-73% of breast cancer survivors Despite the high reported incidence of pain from cancer and its treatments, the ability to evaluate cancer pain continues to be difficult due to the complexity of the disease and the subjective experience of pain. The Oncology Section Breast Cancer EDGE Task Force was created to evaluate the evidence behind clinical outcome measures of pain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods The authors systematically reviewed the literature for pain outcome measures published in the research involving women diagnosed with breast cancer. The goal was to examine the reported psychometric properties that are reported in the literature in order to determine clinical utility. Results Visual Analog Scale, Numeric Rating Scale, Pressure Pain Threshold, McGill Pain Questionnaire, McGill Pain Questionnaire – Short Form, Brief Pain Inventory and Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form were highly recommended by the Task Force. The Task Force was unable to recommend two measures for use in the breast cancer population at the present time. Conclusions A variety of outcome measures were used to measure pain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. When assessing pain in women with breast cancer, researchers and clinicians need to determine whether a unidimensional or multidimensional tool is most appropriate as well as whether the tool has strong psychometric properties. PMID:25346950

  20. A Review of Outcome Measures in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannan, Hasheem; Summers, Jean Ann; Turnbull, Ann P.; Poston, Denise J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors undertook a review of measures available for assessing outcomes of early childhood services for children with disabilities and their families. With principles of family-centered practice mandating the inclusion of both family and child outcome measures in effective evaluation plans, the review examined measures with established…

  1. Measuring Outcomes in Urogynecologic Surgery: “Perspective is Everything” – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Autry, Candace Y.; Barber, Matthew D.; Kenton, Kimberly; Richter, Holly E.

    2013-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the first US National Institutes of Health consensus panel considered standardization of definitions of pelvic floor conditions and criteria utilized for reporting pelvic floor research study outcomes. The literature is replete with pelvic floor outcome studies; however, a consistent standardized approach to the evaluation of patients and characterization of outcomes is still needed. The purpose of this overview is to describe how the use of outcome measures have evolved over time and attempt to help readers utilize the best measures for their clinical and research needs. PMID:22930213

  2. Clinical outcomes resulting from telemedicine interventions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Background The use of telemedicine is growing, but its efficacy for achieving comparable or improved clinical outcomes has not been established in many medical specialties. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of telemedicine interventions for health outcomes in two classes of application: home-based and office/hospital-based. Methods Data sources for the study included deports of studies from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and HealthSTAR databases; searching of bibliographies of review and other articles; and consultation of printed resources as well as investigators in the field. We included studies that were relevant to at least one of the two classes of telemedicine and addressed the assessment of efficacy for clinical outcomes with data of reported results. We excluded studies where the service did not historically require face-to-face encounters (e.g., radiology or pathology diagnosis). All included articles were abstracted and graded for quality and direction of the evidence. Results A total of 25 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed. The strongest evidence for the efficacy of telemedicine in clinical outcomes comes from home-based telemedicine in the areas of chronic disease management, hypertension, and AIDS. The value of home glucose monitoring in diabetes mellitus is conflicting. There is also reasonable evidence that telemedicine is comparable to face-to-face care in emergency medicine and is beneficial in surgical and neonatal intensive care units as well as patient transfer in neurosurgery. Conclusions Despite the widespread use of telemedicine in virtually all major areas of health care, evidence concerning the benefits of its use exists in only a small number of them. Further randomized controlled trials must be done to determine where its use is most effective. PMID:11737882

  3. Generating Outcome Measurements: Economic and Societal. A Guide to Educational Outcomes Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministires, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with generating outcome measurements

  4. Generating Outcome Measurements: Economic and Societal. A Guide to Educational Outcomes Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministires, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with generating outcome measurements:


  5. Outcomes 'out of africa': the selection and implementation of outcome measures for palliative care in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background End-of-life care research across Africa is under-resourced and under-developed. A central issue in research in end-of-life care is the measurement of effects and outcomes of care on patients and families. Little is known about the experiences of health professionals' selection and implementation of outcome measures (OM) in clinical care, research, audit, or teaching in Africa. Methods An online survey was undertaken of those using outcome measures across the region, as part of the PRISMA project. A questionnaire addressing the use of OMs was developed for a similar survey in Europe and adapted for Africa. Participants were sampled through the contacts database of APCA. Invitation emails were sent out in January 2010 and reminders in February 2010. Results 168/301 invited contacts (56%) from 24 countries responded, with 78 respondents having previously used OM (65% in clinical practice, 12% in research and 23% for both). Main reasons for not using OM were a lack of guidance/training on using and analysing OM, with 49% saying that they would use the tools if this was provided. 40% of those using OM in clinical practice used POS, and 80% used them to assess, evaluate and monitor change. The POS was also the main tool used in research, with the principle criteria for use being validation in Africa, access to the tool and time needed to complete it. Challenges to the use of tools were shortage of time and resources, lack of guidance and training for the professionals, poor health status of patients and complexity of OM. Researchers also have problems analysing OM data. The APCA African POS was the most common version of the POS used, and was reported as a valuable tool for measuring outcomes. Respondents indicated the ideal outcome tool should be short, multi-dimensional and easy to use. Conclusion This was the first survey on professionals' views on OM in Africa. It showed that the APCA African POS was the most frequently OM used. Training and support are needed to help professionals utilise OM in palliative care, and OMs have an ongoing and important role in palliative care in Africa. PMID:22221932

  6. A review of outcome measures used in cleft care.

    PubMed

    Jones, Timothy; Al-Ghatam, Rana; Atack, Nikki; Deacon, Scott; Power, Rosie; Albery, Liz; Ireland, Tony; Sandy, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    This article provides a summary of the main outcome measures currently available and in use within modern cleft care. The fact that there are such a diverse range, including surgical, orthodontic, dental, speech and patient satisfaction measures, is a reflection of the complex, multidisciplinary and longitudinal nature of the care provided. The use of such measures of outcome is essential in the auditing and drive for continued improvements in the standards of care for patients affected with cleft lip and palate. PMID:24521752

  7. Relating acoustics and human outcome measures in hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Timothy Yuan-Ting

    Hospital noise has been an area of concern for medical professionals and researchers for the last century. Researchers have attempted to characterize the soundscape of hospital wards and have made some preliminary links between noise and human outcomes. In the past, most of the research has used traditional acoustic metrics. These traditional metrics, such as average sound level, are readily measured using sound level meters and have been the primary results reported in previous studies. However, it has been shown that these traditional metrics may be insufficient in fully characterizing the wards. The two studies presented here use traditional metrics and nontraditional metrics to define the soundscape of hospital wards. The uncovered links, between both sound level metrics and psychoacoustic metrics and patient physiological measurements, are discussed. Correlations and risk ratios demonstrate the presence and the strength of these relationships. These results demonstrate the relationships between hospital acoustics and patient physiological arousal. Additionally, the effects of adding absorption in a hospital ward are presented. Sound level, sound power, reverberation time and other acoustic metrics are directly affected. The speech intelligibility in these wards is evaluated in order to highlight the temporal nature of speech intelligibility. With both studies combined, both traditional and nontraditional acoustic measures are shown to have statistically significant relationships to both patient and staff outcomes.

  8. Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative: protocol for an international Delphi study to achieve consensus on how to select outcome measurement instruments for outcomes included in a ‘core outcome set’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative aims to facilitate the development and application of ‘core outcome sets’ (COS). A COS is an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials of a specific disease or trial population. The overall aim of the Core Outcome Measurement Instrument Selection (COMIS) project is to develop a guideline on how to select outcome measurement instruments for outcomes included in a COS. As part of this project, we describe our current efforts to achieve a consensus on the methods for selecting outcome measurement instruments for outcomes to be included in a COS. Methods/Design A Delphi study is being performed by a panel of international experts representing diverse stakeholders with the intention that this will result in a guideline for outcome measurement instrument selection. Informed by a literature review, a Delphi questionnaire was developed to identify potentially relevant tasks on instrument selection. The Delphi study takes place in a series of rounds. In the first round, panelists were asked to rate the importance of different tasks in the selection of outcome measurement instruments. They were encouraged to justify their choices and to add other relevant tasks. Consensus was reached if at least 70% of the panelists considered a task ‘highly recommended’ or ‘desirable’ and if no opposing arguments were provided. These tasks will be included in the guideline. Tasks that at least 50% of the panelists considered ‘not relevant’ will be excluded from the guideline. Tasks that were indeterminate will be taken to the second round. All responses of the first round are currently being aggregated and will be fed back to panelists in the second round. A third round will only be performed if the results of the second round require it. Discussion Since the Delphi method allows a large group of international experts to participate, we consider it to be the preferred consensus-based method for our study. Based upon this consultation process, a guideline will be developed on instrument selection for outcomes to be included in a COS. PMID:24962012

  9. Measuring Outcomes for Children Late Placed for Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Alan

    1998-01-01

    Describes the selection of outcome measures used by the Maudsley Family Research team to assess outcomes--across a broad range of developmental dimensions--of permanent placement for children and adolescents. Developed a package of instruments to examine child emotional, cognitive, social, and academic development; attachment; and self-esteem, for…

  10. A Binomial Test of Group Differences with Correlated Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous arguments for why educational researchers should not provide effect-size estimates in the face of statistically nonsignificant outcomes (Robinson & Levin, 1997), Onwuegbuzie and Levin (2005) proposed a 3-step statistical approach for assessing group differences when multiple outcome measures are individually analyzed within…

  11. What Do They Measure? Comparing Three Learning Outcomes Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steedle, Jeffrey; Kugelmass, Heather; Nemeth, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Many postsecondary institutions currently administer standardized tests of general college outcomes; more than a quarter of Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) member institutions do so. Using standardized tests for accountability purposes has been contentious mainly because these tests do not measure every important outcome…

  12. Measuring Assistive Technology Outcomes in Schools Using Functional Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michelle Kaye; Stratman, Kristine Freiberg; Smith, Roger O.

    2000-01-01

    Activities of Project OATS (Outcomes of Assistive Technology in the Schools) are described, including identification and piloting of existing assessment instruments for use as an outcome measure, examining the validity of the School Function Assessment, and field testing the School Function Assessment-Assistive Technology Version, an adaptation of


  13. Educational Outcome Measurement in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiros, Fassil G.; And Others

    Fiscal and other economic constraints facing developing nations underscore the need for careful and detailed planning for education focused on the identified purposes. Until recently educational requirements have been measured in terms of inputs. Effectiveness measurements change the basis for judging the educational system from such input or…

  14. Further Evidence of the Factorial Validity of the Service Outcome Measurement Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergoot, David

    1976-01-01

    This study presents a cluster analysis of the Service Outcome Measurement Form (SOMF). The derived clusters resembled the originally intended structure more closely than an earlier factor analysis of a large sample. These results support factorial validity of the SOMF as an outcome and counselor effectiveness measure. (Author)

  15. Measuring outcomes in craniofacial and pediatric plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Karen W Y; Forrest, Christopher R; Goodacre, Tim E E; Klassen, Anne F

    2013-04-01

    This article discusses the measurement of outcomes in craniofacial and pediatric plastic surgery, using examples of craniosynostosis and cleft lip and/or palate (CLP). The challenges in measuring the standard outcomes of function, aesthetics, and health-related quality of life are discussed, along with the importance of developing evidence and studying quality improvement in this specialty. The need to define specific and comprehensive goals is discussed with a focus on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Examples from the development of the CLEFT-Q, a PRO instrument for patients with CLP, are provided to support the need to seek the patient perspective. PMID:23506771

  16. d-outcome measurement for a nonlocality test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, W.; Lee, Jinhyoung; Kim, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    For the purpose of a nonlocality test, we propose a general correlation observable of two parties by utilizing local d-outcome measurements with SU(d) transformations and classical communications. Generic symmetries of the SU(d) transformations and correlation observables are found for the test of nonlocality. It is shown that these symmetries dramatically reduce the number of numerical variables, which is important for numerical analysis of nonlocality. A linear combination of the correlation observables, which is reduced to the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell's inequality for two outcome measurements, leads to the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu (CGLMP) nonlocality test for d-outcome measurement. As a system to be tested for its nonlocality, we investigate a continuous-variable (CV) entangled state with d measurement outcomes. It allows the comparison of nonlocality based on different numbers of measurement outcomes on one physical system. In our example of the CV state, we find that a pure entangled state of any degree violates Bell's inequality for d(>=2) measurement outcomes when the observables are of SU(d) transformations.

  17. Measuring voice outcomes: state of the science review.

    PubMed

    Carding, Pau N; Wilson, J A; MacKenzie, K; Deary, I J

    2009-08-01

    Researchers evaluating voice disorder interventions currently have a plethora of voice outcome measurement tools from which to choose. Faced with such a wide choice, it would be beneficial to establish a clear rationale to guide selection. This article reviews the published literature on the three main areas of voice outcome assessment: (1) perceptual rating of voice quality, (2) acoustic measurement of the speech signal and (3) patient self-reporting of voice problems. We analysed the published reliability, validity, sensitivity to change and utility of the common outcome measurement tools in each area. From the data, we suggest that routine voice outcome measurement should include (1) an expert rating of voice quality (using the Grade-Roughness-Breathiness-Asthenia-Strain rating scale) and (2) a short self-reporting tool (either the Vocal Performance Questionnaire or the Vocal Handicap Index 10). These measures have high validity, the best reported reliability to date, good sensitivity to change data and excellent utility ratings. However, their application and administration require attention to detail. Acoustic measurement has arguable validity and poor reliability data at the present time. Other areas of voice outcome measurement (e.g. stroboscopy and aerodynamic phonatory measurements) require similarly detailed research and analysis. PMID:19454129

  18. US Valuation of Health Outcomes Measured Using the PROMIS-29

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Brown, Paul M.; Cella, David; Hays, Ron D.; Lipscomb, Joseph; Pickard, A. Simon; Revicki, Dennis A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Health valuation studies enhance economic evaluations of treatments by estimating the value of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Systemź (PROMIS) includes a 29-item short-form HRQOL measure, the PROMIS-29. Methods To value PROMIS-29 responses on a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) scale, we conducted a national survey (N=7557) using quota sampling based on the US 2010 Census. Based on 541 paired comparisons with over 350 responses each, pair-specific probabilities were incorporated into a weighted least-squared estimator. Results All losses in HRQoL influenced choice; however, respondents valued losses in physical function, anxiety, depression, sleep, and pain more than those in fatigue and social functioning. Conclusions This paper introduces a novel approach to valuing HRQoL for economic evaluations using paired comparisons and provides a tool to translate PROMIS-29 responses into QALYs. PMID:25498780

  19. Patient-reported outcome measures for asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Worth, Allison; Hammersley, Victoria; Knibb, Rebecca; Flokstra-de-Blok, Bertine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Walker, Samantha; Dubois, Anthony E J; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are measures of the outcome of treatment(s) reported directly by the patient or carer. There is increasing international policy interest in using these to assess the impact of clinical care. Aims: To identify suitably validated PROMs for asthma and examine their potential for use in clinical settings. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from 1990 onwards to identify PROMs for asthma. These were critically appraised, then narratively synthesised. We also identified the generic PROMs commonly used alongside asthma-specific PROMs. Results: We identified 68 PROMs for asthma, 13 of which were selected through screening as being adequately developed to warrant full-quality appraisal: 8 for adults, 4 for children and 1 for a child’s caregiver. The PROMs found to be sufficiently well validated to offer promise for use in clinical settings were the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and mini-AQLQ for adults, and Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire for children. Rhinasthma was considered promising in simultaneously assessing the impact of asthma and rhinitis in those with coexistent disease. We identified 28 generic PROMs commonly used in conjunction with asthma-specific instruments. Conclusions: We identified asthma PROMs that offer the greatest potential for use in clinical settings. Further work is needed to assess whether these are fit-for-purpose for use in clinical practice with individual patients. In particular, there is a need to ensure these are validated for use in clinical settings, acceptable to patients, caregivers and clinicians, and yield meaningful outcomes. PMID:24964767

  20. Durability of devices: long-term results and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Arsalan, Mani; Mack, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Over the last decade, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged to become the treatment of choice for inoperable patients and the preferred alternative for high-risk patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Questions about the long-term durability of TAVI valves were raised early in the history of the procedure. Although there has not yet been a significant signal of early structural valve deterioration (SVD), these concerns remain important today, especially if TAVI is to be considered for use in lower-risk and younger patients with longer life expectancy. Durability expectations for TAVI to some degree parallel those of surgical bioprostheses, but the different tissue, mounting design and crimping of TAVI devices might adversely influence long-term results. The experience with surgical bioprostheses has shown that deterioration of these valves is a slow and gradual process. Thus, despite promising midterm results of many surgical bioprostheses at five to seven years, design faults with higher failure rates have become manifest eight to 10 years after implantation. Similarly, although the initial five-year outcomes of TAVI are promising, these results cannot yet be extrapolated to predict long-term durability with any firm degree of assuredness, especially in younger patient populations. Thus, a high degree of caution is necessary when considering TAVI in intermediate-risk and younger patients until more evidence of durability equivalent to that of surgical bioprostheses is forthcoming. PMID:26384176

  1. Towards measurement of outcome for patients with varicose veins.

    PubMed Central

    Garratt, A M; Macdonald, L M; Ruta, D A; Russell, I T; Buckingham, J K; Krukowski, Z H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To develop a valid and reliable outcome measure for patients with varicose veins. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey of patients with varicose veins. SETTING--Surgical outpatient departments and training general practices in Grampian region. SUBJECTS--373 patients, 287 of whom had just been referred to hospital for their varicose veins and 86 who had just consulted a general practitioner for this condition and, for comparison, a random sample of 900 members of the general population. MAIN MEASURES--Content validity, internal consistency, and criterion validity. RESULTS--281(76%) patients (mean age 45.8; 76% female) and 542(60%) of the general population (mean age 47.9; 54% female) responded. The questionnaire had good internal consistency as measured by item-total correlations. Factor analysis identified four important health factors: pain and dysfunction, cosmetic appearance, extent of varicosity and complications. The validity of the questionnaire was demonstrated by a high correlation with the SF-36 health profile, which is a general measure of patients' health. The perceived health of patients with varicose veins, as measured by the SF-36, was significantly lower than that of the sample of the general population adjusted for age and a lower proportion of women. CONCLUSION--A clinically derived questionnaire can provide a valid and reliable tool to assess the perceived health of patients with varicose veins. IMPLICATIONS--The questionnaire may be used to justify surgical treatment of varicose veins. PMID:10132081

  2. Routine mental health outcome measurement in the UK.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Alastair J D; Fugard, Andrew J B

    2015-08-01

    This paper offers a short history of routine clinical outcomes measurement (RCOM) in UK mental health services. RCOM developments in primary and secondary care are described, with reference to measures currently in widespread use or likely to be implemented. Assessment procedure and completion rates are discussed. Some of the forces operating in this field are enumerated. Comparison is made with UK attempts at routine outcomes measurement in public education. This field is thus reviewed for lessons for RCOM, and opportunities and challenges considered. PMID:25832566

  3. Outcome measurement in neurodegenerative disease: attributes, applications & interpretation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Morley, David

    2015-08-01

    There has been a marked shift from clinically assessed to patient assessed outcomes of treatment in neurodegenerative conditions over recent decades. The use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) provides a method with which researchers and clinicians can gain insightful and meaningful data on health status from the patients' perspective. It is imperative that high-quality PROMs are chosen based upon their measurement properties and their suitability for use in the intended clinical or research context. This review aims to give a brief overview of best practice standards for selecting PROMs, current instruments used in exemplar neurodegenerative conditions and their application in clinical trials and routine measurement. PMID:26295721

  4. [Biliary atresias operated with favourable results: predictable outcome].

    PubMed

    Broto, J; Gil Vernet, J M; Ormaechea, M

    2005-01-01

    Since 1975, our experience in the treatment of biliary atresia with Kasai's technique has improved little by little, achieving 65% favourable outcome in the last five years. We define "good results" as the complete restoration of biliary flow and normalization of bilirrubin levels. The long-term evolution of these good results can be diverse. The objective of the present work is to analyze the outcome of patients in our series in whom a favourable initial response was achieved, as well as evaluating their present situation and future perspectives. The authors present a total of 17 patients operated by Kasai's technique since 1985, that constitutes the group with good results in our series. The controls were based on general analysis, liver function and periodic ultrasound explorations. All received a standardized medical treatment consisting of vitamin supplements (A, D3, E, K) minerals (zinc, calcium, phosphate, iron) ursodexoxicolic acid, luminal,as well as close control of calorie intake. In two patients the levels of bilirrubine were progressively increased with time, stabilizing at between 5/6 mgs/100 ml, with progressive hepatic hardening, appearance of splenomegalia, indirect signs of portal hypertension and a slight deterioration of hepatic function. One received a transplant at age 12 with Quick levels below 50%. The other, aged 16, continues with an acceptable hepatic function and good quality of life under recommendation of transplant. Eleven patients with ages ranging from fourteen months to seventeen years presented slight and firm hepatomegalia, moderate portal hypertension, GOT 71 +/- 8 mg/100 ml, GPT 97 +/- 11 mg/100 ml and normal bilirrubine levels. From this group, 3 patients, all under five years of age, experienced bleeding from esophageal varices which were controlled by sclerosis and medical treatment (propanolol and isosorbide dinitrate). Recently, one three year-old patient developed a hepatocarcinoma of rapid, mortal evolution. Since then, the determination of alfa-feto protein in follow-up controls has been introduced. Four other patients of 5, 6, 14, 16, years of age are completely assymptomatic with an excellent clinical evolution. In our experience,the patients that overcome the third year after surgery without serious complications seem destined to reach puberty with a good quality of life. However, some cases show signs of hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension, 77% in our series. Only 23% of patients with a favorable initial evolution appear to present a complete normalization of their hepatic lesion in the long term. PMID:15901104

  5. Outcome Measures Used in Clinical Trials for Behçet Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Gulen; Merkel, Peter A.; Hamuryudan, Vedat; Boers, Maarten; Direskeneli, Haner; Aydin, Sibel Z.; Yazici, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Behçet syndrome (BS) is a multisystem vasculitis that is most active during young adulthood, causing serious disability and significant impairment in quality of life. Differences in the disease course, severity, and organ involvement between patients, depending on the age at presentation and sex, makes it impossible to determine a single management strategy. The diversity and variability in the outcome measures used in clinical trials in BS makes it difficult to compare the results or inform physicians about the best management strategy for individual patients. There is a large unmet need to determine or develop validated outcome measures for use in clinical trials in BS that are acceptable to researchers and regulatory agencies. We conducted a systematic review to describe the outcomes and outcome measures that have been used in clinical trials in BS. This review revealed the diversity and variability in the outcomes and outcome measures and the lack of standard definitions for most outcomes and rarity of validated outcome tools for disease assessment in BS. This systematic literature review will identify domains and candidate instruments for use in a Delphi exercise, the next step in the development of a core set of outcome measures that are properly validated and widely accepted by the collaboration of researchers from many different regions of the world and from different specialties, including rheumatology, ophthalmology, dermatology, gastroenterology, and neurology. PMID:24488418

  6. Advances in Patient-Reported Outcomes: The NIH PROMISź Measures

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Joan E.; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Rothrock, Nan; Crane, Paul K.; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are questionnaire measures of patients’ symptoms, functioning, and health-related quality of life. They are designed to provide important clinical information that generally cannot be captured with objective medical testing. In 2004, the National Institutes of Health launched a research initiative to improve the clinical research enterprise by developing state-of-the-art PROs. The NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement System (PROMIS) and Assessment Center are the products of that initiative. Adult, pediatric, and parent-proxy item banks have been developed by using contemporary psychometric methods, yielding rapid, accurate measurements. PROMIS currently provides tools for assessing physical, mental, and social health using short-form and computer-adaptive testing methods. The PROMIS tools are being adopted for use in clinical trials and translational research. They are also being introduced in clinical medicine to assess a broad range of disease outcomes. Recent legislative developments in the United States support greater efforts to include patients’ reports of health experience in order to evaluate treatment outcomes, engage in shared decision-making, and prioritize the focus of treatment. PROs have garnered increased attention by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for evaluating drugs and medical devices. Recent calls for comparative effectiveness research favor inclusion of PROs. PROs could also potentially improve quality of care and disease outcomes, provide patient-centered assessment for comparative effectiveness research, and enable a common metric for tracking outcomes across providers and medical systems. PMID:25848562

  7. The Relationship between University Rankings and Outcomes Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Chuanfu; Jalbert, Terrance; Landry, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between university ranks and outcome measurements. Many students select the university that they will attend based on these rankings In this paper the rankings conducted by two studies are examined. U.S. News and World Report rankings are based upon measures of the quality of input, retention while in school…

  8. Outcome measurement in clinical trials for Ulcerative Colitis: towards standardisation

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Rachel M; Warren, Bryan F; Altman, Douglas G; Abreu, Maria T; Travis, Simon PL

    2007-01-01

    Clinical trials on novel drug therapies require clear criteria for patient selection and agreed definitions of disease remission. This principle has been successfully applied in the field of rheumatology where agreed disease scoring systems have allowed multi-centre collaborations and facilitated audit across treatment centres. Unfortunately in ulcerative colitis this consensus is lacking. Thirteen scoring systems have been developed but none have been properly validated. Most trials choose different endpoints and activity indices, making comparison of results from different trials extremely difficult. International consensus on endoscopic, clinical and histological scoring systems is essential as these are the key components used to determine entry criteria and outcome measurements in clinical trials on ulcerative colitis. With multiple new therapies under development, there is a pressing need for consensus to be reached. PMID:17592647

  9. Clinicians' Attitudes Towards Outcome and Process Monitoring: A Validation of the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Smits, Dave F; Claes, Laurence; Stinckens, Nele; Smits, Dirk J M

    2015-09-01

    Valid and reliable instruments to measure monitoring attitudes of clinicians are scarce. The influence of sociodemographics and professional characteristics on monitoring attitudes is largely unknown. First, we investigated the factor structure and reliability of the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire among a sample of Flemish mental health professionals (n = 170). Next, we examined the relationship between clinicians' sociodemographic and professional characteristics and monitoring attitudes. Construct validity was determined using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was ascertained using Cronbach's alpha. Mean level differences in monitoring attitudes related to clinicians' gender, work setting, level of education and psychotherapeutic training, were investigated using ANOVAs. The relationships between clinicians' age, clinical experience and attitudes were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A model with one general factor and a method factor referring to reverse-worded items best fitted our data. Internal consistency was good. Clinicians with psychotherapeutic training reported more favorable monitoring attitudes than those without such training. Compared to clinicians working in subsidized outpatient services, private practitioners and clinicians from inpatient mental health clinics had more positive attitudes. Results highlight the need for sustained and targeted training, with particular focus on transforming measurement data into meaningful clinical support tools. PMID:25315180

  10. Edifoligide and Long-Term Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: PREVENT IV 5-Year Results

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Renato D.; Williams, Judson B.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Reyes, Eric M.; Hafley, Gail E.; Allen, Keith B.; Mack, Michael J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Harrington, Robert A.; Gibson, C. Michael; Califf, Robert M.; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Lorenz, Todd J.; Alexander, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Edifoligide, an E2F transcription factor decoy, does not prevent vein graft failure or adverse clinical outcomes at 1-year in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We compared the 5-year clinical outcomes of patients in PREVENT IV treated with edifoligide and placebo and to identify predictors of long-term clinical outcomes. Methods A total of 3014 patients undergoing CABG with at least 2 planned vein grafts were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to compare the long-term effects of edifoligide and placebo. A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to identify factors associated with 5-year post-CABG outcomes. The main outcome measure was death, myocardial infarction (MI), repeat revascularization, and rehospitalization through 5 years. Results Five-year follow-up was complete in 2865 (95.1%) patients. At 5 years, patients randomized to edifoligide and placebo had similar rates of death (11.7% and 10.7%), MI (2.3% and 3.2%), revascularization (14.1% and 13.9%), and rehospitalization (61.6% and 62.5%). The 5-year composite outcome of death, MI, or revascularization occurred at similar frequency in patients assigned to edifoligide and placebo (26.3% and 25.5%; hazard ratio 1.03 [95% confidence interval 0.89–1.18]; P=0.721). Factors associated with death, MI, or revascularization at 5 years included diabetes, sex, worst graft quality, peri-index CABG MI, and ejection fraction. Conclusions Up to a quarter of patients undergoing CABG will have a major cardiac event or repeat revascularization procedure within 5 years of surgery. Edifoligide does not affect outcomes following CABG; however, common identifiable baseline and procedural risk factors are associated with long-term outcomes following CABG. PMID:22980305

  11. Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Matthew R.; Baughman, Robert P.; Birring, Surinder S.; Russell, Anne-Marie; Ryu, Jay H.; Scholand, Marybeth; Distler, Oliver; LeSage, Daphne; Sarver, Catherine; Antoniou, Katerina; Highland, Kristin B.; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Lasky, Joseph A.; Wells, Athol U.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2015-01-01

    The chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a group of heterogeneous pulmonary parenchymal disorders described by radiologic and histological patterns termed usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). These include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and those related to connective tissue disease (CTD) and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Beyond the importance of establishing an appropriate diagnosis, designing optimal clinical trials for IIPs has been fraught with difficulties in consistency of clinical endpoints making power analyses, and the establishment of efficacy and interpretation of results across trials challenging. Preliminary recommendations, developed by rigorous consensus methods, proposed a minimum set of outcome measures, a ‘core set’, to be incorporated into future clinical trials (Saketkoo et al, THORAX. 2014.). This paper sets out to examine the candidate instruments for each domain (Dyspnea, Cough, Health Related Quality of Life, Imaging, Lung Physiology and Function, Mortality). Candidate measures that were not selected as well as measures that were not available for examination at the time of the consensus process will also be discussed.

  12. Implementing routine outcome measurement in psychiatric rehabilitation services in Israel.

    PubMed

    Roe, David; Gelkopf, Marc; Gornemann, Miriam Isolde; Baloush-Kleinman, Vered; Shadmi, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    In this article we present the design, development and implementation of the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Routine Outcome Measurement (PR-ROM) project, the first systematic effort to implement mental health routine outcome measures in Israel. The goal of the PR-ROM is to provide updated information about the process and impact of psychiatric rehabilitation services in Israel and to establish a sustainable infrastructure and foundation for routine outcome monitoring of rehabilitation services to improve care, inform policy, generate incentives for service improvement, increase informed decision-making and provide data for research purposes. The rehabilitation services evaluated and the characteristics of the population being served are described and the methods and nature of the collected data as well as some preliminary findings are presented. We discuss the major barriers encountered, our efforts to deal with them and lessons learned during the process. We conclude with a description of the current state of the initiative and plans for the future. PMID:25865480

  13. Outcomes Research Branch | PROMIS and PCAR: Measuring Outcomes from the Patient's Perspective

    Cancer.gov

    To sustain PROMIS moving forward, it is one of four NIH health measurement systems that comprise the new Person-Centered Assessment Resource (PCAR) initiative. The other three systems are the NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, the Quality of Life Outcomes in Neurological and Behavioral Function (Neuro-QOL), and the Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement Information System (ASCQ-Me). PCAR was funded in 2014 as a cooperative agreement and held its first meeting in September.

  14. Experimental evaluation of nonclassical correlations between measurement outcomes and target observable in a quantum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Masataka; Suzuki, Yutaro; Nii, Taiki; Kinoshita, Ryuji; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2016-03-01

    In general, it is difficult to evaluate measurement errors when the initial and final conditions of the measurement make it impossible to identify the correct value of the target observable. Ozawa proposed a solution based on the operator algebra of observables which has recently been used in experiments investigating the error-disturbance trade-off of quantum measurements. Importantly, this solution makes surprisingly detailed statements about the relations between measurement outcomes and the unknown target observable. In the present paper, we investigate this relation by performing a sequence of two measurements on the polarization of a photon, so that the first measurement commutes with the target observable and the second measurement is sensitive to a complementary observable. While the initial measurement can be evaluated using classical statistics, the second measurement introduces the effects of quantum correlations between the noncommuting physical properties. By varying the resolution of the initial measurement, we can change the relative contribution of the nonclassical correlations and identify their role in the evaluation of the quantum measurement. It is shown that the most striking deviation from classical expectations is obtained at the transition between weak and strong measurements, where the competition between different statistical effects results in measurement values well outside the range of possible eigenvalues.

  15. Development of an outcome measurement system for service planning for children and youth with special needs

    PubMed Central

    Kertoy, M K; Russell, D J; Rosenbaum, P; Jaffer, S; Law, M; McCauley, D; Gorter, J W

    2013-01-01

    Aim?This study described the process used in developing an outcome measurement framework for system planning to improve services for children and youth with special needs and their families in a Canadian province. The study reports the results of several parent-completed measures, which would be useful in service planning as well as the acceptability and utility of these measures for use by families and service centres. Methods/results?Development of a theoretical framework, consultation with key stakeholders, testing the utility of selected outcome measures and initial dissemination of results were critical elements in the successful development of an outcome system. Consultation with stakeholders confirmed use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the child-within-family-within community model as theoretical frameworks while building valuable partnerships and identifying potential barriers to implementation. Pilot testing showed three outcome measures were feasible for families to complete and the measures provided information about services for children that was valuable to families as well as service providers. Gaps in service delivery were identified and the need for better communication between service providers and communities to facilitate integrated services was highlighted. Conclusion?The findings from this study can be used to implement an outcome measurement system for children with special needs and may serve as a resource for international researchers who are working to develop valid tools as well as outcome systems that are useful for system planning. PMID:22845889

  16. Children's Program Outcome Review Team: 1999 Evaluation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Patricia C.

    In its sixth year of evaluating children's services, the Children's Program Outcome Review Team (C-PORT), under the direction of the Tennessee Commission on Children and Youth, continued to collect and analyze data to improve implementation of service delivery to 11,800 children and families involved in state custody. The C-PORT evaluation for…

  17. Inside Quality Reform: Early Results on Using Outcomes for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This article offers evidence on ways in which assessment of student learning outcomes made a difference for some academic institutions in the United States. It offers perspectives on the internal changes that took place, especially within academic programmes. Even after the capacity for assessment was developed, challenges remained in evaluating…

  18. Conceptualizing Outcome and Impact Measures for Intelligence Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainor, Rhiannon; Bouthillier, France

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study is to clarify ambiguous concepts in intelligence services literature specifically related to measurement of intelligence outcomes and impact. Method: Face to face interviews were held with five subject experts from various intelligence fields and countries regarding their


  19. What Do They Measure? Comparing Three Learning Outcomes Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steedle, Jeffrey; Kugelmass, Heather; Nemeth, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Many postsecondary institutions currently administer standardized tests of general college outcomes; more than a quarter of Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) member institutions do so. Using standardized tests for accountability purposes has been contentious mainly because these tests do not measure every important outcome


  20. Measuring Student Learning Outcomes Using the SALG Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen; Olsen, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. higher education institutions are being called to question their central nature, priorities, and functions, with prominent and unprecedented attention being given to accountability and the measurement of student learning outcomes. As higher education evolves in how it assesses student learning and leisure studies and recreation departments


  1. Measuring Student Learning Outcomes Using the SALG Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen; Olsen, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. higher education institutions are being called to question their central nature, priorities, and functions, with prominent and unprecedented attention being given to accountability and the measurement of student learning outcomes. As higher education evolves in how it assesses student learning and leisure studies and recreation departments…

  2. Evaluating outcomes of palliative photodynamic therapy: instrument development and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodell, Teresa T.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2002-06-01

    Background: Subjective measures are considered the gold standard in palliative care evaluation, but no studies have evaluated palliative photodynamic therapy (PDT) subjectively. If PDT is to be accepted as a palliative therapy for later-stage obstructing esophageal and lung cancer, evidence of its effectiveness and acceptability to patients must be made known. Study Design/Materials and Methods: This ongoing study's major aim is to evaluate subjective outcomes of PDT in patients with obstructing esophageal and lung cancer. Existing measures of health status, dysphagia and performance status were supplemented with an instrument developed to evaluate PDT symptom relief and side effect burden, the PDT Side Effects Survey (PSES). Results: PDT patients treated with porfimer sodium (Photofrin) and 630-nm light experienced reduced dysphagia grade and stable performance status for at least one month after PDT (N= 10-17), but these effects did not necessarily persist at three months. Fatigue, appetite and quality of life may be the most burdensome issues for these patients. Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that the PSES is an acceptable and valid tool for measuring subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. This study is the first attempt to systematically evaluate subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. Multi-center outcomes research is needed to draw generalizable conclusions that will establish PDT's effectiveness in actual clinical practice and enhance the wider adoption of PDT as a cancer symptom relief modality.

  3. OMERACT: An international initiative to improve outcome measurement in rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; Brooks, Peter; Simon, Lee; Strand, Vibeke; Idzerda, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    OMERACT is the acronym for an international, informally organized network initiated in 1992 aimed at improving outcome measurement in rheumatology. Chaired by an executive committee, it organizes consensus conferences in a 2-yearly cycle that circles the globe. Data driven recommendations are prepared and updated by expert working groups. Recommendations include core sets of measures for most of the major rheumatologic conditions. Since 2002 patients have been actively engaged in the process. PMID:18039364

  4. Development of a Change-Sensitive Outcome Measure for Children Receiving Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Scott T.; McDougal, James L.; Bardos, Achilles

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary testing standards place test purpose as the central focus during test development and subsequent use. This study describes the development of a measure for children designed explicitly to measure change resulting from psychosocial interventions. Parents completed the outcome measure for 896 elementary school-age children receiving…

  5. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Movement for Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Luze, Gayle J.; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan; Leitschuh, Carol

    2002-01-01

    The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in movement in children (ages birth-3) is described. Results from the use of the Movement General Outcome Measurement with 29 infants and toddlers demonstrated the feasibility of the measure. The 6-minute assessment was found reliable in terms of inter-observer agreement. (Contains…

  6. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Does Fusion Method Influence Outcome? Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Abdu, William A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Zhao, Wenyan; Tosteson, Tor D.; Herkowitz, Harry; Longely, Michael; Boden, Scott D.; Emery, Sanford; Weinstein, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Clinical trial sub-group analysis Objective To compare outcomes of different fusion techniques treating degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Summary of Background Data Surgery has been shown to be more effective than non-operative treatment out to four years.1,2 Questions remain regarding the differential effect of fusion technique. METHODS Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 states with at least 12 weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging showing stenosis and DS were studied. In addition to standard decompressive laminectomy, one of three fusion techniques was employed at the surgeon’s discretion: posterolateral in situ fusion (PLF); posterolateral instrumented fusion with pedicle screws (PPS); or PPS plus interbody fusion (360°). Main outcome measures were the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly to 4 years. The as-treated analysis combined the randomized and observational cohorts using mixed longitudinal models adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS Of 380 surgical patients, 21% (N= 80) received a PLF; 56% (N=213) received a PPS; 17% (N=63) received a 360°; and 6% (N=23) had decompression only without fusion. Early outcomes varied, favoring PLF compared to PPS at 6 weeks (PF: 12.73 vs. 6.22, p<0.020) and 3 months (PF: 25.24 vs.18.95, p<0.025) and PPS compared to 360° at 6 weeks (ODI: ?14.46 vs. ?9.30, p<0.03) and 3 months (ODI: ?22.30 vs. ?16.78, p<0.02). At two years, 360° had better outcomes: BP: 39.08 vs. 29.17 PLF, p<0.011; and vs. 29.13 PPS, p<0.002; PF; 31.93 vs. 23.27 PLF, p<0.021; and vs. 25.29 PPS, p<0.036. However, these differences were not maintained at 3- and 4-year follow-up, when there were no statistically significant differences between the three fusion groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and associated spinal stenosis, no consistent differences in clinical outcomes were seen among fusion groups over four years. PMID:19755935

  7. Medical specialty boards can help measure graduate medical education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lars E; Carek, Peter; Holmboe, Eric S; Puffer, James C; Warm, Eric J; Phillips, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    U.S. graduate medical education (GME) training institutions are under increasing scrutiny to measure program outcomes as a demonstration of accountability for the sizeable funding they receive from the federal government. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is a potential agent of measuring GME accountability but has no interaction with physicians after residency training is completed. American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) member boards interact with physicians throughout their careers through maintenance of certification (MOC) and are a potential source of valuable data on physician competency and quality of care, both of which could be used to measure GME accountability.The authors propose that ABMS boards and the ACGME deepen their existing relationship to better assess residency training outcomes. ABMS boards have a wealth of data on physicians collected as a by-product of MOC and business operations. Further, many ABMS boards collect practice demographics and scope-of-practice information through MOC enrollment surveys or recertification examination questionnaires. These data are potentially valuable in helping residencies know what their graduates are doing in practice. Part 4 of MOC generally involves assessment of the quality of care delivered in practice, and ABMS boards could share these deidentified data with the ACGME and residency programs to provide direct feedback on the practice outcomes of graduates.ABMS member boards and the ACGME should broaden their long-standing relationship to further develop shared roles and data-sharing mechanisms to better inform residencies and the public about GME training outcomes. PMID:24871232

  8. Novel mechanisms, treatments, and outcome measures in childhood sleep.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Annalisa; Smith, Anna B; Pal, Deb K; Gringras, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality are on the increase due to changes in our lifestyle, particularly in children and adolescents. Sleep disruption is also more common in children with medical conditions, compounding their difficulties. Recent studies have focused on new mechanisms that explain how learning and cognitive performance depend on a good night's sleep. Growing alongside this latest understanding is an innovative new field of non-drug interventions that improve sleep architecture, with resulting cognitive improvements. However, we need to rigorously evaluate such potentially popular and self-administered sleep interventions with equally state-of-the-art outcome measurement tools. Animated hand-held games, that incorporate embedded sleep-dependent learning tasks, promise to offer new robust methods of measuring changes in overnight learning. Portable computing technology has the potential to offer practical, inexpensive and reliable tools to indirectly assess the quality of sleep. They may be adopted in both clinical and educational settings, providing a unique way of monitoring the effect of sleep disruption on learning, leading also to a radical rethink of how we manage chronic diseases. PMID:26029140

  9. Novel mechanisms, treatments, and outcome measures in childhood sleep

    PubMed Central

    Colonna, Annalisa; Smith, Anna B.; Pal, Deb K.; Gringras, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality are on the increase due to changes in our lifestyle, particularly in children and adolescents. Sleep disruption is also more common in children with medical conditions, compounding their difficulties. Recent studies have focused on new mechanisms that explain how learning and cognitive performance depend on a good night’s sleep. Growing alongside this latest understanding is an innovative new field of non-drug interventions that improve sleep architecture, with resulting cognitive improvements. However, we need to rigorously evaluate such potentially popular and self-administered sleep interventions with equally state-of-the-art outcome measurement tools. Animated hand-held games, that incorporate embedded sleep-dependent learning tasks, promise to offer new robust methods of measuring changes in overnight learning. Portable computing technology has the potential to offer practical, inexpensive and reliable tools to indirectly assess the quality of sleep. They may be adopted in both clinical and educational settings, providing a unique way of monitoring the effect of sleep disruption on learning, leading also to a radical rethink of how we manage chronic diseases. PMID:26029140

  10. The Functional Status Score (FSS): A New Pediatric Outcome Measure

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Murray M.; Holubkov, Richard; Glass, Penny; Dean, J. Michael; Meert, Kathleen L.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Anand, K. J. S.; Carcillo, Joseph; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Objective To create a functional status outcome measure for large outcome studies that is well defined, quantitative, sufficiently rapid, reliable, minimally dependent on subjective assessments, and applicable to hospitalized pediatric patients across a wide spectrum of ages and inpatient environments. Patients and Methods The Functional Status Scale (FSS) was developed by a multidisciplinary consensus process. Domains of functioning included mental status, sensory, communication, motor, feeding, and respiratory categorized from normal (1) to very severe dysfunction (5). The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS) II established construct validity and calibration within domains. Seven institutions provided pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients within 24 hours of PICU discharge, high-risk non-PICU patients within 24 hours of admission, and technology-dependent children. Primary care nurses completed the ABAS II based on patient’s functioning when the FSS was completed. Patients from 10% of the study days were used to evaluate inter-rater reliability. Data were randomly split into estimation and validation sets. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations, construct validity, linear regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for discriminant validity, and the intraclass correlation for inter-rater reliability. Results A total of 836 children with a mean FSS of 10.3 (standard deviation 4.4) were studied. Eighteen percent had the minimum possible FSS = 6, 44% had FSS ≄ 10, 14% had a FSS ≄ 15, and 6% had FSS scores ≄ 20. Each FSS domain was associated with mean ABAS II (p<.0001). Cells in each domain were collapsed and reweighted, which improved correlations with ABAS II from −0.58 to −0.62 in the estimation sample, and −0.60 to −0.63 in the validation sample (p<0.001 for improvements). Discrimination was very good for moderate and severe dysfunction (ABAS II categories) and improved with FSS weighting (area under the ROC curve > 0.8). Intraclass correlations of original and weighted total FSS were 0.95 and 0.94 respectively. Conclusions The FSS met our objectives and is well suited for large outcome studies. PMID:19564265

  11. Generating Outcome Measurements: Achievement and Attitudes. A Guide to Educational Outcome Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministries, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with how to obtain information on…

  12. Generating Outcome Measurements: Achievement and Attitudes. A Guide to Educational Outcome Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministries, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with how to obtain information on


  13. PERFORMANCE METRICS: AN OVERVIEW OF ECOLOGICAL "OUTCOME" MEASUREMENT AT EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The terms "Accountability" and "Outcome" are becoming ubiquitous in government agencies. The impetus for demonstrating results from government-sponsored research and regulation comes from Congress (e.g., statutes like the Government Performance Results Act of 1993 and reports fro...

