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Sample records for outpatient barium enema

  1. Barium enema (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  2. Extraperitoneal perforation of the rectum during barium enema.

    PubMed

    Rosenklint, A; Buemann, B; Hansen, P; Baden, H

    1975-01-01

    During barium enema, barium pentrated the rectum to the perirectal extraperitoneal tissue in six patients. Four of these died, and the two survivors have permanent colostomies. The incidence of this rare complication may be further reduced if barium enema is postponed after instrumentation of the rectum, the enema can not lifted more than one meter, the balloon not distended too much, the tip of the balloon catheter made very short, and the personnel in the radiological department made aware of the complication. The complication is probably best treated by prompt diverting colostomy, drainage of perirectal tissue, and antibiotics. PMID:1124343

  3. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  4. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  5. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  6. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  7. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished...

  8. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  9. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  10. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  11. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  12. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201...Specific Drug Products § 201.304 Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to...

  13. Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.

    PubMed

    Raveenthiran, V

    2002-01-01

    The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation. PMID:11793074

  14. Laxatives as colonic preparation for barium enema: the patient's viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Coombs, B M

    1983-09-01

    The choice of method of bowel preparation before double contrast barium enema should be influenced by patients' reactions and how it affects them. In support of this view, radiographers carried out a study on the effects of a laxative. PMID:6635154

  15. [Is the barium enema preparation a good preparation for echography?].

    PubMed

    Scherrer, A; Menu, Y

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of 50 patients without previous preparation and 50 who were prepared by a barium enema and low residue diet demonstrated that this method of preparing for ultrasonography improved visibility of the pancreas and the overall quality of the examination. However, the difference in patients with or without previous preparation was not sufficient to justify its routine use. PMID:6644661

  16. The value of the preoperative barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gedgaudas, R.K.; Kelvin, F.M.; Thompson, W.M.; Rice, R.P.

    1983-03-01

    The value of the barium-enema examination in the assessment of pelvic masses was studied in 44 patients. Findings from those barium-enema examinations and from pathological specimens from 37 patients who had malignant tumors and seven patients who had endometriosis were retrospectively analyzed to determine if the barium-enema examination is useful in differentiating extrinsic lesions with and without invasion of the colon. None of the 12 patients who had extrinsic lesions had any of the criteria that indicated bowel-wall invasion. These criteria included fixation and serrations of the bowel wall in all patients with invasion, and ulceration and fistulizaton in those patients who had complete transmural invasion. In patients with pelvic masses, the preoperative barium-enema examination may be useful to the surgeon in planning surgery and in preparing the patient for the possibility of partial colectomy or colostomy.

  17. Evaluation of 12 colon-cleansing regimens with single-contrast barium enema.

    PubMed

    Present, A J; Jansson, B; Burhenne, H J; Dodd, G D; Goldberg, H I; Goldstein, H M; Miller, R E; Nelson, J A; Stewart, E T

    1982-11-01

    In a study of patient preparation for barium enemas, 1,435 patients were examined at six different institutions with 12 different preparation protocols. There were 2,870 films evaluated a total of 7,839 times by seven different radiologists who were blind to both the institution and the preparations used. The statistical design, randomization, and analysis of the data obtained was performed by one of the authors, a statistician, and the following conclusions were made: Dulcolax (bisacodyl) plus 2 L tapwater enema is better than all the other protocols in all parts of the colon for both genders and all ages. Dulcolax or castor oil or X-Prep, each with 2 L water enema, are logically similar and better than the other protocols. Water enema only or castor oil only are the least effective protocols. PMID:6981965

  18. Compensation filtration for decubitus radiography during double-contrast barium enema examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Feczko, P.J.; Haggar, A.M.; Rauch, P.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Simms, S.M.

    1983-12-01

    Lateral decubitus images obtained during double-contrast barium enema examinations may be difficult to interpret because of the large difference in density between the various parts of the radiographs. Several types of filters are described which can be used to rectify this problem, thus improving the quality of the decubitus radiographs and achieving a slight reduction in radiation exposure.

  19. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  20. Accidental embryo irradiation during barium enema examinations: An estimation of absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J.; Perisinakis, K.; Grammatikakis, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the possibility of an embryo to receive a dose of more than 10 cGy, the threshold of malformation induction in embryos reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, during barium enema examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were place in a phantom to calculate the depth-to-skin conversion coefficient needed for dose estimation at the average embryo depth in patients. Barium enema examinations were performed in 20 women of childbearing age with diagnostic problems demanding longer fluoroscopy times. Doses at 6 cm, the average embryo depth, were determined by measurements at the patients` skin followed by dose calculation at the site of interest. The range of doses estimated at embryo depth for patients was 1.9 to 8.2 cGy. The dose always exceeded 5 cGy when fluoroscopy time was longer than 7 minutes. The dose at the embryo depth never exceeded 10 cGy. This study indicates that fluoroscopy time should not exceed 7 minutes in childbearing-age female patients undergoing barium enema examinations. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Barium enema

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clean. Your doctor will give you instructions for cleansing your colon. During the test: You lie flat ... large intestine. You will be given instructions for cleansing your bowel. This is also called bowel preparation. ...

  2. Variables in the preparation of the large intestine for double contrast barium enema examination.

    PubMed

    Lee, J R; Ferrando, J R

    1984-01-01

    This study examines which methods are most appropriate for preparation of the large bowel for double contrast barium enema. Two proprietary laxatives, X-Prep and Picolax, mechanical colonic lavage, and dietary restriction were evaluated in a randomised study of 160 patients. Four alternative preparations were compared with or without dietary restriction. The four preparations were X-Prep alone, X-Prep plus lavage, Picolax alone, and Picolax plus lavage. Scoring of the radiographs was carried out on a double blind basis. Picolax proved superior to X-Prep overall (p less than 0.01) but this was almost entirely because of its greater effect in the right colon and transverse colon. Cleansing in the left colon and rectosigmoid was similar with both laxatives. Restriction of solid food improved bowel cleansing and gave better results than mechanical lavage. The addition of a colonic lavage in starved patients did not significantly improve the quality of bowel preparation with either laxative. PMID:6690375

  3. Barium enema preparation: a study of low-residue diet, "Picolax' and 'Kleen-Prep'.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, S; Bezuidenhout, P; Shorvon, P; Hine, A

    1996-08-01

    A prospective, randomized three-arm trial is presented of 150 consecutive patients attending for double-contrast barium enema (BE). This compares 'Picolax' (a combined stimulant and osmotic agent), 'Picolax' following a 3 day low-residue diet and 'Kleen-Prep' (a polyethylene-glycol osmotic agent). Faecal clearance, mucosal coating and colon fluid were scored in four colonic segments by two radiologists working independently and blinded to the preparation used. Analyses of an elderly subgroup and of side effects was performed. Low-residue diet conferred no benefit to Picolax preparation, which was satisfactory (ability to exclude 5 mm polyps) in 80% of patients. Kleen-Prep failed to achieve adequate preparation in 46%, due to excess fluid and poor mucosal coating. Kleen-Prep caused more patient nausea, abdominal bloating and pain than Picolax. Patients 70 years and older had similar results. Low-residue diet need not be used in addition to Picolax. Kleen-Prep as a single agent is not recommended for BE preparation. PMID:8826725

  4. A randomised trial to investigate X-prep, oral mannitol and colonic washout for double-contrast barium enema.

    PubMed

    Lee, J R; Hares, M M; Keighley, M R

    1981-09-01

    Three methods of bowel preparation used prior to double contrast barium enemas were compared by a randomised trial in 60 patients. Evaluation was by radiological review and from a patient questionnaire. The preparations included X-Prep liquid with colonic washout, oral mannitol alone and oral mannitol with colonic washout. Adequacy of preparation as judged by faecal residue was significantly better after X-Prep than in either group receiving mannitol. The more severe purgation with mannitol did not result in better clearance of the large bowel and the addition of a colonic washout to mannitol did not reduce faecal residue. Side-effects and adverse comments were more common after mannitol. Diarrhoea was significantly less after X-Prep than after mannitol. PMID:6791868

  5. Barium Enema Examination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sospecha que pueda tener divertículos (pequeñas bolsas en el revestimiento del intestino donde los alimentados pueden quedar atrapados) o pólipos (pequeños bultos) en el colon. Preparación del Paciente Para que el examen ...

