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1

Outcomes Measurement  

Cancer.gov

Evaluating and improving methods for measuring cancer outcomes is critically important for NCI's initiatives to enhance the quality of cancer care, reduce cancer-related health disparities, and better understand the individual and population burden of disease. The Applied Research Program’s initiatives in this area include developing resources for researchers to learn about psychometric and other tools that aid in assessing and developing outcomes measures.

2

Validating the Measurement of Real-World Functional Outcomes: Phase I Results of the VALERO Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive deficits are associated with disability in people with schizophrenia so treatment of cognitive impairment has been proposed as an intervention to reduce disability. However, studies relying on patient self-report have found very minimal relationships between ratings of real-world functioning and cognitive performance, raising questions about the measurement of real-world functioning as a treatment outcome. The Validation of Everyday Real-world Outcomes (VALERO) study was conducted to evaluate functional rating scales and to identify the rating scale or scales most robustly related to performance-based measures of cognition and everyday living skills. Method 198 adults with schizophrenia were tested with the neurocognitive measures from the MATRICS Consensus cognitive Battery and performed the UCSD performance-based skills assessment-Brief and advanced finances subtest from the Everyday Functioning Battery. They and a friend, relative, clinician, or case manager also reported their everyday functioning on 6 ratings scales: Social Behavior Schedule, Social Adjustment Scale, Heinrichs Carpenter Quality of Life Scale, Specific Levels of Functioning, Independent Living skills Survey, and Life Skills Profile. Best judgment ratings were generated by an interviewer who administered the rating scales to patients and informants. Results Statistical analyses developed an ability latent trait that reflected scores on the three performance-based (i.e., ability) measures and canonical correlation analysis related interviewer ratings to the latent trait. The overall fit of the model with all six rating scales was good: ?2 = 78.100, df = 56, p = .027, and RMSEA = .078. Individual rating scales that did not improve the fit of the model were systematically deleted and a final model with two rating scales fit the data: ?2 = 32.059, df = 24, p = .126, RMSEA = .072. A regression analysis found that the Specific Levels of Functioning was a superior predictor of the three-performance based ability measures. Conclusions We found that systematic assessments of real world functioning are related to performance on neurocognitive and functional capacity measures. Of the six rating scales evaluated, the Specific Levels of Functioning (SLOF) was best in this study. Use of a single rating scale provides a very efficient assessment of real-world functioning that accounts for considerable variance in performance-based scores.

Harvey, Philip D.; Raykov, Tenko; Twamley, Elizabeth; Vella, Lea; Heaton, Robert K.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

3

Measuring Subjective Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Reliability and validity are criteria used to assess metric adequacy and are typically quantified by correlation coefficients. Reliability is described as the extent to which repeated measurements yield consistent results. Validity is described as the extent to which a measure actually measures what it purports to measure. These conceptualizations are less useful when applied to measures of subjective outcomes because they do not convey other influences that “drive” correlation coefficients. Consistency is a manifestation of a reliable instrument but does not ensure that an instrument is reliable. Establishing the validity of an instrument is a complex process that is heavily dependent on an investigator's hypothesis. Hence, validity coefficients may be more a reflection of hypothesis adequacy than of the extent to which instruments measure what they purport to measure. Appreciating how coefficients are influenced will better enable clinicians to assess the adequacy of subjective outcome measures.

Elasy, Tom A; Gaddy, Gary

1998-01-01

4

Using the College Outcome Measures Project to measure college outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes one institution's use of the College Outcome Measures Project (COMP) in comparing outcomes for graduates of traditional and non-traditional programs. The study was designed to answer three questions concerning the use of COMP in evaluating traditional and non-traditional programs. Results obtained in a study of 96 University of Minnesota graduating seniors suggest greater potential usefulness in distinguishing

Steven F. Schomberg; Darwin D. Hendel; Caroline L. Bassett

1983-01-01

5

Measures for improving treatment outcomes for patients with epilepsy - Results from a large multinational patient-physician survey.  

PubMed

In this large-scale, multinational, descriptive survey, we sought to identify measures for improving treatment outcomes for individuals with epilepsy. As a framework, questions relating specifically to each of the five steps of the 'patient-physician journey', namely, patient identification (omitted in this survey), diagnosis, choice of drug, disease and drug information, and patient monitoring were asked. Overall, 337 physicians and 1150 patients across France, Germany, and the United States returned questionnaires. Results indicated that 16% of the patients were initially misdiagnosed. Treatment choice was driven by efficacy, safety, experience with a drug (physician only), and convenience (patient only). Physicians were identified as the primary source of information for patients, and, as expected, better informed patients were found to adhere better to their therapy than those who were less well informed. Approximately 50% of the patients had not seen their specialist in the last year, which indicates poor follow-up; furthermore, important topics such as seizures, treatment, and its side effects were not discussed at every visit. Specialists, but not primary care practitioners (PCPs), consistently reported discussing all topics more frequently than their patients, suggesting that specialists may overestimate the clarity of their questions. There was also substantial disparity in the reasons cited for nonadherence - patients overwhelmingly cited forgetfulness, while both PCPs and specialists cited complacency, forgetfulness, and tolerability. We also noted a disparity between physicians and their patients, as well as between PCPs and specialists, in their views on the impact of epilepsy on patients' lives. Our results indicate multiple opportunities to intervene at all stages of the patient-physician journey to improve treatment outcomes. We provide practical suggestions to achieve the most from these opportunities. PMID:24704566

Groenewegen, André; Tofighy, Azita; Ryvlin, Philippe; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Dedeken, Peter

2014-05-01

6

Measuring fall program outcomes.  

PubMed

Nurses help to ensure patient safety, which includes preventing falls and fall related injuries. The aging Veteran population, like the general population, is at risk for falls and fall related injuries whether at home, in hospitals or in long term care facilities. Nurses are leading practice innovations to systematically assess patients' risk for falls and implement population based prevention interventions. To determine the effectiveness of programs, data can be analyzed using a variety of statistical measures to determine program impacts. Thus, data analysis of fall rates by type of fall and severity of fall related injury can help facilities examine the effectiveness of their interventions and program outcomes. Examples of actual fall prevention programs and their approaches to measurement are showcased in this article. PMID:21848355

Quigley, Pat; Neily, Julia; Watson, Mary; Wright, Marilyn; Strobe, Karen

2007-05-01

7

Advancing PROMIS's methodology: results of the Third Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Psychometric Summit  

PubMed Central

In 2002, the NIH launched the ‘Roadmap for Medical Research’. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) is one of the Roadmap’s key aspects. To create the next generation of patient-reported outcome measures, PROMIS utilizes item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing. In 2009, the NIH funded the second wave of PROMIS studies (PROMIS II). PROMIS II studies continue PROMIS’s agenda, but also include new features, including longitudinal analyses and more sociodemographically diverse samples. PROMIS II also includes increased emphasis on pediatric populations and evaluation of PROMIS item banks for clinical research and population science. These aspects bring new psychometric challenges. To address this, investigators associated with PROMIS gathered at the Third Psychometric Summit in September 2010 to identify, describe and discuss pressing psychometric issues and new developments in the field, as well as make analytic recommendations for PROMIS. The summit addressed five general themes: linking, differential item functioning, dimensionality, IRT models for longitudinal applications and new IRT software. In this article, we review the discussions and presentations that occurred at the Third PROMIS Psychometric Summit.

Carle, Adam C; Cella, David; Cai, Li; Choi, Seung W; Crane, Paul K; Curtis, S McKay; Gruhl, Jonathan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Reise, Steven P; Teresi, Jeanne A; Thissen, David; Wu, Eric J; Hays, Ron D

2012-01-01

8

TEFTOM: A Promising General Trauma Expectation/Outcome Measure--Results of a Validation Study on Pan-American Ankle and Distal Tibia Trauma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background. In orthopedics, there is no instrument specifically designed to assess patients' expectations of their final surgery outcome in general trauma populations. We developed the Trauma Expectation Factor Trauma Outcome Measure (TEFTOM) to investigate the fulfilment of patients' expectations one year after surgery as a measure of general trauma surgical outcomes. The aim of this paper was to assess the psychometric characteristics of this new general trauma outcome measure. Methods. The questionnaire was tested in 201 ankle and distal tibia fracture patients scheduled for surgery. Patients were followed up for twelve months. The TEFTOM questionnaire was evaluated for its criterion validity, internal consistency, reproducibility, and responsiveness. Results. TOM showed good criterion validity against the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Scale (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.69–0.77). Internal consistency was acceptable for TEF (Cronbach's alpha = 0.65–0.76) and excellent for TOM (Cronbach's alpha = 0.76–0.85). Reproducibility was moderate to very good (intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) ?0.67) for TEF and very good (ICC ?0.92) for TOM. TOM also proved to be responsive to changes in patients' condition over time (Wald test; P < 0.001). Conclusions. TEFTOM is a promising tool for measuring general trauma outcomes in terms of patients' expectation fulfilment that proved to be valid, internally consistent, reproducible, and responsive to change.

Suk, Michael; Buckley, Richard E.; Paccola, Cleber A. J.; Lorich, Dean G.; Helfet, David L.; Hanson, Beate

2013-01-01

9

Finding the Data: A Start-Up List of Outcome Measures with Annotations. A Companion Document to "The Case for Shifting to Results-Based Accountability."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shifting to results-based accountability is a difficult stage in reforming family and children's services. Heretofore, these services have been more concerned with the number of clients seen or papers processed than in their clients' quality of life. This document should help communities find the data they need to measure qualitative outcomes. It…

Brown, Brett; Weitz, Judith

10

Development of outcome measures for autoimmune dermatoses  

PubMed Central

Validated outcome measures are essential in monitoring disease severity. Specifically in dermatology, which relies heavily on the clinical evaluation of the patient and not on laboratory values and radiographic tests, outcome measures help standardize patient care. Validated cutaneous scoring systems, much like standardized laboratory values, facilitate disease management and follow therapeutic response. Several cutaneous autoimmune dermatoses, specifically cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), dermatomyositis (DM), and pemphigus vulgaris (PV), lack such outcome measures. As a result, evaluation of disease severity and patients’ response to therapy over time is less reliable. Ultimately, patient care is compromised. These diseases, which are often chronic and relapsing and remitting, are also often refractory to treatment. Without outcome measures, new therapies cannot be systematically assessed in these diseases. Clinical trials that are completed without standardized outcome measures produce less reliable results. Therefore, the development of validated outcome measures in these autoimmune dermatoses is critical. However, the process of developing these tools is as important, if not more so, than their availability. This review examines the steps that should be considered when developing outcome measures, while further examining their importance in clinical practice and trials. Finally, this review more closely looks at CLE, DM, and PV and addresses the recent and ongoing progress that has been made in the development of their outcome measures.

Gaines, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

11

Outcome measures in haemophilia: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Haemophilia A and B are hereditary X-linked disorders due to deficiency (or absence) of coagulation factor VIII or IX, respectively. Bleeding risk is related to the severity of factor deficiency. Repeated joint bleeding can lead to a severe haemophilic arthropathy resulting in disabilities. Outcome measurements in persons with haemophilia (PWH) have been limited to laboratory evaluation (factor VIII or IX levels) and clinical outcomes (such as bleeding frequency), morbidity (for example linked with arthropathy) and mortality. Due to the new standard of care of PWH, there is a need to consider other outcome measures, such as the early detection and quantification of joint disease, health-related quality of life (QoL) and economic or cost-utility analyses. To investigate this, we performed a 10-yr systematic overview of outcome measures in haemophilia. Only clinical trials including at least 20 patients with haemophilia A or B were included. To facilitate the search strategy, eight issues of outcome measures were selected: physical scores, imaging technique scores, functional scores, QoL measurement, mortality, bleeding frequency, cost and outcome and bone mineral density. The results of these will be discussed. Clearly defined outcomes in haemophilia care are important for many reasons, to evaluate new treatments, to justify treatment strategies, to allow a good follow-up, to perform studies and to allocate resources. The use of such scoring systems is clearly recommended by experts in haemophilia care. However, most centres do not perform such scores outside clinical trials due to reasons such as lack of time and resources. PMID:24957102

Boehlen, Françoise; Graf, Lukas; Berntorp, Erik

2014-08-01

12

Integrative medicine outcomes: what should we measure?  

PubMed

The outcomes of Integrative medicine (IM) that combine biomedicine with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) are broad, reflecting the integration. IM is concerned with acute and chronic diseases, holistic approaches, and health promotion and wellness. Before commencing a research program in a primary care IM clinic, stakeholders were interviewed about IM outcomes. Everyone thought Physical Health and Mental Health were important. Those with a more holistic view of health thought a broader range of topics should be measured. Less important topics were lifestyle; health-related aspects of life satisfaction and quality of life; and healthcare evaluation. However, no one thought these should be excluded. Spirituality was the most contentious. Some commended its inclusion. For others, once religiousness and God were removed, the remaining elements should be relocated to the domains of mental health and life satisfaction. The results highlight the importance of consulting stakeholders before measuring outcomes. PMID:23337560

Hunter, Jennifer; Corcoran, Katherine; Leeder, Stephen; Phelps, Kerryn

2013-02-01

13

Can we derive an 'exchange rate' between descriptive and preference-based outcome measures for stroke? Results from the transfer to utility (TTU) technique  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke-specific outcome measures and descriptive measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are unsuitable for informing decision-makers of the broader consequences of increasing or decreasing funding for stroke interventions. The quality-adjusted life year (QALY) provides a common metric for comparing interventions over multiple dimensions of HRQoL and mortality differentials. There are, however, many circumstances when – because of timing, lack of foresight or cost considerations – only stroke-specific or descriptive measures of health status are available and some indirect means of obtaining QALY-weights becomes necessary. In such circumstances, the use of regression-based transformations or mappings can circumvent the failure to elicit QALY-weights by allowing predicted weights to proxy for observed weights. This regression-based approach has been dubbed 'Transfer to Utility' (TTU) regression. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the feasibility and value of TTU regression in stroke by deriving transformations or mappings from stroke-specific and generic but descriptive measures of health status to a generic preference-based measure of HRQoL in a sample of Australians with a diagnosis of acute stroke. Findings will quantify the additional error associated with the use of condition-specific to generic transformations in stroke. Methods We used TTU regression to derive empirical transformations from three commonly used descriptive measures of health status for stroke (NIHSS, Barthel and SF-36) to a preference-based measure (AQoL) suitable for attaching QALY-weights to stroke disease states; based on 2570 observations drawn from a sample of 859 patients with stroke. Results Transformations from the SF-36 to the AQoL explained up to 71.5% of variation in observed AQoL scores. Differences between mean predicted and mean observed AQoL scores from the 'severity-specific' item- and subscale-based SF-36 algorithms and from the 'moderate to severe' index- and item-based Barthel algorithm were neither clinically nor statistically significant when 'low severity' SF-36 transformations were used to predict AQoL scores for patients in the NIHSS = 0 and NIHSS = 1–5 subgroups and when 'moderate to severe severity' transformations were used to predict AQoL scores for patients in the NIHSS ? 6 subgroup. In contrast, the difference between mean predicted and mean observed AQoL scores from the NIHSS algorithms and from the 'low severity' Barthel algorithms reached levels that could mask minimally important differences on the AQoL scale. Conclusion While our NIHSS to AQoL transformations proved unsuitable for most applications, our findings demonstrate that stroke-relevant outcome measures such as the SF-36 and Barthel Index can be adequately transformed to preference-based measures for the purposes of economic evaluation.

Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie; Sturm, Jonathan

2009-01-01

14

[Patient evaluation and outcome measures].  

PubMed

Both the initial evaluation and follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis require systematic evaluation of the indicators that provide information on the degree of involvement of the disease and allow its quantification. Reliable measures of disease progression help decision-making by clinicians and provide valid information on treatment response and the effectiveness of the distinct therapeutic interventions. The instruments recommended in research, as outcome measures in osteoarthritis, are pain evaluation, assessment of physical function, and self-reported global evaluation. In studies lasting more than 1 year, structural changes are evaluated through simple X-ray. Self-reported quality of life assessment and physician global assessment are also recommended as options. These indicators should be incorporated into routine clinical practice for adequate evaluation and correct follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis. The recommended pain evaluation method for use in clinical practice is the visual analog scale (VAS). The best instrument to evaluate physical function in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis is the WOMAC scale (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index). For patient-reported global assessment in routine practice, the recommended scales are VAS or the SF-12 (12-item short-form health survey). PMID:24467959

Nieto Pol, Enrique

2014-01-01

15

Understanding and measuring child welfare outcomes.  

PubMed

The new "Children's and Family Services Reviews" (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and describes California's response to this mandate. Implications of the outcomes literature review and measurement problems in the CFSR process suggest CSFR measures do not always capture meaningful outcomes. Recommendations for change are made. PMID:19064447

D'Andrade, Amy; Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

2008-01-01

16

Outcome measurement in scleroderma clinical trials.  

PubMed

Clinical trials in scleroderma were reviewed to assess the clinimetric properties of frequently used outcome measures. Twenty-seven controlled intervention studies were found in the English literature; nine demonstrated effective therapy. The outcome measures used included skin involvement, functional status, physical performance (grip strength, oral aperture), and internal organ involvement (pulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiac). Very few outcome measures detected between- or within-group differences even when an active drug was compared with a placebo. Skin measures were found to yield statistical differences in seven studies, patient global assessment in three, and physician global assessments in four. Internal organ measures detected differences between groups only rarely; the pulmonary diffusing capacity was statistically different twice. Physical performance measures (eg, grip strength and oral aperture) never yielded statistical differences, and in only one of five trials did a functional assessment detect statistical differences. To show drug efficacy in future trials in scleroderma, better outcome measures need to be developed and a consensus obtained on which outcomes to use so that potentially effective therapies can be tested in a standardized fashion against a placebo or current therapy. Currently, because of a lack of clinimetric data on outcome measures, therapeutic inefficacy cannot be differentiated from a lack of sensitivity in the outcome measures used. In the future, outcome measures should be chosen on the basis of the adequacy of their reliability, construct, and content validity and be sensitive to change. Ideally, outcome measures also should have criterion validity, ie, show a strong association between the measure (such as a skin score) and an irrefutable gold standard (such as skin pathology). PMID:8235663

Pope, J E; Bellamy, N

1993-08-01

17

Association between Gender, Process of Care Measures, and Outcomes in ACS in India: Results from the Detection and Management of Coronary Heart Disease (DEMAT) Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Studies from high-income countries have shown that women receive less aggressive diagnostics and treatment than men in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), though their short-term mortality does not appear to differ from men. Data on gender differences in ACS presentation, management, and outcomes are sparse in India. Methods and Results The Detection and Management of Coronary Heart Disease (DEMAT) Registry collected data from 1,565 suspected ACS patients (334 women; 1,231 men) from ten tertiary care centers throughout India between 2007–2008. We evaluated gender differences in presentation, in-hospital and discharge management, and 30-day death and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; death, re-hospitalization, and cardiac arrest) rates. Women were less likely to present with STEMI than men (38% vs. 55%, p<0.001). Overall inpatient diagnostics and treatment patterns were similar between men and women after adjustment for potential confounders. Optimal discharge management with aspirin, clopidogrel, beta-blockers, and statin therapy was lower for women than men, (58% vs. 65%, p?=?0.03), but these differences were attenuated after adjustment (OR?=?0.86 (0.62, 1.19)). Neither the outcome of 30-day mortality (OR?=?1.40 (0.62, 3.16)) nor MACE (OR?=?1.00 (0.67, 1.48)) differed significantly between men and women after adjustment. Conclusions ACS in-hospital management, discharge management, and 30-day outcomes did not significantly differ between genders in the DEMAT registry, though consistently higher treatment rates and lower event rates in men compared to women were seen. These findings underscore the importance of further investigation of gender differences in cardiovascular care in India.

Pagidipati, Neha J.; Huffman, Mark D.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Gupta, Rajeev; Negi, Prakash; Jaison, Thannikot M.; Sharma, Satyavan; Sinha, Nakul; Mohanan, Padinhare; Muralidhara, B. G.; Bijulal, Sasidharan; Sivasankaran, Sivasubramonian; Puri, Vijay K.; Jose, Jacob; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

2013-01-01

18

Health Outcome after Major Trauma: What Are We Measuring?  

PubMed Central

Importance Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients. Objective To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006–2012) were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries. Study selection and data extraction Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts. Results 34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%), functional activities (11%) and environmental factors (2%). Conclusion Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care.

Hoffman, Karen; Cole, Elaine; Playford, E. Diane; Grill, Eva; Soberg, Helene L.; Brohi, Karim

2014-01-01

19

Sensitivity of Outcome Measures for Treatments of Generalized Social Phobia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sensitivity of five measures of outcomes of treatment for generalized social phobia was studied with 60 people diagnosed with generalized social phobia. Outcome measures were completed before and after treatment and three months later, and effect sizes were computed. Results support the usefulness of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (S.…

Taylor, Steven; Woody, Sheila; McLean, Peter D.; Koch, William J.

1997-01-01

20

Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome

Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

2010-01-01

21

Cancer Outcomes Measurement Working Group (COMWG)  

Cancer.gov

The importance of outcomes assessment is increasingly recognized by multiple agencies involved in cancer research. To address the diverse needs of users, it is critical to assess the state of the science of outcomes measurement and identify priorities for future research and practice.

22

Measuring outcomes in adult outpatient psychiatry.  

PubMed

Despite growing pressure for accountability, mental health professionals continue to debate the value of routinely measuring treatment outcomes. This paper sought to move the outcomes measurement debate forward by reviewing some of the current limitations in outcomes methodology and by providing initial strategies to address them. Using these strategies, we evaluated outcomes for a large diagnostically diverse group of adult outpatients receiving treatment as usual (TAU) within an academic medical centre. Initial self-report and clinician-rated assessments were obtained from 5546 patients, and follow-up data were obtained from 1572 (28%) patients. Using the subset of patients with the follow-up data, we determined treatment effect sizes, rates of reliable improvement (and deterioration) and rates of clinically significant improvement for all patients and for specific diagnostic groups (depression, anxiety, substance abuse, mood disorders not otherwise specified, bipolar and psychotic conditions). TAU outcomes for depression and anxiety were also compared with benchmarks derived from the randomized controlled trial literature. Lastly, the impact of patient or sample characteristics on outcome was explored. Overall, these findings generally support the benefit of TAU over no treatment while also highlighting both the utility and limitations inherent in the current approaches to evaluating treatment outcomes. Suggestions for improving outcomes measurement are provided. PMID:21416558

Blais, Mark A; Sinclair, Samuel J; Baity, Matthew R; Worth, Jonathan; Weiss, Anthony P; Ball, Laurie Ansorge; Herman, John

2012-01-01

23

Outcome measures in osteoarthritis: Randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accepted outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in osteoarthritis (OA) include patient-reported assessments\\u000a of physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Available data can inform treatment decisions when statistically\\u000a significant changes are viewed in terms of clinically important improvements. Patient-reported outcomes validated in OA include\\u000a global assessments of pain, disease activity, and disease-specific and generic measures of physical

Vibeke Strand; Ariella Kelman

2004-01-01

24

Review Committee on Outcomes: Survey Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spring of 2000, Alberta Education (previously Alberta Learning) appointed the Review Committee on Outcomes (RCO) to consult with Albertans to find out what they expected from the K-12 education system and how these expectations are being met. The committee consisted of stakeholder, as well as a parent and a member at large. This committee…

Online Submission, 2005

2005-01-01

25

Quality of Medical Care Assessment Using Outcome Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a 1-year project undertaken to place the outcome method for assessing quality of medical care in perspective and to develop disease-specific short-term outcome measures are summarized. The first volume of the full report summarized herein p...

R. H. Brook A. D. Avery

1976-01-01

26

Assessment of tinnitus: measurement of treatment outcomes.  

PubMed

There is a wide range of assessment techniques for tinnitus, but no consensus has developed concerning how best to measure either the presenting features of tinnitus or the effects of tinnitus treatments. Standardization of reliable and valid tinnitus measures would provide many advantages including improving the uniformity of diagnostic and screening criteria between clinics and facilitating comparison of treatment outcomes obtained at different sites. This chapter attempts to clarify issues involved in developing self-report questionnaires for the assessment of tinnitus. While the tinnitus questionnaires that are currently available provide valuable information on which to base diagnostic and screening decisions, they were not originally developed in such a way as to maximize their sensitivity to treatment-related changes in tinnitus. As a result, their construct validity for measuring treatment benefit has not received appropriate attention. In this paper, special emphasis is devoted to the use of effect sizes as an estimate of the ability of questionnaires (and their individual items) to measure changes associated with treatment. We discuss the criteria relevant to evaluating the effectiveness of a questionnaire for diagnostic purposes vs. for treatment-evaluation purposes, and we present a detailed illustration of how the various criteria have been applied in a recent questionnaire development effort. PMID:17956815

Meikle, M B; Stewart, B J; Griest, S E; Martin, W H; Henry, J A; Abrams, H B; McArdle, R; Newman, C W; Sandridge, S A

2007-01-01

27

Outcome Measures for Outpatient Hypoglycemia Prevention Studies  

PubMed Central

Systems are being developed that utilize algorithms to predict impending hypoglycemia using commercially available continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices and to discontinue insulin delivery if hypoglycemia is predicted. In outpatient studies designed to test such systems, CGM-measured glycemic indices will not only be important outcome measures of efficacy but, in certain cases, will be the only good outcome. This is especially true in short-term studies designed to reduce hypoglycemia since the event rate for severe hypoglycemic events is too low for it to be a good outcome, and milder hypoglycemia often will be variably detected. Continuous glucose monitoring inaccuracy can be accounted for in the study design by increasing sample size and/or study duration.

Beck, Roy W; Kollman, Craig; Xing, Dongyuan; Buckingham, Bruce A; Chase, H. Peter

2011-01-01

28

Arthroscopic subacromial decompression: results and factors affecting outcome.  

PubMed

Arthroscopic subacromial decompression was performed on 114 patients with rotator cuff impingement who had not responded to nonoperative measures. None of the patients had a full-thickness cuff tear. Patients with associated instability, symptomatic acromioclavicular joint disease, or ruptures of the long head of biceps were not included. Results were determined by questioning patients about their satisfaction with the outcome of surgery and by functional assessment of the shoulder with the parameters of pain, ability to perform daily activities, and range of motion according to the Constant scoring system. When reviewed at a mean interval of 19 months after surgery, 85 patients (75%) were satisfied with the outcome. Pain scores improved by an average of 8.6 points; "activities of daily living" scores improved by an average of 5.8 points; range-of-motion scores improved by an average of 3.6 points. The improvements in all 3 parameters scored were significant (P < .05). The following variables were statistically analyzed to assess their influence on final outcome: age, sex, occupation, duration of symptoms before surgery, dominance of the affected shoulder, outcome of the impingement test, state of the cuff, and experience of the surgeon performing the operation. The duration of symptoms before surgery was the most significant predictor of outcome. Symptoms of prolonged duration were associated with an unsatisfactory subjective results (P < .01) and with smaller improvements in the parameters of the Constant score (P < .001). Recovery after arthroscopic subacromial decompression and eventual outcome were related to the extent of cuff damage. Patients with partial thickness tears or fraying of the cuff had a delayed return to work (P < .001) and were found to have smaller increases in the pain and range-of-motion scores (P < .05). A satisfactory subjective result was most often associated with a positive impingement test (P < .05). Unsatisfactory outcomes were associated with a questionable diagnosis and lack of clear evidence of impingement at arthroscopy, inadequate decompression of the subacromial space, or the presence of calcium deposits in the rotator cuff. PMID:10389078

Patel, V R; Singh, D; Calvert, P T; Bayley, J I

1999-01-01

29

The Development of NOAA Education Common Outcome Performance Measures (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Council has embarked on an ambitious Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) project that will allow it to assess education program outcomes and impacts across the agency, line offices, and programs. The purpose of this internal effort is to link outcome measures to program efforts and to evaluate the success of the agency's education programs in meeting the strategic goals. Using an outcome-based evaluation approach, the NOAA Education Council is developing two sets of common outcome performance measures, environmental stewardship and professional development. This presentation will examine the benefits and tradeoffs of common outcome performance measures that collect program results across a portfolio of education programs focused on common outcomes. Common outcome performance measures have a few benefits to our agency and to the climate education field at large. The primary benefit is shared understanding, which comes from our process for writing common outcome performance measures. Without a shared and agreed upon set of definitions for the measure of an outcome, the reported results may not be measuring the same things and would incorrectly indicate levels of performance. Therefore, our writing process relies on a commitment to developing a shared set of definitions based on consensus. We hope that by taking the time to debate and coming to agreement across a diverse set of programs, the strength of our common measures can indicate real progress towards outcomes we care about. An additional benefit is that these common measures can be adopted and adapted by other agencies and organizations that share similar theories of change. The measures are not without their drawbacks, and we do make tradeoffs as part of our process in order to continue making progress. We know that any measure is necessarily a narrow slice of performance. A slice that may not best represent the unique and remarkable contribution of an individual program, but does reflect a variety of contributions along a single dimension across a large portfolio of programs. The process has ended up pushing our working group to call for even more measures, to capture an increasing number of dimensions that reflect the nature of the portfolio of programs. This past year we have been working on developing two sets of common outcome performance measures for professional development (PD) and stewardship education programs. The outcome we chose for PD programs was the use of what was learned in the educator's practice. The outcome we chose for stewardship programs was the stewardship behaviors that participants learn and practice. The measurement of these outcomes will inform whether our strategies are having their intended impact. By knowing how and how much these outcomes are occurring as a result of our program, we can improve program performance over time. The common outcome performance measures help demonstrate how these programs engage audiences in supporting NOAA's mission. As AGU climate literacy community continues to grow, it is important to consider an approach to demonstrate the community's contribution to the Nation's climate literacy. Development of common outcome performance measures is one approach that could help focus the community in meeting its goals.

Baek, J.

2013-12-01

30

Comparing Selected Measures of Health Outcomes and Health-Seeking Behaviors in Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese Communities of Chicago: Results from Local Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

We describe how local community organizations partnered to conduct a survey in the Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese populations of Chicago to compare health outcomes and assess progress toward Healthy People 2010 goals. Interviews were conducted with 380 randomly selected Chinese adults through door-to-door sampling, and with 250 Cambodian adults and 150 Vietnamese adults through respondent-driven sampling. Data on 14 key health outcomes are described for this analysis. The three surveyed communities were generally poorer, less educated, more often foreign-born, and had less English proficiency than Asians nationally. There were few significant variations among the three populations, but there were notable differences in the burden of tuberculosis, obesity, diabetes, and arthritis. Insurance coverage and cancer-screening utilization were also significantly lower than for US Asians. Health information about Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese populations in Chicago are available for the first time and serve as baseline data for community interventions. Findings highlight important health concerns for these populations and have implications for funders and policy makers in allocating resources, setting health priorities, and addressing health disparities.

Guo, Lucy; Magee, Matthew; Cheung, William; Simon, Melissa; LaBreche, Amanda; Liu, Hong

2010-01-01

31

Outcome measures for primary Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

Lymphocytic infiltration of different exocrine and non-exocrine epithelia is the pathological hallmark of primary Sjögren's syndrome, whereas involvement of salivary and lachrymal glands with the clinical counterpart of dry eye and dry mouth are the predominant features of the disease, together with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. In addition, systemic manifestations, like arthritis, skin vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, may also be present in a consistent number of patients. As result, clinical features in SS can be divided into two facets: the benign subjective but disabling manifestations such as dryness, pain and fatigue, and the systemic manifestations. In the past decades, a core set of domains, which included sicca symptoms, objective measurements of tear and saliva production, fatigue, quality of life, disease activity and damage was indicated as essential for outcome assessment in this disorder. Afterwards, great efforts have been made to develop valid tools for the assessment of different domains. Specific questionnaires such as the Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort (PROFAD) and Sicca Symptoms Inventory (SSI) have been proposed as dedicated tools for the evaluation of patients symptoms, whereas different composite indexes have been suggested for the assessment of disease activity and damage. Some of these preliminary studies served as bases of an international project supported by EULAR, aimed at developing two consensus disease activity indexes: the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patients Reported Index (ESSPRI), and the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI), a systemic activity index to assess systemic manifestations. A detailed and critical review of all these indexes is provided in this article. Both EULAR indexes showed, in recent studies, to be feasible, valid, and reliable instruments. After their final validation, which is currently in process, they could be used as consensus outcome criteria in therapeutic trials and in clinical practice. PMID:22365784

Seror, Raphaèle; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J; Dörner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Ravaud, Philippe; Theander, Elke; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio

2012-08-01

32

Dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and pregnancy outcomes.  

PubMed

The relationships of maternal prenatal dietary intakes and anthropometric measurements to pregnancy outcomes were investigated in a prospective observational study of urban African American women. The 322 subjects, a subset of the 744 women recruited for the study using purposive sampling, were all nulliparous, free of diabetes mellitus and abnormal hemoglobins, and delivered term, singleton infants. Sociodemographic data and monthly quantitative 24-hour food recalls were collected by trained interviewers. Maternal anthropometric measurements were obtained from the subjects' hospital records. Pregnancy outcome data were obtained by physical examinations of the newborn infants by the project pediatrician. With the exception of vitamin C, average maternal dietary intakes were within the ranges of intakes obtained in previous studies. Mean intakes of protein, vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin exceeded the 1989 RDA, while those of food energy, vitamin B-6, folate, calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc were below the RDA. Underweight prior to pregnancy and low pregnancy weight gains were found among 12.9% and 44.4% of the subjects respectively. Dietary intakes were not significantly correlated with pregnancy outcomes. Maternal anthropometric measurements significantly correlated with pregnancy outcomes included delivery weight, pregnancy weight gain, weekly weight gain, prepregnancy weight, net weight gain, height, prepregnancy body mass index, and % ideal prepregnancy body weight (P < 0.05). Using the stepwise selection procedure in multiple regression analysis, delivery weight, % ideal prepregnancy body weight, and prepregnancy body mass index were selected as being predictive of infant birth weight. It was concluded that anthropometric measurements were better nutritional predictors of pregnancy outcome than dietary intake. PMID:8201444

Johnson, A A; Knight, E M; Edwards, C H; Oyemade, U J; Cole, O J; Westney, O E; Westney, L S; Laryea, H; Jones, S

1994-06-01

33

Biobehavioral measures as outcomes: a cautionary tale.  

PubMed

This article discusses the use of biobehavioral measures as outcomes for health care intervention studies. Effect size (ES) values for salivary cortisol and observation-based measures of pain and agitation were examined. Effects pre to post treatment were assessed separately for nursing home residents with and without acute psychotic symptoms. This study revealed large positive effects on both pain and agitation measures in the group with acute psychotic symptoms and small-to-medium positive effects on these same measures in the group without acute psychotic symptoms. In both of these groups, the ES values were not consistently positive on the cortisol measures. Prior to determining whether a measure can be used to estimate minimum clinically important differences, it is essential to consider if the biomarker will be responsive to therapy in the populations and contexts being studied. PMID:24158972

Kovach, Christine R; Woods, Diana Lynn; Devine, Elizabeth C; Logan, Brent R; Raff, Hershel

2014-01-01

34

Outcome Measures in Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Study Design review by the Spinal Cord Outcomes Partnership Endeavor (SCOPE), which is a broad-based international consortium of scientists and clinical researchers representing academic institutions, industry, government agencies, not-for-profit organizations and foundations. Objectives assessment of current and evolving tools for evaluating human spinal cord injury (SCI) outcomes for both clinical diagnosis and clinical research studies. Methods a framework for the appraisal of evidence of metric properties was used to examine outcome tools or tests for accuracy, sensitivity, reliability and validity for human SCI. Results imaging, neurological, functional, autonomic, sexual health, bladder/bowel, pain, and psycho-social tools were evaluated. Several specific tools for human SCI studies have or are being developed to allow the more accurate determination for a clinically meaningful benefit (improvement in functional outcome or quality of life) being achieved as a result of a therapeutic intervention. Conclusion significant progress has been made, but further validation studies are required to identify the most appropriate tools for specific targets in a human SCI study or clinical trial.

Alexander, Marcalee S.; Anderson, Kim; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Blight, Andrew R.; Brannon, Ruth; Bryce, Thomas; Creasey, Graham; Catz, Amiram; Curt, Armin; Donovan, William; Ditunno, John; Ellaway, Peter; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Graves, Daniel E.; Haynes, Beth Ann; Heinemann, Allen W.; Jackson, Amie B.; Johnston, Mark; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Kleitman, Naomi; Krassioukov, Andrei; Krogh, Klaus; Lammertse, Daniel; Magasi, Susan; Mulcahey, MJ; Schurch, Brigitte; Sherwood, Arthur; Steeves, John D.; Stiens, Steven; Tulsky, David S.; van Hedel, Hubertus J.A.; Whiteneck, Gale

2009-01-01

35

[Patient-reported outcomes: definition and measurement].  

PubMed

The concept of "patient-reported outcomes" have been proposed by the Food and Drug Administration in the year 2000, in order to describe one of the different and potential sources of information on the drug's safety and effectiveness. It represents an "umbrella" term, which covers a multiplicity of meanings and primarily identifies a conceptual approach and a methodology specifically oriented to the patients' point of view on outcomes, instead of the traditional clinical and professional perspective. The patient-reported outcomes measures are frequently self-completed questionnaires. The measures can be classified in general and specific. The first one, general, relates to the assessment of the quality of life or the health status, in the general population or in subgroups with particular health problems (eg. SF-36 Health Survey, EQ-5D). The second one, specific, mainly relates to the assessment of particular types of symptoms (eg. pain, anxiety, fear, depression) and functions (eg. daily living activities), in population's subgroups with definite health problems, undergoing or not to a healthcare procedure (eg. Adult Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, Kidney Disease Quality of Life Instrument, Oxford Hip Score, Oxford Knee Score). For the selection of an instrument a series of criteria needs to be taken into account, among which the psychometric properties, the expert judgement, the interpretability, the acceptability, and the feasibility of the entire process. PMID:25002284

Botturi, Davide; Rodella, Stefania

2014-06-01

36

42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

2013-10-01

37

42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

2010-10-01

38

42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

2009-10-01

39

42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

2004-10-01

40

42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2003-10-01 2003-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

2003-10-01

41

42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

2005-10-01

42

42 CFR 410.146 - Diabetes outcome measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diabetes outcome measurements. 410.146 Section...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.146...

2011-10-01

43

Composite outcome measures in alcoholism treatment research: problems and potentialities.  

PubMed

Alcoholism treatment researchers have increasingly incorporated multiple measures representing multiple dimensions in assessing treatment outcomes. However, no satisfactory model exists for examining the dynamic interrelationships of multiple measures in determining clinically meaningful and interpretable outcomes. One approach to analyzing multiple outcomes is to combine them into a composite measure. In their most elementary form, composite measures combine alcohol consumption and consumption-related problems dimensions into treatment outcome classifications. This paper discusses conceptual and methodological issues in studies reporting composite outcomes and provides a model and recommendations for using composite measures in alcohol treatment research. PMID:8958638

Zweben, A; Cisler, R

1996-11-01

44

Measuring Treatment Outcomes in Women With Vulvodynia  

PubMed Central

Vulvodynia or vulvar pain syndrome is a chronic, heterogeneous, and multifactorial gynecological condition with an estimated prevalence of 9 - 12%, broad and substantial effect on quality of life due to physical disabilities, psychological distress and sexual dysfunction. A rationale therapeutic approach for the treatment of vulvodynia is still under investigation. A review of treatment modalities proposed by most of the clinicians involved in managing these patients advocated initially utilizing non-invasive therapies and then to proceed gradually to more aggressive therapies. A multidisciplinary approach that includes behavioral science and neuroimaging is required and recommended. Additionally a team approach should be utilized to test and evaluate therapies including pelvic floor physiotheraphy, psychotherapy, microbiology and pharmacology. It is my hope that this review will assist in the understanding of vulvodynia and its measuring treatment outcomes and will provide a thrust in the right direction to once and for all clarify this complex multifactorial disorder affecting women. Keywords Treatment; Vulvodynia; Women

Ventolini, Gary

2011-01-01

45

General Outcome Measures for Verbal Operants  

PubMed Central

A general outcome measure (GOM) can be used to show progress towards a long-term goal. GOMs should sample domains of behavior across ages, be sensitive to change over time, be inexpensive and easy to use, and facilitate decision making. Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior may benefit from the development of GOM. To develop GOM, we conducted a review of the literature on mands, tacts, echoics, and intraverbals. The four areas reviewed included (a) an examination of the participant's response form (i.e., vocal or nonvocal), (b) the type of prompt used, (c) types of materials used, and (d) timing of responses or sessions. Based on the review of the literature, we developed GOM for mands and tacts. This paper attempts to bridge the concept of GOMs with Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior.

Kubina, Richard M; Wolfe, Pamela; Kostewicz, Douglas E

2009-01-01

46

Child Outcome Measures in the Study of Child Care Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses whether there are methodological problems with child outcome measures that may contribute to the small associations between child care quality and child outcomes found in the literature. Outcome measures used in 65 studies of child care quality published between 1979 and December 2005 were examined, taking the previous review…

Zaslow, Martha; Halle, Tamara; Martin, Laurie; Cabrera, Natasha; Calkins, Julia; Pitzer, Lindsay; Margie, Nancy Geyelin

2006-01-01

47

Update on morphea: part II. Outcome measures and treatment.  

PubMed

Morphea is a rare fibrosing disorder of the skin and underlying tissues. The underlying pathogenesis of morphea is not completely understood at this time, but ultimately results in an imbalance of collagen production and destruction. Evidence-based treatment options of morphea are limited secondary to the rarity of the disease, and the lack of universally used validated outcome measures. The most commonly used outcome measures are skin scores, computerized surface area measurement, durometer, cutometer, thermography, and ultrasound measurements. The Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool is a promising recently validated skin scoring tool that allows differentiation between activity and damage, is sensitive to change, and requires no additional equipment. The most robust data in the treatment of morphea exists for methotrexate in combination with systemic steroids and ultraviolet A1. PMID:21238824

Fett, Nicole; Werth, Victoria P

2011-02-01

48

Outcome measures for erectile dysfunction. 1: Literature review.  

PubMed

This article describes and evaluates critically the outcome measures available for the assessment of the conservative treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The literature review identified 26 outcome measures. Of these, 14 were subjective and 12 were objective. Objective measures can provide more accurate information. However, owing to the sensitive nature of the problem, questionnaires which are reliable and sensitive to change can provide valuable data. Different outcome measures were needed for each of the separate components of ED. These components were found to be rigidity, vascular flow, nerve conductivity, intracavemosal pressure, ischiocavernosus muscle power, partner satisfaction and quality of life. An evaluation of outcome measures for each component of ED is provided in the second part of this article. Quick, simple, inexpensive and efficient outcome measures can be used by nurses to evaluate the impact of conservative treatment for ED. PMID:11826321

Dorey, Grace

49

Clinical outcomes resulting from telemedicine interventions: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The use of telemedicine is growing, but its efficacy for achieving comparable or improved clinical outcomes has not been established in many medical specialties. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of telemedicine interventions for health outcomes in two classes of application: home-based and office/hospital-based. Methods Data sources for the study included deports of studies from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and HealthSTAR databases; searching of bibliographies of review and other articles; and consultation of printed resources as well as investigators in the field. We included studies that were relevant to at least one of the two classes of telemedicine and addressed the assessment of efficacy for clinical outcomes with data of reported results. We excluded studies where the service did not historically require face-to-face encounters (e.g., radiology or pathology diagnosis). All included articles were abstracted and graded for quality and direction of the evidence. Results A total of 25 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed. The strongest evidence for the efficacy of telemedicine in clinical outcomes comes from home-based telemedicine in the areas of chronic disease management, hypertension, and AIDS. The value of home glucose monitoring in diabetes mellitus is conflicting. There is also reasonable evidence that telemedicine is comparable to face-to-face care in emergency medicine and is beneficial in surgical and neonatal intensive care units as well as patient transfer in neurosurgery. Conclusions Despite the widespread use of telemedicine in virtually all major areas of health care, evidence concerning the benefits of its use exists in only a small number of them. Further randomized controlled trials must be done to determine where its use is most effective.

2001-01-01

50

Outcomes 'out of africa': the selection and implementation of outcome measures for palliative care in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background End-of-life care research across Africa is under-resourced and under-developed. A central issue in research in end-of-life care is the measurement of effects and outcomes of care on patients and families. Little is known about the experiences of health professionals' selection and implementation of outcome measures (OM) in clinical care, research, audit, or teaching in Africa. Methods An online survey was undertaken of those using outcome measures across the region, as part of the PRISMA project. A questionnaire addressing the use of OMs was developed for a similar survey in Europe and adapted for Africa. Participants were sampled through the contacts database of APCA. Invitation emails were sent out in January 2010 and reminders in February 2010. Results 168/301 invited contacts (56%) from 24 countries responded, with 78 respondents having previously used OM (65% in clinical practice, 12% in research and 23% for both). Main reasons for not using OM were a lack of guidance/training on using and analysing OM, with 49% saying that they would use the tools if this was provided. 40% of those using OM in clinical practice used POS, and 80% used them to assess, evaluate and monitor change. The POS was also the main tool used in research, with the principle criteria for use being validation in Africa, access to the tool and time needed to complete it. Challenges to the use of tools were shortage of time and resources, lack of guidance and training for the professionals, poor health status of patients and complexity of OM. Researchers also have problems analysing OM data. The APCA African POS was the most common version of the POS used, and was reported as a valuable tool for measuring outcomes. Respondents indicated the ideal outcome tool should be short, multi-dimensional and easy to use. Conclusion This was the first survey on professionals' views on OM in Africa. It showed that the APCA African POS was the most frequently OM used. Training and support are needed to help professionals utilise OM in palliative care, and OMs have an ongoing and important role in palliative care in Africa.