  14. Evaluating psychological debriefing: are we measuring the right outcomes?

    PubMed

    Deahl, M P; Srinivasan, M; Jones, N; Neblett, C; Jolly, A

    2001-07-01

    The efficacy of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) and psychological debriefing (PD) following potentially traumatising events has recently been challenged after a number of recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) failed to demonstrate that CISD or PD prevents or reduces the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These studies have used measures of PTSD as the principal outcome and have generally not measured comorbid psychopathology, behavioral or social dysfunction. In a recent RCT of group debriefing amongst British soldiers returning from peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, PD had a significant effect in reducing a worrying level of alcohol misuse in the sample. The findings of this study suggest that that it is premature to conclude that debriefing is ineffective and that a broader range of outcome measures should be employed in future trials of debriefing. PMID:11534883

  15. Understanding the outcomes measures used in Huntington disease pharmacologicaltrials: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Miciura, Angela; Migliore, Nicholas; Dayalu, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background The identification of the gene mutation causing Huntington disease has raised hopes for new treatments to ease symptoms and slow functional decline. As such, there has been a push towards designing efficient pharmacological trials (i.e., drug trials), especially with regard to selecting outcomes measures that are both brief and sensitive to changes across the course of the disease, from subtle prodromal changes, to more severe end-stage changes. Objectives Recently, to aid in efficient development of new HD research studies, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) published recommendations for measurement selection in HD. While these recommendations are helpful, many of the recommended measures have little published data in HD. As such, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify the most common outcomes measures used in HD clinical trials. Methods Major medical databases, including PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were used to identify peer-reviewed journal articles in English from 2001 through April 2013; 151 pharmacological trials were identified. Results The majority of HD clinical trials employed clinician-reported outcomes measures (93%); patient reported outcome measures (11%) and observer reported outcome measures (3%) were used with much less frequency. Conclusions We provide a review of the most commonly used measures across these trials, compare these measures to the clinical recommendations made by the NINDS working groups, and provide recommendations for selecting measures for future clinical trials that meet the Food and Drug Administration standards. PMID:25300328

  16. Measure Once, Cut Twice – Adding Patient-Reported Outcome Measures to the Electronic Health Record for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Albert W.; Kharrazi, Hadi; Boulware, L. Ebony; Snyder, Claire F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper presents the current state of patient-reported outcome measures, and explains new opportunities for leveraging the recent adoption of electronic health records to expand the application of patient-reported outcomes in both clinical care and comparative effectiveness research. Study Design and Setting Historic developments of patient-reported outcome, electronic health record, and comparative effectiveness research are analyzed in two dimensions: patient-centeredness and digitization. We pose the question: “What needs to be standardized around the collection of patient-reported outcomes in electronic health records for comparative effectiveness research?” Results We identified three converging trends: the progression of patient-reported outcomes toward greater patient centeredness and electronic adaptation; the evolution of electronic health records into personalized and fully digitized solutions; the shift toward patient-oriented comparative effectiveness research. Related to this convergence, we propose an architecture for patient-reported outcome standardization that could serve as a first step toward a more comprehensive integration of patient-reported outcomes with electronic health record for both practice and research. Conclusion The science of patient-reported outcome measurement has matured sufficiently to be integrated routinely into electronic health records and other e-health solutions to collect data on an ongoing basis for clinical care and comparative effectiveness research. Further efforts and ideally coordinated efforts from various stakeholders are needed to refine the details of the proposed framework for standardization. PMID:23849145

  17. Novel Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiddens, Harm AWM; Puderbach, Michael; Venegas, Jose G; Ratjen, Felix; Donaldson, Scott H; Davis, Stephanie D; Rowe, Steven M; Sagel, Scott D; Higgins, Mark; Waltz, David A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common inherited condition caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane regulator protein. With increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CF and the development of new therapies there comes the need to develop new outcome measures to assess the disease, its progression and response to treatment. As there are limitations to the current endpoints accepted for regulatory purposes, a workshop to discuss novel endpoints for clinical trials in CF was held in Anaheim, California in November 2011. The pros and cons of novel outcome measures with potential utility for evaluation of novel treatments in CF were critically evaluated. The highlights of the 2011 workshop and subsequent advances in technologies and techniques that could be used to inform the development of clinical trial endpoints are summarized in this review. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641878

  18. Outcome Measures of Triple Board Graduates, 1991-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Marla J.; Dunn, David W.; Rushton, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe program outcomes for the Combined Training Program in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry (Triple Board Program). Method: All Triple Board Program graduates to date (1991-2003) were asked to participate in a 37-item written survey from February to April 2004. Results: The response rate was 80.7%. Most…

  19. Creating an Assistive Technology Outcomes Measurement System: Validating the Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edyburn, Dave L.; Smith, Roger O.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of assistive technology (AT) outcomes has only recently received attention in the professional literature. As a result, there is a considerable void in the profession's ability to address contemporary questions about the value and use of AT. The purpose of this article is to highlight the theory, development, and research efforts of the…

  20. Outcomes measurement in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Gourin, Christine G

    2014-03-01

    Outcomes research is defined as clinical and population-based research that investigates the results of healthcare practices or interventions through the filter of the benefit to the patient and other stakeholders. Outcomes research is an increasingly important field or research, because of the pressing need for evidence-based information that can be used to make better informed health and healthcare decisions, and define desired health care practices in the current era of healthcare reform. This article will review the head and neck cancer (HNCA) outcomes literature published in the past year, with a focus on studies evaluating treatment and survival, short-term and long-term complications, and quality of life (QOL). PMID:24488549

  1. Outcome-Driven Thresholds for Home Blood Pressure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Niiranen, Teemu J.; Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Johansson, Jouni K.; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Boggia, José; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sandoya, Edgardo; Stergiou, George S.; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M.; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of outcome-driven operational thresholds limits the clinical application of home blood pressure (BP) measurement. Our objective was to determine an outcome-driven reference frame for home BP measurement. We measured home and clinic BP in 6470 participants (mean age, 59.3 years; 56.9% women; 22.4% on antihypertensive treatment) recruited in Ohasama, Japan (n=2520); Montevideo, Uruguay (n=399); Tsurugaya, Japan (n=811); Didima, Greece (n=665); and nationwide in Finland (n=2075). In multivariable-adjusted analyses of individual subject data, we determined home BP thresholds, which yielded 10-year cardiovascular risks similar to those associated with stages 1 (120/80 mm Hg) and 2 (130/85 mm Hg) prehypertension, and stages 1 (140/90 mm Hg) and 2 (160/100 mm Hg) hypertension on clinic measurement. During 8.3 years of follow-up (median), 716 cardiovascular end points, 294 cardiovascular deaths, 393 strokes, and 336 cardiac events occurred in the whole cohort; in untreated participants these numbers were 414, 158, 225, and 194, respectively. In the whole cohort, outcome-driven systolic/diastolic thresholds for the home BP corresponding with stages 1 and 2 prehypertension and stages 1 and 2 hypertension were 121.4/77.7, 127.4/79.9, 133.4/82.2, and 145.4/86.8 mm Hg; in 5018 untreated participants, these thresholds were 118.5/76.9, 125.2/79.7, 131.9/82.4, and 145.3/87.9 mm Hg, respectively. Rounded thresholds for stages 1 and 2 prehypertension and stages 1 and 2 hypertension amounted to 120/75, 125/80, 130/85, and 145/90 mm Hg, respectively. Population-based outcome-driven thresholds for home BP are slightly lower than those currently proposed in hypertension guidelines. Our current findings could inform guidelines and help clinicians in diagnosing and managing patients. PMID:23129700

  2. Outcome measures in MMN revisited: further improvement needed.

    PubMed

    Pruppers, Mariëlle H J; Draak, Thomas H P; Vanhoutte, Els K; Van der Pol, W-Ludo; Gorson, Kenneth C; Léger, Jean-Marc; Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo; Lewis, Richard A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of the outcome measures (OMs) applied in clinical trials in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and to determine the responsiveness of a core set of selected OMs as part of the peripheral neuropathy outcome measures standardization (PeriNomS) study. The following OMs were serially applied in 26 patients with newly diagnosed or relapsing MMN, receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (assessments: T0/T3/T12?months): 14 muscle pairs MRC (Medical Research Council) scale, the Neuropathy Impairment Scale motor-subset, a self-evaluation scale, grip strength, and MMN-RODS© (Rasch-built overall disability scale). All data, except the grip strength, were subjected to Rasch analyses before determining responsiveness. For grip strength, responsiveness was examined using a combined anchor- (SF-36 question-2) and distribution-based (œ?Ś?SD) minimum clinically important difference (MCID) techniques, determining the proportion of patients exceeding both the identified cut-offs. For the remaining scales, the magnitude of change for each patient on each scale was determined using the MCID related to the individual SE (responder definition: MCID-SE???1.96). Overall, a great assortment of measures has been used in MMN trials with different responsiveness definitions. For the selected OMs, responsiveness was poor and only seen in one fourth to one third of the patients, the grip strength being more responsive. Despite the efforts taken to standardize outcome assessment, further clinimetric responsiveness studies are needed in MMN. PMID:26115442

  3. Revision surgery for recurrent and persistent carpal tunnel syndrome: Clinical results and factors affecting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Djerbi, I; César, M; Lenoir, H; Coulet, B; Lazerges, C; Chammas, M

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-eight hands in 36 patients with recurrent or persistent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were reviewed retrospectively after a mean of 51months (range 12-86) to identify factors that may lead to poor outcomes after surgical management. Clinical assessment focused on pain and sensitivity recovery, measured with a VAS and Weber's two-point discrimination test, respectively. At the latest follow-up, we found 11 excellent, 15 good, nine fair and three poor results. The risk of fair or poor results was significantly higher in the presence of intraneural fibrosis, severe preoperative sensory deficit, neuroma of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve, workers compensation claims and number of previous surgeries. This last factor also significantly increased the risk of intraneural fibrosis. Despite disappointing outcomes, identification of these factors may improve our prognostic ability for revision surgery in cases of recurrent CTS. PMID:26545311

  4. Development of indicators for measuring outcomes of water safety plans

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Gabriella; Oswald, William E.; Hubbard, Brian; Medlin, Elizabeth; Gelting, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Water safety plans (WSPs) are endorsed by the World Health Organization as the most effective method of protecting a water supply. With the increase in WSPs worldwide, several valuable resources have been developed to assist practitioners in the implementation of WSPs, yet there is still a need for a practical and standardized method of evaluating WSP effectiveness. In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a conceptual framework for the evaluation of WSPs, presenting four key outcomes of the WSP process: institutional, operational, financial and policy change. In this paper, we seek to operationalize this conceptual framework by providing a set of simple and practical indicators for assessing WSP outcomes. Using CDC’s WSP framework as a foundation and incorporating various existing performance monitoring indicators for water utilities, we developed a set of approximately 25 indicators of institutional, operational, financial and policy change within the WSP context. These outcome indicators hold great potential for the continued implementation and expansion of WSPs worldwide. Having a defined framework for evaluating a WSP’s effectiveness, along with a set of measurable indicators by which to carry out that evaluation, will help implementers assess key WSP outcomes internally, as well as benchmark their progress against other WSPs in their region and globally. PMID:26361540

  5. Tracking Preschoolers' Language and Preliteracy Development Using a General Outcome Measurement System: One Education District's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phaneuf, Robin L.; Silberglitt, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    This article describes an application of a general outcome measurement system, Individual Growth and Development Indicators, with 68 preschoolers (ages 3-6). Results indicate the measures were easy to use; efficient in administration, scoring, and data interpretation; and provided valuable information for making early childhood education and…

  6. Engaging the hearts and minds of clinicians in outcome measurement – the UK rehabilitation outcomes collaborative approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This article explores the rationale for choosing the instruments included within the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) data set. Using one specialist neuro-rehabilitation unit as an exemplar service, it describes an approach to engaging the hearts and minds of clinicians in recording the data. Key messages and implications Measures included within a national data set for rehabilitation should be psychometrically robust and feasible to use in routine clinical practice; they should also support clinical decision-making so that clinicians actually want to use them. Learning from other international casemix models and benchmarking data sets, the UKROC team has developed a cluster of measures to inform the development of effective and cost-efficient rehabilitation services. These include measures of (1) “needs” for rehabilitation (complexity), (2) inputs provided to meet those needs (nursing and therapy intervention), and (3) outcome, including the attainment of personal goals as well as gains in functional independence. Conclusions By integrating the use of the data set measures in everyday clinical practice, we have achieved a very high rate of compliance with data collection. However, staff training and ongoing commitment from senior staff and managers are critical to the maintenance of effort required to provide assurance of data quality in the longer term. PMID:22506959

  7. Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry: Study Design and Outcome Measures.

    PubMed

    Weber LeBrun, Emily; Adam, Rony A; Barber, Matthew D; Boyles, Sarah Hamilton; Iglesia, Cheryl B; Lukacz, Emily S; Moalli, Pamela; Moen, Michael D; Richter, Holly E; Subak, Leslee L; Sung, Vivian W; Visco, Anthony G; Bradley, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders affect up to 24% of adult women in the United States, and many patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) choose to undergo surgical repair to improve their quality of life. While a variety of surgical repair approaches and techniques are utilized, including mesh augmentation, there is limited comparative effectiveness and safety outcome data guiding best practice. In conjunction with device manufacturers, federal regulatory organizations, and professional societies, the American Urogynecologic Society developed the Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry (PFDR) designed to improve the quality of POP surgery by facilitating quality improvement and research on POP treatments. The PFDR will serve as a resource for surgeons interested in benchmarking and outcomes data and as a data repository for Food and Drug Administration-mandated POP surgical device studies. Provider-reported clinical data and patient-reported outcomes will be collected prospectively at baseline and for up to 3 years after treatment. All data elements including measures of success, adverse events, and surgeon characteristics were identified and defined within the context of the anticipated multifunctionality of the registry, and with collaboration from multiple stakeholders. The PFDR will provide a platform to collect high-quality, standardized patient-level data from a variety of nonsurgical (pessary) and surgical treatments of POP and other pelvic floor disorders. Data from this registry may be used to evaluate short- and longer-term treatment outcomes, patient-reported outcomes, and complications, as well as to identify factors associated with treatment success and failure with the overall goal of improving the quality of care for women with these conditions. PMID:26825404

  8. Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty: Comparative outcomes and contemporary results.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Keith P; Kamath, Atul F

    2016-02-18

    Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty has become increasingly more popular among arthroplasty surgeons, in large part due to the use of an intramuscular interval and desire to reduce soft tissue damage. Several studies have now been published comparing the anterior intramuscular to other commonly used approaches, and many studies have published complication rates on large series of patients. Review of comparative studies indicates direct anterior hips tend towards shorter hospital stays and high rates of patients discharged to home. Although some studies show evidence of early benefit in functional outcomes, there is no strong evidence that the anterior approach provides any long term functional improvements compared to other approaches. Additionally, evidence to support reduced damage to soft tissue may not translate to certain clinical significance. Rates of intra-operative femur fracture, operative time and blood loss rates are notably higher for those developing familiarity with this approach. However, when surgeons have performed a modest number of procedures, the complication rates tend to markedly decrease in most studies to levels comparable to other approaches. Accuracy of component positioning also favors the anterior approach in some studies. This review summarizes the available literature comparing the direct anterior to other approaches for total hip arthroplasty and provides a comprehensive summary of common complications. PMID:26925380

  9. Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty: Comparative outcomes and contemporary results

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Keith P; Kamath, Atul F

    2016-01-01

    Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty has become increasingly more popular among arthroplasty surgeons, in large part due to the use of an intramuscular interval and desire to reduce soft tissue damage. Several studies have now been published comparing the anterior intramuscular to other commonly used approaches, and many studies have published complication rates on large series of patients. Review of comparative studies indicates direct anterior hips tend towards shorter hospital stays and high rates of patients discharged to home. Although some studies show evidence of early benefit in functional outcomes, there is no strong evidence that the anterior approach provides any long term functional improvements compared to other approaches. Additionally, evidence to support reduced damage to soft tissue may not translate to certain clinical significance. Rates of intra-operative femur fracture, operative time and blood loss rates are notably higher for those developing familiarity with this approach. However, when surgeons have performed a modest number of procedures, the complication rates tend to markedly decrease in most studies to levels comparable to other approaches. Accuracy of component positioning also favors the anterior approach in some studies. This review summarizes the available literature comparing the direct anterior to other approaches for total hip arthroplasty and provides a comprehensive summary of common complications. PMID:26925380

  10. Streptococcus Endophthalmitis Outbreak after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab: One-year Outcomes and Investigative Results

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Roger A.; Flynn, Harry W.; Miller, Darlene; Gonzalez, Serafin; Isom, Ryan F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the one-year clinical outcomes of an outbreak of Streptococcus endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, including visual acuity outcomes, microbiological testing and compound pharmacy investigations by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Design Retrospective consecutive case series. Participants 12 eyes of 12 patients who developed endophthalmitis after receiving intravitreal bevacizumab prepared by a single compounding pharmacy. Methods Medical records of patients were reviewed; phenotypic and DNA analyses were performed on microbes cultured from patients and from unused syringes. An inspection report by the FDA based on site-visits to the pharmacy that prepared the bevacizumab syringes was summarized. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, interventions received, time-to-intervention; microbiological consistency; FDA inspection findings. Results Between July 5 and July 8, 2011, 12 patients developed endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab from syringes prepared by a single compounding pharmacy. All patients received initial vitreous tap and injection, and eight (67%) subsequently underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). After twelve months follow-up, outcomes have been poor: 7 patients (58%) required evisceration or enucleation, and only one patient regained pre-injection visual acuity. Molecular testing using real time polymerase chain reaction, partial sequencing of the groEL gene, and multilocus sequencing of 7 housekeeping genes confirmed the presence of a common strain of Streptococcus mitis/oralis in vitreous specimens and seven unused syringes prepared by the compounding pharmacy at the same time. An FDA investigation of the compounding pharmacy noted deviations from standard sterile technique, inconsistent documentation, and inadequate testing of equipment required for safe preparation of medications. Conclusions In this outbreak of endophthalmitis, outcomes have been generally poor and PPV did not improve visual results at one year follow-up. Molecular testing confirmed a common strain of Streptococcus mitis/oralis. Contamination appears to have occurred at the compounding pharmacy, where numerous problems in sterile technique were noted by public health investigators. PMID:23453511

  11. Outcome measures for routine use in dementia services: some practical considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Higginson, I J; Jefferys, P M; Hodgson, C S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To work with specialist community teams to assess the practicality and acceptability of identified outcome measures for routine use in dementia services. SETTING: Seven specialist dementia services: four multidisciplinary teams, a specialist service for carers, a community psychiatric nurse team, and a day hospital. SUBJECTS: 20 members of staff from the specialist dementia services including psychiatry, community psychiatric nursing, social work, occupational therapy, Admiral nursing, ward management, geriatric nursing. MAIN MEASURE: A questionnaire designed to assess staff views on the use of six outcome measures in routine practice in terms of practicality, relevance, acceptability, and use in improving care. RESULTS: Each of the outcome measures took 15 to 30 minutes to administer. All were rated as easy to use and as relevant to dementia services and to carers. Staff commented that the measures could be useful in routine practice for structured assessment and service evaluation, but highlighted the need for sensitive use of measures with carers. CONCLUSIONS: These measures consider the main domains of functioning for people with dementia and their carers. The measures are suitable for use in routine practice in dementia services and are acceptable to staff and carers. The project underlined the need for management support, staff ownership of measures, and training in using outcome measures. Staff concerns about service evaluation need to be acknowledged. PMID:10173768

  12. Cognitive and academic outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) results.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, L G; Neighbors, K; Martz, K; Zelko, F; Bucuvalas, J C; Alonso, E M

    2011-02-01

    This multicenter study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). One hundred and forty-four patients ages 5-7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7 ± 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7 ± 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1 ± 15.4; p < 0001). Twenty-six percent of patients (14% expected) had 'mild to moderate' IQ delays (Full Scale IQ = 71-85) and 4% (2% expected) had 'serious' delays (Full Scale IQ ? 70; p < 0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC statistics (p < 0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p < 0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population. PMID:21272236

  13. Health outcomes in diabetics measured with Minnesota Community Measurement quality metrics

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Paul Y; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Robert M; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Ebbert, Jon O

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to understand the relationship between optimal diabetes control, as defined by Minnesota Community Measurement (MCM), and adverse health outcomes including emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, 30-day rehospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality. Patients and methods In 2009, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of empaneled Employee and Community Health patients with diabetes mellitus. We followed patients from 1 September 2009 until 30 June 2011 for hospitalization and until 5 January 2014 for mortality. Optimal control of diabetes mellitus was defined as achieving the following three measures: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol <100 mg/mL, blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, and hemoglobin A1c <8%. Using the electronic medical record, we assessed hospitalizations, ED visits, ICU stays, 30-day rehospitalizations, and mortality. The chi-square or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare those with and without optimal control. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the associations between optimal diabetes mellitus status and each outcome. Results We identified 5,731 empaneled patients with diabetes mellitus; 2,842 (49.6%) were in the optimal control category. After adjustment, we observed that non-optimally controlled patients had higher risks for hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.23), ED visits (HR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06–1.25), and mortality (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.09–1.53) than diabetic patients with optimal control. No differences were observed in ICU stay or 30-day rehospitalization. Conclusion Diabetic patients without optimal control had higher risks of adverse health outcomes than those with optimal control. Patients with optimal control defined by the MCM were associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:25565873

  14. Patient-reported outcome measures for hip preservation surgery—a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ramisetty, N.; Kwon, Y.; Mohtadi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hip preservation surgery is rapidly advancing and patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are becoming an integral part of measuring treatment effectiveness. Traditionally the modified Harris hip score has been used as the main outcome measure. More recently, new PRO tools in the field have been developed. We performed a systematic review of the English literature from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and SPORTDiscus databases to identify the PRO tools used in hip preservation surgery. Our aim was to critically appraise the quality of the questionnaire properties in order to recommend the most appropriate PRO tool for future use. Measurement properties of each PRO questionnaire were rated from excellent to poor, based on Terwee criteria and the results from the included studies. Six PRO tools were identified with description or comparison of their measurement properties in 10 articles. While, most recently developed PRO tools, the hip outcome score (HOS), the Copenhagen hip and groin outcome score (HAGOS) and the international hip outcome tool (iHOT-33) scored better than the others in their measurement properties, iHOT-33 scored the best of all the PRO tools and is recommended for future use in hip preservation surgery.

  15. Patient-reported outcome measures in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Matary, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used in both research and clinical health settings. With the recent development of United States Food and Drug Administration guidance on PROMs, more attention is being devoted to their role and importance in health care. Several methodological challenges in the development, validation and implementation of PROMs must be resolved to ensure their appropriate utilization and interpretation. The present review discusses recent developments and updates in PROMs, with specific focus on the area of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25390615

  16. Use of the measure your medical outcome profile (MYMOP2) and W-BQ12 (Well-Being) outcomes measures to evaluate chiropractic treatment: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective was to assess the use of the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP2) and W-BQ12 well-being questionnaire for measuring clinical change associated with a course of chiropractic treatment. Methods Chiropractic care of the patients involved spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), mechanically assisted techniques, soft tissue therapy, and physiological therapeutic devices. Outcome measures used were MYMOP2 and the Well-Being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12). Results Statistical and clinical significant changes were demonstrated with W-BQ12 and MYMOP2. Conclusions The study demonstrated that MYMOP2 was responsive to change and may be a useful instrument for assessing clinical changes among chiropractic patients who present with a variety of symptoms and clinical conditions. PMID:21418608

  17. Using ‘dead or dependent’ as an outcome measure in clinical trials in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, David; Parker, Alexander; Fielding, Shona; Zajicek, John; Counsell, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Simple, robust, sensitive and clinically meaningful outcome measures are required for neuroprotective trials in Parkinson's disease (PD). We explored the feasibility of a composite binary outcome measure, ‘dead or dependent’, in such trials using data from a prospective follow-up study of an incident cohort of PD patients. Methods Two hundred incident patients had an annual follow-up, including assessment of the Hoehn-Yahr stage (H-Y) and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S&E). Annual scores were converted into binary variables (H-Y <3 vs H-Y ?3, and S&E ?80% vs S&E <80%). A new outcome of ‘dead or dependent’ was also created, with dependence in activities of daily living defined as S&E <80%. Using these data, sample sizes were calculated for a hypothetical three-year randomised trial in which the trial outcome was defined by a binary clinical variable, all-cause mortality, or PD-related mortality. Results At 3?years, 18.0% of patients were dead and 38.4% were dead or dependent. At 80% power, large sample sizes were required if PD-related mortality (n=1938 per study arm) or all-cause mortality (n=734) were used as the outcome, even for large treatment effects (30% reduction in relative risk). The new outcome of ‘death or dependency’ required the smallest sample sizes of all the outcome measures (n=277 for 30% reduction in relative risk, 627 for a 20% reduction). Conclusions ‘Death or dependency’ is a feasible and potentially useful outcome measure in PD trials of neuroprotective agents, but further work is required to validate its use and define dependency. PMID:24854405

  18. Longitudinal evaluation of patient-reported outcomes measurement information systems measures in pediatric chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Carle, Adam; Barnett, Kimberly; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Sherry, David D; Mara, Constance A; Cunningham, Natoshia; Farrell, Jennifer; Tress, Jenna; DeWitt, Esi Morgan

    2016-02-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative is a comprehensive strategy by the National Institutes of Health to support the development and validation of precise instruments to assess self-reported health domains across healthy and disease-specific populations. Much progress has been made in instrument development, but there remains a gap in the validation of PROMIS measures for pediatric chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity and responsiveness to change of 7 PROMIS domains for the assessment of children (ages: 8-18) with chronic pain-Pain Interference, Fatigue, Anxiety, Depression, Mobility, Upper Extremity Function, and Peer Relationships. The PROMIS measures were administered at the initial visit and 2 follow-up visits at an outpatient chronic pain clinic (CPC; N = 82) and at an intensive amplified musculoskeletal pain day-treatment program (N = 63). Aim 1 examined construct validity of PROMIS measures by comparing them with corresponding "legacy" measures administered as part of usual care in the CPC sample. Aim 2 examined sensitivity to change in both CPC and amplified musculoskeletal pain samples. Longitudinal growth models showed that PROMIS' Pain Interference, Anxiety, Depression, Mobility, Upper Extremity, and Peer Relationship measures and legacy instruments generally performed similarly with slightly steeper slopes of improvement in legacy measures. All 7 PROMIS domains showed responsiveness to change. Results offered initial support for the validity of PROMIS measures in pediatric chronic pain. Further validation with larger and more diverse pediatric pain samples and additional legacy measures would broaden the scope of use of PROMIS in clinical research. PMID:26447704

  19. Composite spirometric-computed tomography outcome measure in early cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Terry E; Leung, Ann N; Northway, William H; Blankenberg, Francis G; Chan, Frandics P; Bloch, Daniel A; Holmes, Tyson H; Moss, Richard B

    2003-09-01

    With the advent of therapies aimed at young patients with cystic fibrosis, who have mildly reduced pulmonary function, the need for improved outcome measures that discriminate treatment effects has become important. Pulmonary function measurements or chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scores have been separately used to assess interventions. We evaluated these modalities separately and together during a treatment study to develop a more sensitive outcome measure. In a 1-year trial, 25 children randomized either to daily Pulmozyme or to normal saline aerosol were evaluated at randomization and at 3 and 12 months. Outcome variables were pulmonary function test (PFT) results, a global HRCT score, and a composite score incorporating PFTs and HRCT scoring. Regression analyses with generalized estimating equations permitted estimation of the difference in treatment effect between groups over time for each outcome. The largest difference in treatment effects observed at 12 months, measured by the percentage change from baseline, were with the composite total and maximal CT/PFT scores (35.4 and 30.4%), compared with mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75%) (13.0%) and total and maximal global HRCT scores (6.2%, 7.2%). The composite total and maximal CT/PFT scores were the most sensitive outcome measures for discriminating a treatment effect in children with cystic fibrosis with normal or mildly reduced pulmonary function during a 1-year trial of Pulmozyme. PMID:12746252

  20. Selecting Rehabilitation Outcome Measures for People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Evan T; Potter, Kirsten; Allen, Diane D; Bennett, Susan E; Brandfass, Kathi G; Widener, Gail L; Yorke, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of using standardized outcome measures (OMs) in clinical practice, a variety of barriers interfere with their use. In particular, rehabilitation therapists lack sufficient knowledge in selecting appropriate OMs. The challenge is compounded when working with people with multiple sclerosis (MS) owing to heterogeneity of the patient population and symptom variability in individual patients. To help overcome these barriers, the American Physical Therapy Association appointed the Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Measures Task Force to review and make evidence-based recommendations for OM use in clinical practice, education, and research specific to people with MS. Sixty-three OMs were reviewed based on their clinical utility, psychometric properties, and a consensus evaluation of the appropriateness of use for people with MS. We sought to illustrate use of the recommendations for two cases. The first case involves a 43-year-old man with new-onset problems after an exacerbation. The second case pertains to an outpatient clinic interested in assessing the effectiveness of their MS rehabilitation program. For each case, clinicians identified areas that were important to assess and various factors deemed important for OM selection. Criteria were established and used to assist in OM selection. In both cases, the described processes narrowed the selection of OMs and assisted with choosing the most appropriate ones. The recommendations, in addition to the processes described in these two cases, can be used by clinicians in any setting working with patients with MS across the disability spectrum. PMID:26300704

  1. Selecting Rehabilitation Outcome Measures for People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Kirsten; Allen, Diane D.; Bennett, Susan E.; Brandfass, Kathi G.; Widener, Gail L.; Yorke, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of using standardized outcome measures (OMs) in clinical practice, a variety of barriers interfere with their use. In particular, rehabilitation therapists lack sufficient knowledge in selecting appropriate OMs. The challenge is compounded when working with people with multiple sclerosis (MS) owing to heterogeneity of the patient population and symptom variability in individual patients. To help overcome these barriers, the American Physical Therapy Association appointed the Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Measures Task Force to review and make evidence-based recommendations for OM use in clinical practice, education, and research specific to people with MS. Sixty-three OMs were reviewed based on their clinical utility, psychometric properties, and a consensus evaluation of the appropriateness of use for people with MS. We sought to illustrate use of the recommendations for two cases. The first case involves a 43-year-old man with new-onset problems after an exacerbation. The second case pertains to an outpatient clinic interested in assessing the effectiveness of their MS rehabilitation program. For each case, clinicians identified areas that were important to assess and various factors deemed important for OM selection. Criteria were established and used to assist in OM selection. In both cases, the described processes narrowed the selection of OMs and assisted with choosing the most appropriate ones. The recommendations, in addition to the processes described in these two cases, can be used by clinicians in any setting working with patients with MS across the disability spectrum. PMID:26300704

  2. A robust Bell inequality without two-outcome measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plick, William; Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel Bell inequality that does not require dichotomic (two-outcome) measurements. It is based on an inequality originally derived by Wigner in 1969, extending it such that no assumptions other than local-realism, fair-sampling, and freedom-of-choice are necessary. It is most useful in situations where there is no direct access to true two-outcome (dichotomic) measurements, like photonic quantum experiments where spatial degrees-of-freedoms are analyzed with spatial light modulators (SLMs), as well as many other experimental scenarios. The only other class of inequalities (CH-type) that has this feature requires coincidence and singles rates to be of the same order of magnitude for violation, ours does not. It thereby enables the stringent verification of entanglement and rejection of local-realism, without any assumptions about the underlying Hilbert-space, such as dimensionality - in the most difficult experimental conditions. We also experimentally violate this inequality in a novel setup: entangled states of very high orbital angular momentum. This constitutes a rejection of the hypothesis of local realism (under reasonable assumptions) with the highest quanta to date.

  3. Formal distinction between quantum states and outcomes of their measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi Madjid, F.; Myers, John M.

    1997-05-01

    By separating descriptions of instruments from experience with their use, we consider instruments built and used to prepare quantum states before their mathematical descriptions are known, while these are under investigation. A quantum description of a preparing instrument involves: (1) a prior probability distribution of the states, and (2) the order in which they occur in a sequence. Optimal measurement of the order of occurrence of states requires knowledge of the prior distribution of states. But this is unknown, and a formal distinction between probabilities of quantum states, on the one hand, and relative frequencies of outcomes of the measurement of these states, on the other, makes the prior distribution depend irreducibly on hypotheses. The relation of such hypotheses to the exploration of correlations between states prepared by one preparing instrument and states prepared by another is discussed.

  4. Quantum interferometry with binary-outcome measurements in the presence of phase diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X. M.; Jin, G. R.; Yang, W.

    2014-07-01

    Optimal measurement scheme with an efficient data processing is important in quantum-enhanced interferometry. Here we prove that for a general binary-outcome measurement, the simplest data processing based on inverting the average signal can saturate the Cramér-Rao bound. This idea is illustrated by binary-outcome homodyne detection, even-odd photon counting (i.e., parity detection), and zero-nonzero photon counting that have achieved super-resolved interferometric fringe and shot-noise limited sensitivity in coherent-light Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The roles of phase diffusion are investigated in these binary-outcome measurements. We find that the diffusion degrades the fringe resolution and the achievable phase sensitivity. Our analytical results confirm that the zero-nonzero counting can produce a slightly better sensitivity than that of the parity detection, as demonstrated in a recent experiment.

  5. Measuring the Outcome of Biomedical Research: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Thonon, Frédérique; Boulkedid, Rym; Delory, Tristan; Rousseau, Sophie; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim; O’Neill, Claire; Alberti, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1) to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2) enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points. Methodology We have searched 3 databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science) using the following keywords: [Research outcome* OR research output* OR bibliometric* OR scientometric* OR scientific production] AND [indicator* OR index* OR evaluation OR metrics]. We included articles presenting, discussing or evaluating indicators measuring the scientific production of an institution. The search was conducted by two independent authors using a standardised data extraction form. For each indicator we extracted its definition, calculation, its rationale and its positive and negative points. In order to reduce bias, data extraction and analysis was performed by two independent authors. Findings We included 76 articles. A total of 57 indicators were identified. We have classified those indicators into 6 categories: 9 indicators of research activity, 24 indicators of scientific production and impact, 5 indicators of collaboration, 7 indicators of industrial production, 4 indicators of dissemination, 8 indicators of health service impact. The most widely discussed and described is the h-index with 31 articles discussing it. Discussion The majority of indicators found are bibliometric indicators of scientific production and impact. Several indicators have been developed to improve the h-index. This indicator has also inspired the creation of two indicators to measure industrial production and collaboration. Several articles propose indicators measuring research impact without detailing a methodology for calculating them. Many bibliometric indicators identified have been created but have not been used or further discussed. PMID:25837969

  6. Current practices for measuring mental health outcomes in the USA: International overview of routine outcome measures in mental health.

    PubMed

    Essock, Susan M; Olfson, Mark; Hogan, Michael F

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence and impact of mental health conditions calls for measuring the adequacy of care, but progress in measuring mental health outcomes in the USA has been uneven, with some important domains (such as employment and other measures of everyday functioning) rarely captured. Bright spots include progress in adopting uniform measures of the quality of inpatient mental healthcare and early progress in measuring adequacy of medication and psychotherapy treatment. To some extent, progress in measurement has been limited by separate governing structures and payment rules in mental health and overall health settings. This is becoming a critical problem as awareness of the scope and impact of mental health co-morbidities emerges at the same time as pressures for healthcare cost controls intensify. A search for better measures may be accelerated as problems linked to co-morbid mental health problems (e.g. readmission to hospitals) come into sharper focus due to changes in healthcare financing related to the US Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 2010. PMID:25800077

  7. Recent results from tokamak divertor plasma measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. L.

    1997-02-01

    New diagnostics have been developed to address key divertor physics questions, including: target plate heat flux reduction by radiation, basic edge transport issues, and plasma wall interactions (PWIs) such as erosion. A system of diagnostics measures the target plate heat flux (imaging ir thermography) and particle flux (probes, pressure and Penning gauges, and visible emission arrays). Recently, Te, ne, and Pe (electron pressure) have been measured in two-dimensions (2D) with divertor Thomson Scattering. During radiative divertor operation Te is less than 2 eV, indicating that new atomic processes are important. Langmuir probes measure higher Te in some cases. In addition, the measured Pe near the separatrix at the target plate is lower than the midplane pressure, implying radial momentum transport. Bolometer arrays, inverted with reconstruction algorithms, provide the two-dimensional core and divertor radiation profiles. Spectroscopic measurements identify the radiating species and provide information on impurity transport; both absolute chordal measurements and tomographic reconstructions of images are used. Either intrinsic carbon or an inert species (e.g., injected Ne) are usually observed, and absolute particle inventories are obtained. Computer codes are both benchmarked with the experimental data and provide important consistency checks. Several techniques are used to measure fundamental plasma transport and fluctuations, including probes and reflectometry. PWI issues are studied with in situ coupons and insertable samples (DiMES). Representative divertor results from DIII-D with references to results on other tokamaks will be presented.

  8. Measuring Satisfaction with Mammography Results Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Nancy C; Feinglass, Joe; Priyanath, Aparna; Haviley, Corrine; Sorensen, Asta V; Venta, Luz A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated with patient satisfaction with communication of mammography results and their understanding and ability to recall these results. DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. SETTING Academic breast imaging center. PATIENTS Two hundred ninety-eight patients who had either a screening or diagnostic mammogram. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Survey items assessed waiting time for results, anxiety about results, satisfaction with several components of results reporting, and patients' understanding of results and recommendations. Women undergoing screening exams were more likely to be dissatisfied with the way the results were communicated than those who underwent diagnostic exams and received immediate results (20% vs 11%, P = .05). For these screening patients, waiting for more than two weeks for notification of results, difficulty getting in touch with someone to answer questions, low ratings of how clearly results were explained, and considerable or extreme anxiety about the results were all independently associated with dissatisfaction with the way the results were reported, while age and actual exam result were not. CONCLUSIONS Patients undergoing screening mammograms were more likely to be dissatisfied with the way the results were communicated than were those who underwent diagnostic mammograms. Interventions to reduce the wait time for results, reduce patients' anxiety, and improve the clarity with which the results and recommendations are given may help improve overall satisfaction with mammography result reporting. PMID:11318910

  9. Technical Characteristics of General Outcome Measures (GOMs) in Reading for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri; Ticha, Renata; Gustafson, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the technical characteristics of newly created general outcome measures (GOMs) in reading for students with significant cognitive disabilities. The participants were 31 students with significant cognitive disabilities, and the GOMs used produced reliable data. Early results establishing the validity of the GOMs suggest that…

  10. The King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury and Injury Severity and Outcome Measures in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sophie; Miller, Helen E.; Curran, Andrew; Hameed, Biju; McCarter, Renee; Edwards, Richard J.; Hunt, Linda; Sharples, Peta Mary

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate discharge King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) category to injury severity and detailed outcome measures obtained in the first year post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used a prospective cohort study. Eighty-one children with TBI were studied: 29 had severe, 15 moderate, and 37 mild TBI. The…

  11. The King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury and Injury Severity and Outcome Measures in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sophie; Miller, Helen E.; Curran, Andrew; Hameed, Biju; McCarter, Renee; Edwards, Richard J.; Hunt, Linda; Sharples, Peta Mary

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate discharge King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) category to injury severity and detailed outcome measures obtained in the first year post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used a prospective cohort study. Eighty-one children with TBI were studied: 29 had severe, 15 moderate, and 37 mild TBI. The


  12. Development of the FOCUS (Focus on the Outcomes of Communication under Six), a Communication Outcome Measure for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Stonell, Nancy L.; Oddson, Bruce; Robertson, Bernadette; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to develop an outcome measure, called Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS), that captures real-world changes in preschool children's communication. Conceptually grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework, the FOCUS items were derived…

  13. Exploring the Implementation and Use of Outcome Measurement in Practice: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeat, J.; Perry, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Outcome measurement is important to clinical practice--yet outcome many speech and language therapists find it difficult to apply measures in practice, and not all clinicians and services have been able to implement and/or use outcome measurement successfully. To date there has been little research to explain why implementation is…

  14. What can we learn from the ongoing challenge to implement routine outcome measures?

    PubMed

    Goldman, Howard H; Seybolt, Diana

    2015-08-01

    Routine outcomes measurement is important for clinical care, quality improvement, and performance management. The nine papers in this special volume describe national and regional efforts at implementation of outcomes measures in nine different countries. They describe successes and challenges. This special collection of papers makes an important contribution towards improving the implementation of routine outcomes measurement globally. PMID:26244418

  15. Using Cross-Cultural Dimensions Exercises to Improve and Measure Learning Outcomes in International Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuba, Mohamed; Rahal, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an approach for using cross-cultural dimensions exercises to improve and measure learning outcomes in international business courses. The following key issues are highlighted: (a) what are the targeted learning outcomes to be assessed, (b) how to measure the accomplishment of these learning outcomes, (c) the input measures…

  16. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  17. Network measures predict neuropsychological outcome after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Warren, David E.; Power, Jonathan D.; Bruss, Joel; Denburg, Natalie L.; Waldron, Eric J.; Sun, Haoxin; Petersen, Steven E.; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Hubs are network components that hold positions of high importance for network function. Previous research has identified hubs in human brain networks derived from neuroimaging data; however, there is little consensus on the localization of such hubs. Moreover, direct evidence regarding the role of various proposed hubs in network function (e.g., cognition) is scarce. Regions of the default mode network (DMN) have been frequently identified as “cortical hubs” of brain networks. On theoretical grounds, we have argued against some of the methods used to identify these hubs and have advocated alternative approaches that identify different regions of cortex as hubs. Our framework predicts that our proposed hub locations may play influential roles in multiple aspects of cognition, and, in contrast, that hubs identified via other methods (including salient regions in the DMN) might not exert such broad influence. Here we used a neuropsychological approach to directly test these predictions by studying long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes in 30 patients, 19 with focal lesions to six “target” hubs identified by our approaches (high system density and participation coefficient) and 11 with focal lesions to two “control” hubs (high degree centrality). In support of our predictions, we found that damage to target locations produced severe and widespread cognitive deficits, whereas damage to control locations produced more circumscribed deficits. These findings support our interpretation of how neuroimaging-derived network measures relate to cognition and augment classic neuroanatomically based predictions about cognitive and behavioral outcomes after focal brain injury. PMID:25225403

  18. Neighbourhood social capital: measurement issues and associations with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, J D; Lakerveld, J; van Lenthe, F J; Kawachi, I; McKee, M; Rutter, H; Glonti, K; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Feuillet, T; Oppert, J-M; Nijpels, G; Brug, J

    2016-01-01

    We compared ecometric neighbourhood scores of social capital (contextual variation) to mean neighbourhood scores (individual and contextual variation), using several health-related outcomes (i.e. self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours). Data were analysed from 5,900 participants in the European SPOTLIGHT survey. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. The associations of ecometric and mean neighbourhood-level scores of these constructs with self-rated health, weight status and obesity-related behaviours were analysed using multilevel regression analyses, adjusted for key covariates. Analyses using ecometric and mean neighbourhood scores, but not mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, yielded similar regression coefficients. Higher levels of social network and social cohesion were not only associated with better self-rated health, lower odds of obesity and higher fruit consumption, but also with prolonged sitting and less transport-related physical activity. Only associations with transport-related physical activity and sedentary behaviours were associated with mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores. As analyses using ecometric scores generated the same results as using mean neighbourhood scores, but different results when using mean neighbourhood scores adjusted for individual scores, this suggests that the theoretical advantage of the ecometric approach (i.e. teasing out individual and contextual variation) may not be achieved in practice. The different operationalisations of social network and social cohesion were associated with several health outcomes, but the constructs that appeared to represent the contextual variation best were only associated with two of the outcomes. PMID:26879117

  19. Caudate volume as an outcome measure in clinical trials for Huntington's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aylward, E H; Rosenblatt, A; Field, K; Yallapragada, V; Kieburtz, K; McDermott, M; Raymond, L A; Almqvist, E W; Hayden, M; Ross, C A

    2003-12-15

    Previous research has demonstrated that longitudinal change in caudate volume could be observed over a period of 3 years in subjects with Huntington's disease (HD). The current pilot study was designed to determine whether measurement of caudate change on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a feasible and valid outcome measure in an actual clinical trial situation. We measured caudate volumes on pre- and post-treatment MRI scans from 19 patients at two sites who were participating in CARE-HD (Co-enzyme Q10 and Remacemide: Evaluation in Huntington's Disease), a 30-month clinical trial of remacemide and co-enzyme Q(10) in symptomatic patients with HD. Results from this pilot study indicated that decrease in caudate volume was significant over time. Power analysis indicated that relatively small numbers of subjects would be needed in clinical trials using caudate volume as an outcome measure. Advantages and disadvantages of using MRI caudate volume as an outcome measure are presented. We recommend the adoption of quantitative neuroimaging of caudate volume as an outcome measure in future clinical trials for treatments of HD. PMID:14638387

  20. Can We Convert Between Outcome Measures of Disability for Chronic Low Back Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Tom; Stallard, Nigel; Underwood, Martin; Patel, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective database analysis. Objective. A range of patient-reported outcomes were used to measure disability due to low back pain. There is not a single back pain disability measurement commonly used in all randomized controlled trials. We report here our assessment as to whether different disability measures are sufficiently comparable to allow data pooling across trials. Summary of Background Data. We used individual patient data from a repository of data from back pain trials of therapist-delivered interventions. Methods. We used data from 11 trials (n = 6089 patients) that had at least 2 of the following 7 measurements: Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Chronic Pain Grade disability score, Physical Component Summary of the 12- or 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, Patient Specific Functional Scale, Pain Disability Index, Oswestry Disability Index, and Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire. Within each trial, the change score between baseline and short-term follow-up was computed for each outcome and this was used to calculate the correlation between the change scores and the Cohen's ? for the 3-level outcome of change score of less than, equal to, and more than zero. It was considered feasible to pool 2 measures if they were at least moderately correlated (correlation >0.5) and have at least moderately similar responsiveness (? > 0.4). Results. Although all pairs of measures were found to be positively correlated, most correlations were less than 0.5, with only 1 pair of outcomes in 1 trial having a correlation of more than 0.6. All ? statistics were less than 0.4 so that in no cases were the criteria for acceptability of pooling measures satisfied. Conclusion. The lack of agreement between different outcome measures means that pooling of data on these different disability measurements in a meta-analysis is not recommended. Level of Evidence: 2 PMID:25955090

  1. Long-Term Outcomes of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Eight-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna; Abdu, William A; Zhao, Wenyan; Morgan, Tamara S.; Weinstein, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Randomized trial with a concurrent observational cohort study Objective To compare 8-year outcomes of surgery to non-operative care for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (SpS) Summary of Background Data Surgery for SpS has been shown to be more effective compared to non-operative treatment over four years, but longer-term data is less clear. Methods Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 U.S. states with at least 12 weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging were enrolled in a randomized cohort (RCT) or observational cohort (OBS). Treatment was standard decompressive laminectomy versus standard non-operative care. Primary outcomes were SF-36 bodily pain (BP) and physical function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability index (ODI) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and yearly up to 8 years. Results 55% of RCT and 52% of OBS participants provided data at the 8-year follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses showed no differences between randomized cohorts; however, 70% of those randomized to surgery and 52% of those randomized to non-operative had undergone surgery by 8 years. As-treated analyses in the RCT showed the early benefit for surgery out to 4 years converged over time with no significant treatment effect of surgery seen in years 6–8 for any of the primary outcomes. In contrast, the OBS group showed a stable advantage for surgery in all outcomes between years 5–8. Patients who were lost to follow-up were older, less well-educated, sicker, and had worse outcomes over the first 2 years in both surgery and non-operative arms. Conclusions Patients with symptomatic spinal stenosis show diminishing benefits of surgery in as-treated analyses of the RCT between 4–8 years while outcomes in the OBS group remained stable. Loss to follow-up of patients with worse early outcomes in both treatment groups could lead to overestimates of long-term outcomes, but likely not bias treatment effect estimates. PMID:25569524

  2. Systematic review of tools to measure outcomes for young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed Central

    McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R; Glod, Magdalena; Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Oono, Inalegwu P; Robalino, Shannon; Baird, Gillian; Beresford, Bryony; Charman, Tony; Garland, Deborah; Green, Jonathan; Gringras, Paul; Jones, Glenys; Law, James; Le Couteur, Ann S; Macdonald, Geraldine; McColl, Elaine M; Morris, Christopher; Rodgers, Jacqueline; Simonoff, Emily; Terwee, Caroline B; Williams, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The needs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are complex and this is reflected in the number and diversity of outcomes assessed and measurement tools used to collect evidence about children's progress. Relevant outcomes include improvement in core ASD impairments, such as communication, social awareness, sensory sensitivities and repetitiveness; skills such as social functioning and play; participation outcomes such as social inclusion; and parent and family impact. OBJECTIVES To examine the measurement properties of tools used to measure progress and outcomes in children with ASD up to the age of 6 years. To identify outcome areas regarded as important by people with ASD and parents. METHODS The MeASURe (Measurement in Autism Spectrum disorder Under Review) research collaboration included ASD experts and review methodologists. We undertook systematic review of tools used in ASD early intervention and observational studies from 1992 to 2013; systematic review, using the COSMIN checklist (Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments) of papers addressing the measurement properties of identified tools in children with ASD; and synthesis of evidence and gaps. The review design and process was informed throughout by consultation with stakeholders including parents, young people with ASD, clinicians and researchers. RESULTS The conceptual framework developed for the review was drawn from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including the domains 'Impairments', 'Activity Level Indicators', 'Participation', and 'Family Measures'. In review 1, 10,154 papers were sifted - 3091 by full text - and data extracted from 184; in total, 131 tools were identified, excluding observational coding, study-specific measures and those not in English. In review 2, 2665 papers were sifted and data concerning measurement properties of 57 (43%) tools were extracted from 128 papers. Evidence for the measurement properties of the reviewed tools was combined with information about their accessibility and presentation. Twelve tools were identified as having the strongest supporting evidence, the majority measuring autism characteristics and problem behaviour. The patchy evidence and limited scope of outcomes measured mean these tools do not constitute a 'recommended battery' for use. In particular, there is little evidence that the identified tools would be good at detecting change in intervention studies. The obvious gaps in available outcome measurement include well-being and participation outcomes for children, and family quality-of-life outcomes, domains particularly valued by our informants (young people with ASD and parents). CONCLUSIONS This is the first systematic review of the quality and appropriateness of tools designed to monitor progress and outcomes of young children with ASD. Although it was not possible to recommend fully robust tools at this stage, the review consolidates what is known about the field and will act as a benchmark for future developments. With input from parents and other stakeholders, recommendations are made about priority targets for research. FUTURE WORK Priorities include development of a tool to measure child quality of life in ASD, and validation of a potential primary outcome tool for trials of early social communication intervention. STUDY REGISTRATION This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42012002223. FUNDING The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme. PMID:26065374

  3. Implementation of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in U.S. Total Joint Replacement Registries: Rationale, Status, and Plans

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Patricia D.; Lewallen, David; Bozic, Kevin; Hallstrom, Brian; Jiranek, William; Ayers, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the U.S. and abroad, the use of patient-reported outcome measures to evaluate the impact of total joint replacement surgery on patient quality of life is increasingly common. Analyses of patient-reported outcomes have documented substantial pain relief and functional gain among the vast majority of patients managed with total joint replacement. In addition, postoperative patient-reported outcomes are useful to identify persistent pain and suboptimal outcomes in the minority of patients who have them. The leaders of five U.S. total joint replacement registries report the rationale, current status, and vision for the use of patient-reported outcome measures in U.S. total joint replacement registries. Methods: Surgeon leaders of the Function and Outcomes Research for Comparative Effectiveness in Total Joint Replacement registry, American Joint Replacement Registry, California Joint Replacement Registry, Michigan Arthroplasty Registry Collaborative Quality Initiative, and Virginia Joint Registry report the rationale supporting the adoption of patient-reported outcome measures, factors associated with the selection and successful implementation of patient-reported outcome measures, and barriers to complete and valid data. Results: U.S. registries are at varied stages of implementation of preoperative surveys and postoperative total joint replacement outcome measures. Surgeon leaders report unified rationales for adopting patient-reported outcome measures: to capture data on pain relief and functional gain following total joint replacement as well as to identify suboptimal implant performance. Key considerations in the selection of a patient-reported outcome measure include its ability to measure both joint pain and physical function while limiting any burden on patients and surgeons related to its use. Complete patient-reported outcomes data will be associated with varied modes of survey completion, including options for home-based completion, to ensure consistent timing and data capture. Conclusions: The current stage of implementation of patient-reported outcome measures varies widely among U.S. registries. Nonetheless, evidence from the Function and Outcomes Research for Comparative Effectiveness in Total Joint Replacement registry supports the feasibility of successful implementation of patient-reported outcome measures with careful attention to the selection of the outcome measure, mode and timing of postoperative administration, and minimization of any burden on the patient and surgeon. PMID:25520425

  4. Recent results from tokamak divertor plasma measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.L.

    1996-05-01

    New diagnostics have been developed to address key divertor physics questions, including: target plate heat flux reduction by radiation, basic edge transport issues, and plasma wall interactions (PWI) such as erosion. A system of diagnostics measures the target plate heat flux (imaging IR thermography) and particle flux (probes, pressure and Penning gauges, and visible emission arrays). Recently, T{sub e},n{sub e}, and P{sub e} (electron pressure) have been measured in 2-D with divertor Thomson Scattering. During radiative divertor operation T{sub e} is less than 2 eV, indicating that new atomic processes are important. Langmuir probes measure higher T{sub e} in some cases. In addition, the measured P{sub e} near the separatrix at the target plate is lower than the midplane pressure, implying radial momentum transport. Bolometer arrays, inverted with reconstruction algorithms, provide the 2-D core and divertor radiation profiles. Spectroscopic measurements identify the radiating species and provide information on impurity transport; both absolute chordal measurements and tomographic reconstructions of images are used. Either intrinsic carbon or an inert species (e.g., injected Ne) are usually observed, and absolute particle inventories are obtained. Computer codes are both benchmarked with the experimental data and provide important consistency checks. Several techniques are used to measure fundamental plasma transport and fluctuations, including probes and reflectometry. PWI issues are studied with in-situ coupons and insertable samples (DiMES). Representative divertor results from DIII-D with references to results on other tokamaks will be presented.