  6. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... series by talking with a health care provider cleansing the bowel Talking with a health care provider. ... he or she may suggest a different procedure. Cleansing the bowel. The health care provider will give ...

  7. Proper Management for Morbid Iatrogenic Retroperitoneal Barium Insufflation

    PubMed Central

    Vahedian-Ardakani, Jalal; Nazerani, Shahram; Saraee, Amir; Sarmast, Ali; Saraee, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    A barium enema is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure commonly used for colon and rectum problems. Rectal perforation with extensive intra- and/or extraperitoneal spillage of barium is a devastating complication of a barium enema that leads to a significant increase in patient mortality. Due to the low number of reported cases in recent scientific literature and the lack of experience with the management of these cases, we would like to present our treatment approach to a rare case of retroperitoneal contamination with barium, followed by its intraperitoneal involvement during a diagnostic barium enema. Our experience with long-term management of the patient and the good outcome will be depicted in this paper. PMID:25580416

  8. How to administer an enema.

    PubMed

    Peate, Ian

    2015-12-01

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to undertake the administration of enemas in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner, ensuring privacy and dignity. The administration of an enema is a common healthcare procedure, which can be used to deliver medication or aid bowel evacuation. ? The administration of an enema should be undertaken by a competent nurse. ? An enema is a liquid preparation inserted into the rectum. ? The nurse must explain the procedure to the patient and should assist the individual before, during and after the procedure. ? The nurse should document all care given. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you felt performing this intimate procedure. 2. The positive elements of care delivery and those that could be enhanced. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26639291

  9. Effects of high volume saline enemas vs no enema during labour – The N-Ma Randomised Controlled Trial [ISRCTN43153145

    PubMed Central

    Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Bernal, María del Pilar; Mendoza, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Background Enemas are used during labour in obstetric settings with the belief that they reduce puerperal and neonatal infections, shorten labour duration, and make delivery cleaner for attending personnel. However, a systematic review of the literature found insufficient evidence to support the use of enemas. The objective of this RCT was to address an identified knowledge gap by determining the effect of routine enemas used during the first stage of labour on puerperal and neonatal infection rates. Methods Design: RCT (randomised controlled trial; randomized clinical trial). Outcomes: Clinical diagnosis of maternal or neonatal infections, labour duration, delivery types, episiotomy rates, and prescription of antibiotics Setting: Tertiary care referral hospital at the Javeriana University (Bogotá, Colombia) that attended 3170 births during study period with a caesarean section rate of 26%. Participants: 443 women admitted for delivery to the obstetrics service (February 1997 to February 1998) and followed for a month after delivery. Inclusion criteria were women with: low risk pregnancy and expected to remain in Bogotá during follow up; gestational age ? 36 weeks; no pelvic or systemic bacterial infection; intact membranes; cervix dilatation ?7 cm. Intervention: 1 litre saline enema, versus no enema, allocated following a block random allocation sequence and using sealed opaque envelopes. Results Allocation provided balanced groups and 86% of the participants were followed up for one month. The overall infection rate for newborns was 21%, and 18% for women. We found no significant differences in puerperal or neonatal infection rates (Puerperal infection: 41/190 [22%] with enema v 26/182 [14%] without enema; RR 0.66 CI 95%: 0.43 to 1.03; neonatal infection 38/191 [20%] with enema v 40/179 [22%] without enema; RR 1.12, 95% CI 95% 0.76 to 1.66), and median labour time was similar between groups (515 min. with enema v 585 min. without enema; P = 0.24). Enemas didn't significantly change episiorraphy dehiscence rates (21/182 [12%] with enema v 32/190 [17%] without enema; P = 0.30). Conclusion This RCT found no evidence to support routine use of enemas during labour. Although these results cannot rule out a small clinical effect, it seems unlikely that enemas will improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and provide an overall benefit. PMID:16545140

  10. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

  11. Barium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium cyanide ; CASRN 542 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Enema ion compositions for enhancing colorectal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Chattopadhyay, Sumon; Moench, Thomas; Hendrix, Craig; Cone, Richard; Ensign, Laura M; Hanes, Justin

    2015-07-10

    Delivering drugs to the colorectum by enema has advantages for treating or preventing both local and systemic diseases. However, the properties of the enema itself are not typically exploited for improving drug delivery. Sodium ions are actively pumped out of the lumen of the colon, which is followed by osmotically-driven water absorption, so we hypothesized that this natural mechanism could be exploited to drive nanoparticles and drugs to the colorectal tissue surface. Here, we report that sodium-based, absorption-inducing (hypotonic) enemas rapidly transport hydrophilic drugs and non-mucoadhesive, mucus penetrating nanoparticles (MPP), deep into the colorectal folds to reach virtually the entire colorectal epithelial surface. In contrast, isotonic and secretion-inducing (hypertonic) vehicles led to non-uniform, poor surface coverage. Sodium-based enemas induced rapid fluid absorption even when moderately hyper-osmolal (~350 mOsm) compared to blood (~300 mOsm), which suggests that active sodium absorption plays a key role in osmosis-driven fluid uptake. We then used tenofovir, an antiretroviral drug in clinical trials for preventing HIV, to test the effects of enema composition on local and systemic drug delivery. We found that strongly hypotonic and hypertonic enemas caused rapid systemic drug uptake, whereas moderately hypotonic enemas with ion compositions similar to feces resulted in high local tissue levels with minimal systemic drug exposure. Similarly, moderately hypotonic enemas provided improved local drug retention in colorectal tissue, whereas hypertonic and isotonic enemas provided markedly reduced drug retention in colorectal tissue. Lastly, we found that moderately hypotonic enema formulations caused little to no detectable epithelial damage, while hypertonic solutions caused significant damage, including epithelial sloughing; the epithelial damage caused increased systemic drug absorption and penetration of MPP into colorectal tissue, a potential advantage in certain drug delivery applications. In summary, we illustrate that enema composition can be adjusted to maximize local versus systemic drug delivery, and that mildly hypotonic, sodium-based vehicles can provide uniform drug and MPP delivery in the colon that maximizes local drug concentrations. PMID:25937321

  13. [Outpatient emergencies].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel; Le Nagard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The outpatient monitoring of patients sometimes involves emergency situations. In their practice, the nurses who visit the patient's home are confronted with the limits of their intervention. Faced with these delicate situations team coordination is a strength and the reactivity of the caregivers often contributes to a satisfactory outcome for the patient. PMID:24979919

  14. Barium release system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    A chemical system is described for releasing a good yield of free barium neutral atoms and barium ions in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium. The barium is released in the vapor phase so that it can be ionized by solar radiation and also be excited to emit resonance radiation in the visible range. The ionized luminous cloud of barium becomes a visible indication of magnetic and electrical characteristics in space and allows determination of these properties over relatively large areas at a given time.