2012-01-01

51

Outcome as a Measure of Quality of Care in Oncology  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Measurement of outcomes is increasingly employed as an indicator of the quality of clinical care. The most commonly measured outcome in many clinical studies, especially in oncology, still remains the overall survival rate. Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, is striving for excellence through quality management. In seeking continual improvement, quality measurement exercises have been initiated throughout the Hospital. We present the overall survival rate of four of the ten most common cancers diagnosed in Oman. Methods: The cancers included non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), breast cancer, and stomach cancer. The studies were all retrospective and had been conducted previously. For present purposes, only the overall survival was compared with studies both from the region, and with bench-mark studies. Results: For NHL, with a median follow-up of 8 months, the 2-year overall survival rate was 64%; 90% for low risk, 55% for intermediate risk, and 15% for high risk groups. For HL, the 5-year overall survival rate was 64%; 76% for low risk and 42% for high risk. For breast cancer, the 5-year survival rate was 67%; percentages were 88%, 75% and 59% for Groups I, II, and III respectively. For gastric cancer, the 5-year survival rate was 16.5 %; 24% for the non-metastatic group. Conclusion: The outcome of patients with early stages and fewer adverse prognostic factors is comparable to what has been reported in the international literature; however, the outcome is inferior for patients presenting with advanced stage disease and several adverse prognostic factors.

Burney, Ikram A; Al Moundhri, Mansour S; Rizvi, Azhar J; Ganguly, Shyam S; Al Abri, Rashid; Ashrafi, Rafi A

2008-01-01

52

Current status of outcome measure development in vasculitis.  

PubMed

The conduct of randomized controlled trials for vasculitis, especially for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides [AAV, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis], has been greatly advanced by the development, use, and acceptance of validated outcome measures. Trials have subsequently provided the opportunity to validate and refine reliable, valid outcome measures for these multisystemic and relapsing rare diseases. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Vasculitis Working Group was formed in 2004 to foster development of validated and widely accepted outcomes in vasculitis using data-driven analyses, a dedication to building consensus, and adherence to, and guidance by, the principles of the OMERACT approach. This work led to the endorsement by OMERACT of the core set of domains and associated outcome measures for AAV. Next steps for the study of existing outcome tools in AAV include better definition of response criteria through development of more data-driven weighting of the elements of activity and damage assessment. The Working Group is now also embarking on a series of linked projects to develop validated patient-reported outcomes for use in clinical research in vasculitis. Additionally, the Working Group is studying how current methods of disease assessment and plans for new outcomes can be informed by the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Function of the World Health Organization. The success of the Group's work in AAV has also led to a formal process for developing outcomes for the large vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis) and Behçet disease. PMID:24429177

Merkel, Peter A; Aydin, Sibel Z; Boers, Maarten; Cornell, Christina; Direskeneli, Haner; Gebhart, Don; Hatemi, Gulen; Luqmani, Raashid; Matteson, Eric L; Milman, Nataliya; Robson, Joanna; Seo, Philip; Tomasson, Gunnar

2014-03-01

53

Generating Outcome Measurements: Economic and Societal. A Guide to Educational Outcomes Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministires, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with generating outcome measurements:…

Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

54

Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative: protocol for an international Delphi study to achieve consensus on how to select outcome measurement instruments for outcomes included in a 'core outcome set'  

PubMed Central

Background The Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) initiative aims to facilitate the development and application of ‘core outcome sets’ (COS). A COS is an agreed minimum set of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials of a specific disease or trial population. The overall aim of the Core Outcome Measurement Instrument Selection (COMIS) project is to develop a guideline on how to select outcome measurement instruments for outcomes included in a COS. As part of this project, we describe our current efforts to achieve a consensus on the methods for selecting outcome measurement instruments for outcomes to be included in a COS. Methods/Design A Delphi study is being performed by a panel of international experts representing diverse stakeholders with the intention that this will result in a guideline for outcome measurement instrument selection. Informed by a literature review, a Delphi questionnaire was developed to identify potentially relevant tasks on instrument selection. The Delphi study takes place in a series of rounds. In the first round, panelists were asked to rate the importance of different tasks in the selection of outcome measurement instruments. They were encouraged to justify their choices and to add other relevant tasks. Consensus was reached if at least 70% of the panelists considered a task ‘highly recommended’ or ‘desirable’ and if no opposing arguments were provided. These tasks will be included in the guideline. Tasks that at least 50% of the panelists considered ‘not relevant’ will be excluded from the guideline. Tasks that were indeterminate will be taken to the second round. All responses of the first round are currently being aggregated and will be fed back to panelists in the second round. A third round will only be performed if the results of the second round require it. Discussion Since the Delphi method allows a large group of international experts to participate, we consider it to be the preferred consensus-based method for our study. Based upon this consultation process, a guideline will be developed on instrument selection for outcomes to be included in a COS.

2014-01-01

55

A review of outcome measures used in cleft care.  

PubMed

This article provides a summary of the main outcome measures currently available and in use within modern cleft care. The fact that there are such a diverse range, including surgical, orthodontic, dental, speech and patient satisfaction measures, is a reflection of the complex, multidisciplinary and longitudinal nature of the care provided. The use of such measures of outcome is essential in the auditing and drive for continued improvements in the standards of care for patients affected with cleft lip and palate. PMID:24521752

Jones, Timothy; Al-Ghatam, Rana; Atack, Nikki; Deacon, Scott; Power, Rosie; Albery, Liz; Ireland, Tony; Sandy, Jonathan

2014-06-01

56

Direct Measures for Course Outcomes Assessment for ABET Accreditation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Direct measures provide for the direct examination or observation of student knowledge or skills against measurable learning outcomes. ABET has been putting increasing emphasis on direct measures for a program to demonstrate its achievement of program outcomes and educational objectives. In this paper, an approach for assessment of course outcomes using direct measures is presented. The knowledge and skills described by the course outcomes are mapped to specific problems on homework and exams. Throughout the semester the instructor keeps track of the performance of each student on each course outcome. At the end of the semester students receive letter grades as usual. But in addition each student receives a score on the scale of 1-to-5 for every course outcome indicating how well he/she achieved each outcome. The data (scores) coming from each course are used at the program level to assess the program outcomes. The paper provides an example and concludes with recommendations for other institutions that may choose to adapt a similar approach.

Gurocak, Hakan

2009-09-09

57

A Binomial Test of Group Differences with Correlated Outcome Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on previous arguments for why educational researchers should not provide effect-size estimates in the face of statistically nonsignificant outcomes (Robinson & Levin, 1997), Onwuegbuzie and Levin (2005) proposed a 3-step statistical approach for assessing group differences when multiple outcome measures are individually analyzed within…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.

2011-01-01

58

Development and validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care: the palliative care outcome scale  

PubMed Central

Objectives - To develop an outcome measure for patients with advanced cancer and their families which would cover more than either physical symptoms or quality of life related questions. To validate the measure in various specialist and non-specialist palliative care settings throughout the UK. Design - A systematic literature review of measures appropriate for use in palliative care settings was conducted. In conjunction with a multidisciplinary project advisory group, questions were chosen for inclusion into the scale based on whether they measured aspects of physical, psychological, or spiritual domains pertinent to palliative care, and whether similar items had shown to be valid as part of another measure. A staff completed version was developed to facilitate data collection on all patients throughout their care, and a patient completed version was designed to enable the patient to contribute to the assessment of their outcomes when possible. A full validation study was conducted to evaluate construct validity, internal consistency, responsiveness to change over time, and test-retest reliability. Assessments were timed. Setting - Eight centres in England and Scotland providing palliative care, including inpatient care, outpatient care, day care, home care, and primary care. Patients - A total of 450 patients entered care during the study period. Staff collected data routinely on patients in care long enough to be assessed (n=337). Of these, 262 were eligible for patient participation; 148 (33%) went on to complete a questionnaire. Main measures - The Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS), the European Organisation for Research on Cancer Treatment, and the Support Team Assessment Schedule. Results - The POS consists of two almost identical measures, one of which is completed by staff, the other by patients. Agreement between staff and patient ratings was found to be acceptable for eight out of 10 items at the first assessment. The measure demonstrated construct validity (Spearman rho = 0.43 to 0.80). Test/re-test reliability was acceptable for seven items. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.65 (patients), 0.70 (staff)). Change over time was shown, but did not reach statistical significance. The questionnaire did not take more than 10 minutes to complete by staff or patients. Conclusion - The POS has acceptable validity and reliability. It can be used to assess prospectively palliative care for patients with advanced cancer.

Hearn, J.; Higginson, I. J.

1999-01-01

59

Relating acoustics and human outcome measures in hospitals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hospital noise has been an area of concern for medical professionals and researchers for the last century. Researchers have attempted to characterize the soundscape of hospital wards and have made some preliminary links between noise and human outcomes. In the past, most of the research has used traditional acoustic metrics. These traditional metrics, such as average sound level, are readily measured using sound level meters and have been the primary results reported in previous studies. However, it has been shown that these traditional metrics may be insufficient in fully characterizing the wards. The two studies presented here use traditional metrics and nontraditional metrics to define the soundscape of hospital wards. The uncovered links, between both sound level metrics and psychoacoustic metrics and patient physiological measurements, are discussed. Correlations and risk ratios demonstrate the presence and the strength of these relationships. These results demonstrate the relationships between hospital acoustics and patient physiological arousal. Additionally, the effects of adding absorption in a hospital ward are presented. Sound level, sound power, reverberation time and other acoustic metrics are directly affected. The speech intelligibility in these wards is evaluated in order to highlight the temporal nature of speech intelligibility. With both studies combined, both traditional and nontraditional acoustic measures are shown to have statistically significant relationships to both patient and staff outcomes.

Hsu, Timothy Yuan-Ting

60

Measuring alternative learning outcomes: dispositions to study in higher education.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe the validation of two scales constructed to measure pre-university students' changing disposition (i) to enter Higher Education (HE) and (ii) to further study mathematically-demanding subjects. Items were selected drawing on interview data, and on a model of disposition as socially- as well as self- attributed. Rasch analyses showed that the two scales each produce robust one-dimensional measures on what we call a 'strength of commitment to enter HE' and 'disposition to study mathematically-demanding subjects further' respectively. However, the former scale was initially found to suffer psychometrically from a ceiling effect, which we 'corrected' by adding some harder items at a later data point, and revised the scale according to our interpretation of subsequent results. We finally discuss the potential significance of the constructed measures of learning outcomes, as variables in monitoring or even explaining students' progress into different subjects in HE. PMID:23816596

Pampaka, Maria; Williams, Julian; Hutcheson, Graeme; Black, Laura; Davis, Pauline; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul; Wake, Geoff

2013-01-01

61

Outcome measures and their everyday use in chiropractic practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the extent to which chiropractors utilize standardized outcome and various clinical measures to systematically document patients’ baseline health status and responses to treatment, with particular consideration being given towards quantifiable outcome instruments. Study design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Participants: Registered chiropractors in the province of Saskatchewan. Methods: A survey was mailed to all registrants of the Chiropractors’ Association of Saskatchewan. Respondents graded their frequency of using various standardized pencil-and-paper instruments and functional chiropractic, orthopaedic and neurological tests in the contexts of both the initial intake assessment (‘always,’ ‘commonly,’ ‘occasionally,’ or ‘never’) and the course of subsequent treatment (after ‘each visit,’ after ‘9–12 visits,’ ‘annually,’ when patient ‘not responding,’ on ‘dismissal/discharge,’ ‘never’ or for some ‘other’ reason). Data were tabulated for all item and response category combinations as frequencies and percentages using the total sample size as the denominator. Results: Of 164 registered chiropractors, 62 (38%) returned a completed questionnaire. A pain diagram was the most commonly used subjective outcome measure and was administered routinely (either “always” or “commonly”) by 75% of respondents, at either the initial consultation or during a subsequent visit. Numerical rating and visual analogue scales were less popular (routinely used by 59% and 42% respectively). The majority of respondents (80%) seldom (“occasionally” or “never”) used spine pain-specific disability indices such as the Low Back Revised Oswestry, Neck Disability Index or the Roland-Morris Questionnaire. As well, they did not use standardized psychosocial instruments such as the Beck Depression Index, or general health assessment measures such as the SF-36 or SF-12 questionnaire. Neurological testing was the most commonly used objective outcome measure. Most respondents (84% to 95%) indicated that they continually monitored neurological status through dermatomal, manual muscle strength and deep tendon reflex testing. Ranges of motion were routinely measured by 95% of respondents, usually visually (96%) rather than goniometrically or by some other specialized device (7%). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the majority of chiropractors do not use psychosocial questionnaires or condition-specific disability indices to document baseline or subsequent changes in health status. Chiropractors are more likely to rely on medical history taking and pain drawings during an initial intake assessment, as well as neurological and visually estimated range of motion testing during both initial intake and subsequent treatment visits.

Hinton, Paul M.; McLeod, Randall; Broker, Blaine; MacLellan, C. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

62

Laparoscopic Versus Open Appendectomy: A Comparison of Primary Outcome Measures  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: The aim of the study was to compare laparoscopic and open appendectomy (OA) in terms of primary outcome measures. Study design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and duration of the study: Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, February 2008 to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A total of 160 patients were divided into two groups, A and B. Group A patients were subjected to laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), whereas Group B patients were subjected to OA. Data regarding age, gender, and primary outcome measures, such as hospital stay, operative duration, and postoperative complication, were recorded and analyzed. Percentages were calculated for categorical data, whereas numerical data were represented as mean ± SD. Chi-square test and t test were used to compare categorical and numerical variables, respectively. Probability ? 0.05 (P ? 0.05) was considered significant. Results: After randomization, 72 patients in group A and 75 patients in group B were analyzed. The mean age of patients in groups A and B was 23.09 ± 8.51 and 23.12 ± 10.42 years, respectively, (P = 0.981). The mean hospital stay was 1.52 ± 0.76 days in group A and 1.70 ± 1.06 days in group B (P = 0.294). The mean operative duration in group A and B were 47.54 ± 12.82 min and 31.36 ± 11.43 min, respectively (P < 0.001). Pain (overall level) was significantly less in group A compared with group B (P = 0.004). The two groups were comparable in terms of other postoperative complications, such as hematoma (P = 0.87), paralytic ileus (P = 0.086), urinary retention (P = 0.504), and wound infection (P = 0.134). Conclusion: LA is an equivalent procedure and not superior to OA in terms of primary outcome measures.

Khalil, Jawad; Muqim, Roohul; Rafique, Mohammad; Khan, Mansoor

2011-01-01

63

Patient-reported outcome measures for asthma: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Background:Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are measures of the outcome of treatment(s) reported directly by the patient or carer. There is increasing international policy interest in using these to assess the impact of clinical care.Aims:To identify suitably validated PROMs for asthma and examine their potential for use in clinical settings.Methods:We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from 1990 onwards to identify PROMs for asthma. These were critically appraised, then narratively synthesised. We also identified the generic PROMs commonly used alongside asthma-specific PROMs.Results:We identified 68 PROMs for asthma, 13 of which were selected through screening as being adequately developed to warrant full-quality appraisal: 8 for adults, 4 for children and 1 for a child's caregiver. The PROMs found to be sufficiently well validated to offer promise for use in clinical settings were the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and mini-AQLQ for adults, and Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire for children. Rhinasthma was considered promising in simultaneously assessing the impact of asthma and rhinitis in those with coexistent disease. We identified 28 generic PROMs commonly used in conjunction with asthma-specific instruments.Conclusions:We identified asthma PROMs that offer the greatest potential for use in clinical settings. Further work is needed to assess whether these are fit-for-purpose for use in clinical practice with individual patients. In particular, there is a need to ensure these are validated for use in clinical settings, acceptable to patients, caregivers and clinicians, and yield meaningful outcomes. PMID:24964767

Worth, Allison; Hammersley, Victoria; Knibb, Rebecca; Flokstra-de-Blok, Bertine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Walker, Samantha; Dubois, Anthony E J; Sheikh, Aziz

2014-01-01

64

Identifying and Measuring Desirable Student Social Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of Alberta's Educational Quality Indicators initiative, Fort McMurray School District developed a three-level approach to measuring student social skills that includes teacher ratings on report cards, diagnostic screening, and referral to a counselor. The 44-item Social Skills Diagnostic Screen covers personal and interpersonal factors,…

Willard, Leigh Anne

1993-01-01

65

Outcome measures used in clinical trials for Behçet syndrome: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Behçet syndrome (BS) is a multisystem vasculitis that is most active during young adulthood, causing serious disability and significant impairment in quality of life. Differences in the disease course, severity, and organ involvement between patients, depending on the age at presentation and sex, makes it impossible to determine a single management strategy. The diversity and variability in the outcome measures used in clinical trials in BS makes it difficult to compare the results or inform physicians about the best management strategy for individual patients. There is a large unmet need to determine or develop validated outcome measures for use in clinical trials in BS that are acceptable to researchers and regulatory agencies. We conducted a systematic review to describe the outcomes and outcome measures that have been used in clinical trials in BS. This review revealed the diversity and variability in the outcomes and outcome measures and the lack of standard definitions for most outcomes and rarity of validated outcome tools for disease assessment in BS. This systematic literature review will identify domains and candidate instruments for use in a Delphi exercise, the next step in the development of a core set of outcome measures that are properly validated and widely accepted by the collaboration of researchers from many different regions of the world and from different specialties, including rheumatology, ophthalmology, dermatology, gastroenterology, and neurology. PMID:24488418

Hatemi, Gulen; Merkel, Peter A; Hamuryudan, Vedat; Boers, Maarten; Direskeneli, Haner; Aydin, Sibel Z; Yazici, Hasan

2014-03-01

66

A Continuous Measure of Growth Outcomes: Will It Do What It Proposes To Do?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article comments on two studies (EC 629 876) that investigated the validity of a set of 15 general growth outcomes (GGOs) for identifying young children with disabilities. It discusses concerns relating to whether the research is sufficiently meritorious to result in a valid measure of growth outcomes suitable for national use. (Contains 4…

Fewell, Rebecca R.

2001-01-01

67

Edifoligide and Long-Term Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: PREVENT IV 5-Year Results  

PubMed Central

Background Edifoligide, an E2F transcription factor decoy, does not prevent vein graft failure or adverse clinical outcomes at 1-year in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We compared the 5-year clinical outcomes of patients in PREVENT IV treated with edifoligide and placebo and to identify predictors of long-term clinical outcomes. Methods A total of 3014 patients undergoing CABG with at least 2 planned vein grafts were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to compare the long-term effects of edifoligide and placebo. A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to identify factors associated with 5-year post-CABG outcomes. The main outcome measure was death, myocardial infarction (MI), repeat revascularization, and rehospitalization through 5 years. Results Five-year follow-up was complete in 2865 (95.1%) patients. At 5 years, patients randomized to edifoligide and placebo had similar rates of death (11.7% and 10.7%), MI (2.3% and 3.2%), revascularization (14.1% and 13.9%), and rehospitalization (61.6% and 62.5%). The 5-year composite outcome of death, MI, or revascularization occurred at similar frequency in patients assigned to edifoligide and placebo (26.3% and 25.5%; hazard ratio 1.03 [95% confidence interval 0.89–1.18]; P=0.721). Factors associated with death, MI, or revascularization at 5 years included diabetes, sex, worst graft quality, peri-index CABG MI, and ejection fraction. Conclusions Up to a quarter of patients undergoing CABG will have a major cardiac event or repeat revascularization procedure within 5 years of surgery. Edifoligide does not affect outcomes following CABG; however, common identifiable baseline and procedural risk factors are associated with long-term outcomes following CABG.

Lopes, Renato D.; Williams, Judson B.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Reyes, Eric M.; Hafley, Gail E.; Allen, Keith B.; Mack, Michael J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Harrington, Robert A.; Gibson, C. Michael; Califf, Robert M.; Kouchoukos, Nicholas T.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Lorenz, Todd J.; Alexander, John H.

2013-01-01

68

Early antitoxin treatment in wound botulism results in better outcome.  

PubMed

Wound botulism in 7 heroin 'skin poppers' produced ophthalmoplegia and descending paralysis. Rapid recovery occurred in 2 who received the antitoxin within the fourth day of symptom onset. A poor outcome was seen in 4 who received the antitoxin after the eighth day of symptoms and 1 who did not receive the antitoxin. Early antitoxin administration is important in achieving a favorable outcome. PMID:12646758

Chang, Gregory Youngnam; Ganguly, Gautam

2003-01-01

69

The Relationship between University Rankings and Outcomes Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship between university ranks and outcome measurements. Many students select the university that they will attend based on these rankings In this paper the rankings conducted by two studies are examined. U.S. News and World Report rankings are based upon measures of the quality of input, retention while in school…

Ding, Chuanfu; Jalbert, Terrance; Landry, Steven P.

2007-01-01

70

OMERACT: An international initiative to improve outcome measurement in rheumatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

OMERACT is the acronym for an international, informally organized network initiated in 1992 aimed at improving outcome measurement in rheumatology. Chaired by an executive committee, it organizes consensus conferences in a 2-yearly cycle that circles the globe. Data driven recommendations are prepared and updated by expert working groups. Recommendations include core sets of measures for most of the major rheumatologic

Peter Tugwell; Maarten Boers; Peter Brooks; Lee Simon; Vibeke Strand; Leanne Idzerda

2007-01-01

71

Measuring Violence Risk and Outcomes among Mexican American Adolescent Females  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central to the development of culturally competent violence prevention programs for Hispanic youth is the development of psychometrically sound violence risk and outcome measures for this population. A study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of two commonly used violence measures, in this case for Mexican American adolescent…

Cervantes, Richard C.; Duenas, Norma; Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles

2006-01-01

72

The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)  

PubMed Central

Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Roadmap initiative (www.nihpromis.org) is a 5-year cooperative group program of research designed to develop, validate, and standardize item banks to measure patient-reported outcomes (PROs) relevant across common medical conditions. In this article, we will summarize the organization and scientific activity of the PROMIS network during its first 2 years. Design The network consists of 6 primary research sites (PRSs), a statistical coordinating center (SCC), and NIH research scientists. Governed by a steering committee, the network is organized into functional subcommittees and working groups. In the first year, we created an item library and activated 3 interacting protocols: Domain Mapping, Archival Data Analysis, and Qualitative Item Review (QIR). In the second year, we developed and initiated testing of item banks covering 5 broad domains of self-reported health. Results The domain mapping process is built on the World Health Organization (WHO) framework of physical, mental, and social health. From this framework, pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical functioning, social role participation, and global health perceptions were selected for the first wave of testing. Item response theory (IRT)-based analysis of 11 large datasets supplemented and informed item-level qualitative review of nearly 7000 items from available PRO measures in the item library. Items were selected for rewriting or creation with further detailed review before the first round of testing in the general population and target patient populations. Conclusions The NIH PROMIS network derived a consensus-based framework for self-reported health, systematically reviewed available instruments and datasets that address the initial PROMIS domains. Qualitative item research led to the first wave of network testing which began in the second year.

Cella, David; Yount, Susan; Rothrock, Nan; Gershon, Richard; Cook, Karon; Reeve, Bryce; Ader, Deborah; Fries, James F.; Bruce, Bonnie; Rose, Mattias

2010-01-01

73

Foreword: emergence of efficiency in health outcome measurement.  

PubMed

Psychosocial measurement in the 21st Century is a dynamic field that is addressing challenges unthinkable even a generation ago. Sophisticated methods and modern technology has brought psychometrics to the cusp of scientific objectivity. This Foreword provides historical context and intellectual foundations for appreciating contemporary psychometric advancements, as well as a perspective on issues that are determining future advances. Efficiency in outcome measurement is one of these forces driving future advances. Efficiency, however, can easily become conflated with expediency, and neither can substitute for effectiveness. Blind efficiency runs risk of degrading measurement properties. Likewise, measurement advancement without accommodation to ordinary needs leads to practical rejection. Bouchard presents a biographical link between scientific physics and Rasch models that opened the door for fundamental psychosocial measurement. Symposium papers presented in this issue present a broad range of ideas about contemporary psychosocial measurement. Granger summarizes key ideas underlying achievement of objective, fundamental measurement. Massof, then, Stenner and Stone present alternative perspectives on scientific knowledge systems, which are prominent landmarks on the psychometric horizon. Fisher and Burton describe fundamental measurement methodology in diagnosis and implementation of technology, which will consolidate isolated and redundant constructs in PROMIS. Hart presents an overview on computer adaptive testing, which is the vanguard in health outcome measurement. Kisala and Tulsky present a qualitative strategy that is improving sensitivity and validity of new outcome measures. Their diversity reflects an intense competition of ideas about solving measurement problems. Their collection together in this special issue is a milestone and tribute to scientific ingenuity. PMID:20847470

Bezruczko, Nikolaus

2010-01-01

74

Evaluating outcomes of palliative photodynamic therapy: instrument development and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Subjective measures are considered the gold standard in palliative care evaluation, but no studies have evaluated palliative photodynamic therapy (PDT) subjectively. If PDT is to be accepted as a palliative therapy for later-stage obstructing esophageal and lung cancer, evidence of its effectiveness and acceptability to patients must be made known. Study Design/Materials and Methods: This ongoing study's major aim is to evaluate subjective outcomes of PDT in patients with obstructing esophageal and lung cancer. Existing measures of health status, dysphagia and performance status were supplemented with an instrument developed to evaluate PDT symptom relief and side effect burden, the PDT Side Effects Survey (PSES). Results: PDT patients treated with porfimer sodium (Photofrin) and 630-nm light experienced reduced dysphagia grade and stable performance status for at least one month after PDT (N= 10-17), but these effects did not necessarily persist at three months. Fatigue, appetite and quality of life may be the most burdensome issues for these patients. Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that the PSES is an acceptable and valid tool for measuring subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. This study is the first attempt to systematically evaluate subjective outcomes of palliative PDT. Multi-center outcomes research is needed to draw generalizable conclusions that will establish PDT's effectiveness in actual clinical practice and enhance the wider adoption of PDT as a cancer symptom relief modality.

Goodell, Teresa T.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Jacques, Steven L.

2002-06-01

75

Validation of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication under Six outcome measure  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS©),a tool designed to measure changes in communication skills in preschool children. Method Participating families' children (n=97; 68 males, 29 females; mean age 2y 8mo; SD 1.04y, range 10mo–4y 11mo) were recruited through eight Canadian organizations. The children were on a waiting list for speech and language intervention. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire – Social/Emotional (ASQ-SE) and the FOCUS three times: at assessment and at the start and end of treatment. A second sample (n=28; 16 males 12 females) was recruited from another organization to correlate the FOCUS scores with speech, intelligibility and language measures. Second sample participants ranged in age from 3 years 1 month to 4 years 9 months (mean 3y 11mo; SD 0.41y). At the start and end of treatment, children were videotaped to obtain speech and language samples. Parents and speech–language pathologists (SLPs) independently completed the FOCUS tool. SLPs who were blind to the pre/post order of the videotapes analysed the samples. Results The FOCUS measured significantly more change (p<0.01) during treatment than during the waiting list period. It demonstrated both convergent and discriminant validity against the ASQ-SE. The FOCUS change corresponded to change measured by a combination of clinical speech and language measures (?=0.31, p<0.05). Conclusion The FOCUS shows strong construct validity as a change-detecting instrument.

Thomas-Stonell, Nancy; Oddson, Bruce; Robertson, Bernadette; Rosenbaum, Peter

2013-01-01

76

Development of an outcome measurement system for service planning for children and youth with special needs  

PubMed Central

Aim?This study described the process used in developing an outcome measurement framework for system planning to improve services for children and youth with special needs and their families in a Canadian province. The study reports the results of several parent-completed measures, which would be useful in service planning as well as the acceptability and utility of these measures for use by families and service centres. Methods/results?Development of a theoretical framework, consultation with key stakeholders, testing the utility of selected outcome measures and initial dissemination of results were critical elements in the successful development of an outcome system. Consultation with stakeholders confirmed use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the child-within-family-within community model as theoretical frameworks while building valuable partnerships and identifying potential barriers to implementation. Pilot testing showed three outcome measures were feasible for families to complete and the measures provided information about services for children that was valuable to families as well as service providers. Gaps in service delivery were identified and the need for better communication between service providers and communities to facilitate integrated services was highlighted. Conclusion?The findings from this study can be used to implement an outcome measurement system for children with special needs and may serve as a resource for international researchers who are working to develop valid tools as well as outcome systems that are useful for system planning.

Kertoy, M K; Russell, D J; Rosenbaum, P; Jaffer, S; Law, M; McCauley, D; Gorter, J W

2013-01-01

77

Factors predicting work status 3 months after injury: results from the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Few studies examine predictors of work status following injury beyond injuries presenting to a hospital or emergency department. This paper examines the combined influences of socio-demographic, occupational, injury and pre-existing health and lifestyle factors as predictors of work status 3?months after hospitalised and non-hospitalised injury in a cohort of injured New Zealand workers. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study, New Zealand. Participants 2626 workforce active participants were identified from the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study; 11 participants with missing outcome responses were excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome of interest was ‘not working’ at the time of interview. Results 720 (27%) reported ‘not working’ 3?months after injury. The most important pre-injury predictors of not working following injury found by multidimensional modelling were as follows: low or unknown income, financial insecurity, physical work tasks, temporary employment, long week schedules, obesity, perceived threat to life and hospital admission. Contrary to expectations, workers reporting less frequent exercise pre-injury had lower odds of work absence. Pre-injury psychosocial and health factors were not associated with not working. Conclusion Certain pre-injury socio-demographic, physical work, work organisation, lifestyle and injury-related factors were associated with not working 3?months after injury. If these findings are confirmed, intervention strategies aimed at improving return to work should address multiple dimensions of both the worker and the workplace.

Davie, Gabrielle; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Derrett, Sarah

2012-01-01

78

Association of Patient-Centered Outcomes With Patient-Reported and ICD-9-Based Morbidity Measures  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Evaluating patient-centered care for complex patients requires morbidity measurement appropriate for use with a variety of clinical outcomes. We compared the contributions of self-reported morbidity and morbidity measured using administrative diagnosis data for both patient-reported outcomes and utilization outcomes. METHODS Using a cohort of 961 persons aged 65 years or older with 3 or more medical conditions, we explored 9 health outcomes as a function of 4 independent variables representing different types of morbidity measures: International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), a self-reported weighted count of conditions, and self-reported symptoms of depression and of anxiety. Outcomes varied from self-reported health status to utilization. Depending on the outcome measure, we used multivariate linear, negative binomial, or logistic regression, adjusting for demographic characteristics and length of enrollment to assess associations between dependent and all 4 independent variables. RESULTS Higher morbidity measured by ICD-9 diagnoses was independently associated with less favorable levels of 7 of the 9 clinical outcomes. Higher self-reported disease burden was significantly associated with less favorable levels of 8 of the outcomes, controlling for the 3 other morbidity measures. Morbidity measured by diagnosis code was more strongly associated with higher utilization, whereas self-reported disease burden and emotional symptoms were more strongly associated with patient-reported outcomes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive assessment of morbidity requires both subjective and objective measurement of disease burden as well as an assessment of emotional symptoms. Such multidimensional morbidity measurement is particularly relevant for research or quality assessments involving the delivery of patient-centered care to complex patient populations.

Bayliss, Elizabeth A.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Shoup, Jo Ann; Zeng, Chan; McQuillan, Deanna B.; Steiner, John F.

2012-01-01

79

Undergraduate Time Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from UCUES 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class attendance and out-of-class study time are known to be strongly associated with academic engagement and college GPA. The paper examines two other uses of time as influences on academic outcomes: those devoted to active engagements with friends and community as opposed to passive entertainments, and those that connect students to campus life rather than separating them from campus life.

Steven Brint; Allison M. Cantwell

2008-01-01

80

Particulate Measurement - Motorcycle Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Particulate testing has been successfully completed on two different two-stroke powered motorcycles. The results indicate that the amount of particulate material produced by motorcycles is no greater than that from light-duty diesel automobiles. This conc...

E. Danielson

1978-01-01

81

Goal setting as an outcome measure: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Goal achievement has been considered to be an important measure of outcome by clinicians working with patients in physical and neurological rehabilitation settings. This systematic review was undertaken to examine the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting and goal attainment scaling approaches when used with working age and older people.Aims and objectives: To review the reliability, validity and

Jane Hurn; Ian Kneebone; Mark Cropley

2006-01-01

82

Planning: Using Student Outcome Measures To Plan for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a detailed outline of how to develop long- and short-range plans to fulfill a university mission with the aid of student outcome measures. Step 1 is to define university philosophy and mission so that plans are in accord with it. Step 2 is to analyze internal and external environments in order to be better prepared to respond to…

McClain, Charles J.

83

Conceptualizing Outcome and Impact Measures for Intelligence Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study is to clarify ambiguous concepts in intelligence services literature specifically related to measurement of intelligence outcomes and impact. Method: Face to face interviews were held with five subject experts from various intelligence fields and countries regarding their…

Gainor, Rhiannon; Bouthillier, France

2014-01-01

84

Emerging Issues in Rehabilitation. New Directions in Rehabilitation Outcome Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to promote research utilization in outcome measurement, recent literature and research are summarized and analyzed. The present system of evaluation in rehabilitation is shown to be lacking in its ability to give a total picture of the client...

T. E. Backer

1977-01-01

85

Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Movement for Infants and Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in movement in children (ages birth-3) is described. Results from the use of the Movement General Outcome Measurement with 29 infants and toddlers demonstrated the feasibility of the measure. The 6-minute assessment was found reliable in terms of inter-observer agreement. (Contains…

Greenwood, Charles R.; Luze, Gayle J.; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan; Leitschuh, Carol

2002-01-01

86

Development of a Change-Sensitive Outcome Measure for Children Receiving Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary testing standards place test purpose as the central focus during test development and subsequent use. This study describes the development of a measure for children designed explicitly to measure change resulting from psychosocial interventions. Parents completed the outcome measure for 896 elementary school-age children receiving…

Meier, Scott T.; McDougal, James L.; Bardos, Achilles

2008-01-01

87

Outcome measures in palliative care for advanced cancer patients: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Information generated using outcome measures to measure the effectiveness of palliative care interventions is potentially invaluable. Depending on the measurement tool employed the results can be used to monitor clinical care, carry out comparative research, provide audit data or inform purchas- ing decisions. However, the data collected can only ever be as good as the method used to obtain

Julie Hearn; Irene J. Higginson

88

Combining Extant Datasets with Differing Outcome Measures Across Studies of Older Adults after Cancer Surgery  

PubMed Central

Combining extant datasets with differing outcome measures, an economical method to generate evidence guiding older adults’ cancer care, may introduce heterogeneity leading to invalid study results. We recently conducted a study combining extant datasets from five oncology nurse-directed clinical trials (parent studies) using norm-based scoring to standardize the differing outcome measures. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze our methods in the recently completed study. Despite addressing and controlling for heterogeneity, our analysis found statistically significant heterogeneity (p<0.0001) in temporal trends among the five parent studies. We concluded that assessing heterogeneity in combined extant datasets with differing outcome measures is important to ensure similar magnitude and direction of findings across parent studies. Future research should include investigating reasons for heterogeneity to generate hypotheses about subgroup differences or differing measurement domains that may have an impact on outcomes.

Van Cleave, Janet H.; Egleston, Brian L.; Bourbonniere, Meg; McCorkle, Ruth

2011-01-01

89

Medical specialty boards can help measure graduate medical education outcomes.  

PubMed

U.S. graduate medical education (GME) training institutions are under increasing scrutiny to measure program outcomes as a demonstration of accountability for the sizeable funding they receive from the federal government. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is a potential agent of measuring GME accountability but has no interaction with physicians after residency training is completed. American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) member boards interact with physicians throughout their careers through maintenance of certification (MOC) and are a potential source of valuable data on physician competency and quality of care, both of which could be used to measure GME accountability.The authors propose that ABMS boards and the ACGME deepen their existing relationship to better assess residency training outcomes. ABMS boards have a wealth of data on physicians collected as a by-product of MOC and business operations. Further, many ABMS boards collect practice demographics and scope-of-practice information through MOC enrollment surveys or recertification examination questionnaires. These data are potentially valuable in helping residencies know what their graduates are doing in practice. Part 4 of MOC generally involves assessment of the quality of care delivered in practice, and ABMS boards could share these deidentified data with the ACGME and residency programs to provide direct feedback on the practice outcomes of graduates.ABMS member boards and the ACGME should broaden their long-standing relationship to further develop shared roles and data-sharing mechanisms to better inform residencies and the public about GME training outcomes. PMID:24871232

Peterson, Lars E; Carek, Peter; Holmboe, Eric S; Puffer, James C; Warm, Eric J; Phillips, Robert L

2014-06-01

90

Generating Outcome Measurements: Achievement and Attitudes. A Guide to Educational Outcome Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministries, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with how to obtain information on…

Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

91

Clinical outcome data for symptomatic breast cancer: the breast cancer clinical outcome measures (BCCOM) project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Data collection for screen-detected breast cancer in the United Kingdom is fully funded, which has led to improvements in clinical practice. However, data on symptomatic cancer are deficient, and the aim of this project was to monitor the current practice.Methods:A data set was designed together with surrogate outcome measures to reflect best practice. Data from cancer registries initially required the

T Bates; O Kearins; I Monypenny; C Lagord; G Lawrence

2009-01-01

92

Use of outcomes in monitoring healthcare - how many outcome measures are needed in monitoring diabetes in primary care?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the relationship between patient experience assessed through surveys of random samples of practice populations and intermediate outcome targets in those patients with diabetes, collected in the Quality and Outcomes Framework pay-for-performance scheme. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The East Midlands region of England. Participants Six hundred and twenty-nine general practices. Main outcome measures Logistic regression models were used to assess whether practice-level reports of patient experience of access and consultations were associated with achievement of treatment targets (HbA1c of 7.5% and 10% or lower, BP 145/85 mmHg or lower, and cholesterol 5 mmol/L or lower) in people with diabetes. Survey respondent characteristics (ethnicity, age, sex) and practice size, deprivation, and prevalence of diabetes and obesity were also assessed within the models. Results Patient experience of practice populations explained little of the variation in diabetes treatment targets. In the practice survey, the proportion of respondents who had seen a nurse in the last 6 months was associated with increased likelihood of achieving HbA1c of 7.5%, and being involved in decision-making or having tests and treatment explained were associated with achievement of HbA1c of 10% or less, cholesterol of 5 mmol/L or less, and BP of 145/85 or less. Conclusions Although patient experience at practice level should be included in monitoring outcomes, it should not replace monitoring clinical outcomes in diabetes. A mix of clinical and patient experience measures will have to be used to monitor outcomes in general practice.

Suleman, Javid; Anwar, Mohammed Saqib; Weston, Claire; Baker, Richard

2011-01-01

93

Sensitivity as outcome measure of androgen replacement: the AMS scale  

PubMed Central

Background The capacity of the AMS scale as clinical utility and as outcome measure still needs validation. Methods An open post-marketing study was performed by office-based physicians in Germany in 2004. We analysed data of 1670 androgen-deficient males who were treated with testosterone gel. The AMS scale was applied prior to and after 3 months treatment. Results The improvement of complaints under treatment relative to the baseline score was 30.7% (total score), 27.3% (psychological domain), 30.5% (somatic domain), and 30.7% (sexual domain), respectively. Patients with little or no symptoms before therapy improved by 9%, those with mild complaints at entry by 24%, with moderate by 32%, and with severe symptoms by 39% – compared with the baseline score. We showed that the distribution of complaints of testosterone deficient men before therapy almost returned to norm values after 12 weeks of testosterone treatment. Age, BMI, and total testosterone level at baseline did not modify the positive effect of androgen therapy. We also demonstrated that the AMS results can predict the independent (physician's) opinion about the individual treatment effect. Both, sensitivity (correct prediction of a positive assessment by the physician) and specificity (correct prediction of a negative assessment by the physician) were over 70%, if about 22% improvement of the AMS total score was used as cut-off point. Conclusion The AMS scale showed a convincing ability to measure treatment effects on quality of life across the full range of severity of complaints. Effect modification by other variables at baseline was not observed. In addition, results of the scale can predict the subjective clinical expert opinion on the treatment efficiency.

Heinemann, Lothar A; Moore, Claudia; Dinger, Juergen C; Stoehr, Diana

2006-01-01

94

Creating an Assistive Technology Outcomes Measurement System: Validating the Components  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of assistive technology (AT) outcomes has only recently received attention in the professional literature. As a result, there is a considerable void in the profession's ability to address contemporary questions about the value and use of AT. The purpose of this article is to highlight the theory, development, and research efforts of the…

Edyburn, Dave L.; Smith, Roger O.

2004-01-01

95

Outcome measures for palliative oxygen therapy: relevance and practical utility.  

PubMed

Dyspnea is a common symptom in many advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases and often is refractory to the usual therapies. In such circumstances palliative care approaches are necessary and among them palliative care oxygen therapy can be applied although currently its effectiveness is rather uncertain. Palliative oxygen therapy can be given on either continuous basis or on demand. Often the continuous palliative oxygen therapy is seen as long-term oxygen therapy although their aims are rather different. Palliative oxygen therapy was evaluated in populations with mixed underlying diseases, with outcome measures not only the most appropriate for the setting and therefore these limitations might have influenced the overall perceived therapeutic benefit. Therefore an evaluation of this method in subsets defined based on the etiology and pathogenic mechanisms and with appropriate outcome measures would help to better define the criteria for its indication and would increase its acceptability. PMID:24741999

Antoniu, Sabina; Mihaltan, Florin

2014-06-01

96

Towards measurement of outcome for patients with varicose veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To develop a valid and reliable outcome measure for patients with varicose veins. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey of patients with varicose veins. SETTING--Surgical outpatient departments and training general practices in Grampian region. SUBJECTS--373 patients, 287 of whom had just been referred to hospital for their varicose veins and 86 who had just consulted a general practitioner for this condition and, for

A M Garratt; L M Macdonald; D A Ruta; I T Russell; J K Buckingham; Z H Krukowski

1993-01-01

97

Measuring Participation: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Experience  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the lessons learned in the initial development of PROMIS social function item banks. Design Development and testing of two item pools within a general population to create item banks that measure ability-to-participate and satisfaction-with-participation in social activities. Setting Administration via the Internet. Participants General population members (N=956) of a national polling organization registry participated; data for 768 and 778 participants used in the analysis. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Measures of ability-to-participate and satisfaction-with-participation in social activities. Results Fifty six items measuring the ability-to-participate were essentially unidimensional but did not fit an IRT model. As a result, item banks were not developed for these items. Of the 56 items measuring satisfaction-with-participation, 14 items measuring social roles and 12 items measuring discretionary activities were unidimensional and met IRT model assumptions. Two 7-item short forms were also developed. Conclusions Four lessons, mostly concerning item content, were learned in the development of banks measuring social function. These lessons led to item revisions that are being tested in subsequent studies.

Bode, Rita K.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; DeVellis, Robert; Cella, David

2013-01-01

98

Engaging the hearts and minds of clinicians in outcome measurement - the UK rehabilitation outcomes collaborative approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose This article explores the rationale for choosing the instruments included within the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) data set. Using one specialist neuro-rehabilitation unit as an exemplar service, it describes an approach to engaging the hearts and minds of clinicians in recording the data. Key messages and implications Measures included within a national data set for rehabilitation should be psychometrically robust and feasible to use in routine clinical practice; they should also support clinical decision-making so that clinicians actually want to use them. Learning from other international casemix models and benchmarking data sets, the UKROC team has developed a cluster of measures to inform the development of effective and cost-efficient rehabilitation services. These include measures of (1) “needs” for rehabilitation (complexity), (2) inputs provided to meet those needs (nursing and therapy intervention), and (3) outcome, including the attainment of personal goals as well as gains in functional independence. Conclusions By integrating the use of the data set measures in everyday clinical practice, we have achieved a very high rate of compliance with data collection. However, staff training and ongoing commitment from senior staff and managers are critical to the maintenance of effort required to provide assurance of data quality in the longer term.

2012-01-01

99

Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.  

PubMed

We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling. PMID:23030073

Kent, Adrian

2012-09-28

100

Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment by Transmitting Measurement Outcomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol’s security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling.

Kent, Adrian

2012-09-01

101

The King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury and Injury Severity and Outcome Measures in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to relate discharge King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI) category to injury severity and detailed outcome measures obtained in the first year post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used a prospective cohort study. Eighty-one children with TBI were studied: 29 had severe, 15 moderate, and 37 mild TBI. The…

Calvert, Sophie; Miller, Helen E.; Curran, Andrew; Hameed, Biju; McCarter, Renee; Edwards, Richard J.; Hunt, Linda; Sharples, Peta Mary

2008-01-01

102

Development of the FOCUS (Focus on the Outcomes of Communication under Six), a Communication Outcome Measure for Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Our aim was to develop an outcome measure, called Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS), that captures real-world changes in preschool children's communication. Conceptually grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework, the FOCUS items were derived…

Thomas-Stonell, Nancy L.; Oddson, Bruce; Robertson, Bernadette; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

2010-01-01

103

Measuring functional and quality of life outcomes following major head injury: Common scales and checklists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, which results in significant mortality and long term disability. The profound impact of TBI is not only felt by the individuals who suffer the injury but also their care-givers and society as a whole. Clinicians and researchers require reliable and valid measures of long term outcome not only to truly

A. D. Nichol; A. M. Higgins; B. J. Gabbe; L. J. Murray; D. J. Cooper; P. A. Cameron

2011-01-01

104

Predominant Leg Pain Is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis: Results from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)  

PubMed Central

Study Design As-treated analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and surgical and nonoperative outcomes in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients stratified by predominant pain location (i.e. leg vs. back). Summary of Background Data Evidence suggests that degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients with predominant leg pain may have better surgical outcomes than patients with predominant low back pain (LBP). Methods The DS cohort included 591 patients (62% underwent surgery), and the SpS cohort included 615 patients (62% underwent surgery). Patients were classified as leg pain predominant, LBP predominant or having equal pain according to baseline pain scores. Baseline characteristics were compared between the three predominant pain location groups within each diagnostic category, and changes in surgical and nonoperative outcome scores were compared through two years. Longitudinal regression models including baseline covariates were used to control for confounders. Results Among DS patients at baseline, 34% had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 40% had equal pain. Similarly, 32% of SpS patients had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 42% had equal pain. DS and SpS patients with predominant leg pain had baseline scores indicative of less severe symptoms. Leg pain predominant DS and SpS patients treated surgically improved significantly more than LBP predominant patients on all primary outcome measures at one and two years. Surgical outcomes for the equal pain groups were intermediate to those of the predominant leg pain and LBP groups. The differences in nonoperative outcomes were less consistent. Conclusions Predominant leg pain patients improved significantly more with surgery than predominant LBP patients. However, predominant LBP patients still improved significantly more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment.

