Science.gov

Sample records for outer space testing

  1. Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joohyung; Lee, Keunwoo; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Jang, Heesuk; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Kyung-In; Lim, Chul-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We report a test operation of an Er-doped fibre femtosecond laser which was conducted for the first time in outer space. The fibre-based ultrashort pulse laser payload was designed to meet space-use requirements, undergone through ground qualification tests and finally launched into a low-earth orbit early in 2013. Test results obtained during a one-year mission lifetime confirmed stable mode-locking all the way through although the radiation induced attenuation (RIA) in the Er-doped gain fibre caused an 8.6% reduction in the output power. This successful test operation would help facilitate diverse scientific and technological applications of femtosecond lasers in space and earth atmosphere in the near future. PMID:24875665

  2. Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohyung; Lee, Keunwoo; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Jang, Heesuk; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Kyung-In; Lim, Chul-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-05-01

    We report a test operation of an Er-doped fibre femtosecond laser which was conducted for the first time in outer space. The fibre-based ultrashort pulse laser payload was designed to meet space-use requirements, undergone through ground qualification tests and finally launched into a low-earth orbit early in 2013. Test results obtained during a one-year mission lifetime confirmed stable mode-locking all the way through although the radiation induced attenuation (RIA) in the Er-doped gain fibre caused an 8.6% reduction in the output power. This successful test operation would help facilitate diverse scientific and technological applications of femtosecond lasers in space and earth atmosphere in the near future.

  3. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were badly abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub -layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This Paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, and shares the results and conclusions of the testing.

  4. Abrasion Testing of Candidate Outer Layer Fabrics for Lunar EVA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo program, the space suit outer layer fabrics were severely abraded after just a few Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). For example, the Apollo 12 commander reported abrasive wear on the boots, which penetrated the outer layer fabric into the thermal protection layers after less than eight hours of surface operations. Current plans for the Constellation Space Suit Element require the space suits to support hundreds of hours of EVA on the Lunar surface, creating a challenge for space suit designers to utilize materials advances made over the last forty years and improve upon the space suit fabrics used in the Apollo program. A test methodology has been developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division for establishing comparative abrasion wear characteristics between various candidate space suit outer layer fabrics. The abrasion test method incorporates a large rotary drum tumbler with rocks and loose lunar simulant material to induce abrasion in fabric test cylinder elements, representative of what might occur during long term planetary surface EVAs. Preliminary materials screening activities were conducted to determine the degree of wear on representative space suit outer layer materials and the corresponding dust permeation encountered between subsequent sub-layers of thermal protective materials when exposed to a simulated worst case eight hour EVA. The test method was used to provide a preliminary evaluation of four candidate outer layer fabrics for future planetary surface space suit applications. This paper provides a review of previous abrasion studies on space suit fabrics, details the methodologies used for abrasion testing in this particular study, shares the results of the testing, and provides recommendations for future work.

  5. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  6. Welcome to Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This video gives a brief history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, current missions and what the future may hold. Scenes includes various planets in the solar system, robotic exploration of space, discussions on the Hubble Space Telescope, the source of life, and solar winds. This video was narrated by Jodie Foster. Animations include: close-up image of the Moon; close-up images of the surface of Mars; robotic exploration of Mars; the first mapping assignment of Mars; animated views of Jupiter; animated views of Saturn; and views of a Giant Storm on Neptune called the Great Dark Spot.

  7. Astroparticles: Messengers from Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiati, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Since Galileo pointed a spyglass toward the sky, 400 years ago, observations empowered by man-made instrumentation have provided us with an enormous leap in the knowledge of how the Universe functions. More and more powerful optical telescopes made it possible for us to reach the farthest corners of space. At the same time, the advances in microphysics and the discovery of the electromagnetic spectrum, made it possible to directly look at the Universe in a way that our eyes cannot see. The discoveries of the intimate structure of matter, of subatomic particles and of how they interact with each other, have led astronomers to use the smallest objects in Nature to observe the farthest reaches of the otherwise invisible Universe. Not unlike Galileo, today we observe Outer Space with visible light and beyond, across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from long wavelength radio waves to short wavelength gamma rays. But also with instruments detecting cosmic rays (the atomic nuclei we know on Earth) neutrinos (neutral subatomic particles that interact very weakly with matter) and gravitational waves (perturbations of spacetime predicted by General Relativity). Each cosmic messenger provides us with a unique piece of information about their source and the history of their journey to us. Modern astrophysics has the challenging goal to collect as much information as possible from all those messengers, to reconstruct the story of the Universe and how it became what it is today. This journey started with the unsettling discovery that we are only one minuscule dot in the immensity of the Universe and yet we are able to observe objects that are far in space and time. This journey is yet to complete its course, and the more we advance our knowledge, the more we need to understand. This interdisciplinary talk provides an overview of this journey and the future perspectives.

  8. Design Of Robots For Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roston, Gerald P.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses design of robots for use in zero gravity and vacuum, with attention to differences between requirements imposed on designs by outer space and by terrestrial applications. Terrestrial robots designed for multiple purposes and for minimal cost. Outer-space robots designed specialized to one task where cost has relatively low priority. Design optimal in one environment unlikely optimal in another.

  9. Outer Space is not Empty Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Pratap, P.; Riegel, R.

    2004-12-01

    Outer Space Is Not Empty Space is a learning unit that focuses on increasing comprehension of Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics, Physical Science, and Earth & Space science. It was designed as a self paced study with some teacher oversight. The unit was a result of an NSF funded Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The educational vehicle used in the unit is the Web Quest which consists of several Power Point presentations within four main topics in Radio Astronomy: Introduction, Light, Matter, and the Atmosphere. These Web Quests are a self paced series of educational materials that encourages the student to learn on his or her own. They consist of informational web sites placed within a Power Point presentation. They are not designed to be teacher classroom presentations since the paths taken by the student in the Power Points are nonlinear. Each Power Point presentations comes with an assessment to evaluate the students' understanding of the material. One of the goals of this learning unit is to encourage teacher and student use of two unique learning opportunities: the Small Radio Telescope (SRT) and remote use of the Haystack 37m Radio Telescope. The SRT was designed by engineers and scientists at M.I.T.s Haystack Observatory specifically for student use at the University or Secondary School level. The 37-m telescope is available via remote operation for educational projects. Descriptions of both instruments can be found at the MIT Haystack Observatory web site:

  10. Assembly Platform For Use In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Niranjan S.; Buddington, Patricia A.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes conceptual platform or framework for use in assembling other structures and spacecraft in outer space. Consists of three fixed structural beams comprising central beam and two cross beams. Robotic manipulators spaced apart on platform to provide telerobotic operation of platform by either space-station or ground crews. Platform and attached vehicles function synergistically to achieve maximum performance for intended purposes.

  11. Simulating Scenes In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Multimission Interactive Picture Planner, MIP, computer program for scientifically accurate and fast, three-dimensional animation of scenes in deep space. Versatile, reasonably comprehensive, and portable, and runs on microcomputers. New techniques developed to perform rapidly calculations and transformations necessary to animate scenes in scientifically accurate three-dimensional space. Written in FORTRAN 77 code. Primarily designed to handle Voyager, Galileo, and Space Telescope. Adapted to handle other missions.

  12. The processing of materials in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Colling, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Zero-gravity environment may lead to fabrication of new and improved materials. According to comprehensive study of application of this promising technology to superconducting and electrical contact materials, outer space processing could improve microstructure and homogeneity of many single and multicomponent systems formed from solidification of fluid phases. New structures that are impossible to form terrestrially may also be accessible in space environment.

  13. Chicago Meets Outer Space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The symposium included personal appearances by NASA astronauts, NASA exhibits, souvenir photos for each student attending the symposium, live demonstrations of how the Communication Technology Satellite links the U. S. with people around the world, and talks on job opportunities in aerospace and on the benefits of space. Monday through Friday, the program was directed mainly at (public, parochial and private) student groups, each of which spent a half day on the CSU campus to participate in the symposium activities. On Saturday and Sunday, the symposium was open to the general public and consisted of the NASA exhibits, films, a shorter version of the lectures and a special demonstration and tasting opportunity of space food meal systems. These quick meal systems that were designed for senior citizens.

  14. Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Gennady P.

    2002-01-01

    9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover

  15. Outer planet probe engineering model structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smittkamp, J. A.; Gustin, W. H.; Griffin, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A series of proof of concept structural tests was performed on an engineering model of the Outer Planets Atmospheric Entry Probe. The tests consisted of pyrotechnic shock, dynamic and static loadings. The tests partially verified the structural concept.

  16. Dishwasher For Earth Or Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tromble, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Dishwashing machine cleans eating utensils in either Earth gravity or zero gravity of outer space. Cycle consists of three phases: filling, washing, and draining. Rotation of tub creates artificial gravity aiding recirculation of water during washing phase in absence of true gravity. Centrifugal air/water separator helps system function in zero gravity. Self-cleaning filter contains interdigitating blades catching solid debris when water flows between them. Later, blades moved back and forth in scissor-like manner to dislodge debris, removed by backflow of water.

  17. Nuclear Electric Propulsion for Outer Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Today we know of 66 moons in our very own Solar System, and many of these have atmospheres and oceans. In addition, the Hubble (optical) Space Telescope has helped us to discover a total of 100 extra-solar planets, i.e., planets going around other suns, including several solar systems. The Chandra (X-ray) Space Telescope has helped us to discover 33 Black Holes. There are some extremely fascinating things out there in our Universe to explore. In order to travel greater distances into our Universe, and to reach planetary bodies in our Solar System in much less time, new and innovative space propulsion systems must be developed. To this end NASA has created the Prometheus Program. When one considers space missions to the outer edges of our Solar System and far beyond, our Sun cannot be relied on to produce the required spacecraft (s/c) power. Solar energy diminishes as the square of the distance from the Sun. At Mars it is only 43% of that at Earth. At Jupiter, it falls off to only 3.6% of Earth's. By the time we get out to Pluto, solar energy is only .066% what it is on Earth. Therefore, beyond the orbit of Mars, it is not practical to depend on solar power for a s/c. However, the farther out we go the more power we need to heat the s/c and to transmit data back to Earth over the long distances. On Earth, knowledge is power. In the outer Solar System, power is knowledge. It is important that the public be made aware of the tremendous space benefits offered by Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and the minimal risk it poses to our environment. This paper presents an overview of the reasons for NEP systems, along with their basic components including the reactor, power conversion units (both static and dynamic), electric thrusters, and the launch safety of the NEP system.

  18. Fabrication of Spherical Reflectors in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu; Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Serivens, Wally

    2005-01-01

    A process is proposed for fabrication of lightweight spherical reflectors in outer space for telescopes, radio antennas, and light collectors that would be operated there. The process would obviate the relatively massive substrates and frames needed to support such reflectors in normal Earth gravitation. According to the proposal, fabrication of a reflector would begin with blowing of a bubble to the specified reflector radius. Taking advantage of the outer-space vacuum as a suitable environment for evaporative deposition of metal, a metal-evaporation source would be turned on and moved around the bubble to deposit a reflective metal film over the specified reflector area to a thickness of several microns. Then the source would be moved and aimed to deposit more metal around the edge of the reflector area, increasing the thickness there to approximately equal to 100 micron to form a frame. Then the bubble would be deflated and peeled off the metal, leaving a thin-film spherical mirror having an integral frame. The mirror would then be mounted for use. The feasibility of this technology has been proved by fabricating a prototype at JPL. As shown in the figure, a 2-in. (.5-cm) diameter hemispherical prototype reflector was made from a polymer bubble coated with silver, forming a very smooth surface.

  19. Long-Lived Glass Mirrors For Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.; Heggen, Philip M.

    1988-01-01

    Paper summarizes available knowledge about glass mirrors for use in outer space. Strengths and weaknesses of various types of first and second reflective surfaces identified. Second-surface glass mirrors used in outer space designed to different criteria more stringent for terrestrial mirrors. Protons, electrons, cosmic rays, meteorites, and orbiting space debris affect longevities of components. Contamination also factor in space.

  20. Legal Implications of Military Uses of Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catena, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    -fuelled rocket. Goddard's work coincided with the work of a German scientist Werner Von Braun, (1912-77) who designed the V1 and V2 rocket. The V2 was the first intercontinental ballistic missile. Compared to the V1, the V2 could carry a heavier payload and the range was much longer. Von Braun had originally sketched his ideas to the Germans, that the V2 was an effective design for space travel and it was rejected. After the war the V2 became the foundation to many new technologies and these modifications marked the beginning of the space race. This competition led to space travel, taking men to the moon using the Saturn V rocket, robotic missions to the planets, and into tactical nuclear missiles (Redstone). This also marked the future for such dual-purpose technologies (i.e. military and/or civilian use) and more interestingly it took the design of weapons for space travel to be taken seriously. Arthur C Clarke commented on the possibilities of placing weapons in outer space, `the only defence against the weapons of the future is to prevent them ever being used. The problem is political and not military at all.' Ambassador Peter Jankowitsch, quoting Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in his opening address to COPUOS in Austria 1978, `we must make sure that outer space can be spared the fate of so many human discoveries of previous ages, namely becoming a mere battlefield.' These statements may be analysed by applying the United Nations Charter alongside other international treaties, such as the Outer Space Treaty 1967, the Test Ban Treaty 1963 and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in conjunction with the new Agreement signed by Russian and the USA. This may assist to highlight and conclude where problems reside whether political, legal, military, or a combination; and the impact for international peace and security.

  1. Nuclear power sources in outer space. [spacecraft propulsion legal aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    Legal problems associated with nuclear power sources in space are discussed with particular reference to the Cosmos 954 incident. Deliberations of the Legal and Scientific and Technical Subcommittees on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on this subject are discussed.

  2. Outer planet spacecraft temperature testing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Avila, A.

    2002-01-01

    Unmanned spacecraft flown on missions to the outer planets of the solar system have included flybys, planetary orbiters, and atmospheric probes during the last three decades. The thermal design, test, and analysis approach applied to these spacecraft evolved from the passive thermal designs applied to the earlier lunar and interplanetary spacecraft. The inflight temperature data from representative sets of engineering subsystems and science instruments from a subset of these spacecraft are compared to those obtained during the ground test programs and from the prelaunch predictions. Several lessons are presented with specific recommendations for considerations for new projects to aid in the planning of cost effective temperature design, test, and analysis programs.

  3. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.

    2004-02-12

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container.

  4. Spend a Day in Outer Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama as stimulating experience for students in aerospace education. The center has the largest collection of space-age hardware assembled under one roof, a Space Flight simulator, a Skylab space station mock-up and many more interesting exhibits. (BR)

  5. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  6. Epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin-film epitaxial growth. The unique LEO space environment is expected to yield 10-ftorr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and throughput of epitaxially grown materials, including semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin-film high-temperature superconductors.

  7. [Experiments with fungi in outer space].

    PubMed

    Volz, P A

    1989-01-01

    After fungal experiments in Apollo flights ground-based mycological studies were performed to measure quantitatively the effects of different space flight factors on cell viability and to identify qualitative changes. Postflight studies helped to better understand space flight effects at the cellular level and to gain a deeper insight into biology of unicellular organisms. PMID:2685463

  8. Homesteading and the creation of property rights in outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheraga, Joel D.

    1986-08-01

    The rapid proliferation of space travel has made the colonization of space and the exploitation of its scarce resources imminent. The development of scarce resources in space has raised serious legal, political and economic questions that must soon be resolved if countries are to coexist peacefully in outer space. This paper examines the problem of defining property rights in outer space. Private property does not yet exist in space. This failure to establish property rights is critical because the scarcity of resources in the absence of ownership will inevitably lead to problems of congestion, inefficiency, and socially undesirable outcomes. A program of homesteading, combined with a competitive bidding system, is presented as an efficient and equitable means of distributing resources in space. The international debate over alternative schemes for allocating resources in space provides an opportunity for students to see the interaction of diverse but related disciplines in the liberal arts.

  9. Assessment of Identity Status in College Women Using Outer Space and Inner Space Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Linda B.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the validity of two approaches to the assessment of female identity status: the standard Outer Space interview used with males, and an Inner Space interview specifically developed for females. Found that, contrary to Erikson's theory, college women form their identities around Outer Space as well as Inner Space issues. (Author/GC)

  10. Dysbiosis and Immune Dysregulation in Outer Space.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Jorge L; Hong, Bo-Young

    2016-01-01

    In space, the lifestyle, relative sterility of spaceship and extreme environmental stresses, such as microgravity and cosmic radiation, can compromise the balance between human body and human microbiome. An astronaut's body during spaceflight encounters increased risk for microbial infections and conditions because of immune dysregulation and altered microbiome, i.e. dysbiosis. This risk is further heightened by increase in virulence of pathogens in microgravity. Health status of astronauts might potentially benefit from maintaining a healthy microbiome by specifically managing their diet on space in addition to probiotic therapies. This review focuses on the current knowledge/understanding of how spaceflight affects human immunity and microbiome. PMID:25970037

  11. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  12. Advanced space storable propellants for outer planet exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Guernsey, Carl S.; Baker, Raymond S.; Miyake, Robert N.

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and mission performance benefits of using advanced space storable propellants for outer planet exploration was performed. For the purpose of this study, space storable propellants are defined to be propellants which can be passively stored without the need for active cooling.

  13. Regimes for the ocean, outer space, and weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S.; Cornell, N. W.; Fabian, L. L.; Weiss, E. B.

    1977-01-01

    The allocation of resources among users of the oceans, outer space and the weather is discussed. Attention is given to the international management of maritime navigation, the control of fisheries, offshore oil and gas exploitation, mineral exploitation in the deep seabed (especially the mining of manganese nodules), and the regulation of oceanographic studies. The management of outer space is considered, with special reference to remote sensing by satellites, television broadcasting, the technical requirements of maritime satellites, and problems associated with satellite frequency and orbit allocation. Rainmaking and typhoon modification, as well as the distribution of weather modification capabilities in the world, are also mentioned. The United Nations, international agencies and tribunals, and multi- or bilateral agreements are some of the implements suggested for use in the regulation of the oceans, outer space and the weather.

  14. Delimitation of air space and outer space - Is such a boundary needed now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the question of establishing a boundary between air space and outer space. Four theories and approaches for establishing a delimitation between air space and outer space are examined. Spatial approaches include demarcation based on the division of the atmosphere into layers, demarcation based on aerodynamic characteristics of flight instrumentalities (von Karman Line), demarcation according to the lowest perigee of an orbiting satellite, and demarcation based upon the earth's gravitational effects. The functionalist approach is based on the delimitation or definition of the air space/outer space regime by the purpose and activities for which an object is designed in air space or outer space. The arbitrarist approach is supported by those who wish to draw an arbitrary line between air space and outer space. It is proposed that a pragmatist approach will be more useful than the other three approaches. The pragmatist approach advocates not establishing a boundary between air space and outer space at the present time or in the immediate future. It is argued that there are at present no serious problems that can be resolved by the definition/delimitation of air space and outer space.

  15. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temiz, B. K.; Yavuz, A.

    2014-07-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface.