  15. Coffee Enema for Preparation for Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-01-01

    Coffee enemas are believed to cause dilatation of bile ducts and excretion of bile through the colon wall. Proponents of coffee enemas claim that the cafestol palmitate in coffee enhances the activity of glutathione S-transferase, an enzyme that stimulates bile excretion. During video capsule endoscopy (VCE), excreted bile is one of the causes of poor preparation of the small bowel. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effect of coffee enema for preparation of the small bowel during VCE. In this pilot study, 17 of 34 patients were assigned to the coffee enema plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2 L ingestion group, whereas the 17 remaining control patients received 2 L of PEG only. The quality of bowel preparation was evaluated in the two patient groups. Bowel preparations in the proximal segments of small bowel were not differ between two groups. In the mid and distal segments of the small intestine, bowel preparations tend to be better in patients who received coffee enemas plus PEG than in patients who received PEG only. The coffee enema group did not experience any complications or side effects. Coffee enemas may be a feasible option, and there were no clinically significant adverse events related to coffee enemas. More prospective randomized studies are warranted to improve small bowel preparation for VCE. PMID:25136541

  16. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

  17. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  18. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 05 / 001 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS ( CAS No . 7440 - 39 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 1998 Minor revisions January 1999 Reference dose revised June 2005 U.S . Environmental Protec

  19. The antegrade continence enema procedure and total anorectal reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zbar, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Patients may present with anal incontinence (AI) following repair of a congenital anorectal anomaly years previously, or require total anorectal reconstruction (TAR) following radical rectal extirpation, most commonly for rectal cancer. Others may require removal of their colostomy following sphincter excision for Fournier's gangrene, or in cases of severe perineal trauma. Most of the data pertaining to antegrade continence enema (the ACE or Malone procedure) comes from the pediatric literature in the management of children with AI, but also with supervening chronic constipation, where the quality of life and compliance with this technique appears superior to retrograde colonic washouts. Total anorectal reconstruction requires an anatomical or physical supplement to the performance of a perineal colostomy, which may include an extrinsic muscle interposition (which may or may not be ‘dynamized'), construction of a neorectal reservoir, implantation of an incremental artificial bowel sphincter or creation of a terminal, smooth-muscle neosphincter. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their outcome are presented here. PMID:24759342

  20. Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

  1. Relationship between the pH of enema solutions and intestinal damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Xia; Xu, Xujuan; Cai, Duanying; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical enemas can lead to intestinal mucosal injuries and bowel barrier damage, presenting as electrolyte disturbances and functional intestinal disorders. Most researchers believe that the mechanism of injury is related to osmolality, volume and temperature of the solution, infusion pressure, and the composition of the enema tube. We hypothesized that the pH of the enema solution may also contribute to intestinal damage. We administered enema solutions--normal saline, soapsuds, or vinegar (neutral, alkaline, or acidic solutions, respectively)--to three groups of rabbits (n = 20 per group). The solutions were standardized for volume and temperature and the soapsuds and vinegar solutions were adjusted to be isotonic with normal saline or deionized water. We also included a control group (n = 20) in which the enema tubes were inserted but no solution was administered. We biopsied 3 sites (rectum and distal and proximal colon). Damage to intestinal mucosa was observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In order to explore the detection of damage using noninvasive methods, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression was measured in the exfoliated cells gathered from postenema defecation. Epithelial loss, inflammatory reaction, and cellular microstructure damage was increased in the vinegar and soapsuds groups. Also, exfoliated cells in these groups had higher COX-2 expression than the normal saline group. The acidic and alkaline enema solutions thus caused more severe damage to the intestinal mucosa compared to the neutral liquid, supporting our hypothesis. Further, the detection of COX-2 expression shows promise as a noninvasive method for estimating enema-induced damage. PMID:25504953

  2. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to...4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No....

  3. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China...the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  4. Silicosis in barium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R

    1986-01-01

    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  5. Rhubarb Enema Attenuates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats by Alleviating Indoxyl Sulfate Overload

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fuhua; Liu, Xusheng; Zou, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of rhubarb enema treatment using a 5/6 nephrectomized rat model and study its mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham operation group (n = 8), 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) (n = 10), and 5/6Nx with rhubarb enema treatment (n = 10). The rhubarb enema was continuous for 1.0 month. Serum creatinine, serum indoxyl sulfate (IS) level, renal pathology, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and renal oxidative stress were assessed. Results 5/6Nx rats showed increasing levels of serum creatinine and severe pathological lesions. Their serum creatinine levels obviously decreased after rhubarb enema treatment (P < 0.05 vs 5/6Nx group). The administration of rhubarb enema attenuated the histopathological changes in 5/6Nx rats. In addition, 5/6Nx rats showed an enhanced extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with sham rats, and administration of rhubarb enema to 5/6Nx rats ameliorated tubulointerstitial fibrosis. 5/6Nx rats showed increased serum levels of IS, renal oxidative stress, and NF-?B compared with sham rats, whereas administration of rhubarb enema to 5/6Nx rats decreased serum levels of IS, renal oxidative stress, and NF-?B levels. Conclusion Rhubarb enema treatment ameliorates tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidneys of 5/6Nx rats, most likely by alleviating IS overload and reducing kidney oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. PMID:26671452

  6. Development of In Situ Gelling and Bio Adhesive 5-Fluorouracil Enema

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Shao-Hua; Fang, Xia-Qin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) enema with good bio adhesion and temperature sensitivity was developed using in situ gelling technology. The preparation was formulated as a free-flowing liquid before use, while a layer of gel film was quickly formed when administered in the rectum, with a large contact surface area. It also demonstrated good biocompatibility, appropriate gel strength and bio adhesive force with excellent adhesion to rectal mucosa and prolonged action time, allowing more effective drug absorption and diffusion to surrounding tissues. Poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 were applied to adjust the gelling temperature. With the addition of carbopol and polycarbophil (bio adhesive substances), the solubility of 5-FU and gel strength increased, the temperature of gelation and the surface area of drug contact on mucous epithelium decreased. Decreased adhesive force between the preparation and the mucous membrane of the rectum was demonstrated with improving carbopol and polycarbophil’s concentration. In vitro release demonstrated that 5-FU in situ gelling enema with different bases had a rapid and almost complete drug release. We used an optimized formulation of P407/P188/polycarbophil/5-FU (17/2.5/0.2/1.0) for animal experiments. The result showed that the drug evenly covered the surface of the rectum and there was no leakage in 6 hours. The in situ gelling enema showed significantly higher rectal tissue levels of 5-FU compared with suppository and intravenous administration, indicating that 5-FU could be well absorbed due to the enlarged releasing area, longer retention time and larger amount of dissolved active ingredients. Systemically, 5-FU levels in the enema group were similar to those in the suppository group and significantly lower than the intravenous group. The enema was not associated with morphological damage to rectal tissue. These results suggest that the bio adhesive and in situ gelling enema could be a more effective rectal delivery system of 5-FU. PMID:23976976

  7. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-15

    Three Ba{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 Degree-Sign C. These compounds, Ba[UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{center_dot}1.4H{sub 2}O (Ba-1), Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (Ba-2), and Ba{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2})F{sub 4}]{center_dot}5.75H{sub 2}O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba{sup 2+}, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the stacking of the layers in Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2})F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramidal units, U(1)O{sub 7}=gray, U(2)O{sub 7}=yellow, barium=blue, phosphorus=magenta, fluorine=green, oxygen=red, carbon=black, and hydrogen=light peach. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymerization of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sites to form uranyl dimers leads to structural variations in compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium cations stitch uranyl diphosphonate anionic layers together, and help mediate structure formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HF acts as both a mineralizing agent and a ligand.