  5. A theoretical framework for patient-reported outcome measures.

    PubMed

    McClimans, Leah

    2010-06-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to assess multiple facets of healthcare, including effectiveness, side effects of treatment, symptoms, health care needs, quality of care, and the evaluation of health care options. There are thousands of these measures and yet there is very little discussion of their theoretical underpinnings. In her 2008 Presidential address to the Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQoL), Professor Donna Lamping challenged researchers to grapple with the theoretical issues that arise from these measures. In this paper, I attempt to do so by arguing for an analogy between PROMs and Hans-Georg Gadamer's logic of question and answer. While researchers readily admit that the constructs involved in PROMs are imperfectly understood and lack a gold standard, they often ignore the consequences of this fact. Gadamer's work on questions and their importance to philosophical hermeneutics helps to show that the questions researchers ask about such constructs are also imperfectly understood. I argue that these questions should not be standardized, and I instead propose a theoretical framework that understands PROMs as posing genuine questions to respondents--questions that are open to reinterpretation. PMID:20526684

  6. Outcome Measures for Clinical Drug Trials in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Aman, Michael G.; Novotny, Sherie; Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Lecavalier, Luc; Leonard, Elizabeth; Gadow, Kenneth D.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Chez, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies instruments and measures that may be appropriate for randomized clinical trials in participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Clinical Global Impressions scale was recommended for all randomized clinical trials. At this point, however, there is no “perfect” choice of outcome measure for core features of autism, although we will discuss five measures of potential utility. Several communication instruments are recommended, based in part on suitability across the age range. In trials where the intention is to alter core features of ASDs, adaptive behavior scales are also worthy of consideration. Several “behavior complexes” common to ASDs are identified, and instruments are recommended for assessment of these. Given the prevalence of cognitive impairment in ASDs, it is important to assess any cognitive effects, although cognitive data from ASD randomized clinical trials, thus far, are minimal. Guidance from trials in related pharmacologic areas and behavioral pharmacology may be helpful. We recommend routine elicitation of side effects, height and weight, vital signs, and (in the case of antipsychotics) extrapyramidal side-effects assessment. It is often appropriate to include laboratory tests and assessments for continence and sleep pattern. PMID:14999174

  7. Predominant Leg Pain Is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis: Results from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam; Blood, Emily; Lurie, Jon; Abdu, William; Sengupta, Dilip; Frymoyer, John W.; Weinstein, James

    2010-01-01

    Study Design As-treated analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and surgical and nonoperative outcomes in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients stratified by predominant pain location (i.e. leg vs. back). Summary of Background Data Evidence suggests that degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients with predominant leg pain may have better surgical outcomes than patients with predominant low back pain (LBP). Methods The DS cohort included 591 patients (62% underwent surgery), and the SpS cohort included 615 patients (62% underwent surgery). Patients were classified as leg pain predominant, LBP predominant or having equal pain according to baseline pain scores. Baseline characteristics were compared between the three predominant pain location groups within each diagnostic category, and changes in surgical and nonoperative outcome scores were compared through two years. Longitudinal regression models including baseline covariates were used to control for confounders. Results Among DS patients at baseline, 34% had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 40% had equal pain. Similarly, 32% of SpS patients had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 42% had equal pain. DS and SpS patients with predominant leg pain had baseline scores indicative of less severe symptoms. Leg pain predominant DS and SpS patients treated surgically improved significantly more than LBP predominant patients on all primary outcome measures at one and two years. Surgical outcomes for the equal pain groups were intermediate to those of the predominant leg pain and LBP groups. The differences in nonoperative outcomes were less consistent. Conclusions Predominant leg pain patients improved significantly more with surgery than predominant LBP patients. However, predominant LBP patients still improved significantly more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment. PMID:21124260

  8. The impact of performance incentives on child health outcomes: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Peabody, John W; Shimkhada, Riti; Quimbo, Stella; Solon, Orville; Javier, Xylee; McCulloch, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Improving clinical performance using measurement and payment incentives, including pay for performance (or P4P), has, so far, shown modest to no benefit on patient outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact of a P4P programme on paediatric health outcomes in the Philippines. We used data from the Quality Improvement Demonstration Study. In this study, the P4P intervention, introduced in 2004, was randomly assigned to 10 community district hospitals, which were matched to 10 control sites. At all sites, physician quality was measured using Clinical Performance Vignettes (CPVs) among randomly selected physicians every 6 months over a 36-month period. In the hospitals randomized to the P4P intervention, physicians received bonus payments if they met qualifying scores on the CPV. We measured health outcomes 4-10 weeks after hospital discharge among children 5 years of age and under who had been hospitalized for diarrhoea and pneumonia (the two most common illnesses affecting this age cohort) and had been under the care of physicians participating in the study. Health outcomes data collection was done at baseline/pre-intervention and 2 years post-intervention on the following post-discharge outcomes: (1) age-adjusted wasting, (2) C-reactive protein in blood, (3) haemoglobin level and (4) parental assessment of child's health using general self-reported health (GSRH) measure. To evaluate changes in health outcomes in the control vs intervention sites over time (baseline vs post-intervention), we used a difference-in-difference logistic regression analysis, controlling for potential confounders. We found an improvement of 7 and 9 percentage points in GSRH and wasting over time (post-intervention vs baseline) in the intervention sites relative to the control sites (P ? 0.001). The results from this randomized social experiment indicate that the introduction of a performance-based incentive programme, which included measurement and feedback, led to improvements in two important child health outcomes. PMID:24134922

  9. Systematic review of outcome measures in trials of pediatric anaphylaxis treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considerable heterogeneity has been observed in the selection and reporting of disease-specific pediatric outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This makes interpretation of results and comparison across trials challenging. Outcome measures in pediatric anaphylaxis trials have never previously been systematically assessed. This systematic review (SR) identified and assessed outcome measures used in RCTs of anaphylaxis treatment in children. As a secondary objective, this SR assessed the evidence for current treatment modalities for anaphylaxis in the pediatric population. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and CINAHL from 2001 until December 2012. We also searched websites listing ongoing trials. We included randomized and controlled trials of anaphylaxis treatment in patients 0–18 years of age. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. Results No published studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Conclusions There is an alarming absence of RCTs evaluating the treatments for anaphylaxis in children. High quality studies are needed and are possible to design, despite the severe and acute nature of this condition. Consensus about the selection and validation of appropriate outcome measures will enhance the quality of research and improve the care of children with anaphylaxis. Trial registration CRD42012002685 PMID:24950840

  10. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

  11. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  12. Nonprofit Organizations and Outcome Measurement: From Tracking Program Activities to Focusing on Frontline Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lehn M.

    2012-01-01

    Why do we continue to see evidence that nonprofit staff feel like outcome measurement is missing important aspects of their work? Based on an analysis of over 1,000 pages of material in 10 outcome measurement guides and a focused literature review of frontline work in three types of nonprofit organizations, this article shows that existing outcome…

  13. Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long-term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections to crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of high LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/micro m) radiation. Also included are TLD's for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated does inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 +/- 0.6 cGy to 38.9 +/- 1.2 cGy. The TLD's oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53% higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37% of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than the LDEF experiments.

  14. Measuring outcomes in orthopaedics: implementation of an outcomes program in an outpatient orthopaedic practice.

    PubMed

    Rodts, Mary F; Glanzman, Renée; Gray, Adam; Johnson, Randal; Viellieu, Dennis; Hachem, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    With increased demand to provide quality care for patients, orthopaedic practices will need to develop ways to efficiently collect and manage data to support the care that they provide. An outcomes management program must be efficient and consistent to provide good data. This article describes the implementation of an outcomes program at one large private orthopaedic practice within an academic medical setting. PMID:25401206

  15. Functional outcome measures for NF1-associated optic pathway glioma clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Robert A.; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Ardern-Holmes, Simone L.; Bilaniuk, Larissa T.; Ferner, Rosalie E.; Gutmann, David H.; Listernick, Robert; Martin, Staci; Ullrich, Nicole J.; Liu, Grant T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis Visual Outcomes Committee is to define the best functional outcome measures for future neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated optic pathway glioma (OPG) clinical trials. Methods: The committee considered the components of vision, other ophthalmologic parameters affected by OPG, potential biomarkers of visual function, and quality of life measures to arrive at consensus-based, evidence-driven recommendations for objective and measurable functional endpoints for OPG trials. Results: Visual acuity (VA) assessments using consistent quantitative testing methods are recommended as the main functional outcome measure for NF1-OPG clinical trials. Teller acuity cards are recommended for use as the primary VA endpoint, and HOTV as a secondary endpoint once subjects are old enough to complete it. The optic disc should be assessed for pallor, as this appears to be a contributory variable that may affect the interpretation of VA change over time. Given the importance of capturing patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials, evaluating visual quality of life using the Children's Visual Function Questionnaire as a secondary endpoint is also proposed. Conclusions: The use of these key functional endpoints will be essential for evaluating the efficacy of future OPG clinical trials. PMID:24249802

  16. Validation of GAITRite and PROMIS as High-Throughput Physical Function Outcome Measures Following ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Papuga, M. Owen; Beck, Christopher A.; Kates, Stephen L.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Maloney, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    New healthcare demands for quality measures of elective procedures, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery, warrant the establishment of high through-put outcomes for high volume clinics. To this end we evaluated the PROMIS and GAITRite as physical function outcome measures to quantify early healing and post-operative complications in 106 patients at pre-op and 3, 10, 20 and 52 weeks post-ACL reconstruction with bone-tendon-bone autograft, and compared the results to the current IKDC validated outcome measure. The results showed that both PROMIS and GAITRite were significantly quicker to administer versus IKDC (p < 0.0001). Additional advantages were that PROMIS and GAITRite detected a significant decrease in physical function at 3 weeks post-op, and a significant improvement at 10 weeks post-op, versus pre-op (p<0.001), which were not detected with IKDC. GAITRite was limited by a low ceiling that could not detect improvement of physical function beyond 20 weeks, while both PROMIS and IKDC detected significant improvement out to 52 weeks postop (p<0.001). Linear regressions demonstrated a significant relationship between IKDC and PROMIS, with a combined correlation value of 0.8954 (p<.001) for all time points. Finally, ROC curve analysis demonstrated that PROMIS is a diagnostic test for poor outcomes. PMID:24532421

  17. Comparison of IKDC and SANE Outcome Measures Following Knee Injury in Active Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; McGuine, Timothy A.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Hetzel, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knee injury among young, active female patients remains a public health issue. Clinicians are called upon to pay greater attention to patient-oriented outcomes to evaluate the impact of these injuries. Little agreement exists on which outcome measures are best, and clinicians cite several barriers to their use. Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) may provide meaningful outcome information while lessening the time burden associated with other patient-oriented measures. Hypothesis: The SANE and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores would be strongly correlated in a cohort of young active female patients with knee injuries from preinjury through 1-year follow-up and that a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) could be calculated for the SANE score. Study Design: Observational prospective cohort. Methods: Two hundred sixty-three subjects completed SANE and IKDC at preinjury by recall, time of injury, and 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the association between SANE and IKDC. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences in SANE and IKDC over time. MCID was calculated for SANE using IKDC MCID as an anchor. Results: Moderate to strong correlations were seen between SANE and IKDC (0.65-0.83). SANE, on average, was 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.9; P < 0.00) units greater than IKDC over all time points. MCID for the SANE was calculated as 7 for a 6-month follow-up and 19 for a 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: SANE scores were moderately to strongly correlated to IKDC scores across all time points. Reported MCID values for the SANE should be utilized to measure meaningful changes over time for young, active female patients with knee injuries. Clinical Relevance: Providing clinicians with patient-oriented outcome measures that can be obtained with little clinician and patient burden may allow for greater acceptance and use of outcome measures in clinical settings. PMID:24427427

  18. Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Vargas, Magda B.

    2013-01-01

    Subscale rocket acoustic data is used to predict acoustic environments for full scale rockets. Over the last several years acoustic data has been collected during horizontal tests of solid rocket motors. Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) was designed to evaluate the acoustics of the SLS vehicle including the liquid engines and solid rocket boosters. SMAT is comprised of liquid thrusters scalable to the Space Shuttle Main engines (SSME) and Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) motors scalable to the 5-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSTMV). Horizontal testing of the liquid thrusters provided an opportunity to collect acoustic data from liquid thrusters to characterize the acoustic environments. Acoustic data was collected during the horizontal firings of a single thruster and a 4-thruster (Quad) configuration. Presentation scope. Discuss the results of the single and 4-thruster acoustic measurements. Compare the measured acoustic levels of the liquid thrusters to the Solid Rocket Test Motor V - Nozzle 2 (SRTMV-N2).

  19. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF OUTCOME TOOLS USED TO MEASURE LOWER LEG CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Susan; Olszewski, Amanda; Ramsey, Olivia; Schmitz, Michelle; Wyatt, Verrelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Context: A variety of self‐report and physical performance‐based outcome measures are commonly used to assess progress and recovery in the lower leg, ankle, and foot. A requisite attribute of any outcome measure is its ability to detect change in a condition, a construct known as “responsiveness”. There is a lack of consistency in how responsiveness is defined in all outcome measures. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the currently used recovery outcome measures for lower leg, ankle and foot conditions in order to determine and report recommended responsiveness values. Methods: A systematic literature search that included electronic searches of PubMed, CINAHL and SportDiscus as well extensive cross‐referencing was performed in January, 2013. Studies were included if each involved: 1) a prospective, longitudinal study of any design; 2) any condition associated with the lower leg, ankle or foot; 3) a measure of responsiveness; and 4) was an acceptable type of outcome measure (eg. self‐report, physical performance, or clinician report). The quality of the included articles was assessed by two independent authors using the responsiveness sub‐component of the Consensus‐based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN). Results: Sixteen different studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The most commonly used outcome measures were the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Responsiveness was calculated in a variety of methods including effect size, standardized response mean, minimal clinically important difference/importance, minimal detectable change, and minimal important change. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this systematic review there is a lack of consistency for reporting responsiveness among recovery measures used in the lower leg, ankle or foot studies. It is possible that the variability of conditions that involve the lower leg, ankle and foot contribute to the discrepancies found in reporting responsiveness values. Further research must be conducted in order to standardize reporting measures for responsiveness. Level of evidence: 2a PMID:24377070

  20. Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Charlotte TJ; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers’ outcomes is a common problem. Aim: To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures’ psychometric properties. Design: A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. Data sources: The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Results: Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. Conclusion: A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. PMID:26407683

  1. Using Quality of Life to Evaluate Outcomes and Measure Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Ralph; Eggleton, Ian R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the outcomes achieved by service providers who assist people with intellectual disabilities is extremely important in terms of ascertaining whether service providers achieve their goals. Furthermore, knowledge of the outcomes achieved by service providers better equips those charged with managing them to make strategic decisions to…

  2. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  3. A view from health services research and outcomes measurement.

    PubMed

    Sales, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    Depicted in this presentation is the relationship of the aims of the original articles in this issue--using theory in a substantive way; introducing a strong focus on the organization as a contributor to patient, provider, and system outcomes; accounting for organizational level; and moving the field toward a view of research utilization as an intermediate, not terminal, outcome--to outcomes research in health services generally and in nursing health services research more specifically. The insights and innovations described in this set of articles contribute significantly to the literature on research use in healthcare, specifically including the need to account more fully for organizational structure and hierarchy than has been the case to date in health services outcomes research, as well as a strong intimation that research use is not only an important intervening variable in the causal chain producing outcomes at the patient, provider, and system levels but also a latent or unobservable variable. PMID:17625476

  4. Body composition changes in pregnancy: measurement, predictors and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Widen, EM; Gallagher, D

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754

  5. Assessing patient reported outcome measures: A practical guide for gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Hayley A; Williams, John G

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal illnesses cause physical, emotional and social impact on patients. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly used in clinical decision-making, clinical research and approval of new therapies. In the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in the number of PROMs in gastroenterology and, therefore, the choice between which of these PROMs to use can be difficult. Not all PROM instruments currently used in research and clinical practice in gastroenterology have gone through a rigorous development methodology. New drugs and therapies will not have access to the market if the PROMs used in their clinical trials are not validated according to the guidelines of the international agencies. Therefore, it is important to know the required properties of PROMs when choosing or evaluating a drug or a clinical intervention. This paper reviews the current literature on how to assess the validity and reliability of PROMs. It summarises the required properties into a practical guide for gastroenterologists to use in assessing an instrument for use in clinical practice or research. PMID:25452841

  6. Routine outcome measurement in the Netherlands - A focus on benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Delespaul, Philippe A E G

    2015-08-01

    Routine outcome measurement (ROM) is a 'hot' topic in the Netherlands. Over recent years the Netherlands have developed a centralized monitoring system for all reimbursed mental health interventions, in an attempt to improve the quality of care. The Foundation for Benchmarking Mental Health (SBG) is an independent knowledge centre for mental health providers and insurance companies. It was founded to organize and manage the countrywide ROM initiative. A Dutch countrywide ROM initiative is appealing, and the procedures in the Netherlands are described. However, the national ROM system was oversold. Arguments are discussed. It would have been a far better strategy if insurance companies and authorities had not focused on a national system but stimulated local data collection and requested a managerial plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle to stimulate service improvements from year to year. Within the same service, chances are higher that the same kind of clientele is served from year to year and therefore it will be easier to interpret the data. The ROM should regain its clinical focus. Mobile ROM systems using smartphones that collect sampled experiences could be an interesting future solution. PMID:26107997

  7. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, David I; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (? = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  8. Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David I.; Hatfull, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose, present, and validate a simple survey instrument to measure student conversational networking. The tool consists of five items that cover personal and professional social networks, and its basic principle is the self-reporting of degrees of conversation, with a range of specific discussion partners. The networking instrument was validated in three studies. The basic psychometric characteristics of the scales were established by conducting a factor analysis and evaluating internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha. The second study used a known-groups comparison and involved comparing outcomes for networking scales between two different undergraduate laboratory courses (one involving a specific effort to enhance networking). The final study looked at potential relationships between specific networking items and the established psychosocial variable of project ownership through a series of binary logistic regressions. Overall, the data from the three studies indicate that the networking scales have high internal consistency (α = 0.88), consist of a unitary dimension, can significantly differentiate between research experiences with low and high networking designs, and are related to project ownership scales. The ramifications of the networking instrument for student retention, the enhancement of public scientific literacy, and the differentiation of laboratory courses are discussed. PMID:26538387

  9. Relationships Between Patient-Reported Outcome Measures and Clinical Measures in Outpatients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kathryn E.; Lin, Li; Ellis, Stephen J.; Russell, Stuart D.; Spertus, John A.; Whellan, David J.; Piña, Ileana L.; Fine, Lawrence J.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used to assess the efficacy of new treatments. Understanding relationships between these and clinical measures can facilitate their interpretation. We examined associations between patient-reported measures of health-related quality of life and clinical indicators of disease severity in a large, heterogeneous sample of patients with heart failure. Methods Patient-reported measures, including the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and clinical measures, including peak VO2, 6-minute walk distance, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, were assessed at baseline in 2331 patients with heart failure. We used general linear models to regress patient-reported measures on each clinical measure. Final models adjusted for significant sociodemographic variables and 2-way interactions. Results The KCCQ was correlated with peak VO2 (r = .21) and 6-minute walk distance (r = .27). The VAS was correlated with peak VO2 (r = .09) and 6-minute walk distance (r = .11). Using the KCCQ as the response variable, a 1 SD difference in peak VO2 (4.7 mL/kg/min) was associated with a 2.86-point difference in the VAS (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98-3.74) and a 4.75-point difference in the KCCQ (95% CI, 3.78-5.72). A 1 SD difference in 6-minute walk distance (105 m) was associated with a 2.78-point difference in the VAS (95% CI, 1.92-3.64) and a 5.92-point difference in the KCCQ (95% CI, 4.98-6.87). NYHA class III was associated with an 8.26-point lower VAS (95% CI, 6.59-9.93) and a 12.73-point lower KCCQ (95% CI, 10.92-14.53) than NYHA class II. Conclusions These data may inform deliberations about how to best measure benefits of heart failure interventions, and they generally support the practice of considering a 5-point difference on the KCCQ and a 3-point difference on the VAS to be clinically meaningful. PMID:19782791

  10. Prediction of Treatment Outcome with Bioimpedance Measurements in Breast Cancer Related Lymphedema Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Leesuk; Sung, In Young; Jeong, Soon Yong; Do, Jung Hwa; Kim, Hwa Jung

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of bioimpedance measurement for predicting the treatment outcome in breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) patients. Method Unilateral BCRL patients who received complex decongestive therapy (CDT) for 2 weeks (5 days per week) were enrolled in this study. We measured the ratio of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS), and single frequency bioimpedance analysis (SFBIA) at a 5 kHz frequency before treatment. Arm circumferences were measured at 10 cm above and below the elbow before and after treatment. We also investigated whether there is correlation between ECF ratio and SFBIA ratio with the change of arm circumference after CDT. Results A total of 73 patients were enrolled in this study. The higher ECF ratio was significantly correlated with higher reduction of arm circumference at both above and below the elbow after treatment, but the higher SFBIA ratio was correlated only with the higher reduction of arm circumference below the elbow. Conclusion These results show that ECF volume measurements and SFBIA before treatment are useful tools for predicting the outcome of patients with lymphedema. We concluded that ECF volume measure can be used as a screening tool for predicting treatment outcome of BCRL patients. PMID:22506192

  11. Optimal functional outcome measures for assessing treatment for Dupuytren’s disease: a systematic review and recommendations for future practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's disease of the hand is a common condition affecting the palmar fascia, resulting in progressive flexion deformities of the digits and hence limitation of hand function. The optimal treatment remains unclear as outcomes studies have used a variety of measures for assessment. Methods A literature search was performed for all publications describing surgical treatment, percutaneous needle aponeurotomy or collagenase injection for primary or recurrent Dupuytren’s disease where outcomes had been monitored using functional measures. Results Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies reported outcomes using patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) ranging from validated questionnaires to self-reported measures for return to work and self-rated disability. The Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was the most utilised patient-reported function measure (n=11). Patient satisfaction was reported by eighteen studies but no single method was used consistently. Range of movement was the most frequent physical measure and was reported in all 91 studies. However, the methods of measurement and reporting varied, with seventeen different techniques being used. Other physical measures included grip and pinch strength and sensibility, again with variations in measurement protocols. The mean follow-up time ranged from 2 weeks to 17 years. Conclusions There is little consistency in the reporting of outcomes for interventions in patients with Dupuytren’s disease, making it impossible to compare the efficacy of different treatment modalities. Although there are limitations to the existing generic patient reported outcomes measures, a combination of these together with a disease-specific questionnaire, and physical measures of active and passive individual joint Range of movement (ROM), grip and sensibility using standardised protocols should be used for future outcomes studies. As Dupuytren’s disease tends to recur following treatment as well as extend to involve other areas of the hand, follow-up times should be standardised and designed to capture both short and long term outcomes. PMID:23575442

  12. Enhancing the patient involvement in outcomes: a study protocol of personalised outcome measurement in the treatment of substance misuse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Involving patients in treatment is becoming increasingly popular in mental health [Sales & Alves: Personalized evaluation of psychological treatments: A review of tools and research designs, submitted]. However, in substance misuse treatment settings, the patient perspective about treatment tends to be overlooked. This has been cited as a key priority by Orford et al. [Addiction, 103: 875-885, 2008] who included patient feedback about treatment as one of ten areas requiring an urgent paradigm shift in addiction research and practice. This project will apply an innovative method to involve substance misuse patients in psychological therapies, by asking them to suggest topics to evaluate their treatment. These topics suggested by patients can be written as a list of personalised items, so-called as patient-generated outcome measures (PGOM). Despite its patient-friendly features, PGOM’s have never been used in this population, which is what this project aims to overcome. Methods/design This project is part of an International Exchange Platform on Personalising Addiction Treatment. Data will be collected in two phases (pre-post study and focus groups with patients) to explore the following: 1). How reliable and sensitive to change are PGOM’s and standardised measures in substance misuse treatment? 2). Do PGOM’s add relevant information to standardised measures? 3). What are the views of substance misuse patients about personalised outcome assessment? 4). Development of guidelines on using PGOM’s in this population Discussion This research will potentially demonstrate the diversity of personal problems among patients seeking substance misuse treatment, suggesting the relevance of PGOM as a method to personalise outcome measurement and, ultimately, guiding treatment provision. It is expected that, as in previous studies, PGOM’s will be perceived as helpful and patient-friendly tools, where patients may express their own concerns in a semi-structured setting. Similarly to other populations, we also expect PGOM’s to be reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical changes in substance misuse treatment, as well as more content informative than their standardised counterparts. If these results are achieved, we might hypothesize that PGOM’s are a potentially valid supplement to traditional standardised scales, by providing a closer insight to what motivates patients to participate in substance misuse treatment programmes. PMID:24341378

  13. SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

  14. The barriers and facilitators to routine outcome measurement by allied health professionals in practice: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Allied Health Professionals today are required, more than ever before, to demonstrate their impact. However, despite at least 20 years of expectation, many services fail to deliver routine outcome measurement in practice. This systematic review investigates what helps and hinders routine outcome measurement of allied health professionals practice. Methods A systematic review protocol was developed comprising: a defined search strategy for PsycINFO, MEDLINE and CINHAL databases and inclusion criteria and systematic procedures for data extraction and quality appraisal. Studies were included if they were published in English and investigated facilitators and/or barriers to routine outcome measurement by allied health professionals. No restrictions were placed on publication type, design, country, or year of publication. Reference lists of included publications were searched to identify additional papers. Descriptive methods were used to synthesise the findings. Results 960 papers were retrieved; 15 met the inclusion criteria. Professional groups represented were Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech and Language Therapy. The included literature varied in quality and design. Facilitators and barriers to routine outcome measurement exist at individual, managerial and organisational levels. Key factors affecting professionals’ use of routine outcome measurement include: professionals’ level of knowledge and confidence about using outcome measures, and the degree of organisational and peer-support professionals received with a view to promoting their work in practice. Conclusions Whilst the importance of routinely measuring outcomes within the allied health professions is well recognised, it has largely failed to be delivered in practice. Factors that influence clinicians’ ability and desire to undertake routine outcome measurement are bi-directional: they can act as either facilitators or barriers. Routine outcome measurement may only be deliverable if appropriate action is taken at individual therapist, team, and organisational levels of an organisation. PMID:22506982

  15. Transforming Course Evaluations into a Meaningful Measure of Student Outcomes Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, the author had the good fortune to engage many faculty and administrators in conversations about student outcomes assessment. The author has discovered that many faculty and administrators associate course valuations with student outcomes assessment measures. He also found that no items about student learning outcomes are…

  16. Does a Depression Intervention Result in Improved Outcomes for Patients Presenting with Physical Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Robert D; Smith, Jeffrey L; Nuttina, Paul A; Dickinson, Miriam L; Dickinson, Perry W; Rost, Kathryn M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of exclusively physical presentation of depression on 1) depression management and outcomes under usual care conditions, and 2) the impact of an intervention to improve management and outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING Secondary analysis of a depression intervention trial in 12 community-based primary care practices. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred adults beginning a new treatment episode for depression. MEASUREMENTS Presenting complaint and physician depression query at index visit; antidepressant use, completion of adequate antidepressant trial, change in depressive symptoms, and physical and emotional role functioning at 6 months. MAIN RESULTS Sixty-six percent of depressed patients presented exclusively with physical symptoms. Under usual care conditions, psychological presenters were more likely than physical presenters to complete an adequate trial of antidepressant treatment but experienced equivalent improvements in depressive severity and role functioning. In patients presenting exclusively with physical symptoms, the intervention significantly improved physician query (40.8% vs 18.0%;P = .06), receipt of any antidepressant (63.0% vs 20.1%; P = .001), and an adequate antidepressant trial (34.9% vs 5.9%; P = .004), but did not significantly improve depression severity or role functioning. In patients presenting with psychological symptoms, the intervention significantly improved receipt of any antidepressant (79.9% vs 38.0%; P = .01) and an adequate anti(40.8% vs 18.0%;P = .06), receipt of any antidepressant and an adequate antidepressant trial (34.9% vs 5.9%; P = .004), and also improved depression severity and emotional role functioning. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that there is a differential intervention effect by presentation style at the index visit. Thus, current interventions should be targeted at psychological presenters and new approaches should be developed for physical presenters. PMID:15209599

  17. Communication Outcomes of Critical Imaging Results in a Computerized Notification System

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Arora, Harvinder S.; Vij, Meena S.; Rao, Raghuram; Khan, Myrna M.; Petersen, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Communication of abnormal test results in the outpatient setting is prone to error. Using information technology can improve communication and improve patient safety. We standardized processes and procedures in a computerized test result notification system and examined their effectiveness to reduce errors in communication of abnormal imaging results. Design We prospectively analyzed outcomes of computerized notification of abnormal test results (alerts) that providers did not explicitly acknowledge receiving in the electronic medical record of an ambulatory multispecialty clinic. Measurements In the study period, 190,799 outpatient visits occurred and 20,680 outpatient imaging tests were performed. We tracked 1,017 transmitted alerts electronically. Using a taxonomy of communication errors, we focused on alerts in which errors in acknowledgment and reception occurred. Unacknowledged alerts were identified through electronic tracking. Among these, we performed chart reviews to determine any evidence of documented response, such as ordering a follow-up test or consultation. If no response was documented, we contacted providers by telephone to determine their awareness of the test results and any follow-up action they had taken. These processes confirmed the presence or absence of alert reception. Results Providers failed to acknowledge receipt of over one-third (368 of 1,017) of transmitted alerts. In 45 of these cases (4% of abnormal results), the imaging study was completely lost to follow-up 4 weeks after the date of study. Overall, 0.2% of outpatient imaging was lost to follow-up. The rate of lost to follow-up imaging was 0.02% per outpatient visit. Conclusion Imaging results continue to be lost to follow-up in a computerized test result notification system that alerted physicians through the electronic medical record. Although comparison data from previous studies are limited, the rate of results lost to follow-up appears to be lower than that reported in systems that do not use information technology comparable to what we evaluated. PMID:17460135

  18. The Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM): Dimensionality, Item Bank Calibration, and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Stone, Clement A.; Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Kellough, Stacey; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Ross, Katherine B.; Schumacher, James G.; St. Jacque, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the structure and measurement properties of the Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM), a patient-reported outcome measure of communicative functioning for persons with aphasia. Method: Three hundred twenty-nine participants with aphasia responded to 177 items asking about communicative…

  19. The Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM): Dimensionality, Item Bank Calibration, and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Doyle, Patrick J.; Stone, Clement A.; Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Kellough, Stacey; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Ross, Katherine B.; Schumacher, James G.; St. Jacque, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the structure and measurement properties of the Aphasia Communication Outcome Measure (ACOM), a patient-reported outcome measure of communicative functioning for persons with aphasia. Method: Three hundred twenty-nine participants with aphasia responded to 177 items asking about communicative


  20. Use of Outcome Measures in Managing Neck Pain: An International Multidisciplinary Survey

    PubMed Central

    MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David M; Côté, Pierre; Santaguida, P. Lina; Gross, Anita; Carlesso, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the outcome measures practice patterns in the neck pain management of various health disciplines. Methods: A survey of 381 clinicians treating patients with neck pain was conducted. Results: Respondents were more commonly male (54%) and either chiropractors (44%) or physiotherapists (32%). The survey was international (24 countries with Canada having the largest response (44%)). The most common assessment was a single-item pain assessment (numeric or visual analog) used by 75% of respondents. Respondents sometimes or routinely used the Neck Disability Index (49%), the Patient Specific Functional Scale (28%), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (32%). Work status was recorded in terms of time lost by more than 50% of respondents, but standardized measures of work limitations or functional capacity testing were rarely used. The majority of respondents never used fear of movement, psychological distress, quality of life, participation measures, or global ratings of change (< 10% routinely use). Use of impairment measurers was prevalent, but the type selected was variable. Quantitative sensory testing was used sometimes or routinely by 53% of respondents, whereas 26% never used it. Ratings of segmental joint mobility were commonly used to assess motion (44% routinely use), whereas 66% of respondents never used inclinometry. Neck muscle strength, postural alignment and upper extremity coordination were assessed sometimes or routinely by a majority of respondents (>56%). With the exception of numeric pain ratings and verbal reporting of work status, all outcomes measures were less frequently used by physicians. Years of practice did not affect practice patterns, but reimbursement did affect selection of some outcome measures. Conclusions: Few outcome measures are routinely used to assess patients with neck pain other than a numeric pain rating scale. A comparison of practice patterns to current evidence suggessts overutilization of some measures that have questionable reliability and underutilization of some with better supporting evidence. This practice analysis suggests that there is substantial need to implement more consistent outcome measurement in practice. International consensus and better clinical measurement evidence are needed to support this. PMID:24115972

  1. The interdependence of behavioral and somatic health: implications for conceptualizing health and measuring treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Richard A.; LaPlante, Debi A.; Peller, Allyson J.; Christensen, Donald E.; Greenwood, Kristina L.; Straus, John H.; Garmon, Michael S.; Browne, Cheryl; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The interdependence of behavioral and somatic aspects of various health conditions warrants greater emphasis on an integrated care approach. Theory We propose that integrated approaches to health and wellness require comprehensive and empirically-valid outcome measures to assess quality of care. Method We discuss the transition from independent to integrated treatment approaches and provide examples of new systems for integrated assessment of treatment outcome. Results Evidence suggests that support for an independent treatment approach is waning and momentum is building towards more integrated care. In addition, research evidence suggests integrated care improves health outcomes, and both physicians and patients have favorable impressions of integrated care. Conclusions As treatment goals in the integrated perspective expand to take into account the intimate relationships among mental illness, overall health, and quality of life, clinicians need to develop outcome measures that are similarly comprehensive. Discussion Increased recognition, by researchers, providers, and insurers, of the interdependence between behavioral and physical health holds great promise for innovative treatments that could significantly improve patients' lives. PMID:17627294

  2. Standards for definitions and use of outcome measures for clinical effectiveness research in perioperative medicine: European Perioperative Clinical Outcome (EPCO) definitions: a statement from the ESA-ESICM joint taskforce on perioperative outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Jammer, Ib; Wickboldt, Nadine; Sander, Michael; Smith, Andrew; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Leva, Brigitte; Rhodes, Andrew; Hoeft, Andreas; Walder, Bernhard; Chew, Michelle S; Pearse, Rupert M

    2015-02-01

    There is a need for large trials that test the clinical effectiveness of interventions in the field of perioperative medicine. Clinical outcome measures used in such trials must be robust, clearly defined and patient-relevant. Our objective was to develop standards for the use of clinical outcome measures to strengthen the methodological quality of perioperative medicine research. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and opinion leaders worldwide were invited to nominate papers that they believed the group should consider. The full texts of relevant articles were reviewed by the taskforce members and then discussed to reach a consensus on the required standards. The report was then circulated to opinion leaders for comment and review. This report describes definitions for 22 individual adverse events with a system of severity grading for each. In addition, four composite outcome measures were identified, which were designed to evaluate postoperative outcomes. The group also agreed on standards for four outcome measures for the evaluation of healthcare resource use and quality of life. Guidance for use of these outcome measures is provided, with particular emphasis on appropriate duration of follow-up. This report provides clearly defined and patient-relevant outcome measures for large clinical trials in perioperative medicine. These outcome measures may also be of use in clinical audit. This report is intended to complement and not replace other related work to improve assessment of clinical outcomes following specific surgical procedures. PMID:25058504

  3. Efficacy Outcome Measures for Procedural Sedation Clinical Trials in Adults: An ACTTION Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark R; McKeown, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Miner, James R; Sessler, Daniel I; Vargo, John; Turk, Dennis C; Dworkin, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Successful procedural sedation represents a spectrum of patient- and clinician-related goals. The absence of a gold-standard measure of the efficacy of procedural sedation has led to a variety of outcomes being used in clinical trials, with the consequent lack of consistency among measures, making comparisons among trials and meta-analyses challenging. We evaluated which existing measures have undergone psychometric analysis in a procedural sedation setting and whether the validity of any of these measures support their use across the range of procedures for which sedation is indicated. Numerous measures were found to have been used in clinical research on procedural sedation across a wide range of procedures. However, reliability and validity have been evaluated for only a limited number of sedation scales, observer-rated pain/discomfort scales, and satisfaction measures in only a few categories of procedures. Typically, studies only examined 1 or 2 aspects of scale validity. The results are likely unique to the specific clinical settings they were tested in. Certain scales, for example, those requiring motor stimulation, are unsuitable to evaluate sedation for procedures where movement is prohibited (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging scans). Further work is required to evaluate existing measures for procedures for which they were not developed. Depending on the outcomes of these efforts, it might ultimately be necessary to consider measures of sedation efficacy to be procedure specific. PMID:26678470

  4. Exploring Outcome Measures for Exercise Intervention in People with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    King, L. A.; Salarian, A.; Mancini, M.; Priest, K. C.; Nutt, J.; Serdar, A.; Wilhelm, J.; Schlimgen, J.; Smith, M.; Horak, F. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background. It is widely believed that exercise improves mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to determine whether a specific type of exercise is the most effective. The purpose of this study was to determine which outcome measures were sensitive to exercise intervention and to explore the effects of two different exercise programs for improving mobility in patients with PD. Methods. Participants were randomized into either the Agility Boot Camp (ABC) or treadmill training; 4x/week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures were grouped by the International Classification of Function/Disability (ICF). To determine the responsiveness to exercise, we calculated the standardized response means. t-tests were used to compare the relative benefits of each exercise program. Results. Four of five variables at the structure/function level changed after exercise: turn duration (P = 0.03), stride velocity (P = 0.001), peak arm speed (P = 0.001), and horizontal trunk ROM during gait (P = 0.02). Most measures improved similarly for both interventions. The only variable that detected a difference between groups was postural sway in ABC group (F = 4.95; P = 0.03). Conclusion. Outcome measures at ICF body structure/function level were most effective at detecting change after exercise and revealing differences in improvement between interventions. PMID:23738230

  5. Physician empathy: Definition, outcome-relevance and its measurement in patient care and medical education

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Melanie; Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Lutz, Gabriele; Wirtz, Markus; EdelhÀuser, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study gives a brief introduction into the definition of physician empathy (PE) and its influence on patients’ health outcomes. Furthermore we present assessment instruments to measure PE from the perspective of the patient and medical student. The latter topic will be explored in detail as we conducted a pilot study on the German versions of two self-assessment instruments of empathy, which are mostly used in medical education research, namely the “Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, Student Version” (JSPE-S) and the “Interpersonal Reactivity Index” (IRI). Methods: We first present an overview of the current empirical and theoretical literature on the definition and outcome-relevance of PE. Additionally, we conducted basic psychometric analyses of the German versions of the JSPE-S and the IRI. Data for this analyses is based on a cross-sectional pilot-survey in N=44 medical students and N=63 students of other disciplines from the University of Cologne. Results: PE includes the understanding of the patient as well as verbal and non-verbal communication, which should result in a helpful therapeutic action of the physician. Patients’ health outcomes in different healthcare settings can be improved considerably from a high quality empathic encounter with their clinician. Basic psychometric results of the German JSPE-S and IRI measures show first promising results. Conclusion: PE as an essential and outcome-relevant element in the patient-physician relationship requires more consideration in the education of medical students and, thus, in medical education research. The German versions of the JSPE-S and IRI measures seem to be promising means to evaluate these education aims and to conduct medical education research on empathy. PMID:22403596

  6. Recent results on Electroweak measurements from ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benekos, Nektarios Chr.

    2015-05-01

    ATLAS measurements of multiboson production processes involving combinations of W,Z and isolated photons are summarized. Measurements using data at 7 TeV and at 8 TeV are presented. The measurements are performed using leptonic decay modes, including the invisible decay Z ? v v?, as well as semileptonic channels. Measurements of single and diboson production in association with two forward jets is sensitive to electroweak vector boson fusion and scattering processes. An observation of the electroweak production of the Z boson and an evidence of same sign WW production are reported.

  7. Volume–outcome relationship in revision hip replacement – Results from a low volume hospital

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Fahim; Shah, Kalpesh; McLean, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mortality and morbidity are both increased during revision hip surgery. Higher hospital procedure volumes have been associated with lower rates of mortality and/or complications according to some reports – the “practice makes perfect” hypothesis. Aim The aim of the study was to test “practice makes perfect; hypothesis with regards to revision hip surgery at our low volume hospital. Methods This is a retrospective study of all the patients who underwent revision hip arthroplasty under the care of the senior author between February 2002 and January 2006. Data was collected about the 30-day and one-year mortality, post-operative complications like deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), superficial or deep wound infections, dislocations, and the Oxford hip score. Results The rate of revision hip surgery carried out in our hospital was 6.25 per year. There was no 30-day mortality, stroke within 3 months, dislocations within one year, re-admission within one month, one-year mortality and deep infections within one year. The final outcome after revision hip surgery, based on Oxford questionnaire, showed that 72% had an excellent outcome and 8% had poor outcome. Conclusion Volume and outcome relationship may not contribute towards the final outcome when individual surgeons and hospitals are considered. Good general hospital care can greatly affect the health outcome for a particular procedure. Strategies aimed at improving the general hospital care may benefit the patients as much as volume based regionalization. PMID:24396230

  8. A primer on lower extremity outcome measurement instruments.

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, C. L.; Mueller, C.; Zwior-Maron, K.; Hoffman, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Tracing the roots of lower extremity outcome scales is an interesting and somewhat bemusing journey. A large number of different grading methods can be found with limited reliability and/or validity testing. The usefulness of these instruments in the assessment of patient outcomes after lower extremity interventions is worrisome. This article focuses on the most commonly used scales and demonstrates an alarming and incestuous pattern of cross-validation with moderate to weak associations between potentially unreliable and crudely validated original instruments. PMID:9807715

  9. Connecting Stuttering Management and Measurement: V. Deduction and Induction in the Development of Stuttering Treatment Outcome Measures and Stuttering Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onslow, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background: The development of evidence-based practice, which is increasingly popular in stuttering treatment, is closely linked to the development of outcome measures. Aims: Two approaches to the development of stuttering treatment outcome measures are outlined. The first is the deductive, top-down approach, where the development of specific…

  10. Predictors of Poor Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Results from the PARTNER Trial

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Lei, Yang; Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Kirtane, Ajay J.; Kodali, Susheel K.; Zajarias, Alan; Thourani, Vinod H.; Green, Philip; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Beohar, Nirat; Mack, Michael J.; Leon, Martin B.; Cohen, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a less invasive option for valve replacement for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, not all patients derive a mortality or quality of life (QoL) benefit from TAVR. As such, we sought to build and validate a prediction model to identify patients at high risk for a poor outcome after TAVR, using a novel definition of outcome that integrates QoL with mortality. Methods and Results We examined QoL and mortality outcomes among 2137 patients who underwent TAVR in the PARTNER randomized trial or the associated continued access registry. QoL was assessed using the Overall Summary Scale of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-OS, range 0-100; higher=better) at baseline and at 1, 6, and 12 months. A poor 6-month outcome—defined as death, KCCQ-OS <45, or a decrease in KCCQ-OS by ?10 points compared with baseline—occurred in 704 patients (33%). A multivariable model was constructed using a split-sample design to identify a parsimonious set of covariates to identify patients at high-risk for poor outcome. The resulting model demonstrated adequate discrimination (c-index=0.66) and good calibration with the observed data and performed similarly in the separate validation cohort. Based on pre-procedure characteristics alone, the model identified 211 patients (10% of the population) with a ?50% likelihood of a poor outcome after TAVR. These individuals were more likely to have low body weights, low mean aortic valve gradients, oxygen-dependent lung disease, and poor baseline functional and cognitive status. A second model that explored predictors of poor outcome at 1 year identified similar predictors as the original model and was able to identify 1102 patients (52%) with ?50% likelihood and 178 (8%) with ?70% likelihood of a poor 1-year outcome after TAVR Conclusions Using a large, multicenter cohort of patients undergoing TAVR, we have developed and validated predictive models that can identify patients at high-risk for a poor outcome after TAVR. These models may help guide treatment choices and offer patients realistic expectations of outcomes based on their presenting characteristics. PMID:24958751

  11. Constructing a Consensus-based Prevention Outcome Measurement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Lane, D. Timothy; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Rahman, Ahmmed; Chambers, Deborah T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Ohio's Prevention Evaluation Project (PEP), that developed a questionnaire to assess behavioral and attitudinal outcomes in primary drug abuse prevention programs targeting young people aged twelve to seventeen. One of PEP's principal achievements was the inclusion of community prevention program providers in the evaluation instrument…

  12. Measuring Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: Motivation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Bridgeman, Brent; Adler, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    With the pressing need for accountability in higher education, standardized outcomes assessments have been widely used to evaluate learning and inform policy. However, the critical question on how scores are influenced by students' motivation has been insufficiently addressed. Using random assignment, we administered a multiple-choice test and an…

  13. Just Measures: Social Justice as a Teacher Education Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Reagan, Emilie Mitescu; Shakman, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article constructs learning to teach for social justice as a complex but assessable outcome of teacher preparation. It provides a conceptual framework and describes a set of assessment tools and studies that use quantitative and qualitative methods for the collection and analysis of data. We conceptualize learning to teach for social justice…

  14. Measuring the Relationship between Resources and Outcomes in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, C. R.; Fielding, A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the production-function relationship between educational resources and labor-market outcomes for higher education in the United Kingdom. Using ordinary least squares and hierarchical linear models, finds that graduate earnings are positively correlated to the level of resources per student and negatively correlated to the…

  15. Measuring Student Satisfaction from the Student Outcomes Survey. Technical Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fieger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Student Outcomes Survey is an annual national survey of vocational education and training (VET) students. Since 1995, participants have been asked to rate their satisfaction with different aspects of their training, grouped under three main themes: teaching, assessment, and generic skills and learning experiences. While the composition of the…

  16. Search Results: Measures - Team Science Toolkit

    Cancer.gov

    Academy of Management Measure Chest The website was developed by Research Methods Division (RMD) of the Academy of Management to provide organizational researchers a reference list of existing scales.

  17. Workaholism: definition, measurement, and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Spence, J T; Robbins, A S

    1992-02-01

    Questionnaires were developed to assess the concept of workaholism, defined in terms of high scores on measures of work involvement and driveness and low scores on a measure of enjoyment of work, and to contrast this profile with work enthusiasm, defined as high work involvement and enjoyment and low driveness. Additional scales were devised to test several predictions about the correlates of workaholism. A test battery including these scales was given in a mail survey to a national sample of male (n = 134) and female (n = 157) social workers with academic positions. The psychometric properties of the scales are described. Cluster analyses for each sex revealed groups who corresponded to the workaholic and work enthusiast profiles as well as several other profiles. As predicted, workaholics were higher than work enthusiasts (among other groups) on measures of perfectionism, nondelegation of responsibility, and job stress. They were also higher on a measure of health complaints. Investigations are being initiated to determine the association of workaholism and other score profiles with objectively diagnosed cardiac disorders and with measures of occupational performance. PMID:16370875

  18. A Systematic Review of Outcome Measurements and Quality of Studies Evaluating Fixed Tooth-Supported Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Devangkumar Rajnikant; O'Brien, Tim; Petrie, Aviva; Petridis, Haralampos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this systematic review was to review clinical studies of fixed tooth-supported prostheses, and to assess the quality of evidence with an emphasis on the assessment of the reporting of outcome measurements. Multiple hypotheses were generated to compare the effect of study type on different outcome modifiers and to compare the quality of publications before and after January 2005. Materials and Methods An electronic search was conducted using specific databases (MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE via Ovid, Cochrane Library) through July 2012. This was complemented by hand searching the past 10 years of issues of the Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of Prosthodontics, and the International Journal of Prosthodontics. All experimental and observational clinical studies evaluating survival, success, failure, and complications of tooth-supported extracoronal fixed partial dentures, crowns, and onlays were included. No restrictions on age or follow-up time were placed. Results The electronic search generated 14,869 papers, of which 206 papers were included for full-text review. Hand-searching added 23 papers. Inclusion criteria were met by 182 papers and were included for the review. The majority were retrospective studies. Only 8 (4.4%) were randomized controlled trials. The majority of the studies measured survival and failure, and few studies recorded data on success; however, more than 60% of the studies failed to define survival, success, and failure. Many studies did not use any standardized criteria for assessment of the quality of the restorations and, when standardized criteria were used, they were modified, thereby not allowing for comparisons with other studies. There was an increase of 21.8% in the number of studies evaluating outcome measurements of all-ceramic restorations in past 8 years. Conclusions Prosthodontic literature presents with a reduced percentage of RCTs compared to other disciplines in dentistry. The overall quality of recording prosthodontic outcome measurements has not improved greatly in the past 8 years. PMID:24947268

  19. Nonprofit Organizations and Outcome Measurement: From Tracking Program Activities to Focusing on Frontline Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lehn M.

    2012-01-01

    Why do we continue to see evidence that nonprofit staff feel like outcome measurement is missing important aspects of their work? Based on an analysis of over 1,000 pages of material in 10 outcome measurement guides and a focused literature review of frontline work in three types of nonprofit organizations, this article shows that existing outcome


  20. The Impact of a "Healthy Youth" Learning Community on Student Learning Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Karen L.; Dawkins, Phyllis Worthy

    2008-01-01

    Learning communities are becoming increasingly popular in the quest for enhancing student learning. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the "Healthy Youth" Learning Community on student learning outcome measures. In this study, the authors compared student learning outcome measures of students enrolled in those sections of HED…

  1. Predicting Student Outcome Measures Using the ASCA National Model Program Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lauren E.; Erford, Bradley T.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prediction of student outcome variables from the ASCA national model level of program implementation. A total sampling of schools from two suburban school districts was conducted. Outcome variables were measures of math and reading achievement scores, attendance and graduation rates. Such measures play a central role in…

  2. Measuring Outcomes of United Way-Funded Programs: Expectations and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Michael; Plantz, Margaret C.; Pritchard, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, United Way of America (UWA) developed and began disseminating the most widely used approach to program outcome measurement in the nonprofit sector. Today an estimated 450 local United Ways encourage approximately 19,000 local agencies they fund to measure outcomes. The authors first describe and then assess the strengths and limitations…

  3. Working Memory and the Observed Effectiveness of Recasts on Different L2 Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revesz, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the observed effectiveness of recasts is influenced by the type of outcome measure used and whether different aspects of working memory are differentially associated with learners' performance on the various outcome measures. The participants were 90 learners of English as a foreign language, who were randomly assigned…

  4. RESNA Resource Guide for Assistive Technology Outcomes: Measurement Tools. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This resource guide, the first of three volumes, lays out the fundamentals of outcome measurements for assistive technology. It includes the whys and hows of gathering data so that assistive technology practitioners can integrate outcomes measurement activities in their daily practice. Chapters include: (1) "Concepts and Rationale for


  5. Measuring the Immeasurable: Linking Interventions to Outcomes in a Family Preservation Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Croasdaile, Susanne S.; Gansneder, Bruce M.

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of process-outcome evaluation in a broad-aim social program. Researchers collaborated with program staff to create outcome measures and measures of the services provided. Interventions for different groups of program participants were analyzed, using data on 122 children from


  6. Current Methods of Measuring Client Outcome in Rehabilitation Programs for the Physically Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschen, Kathryn A.

    A literature review is presented of client outcome measures in rehabilitation programs for the physically disabled in Canada and the United States. Following an introduction to the changing need for program evaluations and accountability, articles dealing with the traditional outcome measurement system are reviewed that deal with the traditional…

  7. Survey of Outcomes Measurement in Research on Character Education Programs. NCEE 2009-006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Ann E.; Moiduddin, Emily; Hague-Angus, Megan; Malone, Lizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Character education programs are school-based programs that have as one of their objectives promoting the character development of students. This report systematically examines the outcomes that were measured in evaluations of a delimited set of character education programs and the research tools used for measuring the targeted outcomes. The…

  8. Early Axonal Area Measurement Predicts Early Nerve Regeneration Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Wang, Ziyi; Agresti, Michael; Matloub, Hani; Yan, Ji-Gheng

    2016-03-01

    Background?Study of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration in laboratory animals can be time consuming and expensive. This study determines if it is possible to reduce time and cost for a peripheral nerve regeneration study. Purpose?The purpose of this study was to determine if nerve axonal area (NXA) or nerve fiber counting (NFC) correlates with compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery which is known to predict functional muscular recovery in the early stage of nerve regeneration. Methods?In this study, six rats had a crush injury of the sciatic nerve without treatment. These rats were evaluated at 4 weeks of recovery with the following assessments: CMAP readings from the extensor digitorum longus, NXA measurement, and NFC. Results?NXA correlated with CMAP; NFC did not correlate with CMAP. Conclusion?NFC is not a reliable method for predicting muscular recovery in the early stages. NXA is a dependable assessment for muscular recovery in the early stages of nerve regeneration. Using NXA measurement can predict later electrophysiological and functional recovery. Using NXA with CMAP measurement for nerve injury, repair, and treatment in the animal study can save cost and time. PMID:26636887

  9. Area of lateral ventricles measured on cranial ultrasonography in preterm infants: association with outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, E; Bertrand, P; Gold, F; Marchand, S; Laugier, J

    1990-01-01

    The association between measurements of lateral ventricle area (determined by serial ultrasound scans) and outcome was studied in 70 preterm neonates of 33 weeks' gestation or less. The study group was subdivided into four groups according to cranial ultrasonographic findings at 2 weeks postnatal age: group A (n = 15) had isolated periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage; group B (n = 20) had periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage and dilated ventricles; group C (n = 24) had periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia with or without dilated ventricles; and group D (n = 11) had isolated periventricular leukomalacia. Eighty seven preterm infants with no evidence of intracranial disease and good neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years formed the control group. A poor outcome was observed in infants in group B, C, and D, particularly in those who had persistent dilated ventricles at 6 weeks postnatal age and extensive periventricular leukomalacia. There was no difference in outcome between group A and controls. During the first six weeks of life ventricular area growth velocities were significantly higher in groups B, C, D, compared with normal controls and group A. We suggest that persistent ventricular dilatation at this early stage carries a bad prognosis, which is the result of atrophy of the brain. PMID:1700670

  10. Upper Extremity-Specific Measures of Disability and Outcomes in Orthopaedic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew V.; Calfee, Ryan P.; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.