  16. Protection of celestial environments and the law of outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennen, Leslie; Race, Margaret

    The law of outer space expressly addresses the matter of preservation and protection of natural celestial environments from harmful contamination and disruption by mankind in the explo-ration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. The Outer Space Treaty, however, does not prohibit all human impact to an extraterrestrial environment, but rather permits a wide range of activities that could have significant environmental ramifications. This legal regime may be in conflict with the interests of preserving celestial environments for scientific research, especially when considered in relation to activities conducted for commercial purposes. Nevertheless, the Moon Agreement provides a mechanism by which special protective measures can be implemented to protect particular areas of the moon and other celestial bodies for scientific investigation. This paper examines the current status of the law of outer space vis-a-vis the protection and preservation of natural celestial environments. Particular emphasis is placed on the policies on which the legal obligations are based, together with consideration of the non-appropriation principle, and the commercial use of lunar and other celestial resources and areas. In addition, the concepts of international scientific preserves, special regions, keep out zones, and planetary parks are compared and evaluated as potential means to limit the disturbance to celestial environments caused by the activities of mankind.

  17. Outer Space: A Multi-Age, Integrated Subjects Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William D.

    This multi-age integrated teaching unit on outer space was developed by 19 rural teachers (grades K-8) from 12 Gallatin County (Montana) districts to associate all school subjects with a common theme, promote teaching efficiency by focusing on more than one subject at the same time, and increase student excitement. Topics explored by each grade…

  18. Applications Of Graphite Fluoride Fibers In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheng; Long, Martin; Dever, Therese

    1993-01-01

    Report characterizes graphite fluoride fibers made from commercially available graphitized carbon fibers and discusses some potential applications of graphite fluoride fibers in outer space. Applications include heat-sinking printed-circuit boards, solar concentrators, and absorption of radar waves. Other applications based on exploitation of increased resistance to degradation by atomic oxygen, present in low orbits around Earth.

  19. Outer Space Medicine and Relevant Ongoing Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, William R.

    1979-01-01

    An update of outer space medicine is given emphasizing main areas such as cardiopulmonary responses, vestibular functions, physiology, weightlessness, ecosystems, and radiation. A prospective view is also presented on the medical problems resulting from various hazards of outer space and planetary missions. Although an outgrowth of aviation and environmental medicine, this relatively new, special branch of medicine is currently undergoing an unprecedented rise as a vital modern specialty. The aims of the United States, Russia, and the nations of Europe in space research are shown to be in accord in learning how to live and work in space when confronted with the unique factors of zero gravity, cosmic radiation, and magnetic variations. PMID:439154

  20. Law and politics in outer space: A bibliography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, I. L.; Wilson, C. E.; Vosburgh, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The materials are categorized by specific topics and by types of materials. The sources are books, articles, reports, United Nations materials, U.S. Government documents, etc. Books are listed by geographical areas, and articles are divided into what are considered to be the major space topics. Book and article sections are also divided into English and foreign language entries. A bibliographical essay introduces the literature to those unacquainted with law and politics of outer space.

  1. Manifesto for a Safe and Sustainable Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgobba, T.; Menzel, A.-P.; Jakhu, R.; Pelton, J.

    The human adventure in space is now more than a half century old. A total of about 6000 liftoffs have taken place and some 500 people have flown into space, but in the process a number of fatalities have occurred--both in space and on the ground. Furthermore, space traffic is becoming chaotic and the orbital environment is increasingly polluted by debris. The Technical Committees of the IAASS have spent a great deal of time to develop a “Manifesto” to express the goals and objectives that all space faring countries should collectively embrace to ensure that in future the space adventure will not be brought to a sudden halt by unacceptable risks. This newly launched “Manifesto for Safe and Sustainable Outer Space”, as presented at the end of this article encapsulates the urgent appeal, by concerned space safety scientists, technicians, and legal experts that make up the IAASS, to policy makers and stakeholders around the globe to build consensus around a shared vision of a safe and sustainable space. Over time this Manifesto may be refined and augmented but the six objectives of the Manifesto represent a good starting point for an overdue debate on organizing outer space as a precious global asset.

  2. Planning Assembly Of Large Truss Structures In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, Luiz S. Homem; Desai, Rajiv S.

    1992-01-01

    Report dicusses developmental algorithm used in systematic planning of sequences of operations in which large truss structures assembled in outer space. Assembly sequence represented by directed graph called "assembly graph", in which each arc represents joining of two parts or subassemblies. Algorithm generates assembly graph, working backward from state of complete assembly to initial state, in which all parts disassembled. Working backward more efficient than working forward because it avoids intermediate dead ends.

  3. Architecture in outer space. [multilayer shell systems filled with gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokrovskiy, G. I.

    1974-01-01

    Mulilayer thin film structures consisting of systems of shells filled with gas at some pressure are recommended for outer space structures: Large mirrors to collect light and radio waves, protection against meteoric impact and damage, and for connectors between state space stations in the form of orbital rings. It is projected that individual orbital rings will multiply and completely seal a star trapping its high temperature radiation and transforming it into low temperature infrared and short wave radio emission; this radiation energy could be utilized for technological and biological processes.

  4. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  5. Estimating Relative Positions of Outer-Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balian, Harry; Breckenridge, William; Brugarolas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A computer program estimates the relative position and orientation of two structures from measurements, made by use of electronic cameras and laser range finders on one structure, of distances and angular positions of fiducial objects on the other structure. The program was written specifically for use in determining errors in the alignment of large structures deployed in outer space from a space shuttle. The program is based partly on equations for transformations among the various coordinate systems involved in the measurements and on equations that account for errors in the transformation operators. It computes a least-squares estimate of the relative position and orientation. Sequential least-squares estimates, acquired at a measurement rate of 4 Hz, are averaged by passing them through a fourth-order Butterworth filter. The program is executed in a computer aboard the space shuttle, and its position and orientation estimates are displayed to astronauts on a graphical user interface.

  6. Microwave Brightness Of Land Surfaces From Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Yann H.; Njoku, Eni G.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical model approximates microwave radiation emitted by land surfaces traveling to microwave radiometer in outer space. Applied to measurements made by Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR). Developed for interpretation of microwave imagery of Earth to obtain distributions of various chemical, physical, and biological characteristics across its surface. Intended primarily for use in mapping moisture content of soil and fraction of Earth covered by vegetation. Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), provides additional information on vegetative cover, thereby making possible retrieval of soil-moisture values from SMMR measurements. Possible to monitor changes of land surface during intervals of 5 to 10 years, providing significant data for mathematical models of evolution of climate.

  7. Space Shuttle Orbiter Digital Outer Mold Line Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Wilson, Brad; Pavek, Mike; Berger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiters Discovery and Endeavor have been digitally scanned to produce post-flight configuration outer mold line surfaces. Very detailed scans of the windward side of these vehicles provide resolution of the detailed tile step and gap geometry, as well as the reinforced carbon carbon nose cap and leading edges. Lower resolution scans of the upper surface provide definition of the crew cabin windows, wing upper surfaces, payload bay doors, orbital maneuvering system pods and the vertical tail. The process for acquisition of these digital scans as well as post-processing of the very large data set will be described.

  8. Legal Provisions Applicable to the Definition of Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorin, T.

    2002-01-01

    Whether it be the adjective "spatial" or the definition "space", these two terms have, in many respects, a non-identifiable dimension, which serves as a reference point for all players in this field, without being concerned with the exact area of application. This is evident from the vast diversity of corporate names, acronyms, logos and other designations that we often use. Among some of the most worldwide common include: NASA, ISS, ESA, and so on. Without of course forgetting , a field which concerns all legal experts and should not be overlooked is "space law". Thus, it is apparent that although the "space" community (i.e. influential and space- minded governments and relevant international authorities) has been involved in this field over the last few decades, no specific and universally-accepted definition has been adopted to date. Apart from certain demands made or unilateral positions taken by a given state particularly concerned by the matter, it is important to underline that the international community has refrained from making legislation in this area, apart from some rather limited or symbolic provisions introduced. This vagueness, in legal terms, should clearly be taken as the assertion of nationalistic demands, but also shows divergence or even antagonism between states fuelled by hypothetical profits, as was the case when attempts were made to establish maritime boundaries. We can thus by now summarise this issue by asking the following question: "Where does outer space begin?" We shall begin by looking at the sketchy legal references that we have at our disposal, which as lawyers we must use to attempt to find a solution to practical commercial or scientific contingencies which we are increasingly confronted with. Such references include the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies of 10th October 1967, constituting the fundamental space charter

  9. Low-Outgassing Photogrammetry Targets for Use in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Jason N.; Sampler, Henry; Reed, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    A short document discusses an investigation of materials for photogrammetry targets for highly sensitive optical scientific instruments to be operated in outer space and in an outer-space-environment- simulating thermal vacuum chamber on Earth. A key consideration in the selection of photogrammetry-target materials for vacuum environments is the need to prevent contamination that could degrade the optical responses of the instruments. Therefore, in addition to the high levels and uniformity of reflectivity required of photogrammetry-target materials suitable for use in air, the materials sought must exhibit minimal outgassing. Commercially available photogrammetry targets were found to outgas excessively under the thermal and vacuum conditions of interest; this finding prompted the investigators to consider optically equivalent or superior, lower-outgassing alternative target materials. The document lists several materials found to satisfy the requirements, but does not state explicitly whether the materials can be used individually or must be combined in the proper sequence into layered target structures. The materials in question are an aluminized polyimide tape, an acrylic pressure- sensitive adhesive, a 500-A-thick layer of vapor-deposited aluminum, and spherical barium titanate glass beads having various diameters from 20 to 63 microns..

  10. Legal regime of human activities in outer space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golda, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Current developments in space activities increasingly involve the presence of humans on board spacecraft and, in the near future, on the Moon, on Mars, on board Space Stations, etc. With respect to these challenges, the political and legal issues connected to the status of astronauts are largely unclear and require a new doctrinal attention. In the same way, many legal and political questions remain open in the structure of future space crews: the need for international standards in the definition and training of astronauts, etc.; but, first of all, an international uniform legal definition of astronauts. Moreover, the legal structure for human life and operations in outer space can be a new and relevant paradigm for the definition of similar rules in all the situations and environments in which humans are involved in extreme frontiers. The present article starts from an overview on the existing legal and political definitions of 'astronauts', moving to the search of a more useful definition. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete problems created by human space activities, and the legal and political responses to them (the need for a code of conduct; the structure of the crew and the existing rules in the US and ex-USSR; the new legal theories on the argument; the definition and structure of a code of conduct; the next legal problems in fields such as privacy law, communications law, business law, criminal law, etc.).

  11. Dinosaurs, Diamonds, and Things from Outer Space, The Great Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, David Brez

    This book explains, in a new and convincing theory, why most life on earth perished 65 million years ago. Intended for a broad audience, the book will also be of great interest to scientists - most of whom now agree that an object from outer space hit the earth with unimaginable force 65 million years ago. But what kind of object? Carlisle's scenario suggests that the event was a complex sequence, beginning with a nearby star turning supernova. The first effect of this on earth was the arrival of massive radiation, ten or twenty times the heat of the sun, igniting worldwide forest fires. The blast also perturbed the cloud of comets that surrounds the solar system, and some few centuries later one or more of these (loaded with interstellar diamonds) hit the earth, producing `nuclear winter' and causing a tremendous acidification of the oceans. Each step of this theory is backed up by hard evidence.

  12. Plasma-Based Detector of Outer-Space Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Brinza, David E.; Henry, Michael D.; Clay, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    A report presents a concept for an instrument to be flown in outer space, where it would detect dust particles - especially those associated with comets. The instrument would include a flat plate that would intercept the dust particles. The anticipated spacecraft/dust-particle relative speeds are so high that the impingement of a dust particle on the plate would generate a plasma cloud. Simple electric dipole sensors located equidistantly along the circumference of the plate would detect the dust particle indirectly by detecting the plasma cloud. The location of the dust hit could be estimated from the timing of the detection pulses of the different dipoles. The mass and composition of the dust particle could be estimated from the shapes and durations of the pulses from the dipoles. In comparison with other instruments for detecting hypervelocity dust particles, the proposed instrument offers advantages of robustness, large collection area, and simplicity.

  13. The Concepts of Assets and Property: Similarities and Differences, and their Applicability to Undertakings Space in Outer Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, S.

    2002-01-01

    UNIDROIT 's Protocol was revised and modified in 2001. Whereas the first drafts referred to "SPACE PROPERTY", the revised version speaks of "SPACE ASSETS". This paper will examine these changes, and the implications thereof, particularly in view of the trend toward privatization of outer space activities, and the context provided by Art. II of the Outer Space Treaty.

  14. Cylindrical Asymmetrical Capacitors for Use in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.

    2007-01-01

    A report proposes that cylindrical asymmetrical capacitors (CACs) be used to generate small thrusts for precise maneuvering of spacecraft on long missions. The report notes that it has been known for decades that when high voltages are applied to CACs in air, thrusts are generated - most likely as a result of ionization of air molecules and acceleration of the ions by the high electric fields. The report goes on to discuss how to optimize the designs of CACs for operation as thrusters in outer space. Components that could be used to enable outerspace operation include a supply of gas and a shroud, partly surrounding a CAC, into which the gas would flow. Other elements of operation and design discussed in the report include variation of applied voltage and/or of gas flow to vary thrust, effects of CAC and shroud dimensions on thrust and weight, some representative electrode configurations, and several alternative designs, including one in which the basic CAC configuration would be modified into something shaped like a conventional rocket engine with converging/diverging nozzle and an anode with gas feed in the space that, in a conventional rocket engine, would be the combustion chamber.

  15. Reusable Hybrid Propellant Modules for Outer-Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Mankins, John C.

    2005-01-01

    A report summarizes the concept of reusable hybrid propellant modules (HPMs), which would be used in outer space for long-term cryogenic storage of liquefied spacecraft-propellant gases, including for example, oxygen and hydrogen for combustion-based chemical rocket engines and xenon for electric thrusters. The HPM concept would provide the fundamental building block for an efficient, reusable in-space transportation system for both crewed and uncrewed missions. Each HPM would be equipped to implement an advanced zero-boil-off method of managing cryogenic fluids, and would include a fluid-transfer interface comprising standardized fittings that would be compatible with fittings on all supply facilities and on spacecraft to be supplied. The HPM, combined with a chemical or electric orbital transfer spacecraft, would provide an integrated propulsion system. HPMs would supply chemical propellant for time-critical transfers such as crewed missions, and utilize the more efficient electric-propulsion transfer vehicles to transport filled HPMs to the destinations and to return empty HPMs back to near-Earth orbits or other intermediate locations for replenishment and reuse. The HPM prepositioned using electric propulsion would provide the chemical propellant for the crew s return trip in a much more efficient manner than a chemical-only approach. The propellants to fill the HPMs would be delivered from the Earth or other initial supply locations to the intermediate locations by use of automated, compatible spacecraft designed specifically for that purpose. Additionally, multiple HPMs could be aggregated and positioned in orbits and on planets, moons, and asteroids to supply fluids to orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft.

  16. Science, technology and imaginable social and behavioral impacts as outer space develops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Edythe E.; Faiyetole, Ayodele Adekunle

    2014-02-01

    The main body of international law governing outer space, the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, requires that all people benefit from space activities and it mandates equality and sharing of outer space resources for all people from all nations. Yet, only a few experts have the knowledge and information regarding colonization of the final frontier. The space community is eager to engage and involve the global community in the development of outer space. However, people do not seem to have the information needed to make them care about the development of outer space. Most people still seem to view space travel, asteroid mining and other space activities as exotic and far out. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to discuss a unique pedagogical approach to help mend the knowledge gaps and to suggest the possibility of preventing inequality gaps from emerging as outer space is developed. To achieve equality in outer space for future generations, we must begin formulating a contagious desire for knowledge and a universal consciousness regarding newly emerging trends.

  17. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions - Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, Rosa; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Horneck, Gerda; Ríos, Asunción de los; Wierzchos, Jacek; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Cockell, Charles S.; Rettberg, Petra; Berger, Thomas; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Ott, Sieglinde; Frías, Jesus Martinez; Melendi, Pablo Gonzalez; Lucas, Maria Mercedes; Reina, Manuel; Pintado, Ana; Demets, René

    2010-08-01

    In the space experiments Lithopanspermia, experimental support was provided to the likelihood of the lithopanspermia concept that considers a viable transport of microorganisms between the terrestrial planets by means of meteorites. The rock colonising lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, the vagrant lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa, and endolithic and endoevaporitic communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria with their natural rock substrate were exposed to space for 10 days onboard the Biopan facility of the European Space Agency (ESA). Biopan was closed during launch and re-entry. In addition, in the Stone facility, one sample of R. geographicum on its natural granitic substrate was attached at the outer surface of the re-entry capsule close to the stagnation point, only protected by a thin cover of glass textolite. Post-flight analysis, which included determination of the photosynthetic activity, LIVE/DEAD staining, and germination capacity of the ascospores, demonstrated that all three lichen were quite resistant to outer space conditions, which include the full spectrum of solar extraterrestrial electromagnetic radiation or selected wavelength ranges. This high resistance of the lichens to space appears to be due to their symbiotic nature and protection by their upper pigmented layer, the cortex. In contrast, the rock- or halite-inhabiting bacteria were severely damaged by the same exposure. After atmospheric re-entry, the granite of the Stone sample was transformed into a glassy, nearly homogenous material, with several friction striae. None of the lichen cells survived this re-entry process. The data suggest that lichens are suitable candidates for testing the concept of lithopanspermia, because they are extremely resistant to the harsh environment of outer space. The more critical event is the atmospheric re-entry after being captured by a planet. Experiments simulating the re-entry process of a microbe-carrying meteoroid did not show any

  18. The role of the United Nations in promoting international cooperation in peaceful uses of outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lála, Petr

    1996-11-01

    The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) was established in 1959 by the United Nations General Assembly in order to review and foster international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space and to consider legal issues arising from the exploration of outer space. Since its establishment, the Committee has addressed such issues as benefits from space activities, the definition and delimitation of outer space and the use of the geostationary orbit, implications of remote sensing, space sciences, space-based communications, navigation and meteorological systems, as well as use of nuclear power sources in outer space, space debris and spin-off benefits of space technology. At its session in 1996, a symposium on the 'Utilization of micro- and small satellites for the expansion of low-cost space activities, taking into particular account the needs of developing countries' was organized by COSPAR and IAF to complement discussions on this theme. It was noted at the symposium that the increasing number of small satellites, in particular the proposed introduction of multi-satellite 'constellations' at low orbits, would result in concentrations of satellite mass at certain regions of space around the Earth. Special provisions would be needed to minimize the probability of satellite breakups and collisions which might create more space debris and compromise the future of spaceflight.

  19. Outer planet probe navigation. [considering Pioneer space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of navigation studies in conjunction with outer planet Pioneer missions are reformed to determine navigation requirements and measurement systems in order to target probes. Some particular cases are established where optical navigation is important and some cases where radio alone navigation is suffucient. Considered are a direct Saturn mission, a Saturn Uranus mission, a Jupiter Uranus mission, and a Titan probe mission.