Pearson, Adam; Blood, Emily; Lurie, Jon; Abdu, William; Sengupta, Dilip; Frymoyer, John W.; Weinstein, James

2010-01-01

105

Using Cross-Cultural Dimensions Exercises to Improve and Measure Learning Outcomes in International Business Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes an approach for using cross-cultural dimensions exercises to improve and measure learning outcomes in international business courses. The following key issues are highlighted: (a) what are the targeted learning outcomes to be assessed, (b) how to measure the accomplishment of these learning outcomes, (c) the input measures

Zainuba, Mohamed; Rahal, Ahmad

2012-01-01

106

Connecting Stuttering Management and Measurement: I. Core Speech Measures of Clinical Process and Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There will always be a place for stuttering treatments designed to eliminate or reduce stuttered speech. When those treatments are required, direct speech measures of treatment process and outcome are needed in clinical practice. Aims: Based on the contents of published clinical trials of such treatments, three "core" measures of…

Shenker, Rosalee C.

2006-01-01

107

Results on Fermilab Main Injector Dipole measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B\\/I) vs I in providing insight into the measured results

B. C. Brown; R. Baiod; J. Dimarco; H. D. Glass; D. J. Harding; P. S. Martin; S. Mishra; A. Mokhtarani; D. F. Orris; A. D. Russell; J. C. Tompkins; D. G. C. Walbridge

1996-01-01

108

Measurement and determinants of tuberculosis outcome in Karonga District, Malawi.  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of disease outcome is central to the assessment of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. In the study reported in this article we examined the factors influencing the measurement of outcome, survival rates during and after treatment, smear conversion rates, and relapse rates for patients diagnosed with TB in a rural area of Malawi between 1986 and mid-1994. Patients with less certain diagnoses of TB were more likely to die than those with confirmed TB, both among those who were seropositive and those who were seronegative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The mortality rate among smear-positive patients with a separate culture-positive specimen was half that of patients with no such diagnostic confirmation. Patients not registered by the Ministry of Health had much higher mortality and default rates than did registered patients. Among smear-positive patients, HIV serostatus was the most important influence on mortality both during and after treatment (crude hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) = 5.6 (3.0-10) and 7.7 (3.4-17), resp.), but HIV serostatus did not influence smear conversion rates. The initial degree of smear positivity influenced smear conversion rates, but not mortality rates. No significant predictors of relapse were identified. Unless considerable care is taken to include all TB patients, and to exclude nontuberculous patients, recorded TB outcome statistics are difficult to interpret and may be misleading. In populations with high rates of HIV infection, TB target cure rates of 85% are unrealistic. When new interventions are assessed it cannot be assumed that factors which influence the smear conversion rate will also influence the mortality rate.

Glynn, J. R.; Warndorff, D. K.; Fine, P. E.; Munthali, M. M.; Sichone, W.; Ponnighaus, J. M.

1998-01-01

109

Systematic review of outcome measures in trials of pediatric anaphylaxis treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Considerable heterogeneity has been observed in the selection and reporting of disease-specific pediatric outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This makes interpretation of results and comparison across trials challenging. Outcome measures in pediatric anaphylaxis trials have never previously been systematically assessed. This systematic review (SR) identified and assessed outcome measures used in RCTs of anaphylaxis treatment in children. As a secondary objective, this SR assessed the evidence for current treatment modalities for anaphylaxis in the pediatric population. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and CINAHL from 2001 until December 2012. We also searched websites listing ongoing trials. We included randomized and controlled trials of anaphylaxis treatment in patients 0–18 years of age. Two authors independently assessed articles for inclusion. Results No published studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Conclusions There is an alarming absence of RCTs evaluating the treatments for anaphylaxis in children. High quality studies are needed and are possible to design, despite the severe and acute nature of this condition. Consensus about the selection and validation of appropriate outcome measures will enhance the quality of research and improve the care of children with anaphylaxis. Trial registration CRD42012002685

2014-01-01

110

Nonprofit Organizations and Outcome Measurement: From Tracking Program Activities to Focusing on Frontline Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why do we continue to see evidence that nonprofit staff feel like outcome measurement is missing important aspects of their work? Based on an analysis of over 1,000 pages of material in 10 outcome measurement guides and a focused literature review of frontline work in three types of nonprofit organizations, this article shows that existing outcome

Benjamin, Lehn M.

2012-01-01

111

Measuring Academic Outcomes...and Identifying What Influences Them. AIR 1989 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to measure the student outcomes of academic (university transfer) programs and identify the factors related to those outcomes. Six British Columbia (Canada) community colleges participated in the study by surveying 5,770 of their former students. The survey measured four student outcomes, and the analysis tested several…

Cousineau, John; Landon, Bruce

112

Goal Attainment Scaling as an Outcome Measure in Randomized Controlled Trials of Psychosocial Interventions in Autism  

PubMed Central

Goal attainment scaling (GAS) holds promise as an idiographic approach for measuring outcomes of psychosocial interventions in community settings. GAS has been criticized for untested assumptions of scaling level (i.e., interval or ordinal), inter-individual equivalence and comparability, and reliability of coding across different behavioral observation methods. We tested assumptions of equality between GAS descriptions for outcome measurement in a randomized trial (i.e., measurability, equidistance, level of difficulty, comparability of behavior samples collected from teachers vs. researchers and live vs. videotape). Results suggest GAS descriptions can be evaluated for equivalency, that teacher collected behavior samples are representative, and that varied sources of behavior samples can be reliably coded. GAS is a promising measurement approach. Recommendations are provided to ensure methodological quality.

McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.

2012-01-01

113

Recent results from COMPASS muon scattering measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of recent results in muon scattering measurements from the COMPASS experiment at CERN will be reviewed. These include high energy processes with longitudinally polarised proton and deuteron targets. High energy polarised measurements provide important constraints for studying the nucleon spin structure and thus permit to test the applicability of the theoretical framework of factorisation theorems and perturbative QCD. Specifically, latest results on longitudinal quark polarisation, quark helicity densities and gluon polarisation will be reviewed.

Capozza, Luigi; COMPASS Collaboration

2012-10-01

114

Validation of GAITRite and PROMIS as high-throughput physical function outcome measures following ACL reconstruction.  

PubMed

New healthcare demands for quality measures of elective procedures, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery, warrant the establishment of high throughput outcomes for high volume clinics. To this end, we evaluated the PROMIS and GAITRite as physical function outcome measures to quantify early healing and post-operative complications in 106 patients at pre-operative and 3, 10, 20 and 52 weeks post-ACL reconstruction with bone-tendon-bone autograft, and compared the results to the current IKDC validated outcome measure. The results showed that both PROMIS and GAITRite were significantly quicker to administer versus IKDC (p<0.0001). Additional advantages were that PROMIS and GAITRite detected a significant decrease in physical function at 3 weeks post-operative, and a significant improvement at 10 weeks post-operative versus pre-operative (p<0.001), which were not detected with IKDC. GAITRite was limited by a low ceiling that could not detect improvement of physical function beyond 20 weeks, while both PROMIS and IKDC detected significant improvement out to 52 weeks post-operative (p<0.001). Linear regressions demonstrated a significant relationship between IKDC and PROMIS, with a combined correlation value of 0.8954 (p<0.001) for all time points. Finally, ROC curve analysis demonstrated that PROMIS is a diagnostic test for poor outcomes. PMID:24532421

Papuga, M Owen; Beck, Christopher A; Kates, Stephen L; Schwarz, Edward M; Maloney, Michael D

2014-06-01

115

Current measures of metabolic heterogeneity within cervical cancer do not predict disease outcome  

PubMed Central

Background A previous study evaluated the intra-tumoral heterogeneity observed in the uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in pre-treatment positron emission tomography (PET) scans of cancers of the uterine cervix as an indicator of disease outcome. This was done via a novel statistic which ostensibly measured the spatial variations in intra-tumoral metabolic activity. In this work, we argue that statistic is intrinsically non-spatial, and that the apparent delineation between unsuccessfully- and successfully-treated patient groups via that statistic is spurious. Methods We first offer a straightforward mathematical demonstration of our argument. Next, we recapitulate an assiduous re-analysis of the originally published data which was derived from FDG-PET imagery. Finally, we present the results of a principal component analysis of FDG-PET images similar to those previously analyzed. Results We find that the previously published measure of intra-tumoral heterogeneity is intrinsically non-spatial, and actually is only a surrogate for tumor volume. We also find that an optimized linear combination of more canonical heterogeneity quantifiers does not predict disease outcome. Conclusions Current measures of intra-tumoral metabolic activity are not predictive of disease outcome as has been claimed previously. The implications of this finding are: clinical categorization of patients based upon these statistics is invalid; more sophisticated, and perhaps innately-geometric, quantifications of metabolic activity are required for predicting disease outcome.

2011-01-01

116

Clinical Outcomes and Adherence to Medications Measured by Claims Data in Patients With Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Although poor medication adherence may contribute to inadequate diabetes control, ways to feasibly measure adherence in routine clinical practice have yet to be established. The present study was conducted to determine whether pharmacy claims–based measures of medication adherence are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study setting was a large, integrated delivery and financial system serving the residents of southeastern Michigan. The study population consisted of 677 randomly selected patients aged ?18 years with a diagnosis of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension and who filled at least one prescription for either an antidiabetic, lipid-lowering, or antihypertensive drug in each of the 3 study years (1999–2001). The main outcome measures were HbA1c, LDL cholesterol levels, and blood pressure. RESULTS Nonadherent patients had both statistically and clinically worse outcomes than adherent patients. Even after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, nonadherence was significantly associated with HbA1c and LDL cholesterol levels. A 10% increase in nonadherence to metformin and statins was associated with an increase of 0.14% in HbA1c and an increase of 4.9 mg/dl in LDL cholesterol levels. Nonadherence to ACE inhibitors was not significantly associated with blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Claims-based measures of medication adherence are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes and may therefore prove to be useful in clinical practice. More research is needed on methods to introduce claims-based adherence measurements into routine clinical practice and how to use these measurements to effectively improve adherence and health outcomes in chronic care management.

Pladevall, Manel; Williams, L. Keoki; Potts, Lisa Ann; Divine, George; Xi, Hugo; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

2005-01-01

117

Relationships Between Emerging Measures of Heart Failure Processes of Care and Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have not confirmed associations between some current performance measures for inpatient heart failure processes of care and postdischarge outcomes. It is unknown if alternative measures are associated with outcomes. Methods Using data for 20,441 Medicare beneficiaries in the Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF) from March 2003 through December 2004, which we linked to Medicare claims data, we examined associations between hospital-level processes of care and patient outcomes. Performance measures included any beta-blocker for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD); evidence-based beta-blocker for patients with LVSD; warfarin for patients with atrial fibrillation; aldosterone antagonist for patients with LVSD; implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for patients with ejection fraction ? 35%; and referral to disease management. Outcome measures were unadjusted and adjusted associations of each process measure with 60-day and 1-year mortality and cardiovascular readmission at the hospital-level. Results Adjusted hazard ratios for 1-year mortality with a 10% increase in hospital-level adherence were 0.94 for any beta-blocker (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90–0.98; P = .004), 0.95 for evidence-based beta-blocker (95% CI, 0.92–0.98; P = .004); 0.97 for warfarin (95% CI, 0.92–1.03; P = .33); 0.94 for aldosterone antagonists (95% CI, 0.91–0.98; P = .006); 0.92 for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (95% CI, 0.87–0.98; P = .007); and 1.01 for referral to disease management (95% CI, 0.99–1.03; P = .21). Conclusions Several evidence-based processes of care are associated with improved outcomes, can discriminate hospital-level quality of care, and could be considered as clinical performance measures.

Hernandez, Adrian F.; Hammill, Bradley G.; Peterson, Eric D.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

2013-01-01

118

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

119

Factors predicting outcome of vitrectomy for diabetic macular oedema: results of a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine preoperative demographic, clinical, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) factors which might predict the visual and anatomical outcome at 1?year in patients undergoing vitrectomy and inner limiting membrane peel for diabetic macular oedema (DMO). Methods A prospective, interventional case series of 33 patients who completed 1?year follow up. Measurements were taken preoperatively and at 1?year. Outcome measures were logMAR visual acuity (VA) and OCT macular thickness. A priori explanatory variables included baseline presence of clinical and/or OCT signs suggesting macular traction, grade of diabetic maculopathy, posterior vitreous detachment, fluorescein leakage and ischaemia on angiography, presence of subretinal fluid, and peroperative indocyanine green (ICG) use. Results 33 patients completed 1?year follow up. On average VA deteriorated by 0.035 logMAR (p?=?0.40). Macular thickness significantly improved by a mean of 139??m (95% CI; 211 to 67, p<0.001). Patients with evidence of clinical and/or OCT macular traction significantly improved logMAR acuity (logMAR improvement ?=?0.08) compared with patients without traction (logMAR deterioration 0.11, p?=?0.01). Presence of subretinal fluid significantly predicted worse postoperative result (p?=?0.01) Conclusion On average, patients showed a statistically significant improvement in central macular thickness following treatment but a marginal acuity worsening. Presence of subretinal fluid on OCT is hypothesised to be exudative rather than tractional in nature. The visual benefit of vitrectomy for DMO in this study was limited to patients who exhibit signs of macular traction either clinically and/or on OCT.

Shah, S P; Patel, M; Thomas, D; Aldington, S; Laidlaw, D A H

2006-01-01

120

The Washington Circle Engagement Performance Measures' Association with Adolescent Treatment Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background For adolescents, substance use disorder (SUD) treatment outcomes (e.g., abstinence, problematic behaviors) often cannot be measured soon enough to influence treatment trajectory. Although process measures (e.g., treatment engagement) can play an important role, it is essential to demonstrate their association with outcomes. This study explored the extent to which engagement in outpatient treatment was associated with outcomes and whether demographic/clinical characteristics moderated these relationships. Methods This is a prospective study of adolescents (N=1,491) who received outpatient treatment for SUDs at one of 28 treatment sites taking part in a national evidence-based practice implementation initiative. Information from the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs interviews at intake and six-month follow-up, as well as encounter data, were used. Adjusted hierarchical logistic models were used to estimate effects of engagement on six-month outcomes. Results Sixty-one percent of adolescents engaged in outpatient treatment. Adolescents engaging in treatment had significantly lower likelihoods of reporting any substance use (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41, 0.87), alcohol use (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45, 0.87), heavy alcohol use (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33, 0.86), and marijuana use (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.93). This association of engagement with abstinence outcomes was not limited to any particular group. Treatment engagement, however, was not associated with adolescents' self-report of illegal activity or trouble controlling behavior at follow-up. Conclusion At the individual level, the Washington Circle engagement measure was a predictor of some positive outcomes for adolescents in outpatient treatment. Efforts to better engage adolescents in treatment could improve quality of care.

Garnick, Deborah W.; Lee, Margaret T.; O'Brien, Peggy L.; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A.; Acevedo, Andrea; Garner, Bryan R.; Funk, Rodney R.; Godley, Mark D.

2013-01-01

121

Outcome measures for vulval skin conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Symptoms and signs of vulval skin disorders are common. These conditions can have a considerable impact on quality of life, restricting physical activities and causing difficulty in everyday activities and may also affect social, psychosexual and psychological well-being. There are no standardized measures routinely used to assess the impact of vulval disease on daily life. To report outcome measures used in clinically based randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating therapeutic interventions in vulval disease. The Medline, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases were searched to identify RCTs of vulval skin conditions written in English. Studies with laboratory tests or survival rates as the primary outcome, or those investigating menopausal symptoms or infections were excluded. Twenty-eight published RCTs were included. The vulval conditions represented were vulvodynia (n = 14), lichen sclerosus (n = 9), vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 2), vulval pruritus (n = 2) and lichen planus (n = 1). The 28 RCTs measured 25 different outcomes, using 49 different scales. The method of outcome assessment was lacking on nine occasions. Only 21% (six of 28) of included trials had a clearly stated primary outcome. Patient-reported outcomes were more commonly reported than clinician-related outcome measures. The most commonly reported patient-rated outcome measure was a reduction in pain (measured 15 times) and an overall improvement in symptoms using a patient global assessment (measured 11 times). The most commonly reported clinician-rated outcome was an overall assessment of the appearance of affected sites (measured 13 times). There were no agreed standard scales used for the global assessments. Only nine of the recorded outcome measure tools were designed to assess vulval disease or sexual functioning, the remainder were general measures. There is heterogeneity in the outcome measures used when reporting therapeutic interventions in vulval disease. This field of dermatology would benefit from development of a vulval-specific outcome measure and the establishment of a core outcome measure set. PMID:23600623

Simpson, R C; Thomas, K S; Murphy, R

2013-09-01

122

How Good Are Clinical Severity and Outcome Measures for Psoriasis?: Quantitative Evaluation in a Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of clinical measures of psoriasis are used in clinical trials and daily practice. These measures lack uniformity and validation. However, valid outcome and severity measures for psoriasis are a prerequisite for fully informative clinical research and evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study was to identify all clinical measures of psoriasis severity and outcome in use and

Phyllis I Spuls; Lidian L A Lecluse; Marie-Louise N F Poulsen; Jan D Bos; Robert S Stern; Tamar Nijsten

2010-01-01

123

PBL-GIS in Secondary Geography Education: Does It Result in Higher-Order Learning Outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research on evaluating problem-based learning using GIS technology in a Singapore secondary school. A quasi-experimental research design was carried to test the PBL pedagogy (PBL-GIS) with an experimental group of students and compare their learning outcomes with a control group who were exposed to PBL but not GIS. The results show significant differences in the learning outcomes

Yan Liu; Elisabeth N. Bui; Chew-Hung Chang; Hans G. Lossman

2010-01-01

124

Optimal functional outcome measures for assessing treatment for Dupuytren's disease: a systematic review and recommendations for future practice  

PubMed Central

Background Dupuytren's disease of the hand is a common condition affecting the palmar fascia, resulting in progressive flexion deformities of the digits and hence limitation of hand function. The optimal treatment remains unclear as outcomes studies have used a variety of measures for assessment. Methods A literature search was performed for all publications describing surgical treatment, percutaneous needle aponeurotomy or collagenase injection for primary or recurrent Dupuytren’s disease where outcomes had been monitored using functional measures. Results Ninety-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two studies reported outcomes using patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) ranging from validated questionnaires to self-reported measures for return to work and self-rated disability. The Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was the most utilised patient-reported function measure (n=11). Patient satisfaction was reported by eighteen studies but no single method was used consistently. Range of movement was the most frequent physical measure and was reported in all 91 studies. However, the methods of measurement and reporting varied, with seventeen different techniques being used. Other physical measures included grip and pinch strength and sensibility, again with variations in measurement protocols. The mean follow-up time ranged from 2 weeks to 17 years. Conclusions There is little consistency in the reporting of outcomes for interventions in patients with Dupuytren’s disease, making it impossible to compare the efficacy of different treatment modalities. Although there are limitations to the existing generic patient reported outcomes measures, a combination of these together with a disease-specific questionnaire, and physical measures of active and passive individual joint Range of movement (ROM), grip and sensibility using standardised protocols should be used for future outcomes studies. As Dupuytren’s disease tends to recur following treatment as well as extend to involve other areas of the hand, follow-up times should be standardised and designed to capture both short and long term outcomes.

2013-01-01

125

Enhancing the patient involvement in outcomes: a study protocol of personalised outcome measurement in the treatment of substance misuse  

PubMed Central

Background Involving patients in treatment is becoming increasingly popular in mental health [Sales & Alves: Personalized evaluation of psychological treatments: A review of tools and research designs, submitted]. However, in substance misuse treatment settings, the patient perspective about treatment tends to be overlooked. This has been cited as a key priority by Orford et al. [Addiction, 103: 875-885, 2008] who included patient feedback about treatment as one of ten areas requiring an urgent paradigm shift in addiction research and practice. This project will apply an innovative method to involve substance misuse patients in psychological therapies, by asking them to suggest topics to evaluate their treatment. These topics suggested by patients can be written as a list of personalised items, so-called as patient-generated outcome measures (PGOM). Despite its patient-friendly features, PGOM’s have never been used in this population, which is what this project aims to overcome. Methods/design This project is part of an International Exchange Platform on Personalising Addiction Treatment. Data will be collected in two phases (pre-post study and focus groups with patients) to explore the following: 1). How reliable and sensitive to change are PGOM’s and standardised measures in substance misuse treatment? 2). Do PGOM’s add relevant information to standardised measures? 3). What are the views of substance misuse patients about personalised outcome assessment? 4). Development of guidelines on using PGOM’s in this population Discussion This research will potentially demonstrate the diversity of personal problems among patients seeking substance misuse treatment, suggesting the relevance of PGOM as a method to personalise outcome measurement and, ultimately, guiding treatment provision. It is expected that, as in previous studies, PGOM’s will be perceived as helpful and patient-friendly tools, where patients may express their own concerns in a semi-structured setting. Similarly to other populations, we also expect PGOM’s to be reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical changes in substance misuse treatment, as well as more content informative than their standardised counterparts. If these results are achieved, we might hypothesize that PGOM’s are a potentially valid supplement to traditional standardised scales, by providing a closer insight to what motivates patients to participate in substance misuse treatment programmes.

2013-01-01

126

The barriers and facilitators to routine outcome measurement by allied health professionals in practice: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Allied Health Professionals today are required, more than ever before, to demonstrate their impact. However, despite at least 20 years of expectation, many services fail to deliver routine outcome measurement in practice. This systematic review investigates what helps and hinders routine outcome measurement of allied health professionals practice. Methods A systematic review protocol was developed comprising: a defined search strategy for PsycINFO, MEDLINE and CINHAL databases and inclusion criteria and systematic procedures for data extraction and quality appraisal. Studies were included if they were published in English and investigated facilitators and/or barriers to routine outcome measurement by allied health professionals. No restrictions were placed on publication type, design, country, or year of publication. Reference lists of included publications were searched to identify additional papers. Descriptive methods were used to synthesise the findings. Results 960 papers were retrieved; 15 met the inclusion criteria. Professional groups represented were Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech and Language Therapy. The included literature varied in quality and design. Facilitators and barriers to routine outcome measurement exist at individual, managerial and organisational levels. Key factors affecting professionals’ use of routine outcome measurement include: professionals’ level of knowledge and confidence about using outcome measures, and the degree of organisational and peer-support professionals received with a view to promoting their work in practice. Conclusions Whilst the importance of routinely measuring outcomes within the allied health professions is well recognised, it has largely failed to be delivered in practice. Factors that influence clinicians’ ability and desire to undertake routine outcome measurement are bi-directional: they can act as either facilitators or barriers. Routine outcome measurement may only be deliverable if appropriate action is taken at individual therapist, team, and organisational levels of an organisation.

2012-01-01

127

A view from health services research and outcomes measurement.  

PubMed

Depicted in this presentation is the relationship of the aims of the original articles in this issue--using theory in a substantive way; introducing a strong focus on the organization as a contributor to patient, provider, and system outcomes; accounting for organizational level; and moving the field toward a view of research utilization as an intermediate, not terminal, outcome--to outcomes research in health services generally and in nursing health services research more specifically. The insights and innovations described in this set of articles contribute significantly to the literature on research use in healthcare, specifically including the need to account more fully for organizational structure and hierarchy than has been the case to date in health services outcomes research, as well as a strong intimation that research use is not only an important intervening variable in the causal chain producing outcomes at the patient, provider, and system levels but also a latent or unobservable variable. PMID:17625476

Sales, Anne E

2007-01-01

128

Global hypothesis testing for high-dimensional repeated measures outcomes  

PubMed Central

High-throughput technology in metabolomics, genomics, and proteomics gives rise to high dimension, low sample size data when the number of metabolites, genes, or proteins exceeds the sample size. For a limited class of designs, the classic ‘univariate approach’ for Gaussian repeated measures can provide a reasonable global hypothesis test. We derive new tests that not only accurately allow more variables than subjects, but also give valid analyses for data with complex between-subject and within-subject designs. Our derivations capitalize on the dual of the error covariance matrix, which is nonsingular when the number of variables exceeds the sample size, to ensure correct statistical inference and enhance computational efficiency. Simulation studies demonstrate that the new tests accurately control Type I error rate and have reasonable power even with a handful of subjects and a thousand outcome variables. We apply the new methods to the study of metabolic consequences of vitamin B6 deficiency. Free software implementing the new methods applies to a wide range of designs, including one group pre-intervention and post-intervention comparisons, multiple parallel group comparisons with one-way or factorial designs, and the adjustment and evaluation of covariate effects.

Chi, Yueh-Yun; Gribbin, Matthew; Lamers, Yvonne; Gregory, Jesse F.; Muller, Keith E.

2012-01-01

129

Demystifying Results-Based Performance Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many evaluators are convinced that Results-based Performance Measurement (RBPM) is an effective tool to improve service delivery and cost effectiveness in both public and private sectors. Successful RBPM requires self-directed and cross-functional work teams and the supporting infrastructure to make it work. There are many misconceptions and…

Jorjani, Hamid

130

Recent results from tokamak divertor plasma measurements  

SciTech Connect

New diagnostics have been developed to address key divertor physics questions, including: target plate heat flux reduction by radiation, basic edge transport issues, and plasma wall interactions (PWI) such as erosion. A system of diagnostics measures the target plate heat flux (imaging IR thermography) and particle flux (probes, pressure and Penning gauges, and visible emission arrays). Recently, T{sub e},n{sub e}, and P{sub e} (electron pressure) have been measured in 2-D with divertor Thomson Scattering. During radiative divertor operation T{sub e} is less than 2 eV, indicating that new atomic processes are important. Langmuir probes measure higher T{sub e} in some cases. In addition, the measured P{sub e} near the separatrix at the target plate is lower than the midplane pressure, implying radial momentum transport. Bolometer arrays, inverted with reconstruction algorithms, provide the 2-D core and divertor radiation profiles. Spectroscopic measurements identify the radiating species and provide information on impurity transport; both absolute chordal measurements and tomographic reconstructions of images are used. Either intrinsic carbon or an inert species (e.g., injected Ne) are usually observed, and absolute particle inventories are obtained. Computer codes are both benchmarked with the experimental data and provide important consistency checks. Several techniques are used to measure fundamental plasma transport and fluctuations, including probes and reflectometry. PWI issues are studied with in-situ coupons and insertable samples (DiMES). Representative divertor results from DIII-D with references to results on other tokamaks will be presented.

Allen, S.L.

1996-05-01

131

Therapy outcome measures for allied health practitioners in Australia: the AusTOMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of therapy outcome for three allied health profes- sions in Australia: speech pathology, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy. The Australian Therapy Outcome Measures (AusTOMs) enable measurement of the differences in client profiles and patterns of services provision across health care settings. In this paper we describe phase

ALISON PERRY; MEG MORRIS; CAROLYN UNSWORTH; STEPHEN DUCKETT; JEMMA SKEAT; KAREN DODD; NICHOLAS TAYLOR; KAREN REILLY

2004-01-01

132

Association of adverse perinatal outcomes with screening measures of obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Objective:This prospective observational study explored the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and small-for-gestational age with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as determined by screening measures for OSA and sleep studies.Study Design:Two symptom-based screening questionnaires, the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), were administered to enroll 1509 gravidae. Screen-positive subjects were referred for polysomnography. The primary outcome was the occurrence of either gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to estimate the relative risks of associations.Result:One thousand one hundred and fifty-seven subjects were available for outcomes analysis. Screening positive on the BQ was positively associated with hypertensive disorders in GLM models (adjusted relative risk=1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.52 to 2.37).Conclusion:In this large prospective trial, GLM modeling suggests that the BQ but not the ESS demonstrated significant association with measured adverse pregnancy outcomes, and specific items predicted these outcomes better than others. However, causative association of BQ with OSA cannot be assumed. PMID:24603455

Antony, K M; Agrawal, A; Arndt, M E; Murphy, A M; Alapat, P M; Guntupalli, K K; Aagaard, K M

2014-06-01

133

A review of the psychometric properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) family of measures  

PubMed Central

Background The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales was developed to routinely measure outcomes for adults with mental illness. Comparable instruments were also developed for children and adolescents (the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents) and older people (the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales 65+). All three are being widely used as outcome measures in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. There is, however, no comprehensive review of these instruments. This paper fills this gap by reviewing the psychometric properties of each. Method Articles and reports relating to the instruments were retrieved, and their findings synthesised to assess the instruments' validity (content, construct, concurrent, predictive), reliability (test-retest, inter-rater), sensitivity to change, and feasibility/utility. Results Mostly, the instruments perform adequately or better on most dimensions, although some of their psychometric properties warrant closer examination. Conclusion Collectively, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales family of measures can assess outcomes for different groups on a range of mental health-related constructs, and can be regarded as appropriate for routinely monitoring outcomes.

Pirkis, Jane E; Burgess, Philip M; Kirk, Pia K; Dodson, Sarity; Coombs, Tim J; Williamson, Michelle K

2005-01-01

134

Implementing patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in palliative care - users' cry for help  

PubMed Central

Background Patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) plays an increasingly important role in palliative care. A variety of measures exists and is used in clinical care, audit and research. However, little is known about professionals' views using these measures. The aim of this study is to describe the use and experiences of palliative care professionals with outcome measures. Methods A web-based online survey was conducted in Europe and Africa. Professionals working in clinical care, audit and research in palliative care were invited to the survey via national palliative care associations and various databases. Invitation e-mails were sent with a link to the questionnaire. Results Overall participation rate 42% (663/1592), overall completion rate 59% (392/663). The majority of respondents were female (63.4%), mean age 46 years (SD 9). 68.1% respondents from Europe and 73.3% from Africa had experiences with outcome measures in palliative care. Non-users reported time constraints, burden, lack of training and guidance as main reasons. In clinical care/audit, assessment of patients' situation, monitoring changes and evaluation of services were main reasons for use. Choice of OMs for research was influenced by validity of the instrument in palliative care and comparability with international literature. Main problems were related to patient characteristics, staff, and outcome measures. Participants expressed the need for more guidance and training in the use of PROMs. Conclusions Professionals need more support for the use and implementation of PROMs in clinical practice and research through training and guidance in order to improve patient care.

2011-01-01

135

Evaluation of test characteristics for outcome measures used in Raynaud's phenomenon clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Objective Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) have shown conflicting efficacy data. Also, there is no consensus on the outcome measures that should be used. Our objectives were: 1) assess the reliability of individual core set measures used in 3 RCTs; 2) evaluate the placebo response for individual core set measures; and 3) determine if a composite of individual core set measures will decrease the placebo response which may improve our ability to see treatment effects in future trials. Patients and Methods We analyzed core set measures from 249 patients in the placebo-treated groups from 3 RCTs. Core set measures analyzed included Raynaud's condition score (RCS), patient and physician assessment of RP, pain, numbness, and tingling during an RP attack, average number of attacks/day, and duration of attacks. ICC correlation coefficients were calculated during the run-in period to the RCTs. Results ICC coefficients of ?0.70 were observed for RCS, attack symptoms, and average attacks/day. A high placebo response rate was observed for all individual core measures except the duration of attacks. For the RCS, the placebo response ranged from 56% with >10% improvement to 20% with ?60% improvement. In contrast, placebo response rates of 10–20% were observed when several core set measures were combined to develop a composite score. Conclusions Outcome measures used in RP RCTs are associated with marked variability. Combination of outcome measures is associated with low placebo responses. Future studies are needed to assess if a composite score will be able to differentiate placebo from an effective agent.

Gladue, Heather; Maranian, Paul; Paulus, Harold E.; Khanna, Dinesh

2012-01-01

136

A review of the psychometric properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) family of measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales was developed to routinely measure outcomes for adults with mental illness. Comparable instruments were also developed for children and adolescents (the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents) and older people (the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales 65+). All three are being widely used as outcome measures in

Jane E Pirkis; Philip M Burgess; Pia K Kirk; Sarity Dodson; Tim J Coombs; Michelle K Williamson

2005-01-01

137

A primer on lower extremity outcome measurement instruments.  

PubMed Central

Tracing the roots of lower extremity outcome scales is an interesting and somewhat bemusing journey. A large number of different grading methods can be found with limited reliability and/or validity testing. The usefulness of these instruments in the assessment of patient outcomes after lower extremity interventions is worrisome. This article focuses on the most commonly used scales and demonstrates an alarming and incestuous pattern of cross-validation with moderate to weak associations between potentially unreliable and crudely validated original instruments.

Saltzman, C. L.; Mueller, C.; Zwior-Maron, K.; Hoffman, R. D.

1998-01-01

138

Use of Outcome Measures in Managing Neck Pain: An International Multidisciplinary Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the outcome measures practice patterns in the neck pain management of various health disciplines. Methods: A survey of 381 clinicians treating patients with neck pain was conducted. Results: Respondents were more commonly male (54%) and either chiropractors (44%) or physiotherapists (32%). The survey was international (24 countries with Canada having the largest response (44%)). The most common assessment was a single-item pain assessment (numeric or visual analog) used by 75% of respondents. Respondents sometimes or routinely used the Neck Disability Index (49%), the Patient Specific Functional Scale (28%), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (32%). Work status was recorded in terms of time lost by more than 50% of respondents, but standardized measures of work limitations or functional capacity testing were rarely used. The majority of respondents never used fear of movement, psychological distress, quality of life, participation measures, or global ratings of change (< 10% routinely use). Use of impairment measurers was prevalent, but the type selected was variable. Quantitative sensory testing was used sometimes or routinely by 53% of respondents, whereas 26% never used it. Ratings of segmental joint mobility were commonly used to assess motion (44% routinely use), whereas 66% of respondents never used inclinometry. Neck muscle strength, postural alignment and upper extremity coordination were assessed sometimes or routinely by a majority of respondents (>56%). With the exception of numeric pain ratings and verbal reporting of work status, all outcomes measures were less frequently used by physicians. Years of practice did not affect practice patterns, but reimbursement did affect selection of some outcome measures. Conclusions: Few outcome measures are routinely used to assess patients with neck pain other than a numeric pain rating scale. A comparison of practice patterns to current evidence suggessts overutilization of some measures that have questionable reliability and underutilization of some with better supporting evidence. This practice analysis suggests that there is substantial need to implement more consistent outcome measurement in practice. International consensus and better clinical measurement evidence are needed to support this.

MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, David M; Cote, Pierre; Santaguida, P. Lina; Gross, Anita; Carlesso, Lisa

2013-01-01

139

Outcome expectancy liking: a self-generated, self-coded measure predicts adolescent substance use trajectories.  

PubMed

This study tested the predictive validity of a novel, brief, and easy-to-use self-report measure of expectancies and their subjective values for alcohol and marijuana use. Canadian students in Grades 7 to 11 were administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires once per year for 3 consecutive years (Krank et al., 2011). As part of the questionnaire, participants completed an outcome expectancy measure where they were asked to list 3 or 4 things they expected would happen if they used a particular substance (i.e., alcohol, marijuana) and to indicate for each whether they would or would not like this outcome. "Liking" outcomes were coded as +1, "not like" as -1, and summed to obtain an outcome expectancy liking (OEL) sum for each participant and each substance. Participants also completed substance use behavior questions for alcohol and marijuana. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that OEL sum significantly predicted the intercept and slope of substance use trajectories by participants, even when demographic variables were controlled. For both alcohol and marijuana, multilevel modeling analyses indicated that a more positive OEL sum for a substance in the first year of the study were more likely to have tried that substance earlier (intercept) and were more likely to escalate their use at a greater rate over time (slope). The results complement the predictive validity found with other direct and indirect measures of substance use associations. The outcome expectancy liking task is a simple and unobtrusive method for identifying adolescents who are at risk for early substance abuse. PMID:23088405

Fulton, Heather G; Krank, Marvin D; Stewart, Sherry H

2012-12-01

140

Outcome among community dwelling older adults with schizophrenia: results using five conceptual models.  

PubMed

There have been few studies examining the outcome of schizophrenia in later life. Using five conceptual models, we test two hypotheses with respect to range of outcomes among older schizophrenia outpatients and how they compare to their age peers in the community. We operationalized five outcome measures from the following conceptual models: Remission, adapting criteria of Andreasen et al. (The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162:441-449, 2005); Recovery, adapting the criteria by Liberman et al. (International Review of Psychiatry, 14:256-272, 2002); Community Integration using the model of Wong and Solomon (Mental Health Services Research, 4:13-28, 2002); Subjective and Objective Successful Aging using the model of Rowe and Kahn (Science, 237:143-149, 1987). The schizophrenia (S) group consisted of 198 community-dwelling persons aged 55 and over who developed schizophrenia before age 45 and a community comparison (CC) group (N = 113). Remission and recovery criteria were met by 49 and 17% of the S group, respectively. There were significant differences between the S and CC groups in the distribution of community integration and successful aging scales: 41% of the CC group met at least 10 of 12 criteria versus 23% of the S group on the Community Integration Scale; 19% of the CC group met all six criteria vs. 2% of the S group on the Objective Successful Aging Scale; 27% of the CC group vs. 13% of the S group met all six criteria on the Subjective Successful Aging Scale. Correlations among the five outcome measures ranged from r = .19 to .48 (median value: r = .26 or 7% shared variance). There is wide variability in outcome in later life depending on which measure is used. Rather than one universal indicator, each measure offers a different perspective that can provide useful guidelines for researchers, clinicians, and policy makers. PMID:18787951

Cohen, Carl I; Pathak, Richa; Ramirez, Paul M; Vahia, Ipsit

2009-04-01

141

Measuring outcomes in primary care: a patient generated measure, MYMOP, compared with the SF-36 health survey.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the sensitivity to within person change over time of an outcome measure for practitioners in primary care that is applicable to a wide range of illness. DESIGN--Comparison of a new patient generated instrument, the measure yourself medical outcome profile (MYMOP), with the SF-36 health profile and a five point change score; all scales were completed during the consultation with' practitioners and repeated after four weeks. 103 patients were followed up for 16 weeks and their results charted; seven practitioners were interviewed. SETTING--Established practice of the four NHS general practitioners and four of the private complementary practitioners working in one medical centre. SUBJECTS--Systematic sample of 218 patients from general practice and all 47 patients of complementary practitioners; patients had had symptoms for more than seven days. OUTCOME MEASURES--Standardised response mean and index of responsiveness; view of practitioners. RESULTS--The index of responsiveness, relating to the minimal clinically important difference, was high for MYMOP: 1.4 for the first symptom, 1.33 for activity, and 0.85 for the profile compared with < 0.45 for SF-36. MYMOP's validity was supported by significant correlation between the change score and the change in the MYMOP score and the ability of this instrument to detect more improvement in acute than in chronic conditions. Practitioners found that MYMOP was practical and applicable to all patients with symptoms and that its use increased their awareness of patients' priorities. CONCLUSION--MYMOP shows promise as an outcome measure for primary care and for complementary treatment. It is more sensitive to change than the SF-36 and has the added bonus of improving patient-practitioner communication.

Paterson, C.

1996-01-01

142

Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections of crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/microns) radiation. Also included are TLD's for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated doses inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 plus or minus 0.6 cGy to 38.9 plus or minus 1.2 cGy. The TLD's oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53 percent higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37 percent of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than in the LDEF experiments.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

1995-01-01

143

Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long-term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections to crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of high LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/micro m) radiation. Also included are TLD's for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated does inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 +/- 0.6 cGy to 38.9 +/- 1.2 cGy. The TLD's oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53% higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37% of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than the LDEF experiments.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

1995-01-01

144

Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subscale rocket acoustic data is used to predict acoustic environments for full scale rockets. Over the last several years acoustic data has been collected during horizontal tests of solid rocket motors. Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) was designed to evaluate the acoustics of the SLS vehicle including the liquid engines and solid rocket boosters. SMAT is comprised of liquid thrusters scalable to the Space Shuttle Main engines (SSME) and Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) motors scalable to the 5-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSTMV). Horizontal testing of the liquid thrusters provided an opportunity to collect acoustic data from liquid thrusters to characterize the acoustic environments. Acoustic data was collected during the horizontal firings of a single thruster and a 4-thruster (Quad) configuration. Presentation scope. Discuss the results of the single and 4-thruster acoustic measurements. Compare the measured acoustic levels of the liquid thrusters to the Solid Rocket Test Motor V - Nozzle 2 (SRTMV-N2).

Kenny, R. Jeremy; Vargas, Magda B.

2013-01-01

145

Measurement issues when assessing quality of life outcomes for different types of hernia mesh repair  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The NHS is required to collect data from patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for inguinal hernia surgery. We explored the use of one such measure, the Carolinas Comfort Scale® (CCS), to compare long-term outcomes for patients who received two different types of mesh. The CCS questionnaire asks about mesh sensation, pain and movement limitations, and combines the answers into a total score. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 684 patients were treated between January 2007 and August 2008 and were followed up in November 2009. RESULTS Data on 215 patients who met the inclusion criteria were available (96 patients who received Surgipro™ mesh and 119 who received Parietene™ Progrip™ mesh). Recurrence rates were similar in the Surgipro™ group (2/96, 2.1%) and Progrip™ group (3/118, 2.5%) (Fisher's exact test = 1.0). Chronic pain occurred less frequently in the Surgipro™ group (11/95, 11.6%) than in the Progrip™ group (22/118, 18.6%) (p<0.157). Overall, 90% of CCS total scores indicated a good outcome (scores of 10 or less out of 115). A principal component analysis of the CCS found that responses clustered into two subscales: ‘mesh sensation’ and ‘pain+movement limitations’. The Progrip™ group had a slightly higher mesh sensation score (p<0.051) and similar pain+movement limitations scores (p<0.120). CONCLUSIONS In this study of quality of life outcomes related to different mesh types, the CCS subscales were more sensitive to differences in outcome than the total CCS score for the whole questionnaire. Future research should consider using the CCS subscales rather than the CCS total score.

Zaborszky, Andras; Gyanti, Rita; Barry, John A; Saxby, Brian K; Bhattacharya, Panchanan; Hasan, Fazal A

2011-01-01

146

Suspected acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as an outcome measure in clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has become an important outcome measure in clinical trials. This study aimed to explore the concept of suspected acute exacerbation as an outcome measure. Methods Three investigators retrospectively reviewed subjects enrolled in the Sildenafil Trial of Exercise Performance in IPF who experienced a respiratory serious adverse event during the course of the study. Events were classified as definite acute exacerbation, suspected acute exacerbation, or other, according to established criteria. Results Thirty-five events were identified. Four were classified as definite acute exacerbation, fourteen as suspected acute exacerbation, and seventeen as other. Definite and suspected acute exacerbations were clinically indistinguishable. Both were most common in the winter and spring months and were associated with a high risk of disease progression and short-term mortality. Conclusions In this study one half of respiratory serious adverse events were attributed to definite or suspected acute exacerbations. Suspected acute exacerbations are clinically indistinguishable from definite acute exacerbations and represent clinically meaningful events. Clinical trialists should consider capturing both definite and suspected acute exacerbations as outcome measures.

2013-01-01

147

The Overlap in Predicting Alcohol Outcome for Two Measures of the Level of Response to Alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background Two different measures have been used to establish a person’s level of response (LR) to alcohol as a risk factor for alcohol use disorders. LR values established by the alcohol challenge protocol and the Self-Report of the Effects of Ethanol (SRE) questionnaire usually correlate at 0.3 to 0.4, up to 0.6. However, it is not clear how this correlation relates to the ability of each measure to predict alcohol outcomes. This paper evaluates that overlap. Methods Sixty-six Caucasian males (0 age 22) from two protocols participated in alcohol challenges with 0.75 ml/kg of ethanol, filled out the SRE, and were followed with a structured interview ? 5 years later. The relationship between the subjective feelings of intoxication at the time of peak breath alcohol levels from the alcohol challenge and the SRE score for a time early in the drinking career were evaluated regarding predicting the drinks per occasion in the six months prior to follow-up. Results Cross-sectional correlations between alcohol challenge and SRE LR’s ranged from -.25 (p<.05) to -.32 (p=.02) for the full sample, and the two LR measures correlated with drinking at follow-up (-.26 and .41, respectively). The SRE measure was more robust than the challenge in a regression analysis predicting the outcome in the context of other baseline predictors (e.g., drinking at baseline). As much as 60% of the ability of the more well established (gold standard) alcohol challenge LR to predict outcome was shared with the SRE. The alcohol challenge accounted for as much as 44% of the ability of the SRE to predict outcome. Conclusions The SRE-generated LR overlapped considerably with the alcohol challenge LR in the ability to predict future heavier drinking.

Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Trim, Ryan; Fukukura, Tsutomu; Allen, Rhonda

2008-01-01

148

Measuring the relationship between costs and outcomes: the example of acute myocardial infarction in german hospitals.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a methodological approach to measure the relationship between hospital costs and health outcomes. We propose to investigate the relationship for each condition or disease area by using patient-level data. We examine health outcomes as a function of costs and other patient-level variables by using the following: (1) two-stage residual inclusion with Murphy-Topel adjustment to address costs being endogenous to health outcomes, (2) random-effects models in both stages to correct for correlation between observation, and (3) Cox proportional hazard models in the second stage to ensure that the available information is exploited. To demonstrate its application, data on mortality following hospital treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from a large German sickness fund were used. Provider reimbursement was used as a proxy for treatment costs. We relied on the Ontario Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality Prediction Rules as a disease-specific risk-adjustment instrument. A total of 12,284 patients with treatment for AMI in 2004-2006 were included. The results showed a reduction in hospital costs by €100 to increase the hazard of dying, that is, mortality, by 0.43%. The negative association between costs and mortality confirms that decreased resource input leads to worse outcomes for treatment after AMI. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23696223

Stargardt, Tom; Schreyögg, Jonas; Kondofersky, Ivan

2014-06-01

149

Trans-adapting outcome measures in rehabilitation: Cross-cultural issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most outcome measures in rehabilitation are developed in the US and are later translated and used in the international rehabilitation community. Translating or rather trans-adapting outcome measures is an important process by which treatment efficacy can be proven and comparability can be established across cultures. This article explores some of the pitfalls the lack of adherence to international trans-adaptation guidelines

Margaret C. Høegh; Steffen-Malik Høegh

2009-01-01

150

RESNA Resource Guide for Assistive Technology Outcomes: Measurement Tools. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide, the first of three volumes, lays out the fundamentals of outcome measurements for assistive technology. It includes the whys and hows of gathering data so that assistive technology practitioners can integrate outcomes measurement activities in their daily practice. Chapters include: (1) "Concepts and Rationale for…

RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

151

Measuring Outcomes of United Way-Funded Programs: Expectations and Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996, United Way of America (UWA) developed and began disseminating the most widely used approach to program outcome measurement in the nonprofit sector. Today an estimated 450 local United Ways encourage approximately 19,000 local agencies they fund to measure outcomes. The authors first describe and then assess the strengths and limitations…

Hendricks, Michael; Plantz, Margaret C.; Pritchard, Kathleen J.