  8. Discovery of the Barium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    A. Shore; A. Fritsch; J. Q. Ginepro; M. Heim; A. Schuh; M. Thoennessen

    2009-08-13

    Thirty-eight barium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Discovery of the barium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Schuh, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-11-15

    Thirty-eight barium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Barium light source method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  11. Suicidal poisoning with barium chloride.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, S; Bertoni, M; Sergio, P; Michele, P; Rossi, M

    2001-06-15

    A 49-year-old male pharmacist suffering from depression phoned the emergency services telling of how he had ingested barium chloride. He was found semicomatose in bed and resuscitation attempts were to no avail and he died at the scene. A white plastic container labelled "Barium chloride... Poison", and a book with a writing on a blank page... "give sulphate... SO(4)" were found. At autopsy, 1l of whitish-yellow fluid was found in the stomach. Autopsy barium levels were: blood 9.9mg/l; bile 8.8mg/l; urine 6.3mg/l; gastric 10.0g/l. Cause of death was given as cardiorespiratory arrest due to barium chloride poisoning. The issue of barium toxicity in a variety of itatrogenic and non itatrogenic situation is discussed together with the two only other cases of suicidal barium ingestion, and the feasibility of early intervention at the scene by an emergency team. PMID:11376995

  12. Abundance analysis of barium and mild barium stars

    E-print Network

    R. Smiljanic; G. F. Porto de Mello; L. da Silva

    2007-04-02

    High signal to noise, high resolution spectra were obtained for a sample of normal, mild barium, and barium giants. Atmospheric parameters were determined from the FeI and FeII lines. Abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd, were determined from equivalent widths and model atmospheres in a differential analysis, with the red giant Eps Vir as the standard star. The different levels of s-process overabundances of barium and mild barium stars were earlier suggested to be related to the stellar metallicity. Contrary to this suggestion, we found in this work no evidence of barium and mild barium to having different range in metallicity. However, comparing the ratio of abundances of heavy to light s-process elements, we found some evidence that they do not share the same neutron exposure parameter. The exact mechanism controlling this difference is still not clear. As a by-product of this analysis we identify two normal red giants misclassified as mild barium stars. The relevance of this finding is discussed. Concerning the suggested nucleosynthetic effects possibly related to the s-process, for elements like Cu, Mn, V and Sc, we found no evidence for an anomalous behavior in any of the s-process enriched stars analyzed here. However, further work is still needed since a clear [Cu/Fe] vs. [Ba/H] anticorrelation exists for other s-process enriched objects.

  13. Outpatient therapeutic nuclear oncology.

    PubMed

    Turner, J Harvey

    2012-05-01

    In the beginning, nuclear medicine was radionuclide therapy, which has evolved into molecular tumour-targeted control of metastatic cancer. Safe, efficacious, clinical practice of therapeutic nuclear oncology may now be based upon accurate personalised dosimetry by quantitative gamma SPECT/CT imaging to prescribe tumoricidal activities without critical organ toxicity. Preferred therapy radionuclides possess gamma emission of modest energy and abundance to enable quantitative SPECT/CT imaging for calculation of the beta therapy dosimetry, without radiation exposure risk to hospital personnel, carers, family or members of the public. The safety of outpatient radiopharmaceutical therapy of cancer with Iodine-131, Samarium-153, Holmium-166, Rhenium-186, Rhenium-188, Lutetium-177 and Indium-111 is reviewed. Measured activity release rates and radiation exposure to carers and the public are all within recommendations and guidelines of international regulatory agencies and, when permitted by local regulatory authorities allow cost-effective, safe, outpatient radionuclide therapy of cancer without isolation in hospital. PMID:22222779

  14. Failure of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas to improve chronic radiation proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, C.A.; Biddle, W.L.; Miner, P.B. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Radiation proctitis is a well-known complication of abdominal and pelvic radiation. Conventional medical and surgical treatment often is disappointing. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is the active component in sulfasalazine and is effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. Four patients with radiation proctitis were treated with 4 g 5-ASA by enema nightly for two to six months. Patients were seen monthly, interviewed, and a sigmoidoscopic exam performed. No change was seen in the degree of mucosal inflammation on follow-up sigmoidoscopic exams. Three patients noted no change in their symptoms of bleeding, pain, or tenesmus. One patient noted initial improvement, but this was not sustained. 5-ASA enemas do not appear to be effective in the treatment of radiation proctitis.

  15. Complications of Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Impact of Prebiopsy Enema

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Sung Chul; Choi, See Min; Yoon, Sol; Choi, Jae Hui; Lee, Seong Hyun; Hwa, Jeong Seok; Chung, Ky Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate is usually safe. However, some patients are hospitalized owing to complications from TRUS biopsy. We identified the risk factors for complications and effective preventive measures for treating complications after TRUS biopsy. Materials and Methods Medical records and radiological images of 1,083 patients who underwent TRUS biopsy of the prostate over 10 years in Gyeongsang National University Hospital were examined retrospectively to investigate the correlation between complications after TRUS biopsy and preventive antibiotics, prebiopsy enema, number of biopsy cores, and pathological findings. Results Complications occurred in 69 patients (6.4%). The complication rates of the 1,008 patients who received antibiotics and the 75 patients who did not were 6.3% and 8.0%, respectively (p=0.469). Complication rates of the pre-biopsy enema group (n=658) and the group without prebiopsy enema (n=425) were 4.7% and 8.9%, respectively (p=0.007). Complication rates of the 6-core biopsy group (n=41) and the 12-core biopsy group (n=955) were 7.3% and 6.3%, respectively (p=0.891). Complication rates of the prostate cancer group (n=306) and the no prostate cancer group (n=713) were 6.2% and 6.6%, respectively (p=0.740). Conclusions A prebiopsy enema was associated with a reduced risk of complications after TRUS biopsy. Preventive antibiotics, number of biopsy cores, and pathological findings did not significantly influence the complication rate. PMID:25405015

  16. Use of butyrate or glutamine in enema solution reduces inflammation and fibrosis in experimental diversion colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Rodrigo Goulart; Esposito, Christiano Costa; Müller, Lucas CM; Castelo-Branco, Morgana TL; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Chagas, Vera Lucia A; de Souza, Heitor Siffert P; Schanaider, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether butyrate or glutamine enemas could diminish inflammation in experimental diversion colitis. METHODS: Wistar specific pathogen-free rats were submitted to a Hartmann’s end colostomy and treated with enemas containing glutamine, butyrate, or saline. Enemas were administered twice a week in the excluded segment of the colon from 4 to 12 wk after the surgical procedure. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed every 4 wk for 12 wk. The effect of treatment was evaluated using video-endoscopic and histologic scores and measuring interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor beta production in organ cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Colonoscopies of the diverted segment showed mucosa with hyperemia, increased number of vessels, bleeding and mucus discharge. Treatment with either glutamine or butyrate induced significant reductions in both colonoscopic (P < 0.02) and histological scores (P < 0.01) and restored the densities of collagen fibers in tissue (P = 0.015; P = 0.001), the number of goblet cells (P = 0.021; P = 0.029), and the rate of apoptosis within the epithelium (P = 0.043; P = 0.011) to normal values. The high levels of cytokines in colon explants from rats with diversion colitis significantly decreased to normal values after treatment with butyrate or glutamine. CONCLUSION: The improvement of experimental diversion colitis following glutamine or butyrate enemas highlights the importance of specific luminal nutrients in the homeostasis of the colonic mucosa and supports their utilization for the treatment of human diversion colitis. PMID:22969190

  17. Interaction between Barium Oxide and Barium Containing Chloride Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Korzun, Iraida V.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Antonov, Boris D.

    2015-05-01

    Thermal analysis was applied to determine the liquidus temperatures in the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2-BaO system, with BaO concentration varied from 0 to 6 mole%. The temperature dependence of the BaO solubility in the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 eutectic melt was investigated; the thermodynamic parameters of BaO dissolution were calculated. The caloric effects of melting of the NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 eutectic with barium oxide and barium oxychloride additions were studied. The type, morphology, and composition of oxychloride ionic groupings in the melt were determined in situ using Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Outpatient Thyroidectomy: Is it Safe?