    2012-01-01

    Outcome measures may consist of simple questions or they may be more complex instruments that evaluate multiple interrelated domains that influence patient function. Outcome measures should be relevant to patients, easy to use, reliable, valid, and responsive to clinical changes. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score can be used to measure disability for any region of the upper limb. Joint and disease-specific outcome measures have been developed for the shoulder, the elbow, and the wrist and hand. Many of these measures would benefit from further research into their validity, reliability, and optimal applicability. PMID:22298061

  11. Estimating a Preference-Based Index from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM)

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, John E.; Rowen, Donna; Barkham, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies in people with common mental disorders. The objective of this study was to estimate a preference-based index for this population using CORE-6D, a health state classification system derived from the CORE-OM consisting of a 5-item emotional component and a physical item, and to demonstrate a novel method for generating states that are not orthogonal. Methods. Rasch analysis was used to identify 11 emotional health states from CORE-6D that were frequently observed in the study population and are, thus, plausible (in contrast, conventional statistical design might generate implausible states). Combined with the 3 response levels of the physical item of CORE-6D, they generate 33 plausible health states, 18 of which were selected for valuation. A valuation survey of 220 members of the public in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, was undertaken using the time tradeoff (TTO) method. Regression analysis was subsequently used to predict values for all possible states described by CORE-6D. Results. A number of multivariate regression models were built to predict values for the 33 health states of CORE-6D, using the Rasch logit value of the emotional state and the response level of the physical item as independent variables. A cubic model with high predictive value (adjusted R2 = 0.990) was selected to predict TTO values for all 729 CORE-6D health states. Conclusion. The CORE-6D preference-based index will enable the assessment of cost-effectiveness of interventions for people with common mental disorders using existing and prospective CORE-OM data sets. The new method for generating states may be useful for other instruments with highly correlated dimensions. PMID:23178639

  12. The use of collaboration science to define consensus outcome measures: a telemental health case study.

    PubMed

    Mishkind, Matthew C; Doarn, Charles R; Bernard, Jordana; Shore, Jay H

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of a collaboration science process used to develop recommendations for the field of telemental health (TMH) in the selection of outcome measures that best reflect programmatic impacts. A common use of group development techniques in medicine is the development of clinical guidelines, which typically occurs using one of two methods: the nominal group or the Delphi method. Both processes have been faulted for limited transparency, reliability, and sustainability. Recommendations to improve the traditional process include making goals explicit, making disagreements transparent, and publicly displaying levels of agreement. A group of 26 TMH experts convened during the American Telemedicine Association's 2012 Fall Forum in New Orleans, LA to participate in a 1-day, interactive, consensus-building workshop to initiate the development of a shared lexicon of outcomes. The workshop method was designed to improve on traditional methods of guideline development by focusing on clarity of expectations, transparency, and timeliness of group development work. Results suggest that, compared with other traditional methods, the current process involved more people, occurred more rapidly, was more transparent, and resulted in a comparable deliverable. Recommendations for further process development, both within and external to TMH, as well as an initial overview of defined outcome measures are discussed. PMID:23590175

  13. Targeted Estimation of Binary Variable Importance Measures with Interval-Censored Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Page, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    In most experimental and observational studies, participants are not followed in continuous time. Instead, data is collected about participants only at certain monitoring times. These monitoring times are random and often participant specific. As a result, outcomes are only known up to random time intervals, resulting in interval-censored data. In contrast, when estimating variable importance measures on interval-censored outcomes, practitioners often ignore the presence of interval censoring, and instead treat the data as continuous or right-censored, applying ad hoc approaches to mask the true interval censoring. In this article, we describe targeted minimum loss–based estimation (TMLE) methods tailored for estimation of binary variable importance measures with interval-censored outcomes. We demonstrate the performance of the interval-censored TMLE procedure through simulation studies and apply the method to analyze the effects of a variety of variables on spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance among injecton drug users, using data from the “International Collaboration of Incident HIV and HCV in Injecting Cohorts” project. PMID:24637001

  14. Measuring Competition: Inconsistent Definitions, Inconsistent Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linick, Matthew Allen

    2014-01-01

    There is a developing literature examining how charter schools, through the effects of competition, impact performance in public school districts and district-run public schools, also known as the second-level effects of competition. What follows is an examination of how competition is measured in this literature that offers a critique of existing


  15. Need and greed in dermatology: disease and outcome measures in dermatological healthcare planning.

    PubMed

    Dalgard, Florence; Finlay, Andrew Y

    2006-01-01

    Assessing dermatological needs in the population and our ability to meet them is a challenge. The choice of outcome measures is central in dermatological healthcare planning. The concept of ill health and its relationship to dermatological outcome measures is described. Outcome measures used should provide information on these issues in order to gain insight into genuine needs and illness behavior in the population and to ensure quality of healthcare. Nevertheless, the dilemma of assigning priorities in healthcare planning remains; outcome measures in dermatology should be perceived as appropriate by patients as well as by caregivers and policy makers. It is important to stimulate research to develop and refine person-focused outcome measures. Their use is essential to assess dermatological health needs and to understand illness behavior. The information they can provide can enable provision and evaluation of healthcare quality and contribute to the challenge of making appropriate priority decisions in healthcare. PMID:17135732

  16. Predicting stroke outcome using DCE-CT measured blood velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterbroek, Jaap; Bennink, Edwin; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Horsch, Alexander D.; Viergever, Max A.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2015-03-01

    CT plays an important role in the diagnosis of acute stroke patients. Dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) can estimate local tissue perfusion and extent of ischemia. However, hemodynamic information of the large intracranial vessels may also be obtained from DCE-CT data and may contain valuable diagnostic information. We describe a novel method to estimate intravascular blood velocity (IBV) in large cerebral vessels using DCE-CT data, which may be useful to help predict stroke outcome. DCE-CT scans from 34 patients with isolated M1 occlusions were included from a large prospective multi-center cohort study of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Gaussians fitted to the intravascular data yielded the time-to-peak (TTP) and cerebral-blood-volume (CBV). IBV was computed by taking the inverse of the TTP gradient magnitude. Voxels with a CBV of at least 10% of the CBV found in the arterial input function were considered part of a vessel. Mid-sagittal planes were drawn manually and averages of the IBV over all vessel-voxels (arterial and venous) were computed for each hemisphere. Mean-hemisphere IBV differences, mean-hemisphere TTP differences, and hemisphere vessel volume differences were used to differentiate between patients with good and bad outcome (modified Rankin Scale score <3 versus ?3 at 90 days) using ROC analysis. AUCs from the ROC for IBV, TTP, and vessel volume were 0.80, 0.67 and 0.62 respectively. In conclusion, IBV was found to be a better predictor of patient outcome than the parameters used to compute it and may be a promising new parameter for stroke outcome prediction.

  17. Improving the Rank Precision of Population Health Measures for Small Areas with Longitudinal and Joint Outcome Models

    PubMed Central

    Athens, Jessica K.; Remington, Patrick L.; Gangnon, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute has published the County Health Rankings since 2010. These rankings use population-based data to highlight health outcomes and the multiple determinants of these outcomes and to encourage in-depth health assessment for all United States counties. A significant methodological limitation, however, is the uncertainty of rank estimates, particularly for small counties. To address this challenge, we explore the use of longitudinal and pooled outcome data in hierarchical Bayesian models to generate county ranks with greater precision. Methods In our models we used pooled outcome data for three measure groups: (1) Poor physical and poor mental health days; (2) percent of births with low birth weight and fair or poor health prevalence; and (3) age-specific mortality rates for nine age groups. We used the fixed and random effects components of these models to generate posterior samples of rates for each measure. We also used time-series data in longitudinal random effects models for age-specific mortality. Based on the posterior samples from these models, we estimate ranks and rank quartiles for each measure, as well as the probability of a county ranking in its assigned quartile. Rank quartile probabilities for univariate, joint outcome, and/or longitudinal models were compared to assess improvements in rank precision. Results The joint outcome model for poor physical and poor mental health days resulted in improved rank precision, as did the longitudinal model for age-specific mortality rates. Rank precision for low birth weight births and fair/poor health prevalence based on the univariate and joint outcome models were equivalent. Conclusion Incorporating longitudinal or pooled outcome data may improve rank certainty, depending on characteristics of the measures selected. For measures with different determinants, joint modeling neither improved nor degraded rank precision. This approach suggests a simple way to use existing information to improve the precision of small-area measures of population health. PMID:26098858

  18. An outcome-based learning model to identify emerging threats : experimental and simulation results.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Conrad, S. H.; Andersen, D. F.; Decision and Information Sciences; SNL; Univ. at Albany

    2007-01-01

    The authors present experimental and simulation results of an outcome-based learning model as it applies to the identification of emerging threats. This model integrates judgment, decision making, and learning theories to provide an integrated framework for the behavioral study of emerging threats.

  19. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  20. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  1. Outcome Measures of an Intracanal, Endoscopic Transforaminal Decompression Technique: Initial Findings from the MIS Prospective Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Joseph A.; Raiszadeh, Kamshad; Laich, Dan; Shen, Jian; Bennett, Matthew; Blok, Robert; Liang, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive transforaminal endoscopic procedures can achieve spinal decompression through either direct or indirect techniques. Subtle variations in trajectory of the surgical corridor can dictate access to the pathologic tissue. Two general strategies exist: the intradiscal “inside-out” technique and the extradiscal, intracanal (IC) technique. The IC technique utilizes a more lateral transforaminal approach than the intradiscal technique, which allows for a more direct decompression of the spinal canal. Objective This study is an assessment of IC patient outcome data obtained through analysis of a previously validated MIS Prospective Registry. Methods Post-hoc analysis was performed on the MIS Prospective Registry database containing 1032 patients. A subgroup of patients treated with the endoscopic IC technique was identified. Patient outcome measures after treatment of symptomatic disk herniation and neuroforaminal stenosis were evaluated. Results A total of 86 IC patients were analyzed. Overall, there was significant improvement in employment and walking tolerance as soon as 6 weeks post-op as well as significant one year VAS and ODI score improvement. Subanalysis of IC patients with two distinct primary diagnoses was performed. Group IC-1 (disc herniation) showed improvement in ODI and VAS back and leg outcomes at 1 year post-op. Group IC-2 (foraminal stenosis) showed VAS back and leg score improvement at one year post-op but did not demonstrate significant improvement in overall ODI outcome at any time point. The one year re-operation rate was 2% (1/40) for group IC-1 and 28% (5/18) for group IC-2. Conclusions The initial results of the MIS Registry IC subgroup show a significant clinical improvement when the technique is employed to treat patients with lumbar disc herniation. The treatment of foraminal stenosis can lead to improved short-term clinical outcome but is associated with a high re-operation rate at 1 year post-op. PMID:26767161

  2. Peer-led seeking safety: results of a pilot outcome study with relevance to public health.

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa M; Hamilton, Nancy; Miller, Niki; Griffin, Jackie; Welsh, Thomas; Vargo, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is a rich history of peer-led recovery efforts related to substance use disorder (SUD). Yet we know of no peer-led approaches for co-occurring SUD and trauma-related problems. This combination is widespread, has impact on multiple life domains, and presents major recovery challenges. In this pilot, we evaluated peer-led Seeking Safety (SS). SS is the most evidence-based and widely implemented therapy for SUD with co-occurring PTSD or other trauma-related problems. Eighteen women in residential substance-abuse treatment participated. All met SUD criteria (primarily opiate and cocaine dependence); most had a comorbid mental health disorder; and they had elevated trauma-related symptoms. The 25 SS topics were conducted twice-weekly. Participants were assessed at baseline and end-of-treatment, with some measures also collected monthly. Results showed significant positive outcomes in trauma-related problems (the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40); psychopathology (the Brief Symptom Inventory); functioning (the BASIS-32, including impulsive-addictive behavior); self-compassion (the Self-Compassion Scale); and SS coping skills. Effect sizes were consistently large. SS satisfaction and fidelity ratings were high. Substance use levels could not be assessed due to the residential setting. Qualitative data indicated enthusiasm for peer-SS by both peers and staff. Study limitations, future research, and public health relevance are discussed. PMID:25188699

  3. Fast excitation wiggler field measurement results

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz, J.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the program of Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) Accelerator Development, the development of fast excitation, planar wigglers with high K magnitude has been pursued. This paper discusses the observed characteristics of a variable period length, tapered, wiggler as well as the procedures of measurement. The behaviour of a constant period length magnet with varying Vanadium Permendur (VaP) and field reflector thickness is also discussed.

  4. Relative Humidity Measurement Assurance Program Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerezo, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    During the summer of 1992, the National Conference of Standards Laboratories sponsored a relative humidity measurement assurance program (RHMAP) whose purpose was to enable each participating center to assess the quality of relative humidity calibrations being performed by their respective standards laboratories. This paper presents the data which was submitted by the participants during the first round of the program and shows the multi-laboratory comparisons of the 20%, 50%, and 80% relative humidity meaurements performed.

  5. The ACT College Outcome Measurement Project: A New Tool for Summative Evaluation of Nontraditional Postsecondary Education Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Eric F.; Pringle, Robert A.

    The American College Testing Program (ACT) developed tests as a result of the College Outcome Measures Project (COMP). These instruments were intended for evaluation of nontraditional and traditional postsecondary education programs. They measure skills rather than information. The study was designed to check on several aspects of use of the COMP


  6. Recommendations for the use of common outcome measures in pediatric traumatic brain injury research.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Stephen R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Anderson, Vicki A; Bedell, Gary; Beers, Sue R; Campbell, Thomas F; Chapman, Sandra B; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Gerring, Joan P; Gioia, Gerard A; Levin, Harvey S; Michaud, Linda J; Prasad, Mary R; Swaine, Bonnie R; Turkstra, Lyn S; Wade, Shari L; Yeates, Keith O

    2012-03-01

    This article addresses the need for age-relevant outcome measures for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research and summarizes the recommendations by the inter-agency Pediatric TBI Outcomes Workgroup. The Pediatric Workgroup's recommendations address primary clinical research objectives including characterizing course of recovery from TBI, prediction of later outcome, measurement of treatment effects, and comparison of outcomes across studies. Consistent with other Common Data Elements (CDE) Workgroups, the Pediatric TBI Outcomes Workgroup adopted the standard three-tier system in its selection of measures. In the first tier, core measures included valid, robust, and widely applicable outcome measures with proven utility in pediatric TBI from each identified domain including academics, adaptive and daily living skills, family and environment, global outcome, health-related quality of life, infant and toddler measures, language and communication, neuropsychological impairment, physical functioning, psychiatric and psychological functioning, recovery of consciousness, social role participation and social competence, social cognition, and TBI-related symptoms. In the second tier, supplemental measures were recommended for consideration in TBI research focusing on specific topics or populations. In the third tier, emerging measures included important instruments currently under development, in the process of validation, or nearing the point of published findings that have significant potential to be superior to measures in the core and supplemental lists and may eventually replace them as evidence for their utility emerges. PMID:21644810

  7. Recommendations for the Use of Common Outcome Measures in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Anderson, Vicki A.; Bedell, Gary; Beers, Sue R.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Gerring, Joan P.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Levin, Harvey S.; Michaud, Linda J.; Prasad, Mary R.; Swaine, Bonnie R.; Turkstra, Lyn S.; Wade, Shari L.; Yeates, Keith O.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article addresses the need for age-relevant outcome measures for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research and summarizes the recommendations by the inter-agency Pediatric TBI Outcomes Workgroup. The Pediatric Workgroup's recommendations address primary clinical research objectives including characterizing course of recovery from TBI, prediction of later outcome, measurement of treatment effects, and comparison of outcomes across studies. Consistent with other Common Data Elements (CDE) Workgroups, the Pediatric TBI Outcomes Workgroup adopted the standard three-tier system in its selection of measures. In the first tier, core measures included valid, robust, and widely applicable outcome measures with proven utility in pediatric TBI from each identified domain including academics, adaptive and daily living skills, family and environment, global outcome, health-related quality of life, infant and toddler measures, language and communication, neuropsychological impairment, physical functioning, psychiatric and psychological functioning, recovery of consciousness, social role participation and social competence, social cognition, and TBI-related symptoms. In the second tier, supplemental measures were recommended for consideration in TBI research focusing on specific topics or populations. In the third tier, emerging measures included important instruments currently under development, in the process of validation, or nearing the point of published findings that have significant potential to be superior to measures in the core and supplemental lists and may eventually replace them as evidence for their utility emerges. PMID:21644810

  8. Flow oscillation - a measure to predict the surgery outcome for obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) subject.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ye, Jingying; Liu, Zhengang; Huang, Lixi; Luo, Haiyan; Li, Yanru

    2012-08-31

    Obstructed sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder which may need surgery to widen the airway; however the success rate of surgery is limited. Here we report a finding that could be used to predict the outcome of the OSA surgery. We found that inspiratory flow oscillates due to flow separation near the larynx, and the resulting periodic signal (3-5Hz) is an intrinsic property of breathing. This flow oscillating signal may be the afferent stimulus to trigger respiratory events. It is found that the flow oscillation is attenuated for the OSA subjects. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation reveals that there exists flow separation near larynx and this separation is severely weakened in the OSA upper airway model. It is believed that the flow oscillating signal can serve as the measure to quantify the breathing quality of an OSA subject. This makes it possible to predict the surgery outcome of the OSA subject by applying CFD simulation. PMID:22857945

  9. Comparing measures of multimorbidity to predict outcomes in primary care: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Background. An increasing proportion of people are living with multiple health conditions, or ‘multimorbidity’. Measures of multimorbidity are useful in studies of interventions in primary care to take account of confounding due to differences in case-mix. Objectives. Assess the predictive validity of commonly used measures of multimorbidity in relation to a health outcome (mortality) and a measure of health service utilization (consultation rate). Methods. We included 95372 patients registered on 1 April 2005 at 174 English general practices included in the General Practice Research Database. Using regression models we compared the explanatory power of six measures of multimorbidity: count of chronic diseases from the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF); Charlson index; count of prescribed drugs; three measures from the John Hopkins ACG software [Expanded Diagnosis Clusters count (EDCs), Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs), Resource Utilisation Bands (RUBs)]. Results. A model containing demographics and GP practice alone explained 22% of the uncertainty in consultation rates. The number of prescribed drugs, ACG category, EDC count, RUB category, QOF disease count, or Charlson index increased this to 42%, 37%, 36%, 35%, 30%, and 26%, respectively. Measures of multimorbidity made little difference to the fit of a model predicting 3-year mortality. Nonetheless, Charlson index score was the best performing measure, followed by the number of prescribed drugs. Conclusion. The number of prescribed drugs is the most powerful measure for predicting future consultations and the second most powerful measure for predicting mortality. It may have potential as a simple proxy measure of multimorbidity in primary care. PMID:23045354

  10. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases.

    PubMed

    Masías, Víctor Hugo; Valle, Mauricio; Morselli, Carlo; Crespo, Fernando; Vargas, Augusto; Laengle, Sigifredo

    2016-01-01

    Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers-Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest-with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real-world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970's and the now-defunct Canada-based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures. PMID:26824351

  11. Overview of Ontario's Screening and Outcome Measurement Initiative in Children's Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Barwick, Melanie; Boydell, Katherine M.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Ferguson, H. Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Ontario’s mental health practitioners strive to provide the best services for the most children and youth in the face of limited resources and increasing demand. Method To do this efficiently and ethically necessitates identifying those at greatest risk, determining which services are most effective for a variety of children, and demonstrating improved functioning post-treatment. Standardized screening can assist in triaging those at greatest risk and outcome measurement can demonstrate improvement and treatment effectiveness. Results To this end, Ontario has initiated systematic screening and outcome measurement for children ages 6 to 17 years receiving mental health services in selected hospital-based and community organizations. Conclusion Standardized screening and outcome tools are key building blocks for improving the quality of service and promoting the use of evidence-based practices across the system. The lessons learned to date suggest there is a need to build individual and organizational readiness for change, to improve the state of technological literacy and infrastructure across the sector, and to improve the exchange of knowledge among stakeholders regarding the clinical benefits of the toolsand the data they will produce regarding the state of children and youth receiving mental health service in Ontario. PMID:19030488

  12. Modeling the Offensive-Defensive Interaction and Resulting Outcomes in Basketball

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Leonardo; Santana, Felipe; Heiner, Matthew; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Fellingham, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed the interaction between offensive (i.e. space creation dynamics -SCDs) and defensive (i.e. space protection dynamics—SPDs) actions in six play outcomes (free shot, contested shot, new SCD, reset, foul, and turnover) in Spanish professional basketball games. Method Data consisted of 1548 SCD-SPD-outcome triples obtained from six play-off games. We used Bayesian methods to compute marginal probabilities of six outcomes following five different SCDs. We also computed probabilities of the six outcomes following the 16 most frequent SCD-SPD combinations. Results The pick action (e.g. pick and roll, pop and pop) was the most prevalent SCD (33%). However, this SCD did not produce the highest probability of a free shot (0.235). The highest probability of a free shot followed the SCD without ball (0.409). The pick was performed not only to attempt scoring but also to initiate offenses, as it produced the highest probability leading to a new SCD (0.403). Additionally, the SPD performed influenced the outcome of the SCD. This reinforces the notion that the opposition (offensive-defensive interaction) should be considered. To the best of our knowledge, in team sports, this is the first study to successfully model the tactical features involved in offense-defense interactions. Our analyses revealed that the high frequency of occurrence of some SCDs may be justified not only by an associated high probability of free shots but also by the possibility of progressively create more space in the defense (i.e. a new SCD as outcome). In the second case, it evidences offensive strategic features of progressive disruption of the defensive system through the concatenation of subsequent offensive actions. PMID:26659134

  13. Early Oxygenation and Ventilation Measurements After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest: Lack of Association With Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kimberly Statler; Clark, Amy E.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Topjian, Alexis A.; Schleien, Charles L.; Shaffner, Donald H.; Dean, J. Michael; Moler, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore oxygenation and ventilation status early after cardiac arrest in infants and children. We hypothesize that hyperoxia is common and associated with worse outcome after pediatric cardiac arrest. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Fifteen hospitals within the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. Patients Children who suffered a cardiac arrest event and survived for at least 6 hours after return of circulation. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Analysis of 195 events revealed that abnormalities in oxygenation and ventilation are common during the initial 6 hours after pediatric cardiac arrest. Hyperoxia was frequent, affecting 54% of patients. Normoxia was documented in 34% and hypoxia in 22% of patients. These percentages account for a 10% overlap of patients who had both hyperoxia and hypoxia. Ventilation status was more evenly distributed with hyperventilation observed in 38%, normoventilation in 29%, and hypoventilation in 46%, with a 13% overlap of patients who had both hyperventilation and hypoventilation. Derangements in both oxygenation and ventilation were common early after cardiac arrest such that both normoxia and normocarbia were documented in only 25 patients (13%). Neither oxygenation nor ventilation status was associated with outcome. After controlling for potential confounders, arrest location and rhythm were significantly associated with worse outcome; however, hyperoxia was not (odds ratio for good outcome, 1.02 [0.46, 2.84]; p = 0.96). Conclusions Despite recent resuscitation guidelines that advocate maintenance of normoxia and normoventilation after pediatric cardiac arrest, this is uncommonly achieved in practice. Although we did not demonstrate an association between hyperoxia and worse outcome, the small proportion of patients kept within normal ranges limited our power. Preclinical data suggesting potential harm with hyperoxia remain compelling, and further investigation, including prospective, large studies involving robust recording of physiological derangements, is necessary to further advance our understanding of this important topic. PMID:23552509

  14. Neurobehavioral assessment of outcome following traumatic brain injury in rats: an evaluation of selected measures.

    PubMed

    Hamm, R J

    2001-11-01

    Neurobehavioral assessment of outcome has played an integral part in traumatic brain injury (TBI) research. Given the fundamental role of neurobehavioral measurement, it is critical that the tasks used are of the highest psychometric quality. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate several, commonly used neurobehavioral measures along the dimensions of reliability, sensitivity, and validity. Using both the midline and lateral fluid-percussion injury models, nine neurobehavioral measures were evaluated that assessed three different neurobehavioral constructs. Reflex suppression was measured by the duration of the suppression of the pinna, corneal, and righting reflexes. Vestibulomotor function was assessed with the beam-balance, beam-walking, and rotorod tasks. Cognitive function was evaluated by three measures of Morris water maze performance (goal latency, path length, cumulative distance). The evaluation of the reliability of the nine neurobehavioral measures found that all had acceptably high reliability coefficients (0.79 or higher). The analysis of each measure's sensitivity to injury found that all measures were capable of detecting injury-induced impairments. However, there were some substantial differences in the sensitivity of the measures of vestibulomotor and maze performance: the rotorod was the most sensitive vestibulomotor measure and goal latency and path length were equally sensitive measures of maze performance. In the assessment of validity, the results of a factor analysis supported the convergent and discriminative validity of the measures. And in cases in which the preclinical and clinical research have assessed the same construct, the animal model neurobehavioral measures had predictive (or external) validity. Thus, according to the psychometric standards by which measurement instruments are evaluated, the results indicated that these measures provide a valid assessment of neurobehavioral function after fluid percussion TBI. PMID:11721739

  15. A Computerized Asthma Outcomes Measure Is Feasible for Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Turner-Bowker, Diane M; Saris-Baglama, Renee N; Anatchkova, Milena; Mosen, David M

    2010-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and test an online assessment referred to as the ASTHMA-CAT (computerized adaptive testing), a patient-based asthma impact, control, and generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study of the ASTHMA-CAT's administrative feasibility in a disease management population. METHODS: The ASTHMA-CAT included a dynamic or static Asthma Impact Survey (AIS), Asthma Control Test, and SF-8 Health Survey. A sample of clinician-diagnosed adult asthmatic patients (N = 114) completed the ASTHMA-CAT. Results were used to evaluate administrative feasibility of the instrument and psychometric performance of the dynamic AIS relative to the static AIS. A prototype aggregate (group-level) report was developed and reviewed by care providers. RESULTS: Online administration of the ASTHMA-CAT was feasible for patients in disease management. The dynamic AIS functioned well compared with the static AIS in preliminary studies evaluating response burden, precision, and validity. Providers found reports to be relevant, useful, and applicable for care management. CONCLUSION: The ASTHMA-CAT may facilitate asthma care management. PMID:20852675

  16. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ?66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ? 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and patients now have evidence that corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study from donors through age 75 years are suitable for transplantation. PMID:18387407

  17. 26 CFR 801.6 - Business results measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... data that does not contain information regarding the tax enforcement result reached in any case that...) Talk time. (d) Definitions—(1) Tax enforcement results. A tax enforcement result is the outcome..., financial planning, resource management, and the formulation of case selection criteria. Records of...

  18. Outcome measurement tools currently used to assess pediatric burn patients: an occupational therapy and physiotherapy perspective.

    PubMed

    Heath, Kathryn; Timbrell, Vanessa; Calvert, Philip; Stiller, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Given the high incidence of burn injuries in children, it is important that all clinicians involved in the care of these patients, including occupational therapists and physiotherapists, are able to assess patients with valid, sensitive, and reliable measurement tools to optimize outcomes and clinical management. The aims of this study were to identify therapist- relevant outcome measurement tools that have been previously used with pediatric burn patients and to ascertain the outcome measurement tools currently used by occupational therapists and physiotherapists working in pediatric burns units. A literature review was undertaken to identify therapist-relevant outcome measurement tools that have been used in the pediatric burn population. A survey involving therapists working in Australian pediatric burns units was then conducted to identify outcome measurement tools in common usage. Few outcome measurement tools were identified that had been specifically validated for use, or were in common usage in Australia, with pediatric patients with burn injury. The lack of validated and widely used measurement tools adversely impacts on the ability of therapists to accurately assess outcomes of treatment and undertake clinical research involving pediatric patients with burn injury. PMID:22002208

  19. Adult experience of mental health outcomes as a result of intimate partner violence victimisation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Cherie; Stringer, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been known to adversely affect the mental health of victims. Research has tended to focus on the mental health impact of physical violence rather than considering other forms of violence. Objective To systematically review the literature in order to identify the impact of all types of IPV victimisation on various mental health outcomes. Method A systematic review of 11 electronic databases (2004–2014) was conducted. Fifty eight papers were identified and later described and reviewed in relation to the main objective. Results Main findings suggest that IPV can have increasing adverse effects on the mental health of victims in comparison with those who have never experienced IPV or those experiencing other traumatic events. The most significant outcomes were associations between IPV experiences with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. Findings confirm previous observations that the severity and extent of IPV exposure can increase mental health symptoms. The effect of psychological violence on mental health is more prominent than originally thought. Individual differences such as gender and childhood experience of violence also increase IPV risk and affect mental health outcomes in diverse ways. Conclusions Psychological violence should be considered as a more serious form of IPV which can affect the mental health of victims. Experiencing more than one form of IPV can increase severity of outcomes. Researchers should look at IPV as a multi-dimensional experience. A uniformed definition and measure of IPV could help advance knowledge and understanding of this disparaging global issue. PMID:25279103

  20. Evaluation of Diverse Community Asthma Interventions: Balancing Health Outcomes with Developing Community Capacity for Evidence-Based Program Measurement.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Lynn D; Livingood, William C; Toal, Russ; Keene, DeAnna; Hines, Robert B; Tedders, Stuart; Charles, Simone M; Lawrence, Raymona H; Gunn, Laura H; Williams, Natalie; Kellum, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The challenge of evaluating community asthma management programs is complicated by balancing the emphasis on health outcomes with the need to build community process capacity for conducting and monitoring evidence-based programs. The evaluation of a Georgia Childhood Asthma Management Program, a Healthcare Georgia Foundation-supported initiative for multiple diverse programs and settings, provides an example of an approach and the results that address this challenge. A "developmental evaluation" approach was applied, using mixed methods of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis, to assess the progress of community asthma prevention programs in building community within the context of: where the community is starting, community-level systems changes, and the community's progress toward becoming more outcome measurement oriented and evidence based. Initial evaluation efforts revealed extensive mobilization of community assets to manage childhood asthma. However, there were minimal planned efforts to assess health outcomes and systems changes, and the lack of a logic model-based program design linking evidence-based practices to outcomes. Following developmental technical assistance within evaluation efforts, all programs developed logic models, linking practices to outcomes with data collection processes to assess progress toward achieving the selected outcomes. This developmental approach across diverse projects and communities, along with a quality improvement benchmarking approach to outcomes, created a focus on health status outcome improvement. Specifically, this approach complemented an emphasis on an improved community process capacity to identify, implement, and monitor evidence-based asthma practices that could be used within each community setting. PMID:25658512

  1. Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale representation of the SLS vehicle, mobile launcher, tower, and launch pad trench. The SLS launch propulsion system will be comprised of the Rocket Assisted Take-Off (RATO) motors representing the solid boosters and 4 Gas Hydrogen (GH2) thrusters representing the core engines. The GH2 thrusters were tested in a horizontal configuration in order to characterize their performance. In Phase 1, a single thruster was fired to determine the engine performance parameters necessary for scaling a single engine. A cluster configuration, consisting of the 4 thrusters, was tested in Phase 2 to integrate the system and determine their combined performance. Acoustic and overpressure data was collected during both test phases in order to characterize the system's acoustic performance. The results from the single thruster and 4- thuster system are discussed and compared.

  2. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mina; Song, Jae-Jin; Oh, Seo Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI) outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3–14.2) years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5–16) years) who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and performance IQ for “mentally retarded” and “average,” respectively (Spearman's rho = 0.42, P = 0.15). There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman's rho = 0.8977, P = 0.0008). “Picture arrangement” and “picture completion,” reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes. PMID:26236723

  3. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result.

    PubMed

    Park, Mina; Song, Jae-Jin; Oh, Seo Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI) outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3-14.2) years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5-16) years) who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and performance IQ for "mentally retarded" and "average," respectively (Spearman's rho = 0.42, P = 0.15). There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman's rho = 0.8977, P = 0.0008). "Picture arrangement" and "picture completion," reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes. PMID:26236723

  4. Measuring Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury Treatment Trials: Recommendations From the Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Bagiella, Emilia; Novack, Thomas A.; Ansel, Beth; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Dikmen, Sureyya; Hart, Tessa; Temkin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves several aspects of a patient’s condition, including physical, mental, emotional, cognitive, social, and functional changes. Therefore, a clinical trial with individuals with TBI should consider outcome measures that reflect their global status. Methods We present the work of the National Institute of Child Health and Development–sponsored Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trials Network Outcome Measures subcommittee and its choice of outcome measures for a phase III clinical trial of patients with complicated mild to severe TBI. Results On the basis of theoretical and practical considerations, the subcommittee recommended the adoption of a core of 9 measures that cover 2 different areas of recovery: functional and cognitive. These measures are the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale; the Controlled Oral Word Association Test; the Trail Making Test, Parts A and B; the California Verbal Learning Test–II; the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–III Digit Span subtest; the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–III Processing Speed Index; and the Stroop Color-Word Matching Test, Parts 1 and 2. Conclusions The statistical methods proposed to analyze these measures using a global test procedure, along with research and methodological and regulatory issues involved with the use of multiple outcomes in a clinical trial, are discussed. PMID:20216459

  5. Toward Ensuring Health Equity: Readability and Cultural Equivalence of OMERACT Patient-reported Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Welch, Vivian; Rader, Tamara; Lyddiatt, Anne; Clerehan, Rosemary; Christensen, Robin; Boonen, Annelies; Goel, Niti; Maxwell, Lara J.; Toupin-April, Karine; De Wit, Maarten; Barton, Jennifer; Flurey, Caroline; Jull, Janet; Barnabe, Cheryl; Sreih, Antoine G.; Campbell, Willemina; Pohl, Christoph; Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Tugwell, Peter S.; Guillemin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. Methods The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool, the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group participants to gain their perspectives on the importance of comprehensibility and cross-cultural adaptation for PROM. Results Thirty-one OMERACT delegates attended the equity session. Twenty-six participants agreed that PROM should be assessed for comprehensibility and for use of suitable methods (4 abstained, 1 no). Twenty-two participants agreed that cultural equivalency of PROM should be assessed and suitable methods used (7 abstained, 2 no). Special interest group participants identified challenges with cross-cultural adaptation including resources required, and suggested patient involvement for improving translation and adaptation. Conclusion Future work will include consensus exercises on what methods are required to ensure PROM are appropriate for people with low literacy and different cultures. PMID:26077410

  6. Outcome Measurement in Economic Evaluations of Public Health Interventions: a Role for the Capability Approach?

    PubMed Central

    Lorgelly, Paula K.; Lawson, Kenny D.; Fenwick, Elisabeth A.L.; Briggs, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Public health interventions have received increased attention from policy makers, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of economic evaluations within the domain of public health. However, methods to evaluate public health interventions are less well established than those for medical interventions. Focusing on health as an outcome measure is likely to underestimate the impact of many public health interventions. This paper provides a review of outcome measures in public health; and describes the benefits of using the capability approach as a means to developing an all encompassing outcome measure. PMID:20623024

  7. Achievements in mental health outcome measurement in Australia: Reflections on progress made by the Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australia’s National Mental Health Strategy has emphasised the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of services, and has promoted the collection of outcomes and casemix data as a means of monitoring these. All public sector mental health services across Australia now routinely report outcomes and casemix data. Since late-2003, the Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN) has received, processed, analysed and reported on outcome data at a national level, and played a training and service development role. This paper documents the history of AMHOCN’s activities and achievements, with a view to providing lessons for others embarking on similar exercises. Method We conducted a desktop review of relevant documents to summarise the history of AMHOCN. Results AMHOCN has operated within a framework that has provided an overarching structure to guide its activities but has been flexible enough to allow it to respond to changing priorities. With no precedents to draw upon, it has undertaken activities in an iterative fashion with an element of ‘trial and error’. It has taken a multi-pronged approach to ensuring that data are of high quality: developing innovative technical solutions; fostering ‘information literacy’; maximising the clinical utility of data at a local level; and producing reports that are meaningful to a range of audiences. Conclusion AMHOCN’s efforts have contributed to routine outcome measurement gaining a firm foothold in Australia’s public sector mental health services. PMID:22640939

  8. Quality control of vital capacity as a primary outcome measure during phase III therapeutic clinical trial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sanjak, Mohammed; Salachas, Francois; Frija-Orvoen, Elizabeth; Theys, Paul; Hutchinson, Duncan; Verheijde, Joseph; Pianta, Thomas; Stewart, Heather; Brooks, Benjamin Rix; Meininger, Vincent; Douillet, Patrice

    2010-08-01

    Currently, ALS clinical trials require large sample size and the participation of many clinical evaluators to perform the outcome measure. High variability due to testers, instruments, or patients performance errors may result in systematic bias or random error leading to erroneous or uninterpretable results. Consequently, a quality control system that aims to produce high quality data in terms of reproducibility and accuracy to ensure reliability of the primary outcome measure is essential. In this paper we report our experience in preparing and executing a prospective quality control system that was implemented in conjunction with a large multicenter, multinational randomized placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial in ALS. We have shown that a prospective quality control system is highly effective to ensure inter- and intra-rater reliability of vital capacity as a primary outcome measure during the entire trial. PMID:20192884

  9. Measuring Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations for Resisting Social Pressures to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Marietta A.; Petosa R. Linyak; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs of smoking refusal skill-efficacy, positive smoking refusal outcome expectations & importance and negative smoking refusal outcome expectations & importance. This article details the rigorous instrument development


  10. Assessing the Psychological Changes of Gifted Students Attending a Residential High School with an Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Marlon R.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the psychological changes that 272 students experienced while attending a residential school for gifted adolescents in the Midwest. This article shares the quantitative portion of a mixed-methods study. Outcome measurement data from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report 2.0 (YOQ-SR) tracked students' level of


  11. Measuring Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations for Resisting Social Pressures to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Marietta A.; Petosa R. Linyak; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs of smoking refusal skill-efficacy, positive smoking refusal outcome expectations & importance and negative smoking refusal outcome expectations & importance. This article details the rigorous instrument development…

  12. Multiple Measures of Outcome in Assessing a Prison-Based Drug Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Wexler, Harry K.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of prison-based drug treatment programs typically focus on one or two dichotomous outcome variables related to recidivism. In contrast, this paper uses multiple measures of outcomes related to crime and drug use to examine the impact of prison treatment. Crime variables included self-report data of time to first illegal activity,…

  13. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their


  14. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  15. Longitudinal Prediction of Child Outcomes from Differing Measures of Parenting in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha J.; Weinfield, Nancy S.; Gallagher, Megan; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Ogawa, John R.; Egeland, Byron; Tabors, Patton O.; De Temple, Jeanne M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined predictions from preschool parenting measures to middle childhood cognitive and socioemotional child outcomes to explore whether parenting assessment methodologies that require more time, training, and expense yield better predictions of child outcomes than less intensive methodologies. Mother-child dyads (N=278) in low-income…

  16. Assessing the Psychological Changes of Gifted Students Attending a Residential High School with an Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Marlon R.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the psychological changes that 272 students experienced while attending a residential school for gifted adolescents in the Midwest. This article shares the quantitative portion of a mixed-methods study. Outcome measurement data from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report 2.0 (YOQ-SR) tracked students' level of…

  17. Multiple Measures of Outcome in Assessing a Prison-Based Drug Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Michael L.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Wexler, Harry K.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of prison-based drug treatment programs typically focus on one or two dichotomous outcome variables related to recidivism. In contrast, this paper uses multiple measures of outcomes related to crime and drug use to examine the impact of prison treatment. Crime variables included self-report data of time to first illegal activity,


  18. Measuring the Quality of VET Using the Student Outcomes Survey. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wang-Sheng; Polidano, Cain

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report is to examine the potential use of information from the Student Outcomes Survey, including the use of student course satisfaction information and post-study outcomes, as a means of determining markers of training quality. In an analysis of the student course satisfaction measures, the authors found there are very small


  19. A ‘learning platform’ approach to outcome measurement in fragile X syndrome: a preliminary psychometric study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S. S.; Hammond, J. L.; Hirt, M.; Reiss, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical trials of medications to alleviate the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are now underway. However, there are few reliable, valid and/or sensitive outcome measures available that can be directly administered to individuals with FXS. The majority of assessments employed in clinical trials may be suboptimal for individuals with intellectual disability (ID) because they require face-to-face interaction with an examiner, taxing administration periods, and do not provide reinforcement and/or feedback during the test. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of a new computerised ‘learning platform’ approach to outcome measurement in FXS. Method A brief computerised test, incorporated into the Discrete Trial Trainer© – a commercially available software program designed for children with ID – was administered to 13 girls with FXS, 12 boys with FXS and 15 matched ID controls aged 10 to 23 years (mental age = 4 to 12 years). The software delivered automated contingent access to reinforcement, feedback, token delivery and prompting procedures (if necessary) on each trial to facilitate responding. The primary outcome measure was the participant’s learning rate, derived from the participant’s cumulative record of correct responses. Results All participants were able to complete the test and floor effects appeared to be minimal. Learning rates averaged approximately five correct responses per minute, ranging from one to eight correct responses per minute in each group. Test–retest reliability of the learning rates was 0.77 for girls with FXS, 0.90 for boys with FXS and 0.90 for matched ID controls. Concurrent validity with raw scores obtained on the Arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III was 0.35 for girls with FXS, 0.80 for boys with FXS and 0.56 for matched ID controls. The learning rates were also highly sensitive to change, with effect sizes of 1.21, 0.89 and 1.47 in each group respectively following 15 to 20, 15-min sessions of intensive discrete trial training conducted over 1.5 days. Conclusions These results suggest that a learning platform approach to outcome measurement could provide investigators with a reliable, valid and highly sensitive measure to evaluate treatment efficacy, not only for individuals with FXS but also for individuals with other ID. PMID:22533667

  20. The challenges of translating the clinical outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) into British Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Evans, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses translation issues arising during the production of a British Sign Language (BSL) version of the psychological outcome measure "Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure" (CORE-OM). The process included forward translation, meeting with a team of translators, producing a second draft of the BSL version and back translating into English. Further modifications were made to the BSL version before piloting it with d/Deaf populations. Details of the translation process are addressed, including (a) the implications of translating between modalities (written text to visual language); (b) clarity of frequency anchors: analog versus digital encoding; (c) pronouns and the direction of signing; and (iv) the influence of the on-screen format. The discussion of item-specific issues encountered when producing a BSL version of the CORE-OM includes the expression of precise emotional states in a language that uses visual modifiers, problems associated with iconic signs, and the influence of Deaf world knowledge when interpreting specific statements. Finally, it addresses the extent to which lessons learned through this translation process are generalizable to other signed languages and spoken language translations of standardized instruments. Despite the challenges, a BSL version of the CORE-OM has been produced and found to be reliable. PMID:23382390

  1. Effectiveness of Evidence-Based Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) CPOE Order Sets Measured by Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Krive, Jacob; Shoolin, Joel S.; Zink, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evidence-based order sets for treatment of patients with common conditions promise ordering efficiency and more consistent health outcomes. Despite ongoing utilization of order sets, quantitative evidence of their effectiveness is lacking. This study quantitatively analyzed benefits of CHF order sets as measured by mortality, readmission, and length of stay (LOS) outcomes. Methods: Mortality and readmissions were analyzed by comparing “order set” and “free text” groups of adult patients using logistic regression, Pearson chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact methods. LOS was calculated by applying One-Way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests, supplemented by comorbidity analysis via Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: CHF orders placed via sets were effective in reducing mortality [OR=1.818;95% CF 1.039–3.181;p=0.034] and LOS [F(1,10938)=8.352,p=0.013,4.75 days (“free text” group) vs. 5.46 days (“order set” group)], while readmission outcome was not significant [OR=0.913;95% CF 0.734–1.137;p=0.417]. Conclusion: Evidence-based medication ordering practices to treat CHF have potential to reduce mortality and LOS, without effect on readmissions. PMID:25954388

  2. Simulation as a New Tool to Establish Benchmark Outcome Measures in Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There are not enough clinical data from rare critical events to calculate statistics to decide if the management of actual events might be below what could reasonably be expected (i.e. was an outlier). Objectives In this project we used simulation to describe the distribution of management times as an approach to decide if the management of a simulated obstetrical crisis scenario could be considered an outlier. Design Twelve obstetrical teams managed 4 scenarios that were previously developed. Relevant outcome variables were defined by expert consensus. The distribution of the response times from the teams who performed the respective intervention was graphically displayed and median and quartiles calculated using rank order statistics. Results Only 7 of the 12 teams performed chest compressions during the arrest following the ‘cannot intubate/cannot ventilate’ scenario. All other outcome measures were performed by at least 11 of the 12 teams. Calculation of medians and quartiles with 95% CI was possible for all outcomes. Confidence intervals, given the small sample size, were large. Conclusion We demonstrated the use of simulation to calculate quantiles for management times of critical event. This approach could assist in deciding if a given performance could be considered normal and also point to aspects of care that seem to pose particular challenges as evidenced by a large number of teams not performing the expected maneuver. However sufficiently large sample sizes (i.e. from a national data base) will be required to calculate acceptable confidence intervals and to establish actual tolerance limits. PMID:26107661

  3. Is Measured Hearing Aid Benefit Affected by Seeing Baseline Outcome Questionnaire Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, ShienPei; Cates, Megan; Saunders, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether hearing aid outcome measured by the Hearing Handicap Inventory (HHI) for the Elderly/Adults (Newman, Weinstein, Jacobson, & Hug, 1990; Ventry & Weinstein, 1982) is differentially affected by informed vs. blind administration of the postfitting questionnaire. Method Participants completed the HHI at their hearing aid evaluation and again at their hearing aid follow-up visit. At follow-up, half received a clean HHI form (blind administration), whereas the remainder responded on their original form (informed administration) and could thus base their follow-up responses on those they gave at the hearing aid evaluation. Results The data show that for the population examined here, informed administration of the follow-up HHI did not yield a different outcome to blind administration of the follow-up HHI. This was not influenced by past hearing aid use, age of the participant, or the duration of time between baseline questionnaire completion and follow-up completion. Conclusion These data suggest that completion of follow-up questionnaires in either informed or blind format will have little impact on HHI responses, most likely because of the many other factors that combined to influence hearing aid outcome. PMID:21940983

  4. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  5. Conservation Covenants on Private Land: Issues with Measuring and Achieving Biodiversity Outcomes in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, James A.; Carr, C. Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  6. Measuring end-of-life care outcomes prospectively.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Karen E

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the science in prospective measurement in end-of-life research and identifies particular areas for focused attention. Topics include defining the scope of inquiry, evaluating experiences of patients too ill to communicate, the role of proxy and family response, measurement sensitivity to change, the role of theory in guiding measurement efforts, evaluating relationships between domains of end-of-life experience, and measurement of cultural comprehensiveness. The state of the sciences calls for future research to (1) conduct longitudinal studies to capture transitions in end-of-life trajectories; (2) evaluate the quality of proxy reporting as it varies by rater relationship, domain, and over time; (3) use state-of-the art psychometric and longitudinal techniques to validate measures and to assess sensitivity to change; (4) develop further and test conceptual models of the experience of dying; (5) study the inter-relatedness of multiple dimensions of end-of-life trajectories; (6) compile updated information evaluating available measurement tools; and (7) conduct population- based research with attention to ethnic and age diversity. PMID:16499466

  7. Psychometrics of the Personal Questionnaire: A client-generated outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Robert; Wagner, John; Sales, Célia M D; Rodgers, Brian; Alves, Paula; Café, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    We present a range of evidence for the reliability and validity of data generated by the Personal Questionnaire (PQ), a client-generated individualized outcome measure, using 5 data sets from 3 countries. Overall pretherapy mean internal consistency (alpha) across clients was .80, and within-client alphas averaged .77; clients typically had 1 or 2 items that did not vary with the other items. Analyses of temporal structure indicated high levels of between-clients variance (58%), moderate pretherapy test-retest correlation (r = .57), and high session-to-session Lag-1 autocorrelation (.82). Scores on the PQ provided clear evidence of convergence with a range of outcome measures (within-client r = .41). Mean pre-post effects were large (d = 1.25). The results support a revised caseness cutoff of 3.25 and a reliable change index interval of 1.67. We conclude that PQ data meet criteria for evidence-based, norm-referenced measurement of client psychological distress for supporting psychotherapy practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075406

  8. MEASURING THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER REDUCTIONS BY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OUTCOME INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantifiable indicators will measure the progress of local and national PM reduction strategies in lowering population exposure to PM and positively impacting public health. These environmental health outcome indicators will ultimately serve to inform and evaluate environmen...