  20. Space Electronic Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch at NASA Glenn Research center has the important duty of controlling electronic test engineering services. These services include test planning and early assessment of Space projects, management and/or technical support required to safely and effectively prepare the article and facility for testing, operation of test facilities, and validation/delivery of data to customer. The Space Electronic Test Engineering Branch is assigned electronic test engineering responsibility for the GRC Space Simulation, Microgravity, Cryogenic, and Combustion Test Facilities. While working with the Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch I am working on several different assignments. My primary assignment deals with an electrical hardware unit known as Sunny Boy. Sunny Boy is a DC load Bank that is designed for solar arrays in which it is used to convert DC power form the solar arrays into AC power at 60 hertz to pump back into the electricity grid. However, there are some researchers who decided that they would like to use the Sunny Boy unit in a space simulation as a DC load bank for a space shuttle or even the International Space Station hardware. In order to do so I must create a communication link between a computer and the Sunny Boy unit so that I can preset a few of the limits (such power, set & constant voltage levels) that Sunny Boy will need to operate using the applied DC load. Apart from this assignment I am also working on a hi-tech circuit that I need to have built at a researcher s request. This is a high voltage analog to digital circuit that will be used to record data from space ion propulsion rocket booster tests. The problem that makes building this circuit so difficult is that it contains high voltage we must find a way to lower the voltage signal before the data is transferred into the computer to be read. The solution to this problem was to transport the signal using infrared light which will lower

  1. Maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes through international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reese, George E.; Thacher, David J.; Kupperman, Helen S.

    1988-01-01

    NASA activities in support of international cooperation in space exploration and exploitation are briefly reviewed, with a focus on their compatibility with UN treaties. Particular attention is given to the provisions of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 and other applicable legislation, the over 1000 bilateral and international agreements NASA has entered into since 1958, international participation in currently ongoing NASA projects (Hubble Space Telescope, Galileo, Ulysses, Rosat, the D-2 Spacelab mission), and plans for the International Space Station.

  2. A proposal for epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin film epitaxial growth. The unique low earth orbit space environment is expected to yield 10 to the -14th torr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and the throughput of epitaxially grown materials. Advanced thin film materials to be epitaxially grown in space include semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin film high temperature superconductors.

  3. Commercial aspects of epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultra vacuum component of space for thin film epitaxial growth. The unique low earth orbit space environment is expected to yield 10 to the -14th torr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds and large ultra vacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultra vacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and the throughput of epitaxially grown materials especially in the area of semiconductors for microelectronics use. For such thin film materials there is expected a very large value added from space ultra vacuum processing, and as a result the application of the epitaxial thin film growth technology to space could lead to major commercial efforts in space.

  4. Applying Psychology in Outer Space: Unfulfilled Promises Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that research in personality and social psychology has an important role in the nation's spage program. Holds that psychologists' indifference and the structure of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have led to underutilization of psychological data in space exploration. Presents suggestions for increasing psychology's role…

  5. A survey of Colombia's new outer space policy: Reforms in Colombian law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Jairo A. Becerra

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the changes the Colombian government needs to make in its legislation (including the Constitution), to provide a solid basis for its new outer space policy in consonance with international law. In Article 101 paragraph 3 the Colombian Constitution states: The segment of Geostationary Orbit over Colombia is part of your national territory. This article is at odds with international law, which prohibits any claim of sovereignty over outer space. Until now, the issue has not caused any difficulty; however, Colombia has recently embarked on an outer space policy and the existence of this article may deter other nations from entering any agreement or joint project due to the fear of implicitly accepting this claim of sovereignty. What is more, in Colombia such agreements or projects may be declared illegal, since they do not comply with the Constitution. However, the major problem is not this article, but the complex procedure required to change it. A Constitutional reform is necessary. Furthermore, outer space policy is not a priority issue on the public agenda. This barrier may hinder the efforts to set up a space program in Colombia. We introduce an alternative solution that does not reform the Colombian Constitution but allows the development of the country's space policy. This solution involves identifying the space sectors that would not be affected by Article 101, paragraph 3 and including them in the space policy; checking that the non-definition of the limits of outer space means that the agreements with other nations are not affected; and finally, considering the possibility of making specific declarations of non-recognition of sovereignty over outer space in the agreements signed with other nations (Similar to the American flag over the moon declaration. EEUU Law 83 Stat. 202, sect 8). All these measures can help the development of Colombian space policy as we wait for the country to reach a definitive solution in accordance with

  6. Large space structures testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, Henry; Worley, H. Eugene

    1987-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of testing concepts and facilities that accurately simulate the pathologies believed to exist in future spacecraft. Both the Government and Industry have participated in the development of facilites over the past several years. The progress and problems associated with the development of the Large Space Structure Test Facility at the Marshall Flight Center are presented. This facility was in existence for a number of years and its utilization has run the gamut from total in-house involvement, third party contractor testing, to the mutual participation of other Government Agencies in joint endeavors.

  7. Mutagenesis by outer space parameters other than cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke

    We have studied the ability of microorganisms to cope with the complex interplay of the parameters of space in experiments in low Earth orbit and using space simulation facilities on ground. Emphasis was laid on space parameters other than cosmic rays. The studies are directed towards understanding prebiotic chemical evolution and biological evolution processes, and interplanetary transfer of life. Effects of space vacuum: Space experiments have shown that up to 70% of bacterial and fungal spores survived short-term exposure to space vacuum. The chances of survival in space were increased when spores were embedded in chemical protectants such as sugars, or salt crystals, or when they were exposed in multilayer. During the six years lasting LDEF mission up to 80% of bacterial spores survived exposure to space vacuum. A 10-fold increased mutation rate over the spontaneous rate has been observed in spores of Bacillus subtilis after exposure to space vacuum, which is probably based on a unique molecular signature of tandem-double base change at restricted sites in the DNA. In addition, DNA strand breaks have been observed to be induced by vacuum treatment. Effects of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation: Solar UV radiation has been found to be the most deleterious factor of space. The reason for this is the highly energetic UV-C and vacuum UV radiation that is directly absorbed by the DNA and which induces specific photoproducts in the DNA that are highly mutagenic and lethal. The damaging effect of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was even aggravated, when the spores were simultaneously exposed to both, solar UV radiation and space vacuum. In order to investigate the mutagenic potential of solar UV radiation, DNA of the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19 was exposed to selected wavebands of UV radiation (from vacuum UV to UV-A) by use of a solar simulator and space simulation facilities. Action spectra revealed that for vacuum UV different kinds of photochemical damage

  8. Results of studies on long-term exposition of dormant forms of various organisms in outer space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Nataliya; Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Deshevaya, Elena; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Orlov, Oleg; Alekseev, Victor; Poddubko, Svetlana; Polikarpov, Nikolay

    The planetary quarantine is one of the key problems of deep space exploration. Risks of the possible transfer of biological objects across interplanetary space should be necessarily assessed during space exploration. The risks associated with a possible transfer of biological objects and primarily microorganisms in interplanetary space is a priority for space studies We can assume, that on the exterior side of both unmanned and manned space stations there can be millions of microbial cells, many of which are in spore forms, the stability of which towards the unfavorable factors is extremely high. However, direct evidence to support this assumption, obtained only in recent years. “Biorisk” is an apparatus designed for conduction of space experiments focused on long-term exposition of latent stages of different forms of organism on the outer side of Russian Segment of International Space Station was developed and used in SSC RF - Institute for Biomedical Problems RAS. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the principle capability of preservation of life capacity in test-cultures of microorganisms during long-term exposure (comparable with the term of interplanetary flight) in space. The first experiment was performed using spores of bacteria (Bacillus) and fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium) housed in 3 boxes that were exposed to outer space for 7, 12 or 18 months. It was for the first time demonstrated that bacterial and fungal spores could survive an exposure to outer space during the time period comparable with the duration of a return mission to Mars. Moreover, the microbial strains proved viable and highly active. The second experiment was expanded by flying, in addition to the above spores, dormant forms of higher plants, insects, lower crustaceans and vertebrates. The 31-month experiment showed that, in spite of harsher than in the first study temperatures, some specimens remained viable and capable of further multiplication. In

  9. Composing a model of outer space through virtual experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.

    2015-03-01

    This paper frames issues of trans-scalar perception in visualization, reflecting on the limits of the human senses, particularly those which are related to space, and describe planetarium shows, presentations, and exhibit experiences of spatial immersion and interaction in real time.

  10. A theoretical study of induction eletrohydrodynamic pumping in outer space

    SciTech Connect

    Seyed-Yagoobi, J. )

    1990-11-01

    The challenge for designers of a space station is to meet requirements ofweight, reliability, power, and maintainability. Several new technologies must be developed to insure the success of the space station. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pumping may have an impact on the design of novel pumping devices for space stations or other space-related operations. The principal advantage of EHD pumping is that it is non-mechanical; therefore, it has neither moving mechanical parts nor the need for external pressure for operation. Typical applications of EHD pumping include cooling of underground cables, transformers and similar electrical equipment. An EHD pump uses electric fields acting on electric charges embedded in a fluid to move that fluid. One way of setting up the free charges is induction charging, based on establishing an electrical conductivity gradient perpendicular to the desired direction of fluid motion. This gradient perpendicular to the desired direction of fluid motion. This gradient can be established in the presence of a temperature gradient. There are two basic kinds of induction EHD pump: attraction (forward) and repulsion (backward) pumps. In the attraction pump, the pipe is cooled at the wall, giving a negative electric conductivity gradient. In the repulsion pump, the pipe is heated at the wall, causing a positive electric conductivity gradient. In the attraction pump, the fluid is pumped in the same direction as the traveling electric wave. In this mode, the fluid velocity is limited by the speed of the moving electric field (synchronous speed), which depends on frequency and on the spacing of the electrodes (wavelength) along the channel. Unlike the attraction pump, a repulsion pump has no velocity limit. In the repulsion mode, the fluid is pumped in the opposite direction to the traveling electric wave.

  11. Behavior of stem cells under outer-space microgravity and ground-based microgravity simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui; Li, Liang; Chen, Jianling; Wang, Jinfu

    2015-06-01

    With rapid development of space engineering, research on life sciences in space is being conducted extensively, especially cellular and molecular studies on space medicine. Stem cells, undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into specialized cells, are considered a key resource for regenerative medicine. Research on stem cells under conditions of microgravity during a space flight or a ground-based simulation has generated several excellent findings. To help readers understand the effects of outer space and ground-based simulation conditions on stem cells, we reviewed recent studies on the effects of microgravity (as an obvious environmental factor in space) on morphology, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25712570

  12. Outer Space Research Helps Color Habitability in Earth Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1977-01-01

    Color is one of the most important elements in making an environment habitable. Both color and light level combine to create comfortable and efficient work areas and satisfying leisure time environments. Indeed, without light, color cannot even be experienced. It is vitally important for the designer to understand the subject of habitability and to know how to make a positive impact upon the habitability of spaces through the application of proven principles of color-design developed by the scientific community. Consider some of these possibilities and pitfalls: A color chosen in broad daylight will not appear the same under dim lighting conditions. If a designer were creating a dimly lit cocktail lounge, for example, there is little sense in using dark colors, which also tend to be more expensive. When the eyes have dark-adapted for even five minutes, any color reflecting 20 percent or less will appear black, and the color experience will be lost. Therefore, surface reflectances should be kept at least above 20 to 25 percent to maintain color where illumination is at low levels. In effect, for lower reflectance surfaces, higher levels of illumination are required to produce the most accurate color discriminability.

  13. Outer Space...Calling All Readers. 1991 Summer Reading Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Cultural Resources, Raleigh. Div. of State Library.

    This manual provides guidelines and materials for librarians planning a summer reading program for children in North Carolina on the theme of outer space. An evaluation form to be returned to the State Library of North Carolina at the end of the summer is included. The introduction includes discussions of summer reading materials and programs;…

  14. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  15. A discrete pathway for the transfer of intermembrane space proteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gornicka, Agnieszka; Bragoszewski, Piotr; Chroscicki, Piotr; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Schulz, Christian; Rehling, Peter; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2014-12-15

    Mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and imported into mitochondria with the help of protein translocases. For the majority of precursor proteins, the role of the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and mechanisms of their transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane are well recognized. However, little is known about the mode of membrane translocation for proteins that are targeted to the intermembrane space via the redox-driven mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly (MIA) pathway. On the basis of the results obtained from an in organello competition import assay, we hypothesized that MIA-dependent precursor proteins use an alternative pathway to cross the outer mitochondrial membrane. Here we demonstrate that this alternative pathway involves the protein channel formed by Tom40. We sought a translocation intermediate by expressing tagged versions of MIA-dependent proteins in vivo. We identified a transient interaction between our model substrates and Tom40. Of interest, outer membrane translocation did not directly involve other core components of the TOM complex, including Tom22. Thus MIA-dependent proteins take another route across the outer mitochondrial membrane that involves Tom40 in a form that is different from the canonical TOM complex. PMID:25318675

  16. A discrete pathway for the transfer of intermembrane space proteins across the outer membrane of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Gornicka, Agnieszka; Bragoszewski, Piotr; Chroscicki, Piotr; Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Schulz, Christian; Rehling, Peter; Chacinska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and imported into mitochondria with the help of protein translocases. For the majority of precursor proteins, the role of the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and mechanisms of their transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane are well recognized. However, little is known about the mode of membrane translocation for proteins that are targeted to the intermembrane space via the redox-driven mitochondrial intermembrane space import and assembly (MIA) pathway. On the basis of the results obtained from an in organello competition import assay, we hypothesized that MIA-dependent precursor proteins use an alternative pathway to cross the outer mitochondrial membrane. Here we demonstrate that this alternative pathway involves the protein channel formed by Tom40. We sought a translocation intermediate by expressing tagged versions of MIA-dependent proteins in vivo. We identified a transient interaction between our model substrates and Tom40. Of interest, outer membrane translocation did not directly involve other core components of the TOM complex, including Tom22. Thus MIA-dependent proteins take another route across the outer mitochondrial membrane that involves Tom40 in a form that is different from the canonical TOM complex. PMID:25318675

  17. DOD Space Test Program (STP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Llwyn

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Test Program (STP) which provides access to space for the DOD-wide space research and development (R&D) community. STP matches a ranked list of sanctioned experiments with available budgets and searches for the most cost effective mechanisms to get the experiments into space. The program has successfully flown over 350 experiments, using dedicated freeflyer spacecraft, secondary space on the Space Shuttle, and various host satellites.

  18. Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2011-09-01

    Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar β-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

  19. Space Environmental Testing at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauder, Lonny R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of space environmental testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The contents include: 1) Solar Absorptance measurements; 2) Emittance measurements; 3) Transient Calorimetric Technique; 4) Electrostatic charge testing; 5) UV degradation testing; 6) Solar Wind Facility; and 7) Solar Wind testing.

  20. Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 33rd, Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 6-12, 1990, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on the law of outer space encompasses the legal implications of space commercialization, recent developments in space law, space debris, international cooperation in space, the legality of military space observations, and the legal dimensions of East-West satellite communications. Specific issues addressed include the concepts related to insurance for space activities conducted jointly by governments and the private sector, the international liability ramifications of the U.S. Navstar GPS system, legal and political measures to deal with CFCs and stratospheric ozone, and the convergence of telecommunication technologies. Also addressed are the recent activities on the Space Station, equity and international space law, the legal aspects of verification in and from outer space, satellite verification and European arms control, the regulation of space debris, and the 'right' of passage into outer space.

  1. A LAMP-based schematic prototype instrument for detection of microorganisms in human outer space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongfei; Liu, Zhiheng; Li, Junxiong; Zhu, Baoli

    One of the main tasks of human outer space exploration is to detect signs of life. Based on meteoritic evidence, common ancestry hypothesis has been posed. Therefore, searching for the fundamental molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) that constitute life as we know on Earth is feasible and now the typical approach. To achieve this goal, portable, robust, and highly sensitive instrument is also needed. In this study, based on Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique that targets life information storage molecular, DNA, we designed a schematic prototype instrument for microorganism detection. First, we designed LAMP primers used for amplification of DNA markers of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungus; then, we optimized the LAMP reaction system for space using; and finally, we designed a prototype instrument and operating software system that are compatible with the LAMP reaction system. The results of simulation experiments showed that our instrument performed well for detecting representative microorganisms and the device can achieve semi-automatization. The detection process, from sample preparation to signal visualization, was completed in 1.5 hour. Our study provides a new method and corresponding device for detection of DNA molecular, which has great potential for applications in outer space exploration. Besides, the instrument we designed can also been used for monitoring changes of terrestrial microorganisms in outer space, for example in aircraft.

  2. The sleeping chironomid: an insect survived 18 months of exposure to outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Sychev, Vladimir; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu; Malyutina, Ludmila; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    Anhydrobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to desiccation. There are only few groups of higher invertebrates capable to survival complete water loss. An African chironomid Polypedilum vanderpalnki is the only anhydrobiotic insect. Larvae of this sleeping chironomid living in temporary pools in semi-arid areas on the African continent become completely desiccated upon drought, but can revive after water becomes available upon the next rain. Dry larvae can revive after several decades of anhydrobiosis and show cross-resistance to different environmental stresses, including temperature fluctuation, high doses of ionizing radiation and organic solvents. This enormous resistance of the sleeping chironomid to extreme environments points to the high probability of their survival and transfer across outer space and makes this species promising model organism for astrobiological studies. In period from 2005 to 2010 the sleeping chironomid was utilized as a model organism in experiments on resistance of resting stages of invertebrates to space environment both inside of ISS ("Aquarium" research program) and on the outer side of ISS ("Biorisk-2" and "EXPOSE-R" experiments) . In the present report we mainly focus on results of "Biorisk-2" experiment where there containers with anhydrobiotic larvae were continuously exposed to outer space environment. Container 1 (FC1) remained exposed to outer space for 405 days (from June 6, 2007 to July 15, 2008), Container 2 (FC2) for 566 days (from June 6, 2007 to December 23, 2008), and Container 3 (FC3) is expected to be returning to the Earth later this year. First analysis of the larvae from the first two containers FC1 and FC2 showed that the sleeping chironomid have succesfully survived the continous space exposure comparable with duration of interpanetary spaceflight and recovered both biomolecules and cells complexes upon rehydration

  3. Keeping the peace in outer space: a legal framework for the prohibition of the use of force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Gerardine Meishan

    2004-11-01

    Outer space is an area of growing economic and technological importance. It is also a developing theatre of military defence and warfare. Against this backdrop, development of a legal framework on the use of force in outer space is of critical urgency. This paper proposes a framework for the development of international law in this area and also assesses the effectiveness of the current state of international lawgoverning the prohibition on the use of force in the context of outer space. It expands upon a proposed role for the United Nations and outlines a proposed enforcement mechanism for the lawon the use of force in outer space. This proposed framework rests on a three-tiered system involving an International Tribunal for Outer Space, an International Space Surveillance Agency and an International Space Inspection Agency, co-ordinated through a Secretariat under the auspices of the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs. The paper also provides a proposed Protocol on International Peace and Security to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty as a means of establishing the proposed enforcement mechanism. Finally, the paper looks at the complexities involved in developing the law, and moots immediate steps for its development.