2008-01-01

152

Review of Goal Attainment Scaling as a Useful Outcome Measure in Psychogeriatric Patients with Cognitive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since evidence-based interventions are the standard, there is an urgent need for more information concerning individual ways of measuring clinically relevant outcomes of interventions in cognitive disorders such as dementia. Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) seems to offer a meaningful outcome measure. Aim: To examine the applicability of GAS in psychogeriatric patients with cognitive disorders. Methods: A systematic review was

Sharon F. M. Bouwens; Caroline M. van Heugten; Frans R. J. Verhey

2008-01-01

153

Measuring students’ transition into university and its association with learning outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we showed how we measured pedagogy and revealed its association with learning outcomes of sixth-form college mathematics students. In this project we followed a similar approach to the study of university transition. We particularly sought to identify the students’ perceptions of the transitional experience, and measure the association with learning outcomes. We drew on longitudinal surveys of students entering

Maria Pampaka; Julian Williams; Graeme Hutcheson

2011-01-01

154

Extending basic principles of measurement models to the design and validation of Patient Reported Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently published article by the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust presents guidelines for selecting and evaluating health status and health-related quality of life measures used in health outcomes research. In their article, they propose a number of validation and performance criteria with which to evaluate such self-report measures. We provide an alternate, yet complementary, perspective by

Mark J Atkinson; Richard D Lennox

2006-01-01

155

The association of self-reported measures with poor training outcomes among male and female U.S. Navy recruits.  

PubMed

This prospective study evaluated the association of self-reported health habits and behaviors in 2,930 Navy recruits with poor training outcomes, defined as graduating late or separating from training. Although 17% of the men and 21% of the women had a poor training outcome, results suggest that some self-reported measures were associated with poor training outcomes. Men who did not run or jog at least 1 month before basic training or had a previous lower limb injury without complete recovery and women reporting the same or less physical activity compared with their same-age counterparts were more likely to have a poor training outcome. An important first step in decreasing poor training outcomes is encouraging incoming recruits to participate in physical activity and taking steps to identify and rehabilitate recruits who are not completely healed from a lower limb musculoskeletal injury before reporting to basic training. PMID:23356118

Trone, Daniel W; Cipriani, Daniel J; Raman, Rema; Wingard, Deborah L; Shaffer, Richard A; Macera, Caroline A

2013-01-01

156

Estimating a Preference-Based Index from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM)  

PubMed Central

Background. The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies in people with common mental disorders. The objective of this study was to estimate a preference-based index for this population using CORE-6D, a health state classification system derived from the CORE-OM consisting of a 5-item emotional component and a physical item, and to demonstrate a novel method for generating states that are not orthogonal. Methods. Rasch analysis was used to identify 11 emotional health states from CORE-6D that were frequently observed in the study population and are, thus, plausible (in contrast, conventional statistical design might generate implausible states). Combined with the 3 response levels of the physical item of CORE-6D, they generate 33 plausible health states, 18 of which were selected for valuation. A valuation survey of 220 members of the public in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, was undertaken using the time tradeoff (TTO) method. Regression analysis was subsequently used to predict values for all possible states described by CORE-6D. Results. A number of multivariate regression models were built to predict values for the 33 health states of CORE-6D, using the Rasch logit value of the emotional state and the response level of the physical item as independent variables. A cubic model with high predictive value (adjusted R2 = 0.990) was selected to predict TTO values for all 729 CORE-6D health states. Conclusion. The CORE-6D preference-based index will enable the assessment of cost-effectiveness of interventions for people with common mental disorders using existing and prospective CORE-OM data sets. The new method for generating states may be useful for other instruments with highly correlated dimensions.

Brazier, John E.; Rowen, Donna; Barkham, Michael

2013-01-01

157

An approach to managing depression Defining and measuring outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with a contemporary approach to formulating a treatment model for major depressive disorder that integrates definitions of new therapeutic end points, familiarizes them with tools for assessing these end points, and describes newer methods for enhancing outcome. SOURCES OF INFORMATION Canadian Psychiatric Association Guidelines for the Treatment of Depressive Disorders, relevant articles from a MEDLINE

Atul Khullar; Roger S. McIntyre

158

Measuring Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: Motivation Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the pressing need for accountability in higher education, standardized outcomes assessments have been widely used to evaluate learning and inform policy. However, the critical question on how scores are influenced by students' motivation has been insufficiently addressed. Using random assignment, we administered a multiple-choice test and an…

Liu, Ou Lydia; Bridgeman, Brent; Adler, Rachel M.

2012-01-01

159

Measuring Student Satisfaction from the Student Outcomes Survey. Technical Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Student Outcomes Survey is an annual national survey of vocational education and training (VET) students. Since 1995, participants have been asked to rate their satisfaction with different aspects of their training, grouped under three main themes: teaching, assessment, and generic skills and learning experiences. While the composition of the…

Fieger, Peter

2012-01-01

160

Targeted estimation of binary variable importance measures with interval-censored outcomes.  

PubMed

Abstract In most experimental and observational studies, participants are not followed in continuous time. Instead, data is collected about participants only at certain monitoring times. These monitoring times are random and often participant specific. As a result, outcomes are only known up to random time intervals, resulting in interval-censored data. In contrast, when estimating variable importance measures on interval-censored outcomes, practitioners often ignore the presence of interval censoring, and instead treat the data as continuous or right-censored, applying ad hoc approaches to mask the true interval censoring. In this article, we describe targeted minimum loss-based estimation (TMLE) methods tailored for estimation of binary variable importance measures with interval-censored outcomes. We demonstrate the performance of the interval-censored TMLE procedure through simulation studies and apply the method to analyze the effects of a variety of variables on spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance among injection drug users, using data from the "International Collaboration of Incident HIV and HCV in Injecting Cohorts" project. PMID:24637001

Sapp, Stephanie; van der Laan, Mark J; Page, Kimberly

2014-05-01

161

The use of collaboration science to define consensus outcome measures: a telemental health case study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of a collaboration science process used to develop recommendations for the field of telemental health (TMH) in the selection of outcome measures that best reflect programmatic impacts. A common use of group development techniques in medicine is the development of clinical guidelines, which typically occurs using one of two methods: the nominal group or the Delphi method. Both processes have been faulted for limited transparency, reliability, and sustainability. Recommendations to improve the traditional process include making goals explicit, making disagreements transparent, and publicly displaying levels of agreement. A group of 26 TMH experts convened during the American Telemedicine Association's 2012 Fall Forum in New Orleans, LA to participate in a 1-day, interactive, consensus-building workshop to initiate the development of a shared lexicon of outcomes. The workshop method was designed to improve on traditional methods of guideline development by focusing on clarity of expectations, transparency, and timeliness of group development work. Results suggest that, compared with other traditional methods, the current process involved more people, occurred more rapidly, was more transparent, and resulted in a comparable deliverable. Recommendations for further process development, both within and external to TMH, as well as an initial overview of defined outcome measures are discussed. PMID:23590175

Mishkind, Matthew C; Doarn, Charles R; Bernard, Jordana; Shore, Jay H

2013-06-01

162

Precision Results on ?13: Measurements and Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, terrestrial experiments have proven that neutrino oscillations explain the solar neutrino problem and the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. These phenomena rely on neutrino mixing between the first and second, and second and third, neutrino generations, respectively. However, other experiments put limits on mixing between the first and third generations, and suggested a rather small mixing angle ?13. In March 2012 the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment reported a conclusive measurement of ?13, with a larger value than generally expected. This result was consistent with some earlier indications of a nonzero ?13 from T2K, MINOS, KamLAND, and Double Chooz, and was soon confirmed by RENO. This talk will present updated results from Daya Bay and other experiments, and discuss consequences for the next generation of neutrino experiments, in the US and abroad.

Napolitano, Jim

2012-10-01

163

Objective assessment of cosmetic outcome after targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer: results from a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

The international randomised targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT) trial has demonstrated evidence of non-inferiority between the novel technique of TARGIT (intra-operative radiotherapy with Intrabeam(®)) and conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in women with early breast cancer in terms of the primary outcome measure of risk of local relapse within the treated breast. Cosmesis is an increasingly important outcome of breast conserving treatment with both surgery and radiotherapy contributing to this. It was unknown if the single high dose of TARGIT may lead to damaging fibrosis and thus impair cosmesis further, so we objectively evaluated the aesthetic outcome of patients within the TARGIT randomised controlled trial. We have used an objective assessment tool for evaluation of cosmetic outcome. Frontal digital photographs were taken at baseline (before TARGIT or EBRT) and yearly thereafter for up to 5 years. The photographs were analysed by BCCT.core, a validated software which produces a composite score based on symmetry, colour and scar. 342 patients were assessed, median age at baseline 64 years (IQR 59-68). The scores were dichotomised into Excellent and Good (EG), and Fair and Poor (FP). There were statistically significant increases in the odds of having an outcome of EG for patients in the TARGIT group relative to the EBRT group at year 1 (OR 2.07, 95 % CI 1.12-3.85, p = 0.021) and year 2 (OR 2.11, 95 % CI 1.0-4.45, p = 0.05). Following a totally objective assessment in a randomised setting, the aesthetic outcome of patients demonstrates that those treated with TARGIT have a superior cosmetic result to those patients who received conventional external beam radiotherapy. PMID:23877341

Keshtgar, Mohammed R S; Williams, Norman R; Bulsara, Max; Saunders, Christobel; Flyger, Henrik; Cardoso, Jaime S; Corica, Tammy; Bentzon, Neils; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Joseph, David J

2013-08-01

164

Comparison of ASSESS neutralization module results with actual small force engagement outcomes  

SciTech Connect

The ASSESS Neutralization module (Neutralization) is part of the Analytic System and Software for Evaluation of Safeguards and Security (ASSESS), a vulnerability assessment tool. Neutralization models a fire fight between security inspectors (SIs) and adversaries. This paper reports that a comparison has been made between actual outcomes of police and small military engagements and the results predicted by the Neutralization module for similar scenarios. The results of this comparison show a surprising correlation between predicted outcomes (based on numbers of combatants, weapon types, and exposures, etc.) and the actual outcomes of the engagements analyzed. The importance of this analysis is that given the defenders have intelligence on actual adversary characteristics or are protecting against a design basis threat, defense capabilities can be evaluated before an engagement. Results could then be used to develop a favorable probability of a desired outcome. For example, law enforcement agencies are frequently able to compile the number of criminals, types of weaponry, willingness to use force, etc., from analysis of crime scenes.

Gardner, B.H.; Snell, M.K.; Paulus, W.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

165

Guide to outcomes measurement for patients with low back pain syndromes.  

PubMed

The Guide for Physical Therapist Practice states that the physical therapist determines the expected outcomes for each intervention and engages in outcomes data collection and analysis. Outcomes tracking provides a systematic way for therapists to monitor treatment effectiveness and efficiency. A familiarity with outcome measures for the patient with low back pain is indispensable for therapists in the outpatient orthopaedic setting, where patients with lumbar pain often comprise the majority of the caseload. The therapist must be able to evaluate and choose appropriate measurement tools and understand the clinical meaning of measurements to successfully employ these instruments. The purpose of this article is to review measurement instruments for patients with low back pain and to offer practical guidelines for selection and use of outcome measures for this population. The reliability, validity, sensitivity to change, and utility of common outcome measures are discussed. An overview of generic, disease-specific, and patient-specific tools is provided with specific commentary on the use of the SF-36, SF-12, Oswestry Questionnaire, Roland-Morris Questionnaire, and patient-specific tools. Practical guidelines for utilizing outcome measures in clinical practice and the overall benefits of outcomes tracking are highlighted. PMID:12839205

Resnik, Linda; Dobrzykowski, Ed

2003-06-01

166

The use of routine outcome measures in two child and adolescent mental health services: a completed audit cycle  

PubMed Central

Background Routine outcome measurement (ROM) is important for assessing the clinical effectiveness of health services and for monitoring patient outcomes. Within Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the UK the adoption of ROM in CAMHS has been supported by both national and local initiatives (such as government strategies, local commissioning policy, and research). Methods With the aim of assessing how these policies and initiatives may have influenced the uptake of ROM within two different CAMHS we report the findings of two case-note audits: a baseline audit conducted in January 2011 and a re-audit conducted two years later in December 2012-February 2013. Results The findings show an increase in both the single and repeated use of outcome measures from the time of the original audit, with repeated use (baseline and follow-up) of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) scale increasing from 10% to 50% of cases. Re-audited case-notes contained more combined use of different outcome measures, with greater consensus on which measures to use. Outcome measures that were applicable across a wide range of clinical conditions were more likely to be used than symptom-specific measures, and measures that were completed by the clinician were found more often than measures completed by the service user. Conclusions The findings show a substantial improvement in the use of outcome measures within CAMHS. These increases in use were found across different service organisations which were subject to different types of local service priorities and drivers.

2013-01-01

167

Recommendations for the use of common outcome measures in pediatric traumatic brain injury research.  

PubMed

This article addresses the need for age-relevant outcome measures for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research and summarizes the recommendations by the inter-agency Pediatric TBI Outcomes Workgroup. The Pediatric Workgroup's recommendations address primary clinical research objectives including characterizing course of recovery from TBI, prediction of later outcome, measurement of treatment effects, and comparison of outcomes across studies. Consistent with other Common Data Elements (CDE) Workgroups, the Pediatric TBI Outcomes Workgroup adopted the standard three-tier system in its selection of measures. In the first tier, core measures included valid, robust, and widely applicable outcome measures with proven utility in pediatric TBI from each identified domain including academics, adaptive and daily living skills, family and environment, global outcome, health-related quality of life, infant and toddler measures, language and communication, neuropsychological impairment, physical functioning, psychiatric and psychological functioning, recovery of consciousness, social role participation and social competence, social cognition, and TBI-related symptoms. In the second tier, supplemental measures were recommended for consideration in TBI research focusing on specific topics or populations. In the third tier, emerging measures included important instruments currently under development, in the process of validation, or nearing the point of published findings that have significant potential to be superior to measures in the core and supplemental lists and may eventually replace them as evidence for their utility emerges. PMID:21644810

McCauley, Stephen R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Anderson, Vicki A; Bedell, Gary; Beers, Sue R; Campbell, Thomas F; Chapman, Sandra B; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Gerring, Joan P; Gioia, Gerard A; Levin, Harvey S; Michaud, Linda J; Prasad, Mary R; Swaine, Bonnie R; Turkstra, Lyn S; Wade, Shari L; Yeates, Keith O

2012-03-01

168

Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in primary care: an observational pilot study of seven generic instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been introduced in studies to assess healthcare performance. The development of PROMs for primary care poses specific challenges, including a preference for generic measures that can be used across diseases, including early phases or mild conditions. This pilot study aimed to explore the potential usefulness of seven generic measures for assessing health outcomes in primary care patients. Methods A total of 300 patients in three general practices were invited to participate in the study, shortly after their visit to the general practitioner. Patients received a written questionnaire, containing seven validated instruments, focused on patient empowerment (PAM-13 or EC-17), quality of life (EQ-5D or SF-12), mental health (GHQ-12), enablement (PEI) and perceived treatment effect (GPE). Furthermore, questions on non-specific symptoms and number of GP contacts were included. After 4 weeks patients received a second, identical, questionnaire. Response and missing items, total scores and dispersion, responsiveness, and associations between instruments and other measures were examined. Results A total of 124 patients completed the questionnaire at baseline, of whom 98 completed it both at baseline and 4 weeks later (response rate: 32.7%). The instruments had a full completion rate of 80% or higher. Differences between baseline and follow up were significant for the EQ-5D (p?=?0.026), SF-12 PCS (p?=?0.026) and the GPE (p?=?0.006). A strong correlation (r???0.6) was found between the SF-12 MCS and GHQ-12, at both baseline measurement and after four weeks. Other observed associations between instruments were moderately strong. No strong correlations were found between instruments and non-specific symptoms or number of GP contacts. Conclusions The present study is among the first to explore the use of generic patient-reported outcome measures in primary care. It provides several leads for developing a generic PROM questionnaire in primary care as well as for potential limitations of such instruments.

2014-01-01

169

SAGE III solar ozone measurements: Initial results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from two retrieval algorithms, o3-aer and o3-mlr , used for SAGE III solar occultation ozone measurements in the stratosphere and upper troposphere are compared. The main differences between these two retrieved (version 3.0) ozone are found at altitudes above 40 km and below 15 km. Compared to correlative measurements, the SAGE II type ozone retrievals (o3-aer) provide better precisions above 40 km and do not induce artificial hemispheric differences in upper stratospheric ozone. The multiple linear regression technique (o3_mlr), however, can yield slightly more accurate ozone (by a few percent) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. By using SAGE III (version 3.0) ozone from both algorithms and in their preferred regions, the agreement between SAGE III and correlative measurements is shown to be approx.5% down to 17 km. Below 17 km SAGE III ozone values are systematically higher, by 10% at 13 km, and a small hemispheric difference (a few percent) appears. Compared to SAGE III and HALOE, SAGE II ozone has the best accuracy in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere. Estimated precision in SAGE III ozone is about 5% or better between 20 and 40 km and approx.10% at 50 km. The precision below 20 km is difficult to evaluate because of limited coincidences between SAGE III and sondes. SAGE III ozone values are systematically slightly larger (2-3%) than those from SAGE II but the profile shapes are remarkably similar for altitudes above 15 km. There is no evidence of any relative drift or time dependent differences between these two instruments for altitudes above 15-20 km.

Wang, Hsiang-Jui; Cunnold, Derek M.; Trepte, Chip; Thomason, Larry W.; Zawodny, Joseph M.

2006-01-01

170

Responsiveness of Health-Related Quality of Life Outcome Measures in Cardiac Rehabilitation: Comparison of Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcome Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment instruments that are not responsive to change are unsuitable as outcome tools in cardiac rehabilitation because they underestimate the psychosocial benefits of program attendance. Nine questionnaires were assessed for responsiveness with the standardized response mean (SRM). Questionnaires were allocated into 3 batteries, and each…

Hevey, David; McGee, Hannah M.; Horgan, John

2004-01-01

171

Assessing outcomes of health and medical research: do we measure what counts or count what we can measure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments world wide are increasingly demanding outcome measures to evaluate research investment. Health and medical research outputs can be considered as gains in knowledge, wealth and health. Measurement of the impacts of research on health are difficult, particularly within the time frames of granting bodies. Thus evaluations often measure what can be measured, rather than what should be measured. Traditional

Robert Wells; Judith A Whitworth

2007-01-01

172

Early Oxygenation and Ventilation Measurements After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest: Lack of Association With Outcome  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore oxygenation and ventilation status early after cardiac arrest in infants and children. We hypothesize that hyperoxia is common and associated with worse outcome after pediatric cardiac arrest. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Fifteen hospitals within the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. Patients Children who suffered a cardiac arrest event and survived for at least 6 hours after return of circulation. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Analysis of 195 events revealed that abnormalities in oxygenation and ventilation are common during the initial 6 hours after pediatric cardiac arrest. Hyperoxia was frequent, affecting 54% of patients. Normoxia was documented in 34% and hypoxia in 22% of patients. These percentages account for a 10% overlap of patients who had both hyperoxia and hypoxia. Ventilation status was more evenly distributed with hyperventilation observed in 38%, normoventilation in 29%, and hypoventilation in 46%, with a 13% overlap of patients who had both hyperventilation and hypoventilation. Derangements in both oxygenation and ventilation were common early after cardiac arrest such that both normoxia and normocarbia were documented in only 25 patients (13%). Neither oxygenation nor ventilation status was associated with outcome. After controlling for potential confounders, arrest location and rhythm were significantly associated with worse outcome; however, hyperoxia was not (odds ratio for good outcome, 1.02 [0.46, 2.84]; p = 0.96). Conclusions Despite recent resuscitation guidelines that advocate maintenance of normoxia and normoventilation after pediatric cardiac arrest, this is uncommonly achieved in practice. Although we did not demonstrate an association between hyperoxia and worse outcome, the small proportion of patients kept within normal ranges limited our power. Preclinical data suggesting potential harm with hyperoxia remain compelling, and further investigation, including prospective, large studies involving robust recording of physiological derangements, is necessary to further advance our understanding of this important topic.

Bennett, Kimberly Statler; Clark, Amy E.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Topjian, Alexis A.; Schleien, Charles L.; Shaffner, Donald H.; Dean, J. Michael; Moler, Frank W.

2013-01-01

173

The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ?66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ? 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and patients now have evidence that corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study from donors through age 75 years are suitable for transplantation.

2009-01-01

174

Gender Disparities in HIV Treatment Outcomes Following Release From Jail: Results From a Multicenter Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We assessed gender differences in longitudinal HIV treatment outcomes among HIV-infected jail detainees transitioning to the community. Methods Data were from the largest multisite prospective cohort study of HIV-infected released jail detainees (n = 1270)—the Enhancing Linkages to HIV Primary Care and Services in Jail Setting Initiative, January 2008 and March 2011, which had 10 sites in 9 states. We assessed baseline and 6-month HIV treatment outcomes, stratifying by gender. Results Of 867 evaluable participants, 277 (31.9%) were women. Compared with men, women were more likely to be younger, non-Hispanic White, married, homeless, and depressed, but were similar in recent alcohol and heroin use. By 6 months postrelease, women were significantly less likely than men to experience optimal HIV treatment outcomes, including (1) retention in care (50% vs 63%), (2) antiretroviral therapy prescription (39% vs 58%) or optimal antiretro-viral therapy adherence (28% vs 44%), and (3) viral suppression (18% vs 30%). In multiple logistic regression models, women were half as likely as men to achieve viral suppression. Conclusions HIV-infected women transitioning from jail experience greater comorbidity and worse HIV treatment outcomes than men. Future interventions that transition people from jail to community-based HIV clinical care should be gender-specific.

Meyer, Jaimie P.; Zelenev, Alexei; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Williams, Chyvette T.; Teixeira, Paul A.; Altice, Frederick L.

2014-01-01

175

The SF36 health survey questionnaire: an outcome measure suitable for routine use within the NHS?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the short form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire (a shortened version of a battery of 149 health status questions) as a measure of patient outcome in a broad sample of patients suffering from four common clinical conditions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire, followed up by two reminders at two week intervals. SETTING--Clinics and four training practices in north east Scotland. SUBJECTS--Over 1700 patients aged 16-86 with one of four conditions--low back pain, menorrhagia, suspected peptic ulcer, or varicose veins--and a comparison sample of 900 members of the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The eight scales within the SF36 health profile. RESULTS--The response rate exceeded 75% in the patient population (1310 respondents). The SF36 satisfied rigorous psychometric criteria for validity and internal consistency. Clinical validity was shown by the distinctive profiles generated for each condition, each of which differed from that in the general population in a predictable manner. Furthermore, SF36 scores were lower in referred patients than in patients not referred and were closely related to general practitioners' perceptions of severity. CONCLUSIONS--These results provide support for the SF36 as a potential measure of patient outcome within the NHS. The SF36 seems acceptable to patients, internally consistent, and a valid measure of the health status of a wide range of patients. Before it can be used in the new health service, however, its sensitivity to changes in health status over time must also be tested.

Garratt, A M; Ruta, D A; Abdalla, M I; Buckingham, J K; Russell, I T

1993-01-01

176

Quality of life measurement and outcome in aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life (QL) can be defined as the individual’s perception of their own well-being. Aphasia is the most important potential consequence of stroke and has a profound effect on a patient’s life, causing emotional distress, depression, and social isolation, due to loss of language functions. Aims To draw up a QL questionnaire for aphasics (QLQA) focusing particularly on difficulties in interpersonal relationships and on the loss of independence as a result of language disorders. We reported the results of a psychometric evaluation of this measure. Moreover, we experimentally focused on the differences in QLQA between patients affected only by neurological motor impairment and hemiparetic patients with aphasia (PWA) in order to verify the specific role of aphasia on QL. We also explored if the QLQA is sensitive to the severity of aphasia and to the time elapsing from the stroke. Methods A total of 146 consecutive PWA and 37 control subjects were enrolled to evaluate the reliability (internal consistency and test–retest reliability) and validity of the QLQA, using standard psychometric methods. Patients were divided into acute (within 3 months since stroke) and chronic (beyond 3 months) groups, and into mild and severe according to the severity of aphasia. The experimental group of only acute PWA was compared to control subjects, with right hemispherical lesion and without aphasia in QLQA total and partial scores. Results The QLQA had good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Acute and chronic PWA and mild and severe ones differed in QLQA total, communication, and autonomy subscales. No differences were found in psychological condition. Between aphasic and control patients, significant differences were found in all QLQA subscales. Conclusion The QLQA is a valid measure of QL in PWA, contributing to a better distinction between severe and mild aphasia, and it is sensitive also to the variations in QL depending on the time interval from stroke.

Spaccavento, Simona; Craca, Angela; Del Prete, Marina; Falcone, Rosanna; Colucci, Antonia; Di Palma, Angela; Loverre, Anna

2014-01-01

177

Novel methods of measuring clinical outcomes from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis clinical trials.  

PubMed

Numerous instruments exist that measure the clinical and health related quality of life impact of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in clinical trials. However, many of these instruments are not typically used in economic evaluations to inform decision problems facing health care decision makers. This study reviews the current state of psoriasis and PsA health outcome measures and evaluates their limitations in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). We highlight the health related quality of life and clinical outcome measures that are typically used in CEAs, with special focus on studies with quality adjusted life years as a primary outcome measure. Despite the high prevalence of psoriasis and PsA health outcome measures in clinical trials, only a few are used in CEAs. The methods by which utilities are estimated from these measures vary across cost-effectiveness studies. These differences should be considered when conducting cost-effectiveness research in psoriasis and PsA. PMID:24820676

Villacorta, Reginald; Hay, Joel W; Messali, Andrew

2014-08-01

178

The Measurement and Use of Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to present a framework for the measurement and use of quality of life-related personal outcomes\\u000a for persons with intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities. The chapter is composed of two major sections.\\u000a In the first section (“the measurement of quality of life-related personal outcomes”) the author discusses quality of life\\u000a (QOL) measurement guidelines, a

Robert L. Schalock

179

Evaluating CT perfusion using outcome measures of delayed cerebral ischemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate CTP in aneurysmal SAH using outcome measures of DCI. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of consecutive SAH patients enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved clinical accuracy trial. Qualitative CTP deficits were determined by two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical and imaging data. Quantitative CTP was performed using standardized protocol with ROI placement sampling cortex. Primary outcome measures were permanent neurologic deficits and infarction. Secondary outcome measure was DCI, defined as clinical deterioration. CTP test characteristics (95% CI) were determined for each outcome measure. Statistical significance was calculated using Fisher’s exact and Student’s t-test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine accuracy and threshold analysis. Results Ninety-six patients were included. Permanent neurologic deficits developed in 33%(32/96). CTP deficits were seen in 78%(25/32) of those who developed permanent neurologic deficits and 34%(22/64) without(p<0.0001). CTP deficits had 78%(61–89%) sensitivity, 66%(53–76%) specificity, 53%(39–67%) positive and 86%(73–93%) negative predictive values. Infarction occurred in 18%(17/96). CTP deficits were seen in 88%(15/17) who developed infarction and 41%(32/79) without(p=0.0004). CTP deficits had 88%(66–97%) sensitivity, 59%(48–70%) specificity, 32%(20–46%) positive and 96%(86–99%) negative predictive values. DCI was diagnosed in 50%(48/96). CTP deficits were seen in 81%(39/48) of DCI patients and 17%(8/48) without(p<0.0001). CTP deficits had 81%(68–90%) sensitivity, 83%(70–91%) specificity, 83%(70–91%) positive and 82%(69–90%) negative predictive values. Quantitative CTP revealed significantly reduced CBF and prolonged MTT for DCI, permanent neurologic deficits, and infarction. ROC analysis showed that CBF and MTT had the highest accuracy. Conclusion CTP may add prognostic information regarding DCI and poor outcomes in aneurysmal SAH.

Sanelli, P.C.; Anumula, N.; Johnson, C.E.; Comunale, J.P.; Tsiouris, A.J.; Riina, H.; Segal, A.Z.; Stieg, P.E.; Zimmerman, R.D.; Mushlin, A.I.

2014-01-01

180

Two-year outcome following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for variceal bleeding: Results in 90 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a new therapy for variceal bleeding. Immediate technical and short-term clinical results have been reported. This study was undertaken to evaluate mid-term outcome after TIPS in patients who successfully underwent the procedure for variceal bleeding. Methods: Ninety patients were followed up prospectively by clinical examination and radiological shunt evaluation including Doppler sonography and

Jeanne M. Laberge; Kenneth A. Somberg; John R. Lake; Roy L. Gordon; Robert K. Kerlan; Nancy L. Ascher; John P. Roberts; Margaret M. Simor; Catherine A. Doherty; Judith Hahn; Peter BachettiI; Ernest J. Ring

1995-01-01

181

Outcome measures monitoring physical function in children with haemophilia: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Our objective was to provide a synthesis of measurement properties for performance-based outcome measures used to evaluate physical function in children with haemophilia. A systematic review of articles published in English using Medline, PEDro, Cinahl and The Cochrane Library electronic databases was conducted. Studies were included if a performance-based method, clinical evaluation or measurement tool was used to record an aspect of physical function in patients with haemophilia aged ? 18 years. Recording of self-perceived or patient-reported physical performance, abstracts, unpublished reports, case series reports and studies where the outcome measure was not documented or cross-referenced was excluded. Description of outcome measures, patient characteristics, measurement properties for construct validity, internal consistency, repeatability, responsiveness and feasibility was extracted. Data synthesis of 41 studies evaluating 14 measures is reported. None of the outcome measures demonstrated the requirements for all the measurement properties. Data on validity and test-retest repeatability were most lacking together with studies of sufficient size. Measurement of walking and muscle strength demonstrated good repeatability and discriminative properties; however, correlation with other measures of musculoskeletal impairment requires investigation. The Haemophilia Joint Health Score demonstrated acceptable construct validity, internal consistency and repeatability, but the ability to discriminate changes in physical function is still to be determined. Rigorous evaluation of the measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures used to monitor physical function of children with haemophilia in larger collaborative studies is required. PMID:24252123

Stephensen, D; Drechsler, W I; Scott, O M

2014-05-01

182

The Influence of Diversity on Learning Outcomes among African American College Students: Measuring Sex Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National survey data from 594 African American college students were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques to measure the impact of diversity on educational outcomes. Two research questions guided the present study: (a) How do interactional diversity experiences affect learning and development outcomes for African…

Strayhorn, Terrell L.

2010-01-01

183

The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

2010-01-01

184

Quality of Medical Care Assessment Using Outcome Measures; NCHSR Research Summary Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a summary of a two-volume final report of a contract to develop measures of short-term outcome for eight common health problems. The first volume is a conceptual overview of the role of outcome information in quality assessment, including an...

A. D. Avery R. H. Brook

1977-01-01

185

Measuring communicative participation using the FOCUS©1: Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six  

PubMed Central

Background The FOCUS© is a new outcome tool for use by both parents and clinicians that measures changes in the communicative participation skills of preschool children. Changes in communicative participation skills as measured by the FOCUS were compared across three groups of children: those with speech impairments only (SI), those with language impairments only (LI) and those with both speech and language impairments (S/LI). Methods Participating families (n = 112, 75 male children) were recruited through 13 Canadian organizations. Children ranged from 10 months to 6 years 0 months (mean = 2.11 years; SD = 1.18 years) and attended speech-language intervention. Parents completed the FOCUS at the start and end of treatment. There were 23 children in the SI group, 62 children in the LI group and 27 children in the S/LI group. The average amount of the children's therapy varied from 7 to 10 h. Results The FOCUS captures changes in communicative participation for children with a range of communication disorder types and severities. All three groups of children made clinically important improvements according to their FOCUS scores (MCID ? 16 points). The FOCUS captured improvements in intelligibility, independent communication, play and socialization. Conclusions The FOCUS measured positive changes in communicative participation skills for all three groups of children after 7–10 h of speech-language therapy. An outcome measure that targets only specific speech and language skills would miss many of the important social function changes associated with speech-language treatment.

Thomas-Stonell, N; Washington, K; Oddson, B; Robertson, B; Rosenbaum, P

2013-01-01

186

Long-term result and patient reported outcome of wrist splint treatment for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.  

PubMed

Abstract Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the commonest peripheral neuropathy presenting to specialist hand and wrist clinics. This study investigated the long-term outcome of carpal tunnel syndrome treated with isolated night wrist splint and the factors determining the likelihood of success of this intervention. Seventy-five patients referred to a specialist hand clinic with CTS were given night wrist splint treatment for 3 months as per a previous study protocol. Fifty-two patients from this cohort did not wish to have surgery after wrist splint treatment and were followed for a further 33-month period. Baseline pain and numbness levels were recorded on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) using a questionnaire upon first presentation. A further questionnaire at 36 months reassessed pain and numbness levels, patients' satisfaction with the treatment, and whether they had subsequent surgical decompression. Of the patients who completed the follow-up questionnaire 33 months after their period of conservative management, 43% were successfully treated with splint treatment alone. There was no difference in the VAS for pain or numbness at the baseline and at 36 months between successful and failed treatment groups. Patients successfully treated with wrist splinting alone reported a higher level of satisfaction with their treatment compared to patients who failed wrist splint treatment or had surgical decompression. The results reinforce the previous recommendation on wrist splinting as a first-line treatment in the Primary Care setting. Referral to specialist hand and wrist clinics should be reserved for patients with symptoms refractory to this initial measure. PMID:24032598

Povlsen, Bo; Bashir, Muhammad; Wong, Fabian

2014-06-01

187

The measurement of patient-reported outcomes of refractive surgery: the refractive status and vision profile.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To develop a questionnaire, the Refractive Status and Vision Profile (RSVP), to assess health-related quality of life associated with refractive error and its correction. METHODS: The published literature on patient report of visual and overall function was reviewed, and the RSVP was self-administered by 550 participants with refractive error. Cross-sectional validation was performed using standard psychometric techniques. The responsiveness of the RSVP to surgical intervention was assessed prospectively in a subset of 176 patients. The principal outcomes measures were scores on the overall RSVP scale (S) and on 8 RSVP subscales (functioning, driving, concern, expectations, symptoms, glare, optical problems, problems with corrective lenses). RESULTS: The RSVP (S) and its subscales demonstrated very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, 0.70-0.93). S and several subscale scores were independently associated with satisfaction with vision and were more correlated with satisfaction with vision than with either visual acuity or refractive error. Higher refractive error was associated with lower scores on S and on 5 subscales. In the prospective surgical cohort, 15% of patients had some worsening in their total RSVP score; however, substantial variation was seen in the individual subscales where worsening ranged from 7% (problems with corrective lenses) to 41% (driving). The effect size (measure of responsiveness) of the RSVP and most of its subscales was very high. Approximately 14% of patients had significant worsening in 3 or more subscales, and this outcome was found to be independently associated with being dissatisfied with vision following surgery (OR, 5.84; 95% CI, 1.88, 8.13). CONCLUSIONS: The RSVP has been validated as a questionnaire that measures patient-reported quality of life related to refractive error and its correction. It is responsive to surgical intervention and provides important information regarding patient outcomes not available from standard clinical measurements.

Schein, O D

2000-01-01

188

A systematic review of ‘knowledge of dementia’ outcome measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of dementia measures are key to identifying areas of misinformation and establishing knowledge levels, thus guiding educational programmes and interventions.A three-step literature search was undertaken to identify measures of knowledge in dementia. An evaluation framework was employed articulating quality indicators for the psychometric properties of measures, based on their development and use within research studies.Five measures were identified: the

Aimee Spector; Martin Orrell; Astrid Schepers; Niamh Shanahan

189

The challenges of translating the clinical outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) into British Sign Language.  

PubMed

This article discusses translation issues arising during the production of a British Sign Language (BSL) version of the psychological outcome measure "Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure" (CORE-OM). The process included forward translation, meeting with a team of translators, producing a second draft of the BSL version and back translating into English. Further modifications were made to the BSL version before piloting it with d/Deaf populations. Details of the translation process are addressed, including (a) the implications of translating between modalities (written text to visual language); (b) clarity of frequency anchors: analog versus digital encoding; (c) pronouns and the direction of signing; and (iv) the influence of the on-screen format. The discussion of item-specific issues encountered when producing a BSL version of the CORE-OM includes the expression of precise emotional states in a language that uses visual modifiers, problems associated with iconic signs, and the influence of Deaf world knowledge when interpreting specific statements. Finally, it addresses the extent to which lessons learned through this translation process are generalizable to other signed languages and spoken language translations of standardized instruments. Despite the challenges, a BSL version of the CORE-OM has been produced and found to be reliable. PMID:23382390

Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Evans, Chris

2013-01-01

190

Psychometric investigation of a brief measure of outcomes in children's mental health.  

PubMed

The current investigation sought to provide reliability and validity evidence for the Child Outcomes Survey (COS), a brief measure designed with a dual purpose to measure functioning and therapeutic relationship and to serve as a clinician-caregiver communication tool. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed using a sample of 774 responses collected from 15 provider sites throughout the state of Pennsylvania. Results of the EFA (n = 387) uncovered a three factor structure (family functioning, child functioning, and therapeutic relationship) which was confirmed in the CFA (n = 387). The internal consistency reliability of the three subscales ranged from ? = .76 to ? = .91. There was a significant relationship between the therapeutic relationship subscale and the use of the COS as a communication aid (r s = .50, p < .001). Findings support the COS as an accurate measure of functioning and therapeutic relationship and its utility as a communication aid between clinician and caregiver. PMID:23748555

Terhorst, Lauren; Hutchison, Shari L; Sorbero, Mark J; Mitchell, Ann M; Dogin, Judith W; Stein, Bradley D

2014-02-01

191

Mapping health outcome measures from a stroke registry to EQ-5D weights  

PubMed Central

Purpose To map health outcome related variables from a national register, not part of any validated instrument, with EQ-5D weights among stroke patients. Methods We used two cross-sectional data sets including patient characteristics, outcome variables and EQ-5D weights from the national Swedish stroke register. Three regression techniques were used on the estimation set (n?=?272): ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD). The regression coefficients for “dressing“, “toileting“, “mobility”, “mood”, “general health” and “proxy-responders” were applied to the validation set (n?=?272), and the performance was analysed with mean absolute error (MAE) and mean square error (MSE). Results The number of statistically significant coefficients varied by model, but all models generated consistent coefficients in terms of sign. Mean utility was underestimated in all models (least in OLS) and with lower variation (least in OLS) compared to the observed. The maximum attainable EQ-5D weight ranged from 0.90 (OLS) to 1.00 (Tobit and CLAD). Health states with utility weights <0.5 had greater errors than those with weights ?0.5 (P?outcome measures from a stroke register into preference-based utilities to study the development of stroke care over time, and to compare with other conditions in terms of utility.

2013-01-01

192

Search Results: Measures - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

Academy of Management Measure Chest The website was developed by Research Methods Division (RMD) of the Academy of Management to provide organizational researchers a reference list of existing scales.

193

The Medical Outcomes Study. An application of methods for monitoring the results of medical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medical Outcomes Study was designed to (1) determine whether variations in patient outcomes are explained by differences in system of care, clinician specialty, and clinicians' technical and interpersonal styles and (2) develop more practical tools for the routine monitoring of patient outcomes in medical practice. Outcomes included clinical end points; physical, social, and role functioning in everyday living; patients'

Alvin R. Tarlov; Ware John E. Jr; Sheldon Greenfield; Eugene C. Nelson; Edward Perrin; Michael Zubkoff

1989-01-01

194

MEASURING THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER REDUCTIONS BY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OUTCOME INDICATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantifiable indicators will measure the progress of local and national PM reduction strategies in lowering population exposure to PM and positively impacting public health. These environmental health outcome indicators will ultimately serve to inform and evaluate environmen...

195

45 CFR 287.145 - What measures will be used to determine NEW Program outcomes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...outcomes? 287.145 Section 287.145 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM Program Design and Operations § 287.145 What measures will be used...

2013-10-01

196

Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

2013-01-01

197

Getting ready for patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) include reports and ratings provided by patients or their proxies about their health, functioning, health behaviours and quality of care. PROMs reflect the patient perspective and increase the comprehensiveness of outcome measurement in clinical research. There is growing interest in using PROMs in clinical practice: for screening, monitoring and improving communication at the individual level; and to aid in decision-making, monitor populations and assess quality in the aggregate. For use in clinical practice, the authors draw an analogy to getting to the prom (a North American graduation dance). Whom to go with? They recommend seeking a group of partners and developing methods and standards with national and international groups. The authors advocate for incentives to encourage broad participation. What to wear? They suggest selecting existing, well-tested PROMs and highlight the ability of dynamic questionnaires to provide tailored assessments. How to get there? The authors recommend web-based formatting of measures and results, using their system, PatientViewpoint, as an example. How to get the most out of the experience? They discuss the variety of applications of PROMs data and recommend providing clinicians with actions that they can take to mitigate problems in non-clinical domains. PMID:22543293

Wu, Albert W; Snyder, Claire

2011-01-01

198

Critical appraisal of subjective outcome measures used in the assessment of shoulder disability  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Objective measures can be impractical in some settings, because they are time consuming and require face-to-face contact. More recently, there is an increasing trend towards the use of subjective outcome measures. Hence, in this article, five common subjective shoulder outcome measures are critically appraised in terms of their development, validity, relia-lity, responsiveness and clinical application. MATERIALS AND METHODS Following an extensive literature search, five common shoulder patient-based scores were identified: Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ-UK), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), and the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ). These questionnaires were then critically appraised in terms of their development process, validity, reliability, responsiveness, and clinical application. RESULTS The SDQ-UK has shown good construct validity but there is no data available regarding internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The SPADI has good internal consistency, fair reliability with adequate criterion and construct validity. The DASH has shown to have good construct validity, excellent test–re-test reliability and responsiveness to change. The OSS has good sensitivity, validity and responsiveness. Though SRQ has good internal consistency, its reproducibility and responsiveness are poor. CONCLUSIONS Based on this critical appraisal, the DASH received the best ratings for its clinimetric properties followed by the OSS.

Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios; Hearnden, Anthony J

2010-01-01

199

Development and Validation of the Ankle Fracture Outcome of Rehabilitation Measure (A-FORM).  

PubMed

Study Design Delphi panel and cohort study. Objective To develop and refine a condition-specific, patient-reported outcome measure, the Ankle Fracture Outcome of Rehabilitation Measure (A-FORM), and to examine its psychometric properties, including factor structure, reliability, and validity, by assessing item fit with the Rasch model. Background To our knowledge, there is no patient-reported outcome measure specific to ankle fracture with a robust content foundation. Methods A 2-stage research design was implemented. First, a Delphi panel that included patients and health professionals developed the items and refined the item wording. Second, a cohort study (n = 45) with 2 assessment points was conducted to permit preliminary maximum-likelihood exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Results The Delphi panel reached consensus on 53 potential items that were carried forward to the cohort phase. From the 2 time points, 81 questionnaires were completed and analyzed; 38 potential items were eliminated on account of greater than 10% missing data, factor loadings, and uniqueness. The 15 unidimensional items retained in the scale demonstrated appropriate person and item reliability after (and before) removal of 1 item (anxious about footwear) that had a higher-than-ideal outfit statistic (1.75). The "anxious about footwear" item was retained in the instrument, but only the 14 items with acceptable infit and outfit statistics (range, 0.5-1.5) were included in the summary score. Conclusion This investigation developed and refined the A-FORM (Version 1.0). The A-FORM items demonstrated favorable psychometric properties and are suitable for conversion to a single summary score. Further studies utilizing the A-FORM instrument are warranted. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(7):488-499. Epub 22 May 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4980. PMID:24853921

McPhail, Steven M; Williams, Cylie M; Schuetz, Michael; Baxter, Brett; Tonks, Peter; Haines, Terry P

2014-07-01

200

Assessment of murine lung mechanics outcome measures: alignment with those made in asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Although asthma is characterized as an inflammatory disease, recent reports highlight the importance of pulmonary physiology outcome measures to the clinical assessment of asthma control and risk of asthma exacerbation. Murine models of allergic inflammatory airway disease have been widely used to gain mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of asthma; however, several aspects of murine models could benefit from improvement. This review focuses on aligning lung mechanics measures made in mice with those made in humans, with an eye toward improving the translational utility of these measures. A brief description of techniques available to measure murine lung mechanics is provided along with a methodological consideration of their utilization. How murine lung mechanics outcome measures relate to pulmonary physiology measures conducted in humans is discussed and we recommend that, like human studies, outcome measures be standardized for murine models of asthma.

Walker, Julia K. L.; Kraft, Monica; Fisher, John T.

2013-01-01

201

Assessment of surgical results in patients with empty nose syndrome using the 25-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test Evaluation.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is an iatrogenic disorder, which severely affects the normal nasal breathing function. People affected by ENS may experience decreased productivity and lifestyle disruption. The 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20) is a validated quality-of-life measurement and can be used to compare before and after intervention outcomes. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of the Medpor implant (Porex Surgical Inc) to improve the disease-specific quality of life in patients with ENS and to validate the 25-Item SNOT (SNOT-25) as an assessment tool in patients with ENS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We prospectively enrolled 24 patients from our hospital who received inferior turbinate reconstruction surgery after drug therapy failed to improve their symptoms. INTERVENTIONS All the patients underwent submucosal Medpor implant surgery to reconstruct their inferior turbinate. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Patient assessments were based on the SNOT-25 questionnaire prior to surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. RESULTS The total scores of the SNOT-25 declined postoperatively, showing a significant difference at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery compared with their initial visit (P = .045, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). The 5 items most frequently reported by patients as important at their initial visit were "fatigue," "reduced concentration," "sadness," "dryness," and "nose is too open." The mean overall scores for these 5 important items also declined, showing statistically significant decreases compared with their initial visit (P < .05) and indicating that the items patients believed were important had improved. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Medpor implant surgery in patients with ENS is associated with statistically significant improvements in disease-specific quality of life measures. The modified version of SNOT-20 Health Survey Scales, the SNOT-25,may be a useful measurement tool in patients with ENS. PMID:24626391

Jiang, Chenyan; Wong, Fang; Chen, Kun; Shi, Runjie

2014-05-01

202

An evaluation of interrupted and uninterrupted measurement of vocal stereotypy on perceived treatment outcomes.  