  9. Assessment of murine lung mechanics outcome measures: alignment with those made in asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Julia K. L.; Kraft, Monica; Fisher, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Although asthma is characterized as an inflammatory disease, recent reports highlight the importance of pulmonary physiology outcome measures to the clinical assessment of asthma control and risk of asthma exacerbation. Murine models of allergic inflammatory airway disease have been widely used to gain mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of asthma; however, several aspects of murine models could benefit from improvement. This review focuses on aligning lung mechanics measures made in mice with those made in humans, with an eye toward improving the translational utility of these measures. A brief description of techniques available to measure murine lung mechanics is provided along with a methodological consideration of their utilization. How murine lung mechanics outcome measures relate to pulmonary physiology measures conducted in humans is discussed and we recommend that, like human studies, outcome measures be standardized for murine models of asthma. PMID:23408785

  10. PRION-1 scales analysis supports use of functional outcome measures in prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Mead, S.; Ranopa, M.; Gopalakrishnan, G.S.; Thompson, A.G.B.; Rudge, P.; Wroe, S.; Kennedy, A.; Hudson, F.; MacKay, A.; Darbyshire, J.H.; Walker, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Human prion diseases are heterogeneous but invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders with no known effective therapy. PRION-1, the largest clinical trial in prion disease to date, showed no effect of the potential therapeutic quinacrine on survival. Although there are several limitations to the usefulness of survival as an outcome measure, there have been no comprehensive studies of alternatives. Methods: To address this we did comparative analyses of neurocognitive, psychiatric, global, clinician-rated, and functional scales, focusing on validity, variability, and impact on statistical power over 77 person-years follow-up in 101 symptomatic patients in PRION-1. Results: Quinacrine had no demonstrable benefit on any of the 8 scales (p > 0.4). All scales had substantial numbers of patients with the worst possible score at enrollment (Glasgow Coma Scale score being least affected) and were impacted by missing data due to disease progression. These effects were more significant for cognitive/psychiatric scales than global, clinician-rated, or functional scales. The Barthel and Clinical Dementia Rating scales were the most valid and powerful in simulated clinical trials of an effective therapeutic. A combination of selected subcomponents from these 2 scales gave somewhat increased power, compared to use of survival, to detect clinically relevant effects in future clinical trials of feasible size. Conclusions: Our findings have implications for the choice of primary outcome measure in prion disease clinical trials. Prion disease presents the unusual opportunity to follow patients with a neurodegenerative disease through their entire clinical course, and this provides insights relevant to designing outcome measures in related conditions. PMID:22013183

  11. Posttraumatic midshaft clavicular shortening does not result in relevant functional outcome changes

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Boonstra, Sjoerd; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Nagels, Jochem; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Shoulder function may be changed after healing of a nonoperatively treated clavicular fracture, especially in cases of clavicular shortening or mal-union. We investigated scapular orientations and functional outcome in healed clavicular fractures with and without clavicular shortening. Patients and methods 32 participants with a healed nonoperatively treated midshaft clavicular fracture were investigated. Motions of the thorax, arm, and shoulder were recorded by standardized electromagnetic 3D motion tracking. The DASH score and Constant-Murley score were used to evaluate functional outcome. Orientation of the scapula and humerus at rest and during standardized tasks, and strength and function of the affected shoulders were compared with corresponding values for the uninjured contralateral shoulders. Results Mean clavicular shortening was 25 mm (SD 16). Scapula protraction had increased by mean 4.4° in rest position in the affected shoulders. During abduction, slightly more protraction, slightly more lateral rotation, and slightly less backward tilt was found for the affected shoulders. For anteflexion, the scapular orientations of the affected shoulders also showed slightly increased protraction, slightly increased lateral rotation, and slightly reduced backward tilt. Scapulohumeral kinematics, maximum humerus angles, and strength were not associated with the degree of clavicular shortening. All participants had excellent performance on the Constant-Murley score and DASH score. Interpretation Scapulohumeral kinematics in shoulders with a healed clavicular fracture differ from those in uninjured shoulders, but these changes are small, do not result in clinically relevant changes in outcome, and do not relate to the amount of clavicular shortening. These findings do not support routine operative reduction and fixation of shortened midshaft clavicular fractures based on the argument of functional outcome. PMID:25872962

  12. An evaluation of interrupted and uninterrupted measurement of vocal stereotypy on perceived treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Regina A; Kodak, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The type of procedure used to measure a target behavior may directly influence the perceived treatment outcomes. In the present study, we examined the influence of different data-analysis procedures on the outcomes of two commonly used treatments on the vocal stereotypy of 2 children with an autism spectrum disorder. In Study 1, we compared an interrupted and uninterrupted data-analysis procedure to measure vocal stereotypy during the implementation of response interruption and redirection (RIRD). The results showed that the interrupted data-analysis procedure overestimated the effectiveness of RIRD. In Study 2, we examined the influence of different data-analysis procedures on the interpretation of the relative effects of 2 different treatments for vocal stereotypy. Specifically, we compared interrupted and uninterrupted data-analysis procedures during the implementation of RIRD and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) as a treatment for vocal stereotypy. The results showed that, as in Study 1, the interrupted data-analysis procedure overestimated the effectiveness of RIRD; however, this effect was not apparent with NCR. These findings suggest that different types of data analysis can influence the perceived success of a treatment. PMID:24764249

  13. OMERACT endorsement of measures of outcome for studies of acute gout

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Taylor, William J; Dalbeth, Nicola; Simon, Lee S; Sundy, John; Grainger, Rebecca; Alten, Rieke; March, Lyn; Strand, Vibeke; Wells, George; Khanna, Dinesh; McQueen, Fiona; Schlesinger, Naomi; Boonen, Annelies; Boers, Maarten; Saag, Kenneth G.; Schumacher, H. Ralph; Edwards, N. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which OMERACT participants agree that instruments that have been used in clinical trials and measure OMERACT core outcome domains in acute gout fulfil the filter requirements of truth, discrimination and feasibility and to determine where future research efforts need to be directed. Methods The results of a systematic literature review and analysis of individual-level data from recent clinical studies of acute gout were presented to OMERACT participants. The information was discussed in breakout groups and opinion was defined by subsequent voting in a plenary session. Endorsement was defined as at least 70% of participants voting in agreement with the proposition (where the denominator excluded those participants who did not vote or who voted ‘don’t know’). Results The following measures were endorsed for use in clinical trials of acute gout: (1) 5-point Likert scale and/or VAS (0 to 100mm) to measure pain; (2) 4-point Likert scale for joint swelling; (3) 4-point Likert scale for joint tenderness; and (4) 5-point Likert scale for patient global assessment of response to treatment. Measures for the activity limitations domain were not endorsed. Conclusions Measures of pain, joint swelling, joint tenderness and patient global assessment in acute gout were endorsed at OMERACT-11. These measures should now be used in clinical trials of acute gout. PMID:24334651

  14. Consensus for tinnitus patient assessment and treatment outcome measurement: Tinnitus Research Initiative meeting, Regensburg, July 2006

    PubMed Central

    Langguth, B.; Goodey, R.; Azevedo, A.; Bjorne, A.; Cacace, A.; Crocetti, A.; Del Bo, L.; De Ridder, D.; Diges, I.; Elbert, T.; Flor, H.; Herraiz, C.; Sanchez, T. Ganz; Eichhammer, P.; Figueiredo, R.; Hajak, G.; Kleinjung, T.; Landgrebe, M.; Londero, A.; Lainez, M.J.A.; Mazzoli, M.; Meikle, M.B.; Melcher, J.; Rauschecker, J.P.; Sand, P.G.; Struve, M.; Van de Heyning, P.; Van Dijk, P.; Vergara, R.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread recognition that consistency between research centres in the ways that patients with tinnitus are assessed and outcomes following interventions are measured would facilitate more effective co-operation and more meaningful evaluations and comparisons of outcomes. At the first Tinnitus Research Initiative meeting held in Regensburg in July 2006 an attempt was made through workshops to gain a consensus both for patient assessments and for outcome measurements. It is hoped that this will contribute towards better cooperation between research centres in finding and evaluating treatments for tinnitus by allowing better comparability between studies. PMID:17956816

  15. Craniofacial Measurements of Donors and Recipients Correlate with Aesthetic Outcome in Virtual Face Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    S. Wallins, Joseph; Chandawarkar, Akash A.; Dobry, Allison; Diaz-Siso, J. Rodrigo; Bueno, Ericka M.; Caterson, Edward J.; Jania, Camille; Hevelone, Nathanael D.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Mukundan, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Face transplantation is an increasingly feasible option for patients with severe disfigurement. Donors and recipients are currently matched based on immune compatibility, skin characteristics, age, and gender. Aesthetic outcomes of the match are not always optimal and not possible to study in actual cases due to ethical and logistical challenges. We have used a reproducible and inexpensive three-dimensional virtual face transplantation (VFT) model to study this issue. Methods: Sixty-one VFTs were performed using reconstructed high-resolution computed tomography angiographs of male and female subjects aged 20–69 years. Twenty independent reviewers evaluated the level of disfigurement of the posttransplant models. Absolute differences in 9 soft-tissue measurements and 16 bony cephalometric measurements from each of the VFT donor and recipient pretransplant model pairs were correlated to the reviewers’ evaluation of disfigurement after VFT through a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: Five soft-tissue measurements and 3 bony measurements were predictive of the rating of disfigurement after VFT (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval): trichion-to-nasion facial height (1.106; 1.066–1.148), endocanthal width (1.096; 1.051–1.142), exocanthal width (1.067; 1.036–1.099), mouth/chelion width (1.064; 1.019–1.110), subnasale-to-menton facial height (1.029; 1.003–1.056), inner orbit width (1.039; 1.009–1.069), palatal plane/occlusal plane angle (1.148; 1.047–1.258), and sella-nasion/mandibular plane angle (1.079; 1.013–1.150). Conclusions: This study provides early evidence for the importance of soft-tissue and bony measurements in planning of facial transplantation. With future improvements to immunosuppressive regimens and increased donor availability, these measurements may be used as an additional criterion to optimize posttransplant outcomes. PMID:26090275

  16. Outcome Measures Utilized in Clinical Trials of Interventions for Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciak, Stephen; Jones, Alan E.; Kilgannon, J. Hope; Fuller, Brian M.; Roberts, Brian W.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Farrar, John T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The post-cardiac arrest syndrome (period of critical illness following return of spontaneous circulation [ROSC]) is a promising window of opportunity for clinical trials of therapeutic interventions to improve outcome from cardiac arrest. However, the methodological rigor of post-ROSC trials and the ability to compare or pool data on treatment effects across studies requires consistent and appropriate outcome measures. We aimed to determine the current degree of uniformity of outcome measures in clinical trials of post-ROSC interventions. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, conference proceedings, and clinical trial registrations using a comprehensive strategy. We identified experimental or quasi-experimental trials testing post-ROSC interventions in adults. Four authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality using standardized instruments. RESULTS The search yielded 33 potential studies, of which 13 randomized controlled trials (n=1937) were included in the final analysis. Seven trials tested pharmacologic therapies and six tested non-pharmacologic therapies. Our main finding is that heterogeneity in the selection and reporting of outcomes limited comparability of results across studies. No two trials used exactly the same primary outcome, and timing of measurement varied widely. We found only two commonalities: (1) indices of functional survival were used rather than survival alone, and (2) ordinal scales of neurological function were collapsed into clinically meaningful groups (“good” versus “bad” outcome). CONCLUSION Currently there is a lack of uniformity in selection and reporting of outcome measures among trials of post-ROSC interventions. Achieving consensus would be an important advance for resuscitation science. PMID:19386408

  17. Long-Term Outcomes of Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: Evaluation and Comparison of Results in Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Ganger, Anita; Vanathi, M; Mohanty, Sujata; Tandon, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) in children and adults with limbal stem cell deficiency. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Case records of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) who underwent CLET from April 2004 to December 2014 were studied. Outcome measures were compared in terms of anatomical success and visual improvement. Parameters for total anatomical success were avascular, epithelized, and clinically stable corneal surface without conjunctivalization, whereas partial anatomical success was considered when mild vascularization (sparing centre of cornea) and mild conjunctivalization were noted along with complete epithelization. Results. A total of 62 cases underwent the CLET procedure: 38 (61.3%) were children and 24 (38.7%) were adults. Patients with unilateral LSCD (33 children and 21 adults) had autografts and those with bilateral LSCD (5 children and 3 adults) had allografts. Amongst the 54 autografts partial and total anatomical success were noted in 21.2% and 66.6% children, respectively, and 19.0% and 80.9% in adults, respectively (p value 0.23). Visual improvement of 1 line and ?2 lines was seen in 57.5% and 21.2% children, respectively, and 38% and 38% in adults, respectively (p value 0.31). Conclusion. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation gives good long-term results in patients with LSCD and the outcomes are comparable in children and adults. PMID:26770973

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: Evaluation and Comparison of Results in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ganger, Anita; Vanathi, M.; Mohanty, Sujata; Tandon, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) in children and adults with limbal stem cell deficiency. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. Case records of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) who underwent CLET from April 2004 to December 2014 were studied. Outcome measures were compared in terms of anatomical success and visual improvement. Parameters for total anatomical success were avascular, epithelized, and clinically stable corneal surface without conjunctivalization, whereas partial anatomical success was considered when mild vascularization (sparing centre of cornea) and mild conjunctivalization were noted along with complete epithelization. Results. A total of 62 cases underwent the CLET procedure: 38 (61.3%) were children and 24 (38.7%) were adults. Patients with unilateral LSCD (33 children and 21 adults) had autografts and those with bilateral LSCD (5 children and 3 adults) had allografts. Amongst the 54 autografts partial and total anatomical success were noted in 21.2% and 66.6% children, respectively, and 19.0% and 80.9% in adults, respectively (p value 0.23). Visual improvement of 1 line and ≄2 lines was seen in 57.5% and 21.2% children, respectively, and 38% and 38% in adults, respectively (p value 0.31). Conclusion. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation gives good long-term results in patients with LSCD and the outcomes are comparable in children and adults. PMID:26770973

  19. Outcome measures in major trauma care: a review of current international trauma registry practice.

    PubMed

    Sleat, Graham K J; Ardolino, Antonella M; Willett, Keith M

    2011-12-01

    Multiple reports over the past 20 years have criticised the care delivered to major trauma patients in England. The setting up of regional trauma networks is well underway to address these deficiencies. Outcomes currently collected in major trauma are restricted to mortality rates and process measures; however, many patients are left with long-term disabilities and reduced quality of life (QoL), which are not measured at present. Trauma systems need to develop outcome measures that capture this important information to judge the quality of care and influence the development of services. This review aimed to identify the current practice of international trauma registries with regard to outcome measurement and review the literature surrounding these measures. An internet-based search of international trauma registry websites including data dictionaries and annual reports was carried out as well as a literature review to determine what outcome measures are routinely collected by trauma registries. All registries were found to look at mortality and process measures, but only one registry routinely collected morbidity outcome measures for both adults and children. There is a considerable amount of disability and reduced QoL in survivors of major trauma that lasts for years following the injury. At present only the Victorian State Trauma Registry collects outcome measures that evaluate the extent of this. English regional trauma networks and the Trauma Audit and Research Network have the opportunity to learn from this experience and routinely start to collect measures of outcome that can drive service improvement and reduce patient morbidity. PMID:21890862

  20. Longitudinal changes of outcome measures in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Atsushi; Katsuno, Masahisa; Banno, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Keisuke; Suga, Noriaki; Mano, Tomoo; Atsuta, Naoki; Oe, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2012-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an adult-onset, hereditary motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeat within the gene encoding the androgen receptor. To date, several agents have been shown to prevent or slow disease progression in animal models of this disease. For the translational research of these agents, it is necessary to perform the detailed analysis of natural history with quantitative outcome measures and to establish sensitive and validated disease-specific endpoints in the clinical trials. To this end, we performed a prospective observation of disease progression over 3 years in 34 genetically confirmed Japanese patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy by using quantitative outcome measures, including functional and blood parameters. The baseline evaluation revealed that CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene correlated not only with the age of onset but also with the timing of substantial changes in activity of daily living. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the serum level of creatinine is the most useful blood parameter that reflects the severity of motor dysfunction in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. In 3-year prospective analyses, a slow but steady progression was affirmed in most of the outcome measures we examined. In the analyses using random coefficient models that summarize the individual data into a representative line, disease progression was not affected by CAG repeat length or onset age. These models showed large interindividual variation, which was also independent of the differences of CAG repeat size. Analyses using these models also demonstrated that the subtle neurological deficits at an early or preclinical stage were more likely to be detected by objective motor functional tests such as the 6-min walk test and grip power or serum creatinine levels than by functional rating scales, such as the revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale or modified Norris scale. Categorization of the clinical phenotypes using factor analysis showed that upper limb function is closely related to bulbar function, but not to lower limb function at baseline, whereas the site of onset had no substantial effects on disease progression. These results suggest that patients with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy show a slow but steady progression of motor dysfunction over time that is independent of CAG repeat length or clinical phenotype, and that objective outcome measures may be used to evaluate disease severity at an early stage of this disease. PMID:22773541

  1. Outcome measurement in HEDIS: can risk adjustment save the low birth weight measure?

    PubMed Central

    Inkelas, M; Decristofaro, A H; McGlynn, E A; Keeler, E B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate whether adjusting the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) low birth weight (LBW) measure for maternal risk factors is feasible and improves its validity as a quality indicator. DATA SOURCE: The Washington State Birth Event Record Data for calendar years 1989 and 1990, including birth certificate data matched with mothers' and infants' hospital discharge records, with 5,837 records of singlet on infants identified as LBW (< 2,500 g) and a 25 percent sample ( n = 31,570) of the normal-weight births ( measure, we assessed health plan readiness to produce a risk-adjusted measure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An LBW indicator that is adjusted for maternal risks represents health plan performance better than the unadjusted rate. In the most parsimonious risk adjustment model LBW risk was higher for mothers with a history of prior preterm birth , LBW, or fet al death . Risk was also high er for primiparas or mothers with high parity, mothers less than 19 years of age, and primiparas over age 35. In a model adding race to these obstetric factors, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, or other non-white, non-Hispanic race were also significantly associated with higher LBW risk. While adjusting for maternal risk improved the LBW measure's validity, the rate adjustment magnitude was small (0.17 percentage points) for the most plausible model. Th is may not be mean in gf ul clinically or for measuring differences in quality. The costs and data collection requirements of risk adjustment could be substantial for health plans lacking access to State birth records data. CONCLUSIONS Selection of risk adjusters for quality measures depends on judgments of their effect, legitimacy, and feasibility. A comprehensive examination of validity and feasibility is needed to understand to what extent outcome measures represent quality and how their value compares to their cost of collection . PMID:16148953

  2. Association between thymic function and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outcome: results of a pediatric study.

    PubMed

    Saglio, Francesco; Cena, Silvia; Berger, Massimo; Quarello, Paola; Boccasavia, Viola; Ferrando, Federica; Pittana, Laura; Bruno, Benedetto; Fagioli, Franca

    2015-06-01

    Robust T cell function recovery has been shown to be crucial in determining allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcome, and there is growing evidence that the thymus plays a central role in regulating this process. We performed a long-term analysis of the role of thymic activity recovery in a population of pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT by signal joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) quantification. In this study, characterized by a long-term follow-up (median, 72 months), we found patients with higher levels of sjTRECs before transplantation had a statistically significant reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower values (relative risk, .31; 95% confidence interval, .30 to .32; P = .02), showing this different outcome was mainly related to a reduction of relapse incidence (14% versus 43%, P = .02). Unlike previous reports, we observed no correlation between sjTREC levels and lymphocyte recovery. Moreover, we confirmed that only graft-versus-host disease influenced thymic activity after transplantation. In conclusion, our results suggest an association between pretransplantation thymic activity and the long-term outcome of pediatric patients undergoing HSCT, mainly through a reduction of relapse opportunities. PMID:25708218

  3. Long-term outcome after corneal transplantation. Visual result and patient perception of success.

    PubMed

    Williams, K A; Ash, J K; Pararajasegaram, P; Harris, S; Coster, D J

    1991-05-01

    Snellen acuity, reading line, and keratometry were measured in a cohort of 60 patients at 2 or more years after penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire to elicit information on their perceptions of visual function and the success of the procedure. Using preferred correction, a Snellen acuity of 6/18 or better was achieved by 65%, and a reading line of N8 or better was achieved by 57% of index grafts. Thirty-eight percent had more than 5 diopters (D) of astigmatism in the graft. Approximately 75% of patients reported satisfaction with their graft (satisfaction being associated with better acuity in the grafted eye than the other eye), graft clarity, and a perceived improvement in lifestyle. Dissatisfaction appeared to be associated with graft failure and problems with contact lens wear. The findings have implications for patient selection for corneal transplantation and for the measurement of outcome. PMID:2062497

  4. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  5. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and


  6. RELATION OVER TIME BETWEEN FACIAL MEASUREMENTS AND COGNITIVE OUTCOMES IN FETAL ALCOHOL EXPOSED CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Foroud, Tatiana; Wetherill, Leah; Vinci-Booher, Sophia; Moore, Elizabeth S.; Ward, Richard E.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Robinson, Luther K.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of individuals exposed prenatally to alcohol can be challenging, with only those having the characteristic pattern of facial features, CNS abnormality, and growth retardation receiving a clinical diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Methods 17 anthropometric measurements were obtained at 5 and 9 years from 125 Cape Town, South African children, studied since birth. The children were divided into 3 groups: FAS or partial FAS (PFAS), heavily exposed nonsyndromal (HE), and non-alcohol exposed controls (C). Anthropometric measurements were evaluated for mean group differences. Logistic regression models were used to identify the subset of anthropometric measures that best predicted group membership. Anthropometric measurements were examined at the two ages in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure obtained prospectively from the mothers during pregnancy. Correlation of these facial measurements with key neurobehavioral outcomes including WISC-IV IQ and eyeblink conditioning was used to assess their utility as indicators of alcohol-related central nervous system impairment. Results Significant group differences were found for the majority of the anthropometric measures, with means of these measures smaller in the FAS/PFAS compared with HE or C. Upper facial widths, ear length, lower facial depth, and eye widths were consistent predictors distinguishing those exposed to alcohol from those who were not. Using longitudinal data, unique measures were identified that predicted facial anomalies at one age but not the other, suggesting the face changes as the individual matures. 41% of the FAS/PFAS group met criteria for microtia at both ages. Three of the predictive anthropometric measures were negatively related to measures of prenatal alcohol consumption, and all were positively related to at least one neurobehavioral outcome. Conclusions The analysis of longitudinal data identified a common set of predictors, as well as some that are unique at each age. Prenatal alcohol exposure appears to have its primary effect on brain growth, reflected by smaller forehead widths, and may suppress neural crest migration to the branchial arches, reflected by deficits in ear length and mandibular dimensions. These results may improve diagnostic resolution and enhance our understanding of the relation between the face and the neuropsychological deficits that occur. PMID:22404085

  7. Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Farrar, John T.; Haddox, J. David; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Junor, Roderick; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Klein, Michael; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Leiderman, Deborah B.; McDermott, Michael P.; O’Brien, Charles; O’Connor, Alec B.; Palmer, Pamela P.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rappaport, Bob A.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W.; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures are appropriate for assessing the AL of medications from other drug classes, the focus here is on opioid medications because they present unique risks from both physiological (e.g., respiratory depression, physical dependence) and public health (e.g., individuals in pain) perspectives. A brief historical perspective on AL testing is provided and then those measures that can be considered primary and secondary outcomes and possible additional outcomes in AL assessment are discussed. These outcome measures include: (1) subjective effects (some of which comprise the primary outcome measures, including drug liking); (2) physiological responses; (3) drug self-administration behavior; and (4) cognitive and psychomotor performance. Prior to presenting recommendations for standardized approaches and measures to be used in AL assessments, the appropriateness of using these measures in clinical trials with patients in pain is discussed. PMID:22998781

  8. Outcome measures capturing ICF domains in patient with total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H

    2014-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) represents a general framework for concepts of health and disability. The number of patients undergoing Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing worldwide. Capturing the different health-related ICF domains in this increasing number of patients with TKA requires clinicians and researchers to be familiar with the tools that can be used in daily clinical practice to capture these health-related domains. This paper aimed to review the outcome measures related to the different ICF domains in patients with TKA and to review the psychometric properties of these outcome measures. An electronic search for relevant articles using MEDLINE and CINHAL databases up to March 2014 was performed. In addition to the electronic search, the articles retrieved were searched manually for relevant studies. Impairment-based outcome measures important to patients with TKA included measures of knee pain intensity, knee joint mobility, and muscle performance. Outcome measures capturing activity limitation in patients with TKA included both self-reported and performance-based measures as each capture a different aspect of the activity limitation construct. The disability component of the late life function and disability instrument can be used to quantify participation restriction patients with TKA. Clinicians and researchers are encouraged to measure the different health-related domains in patients with TKA using the outcome measures presented in this review. PMID:25221846

  9. General Education Courses at the University of Botswana: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Measuring Course Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Deepti; Garg, Ajay K.

    2007-01-01

    This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Technology Acceptance Model to measure outcomes of general education courses (GECs) under the University of Botswana Computer and Information Skills (CIS) program. An exploratory model was validated for responses from 298 students. The results suggest that resources currently committed to…

  10. General Education Courses at the University of Botswana: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Measuring Course Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Deepti; Garg, Ajay K.

    2007-01-01

    This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Technology Acceptance Model to measure outcomes of general education courses (GECs) under the University of Botswana Computer and Information Skills (CIS) program. An exploratory model was validated for responses from 298 students. The results suggest that resources currently committed to


  11. Diabetes and Outcomes after Radical Prostatectomy – Are Results Affected by Obesity and Race? Results from the SEARCH Database

    PubMed Central

    Jayachandran, Jayakrishnan; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Presti, Joseph C.; Amling, Christopher L.; Kane, Christopher J.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is associated with lower prostate cancer (PC) risk. The association of diabetes with PC outcomes is less clear. We examined the association between diabetes and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) and tested whether associations varied by race and/or obesity. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 1262 men treated with RP between 1988 and 2008 within the SEARCH Database. We examined multivariate association between diabetes at surgery and adverse pathology, biochemical recurrence (BCR) and PSA doubling time (PSADT) at recurrence using logistic, proportional hazards and linear regression, respectively. Data were examined as a whole and stratified by race and obesity. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent among black (22% vs. 15%, p<0.001) and more obese men (p<0.001). Diabetes was associated with higher tumor grade (OR 1.73, p=0.002), seminal vesicle invasion (OR 1.73, p=0.04), but not BCR (p=0.67) or PSADT at recurrence (p=0.12). In secondary analysis, among white obese men, diabetes was associated with 2.5- fold increased BCR risk (p=0.002) and a trend towards shorter PSADT whereas among all other men (non-obese white men and black men), diabetes was associated with 23% lower recurrence risk (p=0.09) and longer PSADT (p=0.04). Conclusion: In a RP cohort, diabetes was not associated with BCR. In secondary analysis, diabetes was associated with more aggressive disease in obese white men and less aggressive disease for all other subsets. If externally validated, these findings suggest that among men with PC, the association between diabetes and PC aggressiveness may vary by race and obesity. PMID:20056618

  12. Validation of the CMT Pediatric Scale as an outcome measure of disability

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Joshua; Ouvrier, Robert; Estilow, Tim; Shy, Rosemary; LaurĂĄ, Matilde; Pallant, Julie F.; Lek, Monkol; Muntoni, Francesco; Reilly, Mary M.; Pareyson, Davide; Acsadi, Gyula; Shy, Michael E.; Finkel, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a common heritable peripheral neuropathy. There is no treatment for any form of CMT although clinical trials are increasingly occurring. Patients usually develop symptoms during the first two decades of life but there are no established outcome measures of disease severity or response to treatment. We identified a set of items that represent a range of impairment levels and conducted a series of validation studies to build a patient-centered multi-item rating scale of disability for children with CMT. Methods As part of the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium, patients aged 3–20 years with a variety of CMT types were recruited from the USA, UK, Italy and Australia. Initial development stages involved: definition of the construct, item pool generation, peer review and pilot testing. Based on data from 172 patients, a series of validation studies were conducted, including: item and factor analysis, reliability testing, Rasch modeling and sensitivity analysis. Results Seven areas for measurement were identified (strength, dexterity, sensation, gait, balance, power, endurance), and a psychometrically robust 11-item scale constructed (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Pediatric Scale: CMTPedS). Rasch analysis supported the viability of the CMTPedS as a unidimensional measure of disability in children with CMT. It showed good overall model fit, no evidence of misfitting items, no person misfit and it was well targeted for children with CMT. Interpretation The CMTPedS is a well-tolerated outcome measure that can be completed in 25-minutes. It is a reliable, valid and sensitive global measure of disability for children with CMT from the age of 3 years. PMID:22522479

  13. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers–Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest–with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real–world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970’s and the now–defunct Canada–based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures. PMID:26824351

  14. A Multicenter Longitudinal Study of Hospital-Onset Bacteremia: Time for a New Quality Outcome Measure?

    PubMed

    Rock, Clare; Thom, Kerri A; Harris, Anthony D; Li, Shanahan; Morgan, Daniel; Milstone, Aaron M; Caffo, Brian; Joshi, Manjari; Leekha, Surbhi

    2016-02-01

    BACKGROUND Central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rate is an important quality measure, but it suffers from subjectivity and interrater variability, and decreasing national CLABSI rates may compromise its power to discriminate between hospitals. This study evaluates hospital-onset bacteremia (HOB, ie, any positive blood culture obtained 48 hours post admission) as a healthcare-associated infection-related outcome measure by assessing the association between HOB and CLABSI rates and comparing the power of each to discriminate quality among intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS In this multicenter study, ICUs provided monthly CLABSI and HOB rates for 2012 and 2013. A Poisson regression model was used to assess the association between these 2 rates. We compared the power of each measure to discriminate between ICUs using standardized infection ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A measure was defined as having greater power to discriminate if more of the SIRs (with surrounding CIs) were different from 1. RESULTS In 80 ICUs from 16 hospitals in the United States and Canada, a total of 663 CLABSIs, 475,420 central line days, 11,280 HOBs, and 966,757 patient days were reported. An absolute change in HOB of 1 per 1,000 patient days was associated with a 2.5% change in CLABSI rate (P<.001). Among the 80 ICUs, 20 (25%) had a CLABSI SIR and 60 (75%) had an HOB SIR that was different from 1 (P<.001). CONCLUSION Change in HOB rate is strongly associated with change in CLABSI rate and has greater power to discriminate between ICU performances. Consideration should be given to using HOB to replace CLABSI as an outcome measure in infection prevention quality assessments. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):143-148. PMID:26493213

  15. The rheumatoid foot: a systematic literature review of patient-reported outcome measures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The foot is often the first area of the body to be systematically affected by rheumatoid arthritis. The multidimensional consequences of foot problems for patients can be subjectively evaluated using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). However, there is currently no systematic review which has focused specifically upon the PROMs available for the foot with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the foot-specific PROMs available for the assessment and/or evaluation of the foot affected with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods A systematic search of databases was conducted according to pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. PROMs identified were reviewed in terms of: conceptual bases, quality of construction, measurement aims and evidence to support their measurement properties. Results A total of 11 PROMs were identified and 5 papers that provided evidence for the measurement properties of some of the PROMs. Only one of the PROMs was found to be RA disease-specific. The quality of construction, pretesting and presence of evidence for their measurement properties was found to be highly variable. Conceptual bases of many of the PROMs was either restricted or based on reductionist biomedical models. All of the PROMs were found to consist of fixed scales. Conclusions There is a need to develop an RA-disease and foot-specific PROM with a greater emphasis on a biopsychosocial conceptual basis, cognitive pre-testing methods, patient preference-based qualities and evidence to support the full complement of measurement properties. PMID:20618927

  16. Application of the National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMISÂź) to Mental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Riley, William T.; Pilkonis, Paul; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a National Institutes of Health initiative to develop item banks measuring patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and to create and make available a computerized adaptive testing system (CAT) that allows for efficient and precise assessment of PROs in clinical research and practice. Aims of the Study Based on the presentation from a symposium on “Evidence-based Outcomes in Psychiatry: Updates on Measurement Using Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO)” at the 2011 American Psychiatry Association Convention, this paper provides an overview of PROMIS and its application to mental health research. Methods The PROMIS methodology for item bank development and testing is described, with a focus on the implications of this work for mental health research. Results Utilizing qualitative item review and state-of-the-art applications of item response theory (IRT), PROMIS investigators have developed, tested, and released item banks measuring physical, mental, and social health components. Ongoing efforts continue to add new item banks and further validate existing banks. Discussion PROMIS provides item banks measuring several domains of interest to mental health researchers including emotional distress, social function, and sleep. PROMIS methodology also provides a rigorous standard for the development of new mental health measures. Implications for Health Care Provision Web-based CAT or administration of short forms derived from PROMIS item banks provide efficient and precise dimensional estimates of clinical outcomes that can be utilized to monitor patient progress and assess quality improvement. Implications for Future Research Use of the dimensional PROMIS metrics (and co-calibration of the PROMIS item banks with existing PROs) will allow comparisons of mental health and related health outcomes across disorders and studies. PMID:22345362

  17. Capturing Psychologists' Work in Integrated Care: Measuring and Documenting Administrative Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Lisa K; Smith, Clifford A; Pomerantz, Andrew S

    2015-12-01

    With the expansion of integrated primary care and the increased focus on fiscal sustainability, it is critical for clinical managers of these innovative systems to have practical methods for measuring administrative outcomes. Administrative outcomes will assist leadership in the development of efficient, streamlined clinics to provide services to the primary care population. Additionally, administrative measures can be utilized to provide information to assist in guiding resource utilization and management decisions. Several administrative outcomes are suggested for integrated primary care managers to consider for application, including: clinic utilization measures, integrated care administrative measures, wait time and access metrics, and productivity monitors. Effective utilization of these measures can help office managers and clinic leadership not only to maximize patient care, but also to enhance essential business operations, which increase the long-term sustainability of integrated primary care programs. PMID:26645090

  18. Development and implementation of an evaluation strategy for measuring conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kathleen; Chessler, Melissa; York, Peter; Raynor, Jared

    2009-09-01

    The Philadelphia Zoo's Measuring Mission project assessed the conservation-related impacts of a visit to the Zoo and documented the results in a way that would provide a set of easily actionable planning strategies. A logic model provided a theoretical framework and guided the development of survey items. Three groups were surveyed using a pre-post retrospective instrument: zoo visitors, members, and volunteers. This report includes findings from the visitor surveys only. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, correlations, and t-tests. Results revealed that the Philadelphia Zoo has been most successful in providing its guests with a satisfying animal viewing experience, facilitated by accessible informative interpretive staff, but that guests do not always take advantage of opportunities to interact with staff. Success in achieving the Zoo's conservation mission was measured by comparing pre and posttest scores on five outcome factors (conservation motivation, conservation knowledge, pro-conservation consumer skills, conservation attitudes/values, readiness to take conservation action). The greatest gains were found in conservation knowledge and conservation motivation. Quality of exhibits and quality of staff stand out as the most important factors in influencing conservation outcomes. To ensure that results would be accessible to a wide variety of Zoo employees for planning, program and exhibit development, and staff training, nine strategies were identified as key to achieving success in the Zoo's mission. Measuring Mission has created a process for assessing the Zoo's mission impact, and has confirmed that high-quality exhibits interpreted by expert, readily available staff can influence conservation knowledge and motivation in particular. PMID:19725124

  19. Evidence for Whom? ASHA's National Outcomes Measurement System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The growth of managed care and increasing demands by school systems resulted in of a number of new audiences looking for the evidence underlying the practice of speech-language pathology (SLP). Third-party payers, operating in an environment emphasizing ''return-on-investment,'' sought data linking expenditures on SLP services with tangible


  20. Evidence for Whom? ASHA's National Outcomes Measurement System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The growth of managed care and increasing demands by school systems resulted in of a number of new audiences looking for the evidence underlying the practice of speech-language pathology (SLP). Third-party payers, operating in an environment emphasizing ''return-on-investment,'' sought data linking expenditures on SLP services with tangible…

  1. Implementation and outcomes of telephone disclosure of clinical BRCA1/2 test results?

    PubMed Central

    Patrick-Miller, Linda; Egleston, Brian L.; Daly, Mary; Stevens, Evelyn; Fetzer, Dominique; Forman, Andrea; Bealin, Lisa; Rybak, Christina; Peterson, Candace; Corbman, Melanie; Bradbury, Angela R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: With an increasing demand for genetic services, effective and efficient delivery models for genetic testing are needed. Methods: In this prospective single-arm communication study, participants received clinical BRCA1/2 results by telephone with a genetic counselor and completed surveys at baseline, after telephone disclosure (TD) and after in-person clinical follow-up. Results: Sixty percent of women agreed to participate; 73% of decliners preferred in-person communication. Anxiety decreased from baseline to post-TD (p = 0.03) and satisfaction increased (p < 0.01). Knowledge did not change significantly from baseline to post-TD, but was higher post-clinical follow-up (p = 0.04). Cancer patients had greater declines in state anxiety and African-American participants reported less increase in satisfaction. 28% of participants did not return for in-person clinical follow-up, particularly those with less formal education, and higher post-disclosure anxiety and depression (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Telephone disclosure of BRCA1/2 test results may not be associated with negative cognitive and affective responses among willing patients, although some subgroups may experience less favorable responses. Some patients do not return for in-person clinical follow-up and longitudinal outcomes are unknown. Practice implications: Further evaluation of longitudinal outcomes of telephone disclosure and differences among subgroups can inform how to best incorporate telephone communication into delivery of genetic services. PMID:24075727

  2. Clinical outcome, quality of life, patients' satisfaction, and aesthetic results, after reduction mammaplasty.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Erik; Schuss, Rebecca; Edsander-Nord, Asa

    2009-01-01

    Macromastia is a common indication for breast reduction within the public health care system in Sweden. To reduce the waiting time, a project was launched to operate on patients during a three-month period at a local hospital in Stockholm (Nacka Hospital). The operations were done by specialists and residents from the Karolinska University Hospital, using a medial flap technique. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the results of this project, focusing on clinical outcome, quality of life, patients' satisfaction, and aesthetic results. Personal and preoperative clinical data and information about risk factors were extracted from the patients' records. At the 6 month follow-up the patients were asked to fill in two questionnaires: "Short Form-36" and another form about patients' satisfaction and sensitivity. Four digital photos taken during the follow-up were graded by three plastic surgeons. Diabetes and oral contraceptives, respectively, were risk factors for infection and delayed wound healing. Patients reported a significantly increased quality of life after six months, regardless of body mass index. Patients were generally more satisfied with the aesthetic outcome than were the surgeons, had satisfactory aesthetic results (89%), acceptable levels of complications (31%), and increased quality of life. The medial flap technique should be evaluated further for its loss of sensitivity. PMID:19688643

  3. Relationship Between 1-Hour Glucose Challenge Test Results and Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Dana; Landon, Mark B.; Mele, Lisa; Spong, Catherine Y.; Ramin, Susan M.; Casey, Brian; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Caritis, Steve N.; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.; Tolosa, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the relationship between 1-hour 50 gm glucose challenge test (GCT) values and perinatal outcomes. Methods This was a secondary analysis of data from a multicenter treatment trial of mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Women with GCT 135199 mg/dL completed a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Mild GDM was defined as fasting glucose less than 95 mg/dL and two or more abnormal OGTT values: 1-hour 180 mg/dL or more; 2-hour 155 mg/dL or more; 3-hour 140 mg/dL or more. Our study included untreated women with GCT 135–139 mg/dL, GCT 140–199 mg/dL, and a comparison group with GCT less than 120 mg/dL. Primary outcomes included a perinatal composite (stillbirth, neonatal death, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, neonatal hyperinsulinemia, and birth trauma), large for gestational age (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile based on gender and race specific norms) and macrosomia (greater than 4,000gm). Results There were 436 women with GCT less than120 mg/dL and 1,403 with GCT 135 mg/dL or more (GCT 135–139, n=135; 140–199, n=1,268). The composite perinatal outcome occurred in 25.6% of those with GCT less than 120 mg/dL compared with 21.1% for GCT 135–139 mg/dL, and 35.3% for GCT 140–199 mg/dL. Rates of LGA by group were 6.6%, 6.8% and 12.4%, respectively. Rates of macrosomia by group were 7.8%, 6.1% and 12.1%, respectively. Compared with GCT less than 120 mg/dL, the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for GCT values of 140–199 mg/dL were 1.48 (1.14–1.93) for the composite outcome, 1.97 (1.29–3.11) for LGA, and 1.61(1.07–2.49) for macrosomia. For GCT values 135–139 mg/dL, adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were 0.75 (0.45–1.21), 1.04 (0.44–2.24) and 0.75 (0.30–1.66), respectively. The subcategories with GCT values 140–144 mg/dL and 145–149 mg/dL were also associated with an increase in selected outcomes when compared with those with GCT less than 120 mg/dL. Conclusions Glucose challenge test values of 135–139 mg/dL were not associated with adverse outcomes compared with GCT less than 120 mg/dL; however, GCT values 140 mg/dL or more were associated with an increase in odds of the composite perinatal outcome, LGA and macrosomia. PMID:23812458

  4. Effectiveness of Evidence-based Pneumonia CPOE Order Sets Measured by Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Krive, Jacob; Shoolin, Joel S.; Zink, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence-based sets of medical orders for the treatment of patients with common conditions have the potential to induce greater efficiency and convenience across the system, along with more consistent health outcomes. Despite ongoing utilization of order sets, quantitative evidence of their effectiveness is lacking. In this study, conducted at Advocate Health Care in Illinois, we quantitatively analyzed the benefits of community acquired pneumonia order sets as measured by mortality, readmission, and length of stay (LOS) outcomes. Methods In this study, we examined five years (2007–2011) of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) data from two city and two suburban community care hospitals. Mortality and readmissions benefits were analyzed by comparing “order set” and “no order set” groups of adult patients using logistic regression, Pearson’s chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact methods. LOS was calculated by applying one-way ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U test, supplemented by analysis of comorbidity via the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results The results indicate that patient treatment orders placed via electronic sets were effective in reducing mortality [OR=1.787; 95% CF 1.170-2.730; P=.061], readmissions [OR=1.362; 95% CF 1.015-1.827; P=.039], and LOS [F (1,5087)=6.885, P=.009, 4.79 days (no order set group) vs. 4.32 days (order set group)]. Conclusion Evidence-based ordering practices have the potential to improve pneumonia outcomes through reduction of mortality, hospital readmissions, and cost of care. However, the practice must be part of a larger strategic effort to reduce variability in patient care processes. Further experimental and/or observational studies are required to reduce the barriers to retrospective patient care analyses. PMID:26392842

  5. The measurement of outcomes in the assessment of educational program effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kassebaum, D G

    1990-05-01

    Postsecondary accrediting agencies recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education and the Council on Postsecondary Accreditation, including the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), are required to evaluate educational program effectiveness by determining that institutions and programs document the achievement of their students and graduates in verifiable and consistent ways, indicating that institutional and program purposes are met. For the assessment of medical education programs this represents a departure from the traditional method of inferring quality from institutional compliance with standards for program organization and function. In the new assessment calculus, success is measured as the integrated product of the outcomes, the indicators of achievement that medical schools already are collecting from many sources, for instance, data on premedical achievement and attributes, medical school performance, graduate education ratings and test results, specialty certification, licensure, and practice. Although a recent LCME enquiry showed that 80% of U.S. medical schools were collecting outcome data on students and graduates, there was a lack of coherence and system, little integrated analysis, rare longitudinal study, and limited use of the information to evaluate and revise the curriculum or to validate admissions, promotion, and graduation criteria. The longitudinal study of the quantified results of educational programs need not resurrect old controversies about the linkage between learning in medical school and the quality of doctors' later practice. The purpose of examining outcomes is to gain sharper focus on the achievement of distinctive institutional goals, to facilitate program improvement and renewal, and to better assure the competence of graduates within the boundaries of achievement that schools have drawn as their educational objectives. PMID:2337430

  6. Outcome-centered antiepileptic therapy: Rate, rhythm and relief.: Implementing AAN Epilepsy Quality Measures in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, O'Neill

    2015-12-01

    Clinicians who manage patients with epilepsy are expected to assess the relevance of clinical trial results to their practice, integrate new treatments into the care algorithm, and implement epilepsy quality measures, with the overall goal of improving patient outcomes. A disease-based clinical framework that helps with choice and combinations of interventions facilitates provision of efficient, cost-effective, and high-quality care. This article addresses the current conceptual framework that informs clinical evaluation of epilepsy, explores gaps between development of treatment options, quality measures and clinical goals, and proposes an outcome-centered approach that bridges these gaps with the aim of improving patient and population-level clinical outcomes in epilepsy. PMID:26539703

  7. 26 CFR 801.6 - Business results measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business results measures. 801.6 Section 801.6... § 801.6 Business results measures. (a) In general. The business results measures will consist of... data that does not contain information regarding the tax enforcement result reached in any case...

  8. Decisional Outcomes of Maternal Disclosure of BRCA1/2 Genetic Test Results to Children

    PubMed Central

    Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Mays, Darren; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Schneider, Katherine A.; Garber, Judy E.; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas

    2013-01-01

    Background Although BRCA1/2 genetic testing is discouraged in minors, mothers may disclose their own results to their children. Factors affecting patients’ disclosure decisions and patient outcomes of disclosure are largely unknown. Methods Mothers (N = 221) of children ages 8-21 enrolled in this prospective study of family communication about cancer genetic testing. Patients underwent BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing, and completed standardized behavioral assessments prior to and 1-month following receipt of their results. Results Most patients (62.4%) disclosed BRCA1/2 test results to their child. Patients were more likely to disclose if they received negative or uninformative vs. positive results (OR = 3.11; 95% CI = 1.11 - 8.71; P = .03), their child was ? 13 years of age vs. younger (OR = 5.43; 95% CI = 2.18 - 13.53; P < .001), and as the ratio of patients’ perceived benefits of disclosure outweighed potential risks (OR = 2.40; 95% CI = 1.63 - 3.54; P < .001). Post-decision satisfaction about disclosure was lowest among nondisclosing patients (P < .001) and those reporting greater decisional conflict (P < .001). Conclusions Patients commonly discuss their BRCA1/2 results with their teenage and young adult children, especially if the information is perceived as beneficial. Satisfaction with disclosure decision-making remains lowest among nondisclosing and conflicted patients. Family communication decision support adjuncts to genetic counseling are needed to help ameliorate these effects. Impact This study describes the prevalence of family communication about maternal BRCA1/2 genetic testing with minor children, and decisions and outcomes of disclosure. PMID:23825307

  9. Measuring outcomes in palliative care: limitations of QALYs and the road to PalYs.

    PubMed

    Normand, Charles

    2009-07-01

    Tools for measuring outcomes in health and social care have become key parts of the processes of evaluation and setting priorities. Measures of output that can be used in all settings and specialties have the advantage that they facilitate comparisons and choices between and within patient groups. However, the most commonly used composite measure of outcomes, the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) appears not to work well in complex interventions, such as palliative care, leading to the paradox that there is evidence that people would give priority to interventions and services that would be shown not to be cost-effective, using QALYs as an outcome measure. This article explores the possible reasons for this paradox, and looks at alternative approaches that may provide better tools for setting priorities within palliative care and for comparison of palliative and other care services. PMID:19615624

  10. Standardization of patient registries for improved data collection and outcome measurement.

    PubMed

    Spisla, Christine M; Lundberg, Cynthia B

    2012-01-01

    Patient registries provide key data for clinical trials, patient safety and disease progression research. Current standards are insufficient to guide consistent authoring and reuse of registry questions. An outcome measure and its accompanying measurable indicators provide the means for the collection of data over a continuum of care. These data can be translated into comparison research, supporting the development of evidence-based knowledge. Lack of standardized approach to question/answer authoring and identification of outcome measure indicators have been an obstacle to interoperability of registry data with electronic medical and personal health records. PMID:24199127

  11. Standardization of Patient Registries for Improved Data Collection and Outcome Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Spisla, Christine M.; Lundberg, Cynthia B.

    2012-01-01

    Patient registries provide key data for clinical trials, patient safety and disease progression research. Current standards are insufficient to guide consistent authoring and reuse of registry questions. An outcome measure and its accompanying measurable indicators provide the means for the collection of data over a continuum of care. These data can be translated into comparison research, supporting the development of evidence-based knowledge. Lack of standardized approach to question/answer authoring and identification of outcome measure indicators have been an obstacle to interoperability of registry data with electronic medical and personal health records. PMID:24199127

  12. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): initial development of a new tool for treatment outcome measurement.

    PubMed

    Kanne, Stephen M; Mazurek, Micah O; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were examined using a large sample (n = 440) of children with ASD enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. The exploratory factor analysis indicated four factors and resulted in a 25-item questionnaire with excellent overall model fit. Test-retest reliability, cross-informant reliability, and convergent validity with other measures of ASD symptoms and overall functioning were strong. The AIM is a reliable and valid measure of frequency and impact of core ASD symptoms. PMID:23748386

  13. Development of a multiple sclerosis functional composite as a clinical trial outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Cutter, G R; Baier, M L; Rudick, R A; Cookfair, D L; Fischer, J S; Petkau, J; Syndulko, K; Weinshenker, B G; Antel, J P; Confavreux, C; Ellison, G W; Lublin, F; Miller, A E; Rao, S M; Reingold, S; Thompson, A; Willoughby, E

    1999-05-01

    The primary clinical outcome measure for evaluating multiple sclerosis in clinical trials has been Kurtzke's expanded disability status scale (EDSS). New therapies appear to favourably impact the course of multiple sclerosis and render continued use of placebo control groups more difficult. Consequently, future trials are likely to compare active treatment groups which will most probably require increased sample sizes in order to detect therapeutic efficacy. Because more responsive outcome measures will be needed for active arm comparison studies, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society's Advisory Committee on Clinical Trials of New Agents in Multiple Sclerosis appointed a Task Force that was charged with developing improved clinical outcome measures. This Task Force acquired contemporary clinical trial and historical multiple sclerosis data for meta-analyses of primary and secondary outcome assessments to provide a basis for recommending a new outcome measure. A composite measure encompassing the major clinical dimensions of arm, leg and cognitive function was identified and termed the multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC). The MSFC consists of three objective quantitative tests of neurological function which are easy to administer. Change in this MSFC over the first year of observation predicted subsequent change in the EDSS, suggesting that the MSFC is more sensitive to change than the EDSS. This paper provides details concerning the development and testing of the MSFC. PMID:10355672

  14. Outcomes Measurement in Voice Disorders: Application of an Acoustic Index of Dysphonia Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the ability of an acoustic model composed of both time-based and spectral-based measures to track change following voice disorder treatment and to serve as a possible treatment outcomes measure. Method: A weighted, four-factor acoustic algorithm consisting of shimmer, pitch sigma, the ratio of…

  15. Outcomes Measurement in Voice Disorders: Application of an Acoustic Index of Dysphonia Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Roy, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to assess the ability of an acoustic model composed of both time-based and spectral-based measures to track change following voice disorder treatment and to serve as a possible treatment outcomes measure. Method: A weighted, four-factor acoustic algorithm consisting of shimmer, pitch sigma, the ratio of


  16. Outcome Classification of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Mri Brain Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Lord, Catherine; Lincoln, Alan J.; Courchesne, Rachel Y.; Carper, Ruth A.; Townsend, Jeanne; Courchesne, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain measures obtained during early childhood distinguish children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children and is associated with functional outcome. Method: Quantitative MRI technology was used to measure gray and white matter


  17. Outcome Classification of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Mri Brain Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Lord, Catherine; Lincoln, Alan J.; Courchesne, Rachel Y.; Carper, Ruth A.; Townsend, Jeanne; Courchesne, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain measures obtained during early childhood distinguish children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from typically developing children and is associated with functional outcome. Method: Quantitative MRI technology was used to measure gray and white matter…

  18. Characterization of Potential Outcome Measures for Future Clinical Trials in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Sumis, Allison; Kim, Ok-Kyung; Lara, Rebecca; Wuu, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Clinical trials targeting recently elucidated synaptic defects in fragile X syndrome (FXS) will require outcome measures capable of assessing short-term changes in cognitive functioning. Potentially useful measures for FXS were evaluated here in a test-retest setting in males and females with FXS (N = 46). Good reproducibility, determined by an


  19. Outcome measures for primary Sjögren's syndrome: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Vitali, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    Lymphocytic infiltration of different exocrine and non-exocrine epithelia is the pathological hallmark of primary Sjögren's syndrome, whereas involvement of salivary and lachrymal glands with the clinical counterpart of dry eye and dry mouth are the predominant features of the disease, together with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. In addition, systemic manifestations, like arthritis, skin vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, may also be present in a consistent number of patients. As result, clinical features in SS can be divided into two facets: the benign subjective but disabling manifestations such as dryness, pain and fatigue, and the systemic manifestations. In the past decades, great efforts have been made to develop valid tools for the assessment of these both facets. Disease specific questionnaires such as Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort (PROFAD) and Sicca Symptom Inventory (SSI) have been proposed for evaluation of patients' symptoms, whereas different composite indexes have been suggested for the assessment of systemic disease activity. After that, an international project supported by EULAR, emerged to develop consensus disease activity indexes: the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patients Reported Index (ESSPRI), and the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI), a systemic activity index to assess systemic manifestations. Both EULAR indexes have been developed in an international collaboration to be consensual. Both indices have now been validated in a large independent international cohort. They both have been shown to be feasible, valid and reliable instruments. Also, we have found that these two scores did not correlate, suggesting that these two indexes assess two different disease components that poorly overlap, but were complementary. The sensitivity to change of both scores has been assessed, they are both able to detect change, however, ESSDAI score, like other systemic score, is more sensitive to change than ESSPRI and other patient scores. Current work is ongoing to define disease activity levels and clinically important changes for defining significant clinical improvement with the systemic score ESSDAI, and ESSPRI. We hope that this increased knowledge on the way to assess patients with primary SS, along with the emergence of new targeted therapy, will put a great input in the improvement of conduction of clinical trials in pSS. PMID:24411404

  20. TBI-QOL: Development and Calibration of Item Banks to Measure Patient Reported Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Carlozzi, Noelle; Bushnik, Tamara; Sherer, Mark; Choi, Seung W.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Sander, Angelle M.; Englander, Jeffrey; Hanks, Robin; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie; Roth, Elliot; Gershon, Richard; Rosenthal, Mitchell; Cella, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a patient-centered approach or participatory action research design combined with advanced psychometrics to develop a comprehensive patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system specifically for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This TBI Quality-of-Life (TBI-QOL) measurement system expands the work of other large PRO measurement initiatives, that is, the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System and the Neurology Quality-of-Life measurement initiative. Setting: Five TBI Model Systems centers across the United States. Participants: Adults with TBI. Design: Classical and modern test development methodologies were used. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with TBI, TBI clinicians, and caregivers of individuals with TBI through multiple methods, including focus groups, individual interviews, patient consultation, and cognitive debriefing interviews. Item pools were field tested in a large multisite sample (n = 675) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Main Outcomes Measures: Twenty-two TBI-QOL item banks/scales. Results: The TBI-QOL consists of 20 independent calibrated item banks and 2 uncalibrated scales that measure physical, emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of health-related quality of life. Conclusions: The TBI-QOL measurement system has potential as a common data element in TBI research and to enhance collection of health-related quality-of-life and PRO data in rehabilitation research and clinical settings. PMID:25931184

  1. 26 CFR 801.6 - Business results measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business results measures. 801.6 Section 801.6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE... § 801.6 Business results measures. (a) In general. The business results measures will consist...