  4. Stress analysis and testing of the outer capsule design for the Strontium Heat Source Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Strontium Heat Source Development Program is to obtain the data needed to license /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat sources - specifically the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsules produced in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) at Hanford. Toward this end, a high integrity outer capsule has been designed to replace the present outer capsule of the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsule. The proposed design of a Hastelloy S outer capsule which features a mechanical interlock type of end closure is described. Qualification testing requirements are outlined, and stress analyses and developmental tests are described. These tests were performed on AISI-1018 steel stand-in capsules, and included both external pressure and impact tests. The external pressure tests showed that stress calculations seriously overestimated the pressure capability of the outer capsule. Possible reasons for the lack of agreement between the tests and the analyses are evaluated. The stress analyses and tests results indicate that the proposed outer capsule will meet the heat source qualification requirements. Future tests will be conducted to experimentally verify that the Hastelloy S outer capsule in an aged condition meets the structural integrity requirements.

  5. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  6. Accelerated testing of space batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.; Waite, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated life test program for space batteries is presented that fully satisfies empirical, statistical, and physical criteria for validity. The program includes thermal and other nonmechanical stress analyses as well as mechanical stress, strain, and rate of strain measurements.

  7. Loads analysis and testing of flight configuration solid rocket motor outer boot ring segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq

    1990-01-01

    The loads testing on in-house-fabricated flight configuration Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) outer boot ring segments. The tests determined the bending strength and bending stiffness of these beams and showed that they compared well with the hand analysis. The bending stiffness test results compared very well with the finite element data.

  8. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated.

  9. NEP Space Test Program Objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space test program is to launch an NEP satellite powered by the Russion Topaz 2 reactor by Dec. 1995. The primary goals of the NEP space test program are as follows: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of launching a space nuclear power system; (2) demonstrate and orbit adjust capability using NEP; (3) evaluate the in-orbit performance of the Topaz 2 reactor and selected electric thrusters; and (4) measure, analyze, and model the NEP self-induced environment. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  10. NEP space test program objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The objective of the Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) space test program is to launch an NEP satellite powered by the Russion Topaz 2 reactor by Dec. 1995. The primary goals of the NEP space test program are as follows: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of launching a space nuclear power system; (2) demonstrate and orbit adjust capability using NEP; (3) evaluate the in-orbit performance of the Topaz 2 reactor and selected electric thrusters; and (4) measure, analyze, and model the NEP self-induced environment. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  11. Accelerated testing of space mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, S. Frank; Heshmat, Hooshang

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of various existing life prediction techniques used for a wide range of space mechanisms. Life prediction techniques utilized in other non-space fields such as turbine engine design are also reviewed for applicability to many space mechanism issues. The development of new concepts on how various tribological processes are involved in the life of the complex mechanisms used for space applications are examined. A 'roadmap' for the complete implementation of a tribological prediction approach for complex mechanical systems including standard procedures for test planning, analytical models for life prediction and experimental verification of the life prediction and accelerated testing techniques are discussed. A plan is presented to demonstrate a method for predicting the life and/or performance of a selected space mechanism mechanical component.

  12. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  13. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  14. The International Safety Framework for nuclear power source applications in outer space-Useful and substantial guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerer, L.; Wilcox, R. E.; Bechtel, R.; Harbison, S.

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space was adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations under the auspices of a partnership between the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Safety Framework reflects an international consensus on best practices to achieve safety. Following the 1992 UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second attempt by the international community to draft guidance promoting the safety of applications of nuclear power sources in space missions. NPS applications in space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. Potential accident conditions could expose nuclear power sources to extreme physical conditions. The Safety Framework is structured to provide guidance for both the programmatic and technical aspects of safety. In addition to sections containing specific guidance for governments and for management, it contains technical guidance pertinent to the design, development and all mission phases of space NPS applications. All sections of the Safety Framework contain elements directly relevant to engineers and space mission designers for missions involving space nuclear power sources. The challenge for organisations and engineers involved in the design and development processes of space nuclear power sources and applications is to implement the guidance provided in the Safety Framework by integrating it into the existing standard space mission infrastructure of design, development and operational requirements, practices and processes. This adds complexity to the standard space mission and launch approval processes. The Safety Framework is deliberately

  15. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Zuzana; Brunetto, Rosario; Melita, Mario; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    The surfaces of small bodies in the outer Solar System are rich in organic compounds and carbonaceous refractories mixed with ices and silicates. As made clear by dedicated laboratory experiments space weathering (e.g. energetic ion bombardment) can produce red colored materials starting from bright and spectrally flat ices. In a classical scenario, the space weathering processes “nurture” alter the small bodies surface spectra but are in competition with resurfacing agents that restore the original colors, and the result of these competing processes continuously modifying the surfaces is supposed to be responsible for the observed spectral variety of those small bodies. However an alternative point of view is that the different colors are due to “nature” i.e. to the different primordial composition of different objects. In this paper we present a model, based on laboratory results, that gives an original contribution to the “nature” vs. “nurture” debate by addressing the case of surfaces showing different fractions of rejuvenated vs. space weathered surface, and calculating the corresponding color variations. We will show how a combination of increasing dose coupled to different resurfacing can reproduce the whole range of observations of small outer Solar System bodies. Here we demonstrate, for the first time that objects having a fully weathered material turn back in the color-color diagrams. At the same time, object with the different ratio of pristine and weathered surface areas lay on specific lines in color-color diagrams, if exposed to the same amount of irradiation.

  16. The Seventeenth Space Simulation Conference. Terrestrial Test for Space Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences' Seventeenth Space Simulation Conference, 'Terrestrial Test for Space Success' provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state of the art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme of 'terrestrial test for space success.'

  17. Between inner space and outer space. Essays on science, art, and philosophy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, J. D.

    In this fascinating and entertaining collection of essays, the author addresses the many question that we ponder in our quest to discover the universe. Key topics are: the popularity of Big Science, and physics and cosmology in particular; life on other planets; issues of time and space and quantum reality; the ancient foundations of science, mathematics, and their most modern expression - complexity theory; and how science relates to religion and aesthetics. Taken as a whole, these thought-provoking essays provide a rich introduction to contemporary scientific debate.

  18. Compartmentalization of the outer hair cell demonstrated by slow diffusion in the extracisternal space.

    PubMed

    Gliko, Olga; Saggau, Peter; Brownell, William E

    2009-08-19

    In the outer hair cell (OHC), the extracisternal space (ECiS) is a conduit and reservoir of the molecular and ionic substrates of the lateral wall, including those necessary for electromotility. To determine the mechanisms through which molecules are transported in the ECiS of the OHC, we selectively imaged the time-dependent spatial distribution of fluorescent molecules in a <100 nm layer near the cell/glass interface of the recording chamber after their photolytic activation in a diffraction-limited volume. The effective diffusion coefficient was calculated using the analytical solution of the diffusion equation. It was found that diffusion in the ECiS is isotropic and not affected by depolarizing the OHC. Compared with free solution, the diffusion of 10 kDa dextran was slowed down in both the ECiS and the axial core by a factor of 4.6 and 1.6, respectively. PMID:19686670

  19. Maintaining Peace in Outer Space. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (17th, Cooperstown, NY, June 19-24, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held to discuss maintaining peace in outer space. Nineteen space specialists participated in the conference. Topics discussed were recent technological developments, international cooperation for peaceful uses of outer space, prevention of weapons in space, and the future role of the United Nations. The report's…

  20. A Code of Ethics and Standards for Outer-Space Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Now is the time to put forth an effective code of ethics for businesses in outer space. A successful code would be voluntary and would actually promote the growth of individual companies, not hinder their efforts to provide products and services. A properly designed code of ethics would ensure the development of space commerce unfettered by government-created barriers. Indeed, if the commercial space industry does not develop its own professional code of ethics, government- imposed regulations would probably be instituted. Should this occur, there is a risk that the development of off-Earth commerce would become more restricted. The code presented in this paper seeks to avoid the imposition of new barriers to space commerce as well as make new commercial space ventures easier to develop. The proposed code consists of a preamble, which underscores basic values, followed by a number of specific principles. For the most part, these principles set forth broad commitments to fairness and integrity with respect to employees, consumers, business transactions, political contributions, natural resources, off-Earth development, designated environmental protection zones, as well as relevant national and international laws. As acceptance of this code of ethics grows within the industry, general modifications will be necessary to accommodate the different types of businesses entering space commerce. This uniform applicability will help to assure that the code will not be perceived as foreign in nature, potentially restrictive, or threatening. Companies adopting this code of ethics will find less resistance to their space development plans, not only in the United States but also from nonspacefaring nations. Commercial space companies accepting and refining this code would demonstrate industry leadership and an understanding that will serve future generations living, working, and playing in space. Implementation of the code would also provide an off-Earth precedent for a modified

  1. 30 CFR 33.31 - Test space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test space. 33.31 Section 33.31 Mineral... § 33.31 Test space. (a) Drilling tests shall be conducted in a test space formed by two curtains suspended across a mine opening in such a manner that the volume of the test space shall be approximately...

  2. 30 CFR 33.31 - Test space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test space. 33.31 Section 33.31 Mineral... § 33.31 Test space. (a) Drilling tests shall be conducted in a test space formed by two curtains suspended across a mine opening in such a manner that the volume of the test space shall be approximately...

  3. 30 CFR 33.31 - Test space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test space. 33.31 Section 33.31 Mineral... § 33.31 Test space. (a) Drilling tests shall be conducted in a test space formed by two curtains suspended across a mine opening in such a manner that the volume of the test space shall be approximately...

  4. 30 CFR 33.31 - Test space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test space. 33.31 Section 33.31 Mineral... § 33.31 Test space. (a) Drilling tests shall be conducted in a test space formed by two curtains suspended across a mine opening in such a manner that the volume of the test space shall be approximately...

  5. 30 CFR 33.31 - Test space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test space. 33.31 Section 33.31 Mineral... § 33.31 Test space. (a) Drilling tests shall be conducted in a test space formed by two curtains suspended across a mine opening in such a manner that the volume of the test space shall be approximately...

  6. Conceptual Design of In-Space Vehicles for Human Exploration of the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R. A.; Chapman, J. M.; Fincher, S. S.; Hopkins, R. C.; Philips, A. D.; Polsgrove, T. T.; Litchford, R. J.; Patton, B. W.; Statham, G.

    2003-01-01

    During FY-2002, a team of engineers from TD30/Advanced Concepts and TD40/Propulsion Research Center embarked on a study of potential crewed missions to the outer solar system. The study was conducted under the auspices of the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts activity administered by Langley Research Center (LaRC). The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) team interacted heavily with teams from other Centers including Glenn Research Center, LaRC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Johnson Space Center. The MSFC team generated five concept missions for this project. The concept missions use a variety of technologies, including magnetized target fusion (MTF), magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, solid core reactors, and molten salt reactors in various combinations. The Technical Publication (TP) reviews these five concepts and the methods used to generate them. The analytical methods used are described for all significant disciplines and subsystems. The propulsion and power technologies selected for each vehicle are reviewed in detail. The MSFC team also expended considerable effort refining the MTF concept for use with this mission. The results from this effort are also contained within this TP. Finally, the lessons learned from this activity are summarized in the conclusions section.

  7. Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference: Space Mission Success Through Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences' Eighteenth Space Simulation Conference, 'Space Mission Success Through Testing' provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, program/system testing, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme 'Space Mission Success Through Testing.'

  8. Resistance of Bacterial Endospores to Outer Space for Planetary Protection Purposes—Experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E Mission

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Ralf; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nicholson, Wayne L.; Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Spry, Andrew; Stackebrandt, Erko; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Spore-forming bacteria are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection because their tough endospores may withstand certain sterilization procedures as well as the harsh environments of outer space or planetary surfaces. To test their hardiness on a hypothetical mission to Mars, spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 were exposed for 1.5 years to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station. Mounted as dry layers on spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons, the “trip to Mars” spores experienced space vacuum, cosmic and extraterrestrial solar radiation, and temperature fluctuations, whereas the “stay on Mars” spores were subjected to a simulated martian environment that included atmospheric pressure and composition, and UV and cosmic radiation. The survival of spores from both assays was determined after retrieval. It was clearly shown that solar extraterrestrial UV radiation (λ≥110 nm) as well as the martian UV spectrum (λ≥200 nm) was the most deleterious factor applied; in some samples only a few survivors were recovered from spores exposed in monolayers. Spores in multilayers survived better by several orders of magnitude. All other environmental parameters encountered by the “trip to Mars” or “stay on Mars” spores did little harm to the spores, which showed about 50% survival or more. The data demonstrate the high chance of survival of spores on a Mars mission, if protected against solar irradiation. These results will have implications for planetary protection considerations. Key Words: Planetary protection—Bacterial spores—Space experiment—Simulated Mars mission. Astrobiology 12, 445–456. PMID:22680691

  9. Resonance testing of space shuttle thermoacoustic structural specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.; Osinski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The resonance testing of a structural specimen related to the space shuttle vehicle is described. The specimen consisted of a thin aluminum skin reinforced by hat-section stringers and supported by two ribs or bulkheads of corrugated web. A representative section of the space shuttle thermal protection system was bonded to the outer surface of the skin. The tests were completed by using miniature accelerometers to collect vibration data from locations forming a predetermined mesh over the tiles and base structure. The signals were recorded on FM magnetic tape and subsequently analyzed on a modal analysis system.

  10. International Directory of Facilities for Education and Training in Basic Subjects Related to the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    International facilities are described in the first section of this directory on the facilities for education and training in basic subjects related to the peaceful uses of outer space. Entries are organized into these categories: organizations of the United Nations system; intergovernmental agencies; international agencies; international…

  11. Resistance of bacterial endospores to outer space for planetary protection purposes--experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E mission.

    PubMed

    Horneck, Gerda; Moeller, Ralf; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry; Mancinelli, Rocco L; Nicholson, Wayne L; Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Spry, Andrew; Stackebrandt, Erko; Vaishampayan, Parag; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

    2012-05-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection because their tough endospores may withstand certain sterilization procedures as well as the harsh environments of outer space or planetary surfaces. To test their hardiness on a hypothetical mission to Mars, spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 were exposed for 1.5 years to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station. Mounted as dry layers on spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons, the "trip to Mars" spores experienced space vacuum, cosmic and extraterrestrial solar radiation, and temperature fluctuations, whereas the "stay on Mars" spores were subjected to a simulated martian environment that included atmospheric pressure and composition, and UV and cosmic radiation. The survival of spores from both assays was determined after retrieval. It was clearly shown that solar extraterrestrial UV radiation (λ≥110 nm) as well as the martian UV spectrum (λ≥200 nm) was the most deleterious factor applied; in some samples only a few survivors were recovered from spores exposed in monolayers. Spores in multilayers survived better by several orders of magnitude. All other environmental parameters encountered by the "trip to Mars" or "stay on Mars" spores did little harm to the spores, which showed about 50% survival or more. The data demonstrate the high chance of survival of spores on a Mars mission, if protected against solar irradiation. These results will have implications for planetary protection considerations. PMID:22680691

  12. Disposal of type-II long-lived fission products into outer space

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Chen, Xinyi

    1996-12-31

    The authors propose an alternative approach to dispose of long-lived fission products (LLFPs) of type-II, such as {sup 79}Se, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, and long-lived radioactive {sup 93}Zr into outer solar space. An escape velocity from the solar system of 42 km/s will be provided from either a parking orbit or the moon`s surface using an electrostatic accelerator and by neutralizing the charged accelerated LLFPs ions. LLFP ions must be neutralized to avoid their being trapped in earth and solar magnetic fields; almost 100% neutralization can be achieved by recirculating the non-neutralized ions through a magnetic field in the neutralizing device. This mode of disposition requires 2.2 kW power to eject most of the LLFPs generated by one LWR. This process is much smaller than a medium-energy proton beam power, a few tens of MW, which would be necessary to transmute these LLFPs using spallation neutrons created by protons. Due to their low radioactivity composed of mainly beta decay and low-energy gamma-rays, the shielding needed is not excessive and can be easily accommodated.

  13. Studies of a new class of high electro-thermal performing Polyimide embedded with 3D scaffold in the harsh environment of outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeblein, Manuela; Bolker, Asaf; Tsang, Siu Hon; Atar, Nurit; Uzan-Saguy, Cecile; Verker, Ronen; Gouzman, Irina; Grossman, Eitan; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    The polymer class of Polyimides (PIs) has been wide-spread in the use of outer space coatings due to their chemical stability and flexibility. Nevertheless, their poor thermal conductivity and completely electrically insulating characteristics have caused severe limitations, such as thermal management challenges and spacecraft electrostatic charging, which forces the use of additional materials such as brittle ITO in order to completely resist the harsh environment of space. For this reason, we developed a new composite material via infiltration of PI with a 3D scaffold which improves PIs performance and resilience and enables the use of only a single flexible material to protect spacecraft. Here we present a study of this new material based on outer-space environment simulated on ground. It includes an exhaustive range of tests simulating space environments in accordance with European Cooperation for Space Standard (ECSS), which includes atomic oxygen (AO) etching, Gamma-ray exposure and outgassing properties over extended periods of time and under strenuous mechanical bending and thermal annealing cycles. Measurement methods for the harsh environment of space and the obtained results will be presented.

  14. Swift Observatory Space Simulation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espiritu, Mellina; Choi, Michael K.; Scocik, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory is a Middle-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission that is a rapidly re-pointing spacecraft with immediate data distribution capability to the astronomical community. Its primary objectives are to characterize and determine the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and to use the collected data on GRB phenomena in order to probe the universe and gain insight into the physics of black hole formation and early universe. The main components of the spacecraft are the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT), X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Optical Bench (OB) instruments coupled with the Swift spacecraft (S/C) bus. The Swift Observatory will be tested at the Space Environment Simulation (SES) chamber at the Goddard Space Flight Center from May to June 2004 in order to characterize its thermal behavior in a vacuum environment. In order to simulate the independent thermal zones required by the BAT, XRT, UVOT, and OB instruments, the spacecraft is mounted on a chariot structure capable of maintaining adiabatic interfaces and enclosed in a modified, four section MSX fixture in order to accommodate the strategic placement of seven cryopanels (on four circuits), four heater panels, and a radiation source burst simulator mechanism. There are additionally 55 heater circuits on the spacecraft. To mitigate possible migration of silicone contaminants from BAT to the XRT and UVOT instruments, a contamination enclosure is to be fabricated around the BAT at the uppermost section of the MSX fixture. This paper discuses the test requirements and implemented thermal vacuum test configuration for the Swift Observatory.

  15. The Role of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in Building Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans

    The Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) will provide an overview of achievements of UN- COPUOS, UNISPACE Conferences, particularly the establishment of the Programme on Space Applications and its priority thematic areas, UN-affiliated Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG), the UN Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-Spider), and legal framework governing space activities of UN Member States. OOSA will review results of the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative, particularly the development of networks of astronomical telescope facilities, planetariums, and instrument arrays for space research in developing nations. The mission of OOSA, implemented through on-going programmes developed for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007) and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) will be highlighted.