    PubMed

    Balentine, Courtney J; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    Outpatient thyroid surgery is controversial because of concerns over life-threatening cervical hematoma. Despite this concern, outpatient thyroidectomy is becoming increasingly common, especially among high-volume endocrine surgeons. Multiple studies have now demonstrated that careful patient selection combined with surgeon experience can result in successful and safe surgery without a full inpatient admission. This article reviews the data on safety and outcomes for outpatient thyroidectomy and discusses several techniques used to minimize risk to patients. PMID:26610774

  19. Barium Ions for Quantum Computation Matthew Dietrich

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Barium Ions for Quantum Computation Matthew Dietrich A dissertation submitted in partial of the manuscript made from microform." Signature Date #12;#12;University of Washington Abstract Barium Ions Department of Physics Barium ion is investigated as a hyperfine qubit. 137Ba+ is trapped in a linear Paul

  20. Interfraction Prostate Movement in Bone Alignment After Rectal Enema for Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Eun; Kim, Tae Hyo; Lee, Ki Soo; Cho, Won Yeol; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of a rectal enema on interfraction prostate movement in bone alignment (BA) for prostate radiotherapy (RT), we analyzed the spatial difference in prostates in a bone-matched setup. Materials and Methods We performed BA retrospectively with data from prostate cancer patients who underwent image-guided RT (IGRT). The prostate was identified with implanted fiducial markers. The setup for the IGRT was conducted with the matching of three fiducial markers on RT planning computed tomography images and those on two oblique kV x-ray images. Offline BA was performed at the same position. The coordinates of a virtual prostate in BA and a real prostate were obtained by use of the ExaxTrac/NovalisBody system, and the distance between them was calculated as the spatial difference. Interfraction prostate displacement was drawn from the comparison of the spatial differences. Results A total of 15 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with curative hypofractionated IGRT were enrolled. A total of 420 fractions were analyzed. The mean of the interfraction prostate displacements after BA was 3.12±2.00 mm (range, 0.20-10.53 mm). The directional difference was profound in the anterior-posterior and supero-inferior directions (2.14±1.73 mm and 1.97±1.44 mm, respectively) compared with the right-left direction (0.26±0.22 mm, p<0.05). The required margin around the clinical target volume was 4.97 mm with the formula of van Herk et al. Conclusions The interfraction prostate displacement was less frequent when a rectal enema was performed before the procedure. A rectal enema can be used to reduce interfraction prostate displacement and resulting clinical target volume-to-planning target volume margin. PMID:24466393

  1. Transrectal-ultrasound prostatic biopsy preparation: rectal enema vs. mechanical bowel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Riccardo; Presicce, Fabrizio; Bellangino, Mariangela; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Gambrosier, Matteo Bonetto; Trucchi, Alberto; Petta, Stefano; Tubaro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transrectal prostate biopsy (TRUSbx) is the standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Different bowel preparations are used for patients undergoing TRUSbx. The aim of our study was to compare two different bowel preparations for TRUSbx. Material and methods From May 2012 and onwards, a selected group of men undergoing TRUS 12-core prostate biopsy were enrolled into a prospective database. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a rectal enema (Group A) the night before the procedure or polyethylene glycol 34.8 grams/4 liters of water the day before the procedure (Group B). A VAS scale to evaluate the patients’ discomfort according to the two preparations was collected. The same antibiotic prophylaxis was performed in both groups. All complications were prospectively recorded and graded according to the Clavien Classification System (CCS). Results A total of 198 patients were consecutively enrolled. Mean age was 67.5 ±7.9 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 ±4.2 Kg/m2, mean PSA value was 9.3 ±12.6 ng/ml and the mean prostatic volume was 60.6 ±29 ml. 97 patients were enrolled in Group A and 101 in Group B. Overall post-biopsy morbidity rate was 60%. No significant differences for low-grade and high-grade complications was observed between the two groups. Patients receiving the rectal enema presented with a significantly lower VAS score (3.1 ±1.1 vs. 5.9 ±1.7; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our study confirmed that a rectal enema should be considered as the standard bowel preparation in patients undergoing a TRUS biopsy; it is as effective as PEG and associated with less discomfort. PMID:26251750

  2. Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral Picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening

    PubMed Central

    Atkin, Wendy S; Hart, Andrew; Edwards, Robert; Cook, Claire F; Wardle, Jane; McIntyre, Peter; Aubrey, Roger; Baron, Clare; Sutton, Stephen; Cuzick, Jack; Senapati, Asha; Northover, John M A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the acceptability and efficacy of two methods of self administered bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: a single phosphate enema and a single sachet of Picolax. Design Single blind, randomised trial. Setting Endoscopy units of two general hospitals. Participants 1442 men and women aged 55-64 years who had agreed to be screened by flexible sigmoidoscopy. Main outcome measures Attendance rates, compliance with allocated preparations, adverse effects, quality of bowel preparation, procedure time, and yield of neoplasia. Results Compliance with the enema was higher than with the Picolax (608 (84%) v 566 (79%); difference 6%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 10%). Almost half of those who refused Picolax used an enema at home. Wind, incontinence, and sleep disturbance were more frequent in the Picolax group than the enema group; bottom soreness was more frequent in the enema group. Around 30% (187) found the diet restriction required by Picolax difficult; 78% (471) found the enema easy to administer. The quality of preparation was better with the enema; the proportion of procedures complete to the descending colon was greater and the mean duration of the procedure was shorter. There was no significant difference in polyp detection rates. Conclusion A single phosphate enema self administered around one hour before leaving home is a more acceptable and effective method of preparing the distal bowel for flexible sigmoidoscopy than Picolax. PMID:10834891

  3. Monitoring Outpatient Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Each year, health care costs for managing chronically ill patients increase as the life expectancy of Americans continues to grow. To handle this situation, many hospitals, doctors practices, and home care providers are turning to disease management, a system of coordinated health care interventions and communications, to improve outpatient care. By participating in daily monitoring programs, patients with congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and other chronic conditions requiring significant self-care are facing fewer emergency situations and hospitalizations. Cybernet Medical, a division of Ann Arbor, Michigan-based Cybernet Systems Corporation, is using the latest communications technology to augment the ways health care professionals monitor and assess patients with chronic diseases, while at the same time simplifying the patients interaction with technology. Cybernet s newest commercial product for this purpose evolved from research funded by NASA, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The research focused on the physiological assessment of astronauts and soldiers, human performance evaluation, and human-computer interaction. Cybernet Medical's MedStar Disease Management Data Collection System is an affordable, widely deployable solution for improving in-home-patient chronic disease management. The system's battery-powered and portable interface device collects physiological data from off-the-shelf instruments.

  4. The problem of the barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  5. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

  6. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  7. REMOVAL OF BARIUM AND RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project was undertaken to investigate processes for removing barium and radium from drinking water. Special emphasis was placed on ion exchange processes that can be used without adding large concentrations of sodium to the water. The wastes from radium and barium remo...

  8. Effect of traditional Chinese medicinal enemas on ulcerative colitis of rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Ming; Tong, Hong-Bin; Bai, Lian-Song; Yang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicinal enema (TCME) on inflammatory and immune response of colonic mucosa of rats with ulcerative colitis (UC), and to observe the pathogenic mechanism. METHODS: Thirty UC rats, induced by intestinal enema together with 2.4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and acetic acid, were randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e., G I, G II and G III. Groups G I and G II were administered with TCME and salazosulfapyridine enema (SASPE), respectively. Group G III was clystered with only normal saline (NSE), served as control. Group G IV was taken from normal rats as reference, once daily, from the 7th day after the establishment of UC for total 28 d. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the colonic mucosa was assayed by 3H-TdR incorporation assay. Colonic mucosal lymphocyte subpopulation adhesive molecules, CD4+CD11a+, CD4+CD18+, CD8+CD11a+, CD8+CD18+ (LSAM), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interferon-? (IFN-?), were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, the expression of TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA in colonic mucosa were detected by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Before therapies, in model groups, G I, G II and G III, levels of IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-?, CD8+CD11a+ and CD8+CD18+ were significantly different (38.29 ± 2.61 U/mL, 16.54 ± 1.23 ng/L, 8.61 ± 0.89 ng/L, 13.51% ± 2.31% and 12.22% ± 1.13%, respectively) compared to those in G IV group (31.56 ± 2.47 U/mL, 12.81 ± 1.38 ng/L, 5.28 ± 0.56 ng/L, 16.68% ± 1.41% and 16.79% ± 1.11%, respectively). After therapeutic enemas, in G I group, the contents of IL-6 (32.48 ± 2.53 U/m), TNF-? (13.42 ± 1.57 ng/L) and IFN-? (5.87 ± 0.84 ng/L) were reduced; then, the contents of CD8+CD11a+ (16.01% ± 1.05 %) and CD8+CD18+ (16.28% ± 0.19%) were raised. There was no significant difference between groups G I and G IV, but the difference between groups G I and G II was quite obvious (P < 0.05). The expressions of TNF-? mRNA and IFN-? mRNA in group G III were much higher than those of group G IV, but those in group G I were significantly suppressed by TCME therapy. CONCLUSION: Ulcerative colitis is related to colonic regional mucosal inflammatory factors and immune imbalance. TCME can effectively inhibit regional mucosal inflammatory factors and improve their disorder of immunity. PMID:15222036

  9. Intussusception

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kinds of enemas (an air enema or a barium enema ) often can diagnose and treat intussusception at ... been turned inside out and cures the blockage. Barium, a liquid mixture, is sometimes used in place ...