PubMed

The type of procedure used to measure a target behavior may directly influence the perceived treatment outcomes. In the present study, we examined the influence of different data-analysis procedures on the outcomes of two commonly used treatments on the vocal stereotypy of 2 children with an autism spectrum disorder. In Study 1, we compared an interrupted and uninterrupted data-analysis procedure to measure vocal stereotypy during the implementation of response interruption and redirection (RIRD). The results showed that the interrupted data-analysis procedure overestimated the effectiveness of RIRD. In Study 2, we examined the influence of different data-analysis procedures on the interpretation of the relative effects of 2 different treatments for vocal stereotypy. Specifically, we compared interrupted and uninterrupted data-analysis procedures during the implementation of RIRD and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) as a treatment for vocal stereotypy. The results showed that, as in Study 1, the interrupted data-analysis procedure overestimated the effectiveness of RIRD; however, this effect was not apparent with NCR. These findings suggest that different types of data analysis can influence the perceived success of a treatment. PMID:24764249

Carroll, Regina A; Kodak, Tiffany

2014-06-01

203

Magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis lesions. Measuring outcome in treatment trials.  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance-based measures of disease activity and progression are now routinely used in definitive phase III treatment trials of multiple sclerosis as important secondary outcome measures because they provide quantitative and objective confirmation of the primary clinical outcome measures. Magnetic resonance-based activity measures can also be used as an efficient mechanism for screening therapies in phase I and II trials. In this review I consider the natural history of multiple sclerosis lesions and the relationships between magnetic resonance measures and clinical observations of disease as the basis for the use of magnetic resonance markers in current and future treatment trials. Images Figure 3. Figure 4.

Simon, J H

1996-01-01

204

First VIKING results: magnetic field measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VIKING spacecraft carries a high-resolution Magnetic Field Experiment for the operational purpose of determining spacecraft attitude and to fulfill the scientific objectives of providing magnetic-field measurements necessary for the determination of particle pitch angles, identification of geospace boundaries, and the study of magnetospheric current systems and plasma processes. This experiment includes a fluxgate magnetometer system with the sensors mounted

T A Potemra; L J Zanetti; R E Erlandson; G Gustafsson; M H Acuna

1988-01-01

205

Timing and directions for administration of questionnaires affect outcomes measurement.  

PubMed

We used data from two pilot studies to compare the change in patients' self-reported health-related quality of life after participation in two nearly identical Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Blind Rehabilitation Center (BRC) programs, the Southwestern BRC in Tucson, Arizona, and the BRC at the VA hospital in Hines, Illinois. Researchers at the Southwestern BRC administered the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire as directed by the developer. Researchers at the Hines BRC modified the directions to consider use of low-vision devices. Interval person-ability and item-difficulty measures estimated from patient responses pre- and postrehabilitation were compared with these same measures obtained at follow-up. At the Southwestern BRC, no change was reported in either person or item measures 3 months after rehabilitation. At the Hines BRC, improvement was seen in both the person and item measures when measurements were made immediately following rehabilitation. Because a temporary halo effect may explain the higher ratings at discharge, veterans from the Hines cohort were contacted by telephone and administered the same instrument 3 years later. For these subjects, the improvement noted in the person measure disappeared at follow-up, while the improvement in the item measure was maintained. PMID:17310429

Stelmack, Joan A; Babcock-Parziale, Judith L; Head, Daniel N; Wolfe, Gregory S; Fakhoury, Nader E; Wu, Shelley M; Massof, Robert W

2006-01-01

206

Validating English and Spanish-language patient-reported outcome measures in underserved patients with rheumatic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatic diseases are among the most common and debilitating health problems in the United States. These diseases are chronic, can result in severe decrements of physical and psychosocial functioning and affect patients' overall quality of life. A consensus regarding the best patient outcomes to be measured in randomized, controlled trials and prospective natural history studies is essential to provide

Gwenyth R Wallen; Kimberly R Middleton; Migdalia V Rivera-Goba; Barbara B Mittleman

2011-01-01

207

Validation of two generic patient-reported outcome measures in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Prior to using a generic patient-reported outcome measure (PRO), the measure should be validated within the target population. The purpose of the current study was to validate two generic measures in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes in Scotland and England completed two generic measures: EQ-5D and Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). Two diabetes-specific measures were administered: ADS and DSC-R. Analyses assessed reliability and validity. Results There were 130 participants (53 Scotland; 77 England; 64% male; mean age = 55.7 years). Responses on the EQ-5D and PGWB reflected moderate impairment consistent with previous diabetes samples: mean EQ-5D Index score, 0.75; EQ-5D VAS, 68.8; PGWB global score, 67.9. All scales of the PGWB demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77 to 0.97). The EQ-5D and PGWB demonstrated convergent validity through significant correlations with the ADS (r = 0.48 to 0.61), DSC-R scales (r = 0.33 to 0.81 except ophthalmology subscale), and Body Mass Index (r = 0.15 to 0.38). The EQ-5D and PGWB discriminated between groups of patients known to differ in diabetes-related characteristics (e.g., history of hypoglycemia). Conclusion Results support the use of the EQ-5D and PGWB among patients with type 2 diabetes, possibly in combination with condition-specific measures.

Matza, Louis S; Boye, Kristina S; Yurgin, Nicole

2007-01-01

208

Prospective population based survey of outcome of pregnancy in diabetic women: results of the Northern Diabetic Pregnancy Audit, 1994.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the St Vincent declaration (1989) target of diabetic pregnancy outcome approximating non-diabetic pregnancy outcome in near to being achieved. DESIGN: Prospective collection of population based information on pregnancies in women with diabetes from all participating hospitals. SETTING: District general and teaching hospitals of the former Northern region. SUBJECTS: 111 diabetic women booking with pregnancy during 1 January to 31 December 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diabetic control, perinatal mortality rate, fetal abnormality rate. RESULTS: The perinatal mortality rate was 48/1000 for diabetic pregnancies compared with 8.9/1000 for the background population (odds ratio 5.38; 95% confidence interval 2.27 to 12.70) and the neonatal mortality rate was 59/1000 compared with 3.9/1000 (15.0; 6.77 to 33.10). Two late neonatal deaths were due to congenital heart defects. Six per cent of all fetal losses (6/109 cases) were due to major malformations. The congenital malformation rate was 83/1000 compared with 21.3/1000 (3.76; 2.00 to 7.06) in the background population. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic pregnancy remains a high risk state with perinatal mortality and fetal malformation rates much higher than in the background population.

Hawthorne, G.; Robson, S.; Ryall, E. A.; Sen, D.; Roberts, S. H.; Ward Platt, M. P.

1997-01-01

209

Fast excitation wiggler field measurement results  

SciTech Connect

As part of the program of Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) Accelerator Development, the development of fast excitation, planar wigglers with high K magnitude has been pursued. This paper discusses the observed characteristics of a variable period length, tapered, wiggler as well as the procedures of measurement. The behaviour of a constant period length magnet with varying Vanadium Permendur (VaP) and field reflector thickness is also discussed.

Armendariz, J.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; van Steenbergen, A.

1992-08-01

210

Relative Humidity Measurement Assurance Program Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the summer of 1992, the National Conference of Standards Laboratories sponsored a relative humidity measurement assurance program (RHMAP) whose purpose was to enable each participating center to assess the quality of relative humidity calibrations being performed by their respective standards laboratories. This paper presents the data which was submitted by the participants during the first round of the program and shows the multi-laboratory comparisons of the 20%, 50%, and 80% relative humidity meaurements performed.

Cerezo, Miguel

1993-01-01

211

Self-management: a systematic review of outcome measures adopted in self-management interventions for stroke  

PubMed Central

Purpose To systematically review the psychometric properties of outcome measures used in stroke self-management interventions (SMIs) to (1) inform researchers, clinicians and commissioners about the properties of the measures in use and (2) make recommendations for the future development of self-management measurement in stroke. Methods Electronic databases, government websites, generic internet search engines and hand searches of reference lists. Abstracts were selected against inclusion criteria and retrieved for appraisal and systematically scored, using the COSMIN checklist. Results Thirteen studies of stroke self-management originating from six countries were identified. Forty-three different measures (mean 5.08/study, SD 2.19) were adopted to evaluate self-SMIs. No studies measured self-management as a discreet concept. Six (46%) studies included untested measures. Eleven (85%) studies included at least one measure without reported reliability and validity in stroke populations. Conclusions The use of outcome measures which are related, indirect or proxy indicators of self-management and that have questionable reliability and validity, contributes to an inability to sensitively evaluate the effectiveness of stroke self-SMIs. Further enquiry into how the concept of self-management in stroke operates, would help to clarify the nature and range of specific self-management activities to be targeted and aid the selection of existing appropriate measures or the development of new measures. Implications for Rehabilitation The evaluation of complex interventions such as self-management interventions is aided by clear outcome expectations and valid and reliable measurement. This review demonstrates a lack of outcome measures that specifically measure self-management of stroke. A minority of outcome measures that were used as proxy indicators for SM fulfill some of the criteria for quality outlined in the COSMIN checklist. Clinicians should select measures which appropriately reflect expected outcomes, giving due consideration to the theoretical underpinnings of the intervention. Further work is required to establish which measures currently in use, if any, accurately reflect stoke self-management. In the meantime, researchers should seek to develop psychometrically sound measures of stroke self-management to assist effective evaluation of such interventions in stroke.

Boger, Emma J.

2013-01-01

212

Measurement of Impairment among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Part of Evaluating Treatment Outcome  

PubMed Central

This study assesses the impairment and treatment outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an outpatient child psychiatry clinic, using multiple sources, including the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Methods: A total of 20 children, aged 4 to 16 years, were recruited serially in 2010 from the Child Psychiatric Unit of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. The children received a diagnosis of ADHD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The children were assessed with the C-GAS by a blinded investigator, initially at the beginning of the treatment and then one year later. Results: The parents of the patients reported improvement in all cases; the improvement in impairment after one year, assessed using the C-GAS, was significant for all of the cases (P = 0.001) and low for those with comorbidity (P = 0.07). Conclusion: Measurement of improvement using the C-GAS was a suitable method of collecting data, and hence should be included in routine clinical practice for both ADHD diagnosis and outcome measurement.

Al-Ansari, Ahmed M.

2013-01-01

213

Validation of the CMT Pediatric Scale as an outcome measure of disability  

PubMed Central

Objective Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a common heritable peripheral neuropathy. There is no treatment for any form of CMT although clinical trials are increasingly occurring. Patients usually develop symptoms during the first two decades of life but there are no established outcome measures of disease severity or response to treatment. We identified a set of items that represent a range of impairment levels and conducted a series of validation studies to build a patient-centered multi-item rating scale of disability for children with CMT. Methods As part of the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium, patients aged 3–20 years with a variety of CMT types were recruited from the USA, UK, Italy and Australia. Initial development stages involved: definition of the construct, item pool generation, peer review and pilot testing. Based on data from 172 patients, a series of validation studies were conducted, including: item and factor analysis, reliability testing, Rasch modeling and sensitivity analysis. Results Seven areas for measurement were identified (strength, dexterity, sensation, gait, balance, power, endurance), and a psychometrically robust 11-item scale constructed (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Pediatric Scale: CMTPedS). Rasch analysis supported the viability of the CMTPedS as a unidimensional measure of disability in children with CMT. It showed good overall model fit, no evidence of misfitting items, no person misfit and it was well targeted for children with CMT. Interpretation The CMTPedS is a well-tolerated outcome measure that can be completed in 25-minutes. It is a reliable, valid and sensitive global measure of disability for children with CMT from the age of 3 years.

Burns, Joshua; Ouvrier, Robert; Estilow, Tim; Shy, Rosemary; Laura, Matilde; Pallant, Julie F.; Lek, Monkol; Muntoni, Francesco; Reilly, Mary M.; Pareyson, Davide; Acsadi, Gyula; Shy, Michael E.; Finkel, Richard S.

2012-01-01

214

An introduction to patient-reported outcome measures in ophthalmic research.  

PubMed

Clinical outcomes, such as quantifying the extent of visual field loss by automated perimetry, are valued highly by health professionals, but such measures do not capture the impact of the condition on a patient's life. Patient-reported outcomes describe any report or measure of health reported by the patient, without external interpretation by a clinician or researcher. In this review, we discuss the value of the measures that capture this information (patient-reported outcome measures; PROMs), and why they are important to both the clinician and the researcher. We also consider issues around developing or selecting a PROM for ophthalmic research, the emerging challenges around conducting and reporting PROMs in clinical trials and highlight best practice for their use. Search terms for this review comprised: (1) (patient-reported outcomes OR patient-reported outcome measures) AND (2) randomised controlled trials AND (3) limited to ophthalmic conditions. These terms were expanded as follows: ((('patients'(MeSH Terms) OR 'patients'(All Fields) OR 'patient'(All Fields)) AND ('research report'(MeSH Terms) OR ('research'(All Fields) AND 'report'(All Fields)) OR 'research report'(All Fields) OR 'reported'(All Fields)) AND outcomes(All Fields)) OR (('patients'(MeSH Terms) OR 'patients'(All Fields) OR 'patient'(All Fields)) AND ('research report'(MeSH Terms) OR ('research'(All Fields) AND 'report'(All Fields)) OR 'research report'(All Fields) OR 'reported'(All Fields) AND ('outcome assessment (health care)'(MeSH Terms) OR ('outcome'(All Fields) AND 'assessment'(All Fields) AND '(health'(All Fields) AND 'care)'(All Fields)) OR 'outcome assessment (health care)'(All Fields) OR ('outcome'(All Fields) AND 'measures'(All Fields)) OR 'outcome measures'(All Fields)))) AND ('randomized controlled trial'(Publication Type) OR 'randomized controlled trials as topic'(MeSH Terms) OR 'randomised controlled trials'(All Fields) OR 'randomized controlled trials'(All Fields)) AND (ophth*(All Fields)). The authors also utilised the extensive non-ophthalmic literature and online resources relating to PROs and PROMs to inform this review. PMID:24625379

Denniston, A K; Kyte, D; Calvert, M; Burr, J M

2014-06-01

215

Recent results from satellite beacon measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is made of the techniques for measuring ionospheric electron content, the most important parameter in the study of transionospheric propagation. Data collected since 1964 have yielded a synoptic description of the behavior of the electron content in mid-latitudes. Empirical relationships between the level of solar activity and the electron content have been developed permitting the prognostication of the electron content values. Marked discrepancies between prognostication and observation which occur during ionospheric storms are being studied to identify their causes. Electron content bite-outs during solar eclipses fall off with distance from totality more rapidly than simple theory predicts suggesting the action of eclipse induced neutral winds. Gravity waves propagating in the thermosphere leave a signature in the electron content records. Studies of such records have allowed the identification of the position of the gravity wave source, and its radiation pattern.

Da Rosa, A. V.

1974-01-01

216

Development of a composite measure for assessing alcohol treatment outcome: operationalization and validation.  

PubMed

This article operationally describes and empirically validates a composite outcome measure developed for use in a multisite alcohol treatment matching study. Using empirically based clinical guidelines to establish alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems criteria, 1,726 subjects were classified as abstinent, moderate drinking without problems, heavy drinking or problems, or heavy drinking and problems at intake and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months postintake. Subjects with poorer composite outcome also had poorer outcomes related to quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and other nonalcohol-related measures assessing psychiatric dysfunction, psychosocial functioning, and purpose or meaning in life. Differences in the present composite measure relative to other categorical measures used in research to date and the potential for incorporating nonalcohol-specific variables into composite measures are discussed. PMID:10069555

Cisler, R A; Zweben, A

1999-02-01

217

The rheumatoid foot: a systematic literature review of patient-reported outcome measures  

PubMed Central

Background The foot is often the first area of the body to be systematically affected by rheumatoid arthritis. The multidimensional consequences of foot problems for patients can be subjectively evaluated using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). However, there is currently no systematic review which has focused specifically upon the PROMs available for the foot with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise the foot-specific PROMs available for the assessment and/or evaluation of the foot affected with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods A systematic search of databases was conducted according to pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. PROMs identified were reviewed in terms of: conceptual bases, quality of construction, measurement aims and evidence to support their measurement properties. Results A total of 11 PROMs were identified and 5 papers that provided evidence for the measurement properties of some of the PROMs. Only one of the PROMs was found to be RA disease-specific. The quality of construction, pretesting and presence of evidence for their measurement properties was found to be highly variable. Conceptual bases of many of the PROMs was either restricted or based on reductionist biomedical models. All of the PROMs were found to consist of fixed scales. Conclusions There is a need to develop an RA-disease and foot-specific PROM with a greater emphasis on a biopsychosocial conceptual basis, cognitive pre-testing methods, patient preference-based qualities and evidence to support the full complement of measurement properties.

2010-01-01

218

Comparison of Patient-Based Oral Health Outcome Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This project examined psychometric characteristics of four measures of oral-specific health-related quality of life. Methods: We selected participants from two samples of community-dwelling male veterans from Boston (USA): (1) 538 users of VA outpatient medical care from the Veterans Health Study (VHS: mean age = 62); and (2) 211 relatively healthy men from the VA Dental Longitudinal Study (DLS:

Judith A. Jones; Nancy R. Kressin; Donald R. Miller; Michelle B. Orner; Raul I. Garcia; Avron Spiro III

2004-01-01

219

Outcome measurement in HEDIS: can risk adjustment save the low birth weight measure?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE. To evaluate whether adjusting the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) low birth weight (LBW) measure for maternal risk factors is feasible and improves its validity as a quality indicator. DATA SOURCE: The Washington State Birth Event Record Data for calendar years 1989 and 1990, including birth certificate data matched with mothers' and infants' hospital discharge records, with 5,837 records of singlet on infants identified as LBW (< 2,500 g) and a 25 percent sample ( n = 31,570) of the normal-weight births ( measure, we assessed health plan readiness to produce a risk-adjusted measure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An LBW indicator that is adjusted for maternal risks represents health plan performance better than the unadjusted rate. In the most parsimonious risk adjustment model LBW risk was higher for mothers with a history of prior preterm birth , LBW, or fet al death . Risk was also high er for primiparas or mothers with high parity, mothers less than 19 years of age, and primiparas over age 35. In a model adding race to these obstetric factors, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, or other non-white, non-Hispanic race were also significantly associated with higher LBW risk. While adjusting for maternal risk improved the LBW measure's validity, the rate adjustment magnitude was small (0.17 percentage points) for the most plausible model. Th is may not be mean in gf ul clinically or for measuring differences in quality. The costs and data collection requirements of risk adjustment could be substantial for health plans lacking access to State birth records data. CONCLUSIONS Selection of risk adjusters for quality measures depends on judgments of their effect, legitimacy, and feasibility. A comprehensive examination of validity and feasibility is needed to understand to what extent outcome measures represent quality and how their value compares to their cost of collection .

Inkelas, M; Decristofaro, A H; McGlynn, E A; Keeler, E B

2000-01-01

220

De novo supernumerary marker chromosome originating from chromosome 17 resulting in a normal pregnancy outcome.  

PubMed

We report here a prenatal case with de novo supernumerary marker chromosome originating from chromosome 17 in non-mosaic form resulting in normal pregnancy outcome. In this case, a 26-year-old pregnant woman was referred for amniocenthesis and microdeletion Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) testing at 18 weeks of gestation due to history of a previous child with Angelman Syndrome. PWS/AS region deletion was excluded by FISH. A de novo supernumerary, non-satellited, monocentric marker chromosome was detected during conventional cytogenetic analysis. With the use of FISH testing, it was found that the marker chromosome originated from chromosome 17. Additionally, the marker chromosome was found not to contain the Smith-Magenis and Miller Dieker syndrome regions. After detailed review of the literature, genetic counseling was given to the family, and the family decided to continue the pregnancy to term. A female child was born at term without any phenotypical abnormalities and clinical complications. Follow-up at 15 months-of-age revealed no developmental abnormalities. To our knowledge, our patient is the first reported prenatal case with a de novo monocentric, supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 17 in a non-mosaic form that resulting in normal pregnancy outcome. PMID:21614990

Yakut, S; Cetin, Z; Berker-Karauzum, S; Mihci, E; Mendilcioglu, I; Luleci, G

2011-01-01

221

Placental miRNA Expression Profiles Associated with Measures of Infant Neurobehavioral Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background A growing body of research suggests that the intrauterine environment influences fetal neurodevelopment by altering the functional placental epigenome. A number of miRNAs are expressed in the placenta, may be sensitive to dysregulation by environmental exposures, and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our study aimed to identify relationships between placental miRNA expression and newborn neurobehavior. Methods We examined the association between the expression of miR-16, miR-21, miR-93, miR-135b, miR-146a, and miR-182 in total RNA from the placentas of 86 term infants as measured by quantitative real-time PCR and newborn neurobehavioral outcomes as assessed using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS). Results Bivariate analysis revealed that placental miR-16 expression is negatively associated with attention score (p=0.006), while expression of miR-146a and miR-182 are both positively associated with quality of movement score (p=0.016 and p=0.016, respectively). Controlling for potential confounders, high miR-16 expression is significantly associated with reduced attention score (p=0.04), and high miR-146a expression and high miR-182 expression are significantly associated with increased quality of movement score (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusions These results suggest that placental miRNA expression is associated with early neurobehavioral outcomes and miRNAs in the placenta may contribute to the developmental origins of infant neurobehavior.

Maccani, Matthew A.; Padbury, James F.; Lester, Barry M.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Marsit, Carmen J.

2013-01-01

222

Drug-resistant focal sleep related epilepsy: Results and predictors of surgical outcome.  

PubMed

In this study we report the results of surgery in a large population of patients affected by drug-resistant focal sleep related epilepsy (SRE) and the identified prognostic factors. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a case series of 955 patients operated on for drug-resistant focal epilepsy from 1997 to 2009. Ninety-five patients with focal SRE and a follow-up of at least 2 years were identified. Presurgical, surgical and histopathological variables were analyzed. Risk of seizures recurrence was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Mean age at epilepsy onset was 5.6±4.9 years. MRI revealed a focal abnormality in 78.9% of cases. Sixty-two percent of patients required a Stereo-EEG investigation. The cortical resection involved the frontal lobe in 61.1% of cases, while in 38.9% an extrafrontal resection was performed. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II was the most frequent histopathological finding. Mean postoperative follow-up was 82.3 months. Seventy-three patients (76.8%) were in Engel's class I. At univariate analysis, variables associated with a favorable outcome were: absence of Stereo-EEG investigation; positive MRI; complete removal of the epileptogenic zone (EZ); presence of FCD type II and FCD type IIb. A diagnosis of FCD type I was associated with postoperative recurrence of seizures. Multivariate analysis identified the complete removal of the EZ and FCD type I as independent predictors of a favorable and unfavorable outcome respectively. SRE can frequently originate outside the frontal lobe and a favorable surgical outcome is achieved in three-fourths of cases independently from the location of the EZ. PMID:24679947

Losurdo, Anna; Proserpio, Paola; Cardinale, Francesco; Gozzo, Francesca; Tassi, Laura; Mai, Roberto; Francione, Stefano; Castana, Laura; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Sartori, Ivana; Della Marca, Giacomo; Cossu, Massimo; Nobili, Lino

2014-07-01

223

Decisional Outcomes of Maternal Disclosure of BRCA1/2 Genetic Test Results to Children  

PubMed Central

Background Although BRCA1/2 genetic testing is discouraged in minors, mothers may disclose their own results to their children. Factors affecting patients’ disclosure decisions and patient outcomes of disclosure are largely unknown. Methods Mothers (N = 221) of children ages 8-21 enrolled in this prospective study of family communication about cancer genetic testing. Patients underwent BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing, and completed standardized behavioral assessments prior to and 1-month following receipt of their results. Results Most patients (62.4%) disclosed BRCA1/2 test results to their child. Patients were more likely to disclose if they received negative or uninformative vs. positive results (OR = 3.11; 95% CI = 1.11 - 8.71; P = .03), their child was ? 13 years of age vs. younger (OR = 5.43; 95% CI = 2.18 - 13.53; P < .001), and as the ratio of patients’ perceived benefits of disclosure outweighed potential risks (OR = 2.40; 95% CI = 1.63 - 3.54; P < .001). Post-decision satisfaction about disclosure was lowest among nondisclosing patients (P < .001) and those reporting greater decisional conflict (P < .001). Conclusions Patients commonly discuss their BRCA1/2 results with their teenage and young adult children, especially if the information is perceived as beneficial. Satisfaction with disclosure decision-making remains lowest among nondisclosing and conflicted patients. Family communication decision support adjuncts to genetic counseling are needed to help ameliorate these effects. Impact This study describes the prevalence of family communication about maternal BRCA1/2 genetic testing with minor children, and decisions and outcomes of disclosure.

Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Mays, Darren; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Schneider, Katherine A.; Garber, Judy E.; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas

2013-01-01

224

The Influence of Enrollment Criteria on Recruitment and Outcome Distribution in Traumatic Brain Injury Studies: Results from the Impact Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Substantial heterogeneity exists among patients who suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strict enrollment criteria may diminish heterogeneity in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but will also decrease recruitment and may affect the outcome distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of commonly used enrollment criteria for RCTs in TBI on potential recruitment and on outcome distribution. We used individual patient data from the International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) database, including six therapeutic phase III RCTs (n?=?5816) and three surveys (n?=?2217) in TBI. The primary outcome was the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months after injury, which we dichotomized as favorable/unfavorable. We investigated the influences of commonly used enrollment criteria on recruitment and outcome distribution: time window between injury and admission to study hospital???8?h; age at injury???65 years;???1 reactive pupil; motor score?>?1; Glasgow Coma Scale???8. Application of all enrollment criteria resulted in a large reduction of recruitment in both the surveys (up to 65%) and the RCTs (up to 41%). Among the remaining patients, fewer had an unfavorable outcome in both the surveys (original, 60%; remaining, 44%) and the RCTs (original, 43%; remaining, 38%). Applying these enrollment criteria to patients from the surveys resulted in an outcome distribution that approximated the outcome observed in the RCTs. The use of strict enrollment criteria leads to substantial reductions in the recruitment of RCTs in TBI. The outcome in TBI studies depends strongly on the enrollment criteria.

Roozenbeek, Bob; Marmarou, Anthony; Butcher, Isabella; Lingsma, Hester F.; Lu, Juan; McHugh, Gillian S.; Murray, Gordon D.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

2009-01-01

225

Measures of between-cluster variability in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes.  

PubMed

Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of health-care interventions. A key feature of CRTs is that the observations on individuals within clusters are correlated as a result of between-cluster variability. Sample size formulae exist which account for such correlations, but they make different assumptions regarding the between-cluster variability in the intervention arm of a trial, resulting in different sample size estimates. We explore the relationship for binary outcome data between two common measures of between-cluster variability: k, the coefficient of variation and rho, the intracluster correlation coefficient. We then assess how the assumptions of constant k or rho across treatment arms correspond to different assumptions about intervention effects. We assess implications for sample size estimation and present a simple solution to the problems outlined. PMID:19378266

Thomson, Andrew; Hayes, Richard; Cousens, Simon

2009-05-30

226

Prediction of qualitative outcome of oligonucleotide microarray hybridization by measurement of RNA integrity using the 2100 Bioanalyzer™ capillary electrophoresis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA quality is critical to achieve valid results in microarray experiments and to save resources. The RNA integrity number\\u000a (RIN) can be measured with minimal sample consumption by microfluidics-based capillary electrophoresis. To determine whether\\u000a RIN can predict the qualitative outcome of microarray hybridization, we measured RIN in total RNA samples from 484 different\\u000a experiments by the 2100 Bioanalyzer system and

Philipp Kiewe; Saskia Gueller; Martina Komor; Andrea Stroux; Eckhard Thiel; Wolf-Karsten Hofmann

2009-01-01

227

Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale representation of the SLS vehicle, mobile launcher, tower, and launch pad trench. The SLS launch propulsion system will be comprised of the Rocket Assisted Take-Off (RATO) motors representing the solid boosters and 4 Gas Hydrogen (GH2) thrusters representing the core engines. The GH2 thrusters were tested in a horizontal configuration in order to characterize their performance. In Phase 1, a single thruster was fired to determine the engine performance parameters necessary for scaling a single engine. A cluster configuration, consisting of the 4 thrusters, was tested in Phase 2 to integrate the system and determine their combined performance. Acoustic and overpressure data was collected during both test phases in order to characterize the system's acoustic performance. The results from the single thruster and 4- thuster system are discussed and compared.

Vargas, Magda; Kenny, R. Jeremy

2013-01-01

228

"Spin" in wound care research: the reporting and interpretation of randomized controlled trials with statistically non-significant primary outcome results or unspecified primary outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Spin in the reporting of randomized controlled trials, where authors report research in a way that potentially misrepresents results and mislead readers, has been demonstrated in the broader medical literature. We investigated spin in wound care trials with (a) no statistically significant result for the primary outcome and (b) no clearly specified primary outcome. Methods We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register of Trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eligible studies were: Parallel-group RCTs of interventions for foot, leg or pressure ulcers published in 2004 to 2009 (inclusive) with either a clearly identified primary outcome for which there was a statistically non-significant result (Cohort A) or studies that had no clear primary outcome (Cohort B). We extracted general study details. For both Cohorts A and B we then assessed for the presence of spin. For Cohort A we used a pre-defined process to assess reports for spin. For Cohort B we aimed to assess spin by recording the number of positive treatment effect claims made. We also compared the number of statistically significant and non-significant results reported in the main text and the abstract looking specifically for spin in the form of selective outcome reporting. Results Of the 71 eligible studies, 28 were eligible for Cohort A; of these, 71% (20/28) contained spin. Cohort B contained 43 studies; of these, 86% (37/43) had abstracts that claimed a favorable treatment claim. Whilst 74% (32/43) of main text results in Cohort B included at least one statistically non-significant result, this was not reflected in the abstract where only 28% contained (12/43) at least one statistically non-significant result. Conclusions Spin is a frequent phenomenon in reports of RCTs of wound treatments. Studies without statistically significant results for the primary outcome used spin in 71% of cases. Furthermore, 33% (43/132) of reports of wound RCTs did not specify a primary outcome and there was evidence of spin and selective outcome reporting in the abstracts of these. Readers should be wary of only reading the abstracts of reports of RCTs of wound treatments since they are frequently misleading regarding treatment effects.

2013-01-01

229

Should we keep hemoglobin levels as a viable outcome measure?  

PubMed

In conclusion, the most important priority is to shift thinking to ESA dose exposure and away from focusing on the target Hb level. More attention needs to be spent on developing strategies to minimize exposure to high doses of ESAs. Possible strategies might include the subcutaneous administration of ESAs, treating a patient with an elevated ferritin, identifying sources of blood losses, treating infections and/or an inflammatory focus, and the use of computerized protocols. An equally important goal should be to change the CMS QIP anemia measure to a target Hb >9 g/dL. This modification in the QIP anemia measure is supported by the evidence from both the Normal Hematocrit trials and TREAT. If one models the effect of this QIP on the dialysis patient population as a whole, the majority of achieved Hb concentrations will likely be <11 g/dL (similar to the reported findings in the Normal Hematocrit study--see Figure 1). Lastly, translational studies and clinical trials are necessary to test whether exposure to high doses of ESAs explains the higher risk observed in CHOIR, TREAT, and the Normal Hematocrit study. PMID:20364493

Singh, Ajay K

2010-03-01

230

An intervention study to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes as a result of syphilis in Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To create and evaluate an alternative screening approach among pregnant women in order to reduce adverse pregnancy outcome as a result of syphilis in Mozambique. Methods: Four suburban antenatal clinics, two "control" and two "intervention" clinics, were compared regarding syphilis screening and treatment. Pregnant women with positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test (n=929) were enrolled, 453 in the intervention and 476 in the control clinics. In control clinics the normal routine regarding syphilis screening was followed for 383 women remaining for follow up. In intervention clinics nurse midwives were trained to perform the RPR test. RPR seropositive cases were immediately treated on site by the nurse midwives and the partners were invited to come any afternoon for treatment. In the third trimester (around 30 weeks) a new RPR test was performed and all women with positive RPR test results were again treated and the partners were invited to come for treatment. Results: At delivery, the drop out rate was 15.7% in the intervention and 20.1% in the control group. The perinatal mortality was significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention group, 3.4% v 1.3% (p=0.030). At delivery the intervention group had significantly more negative RPR results—40.9% v 24.2% (p=0.000). Conclusion: More active training of nurse midwives in antenatal care to perform on site RPR tests, to give syphilis treatment, and to notify partners results in improved perinatal outcome and more seronegative parturient women. Key Words: syphilis; intervention; pregnancy; Mozambique

Osman, N; Challis, K; Folgosa, E; Cotiro, M; Bergstrom, S

2000-01-01

231

Outcome Measures in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Capturing Disability and Disease Progression in Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that manifests as acute relapses and progressive disability. As a primary endpoint for clinical trials in MS, disability is difficult to both characterize and measure. Furthermore, the recovery from relapses and the rate of disability vary considerably among patients. Given these challenges, investigators have developed and studied the performance of various outcome measures and surrogate endpoints in MS clinical trials. This review defines the outcome measures and surrogate endpoints used to date in MS clinical trials and presents challenges in the design of both adult and pediatric trials.

Lavery, Amy M.; Verhey, Leonard H.; Waldman, Amy T.

2014-01-01

232

Analysis of subarachnoid hemorrhage using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample: the NIS-SAH Severity Score and Outcome Measure.  

PubMed

Object Studies using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a large ICD-9-based (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) administrative database, to analyze aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been limited by an inability to control for SAH severity and the use of unverified outcome measures. To address these limitations, the authors developed and validated a surrogate marker for SAH severity, the NIS-SAH Severity Score (NIS-SSS; akin to Hunt and Hess [HH] grade), and a dichotomous measure of SAH outcome, the NIS-SAH Outcome Measure (NIS-SOM; akin to modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score). Methods Three separate and distinct patient cohorts were used to define and then validate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM. A cohort (n = 148,958, the "model population") derived from the 1998-2009 NIS was used for developing the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM models. Diagnoses most likely reflective of SAH severity were entered into a regression model predicting poor outcome; model coefficients of significant factors were used to generate the NIS-SSS. Nationwide Inpatient Sample codes most likely to reflect a poor outcome (for example, discharge disposition, tracheostomy) were used to create the NIS-SOM. Data from 716 patients with SAH (the "validation population") treated at the authors' institution were used to validate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM against HH grade and mRS score, respectively. Lastly, 147,395 patients (the "assessment population") from the 1998-2009 NIS, independent of the model population, were used to assess performance of the NIS-SSS in predicting outcome. The ability of the NIS-SSS to predict outcome was compared with other common measures of disease severity (All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group [APR-DRG], All Payer Severity-adjusted DRG [APS-DRG], and DRG). Results The NIS-SSS significantly correlated with HH grade, and there was no statistical difference between the abilities of the NIS-SSS and HH grade to predict mRS-based outcomes. As compared with the APR-DRG, APSDRG, and DRG, the NIS-SSS was more accurate in predicting SAH outcome (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.69, 0.71, 0.71, and 0.79, respectively). A strong correlation between NIS-SOM and mRS was found, with an agreement and kappa statistic of 85% and 0.63, respectively, when poor outcome was defined by an mRS score > 2 and 95% and 0.84 when poor outcome was defined by an mRS score > 3. Conclusions Data in this study indicate that in the analysis of NIS data sets, the NIS-SSS is a valid measure of SAH severity that outperforms previous measures of disease severity and that the NIS-SOM is a valid measure of SAH outcome. It is critically important that outcomes research in SAH using administrative data sets incorporate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM to adjust for neurology-specific disease severity. PMID:24949676

Washington, Chad W; Derdeyn, Colin P; Dacey, Ralph G; Dhar, Rajat; Zipfel, Gregory J

2014-08-01

233

Defining the clinically important difference in pain outcome measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of change on standard pain scales that represent clinically important differences to patients. Data from analgesic studies are often difficult to interpret because the clinical importance of the results is not obvious. Differences between groups, as summarized by a change in mean values over time, can be difficult to apply

John T. Farrar; Russell K. Portenoy; Jesse A. Berlin; Judith L. Kinman; Brian L. Strom

2000-01-01

234

Beyond Brain Mapping: Using Neural Measures to Predict Real-World Outcomes  

PubMed Central

One goal of social science in general, and of psychology in particular, is to understand and predict human behavior. Psychologists have traditionally used self-report measures and performance on laboratory tasks to achieve this end. However, these measures are limited in their ability to predict behavior in certain contexts. We argue that current neuroscientific knowledge has reached a point where it can complement other existing psychological measures in predicting behavior and other important outcomes. This brain-as-predictor approach integrates traditional neuroimaging methods with measures of behavioral outcomes that extend beyond the immediate experimental session. Previously, most neuroimaging experiments focused on understanding basic psychological processes that could be directly observed in the laboratory. However, recent experiments have demonstrated that brain measures can predict outcomes (e.g., purchasing decisions, clinical outcomes) over longer timescales in ways that go beyond what was previously possible with self-report data alone. This approach can be used to reveal the connections between neural activity in laboratory contexts and longer-term, ecologically valid outcomes. We describe this approach and discuss its potential theoretical implications. We also review recent examples of studies that have used this approach, discuss methodological considerations, and provide specific guidelines for using it in future research.

Berkman, Elliot T.; Falk, Emily B.

2013-01-01

235

R2: a useful measure of model performance when predicting a dichotomous outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

R2 has been criticized as a measure of model performance when predicting a dichotomous outcome, both because its value is often low and because it is sensitive to the prevalence of the event of interest. The C statistic is more widely used to measure model performance in a 0\\/1 setting. We use a simple parametric family of models to illustrate

Arlene S. Ash; Michael Shwartz

1999-01-01

236

Universal health outcome measures for older persons with multiple chronic conditions.  

PubMed

Older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) require considerable health services and complex care. Because the persistence and progression of diseases and courses of treatments affect health status in multiple dimensions, well-validated universal outcome measures across diseases are needed for research, clinical care, and administrative purposes. An expert panel meeting held by the National Institute on Aging in September 2011 recommends that older persons with MCCs complete a brief initial composite measure that includes general health; pain; fatigue; and physical health, mental health, and social role function, along with gait speed measurement. Suitable composite measures include the Medical Outcomes Study 8 (SF-8) and 36 (SF-36) -item Short-Form Survey and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item Health Profile. Based on responses to items in the initial measure, short follow-on measures should be selectively targeted to symptom burden, depression, anxiety, and daily activities. Persons unable to walk a short distance to assess gait speed should be assessed using a physical function scale. Remaining gaps to be considered for measure development include disease burden, cognitive function, and caregiver burden. Routine outcome assessment of individuals with MCCs could facilitate system-based care improvement and clinical effectiveness research. PMID:23194184

2012-12-01

237

Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insomnia is a prevalent health complaint that is often difficult to evaluate reliably. There is an important need for brief and valid assessment tools to assist practitioners in the clinical evaluation of insomnia complaints.Objective: This paper reports on the clinical validation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) as a brief screening measure of insomnia and as an outcome measure

Célyne H Bastien; Annie Vallières; Charles M Morin

2001-01-01

238

Composite Spirometric-Computed Tomography Outcome Measure in Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of therapies aimed at young patients with cystic fibrosis, who have mildly reduced pulmonary function, the need for improved outcome measures that discriminate treatment effects has become important. Pulmonary function measurements or chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scores have been separately used to assess interventions. We evaluated these modal- ities separately and together during a treatment study

Terry E. Robinson; Ann N. Leung; William H. Northway; Francis G. Blankenberg; Frandics P. Chan; Daniel A. Bloch; Tyson H. Holmes; Richard B. Moss

2003-01-01

239

Decoding Learning Gains: Measuring Outcomes and the Pivotal Role of the Major and Student Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the world, interest in gauging learning outcomes at all levels of education has grown considerably over the past decade. In higher education, measuring “learning outcomes†is viewed by many stakeholders as a relatively new method to judge the “value added†of colleges and universities. The potential to accurately measure learning gains is also viewed as a diagnostic tool for

2009-01-01

240

Reexploration for periampullary carcinoma: resectability, perioperative results, pathology, and long-term outcome.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This single-institution experience retrospectively reviews the outcomes of patients undergoing reexploration for periampullary carcinoma at a high-volume center. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Many patients are referred to tertiary centers with periampullary carcinoma after their tumors were deemed unresectable at previous laparotomy. In carefully selected patients, tumor resection is often possible; however, the perioperative results and long-term outcome have not been well defined. METHODS: From November 1991 through December 1997, 78 patients who underwent previous exploratory laparotomy and/or palliative surgery for suspected periampullary carcinoma underwent reexploration. The operative outcome, resectability rate, pathology, and long-term survival rate were compared with 690 concurrent patients who had not undergone previous exploratory surgery. RESULTS: Fifty-two of the 78 patients (67%) undergoing reexploration underwent successful resection by pancreaticoduodenectomy; the remaining 26 patients (34%) were deemed to have unresectable disease. Compared with the 690 patients who had not undergone recent related surgery, the patients in the reoperative group were similar with respect to gender, race, and resectability rate but were significantly younger. The distribution of periampullary cancers by site in the reoperative group undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 52) was 60%, 19%, 15%, and 6% for pancreatic, ampullary, distal bile duct, and duodenal tumors, respectively. These figures were similar to the 65%, 14%, 16% and 5% for resectable periampullary cancers found in the primary surgery group (n = 460). Intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements did not differ between the two groups. However, the mean operative time was 7.4 hours in the reoperative group, significantly longer than in the control group. On pathologic examination, reoperative patients had smaller tumors, and the percentage of patients with positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen was significantly less. The incidence of positive margins was similar between the two groups. Postoperative lengths of stay, complication rates, and perioperative mortality rates were not higher in reoperative patients. The long-term survival rate was similar between the two resected groups, with a median survival of 24 months in the reoperative group and 20 months in those without previous exploration. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that patients undergoing reoperation for periampullary carcinoma have similar resectability, perioperative morbidity and mortality, and long-term survival rates as patients undergoing initial exploration. The results suggest that selected patients considered to have unresectable disease at previous surgery should undergo restaging and reexploration at specialized high-volume centers.

Sohn, T A; Lillemoe, K D; Cameron, J L; Pitt, H A; Huang, J J; Hruban, R H; Yeo, C J

1999-01-01

241

Mid-term results of the Radial Artery Patency and Clinical Outcomes randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background The radial artery (RA), as an alternative to the saphenous vein or the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) for coronary artery bypass grafting, has gained considerable interest over the years. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to assess the suitability of the radial artery as a conduit. Method The Radial Artery Patency and Clinical Outcomes (RAPCO) trial is a double-armed randomized controlled trial comparing the RA with the free RITA in a younger cohort of patients undergoing elective coronary bypass surgery, and the RA with the saphenous vein in an older group. The trial conduit was grafted to the most important coronary target after the left anterior descending artery, which received the gold standard left internal thoracic artery. Clinical outcomes and angiographic patency up to 10 years was recorded during careful follow up, with annual clinical review and a program of randomly assigned, staggered angiography. The final trial results will be available in 2014. Results Mid-trial results have shown equivalent survival and event-free survival and graft patency in both arms at median follow up of approximately 6 years. The demographic and clinical data, pre- and postoperative angiographic findings of the trial database have led to a number of substudies focusing on the role of lipid exposure in patency and disease progression, the fate of moderate lesions when grafted or left alone, patterns of disease regression, and patient satisfaction with graft harvest sites. Conclusions While the final analysis of the primary trial end points is eagerly awaited, the additional insight into the natural history of grafted coronary artery disease with modern secondary prevention will be of considerable interest.

Hayward, Philip A.

2013-01-01

242

Properties of patient-reported outcome measures in individuals following acute whiplash injury  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability, reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and its preference-based derivative (SF-6D), the EQ-5D and the Neck Disability Index (NDI) in patients recovering from acute whiplash injury. Methods Data from the Managing Injuries of the Neck Trial of 3,851 patients with acute whiplash injury formed the basis of this empirical investigation. The EQ-5D and SF-12 were collected at baseline, and all three outcome measures were then collected at 4 months, 8 months and 12 months post-randomisation. The measures were assessed for their acceptability (response rates), internal consistency, validity (known groups validity and discriminant validity) and their internal and external responsiveness. Results Response rates were broadly similar across the measures, with evidence of a floor effect for the NDI and a ceiling effect for the EQ-5D utility measure. All measures had Cronbach’s ? statistics of greater than 0.7, indicating acceptable internal consistency. The NDI and EQ-5D utility score correlated more strongly with the physical component scale of the SF-12 than the mental component scale, whilst this was reversed for the SF-6D utility score. The smaller standard deviations in SF-6D utility scores meant there were larger effect sizes for differences in utility score between patients with different injury severity at baseline than for the EQ-5D utility measure. However, the EQ-5D utility measure and NDI were both more responsive to longitudinal changes in health status than the SF-6D. Conclusions There was no evidence of differences between the EQ-5D utility measure and NDI in terms of their construct validity, discriminant validity or responsiveness in patients with acute whiplash injury. However, both demonstrated superior responsiveness to longitudinal health changes than the SF-6D.

2014-01-01

243

Results and Conclusions of Stress Measurements at Stripa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the results of stress measurements at Stripa, compares the results obtained by different techniques, and recommends a stress measurement program for a hard rock repository site. The state of stress at the Stripa Mine has been measured...