  16. The software and hardware for the ground testing of ALFA- ELECTRON space spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batischev, A. G.; Galper, A. M.; Naumov, P. Yu; Naumov, P. P.; Solodovnikov, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The complex for ground testing and space detector system calibration has been designed. The fast multilayer scintillation detector of the new telescope-spectrometer for the ALFA-ELECTRON space experiment is in ground testing mode now. The device will planned to install on the outer surface of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. The basic scheme for the detector amplitude parameters measurement by use of specially designed hardware and software are described and the first prototype testing results are demonstrated.

  17. Space Shuttle Main Engine Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A cloud of extremely hot steam boils out of the flame deflector at the A-1 test stand during a test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) at the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi.

  18. Optical effect of the contamination of infrared windows by the outgassing of materials in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberman, E.

    1975-01-01

    The composition and evaporation rate of the outgassing of a space vehicle thermal control paint as a function of temperature were studied. A contamination chamber was designed, constructed, and tested. Samples of thermal control paint were tested to determine if heating to moderate temperatures causes them to release outgassing products which can be collected on a cooled cesium iodide window for identification by IR analysis. Results showed that outgassing of surfaces other than the sample was a problem. Spectral bands of the deposits collected were compared.

  19. Planetary quarantine: Space research and technology. [satellite quarantine constraints on outer planet mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The impact of satisfying satellite quarantine constraints on current outer planet mission and spacecraft designs is considered. Tools required to perform trajectory and navigation analyses for determining satellite impact probabilities are developed.

  20. The Space Launch System and Missions to the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Post, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: America’s heavy lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch System, enables a variety of planetary science missions. The SLS can be used for most, if not all, of the National Research Council’s Planetary Science Decadal Survey missions to the outer planets. The SLS performance enables larger payloads and faster travel times with reduced operational complexity.Europa Clipper: Our analysis shows that a launch on the SLS would shorten the Clipper mission travel time by more than four years over earlier mission concept studies.Jupiter Trojan Tour and Rendezvous: Our mission concept replaces Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs) in the original design with solar arrays. The SLS capability offers many more target opportunities.Comet Surface Sample Return: Although in our mission concept, the SLS launches later than the NRC mission study (November 2022 instead of the original launch date of January 2021), it reduces the total mission time, including sample return, by two years.Saturn Apmospheric Entry Probe: Though Saturn arrivial time remains the same in our concept as the arrival date in the NRC study (2034), launching on the SLS shortens the mission travel time by three years with a direct ballistic trajectory.Uranus Orbiter with Probes: The SLS shortens travel time for an Uranus mission by four years with a Jupiter swing-by trajectory. It removes the need for a solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage used in the NRC mission concept study.Other SLS Science Mission Candidates: Two other mission concepts we are investigating that may be of interest to this community are the Advanced Technology Large Aperature Space Telescope (ATLAST) and the Interstellar Explorer also referred to as the Interstellar Probe.Summary: The first launch of the SLS is scheduled for 2018 followed by the first human launch in 2021. The SLS in its evolving configurations will enable a broad range of exploration missions which will serve to recapture the enthusiasm and

  1. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  2. Observing Outer Planet Satellites (Except Titan) with the James Webb Space Telescope: Science Justification and Observational Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Grundy, Will; Stansberry, John; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Thatte, Deepashri; Gudipati, Murthy; Tsang, Constantine; Greenbaum, Alexandra; McGruder, Chima

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will allow observations with a unique combination of spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the study of outer planet satellites within our Solar System. We highlight the infrared spectroscopy of icy moons and temporal changes on geologically active satellites as two particularly valuable avenues of scientific inquiry. While some care must be taken to avoid saturation issues, JWST has observation modes that should provide excellent infrared data for such studies.

  3. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-10-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration. PMID:21593797

  4. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-01-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration. PMID:21593797

  5. FAN DOOR TESTING ON CRAWL SPACE BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses: (1) fan door testing of crawl spaces in nine buildings in Tennessee, and (2) using two fan doors to estimate the leakage area of the floor between the crawl space and the living space. The testing gives some insight into the tightness of crawlspaces and the l...

  6. NASA Tests Transfer Device for Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Inside the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfe...

  7. Station Robotics Testing at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center, NASA tests the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, or JOTI. This device would allow astronauts to transfer orbital repla...

  8. Sultan: an 8 Tesla, 1 meter bore test facility for the outer solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Pasotti, G.; Ricci, M.V.; Sacchetti, N.; Spadoni, M.

    1981-09-01

    In the framework of the international collaboration among SIN-Villigen (CH), ECN-Patten (NL) and CNEN-Frascati (I) aiming at the realization of the SULTAN (SUpraLeitender TestANlage) test facility the CNEN contribution is concerned with the realization of the outer part of the solenoid, i.e., the section which will provide the 6T field in the useful region, the remaining 2T being supplied by the coaxial ECN insert. A description of the 6T superconducting solenoid is presented. The main features are: (1) pancake structure wound by a Nb-Ti multifilamentary hollow cable; and (2) cooling by forced flow of slightly subcooled liquid helium. Details of the design, winding technique and structure, the hydraulic circuitry as well as the status report of the construction are discussed. 10 refs.

  9. Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two -fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z -2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z -1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

  10. Reacting to nuclear power systems in space: American public protests over outer planetary probes since the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2014-03-01

    The United States has pioneered the use of nuclear power systems for outer planetary space probes since the 1970s. These systems have enabled the Viking landings to reach the surface of Mars and both Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 to travel to the limits of the solar system. Although the American public has long been concerned about safety of these systems, in the 1980s a reaction to nuclear accidents - especially the Soviet Cosmos 954 spacecraft destruction and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents - heightened awareness about the hazards of nuclear power and every spacecraft launch since that time has been contested by opponents of nuclear energy. This has led to a debate over the appropriateness of the use of nuclear power systems for spacecraft. It has also refocused attention on the need for strict systems of control and rigorous checks and balances to assure safety. This essay describes the history of space radioisotope power systems, the struggles to ensure safe operations, and the political confrontation over whether or not to allow the launch the Galileo and Cassini space probes to the outer planets. Effectively, these efforts have led to the successful flights of 12 deep space planetary probes, two-thirds of them operated since the accidents of Cosmos 954, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl.

  11. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Z.; Brunetto, R.; Melita, M.; Strazzulla, G.

    2012-09-01

    We present a model based on laboratory results which contributes to the "nature" versus "nurture" debate on the colors of small bodies in the outer Solar System (OSS). According to our model, objects having suffered the same balance of irradiation and impacts follow specific curves in color-color diagrams. Appropriate combination of composition and weathering can reproduce the whole range of colors observed on OSS small bodies

  12. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Brandon; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry.

  13. Space shuttle orbiter windshield system design and test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashida, K.; Suppanz, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The development and testing of primary structural elements that are necessary to design a windshield system for the space shuttle orbiter are summarized. The elements include the outer (heat shield) panes, the inner pressure panes, the seals for both panes, and components of both window frames. One test article representing a pressure pane, including frames and seals, was tested under two sets of conditions. One set represented 100 mission cycles with temperature and pressure typical of those exerted on the innermost pane of the three-pane window system, and the second set represented 100 mission cycles with temperature and pressure typical of those exerted on a middle pane. A second test article representing an outer (heat sheild) pane was tested to conditions of 120 entry cycles, which equates to 100 entry cycles plus sufficient fatigue on the pane to account for 100 boost cycles. All elements of the design survived the test conditions in good condition. Window system for the shuttle orbiter vehicle.

  14. Space station structures and dynamics test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, Frank M.; Ivey, E. W.; Moore, C. J.; Townsend, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses challenges for development and implementation of technology. One specific challenge is the development of a dynamics test program for defining the space station design requirements, and identifying and characterizing phenomena affecting the space station's design and development. The test proposal, as outlined, is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station (SS). Development of a parametric data base and verification of the mathematical models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The four test phases planned are discussed: testing of SS applicable structural concepts; testing of SS prototypes; testing of actual SS structural hardware; and on-orbit testing of SS construction.

  15. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) undergoing a full power level 290.04 second test firing at the National Space Technology Laboratories (currently called the Stennis Space Center) in Mississippi. The firings were part of a series of developmental testing designed to increase the amount of thrust available to the Shuttle from its three main engines. The additional thrust allowed the Shuttle to launch heavier payloads into orbit. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had management responsibility of Space Shuttle propulsion elements, including the Main Engines.

  16. Astronauts in Outer Space Teaching Students Science: Comparing Chinese and American Implementations of Space-to-Earth Virtual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Song A.; Zhang, Meilan; Tillman, Daniel A.; Robertson, William; Siemssen, Annette; Paez, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between science lessons taught by Chinese astronauts in a space shuttle and those taught by American astronauts in a space shuttle, both of whom conducted experiments and demonstrations of science activities in a microgravity space environment. The study examined the instructional structure…

  17. Study of the effects of the outer space environment on dormant forms of microorganisms, fungi and plants in the `Expose-R' experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, N.; Deshevaya, E.; Levinskikh, M.; Polikarpov, N.; Poddubko, S.; Gusev, O.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of the effects of solar radiation combined with the spaceflight factors on biological objects were performed in the «EXPOSE-R» experiment on the outer surface of ISS. After more than 1 year of outer space exposure, the spores of microorganisms and fungi, as well as two species of plant seeds were analysed for viability and the set of biological properties. The experiment provided evidence that not only bacterial and fungal spores but also dormant forms of plants had the capability to survive a long-term exposure to outer space.

  18. Ground test experiment for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollison, D. K.; Waites, H. B.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a new body of control theory has been developed for the design of control systems for Large Space Structures (LSS). The problems of testing this theory on LSS hardware are aggravated by the expense and risk of actual in orbit tests. Ground tests on large space structures can provide a proving ground for candidate control systems, but such tests require a unique facility for their execution. The current development of such a facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the subject of this report.

  19. Distinct constrictive processes, separated in time and space,divide Caulobacter inner and outer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Ellen M.; Comolli, Luis R.; Chen, Joseph C.; Downing,Kenneth H.; Moerner, W.E.; McAdams, Harley H.

    2005-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscope tomography (cryoEM) and a fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) assay were used to characterize progression of the terminal stages of Caulobacter crescentus cell division. Tomographic cryoEM images of the cell division site show separate constrictive processes closing first the inner, and then the outer, membrane in a manner distinctly different from septum-forming bacteria. The smallest observed pre-fission constrictions were 60 nm for both the inner and outer membrane. FLIP experiments had previously shown cytoplasmic compartmentalization, when cytoplasmic proteins can no longer diffuse between the two nascent progeny cell compartments, occurring 18 min before daughter cell separation in a 135 min cell cycle. Here, we used FLIP experiments with membrane-bound and periplasmic fluorescent proteins to show that (1) periplasmic compartmentalization occurs after cytoplasmic compartmentalization, consistent with the cryoEM observations, and (2) inner membrane and periplasmic proteins can diffuse past the FtsZ constriction site, indicating that the cell division machinery does not block membrane diffusion.

  20. Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Hillje, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    A major phase of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (SSV) Development Program was the acquisition of data through the space shuttle wind tunnel testing program. It became obvious that the large number of configuration/environment combinations would necessitate an extremely large wind tunnel testing program. To make the most efficient use of available test facilities and to assist the prime contractor for orbiter design and space shuttle vehicle integration, a unique management plan was devised for the design and development phase. The space shuttle program is reviewed together with the evolutional development of the shuttle configuration. The wind tunnel testing rationale and the associated test program management plan and its overall results is reviewed. Information is given for the various facilities and models used within this program. A unique posttest documentation procedure and a summary of the types of test per disciplines, per facility, and per model are presented with detailed listing of the posttest documentation.

  1. Space shuttle L-tube radiator testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to support the development of the Orbiter Heat Rejection System. The details of the baseline radiator were defined by designing, fabricating, and testing representative hardware. The tests were performed in the Space Environmental Simulation Laboratory Chamber A. An IR source was used to simulate total solar and infrared environmental loads on the flowing shuttle radiators panel. The thermal and mechanical performance of L tube space radiators and their thermal coating were established.

  2. Skylab rescue space vehicle flight readiness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jevitt, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A Skylab Rescue Space Vehicle flight readiness test is described which ensures that space vehicle systems are in a state of flight readiness and are compatible with associated ground support equipment. The functions of propellant loading, umbilical ejection, ignition, holddown arm release, liftoff, and service arm and tail service mast retraction are simulated. The test outline is presented along with a list of references, intercommunications information, operations interface control chart, and flight test.

  3. Integration Testing of Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowards, Stephanie; Honeycutt, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of conducting multi-system integration testing of space flight elements in lieu of merely shipping and shooting to the launch site and launching. "Ship and shoot" is a philosophy that proposes to transport flight elements directly from the factory to the launch site and begin the mission without further testing. Integration testing, relevant to validation testing in this context, is a risk mitigation effort that builds upon the individual element and system levels of qualification and acceptance tests, greatly improving the confidence of operations in space. The International Space Station Program (ISSP) experience is the focus of most discussions from a historical perspective, while proposed integration testing of the Constellation Program is also discussed. The latter will include Multi-Element Integration Testing (MElT) and Flight Element Integration Testing (FElT).

  4. Lyman-alpha measurements of neutral hydrogen in the outer geocorona and in interplanetary space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. E.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Results of hydrogen Lyman-alpha (1216 A) measurements made on a continuous basis by a two-channel photometer on Ogo 5 from March 1968 to June 1971. The highly elliptical orbit provided measurements of both the outer geocorona and of the 1216-A sky background emission, since geocoronal scattering is minimal at the apogee distance of 150,000 km. Selected data (through 1970) are presented, as well as an interpretation of the three principal discoveries to date - namely, (1) a pronounced antisolar enhancement of the geocoronal scattering beyond 70,000 km, which is regarded as evidence for a hydrogen 'geotail' produced by solar Lyman-alpha radiation pressure; (2) a clear correlation of periodic variations in the sky background emission with solar activity associated with solar rotation; and (3) an annual variation of the 1216-A sky background emission, caused by the earth's orbital motion within the cavity created by the solar wind in the nearby interstellar hydrogen.

  5. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Phillips, Brandon S.

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats, Communication Satellites, and Outer Planet Science Satellites all share one thing in common: Mission success depends on maintaining power in the harsh space environment. For a vast majority of satellites, spacecraft power is sourced by a photovoltaic (PV) array system. Built around PV cells, the array systems also include wiring, substrates, connectors, and protection diodes. Each of these components must function properly throughout the mission in order for power production to remain at nominal levels. Failure of even one component can lead to a crippling loss of power. To help ensure PV array systems do not suffer failures on-orbit due to the space environment, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a wide ranging test and evaluation capability. Key elements of this capability include: Testing: a. Ultraviolet (UV) Exposure b. Charged Particle Radiation (Electron and Proton) c. Thermal Cycling d. Plasma and Beam Environments Evaluation: a. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Screening b. Optical Inspection and easurement c. PV Power Output including Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) measurements This paper will describe the elements of the space environment which particularly impact PV array systems. MSFC test capabilities will be described to show how the relevant space environments can be applied to PV array systems in the laboratory. A discussion of MSFC evaluation capabilities will also be provided. The sample evaluation capabilities offer test engineers a means to quantify the effects of the space environment on their PV array system or component. Finally, examples will be shown of the effects of the space environment on actual PV array materials tested at MSFC.

  6. MISSE-X: Affordable Space Environment Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    MISSE–X is a robotically serviceable ISS external facility providing government, industry and academia experimenters with affordable access to space for materials durability testing of potential ...

  7. Telerobotics test bed for space structure assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitami, M.; Ogimoto, K.; Yasumoto, F.; Katsuragawa, T.; Itoko, T.; Kurosaki, Y.; Hirai, S.; Machida, K.

    1994-01-01

    A cooperative research on super long distance space telerobotics is now in progress both in Japan and USA. In this program. several key features will be tested, which can be applicable to the control of space robots as well as to terrestrial robots. Local (control) and remote (work) sites will be shared between Electrotechnical Lab (ETL) of MITI in Japan and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in USA. The details of a test bed for this international program are discussed in this report.

  8. Space station structures and dynamics test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.; Townsend, John S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses unique challenges for development and implementation of new technology. The technology arises from the special requirement that the station be built and constructed to function in a weightless environment, where static loads are minimal and secondary to system dynamics and control problems. One specific challenge confronting NASA is the development of a dynamics test program for: (1) defining space station design requirements, and (2) identifying the characterizing phenomena affecting the station's design and development. A general definition of the space station dynamic test program, as proposed by MSFC, forms the subject of this report. The test proposal is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station. The test program will help to define the key issues and/or problems inherent to large space structure analysis, design, and testing. Development of a parametric data base and verification of the math models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The philosophy is to integrate dynamics into the design phase through extensive ground testing and analytical ground simulations of generic systems, prototype elements, and subassemblies. On-orbit testing of the station will also be used to define its capability.

  9. Marshall Space Flight Center Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    The Test Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has over 50 facilities across 400+ acres inside a secure, fenced facility. The entire Center is located inside the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal, a 40,000 acre military reservation. About 150 Government and 250 contractor personnel operate facilities capable of all types of propulsion and structural testing, from small components to engine systems and structural strength, structural dynamic and environmental testing. We have tremendous engineering expertise in research, evaluation, analysis, design and development, and test of space transportation systems, subsystems, and components.

  10. Z-1 Prototype Space Suit Testing Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Space Suit team of the NASA-Johnson Space Center performed a series of test with the Z-1 prototype space suit in 2012. This paper discusses, at a summary level, the tests performed and results from those tests. The purpose of the tests were two-fold: 1) characterize the suit performance so that the data could be used in the downselection of components for the Z-2 Space Suit and 2) develop interfaces with the suitport and exploration vehicles through pressurized suit evaluations. Tests performed included isolated and functional range of motion data capture, Z-1 waist and hip testing, joint torque testing, CO2 washout testing, fit checks and subject familiarizations, an exploration vehicle aft deck and suitport controls interface evaluation, delta pressure suitport tests including pressurized suit don and doff, and gross mobility and suitport ingress and egress demonstrations in reduced gravity. Lessons learned specific to the Z-1 prototype and to suit testing techniques will be presented.

  11. Solaris: Orbital station: Automatic laboratory for outer space rendezvous and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runavot, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design for a modular orbital space station (unmanned) is outlined. The three main components are a support module, an experiment module, and an orbital transport vehicle. The major types of missions (assembly, materials processing, and Earth observation) that could be performed are discussed.

  12. Tenth Report By the International Telecommunication Union on Telecommunication and the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Reports are presented on the 1970-71 activities of the General Secretariat of the International Telecommunication Union, the International Frequency Registration Board, the International Radio Consultative Committee, and the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee. In addition progress in the field of space communications made…

  13. Development and Testing of a Laser-Powered Cryobot for Outer Planet Icy Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, V.; Stone, W.; Hogan, B.; Lelievre, S.; Flesher, C.