  2. 26 CFR 801.6 - Business results measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business results measures. 801.6 Section 801.6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE... § 801.6 Business results measures. (a) In general. The business results measures will consist...

  3. Health outcome and economic measurement in breast cancer surgery: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cano, Stefan; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie; Thoma, Achilleas; Feeny, David; Pusic, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    As breast cancer surgery techniques continue to advance, treatment options continue to increase, bringing with them increased scrutiny of health outcomes and healthcare cost. In addition, patients are becoming more involved in their own medical care and are demanding meaningful data to help them better understand expected outcomes. With these changes and advancements, there is a growing emphasis on evidence-based practice. In this article, we focus on scientific considerations, challenges to and opportunities for improving outcome measurement related to breast cancer surgery. There are two main messages from this article. First, until recently, rigorously developed specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures for breast cancer surgery patients have not been available for use. However, with the recent introduction of new PRO measures, such as the BREAST-Q, there is now good potential to collect useful outcome data on patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life, and to better understand the relative impact of different surgical procedures, decision making and clinical practice on patient outcome. Thus, PRO research using rigorously developed breast cancer surgery-specific measures is in its infancy, but growing steadily. Second, there is a great need but lack of specific health economic measures developed for use in breast cancer surgery research. In fact, research into the economic evaluation of breast cancer surgery is an area that has received less attention than that of PRO measure development, but there is good opportunity to expand this area of research in breast cancer surgery. Further studies are required to gain a clearer view of the role that generic preference and utility measures could play, how best to synthesize health-related quality of life and economic metrics data, and the potential use of new disease-specific tools. PMID:20950073

  4. Interrater agreement between telerehabilitation and face-to-face clinical outcome measurements for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cabana, Francois; Boissy, Patrick; Tousignant, Michel; Moffet, HĂ©lĂšne; Corriveau, HĂ©lĂšne; Dumais, RĂ©jean

    2010-04-01

    Outcome measures in physical therapy provide the basis for determining the patient's rehabilitation needs, developing an individual intervention plan, and reassessing the evolution of the condition after therapeutic intervention. Questions surrounding the validity and reliability of outcome measures obtained in the context of telerehabilitation remain. The goal of this study was to explore which outcome measures can be used reliably in the context of telerehabilitation after discharge from an acute care hospital for lower limb orthopedic surgery. Fifteen patients recently discharged after total knee arthroplasty were evaluated by two experienced therapists. Each therapist evaluated under a given condition (face-to-face assessment, telerehabilitation assessment) eight outcome measures taken from standard clinical tests routinely used in the management of orthopedic rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty. Evaluations were measured at 1-day intervals. Telerehabilitation evaluations were conducted with a videoconference link (H.264 CoDecs with Pan, Tilt, Zoom cameras) between either the participant's home or a clinical environment and a remote clinical station over residential DSL lines at 512 kbps. Interrater agreement between the two measurement modes was analyzed using the Bland and Altman method and Kripendorff's alpha reliability estimate. The 95% confidence interval for mean difference between evaluation methods varied between -20% and 8% for knee range of motion measures, -85% and 55% for scar management, -33% and 29% for functional evaluations. Five out of the eight outcome measures showed reliability estimates of >0.80, with lowest reliability obtained for the scar assessment scale (0.34) and the highest reliability for the evaluation of the range of motion at the knee (0.87 in flexion and 0.85 in extension). Clinical variables typically measured in face-to-face evaluations can be measured successfully under telerehabilitation conditions with moderate reliability. PMID:20406116

  5. Clinical and Patient-reported Outcomes of a Zirconia Oral Implant: Three-year Results of a Prospective Cohort Investigation.

    PubMed

    Spies, B C; Balmer, M; Patzelt, S B M; Vach, K; Kohal, R J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical, radiographic, and patient-reported outcomes of a 1-piece alumina-toughened zirconia implant restored with single crowns (SCs) or 3-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) after 3 y of observation. Forty patients received 53 implants, placed in a 1-stage operation with immediate temporization. Finally, 50 implants were restored with 24 SCs and 13 FDPs. To evaluate peri-implant bone loss, standardized radiographs were taken at implant insertion, at final restoration delivery, and after 1 and 3 y. Additionally, several soft tissue parameters and patient-reported outcome measures were evaluated. Linear mixed models with random intercept for each patient and patients as clusters were used to compare subgroups. Three patients did not receive a SC due to early implant loss, and 1 patient died. As a result, 36 patients with 49 implants were followed-up for 3 y, giving a cumulative survival rate of 94.2%. The average marginal bone loss amounted to 0.79 mm (SCs, 0.47 mm; FDPs, 1.07 mm; P < 0.001). After the delivery of the final prosthetic restoration, further bone loss was not statistically significant (0.09 mm; P = 0.700). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, and modified bleeding index increased significantly at the implant sites, whereas gingival recession decreased significantly. Compared with the pretreatment questionnaires, the patient-reported outcome measures showed a permanently improved perception of function, aesthetics, sense, speech and self-esteem. The survival rate of the investigated ceramic implant system seems to be comparable to reported survival rates of titanium implants when immediately restored. The recorded parameters suggest its potential for clinical utilization. PMID:26232388

  6. Use and interpretation of routine outcome measures in forensic mental health.

    PubMed

    Shinkfield, Gregg; Ogloff, James

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to both pilot a method of monitoring mental health nurses' use of routine outcome measures (ROM) and to examine the precision of ratings made with these tools within a forensic mental health environment. The audit protocol used in the present study was found to be effective in evaluating both the accuracy with which nurses were able to interpret ROM items and their degree of adherence with local procedures for completing such instruments. Moreover, the results suggest that despite these ROM having been developed for use in general mental health settings, they could be interpreted and rated with an adequate degree of reliability by nurses in a forensic mental health context. However, difficulties were observed in the applicability of several components of these tools within a forensic environment. Recommendations for future research and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25196647

  7. Assessment of Cognitive Outcome Measures in Teenagers with 15q13.3 Microdeletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, Emeline; Ali, May; Harrison, John; Sovago, Judit; Gomez-Mancilla, Baltazar; Schaaf, Christian P

    2016-04-01

    15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome causes a spectrum of cognitive disorders, including intellectual disability and autism. We aimed to determine if any or all of three cognitive testing systems (the KiTAP, CogState, and Stanford-Binet) are suitable for assessment of cognitive function in affected individuals. These three tests were administered to ten individuals with 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (14-18 years of age), and the results were analyzed to determine feasibility of use, potential for improvement, and internal consistency. It was determined that the KiTAP, CogState, and Stanford-Binet are valid tests of cognitive function in 15q13.3 microdeletion patients. Therefore, these tests may be considered for use as objective outcome measures in future clinical trials, assessing change in cognitive function over a period of pharmacological treatment. PMID:26754479

  8. The importance of rating scales in measuring patient-reported outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A critical component that influences the measurement properties of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument is the rating scale. Yet, there is a lack of general consensus regarding optimal rating scale format, including aspects of question structure, the number and the labels of response categories. This study aims to explore the characteristics of rating scales that function well and those that do not, and thereby develop guidelines for formulating rating scales. Methods Seventeen existing PROs designed to measure vision-related quality of life dimensions were mailed for self-administration, in sets of 10, to patients who were on a waiting list for cataract extraction. These PROs included questions with ratings of difficulty, frequency, severity, and global ratings. Using Rasch analysis, performance of rating scales were assessed by examining hierarchical ordering (indicating categories are distinct from each other and follow a logical transition from lower to higher value), evenness (indicating relative utilization of categories), and range (indicating coverage of the attribute by the rating scale). Results The rating scales with complicated question format, a large number of response categories, or unlabelled categories, tended to be dysfunctional. Rating scales with five or fewer response categories tended to be functional. Most of the rating scales measuring difficulty performed well. The rating scales measuring frequency and severity demonstrated hierarchical ordering but the categories lacked even utilization. Conclusion Developers of PRO instruments should use a simple question format, fewer (four to five) and labelled response categories. PMID:22794788

  9. Outcome measures for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: clinical and neurofunctional assessment in children.

    PubMed

    Pagliano, Emanuela; Moroni, Isabella; Baranello, Giovanni; Magro, Anita; Marchi, Alessia; Bulgheroni, Sara; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Pareyson, Davide

    2011-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, presenting with symptoms often occurring since childhood, and showing a progressive course. At present, there are no valid and reliable measures for evaluation of impairment and disability in the pediatric population. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of outcome measures, commonly used in adult patients, in CMT children. We report the results of a comprehensive evaluation of 21 children affected with CMT type 1A, including clinical examinations, measure of hand and foot muscle strength with a hand-held dynamometer, and the following scales: CMT Neuropathy Score or its clinical component CMT Examination Score, Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS), Walk-12 questionnaire, and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Hand grip, three-point pinch, and foot dorsiflexion strength were significantly lower than age/sex equivalent in almost all cases. 9-HPT was significantly abnormal in 62% of patients and CMT Examination Score was <10 points in all cases. ONLS showed presence of minor disability in the upper limbs in 57% and mild abnormalities of gait in 71% of patients. Overall, these scales demonstrated limited potential to measure disability and severity of the disease confirming that it is necessary to identify specific scales for children with CMT. PMID:22003938

  10. Measuring outcomes in outpatient child psychiatry: reliable improvement, deterioration, and clinically significant improvement.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J Michael; Blais, Mark; Baer, Lee; McCarthy, Alyssa; Kamin, Hayley; Masek, Bruce; Jellinek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing interest in demonstrating effectiveness in psychiatric treatment, the current paper seeks to advance outcome measurement in child psychiatry by demonstrating how more informative analytic strategies can be used to evaluate treatment in a real world setting using a brief, standardized parent-report measure. Questionnaires were obtained at intake for 1294 patients. Of these, 695 patients entered treatment and 531 (74%) had complete forms at intake and follow-up. Using this sample, we analyzed the data to determine effect sizes, rates of reliable improvement and deterioration, and rates of clinically significant improvement. Findings highlighted the utility of these approaches for evaluating treatment outcomes. Further suggestions for improving outcome measurement and evaluation are provided. PMID:23838693

  11. Systematic review to identify and appraise outcome measures used to evaluate childhood obesity treatment interventions (CoOR): evidence of purpose, application, validity, reliability and sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Maria; Ashton, Lee; Brown, Julia; Jebb, Susan; Wright, Judy; Roberts, Katharine; Nixon, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lack of uniformity in outcome measures used in evaluations of childhood obesity treatment interventions can impede the ability to assess effectiveness and limits comparisons across trials. OBJECTIVE To identify and appraise outcome measures to produce a framework of recommended measures for use in evaluations of childhood obesity treatment interventions. DATA SOURCES Eleven electronic databases were searched between August and December 2011, including MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; EMBASE; PsycINFO; Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC); Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED); Global Health, Maternity and Infant Care (all Ovid); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCOhost); Science Citation Index (SCI) [Web of Science (WoS)]; and The Cochrane Library (Wiley) - from the date of inception, with no language restrictions. This was supported by review of relevant grey literature and trial databases. REVIEW METHODS Two searches were conducted to identify (1) outcome measures and corresponding citations used in published childhood obesity treatment evaluations and (2) manuscripts describing the development and/or evaluation of the outcome measures used in the childhood intervention obesity evaluations. Search 1 search strategy (review of trials) was modelled on elements of a review by Luttikhuis et al. (Oude Luttikhuis H, Baur L, Jansen H, Shrewsbury VA, O'Malley C, Stolk RP, et al. Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;1:CD001872). Search 2 strategy (methodology papers) was built on Terwee et al.'s search filter (Terwee CB, Jansma EP, Riphagen II, de Vet HCW. Development of a methodological PubMed search filter for finding studies on measurement properties of measurement instruments. Qual Life Res 2009;18:1115-23). Eligible papers were appraised for quality initially by the internal project team. This was followed by an external appraisal by expert collaborators in order to agree which outcome measures should be recommended for the Childhood obesity Outcomes Review (CoOR) outcome measures framework. RESULTS Three hundred and seventy-nine manuscripts describing 180 outcome measures met eligibility criteria. Appraisal of these resulted in the recommendation of 36 measures for the CoOR outcome measures framework. Recommended primary outcome measures were body mass index (BMI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Experts did not advocate any self-reported measures where objective measurement was possible (e.g. physical activity). Physiological outcomes hold potential to be primary outcomes, as they are indicators of cardiovascular health, but without evidence of what constitutes a minimally importance difference they have remained as secondary outcomes (although the corresponding lack of evidence for BMI and DXA is acknowledged). No preference-based quality-of-life measures were identified that would enable economic evaluation via calculation of quality-adjusted life-years. Few measures reported evaluating responsiveness. LIMITATIONS Proposed recommended measures are fit for use as outcome measures within studies that evaluate childhood obesity treatment evaluations specifically. These may or may not be suitable for other study designs, and some excluded measures may be more suitable in other study designs. CONCLUSIONS The CoOR outcome measures framework provides clear guidance of recommended primary and secondary outcome measures. This will enhance comparability between treatment evaluations and ensure that appropriate measures are being used. Where possible, future work should focus on modification and evaluation of existing measures rather than development of tools de nova. In addition, it is recommended that a similar outcome measures framework is produced to support evaluation of adult obesity programmes. FUNDING The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme. PMID:25125212

  12. Evaluating the impact of California's full service partnership program using a multidimensional measure of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy Tyler; Hong, Juliette S; Scheffler, Richard M

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates the impact of California's full-service partnership (FSP) program using a multidimensional measure of outcomes. The FSP program is a key part of California's 2005 Mental Health Services Act. Secondary data were collected from the Consumer Perception Survey, the Client and Service Information System, and the Data Collection and Reporting System, all data systems which are maintained by the California Department of Mental Health. The analytic sample contained 39,681 observations of which 588 were FSP participants (seven repeated cross-sections from May 2005 to May 2008). We performed instrumental variables (IV) limited information maximum likelihood and IV Tobit analyses. The marginal monthly improvement in outcomes of services for FSP participants was approximately 3.5 % higher than those receiving usual care with the outcomes of the average individual in the program improving by 33.4 %. This shows that the FSP program is causally effective in improving outcomes among the seriously mentally ill. PMID:23456598

  13. Facilitating Clinical Outcomes Assessment through the Automated Identification of Quality Measures for Prostate Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    D'Avolio, Leonard W.; Litwin, Mark S.; Rogers, Selwyn O.; Bui, Alex A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The College of American Pathologists (CAP) Category 1 quality measures, tumor stage, Gleason score, and surgical margin status, are used by physicians and cancer registrars to categorize patients into groups for clinical trials and treatment planning. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an application designed to automatically extract these quality measures from the postoperative pathology reports of patients having undergone prostatectomies for treatment of prostate cancer. Design An application was developed with the Clinical Outcomes Assessment Toolkit that uses an information pipeline of regular expressions and support vector machines to extract CAP Category 1 quality measures. System performance was evaluated against a gold standard of 676 pathology reports from the University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center and Brigham and Women's Hospital. To evaluate the feasibility of clinical implementation, all pathology reports were gathered using administrative codes with no manual preprocessing of the data performed. Measurements The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of system performance were measured for all three quality measures. Performance at both hospitals was compared, and a detailed failure analysis was conducted to identify errors caused by poor data quality versus system shortcomings. Results Accuracies for Gleason score were 99.7%, tumor stage 99.1%, and margin status 97.2%, for an overall accuracy of 98.67%. System performance on data from both hospitals was comparable. Poor clinical data quality led to a decrease in overall accuracy of only 0.3% but accounted for 25.9% of the total errors. Conclusion Despite differences in document format and pathologists' reporting styles, strong system performance indicates the potential of using a combination of regular expressions and support vector machines to automatically extract CAP Category 1 quality measures from postoperative prostate cancer pathology reports. PMID:18308980

  14. Responsiveness and uniqueness of the pediatric outcomes data collection instrument compared to the gross motor function measure for measuring orthopaedic and neurosurgical outcomes in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Diane L; Gilgannon, Marc D; Abel, Mark F

    2005-01-01

    The Pediatrics Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is a valid and reliable measure of functional health status in children with acute and chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including cerebral palsy (CP), but its responsiveness has not been documented specifically for this population. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) are the only two instruments validated specifically as evaluative measures for CP, and while widely used, they are limited by a ceiling effect when assessing higher-functioning children. The PEDI is further restricted to children who are 7 years old or less. The goal of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness, and secondarily the uniqueness, of the PODCI compared with the GMFM for evaluating surgical outcomes in CP. Changes in the GMFM and PODCI Parent forms were assessed at two time points in 64 children with spastic CP who underwent muscle-tendon lengthenings (MT; n = 22) or neurosurgical spasticity reduction consisting of either selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR; n = 18) or intrathecal baclofen pump implantation (ITB; n = 11) or who had no surgery between assessments (n = 13). The GMFM Total score was responsive to change after both MT surgery and SDR, with a nearly equivalent magnitude of change in both groups. However, the PODCI Global Function Scale was responsive to changes only after MT surgery, with improvement in the Sports and Physical Function subscale particularly prominent. No significant changes were noted in the ITB group for either measure. PMID:16199947

  15. Different measures, different outcomes? Survey into the effectiveness of chronic pain clinics in a London tertiary referral center

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Savan; Ho, Alexandra C; Kuehler, Bianca M; Childs, Susan R; Towlerton, Glyn; Goodall, Ian D; Bantel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain clinics aim to improve challenging conditions, and although numerous studies have evaluated specific aspects of therapies and outcomes in this context, data concerning service impact on outcome measures in a general pain population are sparse. In addition, current trends in commissioning increasingly warrant services to provide evidence for their effectiveness. While a plethora of outcome measures, such as pain-intensity or improvement scores, exist for this purpose, it remains surprisingly unclear which one to use. It also remains uncertain what variables predict treatment success. Objectives This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinic performance employing different tools (pain scores, pain categories, responder analysis, subjective improvement, satisfaction), and to determine predictors of outcome measures. Patients and methods Patients attending scheduled clinic follow-up appointments were approached. They were asked to complete the modified short-form Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-SF) that also included assessments for satisfaction and subjective improvement. Comparisons were made with BPI-SF responses that were completed by each patient on admission. Nonparametric tests were employed to evaluate service impact and to determine predictors for outcome. Results Data of 118 patients were analyzed. There was considerable variation in impact of pain clinics depending on the outcome measure employed. While median pain scores did not differ between admission and follow-up, scores improved individually in 30% of cases, such that more patients had mild pain on follow-up than on admission (relative risk 2.7). Furthermore, while only 41% reported at least moderate subjective improvement after admission to the service, the majority (83%) were satisfied with the service. Positive treatment responses were predicted by “number of painful regions” and “changes in mood”, whereas subjective improvement was predicted by “helpfulness of treatments”. Conclusion Depending on the outcome measure employed, pain clinics showed varying degrees of impact on patients’ pain experiences. This calls into question the current practice of using nonstandardized outcome reporting for evaluation of service performances. PMID:26346112

  16. Long-term results of oncoplastic breast surgery with latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction: a pilot study of the objective cosmetic results and patient reported outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong-Deok; Kim, Zisun; Kuk, Jung Cheol; Jeong, Jaehong; Choi, Kyu Sung; Hur, Sung Mo; Jeong, Gui Ae; Chung, Jun Chul; Cho, Gyu Seok; Shin, Eung Jin; Kim, Hyung Chul; Kang, Sang-Gue; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of oncoplastic breast surgery is to restore the appearance of the breast and improve patient satisfaction. Thus, the assessment of cosmetic results and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) using appropriately constructed and validated instruments is essential. The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term objective cosmetic results and corresponding PROs after oncoplastic breast surgery. Methods Cosmetic results were assessed by the patients, a medical panel, and a computer program (BCCT.core). PROs were assessed using BREAST-Q, a questionnaire that measures the perception of patients having breast surgery. The cosmetic results and PROs were analyzed in patients who underwent quadrantectomy and partial breast reconstruction utilizing the latissimus dorsi flap. Results The mean duration of the follow-up period was 91.6 months (range, 33.3–171.0 months), and mean age of the patients was 51 years old (range, 33–72 years). The mean tumor size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.9–5.5 cm). There was fair agreement between the medical panel and BCCT.core score (K = 0.32, P < 0.001), and a statistically significant correlation between the BCCT.core score and medical panel cosmetic results was identified (r = 0.606, P < 0.001). A better BCCT.core result was related to a higher PRO of each BREAST-Q domain—satisfaction with breasts (R2 = 0.070, P = 0.039), satisfaction with outcome (R2 = 0.087, P = 0.021), psychosocial well-being (R2 = 0.085, P = 0.023), sexual well-being (R2 = 0.082, P = 0.029), and satisfaction with information (R2 = 0.064, P = 0.049). Conclusion Our long-term results of oncoplastic surgery achieved a high level of patient satisfaction with good cosmetic results. The medical panel and BCCT.core results correlated well with the PROs of the patients using valid, reliable, and procedure-specific measures. PMID:26942154

  17. TU-A-BRD-01: Outcomes of Hypofractionated Treatments - Initial Results of the WGSBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Lee, P; Ohri, N; Joiner, M; Kong, F; Jackson, A

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged in recent decades as a treatment paradigm that is becoming increasingly important in clinical practice. Clinical outcomes data are rapidly accumulating. Although published relations between outcomes and dose distributions are still sparse, the field has progressed to the point where evidence-based normal tissue dose-volume constraints, prescription strategies, and Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) models can be developed. The Working Group on SBRT (WGSBRT), under the Biological Effects Subcommittee of AAPM, is a group of physicists and physicians working in the area of SBRT. It is currently performing critical literature reviews to extract and synthesize usable data and to develop guidelines and models to aid with safe and effective treatment. The group is investigating clinically relevant findings from SBRT in six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session of AAPM 2014, interim results are presented on TCP for lung and liver, NTCP for thoracic organs, and radiobiological foundations:‱ Lung TCP: Detailed modeling of TCP data from 118 published studies on early stage lung SBRT investigates dose response and hypothesized mechanisms to explain the improved outcomes of SBRT. This is presented from the perspective of a physicist, a physician, and a radiobiologist.‱ Liver TCP: For primary and metastatic liver tumors, individual patient data were extracted from published reports to examine the effects of biologically effective dose on local control.‱ Thoracic NTCP: Clinically significant SBRT toxicity of lung, rib / chest wall and other structures are evaluated and compared among published clinical data, in terms of risk, risk factors, and safe practice.‱ Improving the clinical utility of published toxicity reports from SBRT and Hypofractionated treatments. What do we want, and how do we get it? Methods and problems of synthesizing data from published reports. Learning Objectives: Common SBRT fractionation schemes and current evidence for efficacy. Evidence for normal tissue tolerances in hypofractionated treatments. Clinically relevant radiobiological effects at large fraction sizes.

  18. Preferred reporting items for studies mapping onto preference-based outcome measures: The MAPS statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. The primary audiences for the MAPS statement are researchers reporting mapping studies, the funders of the research, and peer reviewers and editors involved in assessing mapping studies for publication.A de novo list of 29 candidate reporting items and accompanying explanations was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. Following a two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, a final set of 23 items deemed essential for transparent reporting, and accompanying explanations, was developed. The items are contained in a user friendly 23 item checklist. They are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely: (i) title and abstract; (ii) introduction; (iii) methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion; and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document.It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by eight health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in five years' time.This statement was published jointly in Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, Journal of Medical Economics, Medical Decision Making, PharmacoEconomics, and Quality of Life Research. PMID:26232268

  19. RETURN OF NORMAL GAIT AS AN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT IN ACL RECONSTRUCTED PATIENTS. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Benjaminse, A.; van Eck, C. F.; Webster, K. E.; Schot, L.; Otten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current clinical outcome measurements may overestimate the long term success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). There is a need to understand biomechanics of the knee joint during daily activities. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the literature related to gait in patients following ACLR. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the available literature and provide a comprehensive overview of kinematic and kinetic variables that present during gait in patients after ACLR. Methods: A literature search was performed in AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline and Scopus between January 2000 and October 2012. Inclusion criteria included articles written in English, German or Dutch, and those reporting on gait analysis in patients after ACLR. Kinematic and/or kinetic data of the uninjured and ACLR knee and healthy controls (CTRL) were outcome measurements of interest. Each study's methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme critical appraisal tool. Results: Twenty two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 479 patients with a mean age of 27.3 were examined. Time between the injury and surgery and ranged from 3 weeks to 5.7 years. Gait analysis was done at a mean of 29.3 months after surgery. Gait was found to be altered in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes after ACLR and may take months or years to normalize, if normalization occurs at all. Conclusion: Patients after ACLR have altered gait patterns that can persist for up to five years after surgery. It is imperative that rehabilitation techniques are examined in order to minimize changes in knee biomechanics during gait, as they have the potential to impact on the development of osteoarthritis. Level of evidence: 3a PMID:24175130

  20. Development of the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Gastrointestinal Symptom Scales

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Brennan M.R.; Hays, Ron D.; Bolus, Roger; Melmed, Gil Y.; Chang, Lin; Whitman, Cynthia; Khanna, Puja P.; Paz, Sylvia H.; Hays, Tonya; Reise, Steve; Khanna, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMISź) is a standardized set of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) that cover physical, mental, and social health. The aim of this study was to develop the NIH PROMIS gastrointestinal (GI) symptom measures. METHODS We first conducted a systematic literature review to develop a broad conceptual model of GI symptoms. We complemented the review with 12 focus groups including 102 GI patients. We developed PROMIS items based on the literature and input from the focus groups followed by cognitive debriefing in 28 patients. We administered the items to diverse GI patients (irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and other common GI disorders) and a census-based US general population (GP) control sample. We created scales based on confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory modeling, and evaluated the scales for reliability and validity. RESULTS A total of 102 items were developed and administered to 865 patients with GI conditions and 1,177 GP participants. Factor analyses provided support for eight scales: gastroesophageal reflux (13 items), disrupted swallowing (7 items), diarrhea (5 items), bowel incontinence/soilage (4 items), nausea and vomiting (4 items), constipation (9 items), belly pain (6 items), and gas/bloat/flatulence (12 items). The scales correlated significantly with both generic and disease-targeted legacy instruments, and demonstrate evidence of reliability. CONCLUSIONS Using the NIH PROMIS framework, we developed eight GI symptom scales that can now be used for clinical care and research across the full range of GI disorders. PMID:25199473

  1. Definitions and outcome measures of clinical trials regarding opioid-induced constipation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, Jan; Siemens, Waldemar; Camilleri, Michael; Davies, Andrew; Drossman, Douglas A; Webster, Lynn R; Becker, Gerhild

    2015-01-01

    Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a frequent symptom in patients treated with opioids and impacts the patients' quality of life. However, there is no generally accepted definition for OIC. The aims of this study were to identify definitions for OIC in clinical trials and Cochrane Reviews and to compile assessment tools and outcome measures that were used in clinical trials. In a systematic review, 5 databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE) were searched to identify clinical trials assessing OIC in adult patients or healthy volunteers. Studies published between 1993 and August 2013 were included. A total of 1488 studies were retrieved and 47 publications were included in the analysis. A minority of the publications (n=16, 34%) provided a clear definition for OIC. The definitions were highly variable and the present or recent history of opioid therapy was frequently (n=6, 38%) not included in these definitions. Of 46 clinical trials, 17 (37%) relied exclusively on objective measures such as bowel movement frequency, whereas another 17 studies additionally included patient-reported outcome measures such as, "feeling of incomplete bowel evacuation." Few trials (n=7, 15%) assessed the patient-reported global burden of OIC. Standard definitions and outcome measures are necessary (i) for consistency in OIC diagnosis in clinical practice and clinical trials; and (ii) to assure comparability of trial findings (eg, in meta-analyses). An OIC definition and outcome measures are proposed. PMID:25356996

  2. Shifting management of a community volunteer system for improved child health outcomes: results from an operations research study in Burundi

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Community-based strategies that foster frequent contact between caregivers of children under five and provide credible sources of health information are essential to improve child survival. Care Groups are a community-based implementation strategy for the delivery of social and behavior change interventions. This study assessed if supervision of Care Group activities by Ministry of Health (MOH) personnel could achieve the same child health outcomes as supervision provided by specialized non-governmental organization (NGO) staff. Methods The study was a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design implemented in Burundi. A total of 45 MOH-led Care Groups with 478 Care Group Volunteers (CGVs) were established in the intervention area; and 50 NGO-led Care Groups with 509 CGVs were formed in the comparison area. Data were collected from 593 and 700 mothers of children 0-23 months at baseline and endline, respectively. Pearson’s chi-squared test and difference-in-difference analysis assessed changes in 40 child health and nutrition outcomes. A qualitative process evaluation was also conducted midway through the study. Results The MOH-led Care Group model performed at least as well as the NGO-led model in achieving specific child health and nutrition outcomes. Mothers of children 0-23 months in the intervention and comparison sites reported similar levels of knowledge and practices for 38 of 40 dependent variables measured in the study, and these results remained unchanged after accounting for differences in the indicator values at baseline. Process monitoring data confirmed that the MOH-led Care Group model and the NGO-led Care Group model were implemented with similar intervention strength. Conclusions The study demonstrated that behavior change interventions traditionally led by NGOs can be implemented through the existing MOH systems and achieve similar results, thereby increasing the potential for sustainable child health outcomes. Future research on the MOH-led Care Group model is required to systematically document all inputs and monetary costs borne by the MOH to implement the model. PMID:26062624

  3. Measurement of Religiosity/Spirituality in Adolescent Health Outcomes Research: Trends and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Meghan E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures. PMID:20127172

  4. DTI measures track and predict motor function outcomes in stroke rehabilitation utilizing BCI technology.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; Walton, Leo M; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Tyler, Mitchell E; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Caldera, Kristin E; Sattin, Justin A; Williams, Justin C; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Tracking and predicting motor outcomes is important in determining effective stroke rehabilitation strategies. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for evaluation of the underlying structural integrity of brain white matter tracts and may serve as a potential biomarker for tracking and predicting motor recovery. In this study, we examined the longitudinal relationship between DTI measures of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and upper-limb motor outcomes in 13 stroke patients (median 20-month post-stroke) who completed up to 15 sessions of intervention using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology. Patients' upper-limb motor outcomes and PLIC DTI measures including fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed longitudinally at four time points: pre-, mid-, immediately post- and 1-month-post intervention. DTI measures and ratios of each DTI measure comparing the ipsilesional and contralesional PLIC were correlated with patients' motor outcomes to examine the relationship between structural integrity of the PLIC and patients' motor recovery. We found that lower diffusivity and higher FA values of the ipsilesional PLIC were significantly correlated with better upper-limb motor function. Baseline DTI ratios were significantly correlated with motor outcomes measured immediately post and 1-month-post BCI interventions. A few patients achieved improvements in motor recovery meeting the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). These findings suggest that upper-limb motor recovery in stroke patients receiving BCI interventions relates to the microstructural status of the PLIC. Lower diffusivity and higher FA measures of the ipsilesional PLIC contribute toward better motor recovery in the stroke-affected upper-limb. DTI-derived measures may be a clinically useful biomarker in tracking and predicting motor recovery in stroke patients receiving BCI interventions. PMID:25964753

  5. DTI measures track and predict motor function outcomes in stroke rehabilitation utilizing BCI technology

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A.; Young, Brittany M.; Walton, Leo M.; Nigogosyan, Zack; Remsik, Alexander; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Caldera, Kristin E.; Sattin, Justin A.; Williams, Justin C.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Tracking and predicting motor outcomes is important in determining effective stroke rehabilitation strategies. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for evaluation of the underlying structural integrity of brain white matter tracts and may serve as a potential biomarker for tracking and predicting motor recovery. In this study, we examined the longitudinal relationship between DTI measures of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and upper-limb motor outcomes in 13 stroke patients (median 20-month post-stroke) who completed up to 15 sessions of intervention using brain–computer interface (BCI) technology. Patients’ upper-limb motor outcomes and PLIC DTI measures including fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed longitudinally at four time points: pre-, mid-, immediately post- and 1-month-post intervention. DTI measures and ratios of each DTI measure comparing the ipsilesional and contralesional PLIC were correlated with patients’ motor outcomes to examine the relationship between structural integrity of the PLIC and patients’ motor recovery. We found that lower diffusivity and higher FA values of the ipsilesional PLIC were significantly correlated with better upper-limb motor function. Baseline DTI ratios were significantly correlated with motor outcomes measured immediately post and 1-month-post BCI interventions. A few patients achieved improvements in motor recovery meeting the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). These findings suggest that upper-limb motor recovery in stroke patients receiving BCI interventions relates to the microstructural status of the PLIC. Lower diffusivity and higher FA measures of the ipsilesional PLIC contribute toward better motor recovery in the stroke-affected upper-limb. DTI-derived measures may be a clinically useful biomarker in tracking and predicting motor recovery in stroke patients receiving BCI interventions. PMID:25964753

  6. Pregnancy outcomes after living donor liver transplantation: results from a Japanese survey.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shoji; Uemoto, Shinji; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Umeshita, Koji; Tachibana, Daisuke

    2014-05-01

    A national survey of pregnancy outcomes after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed in Japan. Thirty-eight pregnancies in 30 recipients resulted in 31 live births (25 recipients), 3 artificial abortions in the first trimester (3 recipients), 1 spontaneous abortion (1 recipient), and 3 fetal deaths (3 recipients). After the exclusion of the 3 artificial abortions, there were 35 pregnancies in 27 recipients: pregnancy-induced hypertension developed during 6 pregnancies (5 recipients), fetal growth restriction developed during 7 pregnancies (6 recipients), acute rejection developed during 2 pregnancies (2 recipients), and ileus developed during 1 pregnancy (1 recipient). Preterm delivery (<37 weeks) occurred for 10 pregnancies (10 recipients), and cesarean delivery was performed for 12 pregnancies (12 recipients). After delivery, acute rejection developed in 3 recipients. Twelve neonates were born with low birth weights (<2500 g), and 4 of these 12 neonates had extremely low birth weights (<1500 g). Two neonates had congenital malformations. The pregnancy outcomes after LDLT were similar to those reported for cadaveric liver transplantation (LT). The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in recipients who were 33 years old or older at the diagnosis of pregnancy was significantly higher than the incidence in recipients who were less than 33 years old at the diagnosis of pregnancy. The incidences of fetal growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and extremely low birth weight were significantly higher in the early group (<3 years after transplantation) versus the late group (?3 years after transplantation). In conclusion, it is necessary to pay careful attention to complications during pregnancy in recipients who become pregnant within 3 years of LT, particularly if the age at the diagnosis of pregnancy is ?33 years. PMID:24478123

  7. Functional outcome following a large head total hip arthroplasty: A retrospective analysis of mid term results

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Sanjay; Mohrir, Ganesh; Moonot, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the reasons that hip resurfacing and large head metal on metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) became popular in Asia was the possible increased range of movement and thereby improved function of the hip joint. Due to concerns of MOM articulation an alternative bearing was sought. Hence, a shift from large head MOM to large head ceramic on ceramic (COC) was made. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcome including range of motion (ROM) and dislocation rates following large head MOM and large head COC THA. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, 39 primary THA with large head MOM with a mean age of 56 years (range 36-72 years) and average followup of 54 months (range 38-70 months) were compared with 23 primary THA with large head COC bearing with a mean age of 48 years (range 36-68 years) and an average followup of 18 months (range 12-26 months). Functional outcome was assessed using the Modified Harris Hip Score. Dislocation rate and ROM were compared. Results: Global ROM averaged 248 degrees with MOM group and 252 degrees with the COC group. One patient with metal bearing had dislocation at an average 3 year followup which required revision THA while there were no complications in the COC group. MHHS averaged 89 points in MOM and 94 in COC THR. Conclusion: This study has shown that large head ceramic on ceramic THA is a good alternative to large head metal on metal THA with comparable dislocation rates and range of movements and without complications of metallosis in Asian patients. PMID:25143647

  8. Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: a systematic review of outcome measures.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carys; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Hounsome, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Advisory bodies, such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK, advocate using preference based instruments to measure the quality of life (QoL) component of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Cost per QALY is used to determine cost-effectiveness, and hence funding, of interventions. QALYs allow policy makers to compare the effects of different interventions across different patient groups. Generic measures may not be sensitive enough to fully capture the QoL effects for certain populations, such as carers, so there is a need to consider additional outcome measures, which are preference based where possible to enable cost-effectiveness analysis to be undertaken. This paper reviews outcome measures commonly used in health services research and health economics research involving carers of people with dementia. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment database. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included an outcome measure for carers of people with dementia. 2262 articles were identified. 455 articles describing 361 studies remained after exclusion criteria were applied. 228 outcome measures were extracted from the studies. Measures were categorised into 44 burden measures, 43 mastery measures, 61 mood measures, 32 QoL measures, 27 social support and relationships measures and 21 staff competency and morale measures. The choice of instrument has implications on funding decisions; therefore, researchers need to choose appropriate instruments for the population being measured and the type of intervention undertaken. If an instrument is not sensitive enough to detect changes in certain populations, the effect of an intervention may be underestimated, and hence interventions which may appear to be beneficial to participants are not deemed cost-effective and are not funded. If this is the case, it is essential that additional outcome measures which detect changes in broader QoL are included, whilst still retaining preference based utility measures such as EQ-5D to allow QALY calculation for comparability with other interventions. PMID:23181515

  9. Universal health outcome measures for older persons with multiple chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) require considerable health services and complex care. As health status is affected along multiple dimensions by the persistence and progression of diseases and courses of treatments, well-validated universal outcome measures across diseases are needed for research, clinical care and administrative purposes. An expert panel meeting held by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) in September 2011 recommends that older persons with MCC complete a brief initial composite measure that includes general health, pain, fatigue, and physical, mental health and social role function, along with gait speed measurement. Suitable composite measures include the Short-form 8 (SF-8) and 36 (SF-36) and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System29-item Health Profile (PROMIS-29). Based on responses to items within the initial measure, short follow-on measures should be selectively targeted to the following areas: symptom burden, depression, anxiety and daily activities. Persons unable to walk a short distance for gait speed should be assessed using a physical function scale. Remaining gaps to be considered for measure development include disease burden, cognitive function and caregiver burden. Routine outcome assessment of MCC patients could facilitate system-based care improvement and clinical effectiveness research. PMID:23194184

  10. Outcomes Assessment for Beginning and Intermediate Spanish: One Program's Process and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Outcomes assessment is a process by which an academic unit defines and articulates its program goals and assesses its attainment of those goals. This article chronicles one language division's efforts at outcomes assessment for beginning and intermediate Spanish. The evidence used for program assessment consisted of WebCAPE placement scores,…

  11. Development of process and outcome measures for improvement: lessons learned in a quality improvement collaborative for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Wallace V; Boyle, Brendan M; Colletti, Richard B; Margolis, Peter A; Kappelman, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine's publications, To Err is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm, publicized the widespread deficits in healthcare quality. The quality of care in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been comprehensively evaluated, in part due to a lack of well-established IBD measures of quality. Quality can be measured for evaluation, benchmarking, or continuous quality improvement, using structural, process, and outcome measures. Measurement is an essential component of the model for improvement, necessary to determine whether changes made have resulted in improvement. Measures used for quality improvement should be based on evidence and consensus, be clear and collectable in a timely fashion, occur with sufficient frequency, and have the potential to improve outcomes. While no current IBD measures of quality are perfect, an iterative process of measure development can produce a set of measures that are feasible, relevant, and useful for performing quality improvement. This review describes the history, rationale, and methods of quality measurement and discusses the early work and lessons learned from measuring quality of care in a pediatric IBD quality improvement collaborative. PMID:21456033

  12. Cognitive and Typing Outcomes Measured Simultaneously with Slow Treadmill Walking or Sitting: Implications for Treadmill Desks

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Michael J.; LeCheminant, James D.; Hill, Kyle; Carbine, Kaylie; Masterson, Travis; Christenson, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study compared cognitive (attention, learning, and memory) and typing outcomes during slow treadmill walking or sitting. Seventy-five healthy individuals were randomly assigned to a treadmill walking group (n=37; 23 female) or sitting group (n=38; 17 female). Methods The treadmill walking group completed a series of tests while walking at 1.5 mph. The sitting group performed the same tests while sitting at a standard desk. Tests performed by both groups included: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test. In addition, typing performance was evaluated. Results Participants in the treadmill walking group performed worse on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test for total learning than the sitting group; the main effect was significant (F(1,73)=4.75, p=0.03, ?p2=0.06); however, short- and long-delay recall performance did not differ between groups (p>0.05). For the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test, total number of correct responses was lower in the treadmill walking group relative to the sitting group; the main effect was significant (F(1,73)=4.97, p=0.03, ?p2=0.06). The performance of both groups followed the same learning slope (Group x Trial interactions were not significant) for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test. Individuals in the treadmill walking group performed significantly worse for all measures of typing (p<0.05). Conclusion Walking on a treadmill desk may result in a modest difference in total learning and typing outcomes relative to sitting, but those declines may not outweigh the benefit of the physical activity gains from walking on a treadmill. PMID:25874910

  13. Stimulus, Task, and Learning Effects on Measures of Temporal Resolution: Implications for Predictors of Language Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.; Gray, Kellie; Plantinga, Judy A.; Shore, David I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Some studies find that temporal processing ability predicts language outcome whereas other studies do not. Resolution of this debate is hindered by the variety of temporal measures used, nonsensory loading of the tasks, and differential amounts of practice across studies. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of stimulus


  14. Development of an Outcome Measurement Tool for a Teen Parent Wraparound Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Derrick; Carney, Karen J.; Blackman-Urteaga, Laura; Savas, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article chronicles the search for and development of an outcome measurement tool for teen parents receiving community-based wraparound services. The criteria for selecting functional assessment tools available in the literature is presented along with the barriers experienced in using two of these well-cited tools. The rationale for in-house…

  15. Measuring Outcomes of Family-Centered Intervention: Development of the Life Participation for Parents (LPP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerhut, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    Raising a child with disabilities impacts the ability of parents to participate in life situations. This paper describes the development of a new instrument, Life Participation for Parents, to measure outcomes of pediatric therapy on parental participation. Items were reviewed by six occupational therapists with experience in pediatrics and…

  16. A Measurement Feedback System (MFS) Is Necessary to Improve Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickman, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    The importance of measurement feedback system (MFS) for the improvement of mental health services for youths is discussed. As feedback obtained from clients and families is subject to distortions, a standardized MFS including clinical processes, contexts, outcomes, and feedback to clinicians and supervisors is necessary for improvement in quality


  17. Measuring the Outcomes of Vocational Education and Training. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Outcome measures are one of three key dimensions of the performance of Australia's vocational education and training (VET) system. The government, employers, students, and the broader community all share an interest in ensuring that Australia's VET system produces skills needed in the labor market. However, each group's views of what constitutes a…

  18. A "Learning Platform" Approach to Outcome Measurement in Fragile X Syndrome: A Preliminary Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, S. S.; Hammond, J. L.; Hirt, M.; Reiss, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials of medications to alleviate the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are now underway. However, there are few reliable, valid and/or sensitive outcome measures available that can be directly administered to individuals with FXS. The majority of assessments employed in clinical…

  19. In treating diabetes, what is important? Glucose levels or outcome measures?

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in knowledge prevail in recognizing which glycemic parameters to order and in determining glycemic control. However glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is most commonly ordered to determine glycemic control. HbA1c provides information of overtime glycemic control but does not inform post meal glycemic excusions. The latter may be significant in outcome measure such as cardiovascular disorder (CVD), renal failure or amputation in diabetes. In order to obviate the dilemma in the importance between fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2-h post prandial glucose (2hPPG), we innovated delta (d) which is the difference between 2hPPG minus FBG. There is much information available relating 2hPPG or postprandial hyperglycemia to CVD and some information relating 2hPPG to renal failure or amputation. Thus much emphasis is laid upon glycemic control with little or no emphasis on the complications of diabetes or the outcome measures. The focus of this editorial is to draw attention to outcome measures by ordering fasting and 2-h postprandial (2hPP) basic metabolic panel (BMP) which provides glucose levels, renal function test and electrolytes. HbA1c significantly relates to 2hPPG, thus by ordering F and 2hPP BMP instead of HbA1c alone will serve both purposes: Glycemic control and outcome measure. Delta (d) glucose (dhPPG-FBG) is a stronger predictor than 2hPPG of renal function deterioration. PMID:26468340

  20. Student Identification with Business Education Models: Measurement and Relationship to Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R. B.; Wheeler, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Although management scholars have provided a variety of metaphors to describe the role of students in management courses, researchers have yet to explore students' identification with the models and how they are linked to educational outcomes. This article develops a measurement tool for students' identification with business education models and


  1. Clinical Utility of the Modified Stroop Task as a Treatment Outcome Measure: Questions Raised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jillian R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Griffiths, Rosalyn A.; Beumont, Pierre J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Data from an outpatient treatment trial for anorexia nervosa were examined to gain preliminary insights as to whether the modified Stroop colour-naming task might offer a useful measure of treatment outcome. It was hypothesised that interference for eating-, weight- and shape-related words on a modified version on the Stroop colour-naming task


  2. Different Tests, Different Answers: The Stability of Teacher Value-Added Estimates across Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, educational researchers and practitioners have turned to value-added models to evaluate teacher performance. Although value-added estimates depend on the assessment used to measure student achievement, the importance of outcome selection has received scant attention in the literature. Using data from a large, urban school district, I…

  3. Student Identification with Business Education Models: Measurement and Relationship to Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R. B.; Wheeler, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Although management scholars have provided a variety of metaphors to describe the role of students in management courses, researchers have yet to explore students' identification with the models and how they are linked to educational outcomes. This article develops a measurement tool for students' identification with business education models and…

  4. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  5. Challenges of General Outcomes Measurement in the RTI Progress Monitoring of Linguistically Diverse Exceptional Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel; Liu, Kristin Kline

    2010-01-01

    The assessment for accurate identification and appropriate instruction of English language learners (ELLs) with learning-related disabilities has remained a chronic source of concern. One source of concern that has gone relatively unchallenged is the use of general outcomes measurement (GOMs). The authors examine the problems and challenges of…

  6. Relationships between self-report and cognitive measures of hearing aid outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    This present study examined the relationship between cognitive measures and self-report hearing aid outcome. A sentence-final word identification and recall (SWIR) test was used to investigate how hearing aid use may relate to experienced explicit cognitive processing. A visually based cognitive test battery was also administered. To measure self-report hearing aid outcome, the International Outcome Inventory – Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) were employed. Twenty-six experienced hearing aid users (mean age of 59 years) with symmetrical moderate-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Free recall performance in the SWIR test correlated negatively with item 3 of IOI-HA, which measures residual difficulty in adverse listening situations. Cognitive abilities related to verbal information processing were correlated positively with self-reported hearing aid use and overall success. The present study showed that reported residual difficulty with hearing aid may relate to experienced explicit processing in difficult listening conditions, such that individuals with better cognitive capacity tended to report more remaining difficulty in challenging listening situations. The possibility of using cognitive measures to predict hearing aid outcome in real life should be explored in future research. PMID:26213622

  7. Conceptualization and Measurement of Family Outcomes Associated with Families of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Lee, Suk-Hyang; Kyzar, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to (a) document the current status of conceptualizing and measuring family outcomes related to having a member with an intellectual disability and (b) determine the extent to which family research focuses on internal family characteristics as contrasted to external family support. The reviewers collected 28 articles…

  8. Goal Attainment Scaling as an Outcome Measure in Randomized Controlled Trials of Psychosocial Interventions in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Goal attainment scaling (GAS) holds promise as an idiographic approach for measuring outcomes of psychosocial interventions in community settings. GAS has been criticized for untested assumptions of scaling level (i.e., interval or ordinal), inter-individual equivalence and comparability, and reliability of coding across different behavioral…

  9. Clinical Utility of the Modified Stroop Task as a Treatment Outcome Measure: Questions Raised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Jillian R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Griffiths, Rosalyn A.; Beumont, Pierre J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Data from an outpatient treatment trial for anorexia nervosa were examined to gain preliminary insights as to whether the modified Stroop colour-naming task might offer a useful measure of treatment outcome. It was hypothesised that interference for eating-, weight- and shape-related words on a modified version on the Stroop colour-naming task…

  10. From Constructs to Measures: Finalizing the Common Core. The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation at the Administration for Children and Families, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, are working together with states and other groups to improve the measurement of child outcomes in state welfare evaluations and in


  11. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received


  12. The Cognitive Bias Questionnaire: An Outcome Measure in the Treatment of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Yolanda; And Others

    The Cognitive Bias Questionnaire (CBQ) was assessed as an outcome measure in the treatment of depression in a study involving 20 depressed and 20 non-depressed female subjects. The role of depressive distortion in the maintenance or stabilization of depression was also examined. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups:…

  13. Comparison of Single-Level and Multiple-Level Outcomes of Total Disc Arthroplasty: 24-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Ritter-Lang, Karsten; Gössel, Lutz; Dreßler, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Background Low back pain is one of the most prevalent problems in industrialized countries, affecting as many as 80% of all adults at some time in their lives. Among the significant contributors to low back pain is degenerative disc disease (DDD). Although fusion has been well accepted for treatment of DDD, high rates of complications and stress to adjacent segments remain a concern. Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) was developed with a goal of preserving motion and avoiding various fusion-related complications, but the relative merits of single vs. multiple level arthroplasty remain unclear. Methods This is a multi-center, single arm, prospective post-market registry of the M6-L, consisting of consecutive patients presenting with lumbar DDD who agreed to participate. This paper reports on those patients who have completed at least 24 months of followup to date. Clinical outcome measures include the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and back and leg Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Radiographic analysis of disc angle and range of motion (ROM) was also performed. Results Results for 83 patients comprising 121 implants in two cohorts (49 single level (SL), 34 multiple levels (ML)) are reported. Both cohorts experienced significant improvement at 24 months including significant decreases in ODI and VAS. Relative to SL procedures, ML procedures demonstrated either comparable results, or results that trended favorably towards the ML procedures. Index and global ROM at 24 months were not significantly different between the two cohorts, while the disc angles were larger in the SL cohort regardless of index level. Conclusions This is the first study to report clinical and radiographic outcomes of TDR with the M6-L in SL vs ML procedures with two years of followup. The results suggest initial device safety and effectiveness when used for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease at one or more levels. PMID:26056629

  14. Measurement of Educational Progress in the Context of Local Demographics: Using General Outcome Measurement as a Basis for the Development and Use of Local Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler-Hak, Kathrine M.