T. W. Doe W. A. Hustrulid B. Leijon K. Ingevald L. Strindell

1982-01-01

244

Validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care in Africa: the APCA African Palliative Outcome Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the burden of progressive incurable disease in Africa, there is almost no evidence on patient care or outcomes. A primary reason has been the lack of appropriate locally-validated outcome tools. This study aimed to validate a multidimensional scale (the APCA African Palliative Outcome Scale) in a multi-centred international study. METHODS: Validation was conducted across 5 African services and

Richard Harding; Lucy Selman; Godfrey Agupio; Natalya Dinat; Julia Downing; Liz Gwyther; Thandi Mashao; Keletso Mmoledi; Tony Moll; Lydia Mpanga Sebuyira; Barbara Panjatovic; Irene J Higginson

2010-01-01

245

Endoscopic Therapy for Achalasia Before Heller Myotomy Results in Worse Outcomes Than Heller Myotomy Alone  

PubMed Central

Objective: Heller myotomy has been shown to be an effective primary treatment of achalasia. However, many physicians treating patients with achalasia continue to offer endoscopic therapies before recommending operative myotomy. Herein we report outcomes in 209 patients undergoing Heller myotomy with the majority (74%) undergoing myotomy as secondary treatment of achalasia. Methods: Data on all patients undergoing operative management of achalasia are collected prospectively. Over a 9-year period (1994–2003), 209 patients underwent Heller myotomy for achalasia. Of these, 154 had undergone either Botox injection and/or pneumatic dilation preoperatively. Preoperative, operative, and long-term outcome data were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple ?2 and Mann-Whitney U analyses, as well as ANOVA. Results: Among the 209 patients undergoing Heller myotomy for achalasia, 154 received endoscopic therapy before being referred for surgery (100 dilation only, 33 Botox only, 21 both). The groups were matched for preoperative demographics and symptom scores for dysphagia, regurgitation, and chest pain. Intraoperative complications were more common in the endoscopically treated group with GI perforations being the most common complication (9.7% versus 3.6%). Postoperative complications, primarily severe dysphagia, and pulmonary complications were more common after endoscopic treatment (10.4% versus 5.4%). Failure of myotomy as defined by persistent or recurrent severe symptoms, or need for additionally therapy including redo myotomy or esophagectomy was higher in the endoscopically treated group (19.5% versus 10.1%). Conclusion: Use of preoperative endoscopic therapy remains common and has resulted in more intraoperative complications, primarily perforation, more postoperative complications, and a higher rate of failure than when no preoperative therapy was used. Endoscopic therapy for achalasia should not be used unless patients are not candidates for surgery.

Smith, C Daniel; Stival, Alessandro; Howell, D Lee; Swafford, Vickie

2006-01-01

246

Outcome measures for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: clinical and neurofunctional assessment in children  

PubMed Central

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, presenting with symptoms often occurring since childhood, and showing a progressive course. At present, there are no valid and reliable measures for evaluation of impairment and disability in the pediatric population. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of outcome measures, commonly used in adult patients, in CMT children. We report the results of a comprehensive evaluation of 21 children affected with CMT type 1A, including clinical examinations, measure of hand and foot muscle strength with a hand-held dynamometer, and the following scales: CMT Neuropathy Score or its clinical component CMT Examination Score, Overall Neuropathy Limitations Scale (ONLS), Walk-12 questionnaire, and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Hand grip, three-point pinch, and foot dorsiflexion strength were significantly lower than age/sex equivalent in almost all cases. 9-HPT was significantly abnormal in 62% of patients and CMT Examination Score was <10 points in all cases. ONLS showed presence of minor disability in the upper limbs in 57% and mild abnormalities of gait in 71% of patients. Overall, these scales demonstrated limited potential to measure disability and severity of the disease confirming that it is necessary to identify specific scales for children with CMT.

Baranello, Giovanni; Magro, Anita; Marchi, Alessia; Bulgheroni, Sara; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Pareyson, Davide

2014-01-01

247

The importance of rating scales in measuring patient-reported outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background A critical component that influences the measurement properties of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument is the rating scale. Yet, there is a lack of general consensus regarding optimal rating scale format, including aspects of question structure, the number and the labels of response categories. This study aims to explore the characteristics of rating scales that function well and those that do not, and thereby develop guidelines for formulating rating scales. Methods Seventeen existing PROs designed to measure vision-related quality of life dimensions were mailed for self-administration, in sets of 10, to patients who were on a waiting list for cataract extraction. These PROs included questions with ratings of difficulty, frequency, severity, and global ratings. Using Rasch analysis, performance of rating scales were assessed by examining hierarchical ordering (indicating categories are distinct from each other and follow a logical transition from lower to higher value), evenness (indicating relative utilization of categories), and range (indicating coverage of the attribute by the rating scale). Results The rating scales with complicated question format, a large number of response categories, or unlabelled categories, tended to be dysfunctional. Rating scales with five or fewer response categories tended to be functional. Most of the rating scales measuring difficulty performed well. The rating scales measuring frequency and severity demonstrated hierarchical ordering but the categories lacked even utilization. Conclusion Developers of PRO instruments should use a simple question format, fewer (four to five) and labelled response categories.

2012-01-01

248

Validation of a core outcome measure for palliative care in Africa: the APCA African Palliative Outcome Scale  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the burden of progressive incurable disease in Africa, there is almost no evidence on patient care or outcomes. A primary reason has been the lack of appropriate locally-validated outcome tools. This study aimed to validate a multidimensional scale (the APCA African Palliative Outcome Scale) in a multi-centred international study. Methods Validation was conducted across 5 African services and in 3 phases: Phase 1. Face validity: content analysis of qualitative interviews and cognitive interviewing of POS; Phase 2. Construct validity: correlation of POS with Missoula-Vitas Quality of Life Index (Spearman's rank tests); Phase 3. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha calculated twice using 2 datasets), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients calculated for 2 time points) and time to complete (calculated twice using 2 datasets). Results The validation involved 682 patients and 437 family carers, interviewed in 8 different languages. Phase 1. Qualitative interviews (N = 90 patients; N = 38 carers) showed POS items mapped well onto identified needs; cognitive interviews (N = 73 patients; N = 29 carers) demonstrated good interpretation; Phase 2. POS-MVQoLI Spearman's rank correlations were low-moderate as expected (N = 285); Phase 3. (N = 307, 2nd assessment mean 21.2 hours after first, SD 7.2) Cronbach's Alpha was 0.6 on both datasets, indicating expected moderate internal consistency; test-retest found high intra-class correlation coefficients for all items (0.78-0.89); median time to complete 7 mins, reducing to 5 mins at second visit. Conclusions The APCA African POS has sound psychometric properties, is well comprehended and brief to use. Application of this tool offers the opportunity to at last address the omissions of palliative care research in Africa.

2010-01-01

249

Outcome measures for primary Sjögren's syndrome: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Lymphocytic infiltration of different exocrine and non-exocrine epithelia is the pathological hallmark of primary Sjögren's syndrome, whereas involvement of salivary and lachrymal glands with the clinical counterpart of dry eye and dry mouth are the predominant features of the disease, together with fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. In addition, systemic manifestations, like arthritis, skin vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, may also be present in a consistent number of patients. As result, clinical features in SS can be divided into two facets: the benign subjective but disabling manifestations such as dryness, pain and fatigue, and the systemic manifestations. In the past decades, great efforts have been made to develop valid tools for the assessment of these both facets. Disease specific questionnaires such as Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort (PROFAD) and Sicca Symptom Inventory (SSI) have been proposed for evaluation of patients' symptoms, whereas different composite indexes have been suggested for the assessment of systemic disease activity. After that, an international project supported by EULAR, emerged to develop consensus disease activity indexes: the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patients Reported Index (ESSPRI), and the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI), a systemic activity index to assess systemic manifestations. Both EULAR indexes have been developed in an international collaboration to be consensual. Both indices have now been validated in a large independent international cohort. They both have been shown to be feasible, valid and reliable instruments. Also, we have found that these two scores did not correlate, suggesting that these two indexes assess two different disease components that poorly overlap, but were complementary. The sensitivity to change of both scores has been assessed, they are both able to detect change, however, ESSDAI score, like other systemic score, is more sensitive to change than ESSPRI and other patient scores. Current work is ongoing to define disease activity levels and clinically important changes for defining significant clinical improvement with the systemic score ESSDAI, and ESSPRI. We hope that this increased knowledge on the way to assess patients with primary SS, along with the emergence of new targeted therapy, will put a great input in the improvement of conduction of clinical trials in pSS. PMID:24411404

Seror, Raphaèle; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Vitali, Claudio

2014-06-01

250

The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): initial development of a new tool for treatment outcome measurement.  

PubMed

The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were examined using a large sample (n = 440) of children with ASD enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. The exploratory factor analysis indicated four factors and resulted in a 25-item questionnaire with excellent overall model fit. Test-retest reliability, cross-informant reliability, and convergent validity with other measures of ASD symptoms and overall functioning were strong. The AIM is a reliable and valid measure of frequency and impact of core ASD symptoms. PMID:23748386

Kanne, Stephen M; Mazurek, Micah O; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

2014-01-01

251

Pregnancy outcomes after living donor liver transplantation: Results from a Japanese survey.  

PubMed

A national survey of pregnancy outcomes after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed in Japan. Thirty-eight pregnancies in 30 recipients resulted in 31 live births (25 recipients), 3 artificial abortions in the first trimester (3 recipients), 1 spontaneous abortion (1 recipient), and 3 fetal deaths (3 recipients). After the exclusion of the 3 artificial abortions, there were 35 pregnancies in 27 recipients: pregnancy-induced hypertension developed during 6 pregnancies (5 recipients), fetal growth restriction developed during 7 pregnancies (6 recipients), acute rejection developed during 2 pregnancies (2 recipients), and ileus developed during 1 pregnancy (1 recipient). Preterm delivery (<37 weeks) occurred for 10 pregnancies (10 recipients), and cesarean delivery was performed for 12 pregnancies (12 recipients). After delivery, acute rejection developed in 3 recipients. Twelve neonates were born with low birth weights (<2500 g), and 4 of these 12 neonates had extremely low birth weights (<1500 g). Two neonates had congenital malformations. The pregnancy outcomes after LDLT were similar to those reported for cadaveric liver transplantation (LT). The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in recipients who were 33 years old or older at the diagnosis of pregnancy was significantly higher than the incidence in recipients who were less than 33 years old at the diagnosis of pregnancy. The incidences of fetal growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and extremely low birth weight were significantly higher in the early group (<3 years after transplantation) versus the late group (?3 years after transplantation). In conclusion, it is necessary to pay careful attention to complications during pregnancy in recipients who become pregnant within 3 years of LT, particularly if the age at the diagnosis of pregnancy is ?33 years. Liver Transpl 20:576-583, 2014. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:24478123

Kubo, Shoji; Uemoto, Shinji; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Umeshita, Koji; Tachibana, Daisuke

2014-05-01

252

Effect of anxiety on treatment presentation and outcome: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite emerging evidence of the efficacy of psychotherapies for marijuana dependence, variability in outcome exists. This study examined the role of anxiety on treatment involvement and outcome. Four questions were examined: (1) Is greater anxiety associated with greater impairment at baseline? (2) Is baseline anxiety related to greater marijuana use and problems following treatment? (3) Does adding cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT)

Julia D. Buckner; Kathleen M. Carroll

2010-01-01

253

Low grade inflammation, as evidenced by basal high sensitivity CRP, is not correlated to outcome measures in IVF  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the relationship between low-grade inflammation, measured as basal high sensitivity (hs)-CRP, and IVF outcome. Methods We recruited a total of 220 women undergoing infertility work up prior to IVF. Patients were selected for a BMI?measured on day 3 of a spontaneous menstrual cycle preceding ovarian stimulation. A sensitive two-site ELISA was used for analysis. Dose of gonadotrophins required, follicles days 8 and 10, number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes fertilised and pregnancy outcome were recorded. Results Median hs-CRP was 1.08 mg/L (0.43–3.00 mg/L). The hs-CRP was significantly related to BMI (r?=?0.386, P?measured IVF outcomes. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that serum hs-CRP concentration is not a predictive marker of cycle or pregnancy outcome in women undergoing IVF treatment.

Robinson, Sarah; Pemberton, Phil; Laing, Ian

2008-01-01

254

Outcome Measures of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Coronary Heart Disease: An Overview of Systematic Reviews  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this overview was to summarize the outcome measures of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) based on available systematic reviews (SRs), so as to display the current situation and evaluate the potential benefits and advantages of CHM on CHD. Methods. An extensive search included the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and 4 databases in Chinese. SRs of CHM for CHD were included. Besides evaluating and summarizing the outcome measures, we also estimated the quality of the included reviews by PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Data were extracted according to predefined inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Results. 46 articles were included. 20 kinds of CHM were reviewed. 7 SRs were concerned with myocardial infarction (MI), 38 SRs were related to angina pectoris. 11 SRs had primary endpoints, while others focused on secondary endpoints to evaluate CHM for CHD such as angina pectoris and electrocardiogram (ECG). One SR reported more adverse effects of CHM for CHD and of the SRs analyzed quality of life. Many CHM appeared to have significant effect on improving symptoms, ECG, biomarkers and so on. However, most SRs failed to make a definite conclusion for the effectiveness of CHM in CHD patients due specifically to the poor evidence. And according to PRISMA we found most of the trials in the SRs were of low quality. Conclusion. Primary endpoints were not used widely. The benefits of CHM for CHD need to be confirmed in the future with RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs.

Luo, Jing; Xu, Hao

2012-01-01

255

Multipoint incremental motor unit number estimation as an outcome measure in ALS  

PubMed Central

Background: Improved outcome measures are necessary to reduce sample size and increase power in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinical trials. Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is a potentially attractive tool. MUNE methods previously employed in multicenter trials exhibited excessive variability and were prone to artifact. Objective: To evaluate a modification of standard incremental MUNE in a multicenter natural history study of subjects with ALS. Methods: Fifty healthy subjects were evaluated twice and 71 subjects with ALS were studied repeatedly for up to 500 days. Side and nerve studied was based on clinical examination findings. Nerves were stimulated at 3 specified locations and 3 increments were obtained at each location. Average single motor unit action potential (SMUP) amplitude was calculated by adding the amplitude of the third increment at each location and dividing by 9; SMUP was divided into maximum CMAP amplitude to determine the MUNE. Results: Test-retest variability was 9% in normal subjects. Average MUNE for normal subjects was 225 (±87), and was 41.9 (±39) among subjects with ALS at baseline. Subjects with ALS showed clear decrements over time, with an overage rate of decline of approximately 9% per month. SMUP amplitude increased with time in a fashion consistent with the known pathophysiology of ALS. Conclusion: Multipoint incremental MUNE has a number of attributes that make it attractive as an outcome measure in ALS and other diseases characterized by motor unit loss. It can be rapidly performed on any EMG machine and has repeatability and rates of decline that favorably compare to other previously described methods.

Watson, M.L.; Simionescu, L.; Caress, J.B.; Burns, T.M.; Maragakis, N.J.; Benatar, M.; David, W.S.; Sharma, K.R.; Rutkove, S.B.

2011-01-01

256

RETURN OF NORMAL GAIT AS AN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT IN ACL RECONSTRUCTED PATIENTS. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW  

PubMed Central

Background: Current clinical outcome measurements may overestimate the long term success of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). There is a need to understand biomechanics of the knee joint during daily activities. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the literature related to gait in patients following ACLR. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the available literature and provide a comprehensive overview of kinematic and kinetic variables that present during gait in patients after ACLR. Methods: A literature search was performed in AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline and Scopus between January 2000 and October 2012. Inclusion criteria included articles written in English, German or Dutch, and those reporting on gait analysis in patients after ACLR. Kinematic and/or kinetic data of the uninjured and ACLR knee and healthy controls (CTRL) were outcome measurements of interest. Each study's methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme critical appraisal tool. Results: Twenty two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 479 patients with a mean age of 27.3 were examined. Time between the injury and surgery and ranged from 3 weeks to 5.7 years. Gait analysis was done at a mean of 29.3 months after surgery. Gait was found to be altered in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes after ACLR and may take months or years to normalize, if normalization occurs at all. Conclusion: Patients after ACLR have altered gait patterns that can persist for up to five years after surgery. It is imperative that rehabilitation techniques are examined in order to minimize changes in knee biomechanics during gait, as they have the potential to impact on the development of osteoarthritis. Level of evidence: 3a

Benjaminse, A.; van Eck, C. F.; Webster, K. E.; Schot, L.; Otten, E.

2013-01-01

257

Use of the extended therapy outcome measure for children with dysarthria.  

PubMed

Abstract Increasing demand on healthcare resources has led to a greater emphasis on the examination of the impact of service delivery on outcomes. Clinical assessments frequently do not cover all aspects of change associated with interventions for those with complex conditions. This paper reviews the need for more comprehensive outcome measurement suitable for clinical practice and benchmarking. It describes an extension of the Therapy Outcome Measure for specific use in reflecting the impact of the broad range of interventions commonly required when managing children with dysarthria. Three case histories are used to illustrate the approach, and data from four speech-language pathology services are used to illustrate the value of benchmarking. PMID:24758220

Enderby, Pam

2014-08-01

258

Measurement of religiosity/spirituality in adolescent health outcomes research: trends and recommendations.  

PubMed

The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures. PMID:20127172

Cotton, Sian; McGrady, Meghan E; Rosenthal, Susan L

2010-12-01

259

Outcomes of cataract surgery in Pakistan: results from The Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the outcomes of cataract surgery in Pakistan. Methods Cross?sectional, nationally representative sample of 16?507 adults (aged ?30?years). Each underwent interview, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA), autorefraction, examination of optic disc. Those with <6/12 VA on presentation underwent best?corrected VA and dilated biomicroscopic ocular examination. Results 1317 subjects (633 men) had undergone surgery in one or both eyes. Of the 1788 operated eyes, 1099 (61%) had undergone intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) and 607 (34%) extracapsular surgery with an intraocular lens (ECCE+IOL). Presenting VA: 275 (15.4%) eyes: 6/12 or better; 253 (14.1) <6/12 ?6/18; 632 (35.3%) 6/18 to 6/60; 85 (4.8%): 6/60 to 3/60; 528 (29.5%): <3/60. With “best” refractive correction, these values were: 563 (31.5%), 332 (18.6%), 492 (27.5%), 61 (3.4%), 334 (18.7%), respectively. Of the 1498 eyes with VA ?6/12 on presentation, 352 (23.5%) were the result of coincident disease, 800 (53.4%) refractive error and 320 (21.4%) operative complications. Eye camp surgery (OR 1.72, p?=?0.002), ICCE (OR 3.78; p<0.001), rural residence (OR 1.36, p?=?0.01), female gender (OR 1.55, p<0.001) and illiteracy (OR 2.44, p<0.001) were associated with VA of <6/18. More recent ICCE surgeries were associated with a poorer outcome. The ratio of ECCE+IOL:ICCE in the last 3?years was 1.2:1, compared with 1:3.3 ?4?years before the survey. Conclusion Almost a third of cataract operations result in a presenting VA of <6/60, which could be halved by appropriate refractive correction. This study highlights the need for an improvement in quality of surgery with a more balanced distribution of services.

Bourne, Rupert; Dineen, Brendan; Jadoon, Zahid; Lee, Pak S; Khan, Aman; Johnson, Gordon J; Foster, Allen; Khan, Daud

2007-01-01

260

Deconstructing Therapy Outcome Measurement with Rasch Analysis of a Measure of General Clinical Distress: The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rasch analysis was used to illustrate the usefulness of item-level analyses for evaluating a common therapy outcome measure of general clinical distress, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1994). Using complementary therapy research samples, the instrument's 5-point rating scale was found to exceed clients' ability to make…

Elliott, Robert; Fox, Christine M.; Beltyukova, Svetlana A.; Stone, Gregory E.; Gunderson, Jennifer; Zhang, Xi

2006-01-01

261

Inequalities in multiple health outcomes by education, sex, and race in 93 US counties: Why we should measure them all  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regular reporting of health inequalities is essential to monitoring progress of efforts to reduce health inequalities. While reporting of population health became increasingly common, reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population is rarely a standard practice. This study reports education-, sex-, and race-related inequalities in four health outcomes in each of the selected 93 counties in the United States in a systematic and comparable manner. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis of large, publicly available data, 2008, 2009, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) and 2008, 2009, and 2010 United States Birth Records from the National Vital Statistics System. The study population is American adults older than 25 years of age residing in the selected 93 counties, representing about 30% of the US population, roughly equally covering all geographic regions of the country. Main outcome measures are: (1) Attribute (group characteristic)-specific inequality: education-, sex-, or race-specific inequality in each of the four health outcomes (poor or fair health, poor physical health days, poor mental health days, and low birthweight) in each county; (2) Overall inequality: the average of these three attribute-specific inequalities for each health outcome in each county; and (3) Summary inequality in total morbidity: the weighted average of the overall inequalities across the four health outcomes in each county. Results The range of inequality across the counties differed considerably by health outcome; inequality in poor or fair health had the widest range and the highest median among inequalities in all health outcomes. In more than 70% of the counties, education-specific inequality was the largest in all health outcomes except for low birthweight. Conclusions It is feasible to extend population health reporting to include reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population at a small jurisdictional level using publicly available data. No single group characteristic or health outcome represents the whole picture of health inequalities in a population. Examining multiple group characteristics and outcomes in a comparable manner is essential in reporting health inequalities.

2014-01-01

262

Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: A systematic review of outcome measures  

PubMed Central

Advisory bodies, such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK, advocate using preference based instruments to measure the quality of life (QoL) component of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Cost per QALY is used to determine cost-effectiveness, and hence funding, of interventions. QALYs allow policy makers to compare the effects of different interventions across different patient groups. Generic measures may not be sensitive enough to fully capture the QoL effects for certain populations, such as carers, so there is a need to consider additional outcome measures, which are preference based where possible to enable cost-effectiveness analysis to be undertaken. This paper reviews outcome measures commonly used in health services research and health economics research involving carers of people with dementia. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment database. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included an outcome measure for carers of people with dementia. 2262 articles were identified. 455 articles describing 361 studies remained after exclusion criteria were applied. 228 outcome measures were extracted from the studies. Measures were categorised into 44 burden measures, 43 mastery measures, 61 mood measures, 32 QoL measures, 27 social support and relationships measures and 21 staff competency and morale measures. The choice of instrument has implications on funding decisions; therefore, researchers need to choose appropriate instruments for the population being measured and the type of intervention undertaken. If an instrument is not sensitive enough to detect changes in certain populations, the effect of an intervention may be underestimated, and hence interventions which may appear to be beneficial to participants are not deemed cost-effective and are not funded. If this is the case, it is essential that additional outcome measures which detect changes in broader QoL are included, whilst still retaining preference based utility measures such as EQ-5D to allow QALY calculation for comparability with other interventions.

2012-01-01

263

Health economics research into supporting carers of people with dementia: a systematic review of outcome measures.  

PubMed

Advisory bodies, such as the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK, advocate using preference based instruments to measure the quality of life (QoL) component of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Cost per QALY is used to determine cost-effectiveness, and hence funding, of interventions. QALYs allow policy makers to compare the effects of different interventions across different patient groups. Generic measures may not be sensitive enough to fully capture the QoL effects for certain populations, such as carers, so there is a need to consider additional outcome measures, which are preference based where possible to enable cost-effectiveness analysis to be undertaken. This paper reviews outcome measures commonly used in health services research and health economics research involving carers of people with dementia. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment database. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included an outcome measure for carers of people with dementia. 2262 articles were identified. 455 articles describing 361 studies remained after exclusion criteria were applied. 228 outcome measures were extracted from the studies. Measures were categorised into 44 burden measures, 43 mastery measures, 61 mood measures, 32 QoL measures, 27 social support and relationships measures and 21 staff competency and morale measures. The choice of instrument has implications on funding decisions; therefore, researchers need to choose appropriate instruments for the population being measured and the type of intervention undertaken. If an instrument is not sensitive enough to detect changes in certain populations, the effect of an intervention may be underestimated, and hence interventions which may appear to be beneficial to participants are not deemed cost-effective and are not funded. If this is the case, it is essential that additional outcome measures which detect changes in broader QoL are included, whilst still retaining preference based utility measures such as EQ-5D to allow QALY calculation for comparability with other interventions. PMID:23181515

Jones, Carys; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Hounsome, Barry

2012-01-01

264

Universal health outcome measures for older persons with multiple chronic conditions  

PubMed Central

Older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) require considerable health services and complex care. As health status is affected along multiple dimensions by the persistence and progression of diseases and courses of treatments, well-validated universal outcome measures across diseases are needed for research, clinical care and administrative purposes. An expert panel meeting held by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) in September 2011 recommends that older persons with MCC complete a brief initial composite measure that includes general health, pain, fatigue, and physical, mental health and social role function, along with gait speed measurement. Suitable composite measures include the Short-form 8 (SF-8) and 36 (SF-36) and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System29-item Health Profile (PROMIS-29). Based on responses to items within the initial measure, short follow-on measures should be selectively targeted to the following areas: symptom burden, depression, anxiety and daily activities. Persons unable to walk a short distance for gait speed should be assessed using a physical function scale. Remaining gaps to be considered for measure development include disease burden, cognitive function and caregiver burden. Routine outcome assessment of MCC patients could facilitate system-based care improvement and clinical effectiveness research.

2012-01-01

265

Resurfacing hip replacement and cemented total hip replacement have equivalent outcome at one year in a disease matched population: a case-control study of patient reported outcome measures.  

PubMed

Resurfacing hip replacement has demonstrated good survival and outcomes for cohorts of younger male patients, but few controlled studies exist. In this study we compared patient reported outcome measures and satisfaction scores at one year following resurfacing hip replacement in 69 male patients with two control groups of equal numbers undergoing cemented total hip replacement: aged-matched patients and disease matched patients. At one year we found no difference in improvement in patient reported outcome measures between patients undergoing resurfacing hip replacement and disease matched patients, whereas patients undergoing resurfacing hip replacement had a statistically significant improvement in Oxford Hip Score compared to the age-matched controls (p<0.047) although this was below the minimally clinically detectable difference. Resurfacing hip replacement and total ?hip replacement both confer increase in patient reported outcome scores and high patient satisfaction at one year. The results of this study will allow better counselling of patients and help inform ?treatment decisions. PMID:23813167

Ray, Robbie; Goudie, Ewan B; Jenkins, Paul; Gaston, Paul

2013-01-01

266

Higher Chest Wall Dose Results in Improved Locoregional Outcome in Patients Receiving Postmastectomy Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Randomized trials demonstrating decreased locoregional recurrence (LRR) and improved overall survival (OS) in women receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) used up to 50 Gy to the chest wall (CW), but in practice, many centers boost the CW dose to {>=}60 Gy, despite lack of data supporting this approach. We evaluated the relationship between CW dose and clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 582 consecutively treated patients who received PMRT between January 1999 and December 2009. We collected data on patient, disease, treatment characteristics, and outcomes of LRR, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. Results: Median follow-up from the date of diagnosis was 44.7 months. The cumulative 5-year incidence of LRR as first site of failure was 6.2%. CW dose for 7% (43 patients) was {<=}50.4 Gy (range, 41.4-50.4 Gy) and 93% received >50.4 Gy (range, 52.4-74.4 Gy). A CW dose of >50.4 Gy vs. {<=}50.4 Gy was associated with lower incidence of LRR, a 60-month rate of 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-8.2) vs. 12.7% (95% CI, 4.5-25.3; p = 0.054). Multivariate hazard ratio (HR) for LRR controlling for race, receptor status, and stage was 2.62 (95% CI, 1.02-7.13; p = 0.042). All LRR in the low-dose group occurred in patients receiving 50 to 50.4 Gy. Lower CW dose was associated with worse PFS (multivariate HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.64-4.56; p < 0.001) and OS (multivariate HR, 3.88; 95% CI, 2.16-6.99; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The addition of a CW boost above 50.4 Gy resulted in improved locoregional control and survival in this cohort patients treated with PMRT for stage II-III breast cancer. The addition of a CW boost to standard-dose PMRT is likely to benefit selected high-risk patients. The optimal technique, target volume, and patient selection criteria are unknown. The use of a CW boost should be studied prospectively, as has been done in the setting of breast conservation.

Panoff, Joseph E.; Takita, Cristiane [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Hurley, Judith [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Reis, Isildinha M. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health and Sylvester Division of Biostatistics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Sylvester Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Zhao, Wei [Sylvester Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Core, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Rodgers, Steven E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Gunaseelan, Vijayalakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Wright, Jean L., E-mail: Jwright3@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

2012-03-01

267

Stimulus, Task, and Learning Effects on Measures of Temporal Resolution: Implications for Predictors of Language Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Some studies find that temporal processing ability predicts language outcome whereas other studies do not. Resolution of this debate is hindered by the variety of temporal measures used, nonsensory loading of the tasks, and differential amounts of practice across studies. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of stimulus…

Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.; Gray, Kellie; Plantinga, Judy A.; Shore, David I.

2008-01-01

268

Conceptualization and Measurement of Family Outcomes Associated with Families of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review is to (a) document the current status of conceptualizing and measuring family outcomes related to having a member with an intellectual disability and (b) determine the extent to which family research focuses on internal family characteristics as contrasted to external family support. The reviewers collected 28 articles…

Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Lee, Suk-Hyang; Kyzar, Kathleen

2007-01-01

269

A Measurement Feedback System (MFS) Is Necessary to Improve Mental Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of measurement feedback system (MFS) for the improvement of mental health services for youths is discussed. As feedback obtained from clients and families is subject to distortions, a standardized MFS including clinical processes, contexts, outcomes, and feedback to clinicians and supervisors is necessary for improvement in quality…

Bickman, Leonard

2008-01-01

270

Clinical Outcome Measures of Dehydration and Fluid Intake Among Institutionalized Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current literature suggests that established standards for calculating fluid requirements for the elderly may not accurately reflect needs. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: 1) determine actual fluid intake by a three-day diet history recorded by the dietary and nursing staffs; 2) assess clinical outcome measures of dehydration as well as effect of physical and mental dependency factors

J. L. Williams; D. Holben; B. Helle; J. T. Hassell

1998-01-01

271

Measuring Outcomes of College. Fifty Years of Findings and Recommendations for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Justification for a college education is presented in this study by measuring the outcome of college experience. Evidence includes nearly five decades of research on students' achievement both during and after college, and on the educational influence of colleges themselves, to show how college graduates benefit from their exposure to higher…

Pace, C. Robert

272

The Spanish Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Five Mental Health Outcome Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on the process of translating five mental health outcome measures into Spanish and adapting them to Latino culture. The instruments considered are the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Scale, the Burden Assessment Scale, the Family Burden Scale, Lehman's Quality of Life Interview and the Continuity of Care in Mental Health Services Interview. A systematic process of

Leida E. Matías-Carrelo; Ligia M. Chávez; Gisela Negrón; Glorisa Canino; Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola; Sue Hoppe

2003-01-01

273

Student Identification with Business Education Models: Measurement and Relationship to Educational Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although management scholars have provided a variety of metaphors to describe the role of students in management courses, researchers have yet to explore students' identification with the models and how they are linked to educational outcomes. This article develops a measurement tool for students' identification with business education models and…

Halbesleben, Jonathon R. B.; Wheeler, Anthony R.

2009-01-01

274

Goal Attainment Scaling as an Outcome Measure in Randomized Controlled Trials of Psychosocial Interventions in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goal attainment scaling (GAS) holds promise as an idiographic approach for measuring outcomes of psychosocial interventions in community settings. GAS has been criticized for untested assumptions of scaling level (i.e., interval or ordinal), inter-individual equivalence and comparability, and reliability of coding across different behavioral…

Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.

2012-01-01

275

Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

2010-01-01

276

The rheumatoid foot: a systematic literature review of patient-reported outcome measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The foot is often the first area of the body to be systematically affected by rheumatoid arthritis. The multidimensional consequences of foot problems for patients can be subjectively evaluated using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). However, there is currently no systematic review which has focused specifically upon the PROMs available for the foot with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this

Steven Walmsley; Anita E Williams; Mike Ravey; Andrea Graham

2010-01-01

277

Minimal Important Difference (MID) of two commonly used outcome measures for foot problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) are two commonly used outcome measures for evaluating foot health. This study aimed to calculate the Minimal Important Difference (MID) of the VAS and the FHSQ. METHODS: 184 participants with plantar heel pain were recruited from the general public to take part in two randomised trials (92

Karl B Landorf; Joel A Radford; Susie Hudson

2010-01-01

278

Different Tests, Different Answers: The Stability of Teacher Value-Added Estimates across Outcome Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, educational researchers and practitioners have turned to value-added models to evaluate teacher performance. Although value-added estimates depend on the assessment used to measure student achievement, the importance of outcome selection has received scant attention in the literature. Using data from a large, urban school district, I…

Papay, John P.

2011-01-01

279

Clinical Utility of the Modified Stroop Task as a Treatment Outcome Measure: Questions Raised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from an outpatient treatment trial for anorexia nervosa were examined to gain preliminary insights as to whether the modified Stroop colour-naming task might offer a useful measure of treatment outcome. It was hypothesised that interference for eating-, weight- and shape-related words on a modified version on the Stroop colour-naming task…

Ball, Jillian R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Griffiths, Rosalyn A.; Beumont, Pierre J. V.

2004-01-01

280

Outcome of therapy for sexually abused children: A repeated measures study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of abuse-focused treatment was examined in a sample of 105 sexually abused children, 71 of whom completed 3 months of treatment or longer. Symptom change was measured with the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC; Briere, in press) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 1983, 1992), administered at 3 month intervals. The CDI and all TSCC scales

John Briere

1995-01-01

281

A "Learning Platform" Approach to Outcome Measurement in Fragile X Syndrome: A Preliminary Psychometric Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Clinical trials of medications to alleviate the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are now underway. However, there are few reliable, valid and/or sensitive outcome measures available that can be directly administered to individuals with FXS. The majority of assessments employed in clinical…

Hall, S. S.; Hammond, J. L.; Hirt, M.; Reiss, A. L.

2012-01-01

282

National Outcome Measures for Early Childhood Development: Development of an Indicator-Based Reporting Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council of Australian Governments released the National Early Childhood Development Strategy, Investing in the Early Years in July 2009 (COAG 2009). One of the key reform priorities in the strategy is to build better information and a solid evidence base, and establishing national outcome measures for early childhood development has been…

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011

2011-01-01

283

Clinical outcome of deferring angioplasty in patients with normal translesional pressure-flow velocity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety and outcome of deferring angioplasty in patients with angiographically intermediate lesions that are found not to limit flow, as determined by direct translesional hemodynamic assessment.Background. The clinical importance of some coronary stenoses of intermediate angiographic severity frequently requires noninvasive stress testing. Direct translesional pressure and flow measurements may

Morton J Kern; Thomas J Donohue; Frank V Aguirre; Richard G Bach; Eugene A Caracciolo; Thomas Wolford; Carol J Mechem; Michael S Flynn; Bernard Chaitman

1995-01-01

284

Reliability and validity of the cross-culturally adapted Italian version of the Core Outcome Measures Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient-orientated outcome questionnaires are essential for the assessment of treatment success in spine care. Standardisation\\u000a of the instruments used is necessary for comparison across studies and in registries. The Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI)\\u000a is a short, multidimensional outcome instrument validated for patients with spinal disorders and is the recommended outcome\\u000a instrument in the Spine Society of Europe Spine Tango

A. F. Mannion; M. Boneschi; M. Teli; A. Luca; F. Zaina; S. Negrini; P. J. Schulz

285

Measurement of social participation outcomes in rehabilitation of veterans with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant concern in the veteran population, and the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) has devoted substantial healthcare resources to the rehabilitation of veterans with TBI. Evaluating the outcomes of these rehabilitation activities requires measuring whether they meaningfully improve veterans' lives, especially with regard to community and vocational participation, which are strongly linked to perceived quality of life. In January 2010, the VA Rehabilitation Research and Development Service convened an invitational conference focused on outcome measurement in rehabilitation with a specific focus on veterans' community and vocational participation. This article reports on the working group, addressing the issues of conceptualizing and operationalizing such participation outcome measures for veterans with TBI; we discuss conceptual models of participation, review participation subdomains and their instruments of measurement, and identify current research issues and needs. Two avenues are identified for advancing participation measurement in veterans with TBI. First, we describe suggestions to facilitate the immediate implementation of participation measurement into TBI clinical practice and rehabilitation (cont) research within the VA healthcare system. Second, we describe recommendations for future VA research funding initiatives specific to improving the measurement of participation in veterans with TBI. PMID:22492344

Stiers, William; Carlozzi, Noelle; Cernich, Alison; Velozo, Craig; Pape, Theresa; Hart, Tessa; Gulliver, Suzy; Rogers, Margaret; Villarreal, Edgar; Gordon, Shalanda; Gordon, Wayne; Whiteneck, Gale

2012-01-01

286

Using an integrated COC index and multilevel measurements to verify the care outcome of patients with multiple chronic conditions  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing prevalence of multiple chronic conditions has accentuated the importance of coordinating and integrating health care services. Patients with better continuity of care (COC) have a lower utilization rate of emergency department (ED) services, lower hospitalization and better care outcomes. Previous COC studies have focused on the care outcome of patients with a single chronic condition or that of physician-patient relationships; few studies have investigated the care outcome of patients with multiple chronic conditions. Using multi-chronic patients as subjects, this study proposes an integrated continuity of care (ICOC) index to verify the association between COC and care outcomes for two scopes of chronic conditions, at physician and medical facility levels. Methods This study used a dataset of 280,840 subjects, obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID 2005), compiled by the National Health Research Institutes, of the National Health Insurance Bureau of Taiwan. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to integrate the indices of density, dispersion and sequence into ICOC to measure COC outcomes - the utilization rate of ED services and hospitalization. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to verify the care outcomes. Results We discovered that the higher the COC at medical facility level, the lower the utilization rate of ED services and hospitalization for patients; by contrast, the higher the COC at physician level, the higher the utilization rate of ED services (odds ratio?>?1; Exp(?)?=?2.116) and hospitalization (odds ratio?>?1; Exp(?)?=?1.688). When only those patients with major chronic conditions with the highest number of medical visits were considered, it was found that the higher the COC at both medical facility and physician levels, the lower the utilization rate of ED services and hospitalization. Conclusions The study shows that ICOC is more stable than single indices and it can be widely used to measure the care outcomes of different chronic conditions to accumulate empirical evidence. Concentrated care of multi-chronic patients by a single physician often results in unsatisfactory care outcomes. This highlights the need for referral mechanisms and integration of specialties inside or outside medical facilities, in order to optimize patient-centered care.

2012-01-01

287

Contrast sensitivity as an outcome measure in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularisation due to age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAlthough visual acuity is the most frequently used primary outcome measure in clinical trials of treatments for choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), contrast sensitivity may provide valuable additional information. This paper reviews the evidence for using contrast sensitivity as a measure of visual function and as an outcome measure in clinical trials in patients with subfoveal

J Monés; G S Rubin

2005-01-01

288

A geometric morphometric approach to the analysis of lip shape during speech: development of a clinical outcome measure.  

PubMed

Objective assessments of lip movement can be beneficial in many disciplines including visual speech recognition, for surgical outcome assessment in patients with cleft lip and for the rehabilitation of patients with facial nerve impairments. The aim of this study was to develop an outcome measure for lip shape during speech using statistical shape analysis techniques. Lip movements during speech were captured from a sample of adult subjects considered as average using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Geometric Morphometrics was employed to extract three-dimensional coordinate data for lip shape during four spoken words decomposed into seven visemes (which included the resting lip shape). Canonical variate analysis was carried out in an attempt to statistically discriminate the seven visemes. The results showed that the second canonical variate discriminated the resting lip shape from articulation of the utterances and accounted for 17.2% of the total variance of the model. The first canonical variate was significant in discriminating between the utterances and accounted for 72.8% of the total variance of the model. The outcome measure was created using the 95% confidence intervals of the canonical variate scores for each subject plotted as ellipses for each viseme. The method and outcome model is proposed as reference to compare lip movement during speech in similar population groups. PMID:23451213

Popat, Hashmat; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I; Rosin, Paul L; Marshall, David

2013-01-01

289

What Do Patients Consider to Be the Most Important Outcomes for Effectiveness Studies on Migraine Treatment? Results of a Delphi Study  

PubMed Central

Background The outcome measures most frequently used in studies on the effectiveness of migraine treatment are whether the patient is free of pain, nausea, and free of photophobia/phonophobia within two hours. However, no patient-centred outcome measures are available. Therefore, we performed an online Delphi procedure to compile a list of outcome measures deemed most important to migraine patients. Methods From a large database of migraine patients, we randomly selected 150 males and 150 females patients. We asked the open-ended question: ‘If a new medicine was developed for migraine attacks, what would you wish the effect of this medication to be?’ In the second and third rounds, we presented the answers of the first round and asked the patients to rate the importance of each item. Results The initial response rate was 56% (n?=?169). In the subsequent rounds the response rates were 90% (n?=?152), and 97% (n?=?147), respectively. Patients wanted their attack medication to treat the headache within 30 min, to prevent the attack from getting worse, to ensure they could function properly within 1 h, and prevent the recurrence of symptoms during the same day. Conclusions The currently used outcome measures in migraine research do not sufficiently reflect the wishes of patients. Patients want the medication to work faster, to take away pain at an earlier stage, to make them able to function properly quickly, and to prevent recurrence. These aspects should be considered in future evaluation of new attack medication for migraine.

Smelt, Antonia F. H.; Louter, Mark A.; Kies, Dennis A.; Blom, Jeanet W.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van der Heijden, Geert J. M. G.; De Gucht, Veronique; Ferrari, Michel D.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.

2014-01-01

290

Comparing frailty measures in their ability to predict adverse outcome among older residents of assisted living  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have directly compared the competing approaches to identifying frailty in more vulnerable older populations. We examined the ability of two versions of a frailty index (43 vs. 83 items), the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) frailty criteria, and the CHESS scale to accurately predict the occurrence of three outcomes among Assisted Living (AL) residents followed over one year. Methods The three frailty measures and the CHESS scale were derived from assessment items completed among 1,066 AL residents (aged 65+) participating in the Alberta Continuing Care Epidemiological Studies (ACCES). Adjusted risks of one-year mortality, hospitalization and long-term care placement were estimated for those categorized as frail or pre-frail compared with non-frail (or at high/intermediate vs. low risk on CHESS). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated for select models to assess the predictive accuracy of the different frailty measures and CHESS scale in relation to the three outcomes examined. Results Frail subjects defined by the three approaches and those at high risk for decline on CHESS showed a statistically significant increased risk for death and long-term care placement compared with those categorized as either not frail or at low risk for decline. The risk estimates for hospitalization associated with the frailty measures and CHESS were generally weaker with one of the frailty indices (43 items) showing no significant association. For death and long-term care placement, the addition of frailty (however derived) or CHESS significantly improved on the AUC obtained with a model including only age, sex and co-morbidity, though the magnitude of improvement was sometimes small. The different frailty/risk models did not differ significantly from each other in predicting mortality or hospitalization; however, one of the frailty indices (83 items) showed significantly better performance over the other measures in predicting long-term care placement. Conclusions Using different approaches, varying degrees of frailty were detected within the AL population. The various approaches to defining frailty were generally more similar than dissimilar with regard to predictive accuracy with some exceptions. The clinical implications and opportunities of detecting frailty in more vulnerable older adults require further investigation.

2012-01-01

291

Does a Quality Improvement Intervention for Anxiety Result in Differential Outcomes for Lower Income Patients?  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the effects of a collaborative care intervention for anxiety disorders in primary care on lower income participants relative to those with higher incomes. The authors hypothesized that lower income patients might show less improvement or improve at a lower rate given that they experience greater economic stress over the treatment course. Alternatively, lower income patients could improve at a higher rate because the intervention facilitates access to evidence-based treatment, which typically is less available to persons with lower incomes. Method The authors compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with lower (n=287) and higher (n=717) income using t-tests and chi-square tests for continuous and categorical variables respectively. For the longitudinal analysis of intervention effects by income group, the authors jointly modeled the outcomes at the four assessment times by study site; income; time; intervention; time and intervention; income and time; income and intervention; and time, intervention and income. Results Although lower-income participants were more ill and disabled at baseline than those in the higher income group, the two income groups were very similar in their clinical response. The lower income participants experienced a comparable degree of clinical improvement, despite receiving fewer treatment sessions, less relapse prevention, and less continuous care. Conclusions These findings contribute to the ongoing discussion as to whether or not, and to what extent, quality improvement interventions work equally well across income groups or require tailoring for specific vulnerable populations.

Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Chavira, Denise A.; Craske, Michelle G.; Gollineli, Daniela; Han, Xiaotong; Rose, Raphael D.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Stein, Murray B.; Roy-Byrne, Peter

2013-01-01

292

Lupus-specific health outcome measure for US patients: the LupusQoL-US version  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Patient-reported outcomes are valuable for the management of chronic diseases like systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but no measures have been validated for use in US-based patients with SLE.Objectives:To adapt and assess the validity and reliability of an SLE-specific quality of life (QoL) measure developed in the United Kingdom, the LupusQoL, for use in US-based patients with SLE.Methods:Debriefing interviews of subjects

M Jolly; A S Pickard; C Wilke; R A Mikolaitis; L-S Teh; K McElhone; L Fogg; J Block

2010-01-01

293

Symptom-Based Outcome Measures for Dyspepsia and GERD Trials: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Symptom assessment using questionnaires has been recommended as the primary outcome measure in clinical gastroesophageal reflux and dyspepsia trials. Questionnaires should have proven reliability, validity, and responsiveness, and may assess the frequency and\\/or severity of dyspepsia symptoms. Although a number of measures have been developed, it remains unclear which of these should be used in new trials.OBJECTIVE:To describe existing questionnaire

Adam Fraser; Brendan Delaney; Paul Moayyedi

2005-01-01

294

Validity of Behavioral Measures as Proxies for HIV-Related Outcomes.  