  10. Communications to the Editor Synthesis of Monodisperse Nanoparticles of Barium

    E-print Network

    Communications to the Editor Synthesis of Monodisperse Nanoparticles of Barium Titanate: Toward of barium titanate, BaTiO3, with diameters ranging from 6 to 12 nm. Barium titanate is a room,10 In the synthesis developed here, barium titanium ethyl hexano-isopropoxide (A

  11. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  12. Abundance Analysis of Barium Stars

    E-print Network

    G. Q. Liu; Y. C. Liang; L. Deng

    2008-11-13

    We obtain the chemical abundances of six barium stars and two CH subgiant stars based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra. The neutron capture process elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, Eu show obvious overabundance relative to the Sun, for example, their [Ba/Fe] values are from 0.45 to 1.27. Other elements, including Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, show comparable abundances to the Solar ones, and their [Fe/H] cover a range from $-$0.40 to 0.21, which means they belong to Galactic disk. The predicts of the theoretical model of wind accretion for binary systems can explain the observed abundance patterns of the neutron capture process elements in these stars, which means that their overabundant heavy-elements could be caused by accreting the ejecta of AGB stars, the progenitors of the present white dwarf companions in the binary systems.

  13. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  15. Effect of Basti (oil enema) therapy for the management of cough in pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Gujarathi, Rahul H.; Gokhale, Vivek M.; Tongaonkar, Jayashree N.

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis continues to circulate even in countries with good childhood vaccination coverage. Sporadic cases are still observed either due to no vaccination, incomplete vaccination or as a result of failure of vaccination. Though acute in nature it has a longer disease span with multiple life-threatening complications despite adequate management. This study was undertaken to study the effect of Sneha Basti (oil enema) in pertussis in relation to reduction in intensity of cough and complications of the disease when administered along with the conventional pharmacological therapy. Patients with the clinical picture mimicking pertussis were screened, investigated for pertussis and appropriate conventional pharmacological therapy of Erythromycin a preferred antimicrobial agent was started. Concurrently, Sneha Basti was administered to these two children. Both patients showed favourable results in terms of reduction of Kasa (cough) and the disease period with a faster recovery when compared to conventional therapy alone as has been observed routinely. No complications incurred during the complete disease span. It was concluded that if the pharmacological therapy is augmented with the complimentary systems of medicines, it can reduce the prolonged span and intensity of the disease and prevent other complications. PMID:24696577

  16. Reducing Antibiotic Use for Young Children with Intussusception following Successful Air Enema Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinghui; Ye, Weimin; Chen, Xingdong; Liu, Qian; Liu, Huandi; Si, Chunfeng; Jia, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    China introduced a new policy regarding the management of antibiotic use. We evaluated the reasonableness of antibiotic use among children suffering from intussusception before and after policy. A retrospective study was conducted involving 234 young children with intussusception who were treated between January 1, 2011 and December 30, 2013. Demographics and detailed antibiotics regimens were collected. ?2 test was used to evaluate differences between the phase I (preintervention, n = 68) and phase II (postintervention, n = 166). We determined that the overall antibiotic use rate following successful air enema reduction was 41% (97/234), which decreased from 99% (67/68) in phase I to 18% (30/166) in phase II. In phase I, prophylactic antibiotic usage reached up to 84% (56/67). The quantity of aztreonam for injection accounted for 63% (45/71), and cefamandole nafate for injection accounted for 25% (18/71). In phases II, prophylactic antibiotic usage were reduced to 13% (4/30). The quantity of aztreonam for injection was decreased to 12% (4/33) and cefamandole nafate for injection was 3% (1/33). Antibiotics' options were more diverse. In conclusion, policy intervention was effective in addressing some aspects of antibacterial drug usage among young children with intussusception. However, excessive drug use remains a public health problem. The guidelines for the antibiotic management of intussusception for children must be established in China. PMID:26569111

  17. Temperature-dependent coherent oscillation in photorefractive relaxor strontium barium

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Temperature-dependent coherent oscillation in photorefractive relaxor strontium barium niobate M of the photorefractive light-induced scattering (beam fanning) in Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 (strontium barium niobate) doped

  18. Constraining the oceanic barium cycle with stable barium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhimian; Siebert, Christopher; Hathorne, Ed C.; Dai, Minhan; Frank, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of barium (Ba) concentrations in seawater resembles that of nutrients and Ba has been widely used as a proxy of paleoproductivity. However, the exact mechanisms controlling the nutrient-like behavior, and thus the fundamentals of Ba chemistry in the ocean, have not been fully resolved. Here we present a set of full water column dissolved Ba (DBa) isotope (?137BaDBa) profiles from the South China Sea and the East China Sea that receives large freshwater inputs from the Changjiang (Yangtze River). We find pronounced and systematic horizontal and depth dependent ?137BaDBa gradients. Beyond the river influence characterized by generally light signatures (0.0 to + 0.3 ‰), the ?137BaDBa values in the upper water column are significantly higher (+ 0.9 ‰) than those in the deep waters (+ 0.5 ‰). Moreover, ?137BaDBa signatures are essentially constant in the entire upper 100 m, in which dissolved silicon isotopes are fractionated during diatom growth resulting in the heaviest isotopic compositions in the very surface waters. Combined with the decoupling of DBa concentrations and ?137BaDBa from the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate this implies that the apparent nutrient-like fractionation of Ba isotopes in seawater is primarily induced by preferential adsorption of the lighter isotopes onto biogenic particles rather than by biological utilization. The subsurface ?137BaDBa distribution is dominated by water mass mixing. The application of stable Ba isotopes as a proxy for nutrient cycling should therefore be considered with caution and both biological and physical processes need to be considered. Clearly, however, Ba isotopes show great potential as a new tracer for land-sea interactions and ocean mixing processes.

  19. Hospital outpatient services under Medicare, 1987

    PubMed Central

    Helbing, Charles; Latta, Viola B.; Keene, Roger E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in this article are data related to hospital outpatient services provided for aged and disabled Medicare beneficiaries during calendar year 1987. Trend data are also presented for selected calendar years 1974-87. Hospital outpatient covered charges and Medicare program payments (in total and per enrollee) are the statistics employed to measure the use of hospital outpatient services. The data contained in this article should provide information to help identify trends and patterns of care for monitoring the Medicare hospital outpatient services. PMID:10113399

  20. PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE

    E-print Network

    Malovichko, Galina

    PHOTOSENSITIVE CENTERS AND CHARGE TRANSFER PROCESSES IN BARIUM CALCIUM TITANATE G.MALOVICHKO, V@uos.de; vgrachev@uos.de; schirmer@uos.de Abstract The results of the study of charge transfer processes in barium of crystals from barium titanate (BT) family make them promising candidates for various applications

  1. Experiments with remote entanglement using single barium ions Nathan Kurz

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Experiments with remote entanglement using single barium ions Nathan Kurz A dissertation submitted entanglement using single barium ions Nathan Kurz Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Dr. Boris B. Blinov Physics Department Barium ion qubits are trapped and Doppler cooled in a linear Paul trap and the tasks

  2. Ferroelectric Properties of Individual Barium Titanate Nanowires Investigated

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Ferroelectric Properties of Individual Barium Titanate Nanowires Investigated by Scanned Probe on the ferroelectric properties of individual single-crystalline barium titanate nanowires. We show that nonvolatile report the scanned probe characterization of individual single-crystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3) nano

  3. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. 721.10011 Section 721...721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and...identified as barium calcium manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS...