    2013-12-01

    Project VALKYRIE (Very-deep Autonomous Laser-powered Kilowatt-class Yo-yoing Robotic Ice Explorer) is a NASA-funded effort to develop the first laser powered cryobot - a self-contained intelligent ice penetrator capable of delivering science payloads through ice caps of the outer planet icy moons. The long range objective is to enable a full-scale Europa lander mission in which an autonomous life-searching underwater vehicle is transported by the cryobot and launched into the sub-surface Europan ocean. Mission readiness testing will involve an Antarctic sub-glacial lake cryobot sample return through kilometers of ice cap thickness. A key element of VALKYRIE's design is the use of a high energy laser as the primary power source. 1070 nm laser light is transmitted at a power level of 5 kW from a surface-based laser and injected into a custom-designed optical waveguide that is spooled out from the descending cryobot. Light exits the downstream end of the fiber, travels through diverging optics, and strikes a beam dump, which channels thermal power to hot water jets that melt the descent hole. Some beam energy is converted, via photovoltaic cells, to electricity for running onboard electronics and jet pumps. Since the vehicle can be sterilized prior to deployment and the melt path freezes behind it, preventing forward contamination, expansions on VALKYRIE concepts may enable cleaner and faster access to sub-glacial Antarctic lakes. Testing at Stone Aerospace between 2010 and 2013 has already demonstrated high power optical energy transfer over relevant (kilometer scale) distances as well as the feasibility of a vehicle-deployed optical waveguide (through which the power is transferred). The test vehicle is equipped with a forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that can detect obstacles out to 1 kilometer from the vehicle. The initial ASTEP test vehicle will carry a science payload consisting of a DUV flow cytometer and a water sampling sub-system that will be

  14. Space station propulsion technology: Space station propulsion system test bed test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Testing of the hydrogen/oxygen Space Station Propulsion System will demonstrate the technology readiness for the IOC application. To facilitate early demonstration of this technology and to allow demonstration of maturing technology, this testing will be performed with the components installed on a test bed which simulated the Space Station Structure. The test plan contains a description of the test bed, test objective, instrumentation plan, and controls plan. Each of these is discussed in detail.

  15. Torsional suspension system for testing space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Wilmer H., III (Inventor); Gold, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A low frequency torsional suspension system for testing a space structure uses a plurality of suspension stations attached to the space structure along the length thereof in order to suspend the space structure from an overhead support. Each suspension station includes a disk pivotally mounted to the overhead support, and two cables which have upper ends connected to the disk and lower ends connected to the space structure. The two cables define a parallelogram with the center of gravity of the space structure being vertically beneath the pivot axis of the disk. The vertical distance between the points of attachment of the cables to the disk and the pivot axis of the disk is adjusted to lower the frequency of the suspension system to a level which does not interfere with frequency levels of the space structure, thereby enabling accurate measurement.

  16. Synchrotron Radiation from Outer Space and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    The universe provides numerous extremely interesting astrophysical sources of synchrotron X radiation. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and other X-ray missions provide powerful probes of these and other cosmic X-ray sources. Chandra is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which also includes the Hubble Space telescope, the Spitzer Infrared Telescope Facility, and the now defunct Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory provides the best angular resolution (sub-arcsecond) of any previous, current, or planned (for the foreseeable near future) space-based X-ray instrumentation. We present here a brief overview of the technical capability of this X-Ray observatory and some of the remarkable discoveries involving cosmic synchrotron sources.

  17. A new method for power generation and distribution in outer space

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The power system is a major component of a space system's size, mass, technical complexity, and hence, cost. To date, space systems include the energy source as an integral part of the mission satellite. Potentially significant benefit could be realized by separating the energy source from the end-use system and transmitting the power via an energy beam (power beaming) (Coomes et al., 1989). This concept parallels the terrestrial central generating station and transmission grid. In this summary, the system components required for power beaming implementation are outlined and applied to a satellite for power beaming implementation are outlined and applied to a satellite constellation to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing power beaming in the next 20 years. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) program are presented. The objective of the research is to develop advanced nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology based on the particle bed reactor concept. A strong philosophical commitment exists in the industry/national laboratory team to emphasize testing in development activities. Nuclear testing currently underway to support development of SNTP technology is addressed.

  19. Development of Lightweight Material Composites to Insulate Cryogenic Tanks for 30-Day Storage in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for an MLI system which will meet the design constraints of an ILRV used for 7- to 30-day missions. The ten tasks are briefly described: (1) material survey and procurement, material property tests, and selection of composites to be considered; (2) definition of environmental parameters and tooling requirements, and thermal and structural design verification test definition; (3) definition of tanks and associated hardware to be used, and definition of MLI concepts to be considered; (4) thermal analyses, including purge, evacuation, and reentry repressurization analyses; (5) structural analyses (6) thermal degradation tests of composite and structural tests of fastener; (7) selection of MLI materials and system; (8) definition of a conceptual MLI system design; (9) evaluation of nondestructive inspection techniques and definition of procedures for repair of damaged areas; and (10) preparation of preliminary specifications.

  20. Outer layers of a carbon star: The view from the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.; Ensman, Lisa M.; Alexander, D. R.; Avrett, E. H.; Brown, A.; Carpenter, K. G.; Eriksson, K.; Gustafsson, B.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Judge, Philip D.

    1995-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the relationship between stellar chromospheres and mass loss, which is a common property of carbon stars and other asymptotic giant branch stars, we have obtained ultraviolet spectra of the nearby N-type carbon star UU Aur using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In this paper we describe the HST observations, identify spectral features in both absorption and emission, and attempt to infer the velocity field in the chromosphere, upper troposphere, and circumstellar envelope from spectral line shifts. A mechanism for producing fluoresced emission to explain a previously unobserved emission line is proposed. Some related ground-based observations are also described.

  1. Scientific American Inventions From Outer Space: Everyday Uses For NASA Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present some of the inventions highlighted in the yearly publication of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spinoff. These inventions cover a wide range, some of which include improvements in health, medicine, public safety, energy, environment, resource management, computer technology, automation, construction, transportation, and manufacturing technology. NASA technology has brought forth thousands of commercial products which include athletic shoes, portable x-ray machines, and scratch-resistant sunglasses, guidance systems, lasers, solar power, robotics and prosthetic devices. These products are examples of NASA research innovations which have positively impacted the community.

  2. Clearing the Air: New Approaches to Life Support in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J.; Howard, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on research into atmospheric revitalization systems for long-term space travel and the use ofCOMSOL Multiphysics to understand how structured sorbents can be used to improve the performance of adsorption processes via thermal management. We are developing the next generation of atmosphere revitalization systems, which will reach for new levels of resource conservation via a high percentage of loop closure. For example, a high percentage of carbon dioxide, exhaled by crew, can be converted via reaction to drinking water, closing the loop from human metabolic waste to supply. Adsorption processes play a lead role in these new/closed loop systems.

  3. Making astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, Michael

    2015-08-01

    We have built a social interface and funding model based on collaborative consumption to empower public access to powerful telescopes.Slooh’s robotic observatories put anyone with a desire to look up and wonder in the driver’s seat of powerful mountaintop telescopes. Our members have taken millions of images of over 50,000 objects in the night sky, from tracking asteroids for NASA to discovering supernovae. Slooh launched December 25th, 2003 from our flagship observatory at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands and in the ensuing decade we’ve built a network of 20+ observatory partners around the world to capture every magical moment in outer space. We are the world’s largest community of people peering into space together.About SloohSlooh makes astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves. Since 2003 Slooh has connected telescopes to the Internet for access by the broader public. Slooh’s automated observatories develop celestial images in real-time for broadcast to the Internet. Slooh’s technology is protected by Patent No.: US 7,194,146 B2 which was awarded in 2006. Slooh members have taken over 3m photos/150,000 FITS of over 50,000 celestial objects, participated in numerous discoveries with leading astronomical institutions and made over 2,000 submissions to the Minor Planet Center. Slooh’s flagship observatories are situated on Mt. Teide, in partnership with the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), and in Chile, in partnership with the Catholic University. Slooh has also broadcast live celestial events from partner observatories in Arizona, Japan, Hawaii, Cypress, Dubai, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Norway. Slooh’s free live broadcasts of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), comets, transits, eclipses, solar activity etc. feature narration by astronomy experts Will Gater, Bob Berman, Paul Cox and Eric Edelman and are syndicated to

  4. MISSE 6-Testing Materials in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S; Kinard, William H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment by placing them in space environment for several months. In this paper, a few materials and components from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) that have been flown on MISSE 6 mission will be discussed. These include laser and optical elements for photonic devices. The pre-characterized MISSE 6 materials were packed inside a ruggedized Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that resembles a suitcase. The PEC was tested for survivability due to launch conditions. Subsequently, the MISSE 6 PEC was transported by the STS-123 mission to International Space Station (ISS) on March 11, 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the PEC to external handrails and opened the PEC for long term exposure to the space environment.

  5. Integration Testing of Space Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, Timothy; Sowards, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Based on the previous success' of Multi-Element Integration Testing (MEITs) for the International Space Station Program, these type of integrated tests have also been planned for the Constellation Program: MEIT (1) CEV to ISS (emulated) (2) CEV to Lunar Lander/EDS (emulated) (3) Future: Lunar Surface Systems and Mars Missions Finite Element Integration Test (FEIT) (1) CEV/CLV (2) Lunar Lander/EDS/CaL V Integrated Verification Tests (IVT) (1) Performed as a subset of the FEITs during the flight tests and then performed for every flight after Full Operational Capability (FOC) has been obtained with the flight and ground Systems.

  6. Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

  7. Department of Defense Space Test Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Eleni M.; Zdenek, Jeffery S.

    2000-11-01

    During the 1960's, as the importance of the space environment was recognized, it became apparent that space systems technologies needed to be developed at a rapid rate. The Department of Defense (DoD) realized that before developing and deploying space systems for operational use, the needed to be tested in space. At that time no organization of funds were readily available to provide timely spaceflight for military space systems. As a result, the DoD Space Test Program (STP) was created in 1966 by a memorandum from the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E). The purpose of this program was to provide flight opportunities for all DoD research and development activities in an economic and efficient manner. For a payload to be flown by STP it must first be sponsored by a DoD organization. The payload is then briefed through a series of service review boards until it reaches the DoD level. The DoD Space Experiment Review Board (SERB) makes the final selections and gives STP a ranked list of payloads to attempt to fly. This process happens annually, and STP flies as many payloads as funding and opportunity allow.

  8. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1999-11-01

    Radioisotopes have been used successfully for more than 25 years to supply the heat for thermoelectric generators on various deep-space probes. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems have been proposed as low-thrust ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. The perceived liability of radioisotope electric generators for ion propulsion is their high mass. Conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators have a specific mass of about 200 kg/kW of electric power. Many development efforts have been undertaken with the aim of reducing the specific mass of radioisotope electric systems. Recent performance estimates suggest that specific masses of 50 kg/kW may be achievable with thermophotovoltaic and alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion generators. Powerplants constructed from these near-term radioisotope electric generators and long-life ion thrusters will likely have specific masses in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power if development continues over the next decade. In earlier studies, it was concluded that flight times within the Solar System are indeed insensitive to reductions in the powerplant specific mass, and that a timely scientific program of robotic planetary rendezvous and near-interstellar space missions is enabled by primary electric propulsion once the powerplant specific mass is in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW. Flight times can be substantially reduced by using hybrid propulsion schemes that combine chemical propulsion, gravity assist, and electric propulsion. Hybrid schemes are further explored in this article to illustrate how the performance of REP is enhanced for Pluto rendezvous, heliopause orbiter, and gravitational lens missions.

  9. Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sandra; Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph; Nappier, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test

  10. Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph A.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Nappier, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test

  11. Langley aeronautics and space test highlights, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of the significant tests which were performed during calendar year 1984 in Langley test facilities are highlighted. The broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research are illustrated.

  12. Interferometric and nonlinear-optical spectral-imaging techniques for outer space and live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Multidimensional signals such as the spectral images allow us to have deeper insights into the natures of objects. In this paper the spectral imaging techniques that are based on optical interferometry and nonlinear optics are presented. The interferometric imaging technique is based on the unified theory of Van Cittert-Zernike and Wiener-Khintchine theorems and allows us to retrieve a spectral image of an object in the far zone from the 3D spatial coherence function. The retrieval principle is explained using a very simple object. The promising applications to space interferometers for astronomy that are currently in progress will also be briefly touched on. An interesting extension of interferometric spectral imaging is a 3D and spectral imaging technique that records 4D information of objects where the 3D and spectral information is retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical field. The 3D imaging is realized via the numerical inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. A few techniques suggested recently are introduced. The nonlinear optical technique that utilizes stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for spectral imaging of biomedical targets is presented lastly. The strong signals of SRS permit us to get vibrational information of molecules in the live cell or tissue in real time. The vibrational information of unstained or unlabeled molecules is crucial especially for medical applications. The 3D information due to the optical nonlinearity is also the attractive feature of SRS spectral microscopy.

  13. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote earth field sensing magnetometer and servo control building; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils are 42-foot in diameter and a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils accommodates spacecraft access to the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions ground testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  14. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Compliance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) defines an open architecture for software defined radios. This document describes the testing methodology to aid in determining the degree of compliance to the STRS architecture. Non-compliances are reported to the software and hardware developers as well as the NASA project manager so that any non-compliances may be fixed or waivers issued. Since the software developers may be divided into those that provide the operating environment including the operating system and STRS infrastructure (OE) and those that supply the waveform applications, the tests are divided accordingly. The static tests are also divided by the availability of an automated tool that determines whether the source code and configuration files contain the appropriate items. Thus, there are six separate step-by-step test procedures described as well as the corresponding requirements that they test. The six types of STRS compliance tests are: STRS application automated testing, STRS infrastructure automated testing, STRS infrastructure testing by compiling WFCCN with the infrastructure, STRS configuration file testing, STRS application manual code testing, and STRS infrastructure manual code testing. Examples of the input and output of the scripts are shown in the appendices as well as more specific information about what to configure and test in WFCCN for non-compliance. In addition, each STRS requirement is listed and the type of testing briefly described. Attached is also a set of guidelines on what to look for in addition to the requirements to aid in the document review process.

  15. Space traffic management: The new comprehensive approach for regulating the use of outer space—Results from the 2006 IAA cosmic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2008-01-01

    October 2007 held two anniversaries: 50 years ago, Sputnik was launched and 40 years ago, the Outer Space Treaty entered into force. The first satellite and the foundation of the legal regime governing outer space mark the two decisive points for the use of outer space and its international regulation. During the past decades, space activities have taken a tremendous development in quantity and scope. Regulation has, however, not been able to keep pace with technology, so that today the legal environment shows more and more shortcomings. This paper argues that the growing problems of space law cannot be solved by "piecemeal engineering" any more but can only be overcome through a "big bang" comprehensive approach for regulating space activities: Space traffic management (STM). The debate on this issue has recently been strongly invigorated by the publication of the IAA Cosmic Study on STM. [IAA "Cosmic Study on Space Traffic Management", Paris 2006, in: edited by C. Contant-Jorgensen (Secretary of the Study Group), P. Lala, K.-U. Schrogl (Coordinators of the Study Group) (Eds.), The Study Group consisted of 16 contributors from numerous countries covering engineering, policy and legal aspects. Download at [1].

  16. Deep Space Test Bed for Radiation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan

    2006-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other Exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation and flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status.

  17. Inner and outer waste storage vaults with leak-testing accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, B.C.

    1985-04-23

    A storage arrangement for waste materials of the type which tend to pollute the environment consists of a waterproof reinforced concrete vault, preferably located underground, and a permanent reinforced concrete storage vault within the underground vault and spaced from the walls thereof by a water lock. Sealed containers filled with chemical or nuclear waste are deposited in the permanent storage vault and sealed therein with bitumen. The underground vault is provided with an access opening to the water lock to enable testing of the water periodically for contamination due to leakage from the permanent storage vault. If no leakage is evident after a predetermined time period has elapsed, the permanent storage vault is removed from the underground vault and shipped to a permanent storage site.

  18. Computer Program for Space-Shuttle Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, M. D.; Fine, G. H.; Hollombe, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Demand on Space Shuttle general-purpose computers reduced. Simulations Testbed and Scenario Pre-processor (STB&SPP) system reduces need for use of GPC's in hardware and software development and testing. System consists of computer program, SPP, and set of utility subroutines, STB, which incorporates Interface Simulator (ISIM). STB&SPP system written in FORTRAN V and Assembler.

  19. Towards testing quantum physics in deep space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenbaek, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    MAQRO is a proposal for a medium-sized space mission to use the unique environment of deep space in combination with novel developments in space technology and quantum technology to test the foundations of physics. The goal is to perform matter-wave interferometry with dielectric particles of up to 10^{11} atomic mass units and testing for deviations from the predictions of quantum theory. Novel techniques from quantum optomechanics with optically trapped particles are to be used for preparing the test particles for these experiments. The core elements of the instrument are placed outside the spacecraft and insulated from the hot spacecraft via multiple thermal shields allowing to achieve cryogenic temperatures via passive cooling and ultra-high vacuum levels by venting to deep space. In combination with low force-noise microthrusters and inertial sensors, this allows realizing an environment well suited for long coherence times of macroscopic quantum superpositions and long integration times. Since the original proposal in 2010, significant progress has been made in terms of technology development and in refining the instrument design. Based on these new developments, we submitted/will submit updated versions of the MAQRO proposal in 2015 and 2016 in response to Cosmic-Vision calls of ESA for a medium-sized mission. A central goal has been to address and overcome potentially critical issues regarding the readiness of core technologies and to provide realistic concepts for further technology development. We present the progress on the road towards realizing this ground-breaking mission harnessing deep space in novel ways for testing the foundations of physics, a technology pathfinder for macroscopic quantum technology and quantum optomechanics in space.

  20. Space station ECLSS simplified integrated test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathyrn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the Space Station Simplified Integrated Test (SIT) was conducted. The first in a series of three integrated Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system tests, the primary objectives of the SIT were to verify proper operation of ECLS subsystems functioning in an integrated fashion as well as to gather preliminary performance data for the partial ECLS system used in the test. A description of the SIT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements and water and gas samples taken during the test are included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test is reported providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item.