PubMed

: Over the last 30 years, expectations for the quality, validity, and objectivity of the outcome measures used to assess the impact of behavior change interventions related to HIV have steadily increased. At this point (mid-2014 at this writing), biologic evidence or biomarkers of the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a target population is clearly preferable to self-reports of behavior. This kind of evidence is, however, much more expensive to collect than participants' reports of behavior change (eg, increased condom use, reduced substance use or abstinence from substance use, and high levels of medication adherence). In addition, although potentially less subject to reporting bias, biomarkers and biologic outcomes have their own flaws. In this article, we review the literature on the validity of self-reports of outcomes most relevant to HIV behavior change interventions, sexual behavior (ever having had sex and condom use), substance use, and medication adherence. We note the extent to which they may be adequate outcome measures without biologic data, and the conditions under which they may be most likely to be sufficient. We also argue, like many others, that where possible, both self-report and biologic measures should be collected. PMID:25007198

Zimmerman, Rick S; Morisky, Donald E; Harrison, Lana; Mark, Hayley D

2014-08-15

295

Patient-reported outcome measures in burning mouth syndrome - a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Oral Diseases (2013) 19, 230-235 This review aims to investigate the patient-reported outcomes currently used in the burning mouth syndrome literature and to explore whether any standardisation of such measures has taken place. Electronic databases were searched for all types of burning mouth syndrome studies using patient-reported outcome measures. Studies were selected by predefined inclusion criteria. Copies of the papers obtained were thoroughly reviewed. A study-specific data extraction form was used, allowing papers to be reviewed in a standardised manner. The initial literature search yielded a total of 173 citations, 43 of which were deemed suitable for inclusion in this study. Symptom severity and symptomatic relief were reported as a patient-reported outcome measure in 40 of the studies and quantified most commonly using a visual analogue scale. Quality of life was reported in 13 studies included in this review. Depression and/or anxiety was reported in 14 of the studies. As is evident from the variety of questionnaires and instruments used in the evaluation of the impact of burning mouth syndrome on patients' lives, no standardisation of patient outcomes has yet been achieved. PMID:22748023

Ni Riordain, R; McCreary, C

2013-04-01

296

Measuring and improving respiratory outcomes in cystic fibrosis lung disease: opportunities and challenges to therapy.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening disease with significant morbidity. Despite overall improvements in survival, patients with CF experience frequent pulmonary exacerbations and declining lung function, which often accelerates during adolescence. New treatments target steps in the pathogenesis of lung disease, such as the basic defect in CF (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator [CFTR]), pulmonary infections, inflammation, and mucociliary clearance. These treatments offer hope but also present challenges to patients, clinicians, and researchers. Comprehensive assessment of efficacy is critical to identify potentially beneficial treatments. Lung function and pulmonary exacerbation are the most commonly used outcome measures in CF clinical research. Other outcome measures under investigation include measures of CFTR function; biomarkers of infection, inflammation, lung injury and repair; and patient-reported outcomes. Molecular diagnostics may help elucidate the complex CF airway microbiome. As new treatments are developed for patients with CF, efforts should be made to balance treatment burden with quality of life. This review highlights emerging treatments, obstacles to optimizing outcomes, and key future directions for research. PMID:19833563

Zemanick, Edith T; Harris, J Kirk; Conway, Steven; Konstan, Michael W; Marshall, Bruce; Quittner, Alexandra L; Retsch-Bogart, George; Saiman, Lisa; Accurso, Frank J

2010-01-01

297

Measuring the impact and outcomes of maternal child health federal programs.  

PubMed

Improving maternal and child health is a key objective of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and the Healthy People goals for improving the health of Americans. Government initiatives are important particularly for reducing disparities that affect disadvantaged populations. Head Start, Healthy Start, WIC and Medicaid are four federal programs that target disparities in maternal and child health outcomes. This paper reviews recent evaluations of these programs to identify outcomes assessed and opportunities for further evaluation of these programs. We conducted a review of recent evaluation studies assessing the impact of four maternal and child health programs on a health or healthcare outcome. Sources for published literature included the PubMed, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases. Titles and abstracts of studies were examined to determine if they met inclusion criteria. Included studies were categorized by type of outcome examined. Twenty peer-reviewed studies published between January 2006 and June 2011 met inclusion criteria. The majority of studies examined infant outcomes (11), followed by breastfeeding/nutrition (4), maternal health (3), and unintended pregnancy (2). Measures used were consistent across studies; however, findings on the impact of programs were mixed reflecting differences in selection of comparison group, data source and statistical methods. The impact of maternal and child health programs may vary by setting and population served, but inconclusive findings remain. Health service researchers can build upon current evaluations to increase our understanding of what works, help target resources, and improve evaluation of programs in the future. PMID:22729661

Taylor, Yhenneko J; Nies, Mary A

2013-07-01

298

Bridging Differences in Outcomes of Pharmacoepidemiological Studies: Design and First Results of the PROTECT Project  

PubMed Central

Background: Observational pharmacoepidemiological (PE) studies on drug safety have produced discrepant results that may be due to differences in design, conduct and analysis. Purpose: The pharmacoepidemiology work-package (WP2) of the Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European ConsorTium (PROTECT) project aims at developing, testing and disseminating methodological standards for design, conduct and analysis of pharmacoepidemiological studies applicable to different safety issues using different databases across European countries. This article describes the selection of the safety issues and the description of the databases to be systematically studied. Methods: Based on two consensus meetings and a literature search, we selected five drug-adverse event (AE) pairs to be evaluated in different databases. This selection was done according to pre-defined criteria such as regulatory and public health impact, and the potential to investigate a broad range of methodological issues. Results: The selected drug-AE pairs are: 1) inhaled long-acting beta-2 agonists and acute myocardial infarction; 2) antimicrobials and acute liver injury; 3) antidepressants and/or benzodiazepines and hip fracture; 4) anticonvulsants and suicide/suicide attempts; and 5) calcium channel blockers and malignancies. Six European databases, that will be used to evaluate the drug-AE pairs retrospectively, are also described. Conclusion: The selected drug-AE pairs will be evaluated in PE studies using common protocols. Based on consistencies and discrepancies of these studies, a framework for guiding methodological choices will be developed. This will increase the usefulness and reliability of PE studies for benefit-risk assessment and decision-making.

Abbing-Karahagopian, Victoria; Kurz, Xavier; de Vries, Frank; van Staa, Tjeerd P.; Alvarez, Yolanda; Hesse, Ulrik; Hasford, Joerg; Liset van, Dijk; Francisco J. de, Abajo; Weil, John G.; Lamiae Grimaldi, -Bensouda; Egberts, Antoine C.G.; Robert F., Reynolds; Olaf H., Klungel

2014-01-01

299

Islet Transplantation with Alemtuzumab Induction and Calcineurin-Free Maintenance Immunosuppression Results in Improved Short and Long-Term Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Only a minority of islet transplant recipients maintain insulin independence at 5 years under the Edmonton protocol of immunosuppression. New immunosuppressive strategies are required in order to improve long term outcomes. Materials and Methods Three subjects with unstable type 1 DM underwent islet transplantation with alemtuzumab induction and sirolimus-tacrolimus maintenance for three months then sirolimus-mycophenolic acid maintenance thereafter. Follow-up was >2 years. Comparison was with sixteen historical subjects transplanted under the Miami version of the Edmonton protocol. Results Insulin independence was achieved in 2/3 alemtuzumab and 14/16 historical subjects. Those who did not achieve insulin independence only received a single islet infusion. Insulin independence rates remained unchanged in the Alemtuzumab group, but decreased from 14/16 (88%) to 6/16 (38%) in the Historical group over two years. Insulin requirements increased in the Historical group while remaining stable in the Alemtuzumab group. Comparison of functional measures at 3 months suggested better engraftment with alemtuzumab (NS). Further comparison of Alemtuzumab versus Historical groups, up to 24 months, demonstrated significantly better: Mixed Meal Stimulation Index (24 months 1.0±0.08 n=3 vs 0.5±0.06 pmol/mL n=6, p<0.01), Mixed Meal peak C-peptide (24 months 5.0±0.5 n=3 vs 3.1±0.3 nmol/mL n=6, p<0.05), HbA1c (24 months 5.4±0.15 n=3 vs 6.3±0.12pmol/mL n=10, p<0.01). Administration of alemtuzumab was well tolerated. There was no increased incidence of infections in alemtuzumab subjects despite profound, prolonged lymphocyte depletion. Conclusions Islet transplantation with alemtuzumab induction was well tolerated and resulted in improved short and long term outcomes. Further investigation is underway for validation.

Froud, T; Baidal, DA; Faradji, R; Cure, P; Mineo, D; Selvaggi, G; Kenyon, NS; Ricordi, C; Alejandro, R

2009-01-01

300

Heart rate variability as an outcome measure for Thought Field Therapy in clinical practice.  

PubMed

The need for empirical, objective, clear, and practical outcome measures for therapy has long been recognized by clinicians and researchers. Pragmatic tools for objective determination of the efficacy of therapy have been scarce in clinical practice settings. Heart rate variability (HRV) is increasing in popularity for use in clinical settings as a measure of treatment success. Since HRV is stable and placebo-free, it has the potential to meet this need. Thirty-nine cases are presented from the clinical practices of the authors and three other clinicians where HRV was used as an outcome measure for Thought Field Therapy (TFT). The cases included TFT treatments which addressed a wide variety of problems including phobias, anxiety, trauma, depression, fatigue, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning difficulties, compulsions, obsessions, eating disorders, anger, and physical pain. A lowering of subjective units of distress was in most cases related to an improvement in HRV. PMID:11526606

Pignotti, M; Steinberg, M

2001-10-01

301

A European consensus on outcome measures for psychosocial intervention research in dementia care.  

PubMed

Psychosocial intervention makes a vital contribution to dementia care. However, the lack of consensus about which outcome measures to use to evaluate effectiveness prevents meaningful comparisons between different studies and interventions. This study used an iterative collaborative, evidence-based approach to identify the best of currently available outcome measures for European psychosocial intervention research. This included consensus workshops, a web-based pan-European consultation and a systematic literature review and a rigorous evaluation against agreed criteria looking at utility across Europe, feasibility and psychometric properties. For people with dementia the measures covered the domains of quality of life, mood, global function, behaviour and daily living skills. Family carer domains included mood and burden, which incorporated coping with behaviour and quality of life. The only specific staff domain identified was morale, but this included satisfaction and coping with behaviour. In conclusion twenty-two measures across nine domains were recommended in order to improve the comparability of intervention studies in Europe. Areas were identified where improved outcome measures for psychosocial intervention research studies are required. PMID:18297476

Moniz-Cook, E; Vernooij-Dassen, M; Woods, R; Verhey, F; Chattat, R; De Vugt, M; Mountain, G; O'Connell, M; Harrison, J; Vasse, E; Dröes, R M; Orrell, M

2008-01-01

302

The utility of the PedsQL™ Rheumatology Module as an outcome measure in juvenile fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The PedsQL™ Rheumatology Module is currently the only available measure of disease-specific Quality of Life (QOL) for children and adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) but limited information has been published about the psychometric properties of the instrument specifically in JFM. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability, validity and sensitivity to change of the 5 scales (pain and hurt, daily activities, treatment, worry and communication) of the patient and parent-proxy versions of the PedsQL™ Rheumatology Module in the context of a randomized clinical trial in JFM. METHODS: The entire PedsQL™ Rheumatology Module was administered as a supplementary outcome measure at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments of 114 children and adolescents with JFM enrolled in a trial testing the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). RESULTS: Results indicated that internal consistency reliabilities for the scales were adequate to strong (Cronbach ?s 0.68 - 0.86). Parent- proxy and child reports on most scales (except for daily activities and communication) showed moderate correlations (Spearman rs 0.33- 0.45). Support for construct validity was found based on comparing child and parent reports with other related measures of pain and functioning (Visual Analog Scale pain ratings and the Functional Disability Inventory). Finally, sensitivity to change was demonstrated by significant changes in 4/5 of the scales (excluding the daily activities scale) after treatment. CONCLUSION: The PedsQL™ Rheumatology Module generally appears to have good utility for use in JFM patients but some caveats to interpretation of the specific scales in this population are discussed. © 2013 American College of Rheumatology. PMID:23686969

Joffe, Naomi E; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Ting, Tracy V; Arnold, Lesley M; Hashkes, Philip J; Lovell, Daniel J; Passo, Murray H; Powers, Scott W; Schikler, Kenneth N; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

2013-05-17

303

Clinical validity of outcome pain measures in naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background The conceptual validity of kinetic gait analysis and disability outcome assessment methods has guided their use in the assessment of pain caused by osteoarthritis (OA). No consensus on the best clinical methods for pain evaluation in canine OA exists, particularly, when evaluating treatments where a smaller treatment effect is anticipated than with pharmacological pain killers. This study thus aimed at determining the technical validity of some clinical endpoints on OA pain in dogs using the green-lipped mussel (GLM)-enriched diet. Twenty-three adult dogs with clinical OA completed the prospective controlled study. All the dogs were fed a balanced diet over a 30-day control period followed by a GLM-enriched diet over a 60-day period. The kinetic gait analysis parameter (PVFBW, peak vertical force adjusted for body weight change), electrodermal activity (EDA), and a standardized multifactorial pain questionnaire (MFQ) were performed on day (D) 0 (inclusion), D30 (start) and D90 (end). The owners completed a client-specific outcome measures (CSOM) instrument twice a week. Motor activity (MA) was continuously recorded in seven dogs using telemetered accelerometric counts. We hypothesized that these methods would produce convergent results related to diet changes. A Type I error of 0.05 was adjusted to correct for the multiplicity of the primary clinical endpoints. Results Neither the EDA nor the MFQ were found reliable or could be validated. Changes in the PVFBW (Padj?=?0.0004), the CSOM (Padj?=?0.006) and the MA intensity (Padj?=?0.02) from D0 to D90 suggested an effect of diet(s). Only the PVFBW clearly increased after the GLM-diet (Padj?=?0.003). The CSOM exhibited a negative relationship with the PVFBW (P?=?0.02) and MA duration (P?=?0.02). Conclusions The PVFBW exhibited the best technical validity for the characterization of the beneficial effect of a GLM-enriched diet. The CSOM and MA appeared less responsive following a GLM-diet, but these measures appeared complementary to gait analysis. Apparently, the CSOM provides the capacity to rely on pain OA assessment influenced by both lameness quantification (PVFBW) and physical functioning (MA).

2012-01-01

304

The effects of age on patient-reported outcome measures in total knee replacements.  

PubMed

We present a comparison of patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) in relation to patient age, in patients who had received a total (TKR) or unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). The outcome was evaluated using the Oxford knee score (OKS), EuroQol (EQ-5D) and satisfaction scores. Patients aged 65 to 84 years demonstrated better pre-operative function scores than those aged < 65 years (OKS, p = 0.03; EQ-5D, p = 0.048) and those aged ? 85 years (OKS, p = 0.03). Post-operative scores were comparable across age groups, but a linear trend for greater post-operative improvement in OKS and EQ-5D was seen with decreasing age (p < 0.033). The overall mean satisfaction score at six months was 84.9, but those aged < 55 years exhibited a lower mean level of satisfaction (78.3) compared with all other age groups (all p < 0.031). The cumulative overall two-year revision rate was 1.3%. This study demonstrates that good early outcomes, as measured by the OKS and EQ-5D, can be anticipated following knee replacement regardless of the patient's age, although younger patients gain greater improvement. However, the lower satisfaction in those aged < 55 years is a concern, and suggests that outcome is not fully encapsulated by the OKS and EQ-5D evaluation, and raises the question whether the OKS alone is an appropriate measure of pain and function in younger, more active individuals. PMID:23307671

Williams, D P; Price, A J; Beard, D J; Hadfield, S G; Arden, N K; Murray, D W; Field, R E

2013-01-01

305

Therapeutic Alliance and Outcome of Psychotherapy: Historical Excursus, Measurements, and Prospects for Research  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes a historical excursus of studies that have investigated the therapeutic alliance and the relationship between this dimension and outcome in psychotherapy. A summary of how the concept of alliance has evolved over time and the more popular alliance measures used in literature to assess the level of alliance are presented. The proposal of a therapeutic alliance characterized by a variable pattern over the course of treatment is also examined. The emerging picture suggests that the quality of the client–therapist alliance is a reliable predictor of positive clinical outcome independent of the variety of psychotherapy approaches and outcome measures. In our opinion, with regard to the relationship between the therapeutic alliance and outcome of psychotherapy, future research should pay special attention to the comparison between patients’ and therapists’ assessments of the therapeutic alliance. This topic, along with a detailed examination of the relationship between the psychological disorder being treated and the therapeutic alliance, will be the subject of future research projects.

Ardito, Rita B.; Rabellino, Daniela

2011-01-01

306

Assessing traumatic brain injury outcome measures for long-term follow-up of community-based individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hall KM, Bushnik T, Lakisic-Kazazic B, Wright J, Cantagallo A. Assessing traumatic brain injury outcome measures for long-term follow-up of community-based individuals. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:367-74. Objectives: To determine which outcome measures are best and least suited for assessing long-term functional outcome of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the community. Design: Survey of participants in the community

Karyl M. Hall; Tamara Bushnik; Bajazeda Lakisic-Kazazic; Jerry Wright; Anna Cantagallo

2001-01-01

307

Use of an electronic patient-reported outcome measurement system to improve distress management in oncology  

PubMed Central

Objective Management of patient distress is a critical task in cancer nursing and cancer practice. Here we describe two examples of how an electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) measurement system implemented into routine oncology care can practically aid clinical and research tasks related to distress management. Methods Tablet personal computers were used to routinely complete a standardized ePRO review of systems surveys at point of care during every encounter in the Duke Oncology outpatient clinics. Two cases of use implementation are explored: (1) triaging distressed patients for optimal care, and (2) psychosocial program evaluation research. Results Between 2009 and 2011, the ePRO system was used to collect information during 17,338 Duke Oncology patient encounters. The system was used to monitor patients for psychosocial distress employing an electronic clinical decision support algorithm, with 1,952 (11.3%) referrals generated for supportive services. The system was utilized to examine the efficacy of a psychosocial care intervention documenting statistically significant improvements in distress, despair, fatigue, and quality of life (QOL) in 50 breast cancer patients. Significance of results ePRO solutions can guide best practice management of cancer patient distress. Nurses play a key role in implementation and utilization.

Smith, Sophia K.; Rowe, Krista; Abernethy, Amy P.

2014-01-01

308

Radionecrosis induced by stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases: results of surgery and outcome of disease.  

PubMed

Sterotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective and commonly employed therapy for metastatic brain tumors. Among complication of this treatment, symptomatic focal cerebral radionecrosis (RN) occurs in 2-10 % of cases. The large diffusion of combined therapies as SRS followed by WBRT and/or CHT, has significantly amplified the number of patients who potentially might be affected by this pathology and neurosurgeons are increasingly called to treat suspected area of RN. Results of surgery of RN in patients with brain metastases are rarely reported in literature, a standardization of diagnostic work-up to correctly identify RN is still lacking and the timing and indications in favour of surgical therapy over medical treatments are not clear as well. In this retrospective study, we review current concept related to RN and analyze the outcome of surgical treatment in a series of 15 patients previously submitted to SRS for brain metastases and affected by suspected radionecrotic lesions. After surgery, all patients except one neurologically improved. No intra-operative complications occurred. Brain edema improved in all patients allowing a reduction or even suspension of corticosteroid therapy. Pure RN was histologically determined in 7 cases; RN and tumor recurrence in the other 8. Overall median survival was 19 months. An aggressive surgical attitude may be advisable in symptomatic patients with suspected cerebral RN, to have histologic confirmation of the lesion, to obtain a long-lasting relief from the mass effect and brain edema and to improve the overall quality of life, sparing a prolonged corticosteroid therapy. PMID:23525948

Telera, Stefano; Fabi, Alessandra; Pace, Andrea; Vidiri, Antonello; Anelli, Vincenzo; Carapella, Carmine Maria; Marucci, Laura; Crispo, Francesco; Sperduti, Isabella; Pompili, Alfredo

2013-06-01

309

Blastocyst culture and transfer: analysis of results and parameters affecting outcome in two in vitro fertilization programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether previously described advanced blastocyst development and high implantation rates are confirmed in an expanded multicenter trial.Design: Retrospective review.Setting: Two private assisted reproductive technology units.Patient(s): One hundred seventy-four patients who underwent blastocyst culture and transfer.Intervention(s): Culture of all pronucleate embryos in sequential media to the blastocyst stage (day 5) followed by ET.Main Outcome Measure(s): The number and

William B Schoolcraft; David K Gardner; Terry Schlenker; David R Meldrum

1999-01-01

310

Assessing methods for measurement of clinical outcomes and quality of care in primary care practices  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of potential data sources for the population of performance indicators for primary care (PC) practices. Methods This project was a cross sectional study of 7 multidisciplinary primary care teams in Ontario, Canada. Practices were recruited and 5-7 physicians per practice agreed to participate in the study. Patients of participating physicians (20-30) were recruited sequentially as they presented to attend a visit. Data collection included patient, provider and practice surveys, chart abstraction and linkage to administrative data sets. Matched pairs analysis was used to examine the differences in the observed results for each indicator obtained using multiple data sources. Results Seven teams, 41 physicians, 94 associated staff and 998 patients were recruited. The survey response rate was 81% for patients, 93% for physicians and 83% for associated staff. Chart audits were successfully completed on all but 1 patient and linkage to administrative data was successful for all subjects. There were significant differences noted between the data collection methods for many measures. No single method of data collection was best for all outcomes. For most measures of technical quality of care chart audit was the most accurate method of data collection. Patient surveys were more accurate for immunizations, chronic disease advice/information dispensed, some general health promotion items and possibly for medication use. Administrative data appears useful for indicators including chronic disease diagnosis and osteoporosis/ breast screening. Conclusions Multiple data collection methods are required for a comprehensive assessment of performance in primary care practices. The choice of which methods are best for any one particular study or quality improvement initiative requires careful consideration of the biases that each method might introduce into the results. In this study, both patients and providers were willing to participate in and consent to, the collection and linkage of information from multiple sources that would be required for such assessments.

2012-01-01

311

From Radical Mastectomy to Breast-Conserving Therapy and Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Narrative Review Comparing Oncological Result, Cosmetic Outcome, Quality of Life, and Health Economy  

PubMed Central

Surgical management of breast cancer has evolved considerably over the last two decades. There has been a major shift toward less-invasive local treatments, from radical mastectomy to breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS). In order to investigate the efficacy of each of the three abovementioned methods, a literature review was conducted for measurable outcomes including local recurrence, survival, cosmetic outcome, quality of life (QOL), and health economy. From the point of view of oncological result, there is no difference between mastectomy and BCT in local recurrence rate and survival. Long-term results for OBS are not available. The items assessed in the QOL sound a better score for OBS in comparison with mastectomy or BCT. OBS is also associated with a better cosmetic outcome. Although having low income seems to be associated with lower BCT and OBS utilization, prognosis of breast cancer is worse in these women as well. Thus, health economy is the matter that should be studied seriously. OBS is an innovative, progressive, and complicated subspeciality that lacks published randomized clinical trials comparing surgical techniques and objective measures of outcome, especially from oncologic and health economy points of view.

Kaviani, Ahmad; Sodagari, Nassim; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Eslami, Vahid; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Safavi, Amin; Noparast, Maryam; Fitoussi, Alfred

2013-01-01

312

The case for an international patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS®) initiative  

PubMed Central

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role in clinical practice and research. Modern psychometric methods such as item response theory (IRT) enable the creation of item banks that support fixed-length forms as well as computerized adaptive testing (CAT), often resulting in improved measurement precision and responsiveness. Here we describe and discuss the case for developing an international core set of PROs building from the US PROMIS® network. PROMIS is a U.S.-based cooperative group of research sites and centers of excellence convened to develop and standardize PRO measures across studies and settings. If extended to a global collaboration, PROMIS has the potential to transform PRO measurement by creating a shared, unifying terminology and metric for reporting of common symptoms and functional life domains. Extending a common set of standardized PRO measures to the international community offers great potential for improving patient-centered research, clinical trials reporting, population monitoring, and health care worldwide. Benefits of such standardization include the possibility of: international syntheses (such as meta-analyses) of research findings; international population monitoring and policy development; health services administrators and planners access to relevant information on the populations they serve; better assessment and monitoring of patients by providers; and improved shared decision making. The goal of the current PROMIS International initiative is to ensure that item banks are translated and culturally adapted for use in adults and children in as many countries as possible. The process includes 3 key steps: translation/cultural adaptation, calibration, and validation. A universal translation, an approach focusing on commonalities, rather than differences across versions developed in regions or countries speaking the same language, is proposed to ensure conceptual equivalence for all items. International item calibration using nationally representative samples of adults and children within countries is essential to demonstrate that all items possess expected strong measurement properties. Finally, it is important to demonstrate that the PROMIS measures are valid, reliable and responsive to change when used in an international context. IRT item banking will allow for tailoring within countries and facilitate growth and evolution of PROs through contributions from the international measurement community. A number of opportunities and challenges of international development of PROs item banks are discussed.

2013-01-01

313

Potential outcome measures and trial design issues for multiple system atrophy.  

PubMed

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting a combination of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, and autonomic failure. A disease-specific scale, the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS), has been developed and validated to measure progression of MSA, but its use as an outcome measure for therapeutic trials has not been evaluated. On the basis of twelve months of follow-up from an observational study of 67 patients with probable MSA, we evaluated three disease-specific scores: Activities of Daily Living, Motor Examination, and a combined score from the UMSARS and two general health scores, the Physical Health and Mental Health scores of the SF-36 health survey, for their use as outcome measures in a therapeutic trial. We discuss related design issues and provide sample size estimates. Scores based on the disease-specific UMSARS seemed to be equal or superior to scores based on the SF-36 health survey. They appeared to capture disease progression, were well correlated and required the smallest sample size. The UMSARS Motor Examination score exhibited the most favorable characteristics as an outcome measure for a therapeutic trial in MSA with 1 year of follow-up. PMID:17914727

May, Susanne; Gilman, Sid; Sowell, B Brooke; Thomas, Ronald G; Stern, Matthew B; Colcher, Amy; Tanner, Caroline M; Huang, Neng; Novak, Peter; Reich, Stephen G; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William G; Low, Phillip A; Sandroni, Paola; Lipp, Axel; Marshall, Frederick J; Wooten, Frederick; Shults, Clifford W

2007-12-01

314

Examining Student Spiritual Outcomes as a Result of a General Education Religion Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era in which part-time faculty are becoming a higher proportion of the teaching faculty on most campuses, this study addressed the question of whether student learning outcomes in religious education courses are significantly influenced by whether the instructor teaches in a full- or part-time capacity in the Department of Religion. We…

Hilton, John, III; Plummer, Kenneth

2013-01-01

315

Serum Lipids and Outcome of Early-stage Breast Cancer: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The prognosis of women with early-stage breast cancer is influenced by insulin and body mass index (BMI). High levels of serum insulin and obesity often coexist with dyslipidemia in the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), but the contribution of lipids to breast cancer outcome is unclear. Here, we examine whether serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) influence

Mala Bahl; Marguerite Ennis; Ian F. Tannock; Jan E. Hux; Kathleen I. Pritchard; Jarley Koo; Pamela J. Goodwin

2005-01-01

316

Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes when using a personal learning network is…

Sie, Rory L. L.; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter B.

2013-01-01

317

Modifying the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Measure for Use with People Who Have a Learning Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are few reliable self-report measures suitable for people with a learning disability in reporting psychological distress. This study examines the modification of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), exploring its reliability, using two different presentation styles. One style included a sequencing task then…

Marshall, Keith; Willoughby-Booth, Simon

2007-01-01

318

The Ohio Scales Youth Form: Expansion and Validation of a Self-Report Outcome Measure for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the validity and reliability of a self-report outcome measure for children between the ages of 8 and 11. The Ohio Scales Problem Severity scale is a brief, practical outcome measure available in three parallel forms: Parent, Youth, and Agency Worker. The Youth Self-Report form is currently validated for children ages 12 and older. The…

Dowell, Kathy A.; Ogles, Benjamin M.

2008-01-01

319

Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures

Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

2009-01-01

320

A study of mefloquine treatment for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: results and exploration of predictors of PML outcomes.  

PubMed

Immune reconstitution has improved outcomes for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a potentially lethal brain disease caused by JC virus (JCV). However, an antiviral treatment to control JCV is needed when immune reconstitution is delayed or not possible. On the basis of in vitro efficacy, this study evaluated the effect of mefloquine on PML and factors that may predict PML outcomes. This 38-week, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study compared patients with PML who received standard of care (SOC) with those who received SOC plus mefloquine (250 mg for 3 days, then 250 mg weekly). Patients randomized to SOC could add mefloquine treatment at week 4. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to weeks 4 and 8 in JCV DNA copy number (load) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Exploratory analyses evaluated factors that might correlate with clinical outcome. The majority of enrolled patients were HIV positive. Preplanned interim data analyses suggested that the study was unlikely to successfully demonstrate a significant difference between groups; therefore, the study was terminated prematurely. There was no significant difference between groups in CSF JCV DNA loads or clinical/MRI findings. Decrease in CSF JCV DNA load from baseline to week 4 was associated with a better clinical outcome at 16 weeks, as measured by Karnofsky scores. This study found no evidence of anti-JCV activity by mefloquine. An early decrease of CSF JCV DNA load appears to be associated with a better clinical outcome. PMID:23733308

Clifford, David B; Nath, Avindra; Cinque, Paola; Brew, Bruce J; Zivadinov, Robert; Gorelik, Leonid; Zhao, Zhenming; Duda, Petra

2013-08-01

321

Development and Validation of a Multifactorial Treatment Outcome Measure for Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed a brief self-report inventory to evaluate treatment outcome for anorexia and bulimia nervosa, the Multifactorial Assessment of Eating Disorders, and evaluated the instrument in a series of studies involving 1,054 women. Results support a stable factor structure and satisfactory reliability and validity, and establish normative data. (SLD)

Anderson, Drew A.; Williamson, Donald A.; Duchmann, Erich G.; Gleaves, David H.; Barbin, Jane M.

1999-01-01

322

Outcome Measures Comparing Two Tools for Identifying Audiological Needs in the Elderly Homebound Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine if the section concerning hearing abil- ity on the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS B-1) form is com- parable to the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening version (HHIE-S) in identifying elderly homebound individuals in need of further audi- ological services. Results from these two tools were compared to the

Tina Jupiter; Denise Fiore Delgado

323

Quality of Medical Care Assessment Using Outcome Measures: Volume II. Eight Disease-Specific Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume presents in detail the results of a study designed to develop outcome criteria and standards for use in assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with one of eight different conditions or surgical procedures. Eight chapters follow, on...

A. D. Avery L. J. Harris N. E. Solomon R. H. Brook T. Lelah

1976-01-01

324

Outcome measures for holistic, complex interventions within the palliative care setting.  

PubMed

As members of the Association of Palliative Care CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) Task Group we set ourselves two tasks: the task of exploring different facets of holistic care relevant to the palliative care setting and then to review outcome measures that might assist in researching complex interventions such as complementary therapies. Complementary therapies often embrace holistic philosophy where mind and body are connected and the complexity of symptoms acknowledged. These holistic or complex interventions within the palliative care setting are important to research and research holistically. We therefore gathered together outcome measures in the areas of hope, spirituality, symptom control, self-concept, the therapeutic consultation and dignity which would assist in the design of clinical trials of complementary therapies in the palliative care setting. PMID:18243939

Thompson, Elizabeth Anita; Quinn, Tina; Paterson, Charlotte; Cooke, Helen; McQuigan, Deidre; Butters, Graeme

2008-02-01

325

The SF36 health survey questionnaire: an outcome measure suitable for routine use within the NHS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the short form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire (a shortened version of a battery of 149 health status questions) as a measure of patient outcome in a broad sample of patients suffering from four common clinical conditions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire, followed up by two reminders at two week intervals. SETTING--Clinics and four

A M Garratt; D A Ruta; M I Abdalla; J K Buckingham; I T Russell

1993-01-01

326

Measuring the Treatment Outcome of Short-Term School-Based Social Skills Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term groups are frequently being used in schools today to address the ever-increasing needs among at-risk students. This research was intended to address some of the current gaps in our understanding of how short-term groups affect the functioning of children and adolescents. A combination of qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods was utilized in the study to measure the treatment outcome

Susan Dennison

2008-01-01

327

Clinical outcome measures for trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: report from International Working Group meetings  

PubMed Central

In June 2010, 25 representatives from Europe and the US met in Washington, DC, USA, to discuss clinical outcome measures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in the context of clinical trial design and analysis. The workshop was organized in response to a September 2009 European Medicines Agency meeting where a clear directive was given that an international consensus needs to be developed that provides a foundation for age-appropriate clinical outcome measures for use in clinical trials of emerging therapeutics for DMD. Data were presented from eight multicenter longitudinal datasets, representing nearly 1900 patients over a 20-year time period. This experience confirmed the feasibility of repeated evaluations performed at multiple sites and addressed several core issues in drug development for DMD, such as the ‘new’ natural history in the steroidera, reliability and sensitivity of specific outcome measures, as well as disease staging and patient selection. These data form a valuable asset for academic investigators, pharmaceutical sponsors and regulatory agencies involved in DMD therapeutics. The group remains committed working together on a number of collaborative goals to support the therapeutics development effort in this orphan disease and to make these data available to stakeholders working in the field.

Bushby, Kate; Connor, Edward

2012-01-01

328

Worker productivity outcome measures: OMERACT filter evidence and agenda for future research.  

PubMed

The objective of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Worker Productivity working group is to identify worker productivity outcome measures that meet the requirements of the OMERACT filter. At the OMERACT 11 Workshop, we focused on the at-work limitations/productivity component of worker productivity (i.e., presenteeism) - an area with diverse conceptualization and instrumentation approaches. Various approaches to quantify at-work limitations/productivity (e.g., single-item global and multi-item measures) were examined, and available evidence pertaining to OMERACT truth, discrimination, and feasibility were presented to conference participants. Four candidate global measures of presenteeism were put forth for a plenary vote to determine whether current evidence meets the OMERACT filter requirements. Presenteeism globals from the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (72% support) and Rheumatoid Arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (71% support) were endorsed by conference participants; however, neither the presenteeism global item from the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire nor the Quantity and Quality method achieved the level of support required for endorsement at the present time. The plenary was also asked whether the central item from the Work Ability Index should also be considered as a candidate measure for potential endorsement in the future. Of participants at the plenary, 70% supported this presenteeism global measure. Progress was also made in other areas through discussions at individual breakout sessions. Topics examined include the merits of various multi-item measures of at-work limitations/productivity, methodological issues related to interpretability of outcome scores, and approaches to appraise and classify contextual factors of worker productivity. Feedback gathered from conference participants will inform the future research agenda of the working group. PMID:24128774

Tang, Kenneth; Boonen, Annelies; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Escorpizo, Reuben; Luime, Jolanda J; Lacaille, Diane; Fautrel, Bruno; Bosworth, Ailsa; Cifaldi, Mary; Gignac, Monique A M; Hofstetter, Cathy; Leong, Amye; Montie, Pam; Petersson, Ingemar F; Purcaru, Oana; Bombardier, Claire; Tugwell, Peter S; Beaton, Dorcas E

2014-01-01

329

Ongoing pregnancy qualifies best as the primary outcome measure of choice in trials in reproductive medicine: an opinion paper.  

PubMed

The most appropriate primary outcome measure for reproductive medicine has been discussed frequently. In 2003 the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology recommended that the outcome measure of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and non-ART should be singleton live birth. Although live birth is indeed the aim of clinical practice, and there is no discussion that it should be reported in infertility trials, we hereby provide arguments that plead for using ongoing pregnancy as the primary outcome in such trials. We feel that ongoing pregnancy best serves the many purposes of a primary outcome and best reflects the effectiveness of a treatment. PMID:24786739

Braakhekke, Miriam; Kamphuis, Esme I; Dancet, Eline A; Mol, Femke; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W

2014-05-01

330

Management Strategies and Determinants of Outcome in Acute Major Pulmonary Embolism: Results of a Multicenter Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The present study investigated current management strategies as well as the clinical course of acute major pulmonary embolism.Background. The clinical outcome of patients with acute pulmonary embolism who present with overt or impending right heart failure has not yet been adequately elucidated.Methods. The 204 participating centers enrolled a total of 1,001 consecutive patients. The inclusion criteria were based on

Wolfgang Kasper; Stavros Konstantinides; Annette Geibel; Manfred Olschewski; Fritz Heinrich; Klaus D Grosser; Klaus Rauber; Stein Iversen; Matthias Redecker; Joachim Kienast

1997-01-01

331

Contemporary outcome trends in the elderly undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: Results in 7,472 octogenarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to define the risks facing octogenarians undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs).BACKGROUNDThe procedural risks of PCI for octogenarians have not been well established.METHODSWe compared the clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of 7,472 octogenarians (mean age 83 years) with those of 102,236 younger patients (mean age 62 years) who underwent PCI at 22 National Cardiovascular Network (NCN) hospitals from

Wayne B Batchelor; Kevin J Anstrom; Lawrence H Muhlbaier; Ralph Grosswald; William S Weintraub; William W O’Neill; Eric D Peterson

2000-01-01

332

Cardiovascular outcome associations among cardiovascular magnetic resonance measures of arterial stiffness: the Dallas heart study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been validated for the noninvasive assessment of total arterial compliance and aortic stiffness, but their associations with cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations of CMR measures of total arterial compliance and two CMR measures of aortic stiffness with respect to future cardiovascular events. Methods The study consisted of 2122 Dallas Heart Study participants without cardiovascular disease who underwent CMR at 1.5 Tesla. Aortic stiffness was measured by CMR-derived ascending aortic distensibility and aortic arch pulse wave velocity. Total arterial compliance was calculated by dividing left ventricular stroke volume by pulse pressure. Participants were monitored for cardiovascular death, non-fatal cardiac events, and non-fatal extra-cardiac vascular events over 7.8?±?1.5 years. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess for associations between CMR measures and cardiovascular events. Results Age, systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate were independently associated with changes in ascending aortic distensibility, arch pulse wave velocity, and total arterial compliance (all p?measures of arterial stiffness are associated with future cardiovascular events. Total arterial compliance and aortic distensibility may be stronger predictors of nonfatal cardiac events, while pulse wave velocity may be a stronger predictor of nonfatal extra-cardiac vascular events.

2014-01-01

333

Quality of life routine outcomes measurement: lessons from experience in the USA and the UK.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with issues in the routine measurement of quality of life in a mental health context. It is in three parts. In the first part the first author reviews briefly, lessons from a decade of experience in the use of data produced by routine measurement using the Colorado Client Assessment Record (CCAR) in the Mental Health Centre of Boulder County (MHCBC) in Colorado, USA. In the second part, the specific issues surrounding quality of life assessment as a routine outcome measure are considered. Evidence is presented to counter some of the commonly held beliefs about QoL measurement problems. Finally, general problems that affect QoL and all other routine measures are described and analysed using a framework devised by Peterson (1989). PMID:12451966

Huxley, Peter; Evans, Sherrill

2002-01-01

334

26 CFR 801.6 - Business results measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and a fraud referral. Examples of data that are not tax enforcement results include a quantity measure and data derived from a quality review...Records of tax enforcement results are data, statistics, compilations of...

2013-04-01

335

Primary outcome indices in illicit drug dependence treatment research: systematic approach to selection and measurement of drug use end-points in clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Aims Clinical trials test the safety and efficacy of behavioral and pharmacological interventions in drug-dependent individuals. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate outcome(s) to consider in determining treatment efficacy or on the most appropriate methods for assessing selected outcome(s). We summarize the discussion and recommendations of treatment and research experts, convened by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, to select appropriate primary outcomes for drug dependence treatment clinical trials, and in particular the feasibility of selecting a common outcome to be included in all or most trials. Methods A brief history of outcomes employed in prior drug dependence treatment research, incorporating perspectives from tobacco and alcohol research, is included. The relative merits and limitations of focusing on drug-taking behavior, as measured by self-report and qualitative or quantitative biological markers, are evaluated. Results Drug-taking behavior, measured ideally by a combination of self-report and biological indicators, is seen as the most appropriate proximal primary outcome in drug dependence treatment clinical trials. Conclusions We conclude that the most appropriate outcome will vary as a function of salient variables inherent in the clinical trial, such as the type of intervention, its target, treatment goals (e.g. abstinence or reduction of use) and the perspective being taken (e.g. researcher, clinical program, patient, society). It is recommended that a decision process, based on such trial variables, be developed to guide the selection of primary and secondary outcomes as well as the methods to assess them.

Donovan, Dennis M.; Bigelow, George E.; Brigham, Gregory S.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Allan J.; Gardin, John G.; Hamilton, John A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Hughes, John R.; Lindblad, Robert; Marlatt, G. Alan; Preston, Kenzie L.; Selzer, Jeffrey A.; Somoza, Eugene C.; Wakim, Paul G.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

336

Results from the LISA phase measurement system project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents some of the more topical results of a study into the LISA phase measurement system. This system is responsible for measuring the phase of the heterodyne signal caused by the interference of the laser beams between the local and far spacecraft. Interactions with the LISA systems that surround the phase measurement system imply additional non-trivial requirements on the phase measurement system. ESA/ESTEC contract 15658/01/NL/EC, Technical Officer Alberto Resti.

Summers, David; Hoyland, David

2005-05-01

337

Measuring the impact of medical research: moving from outputs to outcomes.  

PubMed

Billions of dollars are spent every year to support medical research, with a substantial percentage coming from charitable foundations. To justify these expenditures, some measure of the return on investment would be useful, particularly one aligned with the intended ultimate outcome of this scientific effort: the amelioration of disease. The current mode of reporting on the success of medical research is output based, with an emphasis on measurable productivity. This approach falls short in many respects and may be contributing to the well-described efficacy-effectiveness gap in clinical care. The author argues for an outcomes-based approach and describes the steps involved, using an adaptation of the logic model. A shift in focus to the outcomes of our work would provide our founders with clearer mission-central return-on-investment feedback, would make explicit the benefits of science to an increasingly skeptical public, and would serve as a compass to guide the scientific community in playing a more prominent role in reducing the efficacy-effectiveness gap. While acknowledging the enormous complexity involved with the implementation of this approach on a large scale, the author hopes that this essay will encourage some initial steps toward this aim and stimulate further discussion of this concept. PMID:17267781

Weiss, Anthony P

2007-02-01

338

The Cultural Adaptability of Intermediate Measures of Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia*  

PubMed Central

The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative was designed to encourage the development of cognitive enhancing agents for schizophrenia. For a medication to receive this indication, regulatory agencies require evidence of improvement in both cognition and functional outcome. Because medication trials are conducted across multiple countries, we examined ratings of the cross-cultural adaptability of 4 intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, Cognitive Assessment Interview [CAI]) made by experienced clinical researchers at 31 sites in 8 countries. English-speaking research staff familiar with conducting medication trials rated the extent to which each subscale of each intermediate measure could be applied to their culture and to subgroups within their culture based on gender, geographic region, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the Cultural Adaptation Rating Scale. Ratings suggested that the CAI would be easiest to adapt across cultures. However, in a recent study, the CAI was found to have weaker psychometric properties than some of the other measures. Problems were identified for specific subscales on all the performance-based assessments across multiple countries. India, China, and Mexico presented the greatest challenges in adaptation. For international clinical trials, it would be important to use the measures that are most adaptable, to adapt subscales that are problematic for specific countries or regions, or to develop a battery composed of the subscales from different instruments that may be most acceptable across multiple cultures with minimal adaptation.

Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M.; Mintz, Jim; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Schooler, Nina R.; Jaeger, Judith; Peters, Nancy M.; Buller, Raimund; Marder, Stephen R.; Dube, Sanjay

2012-01-01

339

The cultural adaptability of intermediate measures of functional outcome in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative was designed to encourage the development of cognitive enhancing agents for schizophrenia. For a medication to receive this indication, regulatory agencies require evidence of improvement in both cognition and functional outcome. Because medication trials are conducted across multiple countries, we examined ratings of the cross-cultural adaptability of 4 intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, Cognitive Assessment Interview [CAI]) made by experienced clinical researchers at 31 sites in 8 countries. English-speaking research staff familiar with conducting medication trials rated the extent to which each subscale of each intermediate measure could be applied to their culture and to subgroups within their culture based on gender, geographic region, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on the Cultural Adaptation Rating Scale. Ratings suggested that the CAI would be easiest to adapt across cultures. However, in a recent study, the CAI was found to have weaker psychometric properties than some of the other measures. Problems were identified for specific subscales on all the performance-based assessments across multiple countries. India, China, and Mexico presented the greatest challenges in adaptation. For international clinical trials, it would be important to use the measures that are most adaptable, to adapt subscales that are problematic for specific countries or regions, or to develop a battery composed of the subscales from different instruments that may be most acceptable across multiple cultures with minimal adaptation. PMID:21134973

Velligan, Dawn I; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M; Mintz, Jim; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Schooler, Nina R; Jaeger, Judith; Peters, Nancy M; Buller, Raimund; Marder, Stephen R; Dube, Sanjay

2012-05-01

340

Reduced Sexual Risk Behaviors Among People Living with HIV: Results from the Healthy Relationships Outcome Monitoring Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded seven community-based organizations (CBOs) to conduct outcome\\u000a monitoring of Healthy Relationships. Healthy Relationships is an evidence-based behavioral intervention for people living\\u000a with HIV. Demographic and sexual risk behaviors recalled by participants with a time referent of the past 90 days were collected\\u000a over a 17-month project period using a repeated measures

Janet L. HeitgerdElizabeth; Elizabeth J. Kalayil; Alpa Patel-Larson; Gary Uhl; Weston O. Williams; Tanesha Griffin; Bryce D. Smith

341

Patients' views of using an outcome measure in palliative day care: a focus group study.  

PubMed

Outcome measures are being increasingly used in palliative care. Palliative day care is significantly different to other specialist palliative care settings, as patients may attend for much longer periods of time. The aim of this study was to elicit patients' views on using an adapted version of the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS) and to determine its value in identifying their individual needs. This qualitative study involved a focus group of nine patients who had used POS weekly for a minimum of 3 months. The focus group discussion was tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using an interpretive phenomenological approach. Participants found POS to be a useful communication tool, which helped them to identify their individual needs. PMID:15365487

Slater, Adrienne; Freeman, Elaine

2004-07-01

342

Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world’s population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. Method An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. Results A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. Conclusions This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to change.