  8. Barium adsorption on hydrogenated ? surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, D. S.; Papageorgopoulos, C. A.

    1996-11-01

    An experimental study of Ba and H adsorption on 0953-8984/8/45/015/img2 by Auger electron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and work function measurements has been made. Measurements of hydrogen adsorption on a clean silicon surface have been made mainly for reference purposes. H on Si forms two different states, known as monohydride state 0953-8984/8/45/015/img3 and dihydride state 0953-8984/8/45/015/img4. Preadsorption of H made the surface order more stable without changing the sticking coefficient of Ba on the Si surface. The results supported the double-layer (DL) model for the first Ba layer on the monohydrided Si surface. Ba adatoms up to 0953-8984/8/45/015/img5 ML on the dihydride phase were relaxed at symmetric and equivalent sites following the 0953-8984/8/45/015/img6 symmetry of the restored Si surface. TDS measurements showed that during Ba adsorption on the monohydride phase some of the H atoms were removed from their initial adsorption sites, and a new H energy state was formed at 0953-8984/8/45/015/img7 which was attributed to the weakening of the Si - H bond in the presence of Ba adatoms. When Ba deposition took place on the dihydride phase, two new H states were successively developed. The first state at 0953-8984/8/45/015/img8 was attributed to 0953-8984/8/45/015/img9 formation, and the subsequent one to a complex Ba - H - Si compound near 0953-8984/8/45/015/img10. The presence of hydrogen caused a considerable delay of barium overlayer metallization, in contrast to the early metallization of alkali on hydrogenated surfaces.

  9. Fatigue Experiences Among OCD Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Massimo; Piacentino, Daria; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Maraone, Annalisa; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Biondi, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    Patients with OCD are impaired in multiple domains of functioning and quality of life. While associated psychopathology complaints and neuropsychological deficits were reported, the subjective experience of general fatigue and mental fatigue was scarcely investigated. In this single-center case-control study we compared 50 non-depressed OCD outpatients consecutively recruited and 50 panic disorder (PD) outpatients, to determine whether they experienced fatigue differently. Assessment consisted of structured clinical interview for DSM-IV criteria by using the SCID-I and the SCID-II. Symptom severity was assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, severity and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Fatigue was assessed by using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Regarding MFI physical fatigue, an OR of 0.196 (95 % CI 0.080-0.478) was found, suggesting that its presence is associated with lower odds of OCD compared to PD. The same can be said for MFI mental fatigue, as an OR of 0.138 (95 % CI 0.049-0.326) was found, suggesting that its presence is associated with lower odds of OCD. Notably, OCD patients with OCDP co-morbidity reported higher scores of mental fatigue. In this study fatigue, including mental fatigue, seems not to be a prominent experience among adult non-depressed OCD patients. PMID:25814268

  10. Barium Titanate and Bismuth Oxide Nanocomposites Barium titanate, BaTiO3, and bismuth oxide Bi2O3 are transparent materials with

    E-print Network

    Harmon, Julie P.

    Barium Titanate and Bismuth Oxide Nanocomposites Barium titanate, BaTiO3, and bismuth oxide Bi2O3 Wall in Tetragonal Barium Titanate", H. Chaib, F. Schlaphof, T. Otto and L. M. Eng, Journal of Physics

  11. Analysis of 26 Barium Stars I. Abundances

    E-print Network

    Dinah M. Allen; Beatriz Barbuy

    2006-04-03

    We present a detailed analysis of 26 barium stars, including dwarf barium stars, providing their atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], vt) and elemental abundances. We aim at deriving gravities and luminosity classes of the sample stars, in particular to confirm the existence of dwarf barium stars. Accurate abundances of chemical elements were derived. Abundance ratios between nucleosynthetic processes, by using Eu and Ba as representatives of the r- and s-processes are presented. High-resolution spectra with the FEROS spectrograph at the ESO-1.5m Telescope, and photometric data with Fotrap at the Zeiss telescope at the LNA were obtained. The atmospheric parameters were derived in an iterative way, with temperatures obtained from colour-temperature calibrations. The abundances were derived using spectrum synthesis for Li, Na, Al, alpha-, iron peak, s- and r-elements atomic lines, and C and N molecular lines. Atmospheric parameters in the range 4300 barium stars, were derived and showed that [X/Ba] vs. [Ba/H] and [X/Ba] vs. [Fe/H] present different behaviour as compared to [X/Eu] vs. [Eu/H] and [X/Eu] vs. [Fe/H], reflecting the different nucleosynthetic sites for the s- and r-processes.

  12. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full...

  13. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised...

  14. Trapped Barium Ions for Quantum ComputationTrapped Barium Ions for Quantum Computation V.Mirgon, G.Shu, A.Avril, M.Dietrich N.Kurz, E. Shahar, and B.B.Blinov

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Trapped Barium Ions for Quantum ComputationTrapped Barium Ions for Quantum Computation V.Mirgon, G of Washington Seattle WA 98195 Trapped Barium Ions for Quantum ComputationTrapped Barium Ions for Quantum

  15. Outpatient Myelography: A Prospective Trial Comparing Complications after Myelography between Outpatients and Inpatients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hidenori; Aoki, Takaaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Osawa, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective comparative study. Purpose To compare the incidence and severity of adverse reactions associated with myelography performed in outpatients vs. in inpatients and report the safety and usefulness of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. Overview of Literature Myelography is normally performed as an inpatient procedure in most hospitals in Japan. No studies have reported the usefulness and adverse effects of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. Methods We performed 221 myelography procedures. Eighty-five of the 221 patients underwent outpatient myelography using our new protocol. The incidence and severity of adverse reactions were compared with the other 136 patients, who underwent conventional inpatient myelography. We further compared the cost of outpatient and inpatient myelography. Results The overall rate of adverse effects was 9.4% in outpatients, as compared with 7.4% in inpatients. Overall, 1.2% of outpatients and 0.74% inpatients experienced "severe" adverse effects (requiring hospitalization). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in either the overall rate of adverse effects or the rate of "severe" adverse effects. Moreover, the average outpatient procedure cost was only one-third to one-half that of the inpatient procedure. Conclusions This was the first study to address the safety and usefulness of outpatient myelography in Japanese patients. If selected according to proper inclusion criteria for outpatient procedure, no significant differences were observed in the adverse effects between inpatients and outpatients. The outpatient procedure is more economical and has the added benefit of being more convenient and time-efficient for the patient. PMID:26713127

  16. [Hiv patients in a psychiatric outpatient clinic].