  1. Resistance of spacecraft isolates to outer space for planetary protection purposes -first results of the experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Moeller, Ralf

    Spore-forming microbes are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection, be-cause their endospores are highly resistant to a variety of environmental extremes, including certain sterilization procedures and the harsh environment of outer space or planetary sur-faces (Nicholson et al., 2000; Horneck et al. 2009). Furthermore, isolates from space craft and space craft assembly facilities have been identified that form spores of an elevated resistance to various physical and chemical conditions, such as ionizing and UV radiation, desiccation and oxidative stress (La Duc et al., 2007). This observation led to the supposition that the spe-cial conditions of ultraclean spacecraft assembly facilities and the applied spacecraft cleaning and decontamination measures cause a selection of the most resistant organisms as survivors. To test this hypothesis, spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 isolated from these environments as well as spores of the laboratory strain B. subtilis 168 were subjected to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission (February 7, 2008 -September 12, 2009), attached to the EuTEF platform outside of the Columbus module of the International Space Station. The spores were mounted as dry layers onto spacecraft-qualified material (aluminum coupons) and exposed to the following parameters of space, applied sep-arately or in selected combinations: (i) space vacuum, (ii) solar extraterrestrial UV radiation including vacuum-UV, (iii) simulated Mars atmosphere and UV radiation climate, and (iv) galactic cosmic radiation. After recovery, visual inspection showed color changes of the sun-exposed spore samples from white to brownish demonstrating photochemical damage caused by solar extraterrestrial UV radiation. On-going analyses include studies of viability and capabil-ity of repair of damage, mutagenic spectrum, e.g. trp-revertants, rifampicin-resistant mutants, DNA lesion, global gene expression, and genomic and

  2. A Testing Framework for Critical Space SW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ignacio; Di Cerbo, Antonio; Dehnhardt, Erik; Massimo, Tipaldi; Brünjes, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a testing framework for critical space SW named Technical Specification Validation Framework (TSVF). It provides a powerful and flexible means and can be used throughout the SW test activities (test case specification & implementation, test execution and test artifacts analysis). In particular, tests can be run in an automated and/or step-by-step mode. The TSVF framework is currently used for the validation of the Satellite Control Software (SCSW), which runs on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite on-board computer. The main purpose of the SCSW is to control the spacecraft along with its various subsystems (AOCS, Payload, Electrical Power, Telemetry Tracking & Command, etc.) in a way that guarantees a high degree of flexibility and autonomy. The TSVF framework serves the challenging needs of the SCSW project, where a plan-driven approach has been combined with an agile process in order to produce preliminary SW versions (with a reduced scope of implemented functionality) in order to fulfill the stakeholders needs ([1]). The paper has been organised as follows. Section 2 gives an overview of the TSVF architecture and interfaces versus the test bench along with the technology used for its implementation. Section 3 describes the key elements of the XML based language for the test case implementation. Section 4 highlights all the benefits compared to conventional test environments requiring a manual test script development, whereas section 5 concludes the paper.

  3. Space Shuttle orbiter approach and landing test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Approach and Landing Test Program consisted of a series of steps leading to the demonstration of the capability of the Space Shuttle orbiter to safely approach and land under conditions similar to those planned for the final phases of an orbital flight. The tests were conducted with the orbiter mounted on top of a specially modified carrier aircraft. The first step provided airworthiness and performance verification of the carrier aircraft after modification. The second step consisted of three taxi tests and five flight tests with an inert unmanned orbiter. The third step consisted of three mated tests with an active manned orbiter. The fourth step consisted of five flights in which the orbiter was separated from the carrier aircraft. For the final two flights, the orbiter tail cone was replaced by dummy engines to simulate the actual orbital configuration. Landing gear braking and steering tests were accomplished during rollouts following the free flight landings. Ferry testing was integrated into the Approach and Landing Test Program to the extent possible. In addition, four ferry test flights were conducted with the orbiter mated to the carrier aircraft in the ferry configuration after the free-flight tests were completed.

  4. Space Power Facility Readiness for Space Station Power System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Roger L.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides information which shows that the NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Power Facility (SPF) will be ready to execute the Space Station electric power system thermal vacuum chamber testing. The SPF is located at LeRC West (formerly the Plum Brook Station), Sandusky, Ohio. The SPF is the largest space environmental chamber in the world, having an inside horizontal diameter of 100 ft. and an inside height at the top of the hemisphere of 122 ft. The vacuum system can achieve a pressure lower than 1 x 10(exp -5) Torr. The cryoshroud, cooled by gaseous nitrogen, can reach a temperature of -250 F, and is 80 ft. long x 40 ft. wide x 22 ft. high. There is access to the chamber through two 50 ft. x 50 ft. doors. Each door opens into an assembly area about 150 ft. long x 70 ft. wide x 80 ft. high. Other available facilities are offices, shop area, data acquisition system with 930 pairs of hard lines, 7 megawatts of power to chamber, 245K gal. liquid nitrogen storage, cooling tower, natural gas, service air, and cranes up to 25 tons.

  5. Education's Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railton, Esther

    Information collected from 81 camps, schools, and colleges concerning outdoor environmental facilities and program changes taking place in outdoor education is presented in this paper. Included in this information are descriptions of sites, duration of programs, suggested seasons, cost and financing, camp organization, program activities, age…

  6. The Outer Limits: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Barbara R.; Biesekerski, Joan

    The Quinmester course "The Outer Limits" involves an exploration of unknown worlds, mental and physical, through fiction and nonfiction. Its purpose is to focus attention on the ongoing conquest of the frontiers of the mind, the physical world, and outer space. The subject matter includes identification and investigation of unknown worlds in the…

  7. Flight testing of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, V. D.

    1981-01-01

    An account is given of the flight testing development phase of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Because of its low lift-to-drag ratio, the Orbiter must make its 280-kt landing approach in the lower atmosphere with a steep descent angle of 19 deg, pulling up at 1800 feet altitude to a 1-1.5 deg descent angle, and finally gliding to a landing at 195 kt. The Orbiter has almost neutral aerodynamic static stability in pitch and yaw, requiring the use of electronic stabilization to augment the vehicle's natural stability. Attention is given to the flight test program, which comprised the first four flights of the Space Shuttle, and which substantially relied on preflight analysis to establish confidence in Shuttle flight performance. Also discussed are the solar radiation absorption and aerodynamic heating characteristics

  8. Langley aeronautics and space test highlights, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to perform basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Some of the significant tests which were performed during calendar year 1983 in Langley test facilities, a number of which are unique in the world are highlighted. Both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research are illustrated.

  9. Test evaluation of potential heatshield contamination of an outer planet probe's gas sampling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of retaining the heat shield for outer planet probes was investigated as a potential source of atmospheric sample contamination by outgassing. The onboard instruments which are affected by the concept are the pressure sensor, temperature sensor, IR detector, nephelometer, and gas sampling instruments. It was found that: (1) The retention of the charred heatshield and the baseline atmospheric sampling concepts are compatible with obtaining noncontaminated atmospheric samples. (2) Increasing the sampling tube length so that it extends beyond the viscous boundary layer eliminates contamination of the atmospheric sample. (3) The potential for contamination increases with angle of attack.

  10. Space shuttle galley water system test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A water system for food rehydration was tested to determine the requirements for a space shuttle gallery flight system. A new food package concept had been previously developed in which water was introduced into the sealed package by means of a needle and septum. The needle configuration was developed and the flow characteristics measured. The interface between the food package and the water system, oven, and food tray was determined.

  11. Space-based Tests of Relativistic Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Vyacheslav G.

    Since its initial publication, Einstein's general theory of relativity had been tested to a very high precision and presently is considered to be the standard theory of gravitation, especially when the phenomena in astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. As such, this theory has many practically important applications including spacecraft navigation, relativistic geodesy, time transfer, etc. Here we discuss the foundations of general relativity, present its current empirical status, and highlight the need for the new generation of high-accuracy tests. We present some space-based gravitational experiments and discuss anticipated advances in our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature.

  12. The Need to Update Policies for Science, Exploration, Use and Protection in Outer Space: Learning from Experiences of the Antarctic Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Sterns, Patricia; Tennen, Leslie

    The Outer Space Treaty and its planetary protection provisions have served the science and space communities for over four decades in protecting planetary environments from biolog-ical contamination. However, the increasing pace of planned robotic and human missions, combined with our changed understanding of habitability and planetary environments, bring new challenges to environmental stewardship beyond Earth. This presentation reviews current environmental and planetary protection policies under the Outer Space Treaty and identifies specific gaps that could be problematic for the scientific community in the years and decades ahead. A comparison of the Antarctic Treaty and the Outer Space Treaty is also useful to identify important similarities and differences in approaches to environmental protection and management. Since both treaties aim to safeguard resources for humankind and ensure peace-ful scientific exploration and cooperation, it is instructive to analyze how each Treaty and its policies have been revised over time in response to various challenges— scientific, environmen-tal, commercial and otherwise. This comparison suggests that the space science community should become proactively involved in addressing issues of preservation, protection, and use of planetary environments, whether for science exploration or other activities. Perhaps the time has come to re-evaluate our piecemeal approach to planetary management, and undertake coordinated, international planning to develop a comprehensive framework for environmental management and decision making, one that applies to all types of human activities —not just scientific.

  13. Space shuttle propellant constitutive law verification tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Propellants Task (Task 2.0) on the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program (SPIP), a database of material properties was generated for the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) PBAN-based propellant. A parallel effort on the Propellants Task was the generation of an improved constitutive theory for the PBAN propellant suitable for use in a finite element analysis (FEA) of the RSRM. The outcome of an analysis with the improved constitutive theory would be more reliable prediction of structural margins of safety. The work described in this report was performed by Materials Laboratory personnel at Thiokol Corporation/Huntsville Division under NASA contract NAS8-39619, Mod. 3. The report documents the test procedures for the refinement and verification tests for the improved Space Shuttle RSRM propellant material model, and summarizes the resulting test data. TP-H1148 propellant obtained from mix E660411 (manufactured February 1989) which had experienced ambient igloo storage in Huntsville, Alabama since January 1990, was used for these tests.

  14. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote Earth field sensing magnetometer and servo controller; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils of the Braunbek system are 42-foot in diameter with a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils to accommodate spacecraft access into the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions, ground-testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  15. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalosky, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote Earth field sensing magnetometer and servo controller; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils of the Braunbek system are 42-foot in diameter with a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils to accommodate spacecraft access into the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions, ground testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  16. Diagenetic patterns and pore space distribution along a platform to outer-shelf transect (Urgonian limestone, Barremian-Aptian, SE France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonide, Philippe; Fournier, François; Reijmer, John J. G.; Vonhof, Hubert; Borgomano, Jean; Dijk, Jurrien; Rosenthal, Maelle; van Goethem, Manon; Cochard, Jean; Meulenaars, Karlien

    2014-06-01

    The Urgonian limestones of Late Barremian/Early Aptian from Provence (SE, France) are characterized by the occurrence of microporous limestones at regional scale alternating with tight carbonates. This study, based on petrographical (sediment texture, facies) and diagenetical analyses (cement stratigraphy, porosity and isotope geochemistry) of more than 800 limestone samples provides insight into the parameters controlling the genesis, preservation or occlusion of microporosity along an inner platform to outer shelf transect. The tight and microporous Urgonian limestones from Provence can be grouped into 5 rock-types based on textures, associated depositional environments, porosity and pore-type, being: (1) tight inner-platform: TIP; (2) porous inner platform: PIP; (3) tight outer platform: TOP; (4) porous outer platform: POP and (5) tight outer shelf: TOS. In tight (TIP, TOP and TOS types) limestones intergranular and intragranular pore spaces were entirely occluded by early marine and/or early meteoric cementation, whereas in microporous (PIP, POP) limestones a significant fraction of the intergranular macroporosity was preserved during early and shallow burial diagenesis. Micrite neomorphism (hybrid Ostwald ripening process) occurred during meteoric shallow burial diagenesis in PIP and POP limestones during the regional Durancian Uplift event (Albian-Lower Cenomanian). This process resulted in microporosity enhancement and preservation. Circulation of meteoric fluids during exhumation produces intercrystalline microporosity enhancement and moldic porosity development. The present study documents the important role that both early diagenetic and depositional cycles and long-term tectonic processes have on pore space evolution and distribution in Mesozoic platform carbonates.

  17. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nance, Donald; Liever, Peter; Nielsen, Tanner

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test, conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center. The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  18. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  19. International Space Station Cathode Life Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    Four hollow cathode assembly (HCA) life tests were initiated at operating conditions simulating on-orbit operation of the International Space Station plasma contactor. The objective of these tests is to demonstrate the mission-required 18,000 hour lifetime with high-fidelity development model HCAS. HCAs are operated with a continuous 6 sccm xenon flow rate and 3 A anode current. On-orbit emission current requirements are simulated with a square waveform consisting of 50 minutes at a 2.5 A emission current and 40 minutes with no emission current. One HCA test was terminated after approximately 8,000 hours so that a destructive analysis could be performed. The analysis revealed no life-limiting processes and the ultimate lifetime was projected to be greater than the mission requirement. Testing continues for the remaining three HCAs which have accumulated approximately 8,000 hours, 10,000 hours, and 11,000 hours, respectively, as of June 1997. Anode and bias voltages, strong indicators of cathode electron emitter condition, are within acceptable ranges and have exhibited no life- or performance-limiting phenomena to date.

  20. A New Acoustic Test Facility at Alcatel Space Test Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurat, A.; Jezequel, L.

    2004-08-01

    Due to the obsolescence of its acoustic test facility, Alcatel Space has initiated the investment of a large acoustic chamber on its test centre located in Cannes, south of France. This paper presents the main specification elaborated to design the facility, and the solution chosen : it will be located on a dedicated area of the existing test centre and will be based on technical solution already used in similar facilities over the world. The main structure consists in a chamber linked to an external envelope (concrete building) through suspension aiming at decoupling the vibration and preventing from seismic risks. The noise generation system is based on the use of Wyle modulators located on the chamber roof. Gaseous nitrogen is produced by a dedicated gas generator developed by Air-Liquide that could deliver high flow rate with accurate pressure and temperature controls. The control and acquisition system is based on existing solution implemented on the vibration facilities of the test centre. With the start of the construction in May 2004, the final acceptance tests are planned for April 2005, and the first satellites to be tested are planned for May 2005.

  1. SpaceX Test Fires Engine Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    One of NASA's industry partners, SpaceX, fires its new SuperDraco engine prototype in preparation for the ninth milestone to be completed under SpaceX's funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) with NASA's...

  2. Testing of tactile sensors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Lisa; Weadon, Timothy L.; Evans, Thomas; DeVallance, David B.; Sabolsky, Edward M.

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to integrate tactile sensing into robotic manipulators performing tasks in space environments, including those used to repair satellites. Integration can be achieved by embedding specialized tactile sensors. Reliable and consistent signal interpretation can be obtained by ensuring that sensors with a suitable sensing mechanism are selected based on operational demands, and that materials used within the sensors do not change structurally under vacuum and expected applied pressures, and between temperatures of -80°C to +120°C. The sensors must be able to withstand space environmental conditions and remain adequately sensitive throughout their operating life. Additionally, it is necessary to integrate the sensors into the target system with minimum disturbance while remaining responsive to applied loads. Previous work has been completed to characterize sensors within the selected temperature and pressure ranges. The current work builds on this investigation by embedding these sensors in different geometries and testing the response measured among varying configurations. Embedding material selection was aided by using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) to determine stress/strain behavior for adhesives and compliant layers used to keep the sensors in place and distribute stresses evenly. Electromechanical characterization of the embedded sensor packages was conducted by using the DMA in tandem with an inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR) meter. Methods for embedding the sensor packages were developed with the aid of finite element analysis and physical testing to account for specific geometrical constraints. Embedded sensor prototypes were tested within representative models of potential embedding locations to compare final embedded sensor performance.

  3. National space test centers - Lewis Research Center Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskilly, Ronald R.

    1990-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center, NASA, presently has a number of test facilities that constitute a significant national space test resource. It is expected this capability will continue to find wide application in work involving this country's future in space. Testing from basic research to applied technology, to systems development, to ground support will be performed, supporting such activities as Space Station Freedom, the Space Exploration Initiative, Mission to Planet Earth, and many others. The major space test facilities at both Cleveland and Lewis' Plum Brook Station are described. Primary emphasis is on space propulsion facilities; other facilities of importance in space power and microgravity are also included.

  4. “Where Do Auditory Hallucinations Come From?”—A Brain Morphometry Study of Schizophrenia Patients With Inner or Outer Space Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Plaze, Marion; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Penttilä, Jani; Januel, Dominique; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Bellivier, Franck; Andoh, Jamila; Galinowski, André; Gallarda, Thierry; Artiges, Eric; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Mangin, Jean-François; Martinot, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations are a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia. Bleuler and Kraepelin distinguished 2 main classes of hallucinations: hallucinations heard outside the head (outer space, or external, hallucinations) and hallucinations heard inside the head (inner space, or internal, hallucinations). This distinction has been confirmed by recent phenomenological studies that identified 3 independent dimensions in auditory hallucinations: language complexity, self-other misattribution, and spatial location. Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations have already investigated language complexity and self-other misattribution, but the neural substrate of hallucination spatial location remains unknown. Magnetic resonance images of 45 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations and 20 healthy right-handed subjects were acquired. Two homogeneous subgroups of patients were defined based on the hallucination spatial location: patients with only outer space hallucinations (N = 12) and patients with only inner space hallucinations (N = 15). Between-group differences were then assessed using 2 complementary brain morphometry approaches: voxel-based morphometry and sulcus-based morphometry. Convergent anatomical differences were detected between the patient subgroups in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). In comparison to healthy subjects, opposite deviations in white matter volumes and sulcus displacements were found in patients with inner space hallucination and patients with outer space hallucination. The current results indicate that spatial location of auditory hallucinations is associated with the rTPJ anatomy, a key region of the “where” auditory pathway. The detected tilt in the sulcal junction suggests deviations during early brain maturation, when the superior temporal sulcus and its anterior terminal branch appear and merge. PMID:19666833

  5. Irreducible Tests for Space Mission Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As missions extend further into space, the modeling and simulation of their every action and instruction becomes critical. The greater the distance between Earth and the spacecraft, the smaller the window for communication becomes. Therefore, through modeling and simulating the planned operations, the most efficient sequence of commands can be sent to the spacecraft. The Space Mission Sequencing Software is being developed as the next generation of sequencing software to ensure the most efficient communication to interplanetary and deep space mission spacecraft. Aside from efficiency, the software also checks to make sure that communication during a specified time is even possible, meaning that there is not a planet or moon preventing reception of a signal from Earth or that two opposing commands are being given simultaneously. In this way, the software not only models the proposed instructions to the spacecraft, but also validates the commands as well.To ensure that all spacecraft communications are sequenced properly, a timeline is used to structure the data. The created timelines are immutable and once data is as-signed to a timeline, it shall never be deleted nor renamed. This is to prevent the need for storing and filing the timelines for use by other programs. Several types of timelines can be created to accommodate different types of communications (activities, measurements, commands, states, events). Each of these timeline types requires specific parameters and all have options for additional parameters if needed. With so many combinations of parameters available, the robustness and stability of the software is a necessity. Therefore a baseline must be established to ensure the full functionality of the software and it is here where the irreducible tests come into use.

  6. Teacher in Space Participants testing space food in orientation session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Teacher in Space Participant Christa McAuliffe appears to be enjoying her first taste of space food during an orientation session in JSC's life sciences laboratory (39977); McAuliffe, left, appears to be deciding what she thinks of a piece of space food she tastes during an orientation session. Barbara R. Morgan, backup to McAuliffe, samples an apricot. Dr. C.T. Bourland, a dietician specialist, assists the two (39978); McAuliffe (left) chews on a morsel while Morgan reaches for a bite. Dr. Bourland looks on (39979).

  7. Materials Tested on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Miria Finckenor, a materials engineer, analyzes samples in her laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. The materials spent several years exposed to the harsh space env...