    2014-01-01

    General outcome measurement, a specific type of formative evaluation, can be used to assess progress toward long-term academic goals. Curriculum-based measurement is a widely used type of general outcome measurement. When used to develop local norms, curriculum-based measurement data are helpful in making individual student and systems-level


  15. Measurement of Educational Progress in the Context of Local Demographics: Using General Outcome Measurement as a Basis for the Development and Use of Local Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler-Hak, Kathrine M.

    2014-01-01

    General outcome measurement, a specific type of formative evaluation, can be used to assess progress toward long-term academic goals. Curriculum-based measurement is a widely used type of general outcome measurement. When used to develop local norms, curriculum-based measurement data are helpful in making individual student and systems-level…

  16. Inequalities in multiple health outcomes by education, sex, and race in 93 US counties: Why we should measure them all

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regular reporting of health inequalities is essential to monitoring progress of efforts to reduce health inequalities. While reporting of population health became increasingly common, reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population is rarely a standard practice. This study reports education-, sex-, and race-related inequalities in four health outcomes in each of the selected 93 counties in the United States in a systematic and comparable manner. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis of large, publicly available data, 2008, 2009, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) and 2008, 2009, and 2010 United States Birth Records from the National Vital Statistics System. The study population is American adults older than 25 years of age residing in the selected 93 counties, representing about 30% of the US population, roughly equally covering all geographic regions of the country. Main outcome measures are: (1) Attribute (group characteristic)-specific inequality: education-, sex-, or race-specific inequality in each of the four health outcomes (poor or fair health, poor physical health days, poor mental health days, and low birthweight) in each county; (2) Overall inequality: the average of these three attribute-specific inequalities for each health outcome in each county; and (3) Summary inequality in total morbidity: the weighted average of the overall inequalities across the four health outcomes in each county. Results The range of inequality across the counties differed considerably by health outcome; inequality in poor or fair health had the widest range and the highest median among inequalities in all health outcomes. In more than 70% of the counties, education-specific inequality was the largest in all health outcomes except for low birthweight. Conclusions It is feasible to extend population health reporting to include reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population at a small jurisdictional level using publicly available data. No single group characteristic or health outcome represents the whole picture of health inequalities in a population. Examining multiple group characteristics and outcomes in a comparable manner is essential in reporting health inequalities. PMID:24927805

  17. An International Standard Set of Patient-Centered Outcome Measures After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Joel; Sprinkhuizen, Sara M.; Ackerson, Teri; Bernhardt, Julie; Davie, Charlie; George, Mary G.; Gething, Stephanie; Kelly, Adam G.; Lindsay, Patrice; Liu, Liping; Martins, Sheila C.O.; Morgan, Louise; Norrving, Bo; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Silver, Frank L.; Smith, Eric E.; Williams, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Value-based health care aims to bring together patients and health systems to maximize the ratio of quality over cost. To enable assessment of healthcare value in stroke management, an international standard set of patient-centered stroke outcome measures was defined for use in a variety of healthcare settings. Methods— A modified Delphi process was implemented with an international expert panel representing patients, advocates, and clinical specialists in stroke outcomes, stroke registers, global health, epidemiology, and rehabilitation to reach consensus on the preferred outcome measures, included populations, and baseline risk adjustment variables. Results— Patients presenting to a hospital with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage were selected as the target population for these recommendations, with the inclusion of transient ischemic attacks optional. Outcome categories recommended for assessment were survival and disease control, acute complications, and patient-reported outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes proposed for assessment at 90 days were pain, mood, feeding, selfcare, mobility, communication, cognitive functioning, social participation, ability to return to usual activities, and health-related quality of life, with mobility, feeding, selfcare, and communication also collected at discharge. One instrument was able to collect most patient-reported subdomains (9/16, 56%). Minimum data collection for risk adjustment included patient demographics, premorbid functioning, stroke type and severity, vascular and systemic risk factors, and specific treatment/care-related factors. Conclusions— A consensus stroke measure Standard Set was developed as a simple, pragmatic method to increase the value of stroke care. The set should be validated in practice when used for monitoring and comparisons across different care settings. PMID:26604251

  18. Specific Steps for Creating Outcomes Assessment Measures for an Undergraduate Management Program: Bridging the Gap from Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Shani D.

    2007-01-01

    The article recounts in detail the process used to include all department faculty members in the design of outcomes assessment measures for the management major, basing these on broad learning outcomes which the department had previously identified. While other literature has described the outcomes assessment design process in broad terms, the…

  19. Operationalising the capability approach for outcome measurement in mental health research.

    PubMed

    Simon, Judit; Anand, Paul; Gray, Alastair; Rugkćsa, Jorun; Yeeles, Ksenija; Burns, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Amartya Sen's multidimensional capability approach focuses on the importance of freedoms to be or do things people have reason to value. It is an alternative to standard utilitarian welfarism, the theoretical approach to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost-utility analyses. Despite the limitations of the utility approach in capturing non-health benefits and broader welfare inequalities, there have been very limited applications of the capability approach in the mental health context where these issues are imperative. We report the development and application of a multidimensional instrument, the OxCAP-MH, which aims to operationalise the capability approach for outcome measurement in mental health research. The study was carried out as part of an ongoing programme on community coercion experienced by service users with severe and enduring mental illness being treated using Community Treatment Orders. Capabilities data were collected at baseline in the OCTET RCT for 333 'revolving door' mental health service users who were in involuntary hospital treatment at the time of recruitment in England (2008-2011). The research focused on the identification of capabilities domains most affected by mental illness and their association with socio-demographic and clinical factors and other measures of well-being such as the EQ-5D and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales. The OxCAP-MH item response rate was 90%-68%. There were significant correlations between service users' overall capability scores and the GAF, EQ-5D VAS and EQ-5D-3L utilities (corr = 0.249, 0.514, 0.415, respectively). The most affected capability domains were: 'Daily activities', 'Influencing local decisions', 'Enjoying recreation', 'Planning one's life' and 'Discrimination'. Age had a mixed effect, while female service users and those with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or longer illness duration reported significantly lower capability scores. The results support the feasibility and validity of directly measuring human capabilities for the mentally ill and the potential for applying the approach to outcome measurement. PMID:24331898

  20. Higher Chest Wall Dose Results in Improved Locoregional Outcome in Patients Receiving Postmastectomy Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panoff, Joseph E.; Takita, Cristiane; Hurley, Judith; Reis, Isildinha M.; Zhao, Wei; Rodgers, Steven E.; Gunaseelan, Vijayalakshmi; Wright, Jean L.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Randomized trials demonstrating decreased locoregional recurrence (LRR) and improved overall survival (OS) in women receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) used up to 50 Gy to the chest wall (CW), but in practice, many centers boost the CW dose to {>=}60 Gy, despite lack of data supporting this approach. We evaluated the relationship between CW dose and clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 582 consecutively treated patients who received PMRT between January 1999 and December 2009. We collected data on patient, disease, treatment characteristics, and outcomes of LRR, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. Results: Median follow-up from the date of diagnosis was 44.7 months. The cumulative 5-year incidence of LRR as first site of failure was 6.2%. CW dose for 7% (43 patients) was {<=}50.4 Gy (range, 41.4-50.4 Gy) and 93% received >50.4 Gy (range, 52.4-74.4 Gy). A CW dose of >50.4 Gy vs. {<=}50.4 Gy was associated with lower incidence of LRR, a 60-month rate of 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-8.2) vs. 12.7% (95% CI, 4.5-25.3; p = 0.054). Multivariate hazard ratio (HR) for LRR controlling for race, receptor status, and stage was 2.62 (95% CI, 1.02-7.13; p = 0.042). All LRR in the low-dose group occurred in patients receiving 50 to 50.4 Gy. Lower CW dose was associated with worse PFS (multivariate HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.64-4.56; p < 0.001) and OS (multivariate HR, 3.88; 95% CI, 2.16-6.99; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The addition of a CW boost above 50.4 Gy resulted in improved locoregional control and survival in this cohort patients treated with PMRT for stage II-III breast cancer. The addition of a CW boost to standard-dose PMRT is likely to benefit selected high-risk patients. The optimal technique, target volume, and patient selection criteria are unknown. The use of a CW boost should be studied prospectively, as has been done in the setting of breast conservation.

  1. Mercury in fish and adverse reproductive outcomes: results from South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a metal with widespread distribution in aquatic ecosystems and significant neurodevelopmental toxicity in humans. Fish biomonitoring for total mercury has been conducted in South Carolina (SC) since 1976, and consumption advisories have been posted for many SC waterways. However, there is limited information on the potential reproductive impacts of mercury due to recreational or subsistence fish consumption. Methods To address this issue, geocoded residential locations for live births from the Vital Statistics Registry (1995–2005, N = 362,625) were linked with spatially interpolated total mercury concentrations in fish to estimate potential mercury exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the hypothesis that risk of low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) or preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks clinical gestation) was greater among women living in areas with elevated total mercury in fish, after adjustment for confounding. Separate analyses estimated term LBW and PTB risks using residential proximity to rivers with fish consumption advisories to characterize exposure. Results Term LBW was more likely among women residing in areas in the upper quartile of predicted total mercury in fish (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.09) or within 8 kilometers of a river with a ‘do not eat’ fish advisory (1.05; 1.00-1.11) compared to the lowest quartile, or rivers without fish consumption restrictions, respectively. When stratified by race, risks for term LBW or PTB were 10-18% more likely among African-American (AA) mothers living in areas with the highest total fish mercury concentrations. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between fish total mercury concentrations and adverse reproductive outcomes in a large population-based sample that included AA women. The ecologic nature of exposure assessment in this study precludes causal inference. However, the results suggest a need for more detailed investigations to characterize patterns of local fish consumption and potential dose–response relationships between mercury exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes, particularly among AA mothers. PMID:25127892

  2. Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development

    PubMed Central

    Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928

  3. Creating a Novel Video Vignette Stroke Preparedness Outcome Measure Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach.

    PubMed

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2015-07-01

    Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity. PMID:25367896

  4. Validity of Behavioral Measures as Proxies for HIV-related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Rick S.; Morisky, Donald E.; Harrison, Lana; Mark, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, expectations for the quality, validity, and objectivity of the outcome measures used to assess the impact of behavior change interventions related to HIV have steadily increased. At this point (mid-2014 at this writing), biological evidence or biomarkers of the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections [STI] in a target population is clearly preferable to self-reports of behavior. This kind of evidence is, however, much more expensive to collect than participants’ reports of behavior change (e.g., increased condom use, reduced substance use or abstinence from substance use, and high levels of medication adherence). In addition, while potentially less subject to reporting bias, biomarkers and biological outcomes have their own flaws. In this paper we review the literature on the validity of self-reports of outcomes most relevant to HIV behavior change interventions, sexual behavior (ever having had sex and condom use), substance use, and medication adherence. We note the extent to which they may be adequate outcome measures without biological data, and the conditions under which they may be most likely to be sufficient. We also argue, like many others, that where possible, both self-report and biological measures should be collected. PMID:25007198

  5. MEASURING AND IMPROVING RESPIRATORY OUTCOMES IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS LUNG DISEASE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES TO THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Zemanick, Edith T.; Harris, J. Kirk; Conway, Steven; Konstan, Michael W.; Marshall, Bruce; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Retsch-Bogart, George; Saiman, Lisa; Accurso, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening disease with significant morbidity. Despite overall improvements in survival, patients with CF experience frequent pulmonary exacerbations and declining lung function, which often accelerates during adolescence. New treatments target steps in the pathogenesis of lung disease, such as the basic defect in CF (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator [CFTR]), pulmonary infections, inflammation, and mucociliary clearance. These treatments offer hope but also present challenges to patients, clinicians, and researchers. Comprehensive assessment of efficacy is critical to identify potentially beneficial treatments. Lung function and pulmonary exacerbation are the most commonly used outcome measures in CF clinical research. Other outcome measures under investigation include measures of CFTR function; biomarkers of infection, inflammation, lung injury and repair; and patient-reported outcomes. Molecular diagnostics may help elucidate the complex CF airway microbiome. As new treatments are developed for patients with CF, efforts should be made to balance treatment burden with quality of life. This review highlights emerging treatments, obstacles to optimizing outcomes, and key future directions for research. PMID:19833563

  6. Outcome Measurement for COPD: Reliability and Validity of the Dyspnea Management Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Norweg, Anna; Jette, Alan M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Whiteson, Jonathan; Kim, Minjin

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dyspnea Management Questionnaire (DMQ) is a measure of the psychosocial and behavioral responses to dyspnea for adults with COPD. The research objectives were to evaluate the reliability and validity of an expanded DMQ item pool, as a preliminary step for developing a computer adaptive test. Methods The original 66 items of the DMQ were used for the analyses. The sample included 63 women and 44 men with COPD (n = 107) recruited from two urban medical centers. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure of the DMQ and its underlying cognitive-behavioral theoretical base. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and breadth of coverage of the expanded DMQ item bank were also evaluated. Results Five distinct dyspnea domains were confirmed using 56 original items of the DMQ: dyspnea intensity, dyspnea anxiety, activity avoidance, activity self-efficacy, and strategy satisfaction. Overall, the breadth of items was excellent with a good match between sample scores and item difficulty. The DMQ-56 showed good internal consistency reliability (? = .85 to .96) and good preliminary test-retest reliability over a 3-week interval (ICC = .69 to .92). Conclusions The DMQ demonstrated acceptable levels of reliability and validity for measuring multidimensional dyspnea outcomes after medical, psychological, and behavioral interventions for adults with COPD. PMID:20884194

  7. A Comparison of DASH, PEM and Levine questionnaires in outcome measurement of carpal tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Zyluk, A; Piotuch, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the 3 commonly used questionnaires DASH, PEM and Levine to assess which is the best as an outcome measure after carpal tunnel release. 50 patients (43 women and 7 men) with an average age of 56 years underwent minimally invasive carpal tunnel release. Patients were examined before the operation, and at 1 and 6 months after, according to the same protocol. They completed the DASH, PEM and Levine questionnaires and undertook total grip, key-pinch strengths, and sensation by filament tests. The results showed higher responsiveness to change in the Levine and the PEM, compared to the DASH at the 1- and 6-month-assessments. The Levine showed the highest validity as it correlated strongly with all functional measures, although all 3 questionnaires, including Levine, showed a discordance with total grip and key-pinch strength at the 1-month assessment. The instruments were characterized by various (excellent and poor) concurrent validity in the assumed periods of observation and all 3 showed high internal consistency. PMID:21607899

  8. A Survey of Physiotherapists' Experience Using Outcome Measures in Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Westby, M.D.; Hoens, A.; Troughton, D.; Field, R.; Duggan, M.; Reid, W.D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify physiotherapists' familiarity with and experience using outcome measures (OMs) along the care continuum for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip and knee. Views on future use and barriers were also captured. Methods: A stratified random sample of physiotherapists in one Canadian province completed a questionnaire about 19 standardized and clinically feasible OMs. Analyses included descriptive statistics and chi-square and McNemar tests to compare use of OMs for clinical decision making and program evaluation. Results: Of 694 physiotherapists surveyed, 298 (43%) responded. Of these, 172 (58%) treated TJA clients and completed the full questionnaire. A majority worked in public practice settings and >1 care phase (e.g., pre-op, acute, rehab). All physiotherapists reported using ?1 OM and having greater experience using performance-based measures than patient-reported OMs. OMs were used more often for clinical decision making than for program evaluation. Dissatisfaction with available tools was evident from respondents' comments. Several barriers to using OMs were identified in varied clinical settings and care phases. Conclusions: While physiotherapists use a variety of OMs along the TJA continuum, there remain challenges to routine use across clinical settings, care phases, and patient sub-groups. PMID:25125781

  9. Measurements results of SAW humidity sensor with nafion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawalec, A.; Jasek, K.; Pasternak, M.

    2008-02-01

    The results of measurements of surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensor with nafion layer are described in the paper. The sensitivity, response time as well as hysteresis for different temperatures have been investigated. The sensor sensitivity, linearity and hystersis are discussd. The results show that such sensor may be suitable for accurate humidity measurements in dry or hot enough environment.

  10. Measures of Maternal Socioeconomic Status in Yemen and Association with Maternal and Child Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alosaimi, Abdullah N; Luoto, Riitta; Al Serouri, Abdul Wahed; Nwaru, Bright I; Mouniri, Halima

    2016-02-01

    Background Reliable measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research requires extensive resources and can be challenging in low-income countries. We aimed to develop a set of maternal SES indices and investigate their associations with maternal and child health outcomes in rural Yemen. Methods We applied factor analysis based on principal component analysis extraction to construct the SES indices by capturing household attributes for 7295 women of reproductive age. Data were collected from a sub-national household survey conducted in six rural districts in four Yemeni provinces in 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the associations between the SES indices and maternal mortality, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. Results Three SES indices (wealth, educational and housing quality) were extracted, which together explained 54 % of the total variation in SES. Factor scores were derived and categorized into tertiles. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, higher tertiles of all the indices were inversely associated with spontaneous abortion. Higher tertiles of wealth and educational indices were inversely associated with stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. None of the SES indices was strongly associated with maternal mortality. Conclusion By subjecting a number of household attributes to factor analysis, we derived three SES indices (wealth, educational, and housing quality) that are useful for maternal and child health research in rural Yemen. The indices were worthwhile in predicting a number of maternal and child health outcomes. In low-income settings, failure to account for the multidimensionality of SES may underestimate the influence of SES on maternal and child health. PMID:26530035

  11. The National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database Qualified Clinical Data Registry: 2015 measure specifications and rationale.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; McGirt, Matthew J; Bekelis, Kimon; Holland, Christopher M; Davies, Jason; Devin, Clinton J; Atkins, Tyler; Knightly, Jack; Groman, Rachel; Zyung, Irene; Asher, Anthony L

    2015-12-01

    Meaningful quality measurement and public reporting have the potential to facilitate targeted outcome improvement, practice-based learning, shared decision making, and effective resource utilization. Recent developments in national quality reporting programs, such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Qualified Clinical Data Registry (QCDR) reporting option, have enhanced the ability of specialty groups to develop relevant quality measures of the care they deliver. QCDRs will complete the collection and submission of Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) quality measures data on behalf of individual eligible professionals. The National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database (N(2)QOD) offers 21 non-PQRS measures, initially focused on spine procedures, which are the first specialty-specific measures for neurosurgery. Securing QCDR status for N(2)QOD is a tremendously important accomplishment for our specialty. This program will ensure that data collected through our registries and used for PQRS is meaningful for neurosurgeons, related spine care practitioners, their patients, and other stakeholders. The 2015 N(2)QOD QCDR is further evidence of neurosurgery's commitment to substantively advancing the health care quality paradigm. The following manuscript outlines the measures now approved for use in the 2015 N(2)QOD QCDR. Measure specifications (measure type and descriptions, related measures, if any, as well as relevant National Quality Strategy domain[s]) along with rationale are provided for each measure. PMID:26621418

  12. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stacy W.; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z.; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Biesecker, Barbara B.; Christensen, Kurt D.; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice. PMID:24625446

  13. A Geometric Morphometric Approach to the Analysis of Lip Shape during Speech: Development of a Clinical Outcome Measure

    PubMed Central

    Popat, Hashmat; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I.; Rosin, Paul L.; Marshall, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective assessments of lip movement can be beneficial in many disciplines including visual speech recognition, for surgical outcome assessment in patients with cleft lip and for the rehabilitation of patients with facial nerve impairments. The aim of this study was to develop an outcome measure for lip shape during speech using statistical shape analysis techniques. Lip movements during speech were captured from a sample of adult subjects considered as average using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Geometric Morphometrics was employed to extract three-dimensional coordinate data for lip shape during four spoken words decomposed into seven visemes (which included the resting lip shape). Canonical variate analysis was carried out in an attempt to statistically discriminate the seven visemes. The results showed that the second canonical variate discriminated the resting lip shape from articulation of the utterances and accounted for 17.2% of the total variance of the model. The first canonical variate was significant in discriminating between the utterances and accounted for 72.8% of the total variance of the model. The outcome measure was created using the 95% confidence intervals of the canonical variate scores for each subject plotted as ellipses for each viseme. The method and outcome model is proposed as reference to compare lip movement during speech in similar population groups. PMID:23451213

  14. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice. PMID:24625446

  15. CT-Guided Lumbar Sympathectomy: Results and Analysis of Factors Influencing the Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, Walter; Ernst, Stefan; Manshausen, Gudrun; Gawenda, Michael; Siemens, Peter; Krahe, Thomas; Walter, Michael; Lackner, Klaus

    1998-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze the effectiveness of computed tomography-guided percutaneous lumbar sympathectomy (CTLS) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease in relation to angiographic findings and vascular risk factors. Methods: Eighty-three patients were treated by CTLS. After clinical evaluation of the risk profile and diagnostic intraarterial digital subtraction arteriography, 14 patients underwent unilateral, and 69 bilateral one-level treatment. Follow-up studies took place on the day following the intervention, after 3 weeks, and after 3 months. Results: A total of 152 interventions were performed in 83 patients. After 3 months, clinical examination of 54 patients (5 patients had died, 24 were lost to follow-up) revealed improvement in 46% (25/54), no change in 39% (21/54), and worsening (amputation) in 15% (8/54). There was no significant statistical correlation among any of the analyzed factors (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, obesity, hyperuricemia, number of risk factors, ankle-arm index, and angiography score) and the outcome after CTLS. Three major complications occurred: one diabetic patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess 2 weeks after CTLS, and in two other patients ureteral strictures were detected 3 months and 2 years after CTLS, respectively. Conclusion: As no predictive criteria for clinical improvement in an individual patient could be identified, CTLS, as a safe procedure, should be employed on a large scale in patients who are unsuitable for treatment by angioplasty or revascularization.

  16. Eosinophilia predicts poor clinical outcomes in recent-onset arthritis: results from the ESPOIR cohort

    PubMed Central

    Guellec, Dewi; Milin, Morgane; Cornec, Divi; Tobon, Gabriel J; Marhadour, Thierry; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Chiocchia, Gilles; Vittecocq, Olivier; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Saraux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of eosinophilia in patients with recent-onset arthritis suggestive of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to describe their features and outcomes. Methods We performed an ancillary study of data from a French prospective multicentre cohort study monitoring clinical, laboratory and radiographic data in patients with inflammatory arthritis of 6 weeks to 6 months duration. We determined the proportion of patients with eosinophilia, defined as a count >500/mm3, at baseline and after 3 years. Features of patients with and without baseline eosinophilia were compared. Results Baseline eosinophilia was evidenced in 26 of 804 (3.2%) patients; their mean eosinophil count was 637.7±107/mm3. Baseline eosinophilia was ascribed to atopic syndrome in 6 of 26 (23.1%) patients. After 3 years, patients with eosinophilia had higher Health Assessment Questionnaire scores (0.9 vs 0.5, p=0.004), higher patient visual analogue scale activity score and morning stiffness intensity (p=0.05), and were more often taking disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (p=0.02). Baseline eosinophilia was not associated with presence of extra-articular manifestations. Conclusions Eosinophilia is rare in recent-onset arthritis suggestive of RA, and is usually directly related to the rheumatic disease. Our data suggest that patients with mild eosinophilia at diagnosis could respond worse to the treatment than those without. PMID:26509068

  17. Establishing Measurement-based Care in Integrated Primary Care: Monitoring Clinical Outcomes Over Time.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Lisa K; Wray, Laura O; Dollar, Katherine M; King, Paul R

    2015-12-01

    Full implementation of the patient-centered medical home requires the identification and treatment of patients with behavioral health concerns, leading to improved patient outcomes and reduced health care costs. Measurement-based care (MBC) for mental health conditions is an essential step in achieving these goals. Integrated primary care (IPC) administrators and providers are key leaders in MBC that spans initial screening for conditions to monitoring clinical outcomes over time. The purpose of this article is to assist IPC leaders, in partnership with their primary care team, in developing standard operating procedures for screening and follow up evaluations in order to lay a foundation for assessing program outcomes and improving quality of care in their unique settings. PMID:26645091

  18. Use of scoring systems for assessing and reporting the outcome results from shoulder surgery and arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Simon; Alfahad, Nawaf; Scott, Martin; Gooding, Ben; Wallace, W Angus

    2015-01-01

    To investigate shoulder scoring systems used in Europe and North America and how outcomes might be classified after shoulder joint replacement. All research papers published in four major journals in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed for the shoulder scoring systems used in their published papers. A method of identifying how outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty might be used to categorize patients into fair, good, very good and excellent outcomes was explored using the outcome evaluations from patients treated in our own unit. A total of 174 research articles that were published in the four journals used some form of shoulder scoring system. The outcome from shoulder arthroplasty in our unit has been evaluated using the constant score (CS) and the oxford shoulder score and these scores have been used to evaluate individual patient outcomes. CSs of < 30 = unsatisfactory; 30-39 = fair; 40-59 = good; 60-69 = very good; and 70 and over = excellent. The most popular shoulder scoring systems in North America were Simple Shoulder Test and American shoulder and elbow surgeons standard shoulder assessment form score and in Europe CS, Oxford Shoulder Score and DASH score. PMID:25793164

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Venous Sinus Stenosis in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Complications, Neurological Outcomes, and Radiographic Results

    PubMed Central

    Starke, Robert M.; Wang, Tony; Ding, Dale; Durst, Christopher R.; Crowley, R. Webster; Chalouhi, Nohra; Hasan, David M.; Dumont, Aaron S.; Jabbour, Pascal; Liu, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may result in a chronic debilitating disease. Dural venous sinus stenosis with a physiologic venous pressure gradient has been identified as a potential etiology in a number of IIH patients. Intracranial venous stenting has emerged as a potential treatment alternative. Methods. A systematic review was carried out to identify studies employing venous stenting for IIH. Results. From 2002 to 2014, 17 studies comprising 185 patients who underwent 221 stenting procedures were reported. Mean prestent pressure gradient was 20.1 mmHg (95% CI 19.4–20.7 mmHg) with a mean poststent gradient of 4.4 mmHg (95% CI 3.5–5.2 mmHg). Complications occurred in 10 patients (5.4%; 95% CI 4.7–5.4%) but were major in only 3 (1.6%). At a mean clinical follow-up of 22 months, clinical improvement was noted in 130 of 166 patients with headaches (78.3%; 95% CI 75.8–80.8%), 84 of 89 patients with papilledema (94.4%; 95% CI 92.1–96.6%), and 64 of 74 patients with visual symptoms (86.5%; 95% CI 83.0–89.9%). In-stent stenosis was noted in six patients (3.4%; 95% CI 2.5–4.3%) and stent-adjacent stenosis occurred in 19 patients (11.4%; 95% CI 10.4–12.4), resulting in restenting in 10 patients. Conclusion. In IIH patients with venous sinus stenosis and a physiologic pressure gradient, venous stenting appears to be a safe and effective therapeutic option. Further studies are necessary to determine the long-term outcomes and the optimal management of medically refractory IIH. PMID:26146651

  20. Measuring Outcomes of a One-Minute Preceptor Faculty Development Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Homer, Lou; Bowen, Judith L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Measuring outcomes of faculty development programs is difficult and infrequently attempted beyond measuring participant satisfaction with the program. Few studies have validated evaluation tools to assess the effectiveness of faculty development programs, and learners have rarely participated in assessing improvement of faculty who participate in such programs. OBJECTIVE To develop a questionnaire to measure the effectiveness of an enhanced 1-minute preceptor (OMP) faculty development workshop via faculty self-assessment and resident assessment of faculty, and to use the questionnaire to assess an OMP faculty development workshop. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS We developed and tested a questionnaire to assess the 5 “microskills” of a OMP faculty development program, and performed faculty self-assessment and resident assessment using the questionnaire 6 to 18 months before and 6 to 18 months after our experiential skills improvement workshop. PARTICIPANTS Sixty-eight internal medicine continuity clinic preceptors (44 control and 24 intervention faculty) at a university, a veteran's affairs hospital, and 2 community internal medicine training sites. RESULTS Twenty-two participants (92%) completed pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Residents completed 94 preintervention questionnaires and 58 postintervention questionnaires on participant faculty. Faculty reported improvement in behavior following the intervention. Residents reported no significant improvements in faculty teaching behaviors following the intervention. CONCLUSION We attempted to rigorously evaluate a faculty development program based on the OMP. Although the intervention did not show statistically significant changes in teaching behavior, we believe that this study is an important step in extending assessment of faculty development to include resident evaluation of participating faculty. PMID:16704379

  1. Drinking Goal Choice and Outcomes in a Web-based Alcohol Intervention: Results from VetChange

    PubMed Central

    Enggasser, Justin L.; Hermos, John A.; Rubin, Amy; Lachowicz, Mark; Rybin, Denis; Brief, Deborah J.; Roy, Monica; Helmuth, Eric; Rosenbloom, David; Keane, Terence M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe characteristics of participants who chose moderation and abstinence drinking goals, and to examine post-treatment drinking outcomes based on patterns of goal choice during a Web-based alcohol intervention for returning U.S. Veterans. Method We conducted a descriptive secondary analysis of a subsample of 305 of 600 Veterans who participated in a clinical trial of VetChange, an 8-module, cognitive-behavioral intervention. Participants self-selected abstinence or moderation drinking goals, initially at Module 3, and weekly during subsequent modules. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Quick Drink Screen (QDS), and Short Inventory of Problems (SIP-2R). Results Initial goal choices were 86.9% moderation and 13.1% abstinence. Approximately 20% of participants from each initial choice changed goals during the intervention; last goal choices were 68.6% moderation and 31.4% abstinence. Participants who initially chose moderation reported higher percent heavy drinking days at baseline; participants who initially chose abstinence were more likely to report recent substance abuse treatment and were older. Post-intervention levels of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were significantly reduced in all goal-choice patterns (i.e., Moderation Only, Abstinence Only, Moderation to Abstinence, and Abstinence to Moderation; all measures p < 0.05 or less). Baseline drinking severity did not differentially relate to outcomes across goal-choice patterns. Conclusions Participants in a Web-based alcohol intervention for returning U.S. Veterans demonstrated improvements in drinking regardless of whether they chose an abstinence or moderation drinking goal, and whether the goal was maintained or changed over the course of the intervention. PMID:25671224

  2. Measuring the impact and outcomes of maternal child health federal programs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Yhenneko J; Nies, Mary A

    2013-07-01

    Improving maternal and child health is a key objective of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and the Healthy People goals for improving the health of Americans. Government initiatives are important particularly for reducing disparities that affect disadvantaged populations. Head Start, Healthy Start, WIC and Medicaid are four federal programs that target disparities in maternal and child health outcomes. This paper reviews recent evaluations of these programs to identify outcomes assessed and opportunities for further evaluation of these programs. We conducted a review of recent evaluation studies assessing the impact of four maternal and child health programs on a health or healthcare outcome. Sources for published literature included the PubMed, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases. Titles and abstracts of studies were examined to determine if they met inclusion criteria. Included studies were categorized by type of outcome examined. Twenty peer-reviewed studies published between January 2006 and June 2011 met inclusion criteria. The majority of studies examined infant outcomes (11), followed by breastfeeding/nutrition (4), maternal health (3), and unintended pregnancy (2). Measures used were consistent across studies; however, findings on the impact of programs were mixed reflecting differences in selection of comparison group, data source and statistical methods. The impact of maternal and child health programs may vary by setting and population served, but inconclusive findings remain. Health service researchers can build upon current evaluations to increase our understanding of what works, help target resources, and improve evaluation of programs in the future. PMID:22729661

  3. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients With Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2014-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received minocycline for at least 2 weeks and found that the most common reported side effect is gastrointestinal difficulty, including loss of appetite. The families reported an improvement in language and behavioral areas. Outcome measures in the design of future randomized clinical trials should include both behavioral and language measures. As with any other treatments, we emphasize that randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of minocycline in fragile X syndrome. PMID:20687826

  4. Content validity of patient-reported outcome measures: perspectives from a PROMIS meeting.

    PubMed

    Magasi, Susan; Ryan, Gery; Revicki, Dennis; Lenderking, William; Hays, Ron D; Brod, Meryl; Snyder, Claire; Boers, Maarten; Cella, David

    2012-06-01

    Content validity of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) has been a focus of debate since the 2006 publication of the U.S. FDA Draft Guidance for Industry in Patient Reported Outcome Measurement. Under the auspices of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative, a working meeting on content validity was convened with leading PRO measurement experts. Platform presentations and participant discussion highlighted key issues in the content validity debate, including inconsistency in the definition and evaluation of content validity, the need for empirical research to support methodological approaches to the evaluation of content validity, and concerns that continual re-evaluation of content validity slows the pace of science and leads to the proliferation of study-specific PROs. We advocate an approach to the evaluation of content validity, which includes meticulously documented qualitative and advanced quantitative methods. To advance the science of content validity in PROs, we recommend (1) development of a consensus definition of content validity; (2) development of content validity guidelines that delineate the role of qualitative and quantitative methods and the integration of multiple perspectives; (3) empirical evaluation of generalizability of content validity across applications; and (4) use of generic measures as the foundation for PROs assessment. PMID:21866374

  5. Patient population management: taking the leap from variance analysis to outcomes measurement.

    PubMed

    Allen, K M

    1998-01-01

    Case managers today at BCHS have a somewhat different role than at the onset of the Collaborative Practice Model. They are seen throughout the organization as: Leaders/participants on cross-functional teams. Systems change agents. Integrating/merging with quality services and utilization management. Outcomes managers. One of the major cross-functional teams is in the process of designing a Care Coordinator role. These individuals will, as one of their functions, assume responsibility for daily patient care management activities. A variance tracking program has come into the Utilization Management (UM) department as part of a software package purchased to automate UM work activities. This variance program could potentially be used by the new care coordinators as the role develops. The case managers are beginning to use a Decision Support software, (Transition Systems Inc.) in the collection of data that is based on a cost accounting system and linked to clinical events. Other clinical outcomes data bases are now being used by the case manager to help with the collection and measurement of outcomes information. Hoshin planning will continue to be a framework for defining and setting the targets for clinical and financial improvements throughout the organization. Case managers will continue to be involved in many of these system-wide initiatives. In the words of Galileo, 1579, "You need to count what's countable, measure what's measurable, and what's not measurable, make measurable." PMID:9601411

  6. Usefulness of the Core Outcome Measures Index in Daily Clinical Practice for Assessing Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Álvarez, Carlos; Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; Saló, Guillem; Molina, Antoni; Lladó, Andreu; Ramírez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Outcome evaluation is an important aspect of the treatment of patients with degenerative lumbar disease. We evaluated the usefulness of the Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) in assessing people affected by degenerative lumbar disease in daily clinical practice. Methods. We evaluated 221 patients who had completed preoperatively and 2 years after surgery VAS pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and COMI. We calculated the change of scores and its sensitivity to change. The internal consistency of the COMI items and the correlation between the COMI scores and the scores of the other measurements were assessed. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean scores of the preoperative and 2 years questionnaires for nearly all measurements. COMI showed a good internal consistency, except for the preoperative pain subscale. The sensitivity to change was high for the total COMI and its pain and well-being subscales and moderate for the rest. The COMI demonstrated strong correlation with the other measurements. Conclusions. The COMI is a useful tool for assessing the patient-based outcome in the studied population. Given its simplicity, good correlation with the SF-36 and ODI and its good sensitivity to change, it could replace more cumbersome instruments in daily clinical practice. PMID:22518325

  7. Assessing the results: phase 1 hyperlipidemia outcomes in 27 health plans.

    PubMed

    Latts, L M

    2001-04-16

    In phase 1 of this hyperlipidemia outcomes management program, characteristics of 7,619 patients treated with statins at 27 US managed care plans were determined. Nearly 40% (3,018 patients) had documented coronary heart disease (CHD). Most (65%) had at least two CHD risk factors. Hyperlipidemia treatment included simvastatin (39%), atorvastatin (25%), fluvastatin (14%), pravastatin (12%), and lovastatin (2%). On-treatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were available for 79% of patients; however, only 46% had both baseline and follow-up levels recorded in their charts. Of patients for whom follow-up data were available, 3,779 (63%) achieved their target LDL-C levels as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Target LDL-C levels were reached by 1,381 (87%) of the patients with a goal of 160 mg/dL, 1,326 (65%) of those with a goal of 130 mg/dL, and 1,072 (44%) of those with a goal of 100 mg/dL. Overall, 66% of patients who met their treatment goal and 24% of those who did not required no more than a 25% reduction in LDL-C. In contrast, 8% of patients who achieved goals and 36% of patients who did not required >40% reduction in LDL-C. Phase 1 results did not suggest any substantial difference among statins for achievement of NCEP goals or decrease in LDL-C. These results show that therapy with statins is effective for achievement of NCEP targets in most patients and that there is potential for improvement in the quality and cost-effectiveness of statin therapy with carefully planned interventions. PMID:11311193

  8. Clinical validity of outcome pain measures in naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The conceptual validity of kinetic gait analysis and disability outcome assessment methods has guided their use in the assessment of pain caused by osteoarthritis (OA). No consensus on the best clinical methods for pain evaluation in canine OA exists, particularly, when evaluating treatments where a smaller treatment effect is anticipated than with pharmacological pain killers. This study thus aimed at determining the technical validity of some clinical endpoints on OA pain in dogs using the green-lipped mussel (GLM)-enriched diet. Twenty-three adult dogs with clinical OA completed the prospective controlled study. All the dogs were fed a balanced diet over a 30-day control period followed by a GLM-enriched diet over a 60-day period. The kinetic gait analysis parameter (PVFBW, peak vertical force adjusted for body weight change), electrodermal activity (EDA), and a standardized multifactorial pain questionnaire (MFQ) were performed on day (D) 0 (inclusion), D30 (start) and D90 (end). The owners completed a client-specific outcome measures (CSOM) instrument twice a week. Motor activity (MA) was continuously recorded in seven dogs using telemetered accelerometric counts. We hypothesized that these methods would produce convergent results related to diet changes. A Type I error of 0.05 was adjusted to correct for the multiplicity of the primary clinical endpoints. Results Neither the EDA nor the MFQ were found reliable or could be validated. Changes in the PVFBW (Padj?=?0.0004), the CSOM (Padj?=?0.006) and the MA intensity (Padj?=?0.02) from D0 to D90 suggested an effect of diet(s). Only the PVFBW clearly increased after the GLM-diet (Padj?=?0.003). The CSOM exhibited a negative relationship with the PVFBW (P?=?0.02) and MA duration (P?=?0.02). Conclusions The PVFBW exhibited the best technical validity for the characterization of the beneficial effect of a GLM-enriched diet. The CSOM and MA appeared less responsive following a GLM-diet, but these measures appeared complementary to gait analysis. Apparently, the CSOM provides the capacity to rely on pain OA assessment influenced by both lameness quantification (PVFBW) and physical functioning (MA). PMID:22963751

  9. What Do Patients Consider to Be the Most Important Outcomes for Effectiveness Studies on Migraine Treatment? Results of a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Smelt, Antonia F. H.; Louter, Mark A.; Kies, Dennis A.; Blom, Jeanet W.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van der Heijden, Geert J. M. G.; De Gucht, Véronique; Ferrari, Michel D.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The outcome measures most frequently used in studies on the effectiveness of migraine treatment are whether the patient is free of pain, nausea, and free of photophobia/phonophobia within two hours. However, no patient-centred outcome measures are available. Therefore, we performed an online Delphi procedure to compile a list of outcome measures deemed most important to migraine patients. Methods From a large database of migraine patients, we randomly selected 150 males and 150 females patients. We asked the open-ended question: ‘If a new medicine was developed for migraine attacks, what would you wish the effect of this medication to be?’ In the second and third rounds, we presented the answers of the first round and asked the patients to rate the importance of each item. Results The initial response rate was 56% (n?=?169). In the subsequent rounds the response rates were 90% (n?=?152), and 97% (n?=?147), respectively. Patients wanted their attack medication to treat the headache within 30 min, to prevent the attack from getting worse, to ensure they could function properly within 1 h, and prevent the recurrence of symptoms during the same day. Conclusions The currently used outcome measures in migraine research do not sufficiently reflect the wishes of patients. Patients want the medication to work faster, to take away pain at an earlier stage, to make them able to function properly quickly, and to prevent recurrence. These aspects should be considered in future evaluation of new attack medication for migraine. PMID:24932784

  10. Systematic literature review of patient-reported outcome measures used in assessment and measurement of sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Garrow, Adam P; Yorke, Janelle; Khan, Naimat; Vestbo, Jűrgen; Singh, Dave; Tyson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep problems are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the validity of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that measure sleep dysfunction has not been evaluated. We have reviewed the literature to identify disease-specific and non-disease-specific sleep PROMs that have been validated for use in COPD patients. The review also examined the psychometric properties of identified sleep outcome measures and extracted point and variability estimates of sleep instruments used in COPD studies. Methods The online EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases for all years to May 2014 were used to source articles for the review. The review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Criteria from the Medical Outcomes Trust Scientific Advisory Committee guidelines were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of all sleep PROMs identified. Results One COPD-specific and six non-COPD-specific sleep outcome measures were identified and 44 papers met the review selection criteria. We only identified one instrument, the COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale, which was developed specifically for use in COPD populations. Ninety percent of the identified studies used one of two non-disease-specific sleep scales, ie, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and/or the Epworth Sleep Scale, although neither has been tested for reliability or validity in people with COPD. Conclusion The results highlight a need for existing non-disease-specific instruments to be validated in COPD populations and also a need for new disease-specific measures to assess the impact of sleep problems in COPD. PMID:25709424

  11. Use of an electronic patient-reported outcome measurement system to improve distress management in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Rowe, Krista; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Management of patient distress is a critical task in cancer nursing and cancer practice. Here we describe two examples of how an electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) measurement system implemented into routine oncology care can practically aid clinical and research tasks related to distress management. Methods Tablet personal computers were used to routinely complete a standardized ePRO review of systems surveys at point of care during every encounter in the Duke Oncology outpatient clinics. Two cases of use implementation are explored: (1) triaging distressed patients for optimal care, and (2) psychosocial program evaluation research. Results Between 2009 and 2011, the ePRO system was used to collect information during 17,338 Duke Oncology patient encounters. The system was used to monitor patients for psychosocial distress employing an electronic clinical decision support algorithm, with 1,952 (11.3%) referrals generated for supportive services. The system was utilized to examine the efficacy of a psychosocial care intervention documenting statistically significant improvements in distress, despair, fatigue, and quality of life (QOL) in 50 breast cancer patients. Significance of results ePRO solutions can guide best practice management of cancer patient distress. Nurses play a key role in implementation and utilization. PMID:24128592

  12. Measurement of the Outcome of Learning: Health Care Performance Measurement and Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Geoffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) must demonstrate its effect on the quality of health care. Performance measurement methods, such as public report cards, are gaining strength. CME providers should link timing and content of their offerings with performance measures. (SK)

  13. The case for an international patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMISź) initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role in clinical practice and research. Modern psychometric methods such as item response theory (IRT) enable the creation of item banks that support fixed-length forms as well as computerized adaptive testing (CAT), often resulting in improved measurement precision and responsiveness. Here we describe and discuss the case for developing an international core set of PROs building from the US PROMISź network. PROMIS is a U.S.-based cooperative group of research sites and centers of excellence convened to develop and standardize PRO measures across studies and settings. If extended to a global collaboration, PROMIS has the potential to transform PRO measurement by creating a shared, unifying terminology and metric for reporting of common symptoms and functional life domains. Extending a common set of standardized PRO measures to the international community offers great potential for improving patient-centered research, clinical trials reporting, population monitoring, and health care worldwide. Benefits of such standardization include the possibility of: international syntheses (such as meta-analyses) of research findings; international population monitoring and policy development; health services administrators and planners access to relevant information on the populations they serve; better assessment and monitoring of patients by providers; and improved shared decision making. The goal of the current PROMIS International initiative is to ensure that item banks are translated and culturally adapted for use in adults and children in as many countries as possible. The process includes 3 key steps: translation/cultural adaptation, calibration, and validation. A universal translation, an approach focusing on commonalities, rather than differences across versions developed in regions or countries speaking the same language, is proposed to ensure conceptual equivalence for all items. International item calibration using nationally representative samples of adults and children within countries is essential to demonstrate that all items possess expected strong measurement properties. Finally, it is important to demonstrate that the PROMIS measures are valid, reliable and responsive to change when used in an international context. IRT item banking will allow for tailoring within countries and facilitate growth and evolution of PROs through contributions from the international measurement community. A number of opportunities and challenges of international development of PROs item banks are discussed. PMID:24359143

  14. Reporting outcome measures of functional constipation in children from 0 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M

    2015-04-01

    Functional constipation (FC) often begins in the first year of life. Although standard definitions and criteria have been formulated to describe FC, these are rarely used in research and clinical practice. The aim of the study is to systematically assess how definitions and outcome measures are defined in therapeutic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of infants with FC. PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched. Studies were included if it was a (systematic review of) therapeutic RCT, children ?4 years old, they had FC, a clear definition of constipation was provided, and were written in English. Quality was assessed using the Delphi list. A total of 1115 articles were found; only 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four different definitions were used, of which only 2 used the internationally accepted Rome III criteria. Defecation frequency was used as primary outcome in all included trials and stool consistency in 3 trials. Two trials involving infants investigated new infant formulas, whereas the third RCT evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic strain. The 2 trials including infants up to 4 years of age compared polyethylene glycol without electrolytes (PEG4000) with lactulose and milk of magnesia. All of the trials used nonvalidated parental diaries. Different definitions and outcome measures for FC in infants are used in RCTs. Disappointingly, there is a lack of well-designed therapeutic trials in infants with constipation. To make comparison between future trials possible, standard definitions, core outcomes, and validated instruments are needed. PMID:25406527

  15. Assessment of outcome in patients undergoing surgery for intradural spinal tumor using the multidimensional patient-rated Core Outcome Measures Index and the modified McCormick Scale.

    PubMed

    Bellut, David; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Mannion, Anne F; Porchet, François

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome in patients undergoing surgical treatment for intradural spinal tumor using a patient-oriented, self-rated, outcome instrument and a physician-based disease-specific instrument. METHODS Prospectively collected data from 63 patients with intradural spinal tumor were analyzed in relation to scores on the multidimensional patient-rated Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) and the physician-rated modified McCormick Scale, before and at 3 and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference between the scores on the modified McCormick Scale preoperatively and at the 3-month follow-up, though there was a trend for improvement (p = 0.073); however, comparisons between the scores determined preoperatively and at the 12-month follow-up, as well as 3- versus 12-month follow-ups, showed a statistically significant improvement in each case (p < 0.004). The COMI scores for axial pain, peripheral pain, and back-related function showed a significant reduction (p < 0.001) from before surgery to 3 months after surgery, and thereafter showed no further change (p > 0.05) up to 12 months postoperatively. In contrast, the overall COMI score, "worst pain," quality of life, and social disability not only showed a significant reduction from before surgery to 3 months after surgery (p < 0.001), but also a further significant reduction up to 12 months postoperatively (p < 0.001). The scores for work disability showed no significant improvement from before surgery to the 3-month follow-up (p > 0.05), but did show a significant improvement (p = 0.011) from 3 months to 12 months after surgery. At the 3- and 12-month follow-ups, 85.2% and 83.9% of patients, respectively, declared that the surgical procedure had helped/helped a lot; 95.1% and 95.2%, respectively, declared that they were satisfied/very satisfied with their care. CONCLUSIONS COMI is a feasible tool to use in the evaluation of baseline symptoms and outcome in patients undergoing surgery for intradural spinal tumor. COMI was able to detect changes in outcome at 3 months after surgery (before changes were apparent on the modified McCormick Scale) and on later postoperative follow-up. The COMI subdomains are valuable for monitoring the patient's reintegration into society and the work environment. The addition of an item that specifically covers neurological deficits may further increase the value of COMI in patients with spinal tumors. PMID:26235018

  16. Recommendations for a Core Outcome Set for Measuring Standing Balance in Adult Populations: A Consensus-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Kathryn M.; Howe, Tracey; Lamb, Sarah E.; Lord, Stephen R.; Maki, Brian E.; Rose, Debra J.; Scott, Vicky; Stathokostas, Liza; Straus, Sharon E.; Jaglal, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing balance is imperative for mobility and avoiding falls. Use of an excessive number of standing balance measures has limited the synthesis of balance intervention data and hampered consistent clinical practice. Objective To develop recommendations for a core outcome set (COS) of standing balance measures for research and practice among adults. Methodology A combination of scoping reviews, literature appraisal, anonymous voting and face-to-face meetings with fourteen invited experts from a range of disciplines with international recognition in balance measurement and falls prevention. Consensus was sought over three rounds using pre-established criteria. Data sources The scoping review identified 56 existing standing balance measures validated in adult populations with evidence of use in the past five years, and these were considered for inclusion in the COS. Results Fifteen measures were excluded after the first round of scoring and a further 36 after round two. Five measures were considered in round three. Two measures reached consensus for recommendation, and the expert panel recommended that at a minimum, either the Berg Balance Scale or Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test be used when measuring standing balance in adult populations. Limitations Inclusion of two measures in the COS may increase the feasibility of potential uptake, but poses challenges for data synthesis. Adoption of the standing balance COS does not constitute a comprehensive balance assessment for any population, and users should include additional validated measures as appropriate. Conclusions The absence of a gold standard for measuring standing balance has contributed to the proliferation of outcome measures. These recommendations represent an important first step towards greater standardization in the assessment and measurement of this critical skill and will inform clinical research and practice internationally. PMID:25768435

  17. Breast Reduction versus Breast Reduction Plus Implants: A Comparative Study with Measurements and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast reduction is well-known to provide an improvement in physical symptoms. However, measurements show that this procedure is less effective in restoring upper-pole fullness. Breast implants effectively augment the upper pole. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness and safety of this treatment combination. Methods: This retrospective study consists of 3 parts: (1) a clinical study, (2) breast measurements, and (3) an outcome study. Eighty consecutive women undergoing breast reduction (n = 56) or breast reduction plus implants (n = 24) were evaluated. All breast implants were inserted submuscularly. All patients were treated with the same vertical reduction technique, using a medially based pedicle and intraoperative nipple positioning. Measurements were compared between preoperative photographs and photographs taken at least 3 months after surgery (n = 51). Patient surveys (n= 56) were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference in complication or reoperation rates between groups. Both procedures elevated the breast mound and lower-pole level and increased the breast parenchymal ratio (upper-pole area/lower-pole area). Breast implants significantly increased upper-pole projection (P < 0.01). All surveyed patients who had simultaneous implants reported that they were pleased with their decision. Physical symptoms were reduced in both groups. Patient satisfaction was 92.5% for breast reduction and 93.8% for breast reduction plus implants. Both groups reported an improvement in quality of life. Conclusions: Vertical breast reduction with a medial pedicle may be combined safely and effectively with breast implants in patients who desire upper-pole fullness. PMID:25587515

  18. Infection in home health care: Results from national Outcome and Assessment Information Set data

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jingjing; Larson, Elaine; Liu, Jianfang; Stone, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients in home health care (HHC), the fastest growing health care sector, are at risk for infection. The existing research on infection in HHC is often limited by small sample sizes, local scope of inquiry, and a lack of current data. There is no national study examining agency-level infection rates. Methods This secondary data analysis used a 20% random sample of the 2010 national Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) data. An infection case was identified when the HHC patient was hospitalized or received emergency care for respiratory infection, urinary tract infection, intravenous catheter-related infection, wound infection, or deterioration. Proportions of infection cases out of the total number of patients were calculated for the whole sample and for each HHC agency. Results The final analysis included 199,462 patients from 8,255 HHC agencies. Approximately 3.5% of patients developed infections during their HHC stay, leading to emergency care treatment or hospitalization. Seventeen percent of unplanned hospitalizations among HHC patients were caused by infections. The agency-level infection rate ranged from 0%–34%, with an average of 3.5%. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the proportion of hospitalizations or emergency care treatment caused by infection in HHC and the agency-level infection rate at a national level by using OASIS data. These data demonstrate that infection is a serious problem in HHC, and infection rates varied between agencies. The variance in agency level rates may be caused by differences in infection control policies and practices. Better infection surveillance system in HHC is needed to benchmark quality of care. PMID:25681302

  19. Comparison of measures to assess outcomes in total hip replacement surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, J; Fitzpatrick, R; Murray, D; Carr, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the performance of a disease specific and a general health questionnaire in assessing changes resulting from total hip replacement. DESIGN--Two stage prospective study of patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery involving an assessment at a clinic before and six months after surgery. 60(32%) patients were followed up by post. SETTING--Outpatient departments at a specialist orthopaedic hospital and peripheral clinics within Oxfordshire. PATIENTS--188 patients admitted for unilateral total hip replacement between February and mid-August 1994. MAIN MEASURES--Patients' self assessed scores with the 12 item Oxford hip score and SF-36 general health questionnaire together with surgeons' assessment with Charnley hip score obtained before and again at six months after surgery. RESULTS--186 patients were followed up six months after total hip replacement; a subsample (n=60) by post. Of the 60 postal patients, 59(98.3%) fully completed the Oxford hip score compared with 44(73.3%) who fully completed the SF-36. For the followup sample as a whole, post operative changes in scores produced a large effect size of 2.75 on the Oxford hip score, compared with -1.89 physical function (SF-36), -2.13 pain (SF-36). With the exception of physical function and role (physical), postoperative SF-36 scores were shown to be similar to or better than those found by two population surveys on patients of comparable age. The responsiveness of a disease specific questionnaire, the Oxford hip score, and relevant sections of a general questionnaire, SF-36, were found to be similar as assessed by three different criteria. CONCLUSIONS--A disease specific questionnaire, the Oxford hip score, and a general state of health questionnaire, SF-36, performed similarly in assessing outcomes of total hip replacement except that the disease specific questionnaire resulted in a higher completion rate and greater responsiveness in some sections. On the other hand the general health questionnaire drew attention to broader problems of physical function not considered by the Oxford hip score. The health questionnaires examined here offer a valid and practical means of monitoring outcomes of hip replacement surgery. PMID:10158596

  20. The Adjective Check List as an outcome measure: assessment of personality change in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Itzhar-Nabarro, Zohar; Silberschatz, George; Curtis, John T

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the value of the Adjective Check List (ACL) as a psychotherapy outcome measure, the ACL and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were administered at four times (before therapy, immediately after therapy, and at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups) to 38 patients in brief dynamic psychotherapy. High correlations between selected ACL scales and SCL-90-R Global Severity Index scores (GSI) were found. GSI change from before to after therapy correlated with change on the ACL scales. Changes from before to after therapy were detected for ACL scales at both the mean group and the individual levels. Because the ACL provides valuable information on personality dimensions as well as concurrent levels of distress, it is a particularly promising psychotherapy outcome measure. PMID:19606389

  1. Methods and results of boundary layer measurements on a glider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nes, W. V.