2014-01-01

343

Minimal Important Difference (MID) of two commonly used outcome measures for foot problems  

PubMed Central

Background The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) are two commonly used outcome measures for evaluating foot health. This study aimed to calculate the Minimal Important Difference (MID) of the VAS and the FHSQ. Methods 184 participants with plantar heel pain were recruited from the general public to take part in two randomised trials (92 participants in each trial) that studied the effectiveness of two conservative interventions for plantar heel pain. Data from these participants were used to calculate the MIDs of the VAS and the FHSQ. An anchor-based method was used to calculate the MIDs. Two distinct types of pain were investigated for the VAS: average pain and first-step pain. All four domains of the FHSQ were investigated: foot pain, foot function, footwear and general foot health. Results The MID for the VAS using the anchor-based approach was -8 mm (95% CI: -12 to -4) for average pain and -19 mm (95% CI: -25 to -13) for first-step pain on the 100 mm VAS. The MID for the FHSQ was 13 points (95% CI: 6 to 19) for pain and 7 points (95% CI: 1 to 13) for function. The MID for the footwear domain of the FHSQ was -2 points (95% CI: -8 to 4) and 0 points (95% CI: -7 to 6) for the general foot health domain of the FHSQ. Conclusion The results of this study provide additional evidence for MID values of the VAS and the FHSQ for plantar heel pain. This is important for clinicians and researchers as it provides a greater understanding of how much improvement is required by a patient before a minimal, worthwhile change is experienced. The calculated MIDs will also assist researchers with prospective sample size calculations.

2010-01-01

344

Validating English- and Spanish-language patient-reported outcome measures in underserved patients with rheumatic disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rheumatic diseases are among the most common and debilitating health problems in the United States. These diseases are chronic, can result in severe decrements of physical and psychosocial functioning and affect patients' overall quality of life. A consensus regarding the best patient outcomes to be measured in randomized, controlled trials and prospective natural history studies is essential to provide best estimates of efficacy and safety of interventions across diverse patient populations. Methods Face-to-face English- and Spanish-language cognitive interviews were conducted among urban Hispanic and African American patients with rheumatic disease to develop a questionnaire booklet. Six measures validating patient-reported outcomes were included: the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, the Short Acculturation Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Inventory of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practices. A sample of patients (n = 15) attending the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Community Health Center participated in the initial interviews. Revised measures were further tested for reliability in a separate sample of patients (n = 109) upon enrollment at the health center. Results Cognitive interviews provided feedback for questionnaire modifications and methods to enhance content validity and data quality, including discarding redundant questions, providing visual aids and concrete examples when appropriate and increasing the use of racially and ethnically concordant interviewers. The cognitive interviews further elucidated that some contextual assumptions and language usage in the original questionnaires may not have taken each respondent's environmental and sociocultural context into consideration. Internal reliability for previously tested measures remained high (Cronbach's ? = 0.87-0.94). Conclusions Cognitive interviewing techniques are useful in a diverse sample of racial and ethnic minority patients with rheumatic disease as a method to assess the content validity of the specific outcome measures selected. The data collection approaches and methods described here ultimately enhance data quality. Vigilance is required in the selection of outcome measures in studies or in practice, particularly with each new language translation and/or culturally unique or diverse sample.

2011-01-01

345

Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes for Gastric Bypass Surgery: Results from a Comprehensive Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGB) surgery markedly increases percent excess weight loss (%EWL) and obesity-related co-morbidities.\\u000a However, poor study quality and minimal exploration of clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial mechanisms of weight loss have\\u000a characterized research to date.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a comprehensive assessment of n=100 LGB patients surveyed 2–3 years following surgery using standardized measures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mean %EWL at follow-up was 59.1±17.2%. This

Garry Welch; Cheryl Wesolowski; Sofija Zagarins; Jay Kuhn; John Romanelli; Jane Garb; Nancy Allen

2011-01-01

346

The Selection and Use of Outcome Measures in Palliative and End-of-Life Care Research: The MORECare International Consensus Workshop  

PubMed Central

Context A major barrier to widening and sustaining palliative care service provision is the requirement for better selection and use of outcome measures. Service commissioning is increasingly based on patient, carer, and service outcomes as opposed to service activity. Objectives To generate recommendations and consensus for research in palliative and end-of-life care on the properties of the best outcome measures, enhancing the validity of proxy-reported data and optimal data collection time points. Methods An international expert “workshop” was convened and an online consensus survey was undertaken using the MORECare Transparent Expert Consultation to generate recommendations and level of agreement. We focused on three areas: 1) measurement properties, 2) use of proxies, and 3) measurement timing. Data analysis comprised descriptive analysis of aggregate scores and collation of narrative comments. Results There were 31 workshop attendees; 29 recommendations were included in the online survey, completed by 28 experts. The top three recommendations by area were the following: 1) the properties of the best outcome measures are responsive to change over time and capture clinically important data, 2) to enhance the validity of proxy data requires clear and specific guidelines to aid lay individuals' and/or professionals' completion of proxy measures, and 3) data collection time points need clear identification to establish a baseline. Conclusion Outcome measurement in palliative and end-of-life care requires the use of psychometrically robust measures that are clinically responsive, with defined data collection time points to establish a baseline and clear administration guidelines to complete proxy measures. To further the field requires clinical imperatives to more closely inform recommendations on outcome measurement.

Evans, Catherine J.; Benalia, Hamid; Preston, Nancy J.; Grande, Gunn; Gysels, Marjolein; Short, Vicky; Daveson, Barbara A.; Bausewein, Claudia; Todd, Chris; Higginson, Irene J.

2013-01-01

347

Observer bias in randomized clinical trials with measurement scale outcomes: a systematic review of trials with both blinded and nonblinded assessors  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinical trials are commonly done without blinded outcome assessors despite the risk of bias. We wanted to evaluate the effect of nonblinded outcome assessment on estimated effects in randomized clinical trials with outcomes that involved subjective measurement scales. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials with both blinded and nonblinded assessment of the same measurement scale outcome. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HighWire Press and Google Scholar for relevant studies. Two investigators agreed on the inclusion of trials and the outcome scale. For each trial, we calculated the difference in effect size (i.e., standardized mean difference between nonblinded and blinded assessments). A difference in effect size of less than 0 suggested that nonblinded assessors generated more optimistic estimates of effect. We pooled the differences in effect size using inverse variance random-effects meta-analysis and used metaregression to identify potential reasons for variation. Results: We included 24 trials in our review. The main meta-analysis included 16 trials (involving 2854 patients) with subjective outcomes. The estimated treatment effect was more beneficial when based on nonblinded assessors (pooled difference in effect size ?0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) ?0.40 to ?0.06]). In relative terms, nonblinded assessors exaggerated the pooled effect size by 68% (95% CI 14% to 230%). Heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 46%, p = 0.02) and unexplained by metaregression. Interpretation: We provide empirical evidence for observer bias in randomized clinical trials with subjective measurement scale outcomes. A failure to blind assessors of outcomes in such trials results in a high risk of substantial bias.

Hrobjartsson, Asbj?rn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida; Tendal, Britta; Hilden, J?rgen; Boutron, Isabelle; Ravaud, Philippe; Brorson, Stig

2013-01-01

348

Measuring dosage: a key factor when assessing the relationship between prenatal case management and birth outcomes.  

PubMed

To assess whether a measure of prenatal case management (PCM) dosage is more sensitive than a dichotomous PCM exposure measure when evaluating the effect of PCM on low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB). We constructed a retrospective cohort study (N = 16,657) of Iowa Medicaid-insured women who had a singleton live birth from October 2005 to December 2006; 28 % of women received PCM. A PCM dosage measure was created to capture duration of enrollment, total time with a case manager, and intervention breadth. Propensity score (PS)-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated to assess the risk of each outcome by PCM dosage and the dichotomous PCM exposure measure. PS-adjusted ORs of PTB were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.70-1.11), 0.58 (95 % CI 0.47-0.72), and 1.43 (95 % CI 1.23-1.67) for high, medium, and low PCM dosage, respectively. For LBW, the PS-adjusted ORs were 0.76 (95 % CI 0.57-1.00), 0.64 (95 % CI 0.50-0.82), and 1.36 (95 % CI 1.14-1.63), for high, medium, and low PCM dosage, respectively. The PCM dichotomous participation measure was not significantly associated with LBW (OR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.82-1.09) or PTB (0.97, 95 % CI 0.87-1.10). The reference group in each analysis is No PCM. PCM was associated with a reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for Medicaid-insured women in Iowa. PCM dosage appeared to be a more sensitive measure than the dichotomous measure of PCM participation. PMID:23010864

Slaughter, Jaime C; Issel, L Michele; Handler, Arden S; Rosenberg, Deborah; Kane, Debra J; Stayner, Leslie T

2013-10-01

349

Using the ratio of means as the effect size measure in combining results of microarray experiments  

PubMed Central

Background Development of efficient analytic methodologies for combining microarray results is a major challenge in gene expression analysis. The widely used effect size models are thought to provide an efficient modeling framework for this purpose, where the measures of association for each study and each gene are combined, weighted by the standard errors. A significant disadvantage of this strategy is that the quality of different data sets may be highly variable, but this information is usually neglected during the integration. Moreover, it is widely known that the estimated standard deviations are probably unstable in the commonly used effect size measures (such as standardized mean difference) when sample sizes in each group are small. Results We propose a re-parameterization of the traditional mean difference based effect measure by using the log ratio of means as an effect size measure for each gene in each study. The estimated effect sizes for all studies were then combined under two modeling frameworks: the quality-unweighted random effects models and the quality-weighted random effects models. We defined the quality measure as a function of the detection p-value, which indicates whether a transcript is reliably detected or not on the Affymetrix gene chip. The new effect size measure is evaluated and compared under the quality-weighted and quality-unweighted data integration frameworks using simulated data sets, and also in several data sets of prostate cancer patients and controls. We focus on identifying differentially expressed biomarkers for prediction of cancer outcomes. Conclusion Our results show that the proposed effect size measure (log ratio of means) has better power to identify differentially expressed genes, and that the detected genes have better performance in predicting cancer outcomes than the commonly used effect size measure, the standardized mean difference (SMD), under both quality-weighted and quality-unweighted data integration frameworks. The new effect size measure and the quality-weighted microarray data integration framework provide efficient ways to combine microarray results.

2009-01-01

350

Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials 2. results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A line-heat source apparatus was assembled for the purpose of measuring thermal conductivities of particulate samples under low pressures of a carbon dioxide atmosphere. The primary result of this project is the compilation of the first comprehensive suite of measurements of the dependence of thermal conductivity on particle size. The thermal conductivity increases with increasing particle size and atmospheric pressure.

Marsha A. Presley; Philip R. Christensen

1997-01-01

351

Selecting outcome measures in sports medicine: a guide for practitioners using the example of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using examples from the field of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, this review provides sports and health practitioners with a comprehensive, user-friendly, guide to selecting outcome measures for use with active populations. A series of questions are presented for consideration when selecting a measure: is the measure appropriate for the intended use? (appropriateness); is the measure acceptable to patients? (acceptability); is

N P Bent; C C Wright; A B Rushton; M E Batt

2009-01-01

352

Aggressive therapy in patients with early arthritis results in similar outcome compared with conventional care: the STREAM randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare the effects of aggressive tight control therapy and conventional care on radiographic progression and disease activity in patients with early mild inflammatory arthritis. Methods. Patients with two to five swollen joints, Sharp–van der Heijde radiographic score (SHS) <5 and symptom duration ?2 years were randomized between two strategies. Patients with a definite non-RA diagnosis were excluded. The protocol of the aggressive group aimed for remission (DAS?Outcome measures after 2 years were SHS (primary), remission rate and HAQ score (secondary). Results. Eighty-two patients participated (60% ACPA positive). In the aggressive group (n?=?42), 19 patients were treated with adalimumab. In the conventional care group (n?=?40), 24 patients started with hydroxychloroquin (HCQ), 2 with sulfasalazine (SSZ) and 14 with MTX. After 2 years, the median SHS increase was 0 [interquartile range (IQR) 0–1.1] and 0.5 (IQR 0–2.5), remission rates were 66 and 49% and HAQ decreased with a mean of ?0.09 (0.50) and ?0.25 (0.59) in the aggressive and conventional care group, respectively. All comparisons were non-significant. Conclusion. In patients with early arthritis of two to five joints, both aggressive tight-control therapy including adalimumab and conventional therapy resulted in remission rates around 50%, low radiographic damage and excellent functional status after 2 years. However, full disease control including radiographic arrest in all patients remains an elusive target even in moderately active early arthritis. Trial registration. Dutch Trial Register, http://www.trialregister.nl/, NTR 144.

van Eijk, Izhar C.; Nielen, Markus M. J.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene; Tijhuis, Gerard J.; Boers, Maarten; Dijkmans, Ben A. C.

2012-01-01

353

The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in Norwegian clinical and non-clinical samples  

PubMed Central

Background The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is a 34-item instrument developed to monitor clinically significant change in out-patients. The CORE-OM covers four domains: well-being, problems/symptoms, functioning and risk, and sums up in two total scores: the mean of All items, and the mean of All non-risk items. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the CORE-OM. Methods A clinical sample of 527 out-patients from North Norwegian specialist psychiatric services, and a non-clinical sample of 464 persons were obtained. The non-clinical sample was a convenience sample consisting of friends and family of health personnel, and of students of medicine and clinical psychology. Students also reported psychological stress. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was employed in half the clinical sample. Confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses modelling the theoretical sub-domains were performed in the remaining half of the clinical sample. Internal consistency, means, and gender and age differences were studied by comparing the clinical and non-clinical samples. Stability, effect of language (Norwegian versus English), and of psychological stress was studied in the sub-sample of students. Finally, cut-off scores were calculated, and distributions of scores were compared between clinical and non-clinical samples, and between students reporting stress or no stress. Results The results indicate that the CORE-OM both measures general (g) psychological distress and sub-domains, of which risk of harm separates most clearly from the g factor. Internal consistency, stability and cut-off scores compared well with the original English version. No, or only negligible, language effects were found. Gender differences were only found for the well-being domain in the non-clinical sample and for the risk domain in the clinical sample. Current patient status explained differences between clinical and non-clinical samples, also when gender and age were controlled for. Students reporting psychological distress during last week scored significantly higher than students reporting no stress. These results further validate the recommended cut-off point of 1 between clinical and non-clinical populations. Conclusions The CORE-OM in Norwegian has psychometric properties at the same level as the English original, and could be recommended for general clinical use. A cut-off point of 1 is recommended for both genders.

2013-01-01

354

Non-physician clinician provided HIV treatment results in equivalent outcomes as physician-provided care: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction A severe healthcare worker shortage in sub-Saharan Africa is inhibiting the expansion of HIV treatment. Task shifting, the transfer of antiretroviral therapy (ART) management and initiation from doctors to nurses and other non-physician clinicians, has been proposed to address this problem. However, many health officials remain wary about implementing task shifting policies due to concerns that non-physicians will provide care inferior to physicians. To determine if non-physician-provided HIV care does result in equivalent outcomes to physician-provided care, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods Online databases were searched using a predefined strategy. The results for four primary outcomes were combined using a random effects model with sub-groups of non-physician-managed ART and -initiated ART. TB diagnosis rates, adherence, weight gain and patient satisfaction were summarized qualitatively. Results Mortality (N=59,666) had similar outcomes for non-physicians and physicians, with a hazard ratio of 1.05 (CI: 0.88–1.26). The increase in CD4 levels at one year, as a difference in means of 2.3 (N=17,142, CI: ?12.7–17.3), and viral failure at one year, as a risk ratio of 0.89 (N=10,344, CI: 0.65–1.23), were similar for physicians and non-physicians. Interestingly, loss to follow-up (LTFU) (N=53,435) was reduced for non-physicians with a hazard ratio of 0.72 (CI: 0.56–0.94). TB diagnosis rates, adherence and weight gain were similar for non-physicians and physicians. Patient satisfaction appeared higher for non-physicians in qualitative components of studies and was attributed to non-physicians spending more time with patients as well as providing more holistic care. Conclusions Non-physician-provided HIV care results in equivalent outcomes to care provided by physicians and may result in decreased LTFU rates.

Emdin, Connor A; Chong, Nicholas J; Millson, Peggy E

2013-01-01

355

Patient Characteristics Associated with Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Outcome for Prescription Opioid Dependence: Results from a Multisite Study  

PubMed Central

Background Prescription opioid dependence is a growing problem, but little research exists on its treatment, including patient characteristics that predict treatment outcome. Methods A secondary analysis of data from a large multisite, randomized clinical trial, the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) was undertaken to examine baseline patient characteristics (N=360) associated with success during 12-week buprenorphine/naloxone treatment for prescription opioid dependence. Baseline predictor variables included self-reported demographic and opioid use history information, diagnoses assessed via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and historical opioid use and related information from the Pain And Opiate Analgesic Use History. Results In bivariate analyses, pre-treatment characteristics associated with successful opioid use outcome included older age, past-year or lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder, initially obtaining opioids with a medical prescription to relieve pain, having only used opioids by swallowing or sublingual administration, never having used heroin, using an opioid other than extended-release oxycodone most frequently, and no prior opioid dependence treatment. In multivariate analysis, age, lifetime major depressive disorder, having only used opioids by swallowing or sublingual administration, and receiving no prior opioid dependence treatment remained as significant predictors of successful outcome. Conclusions This is the first study to examine characteristics associated with treatment outcome in patients dependent exclusively on prescription opioids. Characteristics associated with successful outcome after 12 weeks of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment include some that have previously been found to predict heroin-dependent patients’ response to methadone treatment and some specific to prescription opioid-dependent patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone.

Dreifuss, Jessica A.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Frost, Katherine; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Fiellin, David A.; Selzer, Jeffrey; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Sonne, Susan C.; Weiss, Roger D.

2012-01-01

356

Gender Differences in 1-Year Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes after Stroke: Results from the China National Stroke Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports have shown inconsistent results on clinical outcomes between women and men after stroke, and little is known about gender differences on outcomes in Chinese post-stroke patients. The aim of this study was to explore whether there were gender differences on clinical characteristics and outcomes in Chinese patients after ischemic stroke by using the data from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Methods and Findings Out of 12,415 consecutively recruited patients with acute ischemic stroke in the CNSR from 2007 to 2008, 11,560 (93.1%) patients were followed up for 12 months. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes on death, recurrence, and dependency were recorded. The multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether there were gender differences in these outcomes. Women were older than men at baseline (67.9 vs. 64.0 years, P<0.001). Women had a higher mortality, recurrence rate, and dependency rate at 3, 6, and 12 months than men, but after adjusting for age, history of diabetes, pre-stroke dependency, stroke severity, in-hospital complications, and other confounders, there were no statistically significant differences in gender on mortality and recurrence rate at 3, 6, and 12 months; and dependency rate at 3, and 6 months. However, the dependency rate at 12 months remained significantly higher in women (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.45). Conclusions There are many differences in clinical characteristics between women and men after ischemic stroke in China. Compared with men, women are more dependent at 12 months after stroke. This difference still exists after controlling the potential confounders.

Wang, Chunxue; Yao, Xiaomei; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yilong; Li, Hao; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Yongjun

2013-01-01

357

Day-to-day measurement of patient-reported outcomes in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major burden to patients and to society. Little is known about the possible role of day-to-day patient-reported outcomes during an exacerbation. This study aims to describe the day-to-day course of patient-reported health status during exacerbations of COPD and to assess its value in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods Data from two randomized controlled COPD exacerbation trials (n = 210 and n = 45 patients) were used to describe both the feasibility of daily collection of and the day-to-day course of patient-reported outcomes during outpatient treatment or admission to hospital. In addition to clinical parameters, the BORG dyspnea score, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), and the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire were used in Cox regression models to predict treatment failure, time to next exacerbation, and mortality in the hospital study. Results All patient-reported outcomes showed a distinct pattern of improvement. In the multivariate models, absence of improvement in CCQ symptom score and impaired lung function were independent predictors of treatment failure. Health status and gender predicted time to next exacerbation. Five-year mortality was predicted by age, forced expiratory flow in one second % predicted, smoking status, and CCQ score. In outpatient management of exacerbations, health status was found to be less impaired than in hospitalized patients, while the rate and pattern of recovery was remarkably similar. Conclusion Daily health status measurements were found to predict treatment failure, which could help decision-making for patients hospitalized due to an exacerbation of COPD.

Kocks, Jan Willem H; van den Berg, Jan Willem K; Kerstjens, Huib AM; Uil, Steven M; Vonk, Judith M; de Jong, Ynze P; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; van der Molen, Thys

2013-01-01

358

Depression symptom clusters and their predictive value for treatment outcomes: Results from an individual patient data meta-analysis of duloxetine trials.  

PubMed

We evaluated individual patient data from phase II to IV clinical trials of duloxetine in major depressive disorder (MDD) (34 studies, 13,887 patients). Our goal was to identify clusters of patients with similar depressive symptom patterns at baseline, as measured by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), and to investigate their respective predictive value of outcomes as measured by the HAMD-17 total score. Five clusters were identified at baseline: 1) "Lack of insight"; 2) "Sleep/sexual/somatic"; 3) "Typical MDD"; 4) "Gastrointestinal/weight loss"; and 5) "Mild MDD". However, it should be noted that cluster descriptors are not mutually exclusive. Analyses of the HAMD-17 total score results over time were performed using the 18 randomized placebo and/or actively controlled studies representing 6723 patients. At the end of acute treatment (ranging from 4 to 36 weeks), different levels of effect sizes for active therapy (64.5% duloxetine) vs. placebo were detected by cluster. In 3 out of 5 clusters (representing about 80% of the patients), the effect size was significantly different from 0, in favor of active therapy. The effect size was largest in those clusters with severe somatic symptoms ("Sleep/sexual/somatic" cluster [-0.4170], and "Gastrointestinal/weight loss" cluster [-0.338]). In conclusion, our cluster analysis identified 5 clinically relevant MDD patient clusters with specific mean treatment outcomes. Identification of MDD clusters may help to improve outcomes by adapting MDD treatment to particular clinical profiles. PMID:24572681

Schacht, Alexander; Gorwood, Philip; Boyce, Philip; Schaffer, Ayal; Picard, Hernan

2014-06-01

359

Cerebellar alterations and gait defects as therapeutic outcome measures for enzyme replacement therapy in ?-mannosidosis.  

PubMed

?-Mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease with accumulation of undegraded mannosyl-linked oligosaccharides in cells throughout the body, most notably in the CNS. This leads to a broad spectrum of neurological manifestations, including progressive intellectual impairment, disturbed motor functions, and cerebellar atrophy. To develop therapeutic outcome measures for enzyme replacement therapy that could be used for human patients, a gene knockout model of ?-mannosidosis in mice was analyzed for CNS pathology and motor deficits. In the cerebellar molecular layer, ?-mannosidosis mice display clusters of activated Bergman glia, infiltration of phagocytic macrophages, and accumulation of free cholesterol and gangliosides (GM1), notably in regions lacking Purkinje cells. ?-Mannosidosis brain lysates also displayed increased expression of Lamp1 and hyperglycosylation of the cholesterol binding protein NPC2. Detailed assessment of motor function revealed age-dependent gait defects in the mice that resemble the disturbed motor function in human patients. Short-term enzyme replacement therapy partially reversed the observed cerebellar pathology with fewer activated macrophages and astrocytes but unchanged levels of hyperglycosylated NPC2, gangliosides, and cholesterol. The present study demonstrates cerebellar alterations in ?-mannosidosis mice that relate to the motor deficits and pathological changes seen in human patients and can be used as therapeutic outcome measures. PMID:21157375

Damme, Markus; Stroobants, Stijn; Walkley, Steven U; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; D'Hooge, Rudi; Fogh, Jens; Saftig, Paul; Lübke, Torben; Blanz, Judith

2011-01-01

360

Content Validation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Framework in Women With Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess whether the existing National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) conceptual framework and item banks sufficiently capture the concerns of women with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods Thirty-five women with UI were recruited between February-April 2009 for 4 structured focus groups to develop and assess the content validity of a conceptual framework for the impact of UI. This framework included domains from the NIH PROMIS framework and item banks including broad domains of physical and social function and mental health. All sessions were transcribed, coded, and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using analytic induction and deductive analysis to identify new themes and domains relevant to women with UI. Results The focus groups provided information that confirmed the relevance of existing PROMIS domains and identified new outcome domains that are important to this patient population. The groups confirmed the relevance of the physical and social functioning, and mental health domains. Additional themes that emerged included the distinction between ability versus participation and satisfaction, role functioning, external mediators, re-calibration/coping, cognitive function and new possibilities. Participants also felt strongly that not all domains and items apply to all women with UI and an option to tailor questionnaires and skip non-relevant items was important. Conclusions The PROMIS framework domains are relevant to women with UI, but additional patient-important themes are identified that may improve the comprehensiveness of this assessment framework for measuring outcomes important to women with UI. These results will inform future item content development for UI.

Sung, Vivian W.; Marques, Felisha; Rogers, Rebecca R.; Williams, David A.; Myers, Deborah L.; Clark, Melissa A.

2014-01-01

361

Processes and Outcomes of Care for Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia Results From the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although understanding the processes of care and medical outcomes for patients with community- acquired pneumonia is instrumental to improving the quality and cost-effectiveness of care for this illness, lim- ited information is available on how physicians manage patients with this illness or on medical outcomes other than short-term mortality. Objectives: To describe the processes of care and to as-

Michael J. Fine; Roslyn A. Stone; Daniel E. Singer; Christopher M. Coley; Thomas J. Marrie; Judith R. Lave; Linda J. Hough; D. Scott Obrosky; Richard Schulz; Edmund M. Ricci; Joan C. Rogers; Wishwa N. Kapoor

362

Inflammatory Mediators and Glucose in Pregnancy: Results from a Subset of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study  

PubMed Central

Context: Inflammatory mediators are associated with type 2 and gestational diabetes. It is unknown whether there are associations with glucose in pregnant women with lesser degrees of hyperglycemia. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose levels and neonatal size in a subset of participants in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. Design: Eligible pregnant women underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 32 wk gestation, and levels of C-peptide, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and resistin were measured in fasting serum samples. Associations of inflammatory mediators with maternal glucose and with birth size were assessed using multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for maternal body mass index (BMI), fasting C-peptide, and other potential confounders. Results: Mean levels of adiponectin declined, and PAI-1 and CRP increased across increasing levels of maternal glucose, BMI, and C-peptide. For example, for fasting plasma glucose less than 75 mg/dl and fasting plasma glucose of 90 mg/dl or greater, adiponectin was 22.5 and 17.4 ?g/ml and PAI-1 was 30.9 and 34.2 ng/ml, respectively. Associations with 1- and 2-h plasma glucose remained significant for adiponectin (P < 0.001), PAI-1 (P < 0.05), and CRP (P < 0.01) after adjustment for BMI and C-peptide. Adiponectin and CRP were inversely associated with birth weight, sum of skinfolds and percent body fat, and PAI-1 with sum of skinfolds (all P < 0.05) after adjustment for confounders. Resistin was not associated with 1- or 2-h glucose or birth size. Conclusion: Levels of inflammatory mediators are associated with levels of maternal glucose in pregnant women without overt diabetes.

Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Lowe, William L.; Dyer, Alan R.; McDade, Thomas W.; McIntyre, H. David

2010-01-01

363

Pattern and quality of care of cancer pain management. Results from the Cancer Pain Outcome Research Study Group  

PubMed Central

Most patients with advanced or metastatic cancer experience pain and despite several guidelines, undertreatment is well documented. A multicenter, open-label, prospective, non-randomised study was launched in Italy in 2006 to evaluate the epidemiology, patterns and quality of pain care of cancer patients. To assess the adequacy of analgesic care, we used a standardised measure, the pain management index (PMI), that compares the most potent analgesic prescribed for a patient with the reported level of the worst pain of that patient together with a selected list of clinical indicators. A total of 110 centres recruited 1801 valid cases. 61% of cases were received a WHO-level III opioid; 25.3% were classified as potentially undertreated, with wide variation (9.8–55.3%) according to the variables describing patients, centres and pattern of care. After adjustment with a multivariable logistic regression model, type of recruiting centre, receiving adjuvant therapy or not and type of patient recruited (new or already on follow-up) had a significant association with undertreatment. Non-compliance with the predefined set of clinical indicators was generally high, ranging from 41 to 76%. Despite intrinsic limitations of the PMI that may be considered as an indicator of the poor quality of cancer pain care, results suggest that the recourse to WHO third-level drugs still seems delayed in a substantial percentage of patients. This delay is probably related to several factors affecting practice in participating centres and suggests that the quality of cancer pain management in Italy deserves specific attention and interventions aimed at improving patients' outcomes.

Apolone, G; Corli, O; Caraceni, A; Negri, E; Deandrea, S; Montanari, M; Greco, M T

2009-01-01

364

Moderate energy restriction with high protein diet results in healthier outcome in women  

PubMed Central

Background The present study compares two different weight reduction regimens both with a moderately high protein intake on body composition, serum hormone concentration and strength performance in non-competitive female athletes. Methods Fifteen normal weighted women involved in recreational resistance training and aerobic training were recruited for the study (age 28.5 ± 6.3 yr, height 167.0 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 66.3 ± 4.2 kg, body mass index 23.8 ± 1.8, mean ± SD). They were randomized into two groups. The 1 KG group (n = 8; energy deficit 1100 kcal/day) was supervised to reduce body weight by 1 kg per week and the 0.5 KG group (n = 7; energy deficit 550 kcal/day) by 0.5 kg per week, respectively. In both groups protein intake was kept at least 1.4 g/kg body weight/day and the weight reduction lasted four weeks. At the beginning of the study the energy need was calculated using food and training diaries. The same measurements were done before and after the 4-week weight reduction period including total body composition (DXA), serum hormone concentrations, jumping ability and strength measurements Results During the 4-week weight reduction period there were no changes in lean body mass and bone mass, but total body mass, fat mass and fat percentage decreased significantly in both groups. The changes were greater in the 1 KG group than in the 0.5 KG group in total body mass (p < 0.001), fat mass (p < 0.001) and fat percentage (p < 0.01). Serum testosterone concentration decreased significantly from 1.8 ± 1.0 to 1.4 ± 0.9 nmol/l (p < 0.01) in 1 KG and the change was greater in 1 KG (30%, p < 0.001) than in 0.5 KG (3%). On the other hand, SHBG increased significantly in 1 KG from 63.4 ± 17.7 to 82.4 ± 33.0 nmol/l (p < 0.05) during the weight reducing regimen. After the 4-week period there were no changes in strength performance in 0.5 KG group, however in 1 KG maximal strength in bench press decreased (p < 0.05) while endurance strength in squat and counter movement jump improved (p < 0.05) Conclusion It is concluded that a weight reduction by 0.5 kg per week with ~1.4 g protein/kg body weight/day can be recommended to normal weighted, physically active women instead of a larger (e.g. 1 kg per week) weight reduction because the latter may lead to a catabolic state. Vertical jumping performance is improved when fat mass and body weight decrease. Thus a moderate weight reduction prior to a major event could be considered beneficial for normal built athletes in jumping events.

2010-01-01

365

An introduction to item response theory for patient-reported outcome measurement.  

PubMed

The growing emphasis on patient-centered care has accelerated the demand for high-quality data from patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Traditionally, the development and validation of these measures has been guided by classical test theory. However, item response theory (IRT), an alternate measurement framework, offers promise for addressing practical measurement problems found in health-related research that have been difficult to solve through classical methods. This paper introduces foundational concepts in IRT, as well as commonly used models and their assumptions. Existing data on a combined sample (n = 636) of Korean American and Vietnamese American adults who responded to the High Blood Pressure Health Literacy Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 are used to exemplify typical applications of IRT. These examples illustrate how IRT can be used to improve the development, refinement, and evaluation of PRO measures. Greater use of methods based on this framework can increase the accuracy and efficiency with which PROs are measured. PMID:24403095

Nguyen, Tam H; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T; Chan, Kitty S

2014-01-01

366

Longitudinal Penalized Functional Regression for Cognitive Outcomes on Neuronal Tract Measurements.  

PubMed

We describe and analyze a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study relating changes in the microstructure of intracranial white matter tracts to cognitive disability in multiple sclerosis patients. In this application the scalar outcome and the functional exposure are measured longitudinally. This data structure is new and raises challenges that cannot be addressed with current methods and software. To analyze the data, we introduce a penalized functional regression model and inferential tools designed specifically for these emerging types of data. Our proposed model extends the Generalized Linear Mixed Model by adding functional predictors; this method is computationally feasible and is applicable when the functional predictors are measured densely, sparsely or with error. An online appendix compares two implementations, one likelihood-based and the other Bayesian, and provides the software used in simulations; the likelihood-based implementation is included as the lpfr() function in the R package refund available on CRAN. PMID:22679339

Goldsmith, Jeff; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Caffo, Brian; Reich, Daniel

2012-05-01

367

A performance measure for continuity of care after detoxification: Relationship with outcomes.  

PubMed

Administrative data from five states were used to examine whether continuity of specialty substance abuse treatment after detoxification predicts outcomes. We examined the influence of a 14-day continuity of care process measure on readmissions. Across multiple states, there was support that clients who received treatment for substance use disorders within 14-days after discharge from detoxification were less likely to be readmitted to detoxification. This was particularly true for reducing readmissions to another detoxification that was not followed with treatment and when continuity of care was in residential treatment. Continuity of care in outpatient treatment was related to a reduction in readmissions in some states, but not as often as when continuity of care occurred in residential treatment. A performance measure for continuity of care after detoxification is a useful tool to help providers monitor quality of care delivered and to alert them when improvement is needed. PMID:24912862

Lee, Margaret T; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Acevedo, Andrea; Panas, Lee; Ritter, Grant A; Dunigan, Robert; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Bidorini, Alfred; Campbell, Kevin; Haberlin, Karin; Huber, Alice; Lambert-Wacey, Dawn; Leeper, Tracy; Reynolds, Mark

2014-08-01

368

Ovarian failure and reproductive outcomes after childhood cancer treatment: results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.  

PubMed

These studies were undertaken to determine the effect, if any, of treatment for cancer diagnosed during childhood or adolescence on ovarian function and reproductive outcomes. We reviewed the frequency of acute ovarian failure, premature menopause, live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous and therapeutic abortion and birth defects in the participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Acute ovarian failure (AOF) occurred in 6.3% of eligible survivors. Exposure of the ovaries to high-dose radiation (especially over 10 Gy), alkylating agents and procarbazine, at older ages, were significant risk factors for AOF. Premature nonsurgical menopause (PM) occurred in 8% of participants versus 0.8% of siblings (rate ratio = 13.21; 95% CI, 3.26 to 53.51; P < .001). Risk factors for PM included attained age, exposure to increasing doses of radiation to the ovaries, increasing alkylating agent score, and a diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma. One thousand two hundred twenty-seven male survivors reported they sired 2,323 pregnancies, and 1,915 female survivors reported 4,029 pregnancies. Offspring of women who received uterine radiation doses of more than 5 Gy were more likely to be small for gestational age (birthweight < 10 percentile for gestational age; 18.2% v 7.8%; odds ratio = 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6 to 9.8; P = .003). There were no differences in the proportion of offspring with simple malformations, cytogenetic syndromes, or single-gene defects. These studies demonstrated that women treated with pelvic irradiation and/or increasing alkylating agent doses were at risk for acute ovarian failure, premature menopause, and small-for-gestational-age offspring. There was no evidence for an increased risk of congenital malformations. Survivors should be generally reassured although some women have to consider their potentially shortened fertile life span in making educational and career choices. PMID:19364956

Green, Daniel M; Sklar, Charles A; Boice, John D; Mulvihill, John J; Whitton, John A; Stovall, Marilyn; Yasui, Yutaka

2009-05-10

369

Assessing stability and change of four performance measures: a longitudinal study evaluating outcome following total hip and knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physical performance measures play an important role in the measurement of outcome in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty. However, many of the commonly used measures lack information on their psychometric properties in this population. The purposes of this study were to examine the reliability and sensitivity to change of the six minute walk test (6MWT), timed up and

Deborah M Kennedy; Paul W Stratford; Jean Wessel; Jeffrey D Gollish; Dianne Penney

2005-01-01

370

Application of the National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(R)) to Mental Health Research  

PubMed Central

Background The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a National Institutes of Health initiative to develop item banks measuring patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and to create and make available a computerized adaptive testing system (CAT) that allows for efficient and precise assessment of PROs in clinical research and practice. Aims of the Study Based on the presentation from a symposium on “Evidence-based Outcomes in Psychiatry: Updates on Measurement Using Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO)” at the 2011 American Psychiatry Association Convention, this paper provides an overview of PROMIS and its application to mental health research. Methods The PROMIS methodology for item bank development and testing is described, with a focus on the implications of this work for mental health research. Results Utilizing qualitative item review and state-of-the-art applications of item response theory (IRT), PROMIS investigators have developed, tested, and released item banks measuring physical, mental, and social health components. Ongoing efforts continue to add new item banks and further validate existing banks. Discussion PROMIS provides item banks measuring several domains of interest to mental health researchers including emotional distress, social function, and sleep. PROMIS methodology also provides a rigorous standard for the development of new mental health measures. Implications for Health Care Provision Web-based CAT or administration of short forms derived from PROMIS item banks provide efficient and precise dimensional estimates of clinical outcomes that can be utilized to monitor patient progress and assess quality improvement. Implications for Future Research Use of the dimensional PROMIS metrics (and co-calibration of the PROMIS item banks with existing PROs) will allow comparisons of mental health and related health outcomes across disorders and studies.

Riley, William T.; Pilkonis, Paul; Cella, David

2013-01-01

371

Adolescent Outcome Measures in the NLSY97 Family Process Data Set: Variation by Race and Socioeconomic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 to analyze adolescent outcome indexes (delinquency, substance use, and emotional and behavior problems) by gender, race, household income, and family structure. Results from analysis of variance show that family structure is correlated with better adolescent outcomes, even after controlling for gender, race, and household income. For

Erin K. Holmes; Hinckley A. Jones-Sanpei; Randal D. Day

2009-01-01

372

Beyond FEV1 in COPD: a review of patient-reported outcomes and their measurement  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present with a variety of symptoms and pathological consequences. Although primarily viewed as a respiratory disease, COPD has both pulmonary and extrapulmonary effects, which have an impact on many aspects of physical, emotional, and mental well-being. Traditional assessment of COPD relies heavily on measuring lung function, specifically forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). However, the evidence suggests that FEV1 is a relatively poor correlate of symptoms such as breathlessness and the impact of COPD on daily life. Furthermore, many consequences of the disease, including anxiety and depression and the ability to perform daily activities, can only be described and reported reliably by the patient. Thus, in order to provide a comprehensive view of the effects of interventions in clinical trials, it is essential that spirometry is accompanied by assessments using patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. We provide an overview of patient-reported outcome concepts in COPD, such as breathlessness, physical functioning, and health status, and evaluate the tools used for measuring these concepts. Particular attention is given to the newly developed instruments emerging in response to recent regulatory guidelines for the development and use of PROs in clinical trials. We conclude that although data from the development and validation of these new PRO instruments are emerging, to build the body of evidence that supports the use of a new instrument takes many years. Furthermore, new instruments do not necessarily have better discriminative or evaluative properties than older instruments. The development of new PRO tools, however, is crucial, not only to ensure that key COPD concepts are being reliably measured but also that the relevant treatment effects are being captured in clinical trials. In turn, this will help us to understand better the patient’s experience of the disease.

Jones, Paul; Miravitlles, Marc; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly

2012-01-01

373

Evaluation of Non Diseased Specified Outcome Measures in Hand Injuries to Assess Activity and Participation Based on ICF Content.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to provide information about non disease specified outcome measures which evaluate disability in patients who have impairments in hand and upper extremity and to find the extent to which they are evaluating "disability" based on ICF hand Core Set (activity limitation and participation restriction). MEDLINE, CINAHL, GOOGLE SCHOLAR , OVID and SCIENCE DIRECT databases were systematically searched for studies on non disease specified outcome measures used to evaluate upper extremity function; only studies written in English were considered. We reviewed titles and abstracts of the identified studies to determine whether the studies met predefined eligibility criteria (eg, non disease specified out come measures used in hand injured patients). All the outcome measures which had eligibility included. After full text review ,7 non disease specified outcome measures in hand were identified. Studies were extracted, and the information retrieved from them. All the outcome measures which had incuded, were linked with ICF hand core set disability part (activity and participation). All of them only linked to 16 (42 %) components of ICF hand Core Set, which were most activity and less participation from ICF. None of the non disease specified out come measures in hand injuries cover all domains of disability from the ICF Hand Core Set. PMID:24876687

Farzad, Maryam; Layeghi, Fereydoun; Asgari, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rassafiani, Mehdi

2014-06-01

374

Preliminary results of ground reflectivity measurements using noise radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes experimental L-band ground reflectivity measurement using noise radar demonstrator working as a scatterometer. The radar ground return is usually described with a scattering coefficient, a quantity that is independent from the scatterometer system. To calculate the coefficient in a function of incidence angle, range profile values obtained after range compression were used. In order to improve dynamic range of the measurement, antenna cross-path interference was removed using lattice filter. The ground return was measured at L band both for HH and VV polarizations of radar wave as well as for HV and VH crosspolarizations using log-periodic antennas placed at a 10 m high mast directed towards a meadow surface. In the paper the theoretical considerations, noise radar setup, measurement campaign and the results are described.

Ma?likowski, ?ukasz; Krysik, Piotr; D?browska-Zieli?ska, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Wanda; Bartold, Maciej

2011-06-01

375

University objectives and socioeconomic results: A multicriteria measuring of alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universities develop technology transfer mechanisms as the tools required to undertake missions committed to the socioeconomic environment. In this work a new proposal to measure the extent to which the goals or strategic objectives of a university are aligned with the results obtained through its technology transfer mechanisms with the local community is presented. This will enable to perform a

Félix Antonio Cortés-aldana; Mónica García-melón; Ignacio Fernández-de-lucio; Pablo Aragonés-beltrán; Rocío Poveda-bautista

2009-01-01

376

Measuring Family Outcomes Early Intervention: Findings from a Large-Scale Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports data from a large-scale assessment using the Family Outcomes Survey with families participating in early intervention. The study was designed to determine how families describe themselves with regard to outcomes achieved, the extent to which outcomes are interrelated, and the extent to which child, family, and program factors…

Raspa, Melissa; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Olmsted, Murrey G.; Nelson, Robin; Robinson, Nyle; Simpson, Mary Ellen; Guillen, Chelsea; Houts, Renate

2010-01-01

377

DWPF STARTUP FRIT VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT ROUND ROBIN RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

A viscosity standard is needed to replace the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) glasses currently being used to calibrate viscosity measurement equipment. The current NIST glasses are either unavailable or less than ideal for calibrating equipment to measure the viscosity of high-level waste glasses. This report documents the results of a viscosity round robin study conducted on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) startup frit. DWPF startup frit was selected because its viscosity-temperature relationship is similar to most DWPF and Hanford high-level waste glass compositions. The glass underwent grinding and blending to homogenize the large (100 lb) batch. Portions of the batch were supplied to the laboratories (named A through H) for viscosity measurements following a specified temperature schedule with a temperature range of 1150 C to 950 C and with an option to measure viscosity at lower temperatures if their equipment was capable of measuring at the higher viscosities. Results were used to fit the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher and Arrhenius equations to viscosity as a function of temperature for the entire temperature range of 460 C through 1250 C as well as the limited temperature interval of approximately 950 C through 1250 C. The standard errors for confidence and prediction were determined for the fitted models.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Russell, Renee L.; Workman, Phyllis J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Smith, Donald E.; Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.

2012-07-31

378

The economics of mitigation and remediation measures - preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today there exists a high spatial density of orbital debris objects at about 800 km altitude. The control of the debris population in this region is important for the long-term evolution of the debris environment. The future debris population is investigated by simulations using the software tool LUCA (Long-Term Orbit Utilization Collision Analysis). It is likely that in the future there will occur more catastrophic collisions. Debris objects generated during such events may again trigger further catastrophic collisions. Current simulations have revealed that the number of debris objects will increase in the future. In a long-term perspective, catastrophic collisions may become the dominating mechanism in generating orbital debris. In this study it is investigated, when the situation will become unstable. To prevent this instability it is necessary to implement mitigation and maybe even remediation measures. It is investigated how these measures affect the future debris environment. It is simulated if the growth of the number of debris objects can be interrupted and how much this may cost. Different mitigation scenarios are considered. Furthermore also one remediation measure, the active removal of high-risk objects, is simulated. Cost drivers for the different measures are identified. It is investigated how selected measures are associated with costs. The goal is to find out which economic benefits may result from mitigation or remediation. First results of a cost benefit analyses are presented.

Wiedemann, Carsten; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Vörsmann, Peter; Gelhaus, Johannes; Moeckel, Marek; Braun, Vitali; Kebschull, Christopher; Metz, Manuel

2012-07-01

379

Total knee arthroplasty in younger patients evaluated by alternative outcome measures.  

PubMed

In this prospective multicenter study we included subjects younger than 60 years of age and scheduled for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The study assessed patients' overall satisfaction, fulfillment of preoperative expectations, the effect on socioeconomic parameters, and quality of sexual life. Questionnaires including Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and SF-36 were evaluated preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. OKS and SF-36 showed significant improvements. However, patient satisfaction and fulfillment of personal expectations did not reflect these scores. Overall, TKA did not affect the patients' socioeconomic status, and overall, patients did not experience impairment of sexual life, but decreased frequency and negative affection of sexual practice should be anticipated. Alternative outcome measurements of TKA surgery not focusing on implants and surgical techniques shed new light on important consequences of arthroplasty surgery. PMID:24269097

Klit, Jakob; Jacobsen, Steffen; Rosenlund, Signe; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Troelsen, Anders

2014-05-01

380

Patient-reported outcome measures: an on-line system empowering patient choice.  

PubMed

An innovative web-based system was developed to allow patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to be easily administered. Stakeholders guided the design and implementation. The software gives patients access to their current and previous scores. This pilot study focused on patients undergoing arthroscopic subacromial decompression, evaluated using the Oxford shoulder score (OSS). Patients showing good improvement in their OSS were offered the choice to return for routine follow-up clinic appointments, or continue rehabilitation, reassured by their improved score. Thirty-six of 117 patients were eligible. Thirty of these (83%) were opted to avoid further clinics. PROMs 2.0 can be used for any medical intervention with a validated PROM. Evolution and refinement is ongoing. Funding has been granted for 12 primary and secondary healthcare trusts to implement PROMs 2.0. Further work is needed to assess economic impact, patient views and satisfaction with the process. PMID:24013090

Wilson, J; Arshad, F; Nnamoko, N; Whiteman, A; Ring, J; Roy, B

2014-07-01