  8. Analysis of the ISS Russian Segment Outer Surface Materials Installed on the CKK Detachable Cassette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, S. F.; Borisov, V. A.; Plotnikov, A. D.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilenok, A. O.; Skurat, V. E.; Leipunsky, I. O.; Pshechenkov, P. A.; Beryozkina, N. G.; Volkov, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the effects caused by space environmental factors (SEF) and the International Space Station's (ISS) outer environment on operational parameters of the outer surface materials of the ISS Russian Segment (RS). The tests were performed using detachable container cassettes (CKK) that serve as a part of the ISS RS contamination control system.

  9. Fifteenth Space Simulation Conference: Support the Highway to Space Through Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences Fifteenth Space Simulation Conference, Support the Highway to Space Through Testing, provided participants a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, thermal simulation and protection, contamination, and techniques of test measurements.

  10. Fourteenth Space Simulation Conference: Testing for a Permanent Presence in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences Fourteenth Space Simulation Conference, Testing for a Permanent Presence in Space, provided participants a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, thermal simulation, and protection, contamination, and techniques of test measurements.

  11. Qualification tests of the space telescope PAMELA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PAMELA Collaboration

    2004-09-01

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment which will investigate the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe and other cosmological problems through precise cosmic-ray measurements. The apparatus is built around a permanent magnetic spectrometer equipped with a double-sided silicon microstrip tracking system and surrounded by a scintillator anticoincidence system. Several detectors are used in parallel for particle identification: a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter, followed by a scintillator shower tail catcher, and a transition radiation detector made up of carbon fibre radiators and proportional straw tubes. Fast scintillators are used for Time-Of-Flight measurements and to provide the primary trigger. A neutron detector is finally provided to extend the range of particle measurements to very high energies. PAMELA will be operated on-board of the Resurs-DK1 satellite, which will be put into a semi-polar orbit in 2004 by a Soyuz rocket. Purpose of this paper is to report about the mechanical, thermal and electro-diagnostic tests aimed to space qualify the PAMELA telescope before the launch.

  12. Space telescope observatory management system preliminary test and verification plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, J. S.; Kaldenbach, C. F.; Williams, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary plan for the Space Telescope Observatory Management System Test and Verification (TAV) is provided. Methodology, test scenarios, test plans and procedure formats, schedules, and the TAV organization are included. Supporting information is provided.

  13. Neutral Buoyancy Test - NB23 - Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Once the United States' space program had progressed from Earth's orbit into outerspace, the prospect of building and maintaining a permanent presence in space was realized. To accomplish this feat, NASA launched a temporary workstation, Skylab, to discover the effects of low gravity and weightlessness on the human body, and also to develop tools and equipment that would be needed in the future to build and maintain a more permanent space station. The structures, techniques, and work schedules had to be carefully designed to fit this unique construction site. The components had to be lightweight for transport into orbit, yet durable. The station also had to be made with removable parts for easy servicing and repairs by astronauts. All of the tools necessary for service and repairs had to be designed for easy manipulation by a suited astronaut. And construction methods had to be efficient due to limited time the astronauts could remain outside their controlled environment. In lieu of all the specific needs for this project, an environment on Earth had to be developed that could simulate a low gravity atmosphere. A Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) was constructed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in 1968. Since then, NASA scientists have used this facility to understand how humans work best in low gravity and also provide information about the different kinds of structures that can be built. Included in the plans for the space station was a space telescope. This telescope would be attached to the space station and directed towards outerspace. Astronomers hoped that the space telescope would provide a look at space that is impossible to see from Earth because of Earth's atmosphere and other man made influences. In an effort to make replacement and repairs easier on astronauts the space telescope was designed to be modular. Practice makes perfect as demonstrated in this photo: an astronaut practices moving modular pieces of the space telescope in the Neutral

  14. SSME testing technology at the John C. Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike; Dill, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    An effective capability for testing the Space Shuttle Main Engine is described. The test complex utilizes a number of sophisticated test stands, test support facilities, and control centers to conduct development testing and flight acceptance testing at both nominal and off-nominal conditions.

  15. Space shuttle orbiter vehicle star tracker test program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development model test program was written to provide guidance for essential star tracker test support to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program. The program organization included test equipment preparation, prototype baseline/acceptance tests, prototype total performance tests, and prototype special tests. Test configurations, preparation phase, documentation, scheduling, and manpower requirements are discussed. The test program permits an early evaluation of the tracker's performance prior to completion and testing of the final flight models.

  16. COSM: A Space Station EVAS test challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullo, Frank A.; Beardsley, Anthony C.

    The authors present the requirements that must be addressed to develop equipment that will perform the checkout, servicing, and maintenance (COSM) of the extravehicular activity system (EVAS) for manned space on the proposed US Space Station. An overview is presented of COSM operational requirements, and their relationship to an automatic COSM system. The Space Station environment, routine EVA sorties, and singular mission objectives and tasks are examined with respect to system design. The COSM system architecture and the technical approach taken are also examined.

  17. ISS Update: Testing Space Station Gear

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Monica Visinsky, test coordinator for the Japanese Experiment Module ORU Transfer Interface, about testing an airlock transfer device to pass orbi...

  18. Space Launch System Begins Acoustic Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., have assembled a collection of thrusters to stand in for the various propulsion elements in a scale model version of NASA’s S...

  19. Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronstein, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, working to a 2018 launch date. Ground testing for the JWST will occur in two test campaigns, at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center. The talk describes the JWST and its optical ground testing, highlighting the roles of many of the University of Rochester Institute of Optics' alumni as well as current faculty and students.

  20. 20th Space Simulation Conference: The Changing Testing Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology's Twentieth Space Simulation Conference, "The Changing Testing Paradigm" provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, program/system testing, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme "The Changing Testing Paradigm."

  1. 20th Space Simulation Conference: The Changing Testing Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, Joseph L., III (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Sciences' Twentieth Space Simulation Conference, "The Changing Testing Paradigm" provided participants with a forum to acquire and exchange information on the state-of-the-art in space simulation, test technology, atomic oxygen, program/system testing, dynamics testing, contamination, and materials. The papers presented at this conference and the resulting discussions carried out the conference theme "The Changing Testing Paradigm."

  2. Space Simulation, 7th. [facilities and testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Space simulation facilities and techniques are outlined that encompass thermal scale modeling, computerized simulations, reentry materials, spacecraft contamination, solar simulation, vacuum tests, and heat transfer studies.

  3. Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Test Facilities Subpanel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, George C.; Warren, John W.; Martinell, John; Clark, John S.; Perkins, David

    1993-01-01

    On 20 Jul. 1989, in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President George Bush proclaimed his vision for manned space exploration. He stated, 'First for the coming decade, for the 1990's, Space Station Freedom, the next critical step in our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon. Back to the future. And this time, back to stay. And then, a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars.' On 2 Nov. 1989, the President approved a national space policy reaffirming the long range goal of the civil space program: to 'expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.' And on 11 May 1990, he specified the goal of landing Astronauts on Mars by 2019, the 50th anniversary of man's first steps on the Moon. To safely and ever permanently venture beyond near Earth environment as charged by the President, mankind must bring to bear extensive new technologies. These include heavy lift launch capability from Earth to low-Earth orbit, automated space rendezvous and docking of large masses, zero gravity countermeasures, and closed loop life support systems. One technology enhancing, and perhaps enabling, the piloted Mars missions is nuclear propulsion, with great benefits over chemical propulsion. Asserting the potential benefits of nuclear propulsion, NASA has sponsored workshops in Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and has initiated a tri-agency planning process to ensure that appropriate resources are engaged to meet this exciting technical challenge. At the core of this planning process, NASA, DOE, and DOD established six Nuclear Propulsion Technical Panels in 1991 to provide groundwork for a possible tri-agency Nuclear Propulsion Program and to address the President's vision by advocating an aggressive program in nuclear propulsion. To this end the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Technology Panel has focused it energies; this final report

  4. Stennis Holds Last Planned Space Shuttle Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    With 520 seconds of shake, rattle and roar on July 29, 2009 NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center marked the end of an era for testing the space shuttle main engines that have powered the nation's Space Shuttle Program for nearly three decades.

  5. Space power distribution system technology. Volume 3: Test facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, D. K.; Cannady, M. D.; Cassinelli, J. E.; Farber, B. F.; Lurie, C.; Fleck, G. W.; Lepisto, J. W.; Messner, A.; Ritterman, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The AMPS test facility is a major tool in the attainment of more economical space power. The ultimate goals of the test facility, its primary functional requirements and conceptual design, and the major equipment it contains are discussed.

  6. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

  7. NASA/MSFC Large Space Structures Ground Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Victoria L.; Bukley, Angelia P.; Patterson, Alan F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the NASA/MSFC Large Space Structures Ground Test Facility (LSS GTF) which has been developed for the purpose of implementing, testing, and evaluating LSS control and system identification techniques on representative large space structures. The facility presently consists of two laboratories: the Single Structure Control (SSC) Laboratory, which has been operational since 1984, and the Controls and Structures Experiment in Space (CASES) GTF which is presently under development. Test results from several experiments in the SSC laboratory are presented. The results of component testing and boom modal tests are presented for the CASES facility.

  8. NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T,; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. To be discussed are: 1.Neutral pressures, neutral gases, and vacuum chamber sizes. 2. Electron and ion densities, plasma uniformity, sample sizes, and Debuy lengths. 3. Biasing samples versus self-generated voltages. Floating samples versus grounded. 4. Power supplies and current limits. Isolation of samples from power supplies during arcs. 5. Arc circuits. Capacitance during biased arc-threshold tests. Capacitance during sustained arcing and damage tests. Arc detection. Prevention sustained discharges during testing. 6. Real array or structure samples versus idealized samples. 7. Validity of LEO tests for GEO samples. 8. Extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests. 9. Snapover and current collection at positive sample bias. Glows at positive bias. Kapon (R) pyrolisis. 10. Trigger arc thresholds. Sustained arc thresholds. Paschen discharge during sustained arcing. 11. Testing for Paschen discharge threshold. Testing for dielectric breakdown thresholds. Testing for tether arcing. 12. Testing in very dense plasmas (ie thruster plumes). 13. Arc mitigation strategies. Charging mitigation strategies. Models. 14. Analysis of test results

  9. Prototype space erectable radiator system ground test article development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, Joseph P.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype heat rejecting system is being developed by NASA-JSC for possible space station applications. This modular system, the Space-Erectable Radiator System Ground Test Article (SERS-GTA) with high-capacity radiator panels, can be installed and replaced on-orbit. The design, fabrication and testing of a representative ground test article are discussed. Acceptance test data for the heat pipe radiator panel and the whiffletree clamping mechanism have been presented.

  10. Overview of Rocket Propulsion Testing at NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, S.; Gilbrech, R.; Lightfoot, R.; Dawson, M.

    1999-01-01

    THe recent nationwide thrust toward development of low-cost space transportation has precipitated a sharp increase in demand for subscale and full-scale propulsion test services. This paper highlights the unique capabilities of Stennis Space Center(SSC) to meet these demands, and summarizes several major propulsion test activities and other related milestone achievements during the 1999 calendar year. The current and projected list of SSC test projects heralds an even more vigorous, interesting, and challenging future in propulsion test.

  11. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  12. NASA Johnson Space Center: White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, Pravin; Kowalski, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing facilities and laboratories available at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The mission of WSTF is to provide the expertise and infrastructure to test and evaluate spacecraft materials, components and propulsion systems that enable the safe exploration and use of space. There are nine rocket test stands in two major test areas, six altitude test stands, three ambient test stands,

  13. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of the... uppermost and lowermost horizontal surfaces of the crib side. A 9-kilogram (20-pound) tensile force shall...

  14. 16 CFR 1509.6 - Component-spacing test method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Component-spacing test method. 1509.6... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.6 Component-spacing test method. The apex of the... uppermost and lowermost horizontal surfaces of the crib side. A 9-kilogram (20-pound) tensile force shall...

  15. 16 CFR 1509.5 - Component-spacing test apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Component-spacing test apparatus. 1509.5 Section 1509.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.5 Component-spacing test apparatus. (a)...

  16. 16 CFR 1509.5 - Component-spacing test apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Component-spacing test apparatus. 1509.5 Section 1509.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.5 Component-spacing test apparatus. (a)...

  17. A simulation facility for testing Space Station assembly procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Shehad, Nagy M.

    1994-01-01

    NASA plans to construct the Space Station Freedom (SSF) in one of the most hazardous environments known to mankind - space. It is of the utmost importance that the procedures to assemble and operate the SSF in orbit are both safe and effective. This paper describes a facility designed to test the integration of the telerobotic systems and to test assembly procedures using a real-world robotic arm grappling space hardware in a simulated microgravity environment.

  18. Structure and properties of polymeric composite materials during 1501 days outer space exposure at Salyut-7 orbital station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Startsev, Oleg V.; Nikishin, Eugene F.

    1995-01-01

    Specimens of polymeric composite materials for aviation and space applications such as glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP), carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), organic fiber reinforced plastics (OFRP), and hybrid plastics (HP) based on epoxy compounds were exposed to the space environment on the surface of Salyut-7 orbital station. The space exposure lasted 1501 days as a maximum. The data relating to the change in mechanical properties, mass losses, glass transition temperature, linear thermal expansion coefficient, and microstructure after various periods of exposure are given. It has been found that the change in properties is caused by the processes of binder postcuring and microerosion of the exposed surface of plastics. The phenomenon of strengthening of the surface layer of hybrid composites, due to which the nature of destruction changes at bending loads, has been revealed.

  19. Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX-1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 min tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, California) with the pressure maintained at 20 2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars-1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX-1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

  20. Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX?1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 minute tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, CA) with the pressure maintained at 20?2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars?1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX?1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

  1. Space station propulsion test bed: A complete system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Norman, A. M.; Jones, L.; Campbell, H.

    1986-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capabilities (IOC) space station application and for use as a means to test evolving technology for the growth station. The test bed, its function, and plans for future testing are discussed.

  2. Space shuttle cavity assessment test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheps, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    In order to obtain basic radiation properties of the radiator/payload bay door cavity, three tests were conducted on a full-size structural simulator of the cavity. There were three tests conducted: (1) CATA used for determination of exchange factors, absorbed solar flux, and door covering influences, (2) quartz lamp array calibrated to provide IR flux distribution on CATA, and (3) retest with radiometer array for background flux measurement.

  3. Manned testing in a simulated space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fender, Donna L.

    1992-11-01

    A view of the facility and operational requirements involved in performing a manned thermal vacuum test is presented. The requirements fall into two major categories. The first category deals with placing the suited crewmen in a hazardous environment and assuring their safety. The second category deals with the constraints and special requirements involved with a suited crewman operating flight hardware in a 1-G environment. Design areas that deal with man rating a chamber, including fire suppression, emergency repress, emergency power, backups, reliable instrumentation and data systems, communications, television monitoring, biomedical monitoring, material compatibilities, and equipment supporting the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) are discussed. The operational issues that are peculiar to manned testing such as test rules, test procedures, test protocol, emergency drills, availability of hyperbaric facilities, test team training and certification engineering concerns for a safe mechanical and instrumentation buildup, hazard analysis, and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis are discussed. The constraints and special requirements involved with a suited crewman operating flight hardware in a 1-G environment are addressed.

  4. NASA GRC and MSFC Space-Plasma Arc Testing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Tests of arcing and current collection in simulated space plasma conditions have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for over 30 years and at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, for almost as long. During this period, proper test conditions for accurate and meaningful space simulation have been worked out, comparisons with actual space performance in spaceflight tests and with real operational satellites have been made, and NASA has achieved our own internal standards for test protocols. It is the purpose of this paper to communicate the test conditions, test procedures, and types of analysis used at NASA GRC and MSFC to the space environmental testing community at large, to help with international space-plasma arcing-testing standardization. Discussed herein are neutral gas conditions, plasma densities and uniformity, vacuum chamber sizes, sample sizes and Debye lengths, biasing samples versus self-generated voltages, floating samples versus grounded samples, test electrical conditions, arc detection, preventing sustained discharges during testing, real samples versus idealized samples, validity of LEO tests for GEO samples, extracting arc threshold information from arc rate versus voltage tests, snapover, current collection, and glows at positive sample bias, Kapton pyrolysis, thresholds for trigger arcs, sustained arcs, dielectric breakdown and Paschen discharge, tether arcing and testing in very dense plasmas (i.e. thruster plumes), arc mitigation strategies, charging mitigation strategies, models, and analysis of test results. Finally, the necessity of testing will be emphasized, not to the exclusion of modeling, but as part of a complete strategy for determining when and if arcs will occur, and preventing them from occurring in space.

  5. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  6. Simulated Space Environmental Testing on Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Dennis A.; Fogdall, Larry B.; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Connell, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An exploratory program has been conducted, to irradiate some mature commercial and some experimental polymer films with radiation simulating certain Earth orbits, and to obtain data about the response of each test film's reflective and tensile properties. Protocols to conduct optimized tests were considered and developed to a "prototype" level during this program. Fifteen polymer film specimens were arranged on a specially designed test fixture. The fixture featured controlled exposure areas, and protected the ends of the samples for later gripping in tensile tests. The fixture featured controlled exposure areas, and protected the ends of the samples for later gripping in tensile tests. The fixture containing the films was installed in a clean vacuum chamber where protons, electrons and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation could simultaneously irradiate the specimens. Near realtime UV rates were used, whereas proton and electron rates were accelerated appreciably to simulate 5 years in orbit during a two month test. Periodically, the spectral reflectance of each film was measured in situ. After the end of the irradiation, final reflectance measurements were made in situ, and solar absorptance values were derived for each specimen. These samples were then measured in air for thermal emittance and for tensile strength. Most specimens withstood the irradiation intact, but with reduced reflectance (increased solar absorptance). Thermal emittance changed slightly in several materials, as did their tensile strength and elongation at break. Conclusions are drawn about the performance of the films. Simulated testing to an expected 5 year dose of electrons and protons consistent with those expected at L2 and 0.98 AU orbits and 100 equivalent solar hours exposure.

  7. Lewis Research Center space station electric power system test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Martin, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center facilities were developed to support testing of the Space Station Electric Power System. The capabilities and plans for these facilities are described. The three facilities which are required in the Phase C/D testing, the Power Systems Facility, the Space Power Facility, and the EPS Simulation Lab, are described in detail. The responsibilities of NASA Lewis and outside groups in conducting tests are also discussed.

  8. Space shuttle solid rocket booster redesign and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The redesigned solid rocket motor of the Space Shuttle is described. Improvements over the model that led to the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger are outlined. Scale and full-size tests carried out to verify the quality of the redesign are described. A unique feature of the test program is the introduction of deliberate flaws into some test articles. Post-flight evaluation of the redesigned boosters show excellent results.

  9. Analysis and testing of a space crane articulating joint testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, Thomas R.; Wu, K. Chauncey

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: space crane concept with mobile base; mechanical versus structural articulating joint; articulating joint test bed and reference truss; static and dynamic characterization completed for space crane reference truss configuration; improved linear actuators reduce articulating joint test bed backlash; 1-DOF space crane slew maneuver; boom 2 tip transient response finite element dynamic model; boom 2 tip transient response shear-corrected component modes torque driver profile; peak root member force vs. slew time torque driver profile; and open loop control of space crane motion.

  10. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.