    1978-01-01

    Boundary layer measurements were carried out on a glider under natural conditions. Two effects are investigated: the effect of inconstancy of the development of static pressure within the boundary layer and the effect of the negative pressure difference in a sublaminar boundary layer. The results obtained by means of an ion probe in parallel connection confirm those results obtained by means of a pressure probe. Additional effects which have occurred during these measurements are briefly dealt with.

  2. Development and Validation of a Multifactorial Treatment Outcome Measure for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Drew A.; Williamson, Donald A.; Duchmann, Erich G.; Gleaves, David H.; Barbin, Jane M.

    1999-01-01

    Developed a brief self-report inventory to evaluate treatment outcome for anorexia and bulimia nervosa, the Multifactorial Assessment of Eating Disorders, and evaluated the instrument in a series of studies involving 1,054 women. Results support a stable factor structure and satisfactory reliability and validity, and establish normative data. (SLD)

  3. Dissociation between Judgments and Outcome-Expectancy Measures in Covariation Learning: A Signal Detection Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perales, Jose C.; Catena, Andres; Shanks, David R.; Gonzalez, Jose A.

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies using trial-by-trial learning tasks have shown that judgments of covariation between a cue c and an outcome o deviate from normative metrics. Parameters based on trial-by-trial predictions were estimated from signal detection theory (SDT) in a standard causal learning task. Results showed that manipulations of P(c) when…

  4. Academic Outcome Measures of a Dedicated Education Unit Over Time: Help or Hinder?

    PubMed

    Smyer, Tish; Gatlin, Tricia; Tan, Rhigel; Tejada, Marianne; Feng, Du

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking, nursing process, quality and safety measures, and standardized RN exit examination scores were compared between students (n = 144) placed in a dedicated education unit (DEU) and those in a traditional clinical model. Standardized test scores showed that differences between the clinical groups were not statistically significant. This study shows that the DEU model is 1 approach to clinical education that can enhance students' academic outcomes. PMID:25997148

  5. The Ohio Scales Youth Form: Expansion and Validation of a Self-Report Outcome Measure for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, Kathy A.; Ogles, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the validity and reliability of a self-report outcome measure for children between the ages of 8 and 11. The Ohio Scales Problem Severity scale is a brief, practical outcome measure available in three parallel forms: Parent, Youth, and Agency Worker. The Youth Self-Report form is currently validated for children ages 12 and older. The


  6. Modifying the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Measure for Use with People Who Have a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Keith; Willoughby-Booth, Simon

    2007-01-01

    There are few reliable self-report measures suitable for people with a learning disability in reporting psychological distress. This study examines the modification of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), exploring its reliability, using two different presentation styles. One style included a sequencing task then…

  7. The Ohio Scales Youth Form: Expansion and Validation of a Self-Report Outcome Measure for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, Kathy A.; Ogles, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the validity and reliability of a self-report outcome measure for children between the ages of 8 and 11. The Ohio Scales Problem Severity scale is a brief, practical outcome measure available in three parallel forms: Parent, Youth, and Agency Worker. The Youth Self-Report form is currently validated for children ages 12 and older. The…

  8. Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie, Rory L. L.; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes when using a personal learning network is…

  9. Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie, Rory L. L.; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes when using a personal learning network is


  10. Relationship Between Upper Respiratory Tract Influenza Test Result and Clinical Outcomes Among Critically Ill Influenza Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Krishna P.; Bajwa, Ednan K.; Parker, Robert A.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2016-01-01

    Among critically ill patients with lower respiratory tract (LRT)-confirmed influenza, we retrospectively observed worse 28-day clinical outcomes in upper respiratory tract (URT)-negative versus URT-positive subjects. This finding may reflect disease progression and highlights the need for influenza testing of both URT and LRT specimens to improve diagnostic yield and possibly inform prognosis. PMID:26966696

  11. PBL-GIS in Secondary Geography Education: Does It Result in Higher-Order Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Bui, Elisabeth N.; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lossman, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research on evaluating problem-based learning using GIS technology in a Singapore secondary school. A quasi-experimental research design was carried to test the PBL pedagogy (PBL-GIS) with an experimental group of students and compare their learning outcomes with a control group who were exposed to PBL but not GIS. The…

  12. PBL-GIS in Secondary Geography Education: Does It Result in Higher-Order Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Bui, Elisabeth N.; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lossman, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research on evaluating problem-based learning using GIS technology in a Singapore secondary school. A quasi-experimental research design was carried to test the PBL pedagogy (PBL-GIS) with an experimental group of students and compare their learning outcomes with a control group who were exposed to PBL but not GIS. The


  13. Conceptualization and measurement of family outcomes associated with families of individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Ann P; Summers, Jean Ann; Lee, Suk-Hyang; Kyzar, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to (a) document the current status of conceptualizing and measuring family outcomes related to having a member with an intellectual disability and (b) determine the extent to which family research focuses on internal family characteristics as contrasted to external family support. The reviewers collected 28 articles using the terms well-being, adaptation, family functioning, or family quality of life in the title. Results of our analyses are presented as a comparison between well-being, adaptation, and family functioning articles in one group and family quality of life articles in a second group. Both groups lacked explicit conceptual definitions, theory, and random/representative samples. The articles placed an undue emphasis on maternal participation, and tended to report a single family member score as representative of the whole family. Two major differences between the groups was a tendency for family quality of life studies to be grounded in conceptual frameworks and focus on new instrument development. Recommendations for future research directions are included. PMID:17979209

  14. Air exchange effectiveness in office buildings: Measurement techniques and results

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.

    1992-07-01

    We define two air exchange effectiveness parameters which indicate the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement air flow in an entire building, the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern locally, and the normalized local age of air. After describing two tracer gas procedures for measuring these parameters, we discuss assumptions inherent in the data analysis that are often violated in large office buildings. To obtain valuable data, careful selection of buildings for measurements and assessments to determine if operating conditions are reasonably consistent with the assumptions are necessary. Multiple factors, in addition to the air flow pattern in the occupied space, can affect measurement results, consequently, the interpretation of measurements is not straightforward. We summarize the results of measurements in several office buildings and in a research laboratory. Almost all measurements indicate that the extent of both short circuiting and displacement flow is small. A moderate amount of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. Ages of air and their reciprocals (local ventilation rates) often vary substantially between rooms, probably because of room-to-room variation in the rate of air supply. For future research, we suggest assessments of measurement accuracy, development of measurement approaches that may be practically applied for a broader range of buildings, and a greater focus on pollutant removal efficiencies.

  15. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  16. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were


  17. Choosing the Best Newborn Anthropometric Measure Associated With the Risks and Outcomes of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Lei, XiaoPing; Zhang, YongJun; Fang, Fang; Wu, Ting; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with various prenatal risks and postnatal adverse outcomes. The aim of this study is to choose the most sensitive newborn anthropometric measure, which is closely associated with IUGR-related risks and outcomes, to substitute IUGR after delivery. Data were obtained from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multicenter prospective cohort study in the United States from 1959 to 1976. Maternal heavy smoking and severe hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, neonatal polycythemia and hypothermia, low intelligence quotient (<70) at age 7 years were chosen as IUGR-related risks and outcomes. Eight anthropometric measures at birth were tested by logistic regression model. Birth weight-to-head circumference (W/HC) had the largest odds ratio (OR) for neonatal polycythemia (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-2.0), severe hypertensive disorders (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.2), and maternal heavy smoking (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.7-2.1) during pregnancy. It also had the highest summary OR (9.3). Thus, W/HC may be a good measure for IUGR. PMID:25854788

  18. Blue Cone Monochromacy: Visual Function and Efficacy Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Iannaccone, Alessandro; Roman, Alejandro J.; Ditta, Lauren C.; Jennings, Barbara J.; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Sheplock, Rebecca; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Wissinger, Bernd; Kohl, Susanne; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blue Cone Monochromacy (BCM) is an X-linked retinopathy caused by mutations in the OPN1LW / OPN1MW gene cluster, encoding long (L)- and middle (M)-wavelength sensitive cone opsins. Recent evidence shows sufficient structural integrity of cone photoreceptors in BCM to warrant consideration of a gene therapy approach to the disease. In the present study, the vision in BCM is examined, specifically seeking clinically-feasible outcomes for a future clinical trial. Methods BCM patients (n = 25, ages 5–72) were studied with kinetic and static chromatic perimetry, full-field sensitivity testing, and eye movement recordings. Vision at the fovea and parafovea was probed with chromatic microperimetry. Results Kinetic fields with a Goldmann size V target were generally full. Short-wavelength (S-) sensitive cone function was normal or near normal in most patients. Light-adapted perimetry results on conventional background lights were abnormally reduced; 600-nm stimuli were seen by rods whereas white stimuli were seen by both rods and S-cones. Under dark-adapted conditions, 500-nm stimuli were seen by rods in both BCM and normals. Spectral sensitivity functions in the superior retina showed retained rod and S-cone functions in BCM under dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions. In the fovea, normal subjects showed L/M-cone mediation using a 650-nm stimulus under dark-adapted conditions, whereas BCM patients had reduced sensitivity driven by rod vision. Full-field red stimuli on bright blue backgrounds were seen by L/M-cones in normal subjects whereas BCM patients had abnormally reduced and rod-mediated sensitivities. Fixation location could vary from fovea to parafovea. Chromatic microperimetry demonstrated a large loss of sensitivity to red stimuli presented on a cyan adapting background at the anatomical fovea and surrounding parafovea. Conclusions BCM rods continue to signal vision under conditions normally associated with daylight vision. Localized and retina-wide outcome measures were examined to evaluate possible improvement of L/M-cone-based vision in a clinical trial. PMID:25909963

  19. Examining the Effects of Displaying Clicker Voting Results on High School Students' Voting Behaviors, Discussion Processes, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Li, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' clicking behaviors, discussion processes, learning outcomes, and a prominent feature of clicker systems--the whole class' response results aggregated by clickers in real time. The results indicate that, while teaching Newton's laws of motion, displaying the real-time responses of the whole…

  20. Examining the Effects of Displaying Clicker Voting Results on High School Students' Voting Behaviors, Discussion Processes, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Li, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' clicking behaviors, discussion processes, learning outcomes, and a prominent feature of clicker systems--the whole class' response results aggregated by clickers in real time. The results indicate that, while teaching Newton's laws of motion, displaying the real-time responses of the whole


  1. Preferred reporting items for studies mapping onto preference-based outcome measures: The MAPS statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-11-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. The primary audiences for the MAPS statement are researchers reporting mapping studies, the funders of the research, and peer reviewers and editors involved in assessing mapping studies for publication. A de novo list of 29 candidate reporting items and accompanying explanations was created by a working group comprised of six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. Following a two-round, modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, a final set of 23 items deemed essential for transparent reporting, and accompanying explanations, was developed. The items are contained in a user friendly 23 item checklist. They are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely: (i) title and abstract; (ii) introduction; (iii) methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion; and (vi) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by seven health economics and quality of life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in five years' time. PMID:26295698

  2. Preferred Reporting Items for Studies Mapping onto Preference-Based Outcome Measures: The MAPS Statement.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Dakin, Helen; Longworth, Louise; Oppe, Mark; Froud, Robert; Gray, Alastair

    2015-10-01

    'Mapping' onto generic preference-based outcome measures is increasingly being used as a means of generating health utilities for use within health economic evaluations. Despite the publication of technical guides for the conduct of mapping research, guidance for the reporting of mapping studies is currently lacking. The MAPS (MApping onto Preference-based measures reporting Standards) statement is a new checklist, which aims to promote complete and transparent reporting of mapping studies. The primary audiences for the MAPS statement are researchers reporting mapping studies, the funders of the research, and peer reviewers and editors involved in assessing mapping studies for publication. A de novo list of 29 candidate reporting items and accompanying explanations was created by a working group comprising six health economists and one Delphi methodologist. Following a two-round modified Delphi survey with representatives from academia, consultancy, health technology assessment agencies and the biomedical journal editorial community, a final set of 23 items deemed essential for transparent reporting, and accompanying explanations, was developed. The items are contained in a user-friendly 23-item checklist. They are presented numerically and categorised within six sections, namely: (1) title and abstract; (2) introduction; (3) methods; (4) results; (5) discussion; and (6) other. The MAPS statement is best applied in conjunction with the accompanying MAPS explanation and elaboration document. It is anticipated that the MAPS statement will improve the clarity, transparency and completeness of reporting of mapping studies. To facilitate dissemination and uptake, the MAPS statement is being co-published by seven health economics and quality-of-life journals, and broader endorsement is encouraged. The MAPS working group plans to assess the need for an update of the reporting checklist in 5 years' time. PMID:26232201

  3. Comparing hospitals that perform coronary artery bypass surgery: the effect of outcome measures and data sources.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, A J; Kuhn, E M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relative quality of hospital care often is judged by comparing risk-adjusted rates of adverse outcomes. This study evaluated whether hospital quality comparisons are affected by the choice of outcome and the use of administrative data instead of clinical data. METHODS. The data were collected from 2687 coronary artery bypass surgery patients from 17 hospitals. All patients were on Medicare. For 10 hospitals with 94 to 713 patients, risk-adjusted outcomes for death, major complications, and any complications were derived from a clinically rich database and an administrative database. RESULTS. The correlations between adjusted hospital rankings derived from the clinical and administrative databases were not significant: .48 for mortality, .21 for major complications, and -.14 for any complication. When only the clinical database was used, the correlation between risk-adjusted hospital rankings for mortality and major complications was .77 (P < .01) and the correlation between major complications and any complication was -.45. CONCLUSIONS. These results suggest assessing quality of care by the use of administrative data may not be adequate and that quality assessment by the use of clinical data may depend greatly on the outcome chosen. PMID:7943479

  4. Multicenter Analysis of Immune Biomarkers and Heart Transplant Outcomes: Results of the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-05 Study.

    PubMed

    Starling, R C; Stehlik, J; Baran, D A; Armstrong, B; Stone, J R; Ikle, D; Morrison, Y; Bridges, N D; Putheti, P; Strom, T B; Bhasin, M; Guleria, I; Chandraker, A; Sayegh, M; Daly, K P; Briscoe, D M; Heeger, P S

    2016-01-01

    Identification of biomarkers that assess posttransplant risk is needed to improve long-term outcomes following heart transplantation. The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT)-05 protocol was an observational, multicenter, cohort study of 200 heart transplant recipients followed for the first posttransplant year. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, graft loss/retransplantation, biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) as defined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We serially measured anti-HLA- and auto-antibodies, angiogenic proteins, peripheral blood allo-reactivity, and peripheral blood gene expression patterns. We correlated assay results and clinical characteristics with the composite endpoint and its components. The composite endpoint was associated with older donor allografts (p?results of this multicenter study do not yet support routine use of the selected assays as noninvasive approaches to detect BPAR and/or CAV following heart transplantation. PMID:26260101

  5. Surgical versus Non-Operative Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation: Four-Year Results for the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Blood, Emily; Abdu, William A.; Herkowitz, Harry; Hilibrand, Alan; Albert, Todd; Fischgrund, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Concurrent prospective randomized and observational cohort study. Objectives To assess the 4-year outcomes of surgery vs. non-operative care. Background Although randomized trials have demonstrated small short-term differences in favor of surgery, long-term outcomes comparing surgical to non-operative treatment remain controversial. Methods Surgical candidates with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disc herniation meeting SPORT eligibility criteria enrolled into prospective randomized (501 participants) and observational cohorts (743 participants) at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Interventions were standard open discectomy versus usual non-operative care. Main outcome measures were changes from baseline in the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI - AAOS/Modems version) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and annually thereafter. Results Non-adherence to treatment assignment caused the intent-to-treat analyses to underestimate the treatment effects. In the 4-year combined as-treated analysis, those receiving surgery demonstrated significantly greater improvement in all the primary outcome measures (mean change Surgery vs. Non-operative; treatment effect; 95% CI): BP (45.6 vs. 30.7; 15.0; 11.8 to 18.1), PF (44.6 vs. 29.7; 14.9; 12.0 to 17.8) and ODI (?38.1 vs. ?24.9; ?13.2; ?15.6 to ?10.9). The percent working was similar between the surgery and non-operative groups, 84.4% vs. 78.4% respectively. Conclusion In a combined as-treated analysis at 4 years, patients who underwent surgery for a lumbar disc herniation achieved greater improvement than non-operatively treated patients in all primary and secondary outcomes except work status. Trial Registration Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): Intervertebral Disc Herniation; #NCT00000410; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00000410?order=2 PMID:19018250

  6. Measuring the outcomes and pharmacoeconomic consequences of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in major orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sean D; Kahn, Susan R; Davidson, Bruce L; Borris, Lars; Bossuyt, Patrick; Raskob, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Patients who have undergone orthopaedic surgery represent a high-risk group for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite the routine prophylactic use of antithrombotic agents, patients still experience thrombotic events that can result in mortality and acute morbidity and, in significant numbers of patients, may lead to long-term consequences such as the post-thrombotic syndrome. Increasingly, initial VTE events occur after hospital discharge since the length of stay in hospital after major orthopaedic surgery has decreased in many countries. There is a need for further improvement in the prevention of VTE. As well as undergoing extensive safety and efficacy studies for registration purposes, new prophylactic strategies need to be evaluated from a pharmacoeconomic perspective to help guide their introduction into routine clinical practice. Over the past 15 years a number of pharmacoeconomic evaluation studies of VTE prophylaxis have been carried out in orthopaedic patients, most of which evaluated short-term clinical endpoints. During the same period, improvements in our understanding of the natural history of VTE as well as the emergence of new treatments have led to changes in the management of patients with, or at risk of, VTE. The aim of this paper was to address how best to conduct pharmacoeconomic analyses of new antithrombotic agents in light of changes in practice patterns for orthopaedic patients and greater understanding of the disease process. We put forward recommendations for relevant outcome measures, timeframes, endpoints and epidemiologic data sources. We also suggest a structure for a pharmacoeconomic model. In this model, the outcomes and costs of VTE-related care during both the acute and chronic phases of the disease are incorporated. Symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, recurrent VTE, post-thrombotic syndrome, major hemorrhage and all-cause death are included. We also recommend that the relevance of quality-adjusted survival is investigated, and that economic appraisals are presented in both cost-consequence and budget-impact approaches. These recommendations are based on extensive examination of recent advances in the management of VTE combined with a greater understanding of its natural history. PMID:12696988

  7. Recent results from tokamak divertor plasma measurements (invited) (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    New diagnostics have been developed to address key divertor physics questions, including: target plate heat flux reduction by radiation, basic edge transport issues, and plasma wall interactions (PWIs) such as erosion. A system of diagnostics measures the target plate heat flux (imaging ir thermography) and particle flux (probes, pressure and Penning gauges, and visible emission arrays). Recently, Te, ne, and Pe (electron pressure) have been measured in two-dimensions (2D) with divertor Thomson Scattering. During radiative divertor operation Te is less than 2 eV, indicating that new atomic processes are important. Langmuir probes measure higher Te in some cases. In addition, the measured Pe near the separatrix at the target plate is lower than the midplane pressure, implying radial momentum transport. Bolometer arrays, inverted with reconstruction algorithms, provide the two-dimensional core and divertor radiation profiles. Spectroscopic measurements identify the radiating species and provide information on impurity transport; both absolute chordal measurements and tomographic reconstructions of images are used. Either intrinsic carbon or an inert species (e.g., injected Ne) are usually observed, and absolute particle inventories are obtained. Computer codes are both benchmarked with the experimental data and provide important consistency checks. Several techniques are used to measure fundamental plasma transport and fluctuations, including probes and reflectometry. PWI issues are studied with in situ coupons and insertable samples (DiMES). Representative divertor results from DIII-D with references to results on other tokamaks will be presented.

  8. Strategies for assessment and outcome measurement in physical and rehabilitation medicine: an educational review.

    PubMed

    Küçükdeveci, Ay?e A; Tennant, Alan; Grimby, Gunnar; Franchignoni, Franco

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this educational review, which is based upon expert opinion, is to describe to clinicians training in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine and research students training to work in the field, the appropriate attributes and standards required for assessment and outcome measurement. "What to assess" is discussed in the context of the conceptual framework provided by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, supplemented with quality of life as an additional construct. The reasons for making the assessment, and the context in which the assessment will be used, are then considered. Examples of recommendations of some international organizations regarding what and how to assess are presented. Suggestions are made about the selection of assessment tools, including examples from two diagnostic groups: stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, the basic psychometric standards required for any assessment tool, and additional requirements for outcome assessment, are explained. PMID:21687922

  9. Assessment of Aging Individuals with Down Syndrome in Clinical Trials: Results of Baseline Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul S.; Dalton, Arthur J.; Andrews, Howard F.; Tsai, Wei-Yann

    2005-01-01

    A major challenge to developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive loss and dementia in aging individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is the selection of appropriate outcome measures. This report describes the adaptation of the Brief Praxis Test (a nonverbal cognitive test) as a primary outcome measure, as well as the selection of secondary…

  10. Increased Trauma Center Volume Is Associated With Improved Survival After Severe Injury: Results of a Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Minei, Joseph P.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Guffey, Danielle M.; Newgard, Craig D.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Brasel, Karen J.; Sperry, Jason L.; MacDonald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract OBJECTIVE The Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) is a network of 11 centers and 60 hospitals conducting emergency care research. For many procedures, high volume centers demonstrate superior outcomes versus low volume centers. This remains controversial for trauma center outcomes. This study investigated the relationship of trauma center volume on outcome. METHODS This study was a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the ROC multicenter out-of-hospital Hypertonic Saline Trial in patients with GCS ≀ 8 (traumatic brain injury [TBI]) or SBP ≀ 90 and pulse ≄ 110 (shock). Regression analyses evaluated associations between trauma volume and the following outcomes: 24 hour mortality, 28 day mortality, ventilator free days (VFD), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Scale (MODS) incidence, worst MODS score, and poor 6 month Glasgow outcome scale extended. RESULTS 2070 patients were analyzed: 1251 in the TBI cohort and 819 in the shock cohort. Overall, 24-hour and 28-day mortality were 16% and 25%, respectively. For every increase of 500 trauma center admissions, there was a 7% decreased odds of both 24-hour and 28-day mortalities for all patients. As trauma center volume increased, non-organ dysfunction complications increased, VFD increased and worst MODS score decreased. The associations with higher trauma center volume were similar for the TBI cohort, including better neurologic outcomes at 6 months, but not for the shock cohort. CONCLUSIONS Increased trauma center volume was associated with increased survival, more ventilator free days and less severe organ failure. Trauma system planning and implementation should avoid unnecessary duplication of services. PMID:25115421

  11. Measuring patient-reported outcomes: moving beyond misplaced common sense to hard science

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the patient's views of his or her illness and treatment has increased dramatically. However, our ability to appropriately measure such issues lags far behind the level of interest and need. Too often such measurement is considered to be a simple and trivial activity that merely requires the application of common sense. However, good quality measurement of patient-reported outcomes is a complex activity requiring considerable expertise and experience. This review considers the most important issues related to such measurement in the context of chronic disease and details how instruments should be developed, validated and adapted for use in additional languages. While there is often consensus on how best to undertake these activities, there is generally little evidence to support such accord. The present article questions these orthodox views and suggests alternative approaches that have been shown to be effective. PMID:21756344

  12. Item Banks for Measuring Emotional Distress From the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMISź): Depression, Anxiety, and Anger

    PubMed Central

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMISź). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and cognitive interviewing), 168 items (56 for each construct) were written in a first person, past tense format with a 7-day time frame and five response options reflecting frequency. The calibration sample included nearly 15,000 respondents. Final banks of 28, 29, and 29 items were calibrated for depression, anxiety, and anger, respectively, using item response theory. Test information curves showed that the PROMIS item banks provided more information than conventional measures in a range of severity from approximately ?1 to +3 standard deviations (with higher scores indicating greater distress). Short forms consisting of seven to eight items provided information comparable to legacy measures containing more items. PMID:21697139

  13. Outcomes of a Mobile Health Coaching Platform: 12-Week Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James K

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of mobile health coaching applications is expanding at a rapid rate. An application that uses a guiding intelligence to deliver an individualized structured program has the potential to provide a significant benefit. However, there are few studies of this approach that examine multiple clinical outcomes in a longitudinal manner. Objective The objective of the study was to conduct a 12-week evaluation of participants using the YouPlus Health mobile coaching platform, specifically examining the effects on body weight, waist measurement, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycohemoglobin (A1C), and maximum volume of oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Methods A quasi-experimental research design was used. This included a single-arm pre and post intervention assessment of outcomes. Participants underwent a 12-week intervention in which they received the entirety of the mobile health coaching program via an application on their mobile phones and were evaluated in the same physician’s office setting every two weeks. Data regarding app usage was continuously collected and maintained in a database. Results 10 subjects were enrolled in and completed the pilot study. The mean weight loss was 13.5 lbs. which represented 7.3% of baseline (P=.005). Mean waist circumference was reduced by 7.2 cm or 6.6% of baseline (P=.005). Both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure measures were significantly lower after 12 weeks of intervention. Mean SBP fell 18.6 mmHg (P=.005) and mean DBP declined 6.4 mmHg (P=.005). VO2 max increased by an average of 3.13 ml/kg/min from baseline to study end (P=.005). From baseline to end-of-study HDL levels increased significantly by 4.0 mg/dL (P=.04) Total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and glycohemoglobin (A1C) trended in the desired direction but did not meet statistical significance. All of the participants in the study completed the necessary in-app tutorials and also completed the in-app questions and received feedback. Every individual completed the appropriate amount of program levels necessary to give the specifics of the program, and the mean weekly app open rate ranged from 5.1 to 18.4. Conclusions Users of the YouPlus Health mobile coaching platform experienced significant reductions in body weight, waist circumference, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, while attaining significant increases in HDL and VO2 Max. PMID:26747611

  14. Pathways to Results: How Practitioners Address Student Access, Outcomes, and Equity in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickel, Jessica; Bragg, Debra D.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when the nation is focusing so much attention on college completion, what do we know about how students are completing their community college programs? Does the open-access mission of community colleges translate into equitable outcomes? Pathways to Results (PTR) engages practitioners in using data to close equity gaps for student


  15. Pathways to Results: How Practitioners Address Student Access, Outcomes, and Equity in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickel, Jessica; Bragg, Debra D.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when the nation is focusing so much attention on college completion, what do we know about how students are completing their community college programs? Does the open-access mission of community colleges translate into equitable outcomes? Pathways to Results (PTR) engages practitioners in using data to close equity gaps for student…

  16. Financial Health of the Higher Education Sector: Financial Results and TRAC Outcomes 2013-14. Issues Paper 2015/07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the financial health of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE)-funded higher education sector in England. The analysis covers financial results for the academic year 2013-14, as submitted to HEFCE in December 2014, as well as the outcomes from the sector's Transparent Approach to Costing (TRAC)…

  17. Outcome Results from "Yo Veo": A Visual Intervention for Teachers Working with Immigrant Latino/Latina Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Mimi V.; Hall, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study reports results from the outcome evaluation of "Yo Veo," a visual intervention with schoolteachers, which structures conversations about challenges that teachers face teaching Latino/Latina immigrant students. Method: The intervention was delivered to teachers at two middle schools in the southeastern United States,


  18. Preliminary results of ground reflectivity measurements using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma?likowski, ?ukasz; Krysik, Piotr; D?browska-Zieli?ska, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Wanda; Bartold, Maciej

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes experimental L-band ground reflectivity measurement using noise radar demonstrator working as a scatterometer. The radar ground return is usually described with a scattering coefficient, a quantity that is independent from the scatterometer system. To calculate the coefficient in a function of incidence angle, range profile values obtained after range compression were used. In order to improve dynamic range of the measurement, antenna cross-path interference was removed using lattice filter. The ground return was measured at L band both for HH and VV polarizations of radar wave as well as for HV and VH crosspolarizations using log-periodic antennas placed at a 10 m high mast directed towards a meadow surface. In the paper the theoretical considerations, noise radar setup, measurement campaign and the results are described.

  19. Validating English- and Spanish-language patient-reported outcome measures in underserved patients with rheumatic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic diseases are among the most common and debilitating health problems in the United States. These diseases are chronic, can result in severe decrements of physical and psychosocial functioning and affect patients' overall quality of life. A consensus regarding the best patient outcomes to be measured in randomized, controlled trials and prospective natural history studies is essential to provide best estimates of efficacy and safety of interventions across diverse patient populations. Methods Face-to-face English- and Spanish-language cognitive interviews were conducted among urban Hispanic and African American patients with rheumatic disease to develop a questionnaire booklet. Six measures validating patient-reported outcomes were included: the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, the Short Acculturation Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Inventory of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practices. A sample of patients (n = 15) attending the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Community Health Center participated in the initial interviews. Revised measures were further tested for reliability in a separate sample of patients (n = 109) upon enrollment at the health center. Results Cognitive interviews provided feedback for questionnaire modifications and methods to enhance content validity and data quality, including discarding redundant questions, providing visual aids and concrete examples when appropriate and increasing the use of racially and ethnically concordant interviewers. The cognitive interviews further elucidated that some contextual assumptions and language usage in the original questionnaires may not have taken each respondent's environmental and sociocultural context into consideration. Internal reliability for previously tested measures remained high (Cronbach's ? = 0.87-0.94). Conclusions Cognitive interviewing techniques are useful in a diverse sample of racial and ethnic minority patients with rheumatic disease as a method to assess the content validity of the specific outcome measures selected. The data collection approaches and methods described here ultimately enhance data quality. Vigilance is required in the selection of outcome measures in studies or in practice, particularly with each new language translation and/or culturally unique or diverse sample. PMID:21208400

  20. Does Previous Hip Surgery Effect the Outcome of Tönnis Triple Periacetabular Osteotomy? Mid-Term Results.

    PubMed

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Aydn, Bahattin Kerem; Yldrm, Timur; Sofu, Hakan; GĂŒrsu, Sarper

    2016-03-01

    Hip dysplasia (HD) is 1 of the major reasons of coxarthrosis. The goal of the treatment of HD by Tönnis triple pelvic osteotomy (TPAO) is to improve the function of hip joint while relieving pain, delaying and possibly preventing end-stage arthritis. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical and radiological results of TPAO to determine if previous surgery has a negative effect on TPAO.Patients operated with TPAO between 2005 and 2010, included in this study. Patients divided into 2 groups: primary acetabular dysplasia (PAD) and residual acetabular dysplasia (RAD). Prepostoperatively, hip range of motion, Harris hip score (HHS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) hip score, visual analog scores (VAS), impingement tests, and also the presence of Trendelenburg sign (TS) were investigated for clinical evaluation. For radiological analysis pre-postoperative, anterior-posterior (AP) pelvis and faux profile radiographs were used. Acetabular index, lateral center edge (LCE) angle, and Sharp angles were measured by AP pelvis; anterior center edge (ACE) angle were measured by faux profile radiography. All the clinical and radiological data of the groups were analyzed separately for the pre-postoperative scores also the amount of improvement in all parameters were analyzed.SPSS20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis. Wilcoxon test, McNemar test, paired t tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the groups. P < 0.05 were defined as statistically significant.Study included 27 patients: 17 patients were in PAD and 10 patients were in RAD. The mean follow-up period was 6.2 years (5.2-10.3 years). In all patients, the radiological and the clinical outcomes were better after TPAO except the flexion of the hip parameter. When the patient groups were evaluated as pre-postoperatively, more statistically significant parameters were found in the PAD group when compared with RAD group. Extension, impingement, TS, VAS, HHS, WOMAC score parameters in clinical outcome and LCE, ACE, Sharp angle, coverage ratio in radiological results were significantly better in PAD group postoperatively but in RAD group; only extension, VAS, HHS, and WOMAC parameters were clinically and LCE and Coverage ratio were significantly different compared with the preoperative measurements. The change of the parameters that used for the evaluation of clinical and radiological results did not show a significant difference between groups.Our data suggest that TPAO can be performed on patients with HD for both groups. Although there were fewer parameters which changed significantly after TPAO in RAD patients; the improvement of radiological and clinical results was similar for groups. Further long-term follow-up studies with large number of patients are needed to determine the proper results of TPAO. PMID:26962829

  1. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately. Methods From a database of patient interviews (n = 177) from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation. Results The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format, in which each line was anchored by the positive and negative extremes relevant to the experiential domain. Because of frequent informant allusions to response set shifts from before to after CAM therapies, we chose a retrospective pretest format. Items cover physical, emotional, cognitive, social, spiritual, and whole person domains. Conclusions This paper reports the success of a novel approach to the development of outcome instruments, in which items are extracted from patients' words instead of being distilled from pre-existing theory. The resulting instrument, focused on measuring shifts in patients' perceptions of health and well-being along pre-specified axes, is undergoing continued testing, and is available for use by cooperating investigators. PMID:22206345

  2. Retention rate and substance use in methadone and buprenorphine maintenance therapy and predictors of outcome: results from a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael; Zingg, Christina; Koller, Gabriele; Kuefner, Heinrich

    2008-08-01

    This was a 6-month, randomized, flexible-dose study comparing the effects of methadone (Meth) and buprenorphine (Bup) on retention rate and substance use in a sample of 140 opioid-dependent, primarily heroin-addicted, patients who had been without opioid substitution therapy in the 4 weeks prior to the study. The major aims were to compare the efficacy of Bup and Meth in a flexible dosing regimen and to identify possible predictors of outcome. There were no major inhomogeneities between treatment groups. All patients also received standardized psychosocial interventions. Mean daily dosages after the induction phase were 44-50 mg for Meth and 9-12 mg for Bup. Results from this study indicate a favourable outcome, with an overall retention rate of 52.1% and no significant differences between treatment groups (55.3% vs. 48.4%). Substance use decreased significantly over time in both groups and was non-significantly lower in the Bup group. Predictors of outcome were length of continuous opioid use and age at onset of opioid use, although these were only significant in the Bup group. Mean dosage and other parameters were not significant predictors of outcome. Overall, the results of this study give further evidence that substitution treatment is a safe and effective treatment for drug dependence. Meth and Bup are equally effective. Duration of continuous opioid use and age at onset were found to have predictive value for negative outcome. The intensity of withdrawal symptoms showed the strongest correlation with drop-out. Future studies are warranted to further address patient profiles and outcome under different substitution regimens. PMID:18205978

  3. Managing for Results--Linking Performance Measures and Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, William L.; Fountain, James R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Government Accounting Standards Board notion of service efforts and accomplishments reporting is one step in a process of managing for results that includes strategic planning, development and use of performance measures of managing ongoing programs, and outputs to budgetary appropriation. Reports a trial application to one school district.


  4. Primary outcome indices in illicit drug dependence treatment research: systematic approach to selection and measurement of drug use end-points in clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Bigelow, George E.; Brigham, Gregory S.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Allan J.; Gardin, John G.; Hamilton, John A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Hughes, John R.; Lindblad, Robert; Marlatt, G. Alan; Preston, Kenzie L.; Selzer, Jeffrey A.; Somoza, Eugene C.; Wakim, Paul G.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Clinical trials test the safety and efficacy of behavioral and pharmacological interventions in drug-dependent individuals. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate outcome(s) to consider in determining treatment efficacy or on the most appropriate methods for assessing selected outcome(s). We summarize the discussion and recommendations of treatment and research experts, convened by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, to select appropriate primary outcomes for drug dependence treatment clinical trials, and in particular the feasibility of selecting a common outcome to be included in all or most trials. Methods A brief history of outcomes employed in prior drug dependence treatment research, incorporating perspectives from tobacco and alcohol research, is included. The relative merits and limitations of focusing on drug-taking behavior, as measured by self-report and qualitative or quantitative biological markers, are evaluated. Results Drug-taking behavior, measured ideally by a combination of self-report and biological indicators, is seen as the most appropriate proximal primary outcome in drug dependence treatment clinical trials. Conclusions We conclude that the most appropriate outcome will vary as a function of salient variables inherent in the clinical trial, such as the type of intervention, its target, treatment goals (e.g. abstinence or reduction of use) and the perspective being taken (e.g. researcher, clinical program, patient, society). It is recommended that a decision process, based on such trial variables, be developed to guide the selection of primary and secondary outcomes as well as the methods to assess them. PMID:21781202

  5. Increasing disparities between resource inputs and outcomes, as measured by certain health deliverables, in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Society makes substantial investments in biomedical research, searching for ways to better human health. The product of this research is principally information published in scientific journals. Continued investment in science relies on society’s confidence in the accuracy, honesty, and utility of research results. A recent focus on productivity has dominated the competitive evaluation of scientists, creating incentives to maximize publication numbers, citation counts, and publications in high-impact journals. Some studies have also suggested a decreasing quality in the published literature. The efficiency of society’s investments in biomedical research, in terms of improved health outcomes, has not been studied. We show that biomedical research outcomes over the last five decades, as estimated by both life expectancy and New Molecular Entities approved by the Food and Drug Administration, have remained relatively constant despite rising resource inputs and scientific knowledge. Research investments by the National Institutes of Health over this time correlate with publication and author numbers but not with the numerical development of novel therapeutics. We consider several possibilities for the growing input-outcome disparity including the prior elimination of easier research questions, increasing specialization, overreliance on reductionism, a disproportionate emphasis on scientific outputs, and other negative pressures on the scientific enterprise. Monitoring the efficiency of research investments in producing positive societal outcomes may be a useful mechanism for weighing the efficacy of reforms to the scientific enterprise. Understanding the causes of the increasing input-outcome disparity in biomedical research may improve society’s confidence in science and provide support for growing future research investments. PMID:26283360

  6. Increasing disparities between resource inputs and outcomes, as measured by certain health deliverables, in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-09-01

    Society makes substantial investments in biomedical research, searching for ways to better human health. The product of this research is principally information published in scientific journals. Continued investment in science relies on society's confidence in the accuracy, honesty, and utility of research results. A recent focus on productivity has dominated the competitive evaluation of scientists, creating incentives to maximize publication numbers, citation counts, and publications in high-impact journals. Some studies have also suggested a decreasing quality in the published literature. The efficiency of society's investments in biomedical research, in terms of improved health outcomes, has not been studied. We show that biomedical research outcomes over the last five decades, as estimated by both life expectancy and New Molecular Entities approved by the Food and Drug Administration, have remained relatively constant despite rising resource inputs and scientific knowledge. Research investments by the National Institutes of Health over this time correlate with publication and author numbers but not with the numerical development of novel therapeutics. We consider several possibilities for the growing input-outcome disparity including the prior elimination of easier research questions, increasing specialization, overreliance on reductionism, a disproportionate emphasis on scientific outputs, and other negative pressures on the scientific enterprise. Monitoring the efficiency of research investments in producing positive societal outcomes may be a useful mechanism for weighing the efficacy of reforms to the scientific enterprise. Understanding the causes of the increasing input-outcome disparity in biomedical research may improve society's confidence in science and provide support for growing future research investments. PMID:26283360

  7. Dynamic patient data bases: the foundation of an integrated approach to outcome measures for the healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Kwok, H K; Stevens, N

    1995-01-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous need among healthcare professionals to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, and appropriateness of the patient care services being provided through criteria-based outcome and program evaluation. Although the need for a tool which could evaluate the effectiveness of patient care is widely recognized, such an undertaking has been severely limited due to the lack of any automated means to collect and analyze patient data on a routine, continuous basis within a clinical setting. We have developed and implemented at Mineral Springs Hospital, Banff, Alberta an integrated and automated hospital information system that not only continuously collects administrative, financial, and patient data, but also contains an intelligent component for automated outcome measure and program evaluation. The system collects various non-duplicated data elements from each routine work process within the facility on a continuous basis. Through the creation of a dynamic patient database, data is transformed into information--a powerful decision support tool. The system provides flexible user-defined reports in patient-specific resource utilization, direct and/or indirect specific financial costs, result reporting of each intervention, service provided and user-defined criteria-based outcome, and program evaluation. The system design incorporates expert rules, dynamic data entry forms, quantitative models, and user-defined access control. Using information derived from the dynamic common database, managers and front-line clinicians can easily evaluate and modify management decisions or careplans on a macro or micro level. An external review is planned to evaluate whether the system has helped the assessment of effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness of healthcare services being provided at the hospital. The fundamental concept behind the system design is that the patient is the center of activity for data collection. The system provides the answers to the 5 W's (who, what, where, when, and why) together with intervention and service result reports. A dynamic common patient database is the center of the system and is accessible to all with proper authorization. Common data elements are collected from routine work flow without extra data entry and this information is subsequently shared. Data collection is a continuous process. We believe that every process is the outcome of another sub-process or event. The design of the dynamic patient database incorporates patient-specific costing and outcome evaluation, user-defined flexible data entry forms, user-defined access control, outcome evaluation rules and information semantic rules. Such a patient database would provide the flexibility needed to accommodate diverse methodologies to evaluate outcomes whether it they be medical, cost, access and/or other combination of measures. The system was developed on a PC-based Network technology, using FOXPRO (XBase) as the database development tool incorporating advanced technology such as distributed processing and fault tolerant computing. We chose PC-based technology because it is economical, having relatively low maintenance costs and requires no major dependency on vendors. The developed system produces patient-specific reports with many dimensions. The reports are user-defined. The system reports general data, CMG, RGN, LOS, Expected LOS, and other user-defined demographic data. Resource utilization, financial costs, and result reportings are produced together with rule-based outcome assessments of any type of measures, including, but not limited to, pre-set functional/health goals, user satisfaction, clinicianUs text or codified comments etc. It provides the framework for continually capturing data at a practical, work-flow level. The incorporation of a dynamic patient database as the driving forece of an integrated, rule-based administration, financial and patient data system will provdie the tools for healthcar PMID:8591238

  8. Comparison of length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood culture results

    PubMed Central

    Hozhabri, Neda S. T.; Armstrong, Kris; Puthottile, Jason; Benavides, Raul; Beal, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. The fatality rate for severe sepsis is about 40%, and treatment costs over $16 billion annually. It is critical to identify and treat the source of sepsis. While there are varying guidelines determining when to draw blood for culture, at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, blood cultures are ordered for patients with new onset of fever, immunosuppression, or a suspicion of an underlying infectious etiology. We conducted a retrospective study of patients who had blood cultures after hospital admission or in the emergency department in December 2013. We compared length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood cultures. There was no significant difference for length of stay or outcomes among patients with positive and negative blood cultures. For patients admitted from the emergency department, there was a longer length of stay for patients with positive cultures; however, the overall prognosis was not worse. PMID:25552786

  9. The Selection and Use of Outcome Measures in Palliative and End-of-Life Care Research: The MORECare International Consensus Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Catherine J.; Benalia, Hamid; Preston, Nancy J.; Grande, Gunn; Gysels, Marjolein; Short, Vicky; Daveson, Barbara A.; Bausewein, Claudia; Todd, Chris; Higginson, Irene J.

    2013-01-01

    Context A major barrier to widening and sustaining palliative care service provision is the requirement for better selection and use of outcome measures. Service commissioning is increasingly based on patient, carer, and service outcomes as opposed to service activity. Objectives To generate recommendations and consensus for research in palliative and end-of-life care on the properties of the best outcome measures, enhancing the validity of proxy-reported data and optimal data collection time points. Methods An international expert “workshop” was convened and an online consensus survey was undertaken using the MORECare Transparent Expert Consultation to generate recommendations and level of agreement. We focused on three areas: 1) measurement properties, 2) use of proxies, and 3) measurement timing. Data analysis comprised descriptive analysis of aggregate scores and collation of narrative comments. Results There were 31 workshop attendees; 29 recommendations were included in the online survey, completed by 28 experts. The top three recommendations by area were the following: 1) the properties of the best outcome measures are responsive to change over time and capture clinically important data, 2) to enhance the validity of proxy data requires clear and specific guidelines to aid lay individuals' and/or professionals' completion of proxy measures, and 3) data collection time points need clear identification to establish a baseline. Conclusion Outcome measurement in palliative and end-of-life care requires the use of psychometrically robust measures that are clinically responsive, with defined data collection time points to establish a baseline and clear administration guidelines to complete proxy measures. To further the field requires clinical imperatives to more closely inform recommendations on outcome measurement. PMID:23628515

  10. Measuring Outcomes in Mental Health Services for Older People: An Evaluation of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Elderly People (HoNOS65+)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Susan B.; Croucher, Matthew J.; Beveridge, John

    2010-01-01

    The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) family of measures is routinely used in mental health services in the New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom. However, the psychometric properties of the HoNOS65+ for elderly people have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the validity, reliability, and…

  11. Development of an outcome prediction measure for alcoholism therapy by multimodal monitoring of treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Krampe, Henning; Stawicki, Sabina; Ribbe, Katja; Wagner, Thilo; Bartels, Claudia; Kroener-Herwig, Birgit; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2008-11-01

    Outcome prediction in alcoholism therapy is of major sociopolitical and economic significance. Instruments based on psychotherapeutic processes are lacking. Therefore, treatment processes of 64 chronic alcohol dependent patients have been investigated at three time-points, t(1) (week 3), t(2) (month 6), and t(3) (month 12) during the first year of a comprehensive outpatient treatment program, guaranteeing strictly controlled alcohol abstinence. Main focus of the study was the prediction of cumulative abstinence probability over a follow-up period of up to 4 years based on these treatment processes. One hundred and seventy-five video recordings of therapy sessions were analyzed with the behavior observational system VAMP (Video-Assisted Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes in Chronic Psychiatric Disease). Patients' self-rating of treatment processes was measured with questionnaires for self-efficacy, abstinence confidence, self-consciousness and stress coping. Prediction of cumulative abstinence probability was determined with Cox regression analysis. By integrating the observer rated process variables with the highest predictive validity, the composite score TOPPS (Therapy Orientation by Process Prediction Score) was constructed. It includes the process variables experience of resources, abstinence self-efficacy, implicit craving, relapse alertness, relapse risk, disease concept, dysfunctional therapeutic engagement, and dysfunctional problem solving of current problems. Whereas patients' self-rating of treatment processes was insufficiently predictive, the TOPPS strongly predicted four-year abstinence probability at any of the 3 time-points (p<0.001). The results suggest to validate the item combination described in the TOPPS in addiction therapy as a treatment guideline of individual relapse prevention strategies. PMID:18342335

  12. DWPF STARTUP FRIT VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT ROUND ROBIN RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Russell, Renee L.; Workman, Phyllis J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Smith, Donald E.; Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-07-31

    A viscosity standard is needed to replace the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) glasses currently being used to calibrate viscosity measurement equipment. The current NIST glasses are either unavailable or less than ideal for calibrating equipment to measure the viscosity of high-level waste glasses. This report documents the results of a viscosity round robin study conducted on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup frit. DWPF startup frit was selected because its viscosity-temperature relationship is similar to most DWPF and Hanford high-level waste glass compositions. The glass underwent grinding and blending to homogenize the large (100 lb) batch. Portions of the batch were supplied to the laboratories (named A through H) for viscosity measurements following a specified temperature schedule with a temperature range of 1150 C to 950 C and with an option to measur