    PubMed

    Lunter, C H; Sno, H N; van den Boom, F M

    1991-11-16

    The most often reported psychiatric complications among HIV-infected outpatients include: mood and anxiety disorders, and alcohol or nonopiate drug abuse. Medical records of 32 HIV-infected psychiatric outpatients in the Netherlands were studied. The most common DSM-III(-R) diagnoses included: major depression (n = 10) and adjustment disorder with depressive or anxious mood (n = 10). The psychiatric treatment of the HIV-infected outpatients did not differ fundamentally from the treatment of other psychiatric outpatients with similar problems. The increasing number of HIV infected patients in the Netherlands living outside of Amsterdam, would appear to urge more education of psychiatric and other health care professionals concerning specific aspects of HIV infection, homosexuality, prostitution and intravenous drug abuse. PMID:1956445

  17. Satisfaction levels in orthopaedic out-patients.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Dominic M.; Gill, Kathryn; Ricketts, David M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is important that patients are satisfied with an out-patient consultation. This ensures compliance with treatment and attendance for follow-up. The aim of this study was to identify factors regarding out-patient consultation associated with patient satisfaction. METHODS: A two-part questionnaire identifying expectations of, and subsequent satisfaction with, a new out-patient consultation was completed by 106 out-patients. RESULTS: There was no correlation between not seeing the clinician anticipated and reduced satisfaction (P = 0.17). Using more information sources was associated with less satisfaction (P = 0.02). Patients were less satisfied if their expectations of either treatment or outcome were changed. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting patients' expectations is an essential part of effective communication. The use of specialist physiotherapists and general practitioners with a special interest is an effective way of seeing more new patients. PMID:15826419

  18. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Methods Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18–35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca2+ release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Results Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. Conclusion These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element. PMID:26451108

  19. Engineering domain configurations for enhanced piezoelectricity in barium titanate single crystals

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiangyu

    Engineering domain configurations for enhanced piezoelectricity in barium titanate single crystals piezoelectric responses of barium titanate single crystals under different crystallographic orientations, and use it to explain the ultrahigh piezoelectric response recently observed in a 270 cut barium titanate

  20. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles for Biomarker Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, O.; Posada, O. M.; Hondow, N. S.; Wälti, C.; Saunders, M.; Murray, C. A.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    A tetragonal crystal structure is required for barium titanate nanoparticles to exhibit the nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic light generation (SHG) for use as a biomarker when illuminated by a near-infrared source. Here we use synchrotron XRD to elucidate the tetragonal phase of commercially purchased tetragonal, cubic and hydrothermally prepared barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles by peak fitting with reference patterns. The local phase of individual nanoparticles is determined by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), measuring the core-loss O K-edge and the Ti L3-edge energy separation of the t2g, eg peaks. The results show a change in energy separation between the t2g and eg peak from the surface and core of the particles, suggesting an intraparticle phase mixture of the barium titanate nanoparticles. HAADF-STEM and bright field TEM-EDX show cellular uptake of the hydrothermally prepared BaTiO3 nanoparticles, highlighting the potential for application as biomarkers.

  1. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  2. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped charges are discussed. Active experiments confirm that anomalous ionization processes may operate, but photoionization accounts for the production of the bulk of the barium ions. Pitch-angle diffusion and/or velocity-space diffusion may occur, but observations of barium ions moving upwards against gravity suggests that the ions retain a significant enough fraction of their initial perpendicular velocity to provide a mirror force. The barium ion plasmas should have a range of Alfven Mach numbers and plasma betas. Because the initial conditions can be predicted these active experiments should permit testing plasma instability hypotheses.

  3. Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Nanorods Composed of Barium Titanate and Strontium Titanate

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Nanorods Composed of Barium Titanate and Strontium alkoxide precursors and 1 mmol of oleic acid (Aldrich, 99+%). The precursors, barium titanium isopropoxide

  4. Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support. PMID:25055004

  5. Outpatient commitment: what, why, and for whom.

    PubMed

    Torrey, E F; Zdanowicz, M

    2001-03-01

    The authors describe studies showing the effectiveness of involuntary outpatient commitment in improving treatment compliance, reducing hospital readmission, and reducing episodes of violence among persons with severe psychiatric illnesses. They point out that because of its role in enhancing compliance with treatment, outpatient commitment can be regarded as a form of assisted treatment, such as assertive case management, representative payeeship, and mental health courts. The authors argue that such assisted treatment is necessary for persons with severe psychiatric illnesses who are noncompliant with their medication regimens because many lack awareness of their illnesses because of biologically based cognitive deficits. They recommend outpatient commitment for any individual with a severe psychiatric disorder who has impaired awareness of his or her illness and is at risk of becoming homeless, incarcerated, or violent or of committing suicide, and they provide case examples. The authors conclude by addressing eight of the most common objections to outpatient commitment by mental health professionals and civil liberties groups that oppose outpatient commitment. PMID:11239101

  6. BARIUM IN TEETH AS INDICATOR OF BODY BURDEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted to determine the biological availability of naturally occurring barium in a municipal drinking water by the analysis of barium in deciduous teeth of children. The grade school children of two Illinois towns were chosen for the study. The towns were chosen ba...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. Barium Enhancement in NGC 6819 Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliman, Katelyn; Mathieu, Robert D.; Schuler, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars include mergers in hierarchical triple systems, stellar collisions during dynamical encounters, and mass transfer from a giant companion. Extensive work on the blue stragglers in the old open cluster NGC 188 (7 Gyr) has led to exciting discoveries including a binary secondary mass distribution peaked at 0.5 MSolar and the detection of three young white dwarf binary companions. These indicate that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star is the dominant mechanism for blue straggler formation in open clusters. Such mass transfer events should pollute the surface abundance of the blue straggler with nucleosynthesis products from the evolved donor. The other formation pathways, mergers and collisions, are predicted to produce no such enhancements. In an effort to move beyond NGC 188 and into other open clusters we present the first results of a surface abundance study of the blue stragglers in the intermediate-aged open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. This part of our study centers on the s-process element barium as a tracer of formation via mass transfer. We compare the blue straggler surface abundance of barium to that of a sample of main-sequence stars in NGC 6819 and find multiple blue stragglers with anomalous abundances. Surprising, most of the blue stragglers with barium anomalies show no radial-velocity evidence for a companion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under grant AST- 0908082 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    E-print Network

    U. Dammalapati; L. Willmann; S. Knoop

    2011-10-25

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba), in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed 40Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that the even isotopes cover a broad range of scattering lengths, opening the possibility of BEC for at least one of the isotopes.

  14. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-11-15

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed {sup 40}Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that the even isotopes cover a broad range of scattering lengths, opening the possibility of BEC for at least one of the isotopes.

  15. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  16. Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2009-10-21

    Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  17. Barium dierbium(III) tetra-sulfide.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Adel; Stojko, Wojciech; Ibers, James A

    2013-03-01

    Barium dierbium(III) tetra-sulfide, BaEr2S4, crystallizes with four formula units in the ortho-rhom-bic space group Pnma in the CaFe2O4 structure type. The asymmetric unit contains two Er, one Ba, and four S atoms, each with .m. site symmetry. The structure consists of channels formed by corner- and edge-sharing ErS6 octa-hedra in which Ba atoms reside. The resultant coordination of Ba is that of a bicapped trigonal prism. PMID:23476480

  18. Outpatient tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy and concomitant cystolitholapaxy

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Kyle J.; Beiko, Darren

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a widely employed endourologic procedure to remove renal stones. Traditionally, PCNL has been performed on an inpatient basis, with patients routinely hospitalized postoperatively. Given the ongoing rising healthcare costs, a shift toward outpatient surgery is desirable. We report the case of a 21-year-old female who was safely discharged a few hours following uncomplicated tubeless PCNL and concomitant cystolitholapaxy for a stent with encrustation on its distal coil. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case of tubeless PCNL with concomitant cystolitholapaxy performed on an entirely outpatient basis. PMID:24678360

  19. Polyps of the Colon and Rectum

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lining directly (colonoscopy) or by x-ray study (barium enema). There are three types of colorectal endoscopy: ( ... colon can also be indirectly examined using the barium enema x-ray technique. This examination uses a ...

  20. Can Colorectal Polyps and Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at the entire colon and rectum. Double contrast barium enema: This is an x-ray test of ... can find some polyps. Sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, double contrast barium enema, and CT colonography are good at finding ...

  1. Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What further tests (such as a colonoscopy or barium enema ) will be necessary if the results suggest ... Questions to Ask the Doctor Tests and Procedures Barium Enema Biopsy Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Bone ...

  2. Laparoscopically inserted button colostomy as a venting stoma and access port for the administration of antegrade enemas in African degenerative leiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chitnis, M; Lazarus, C; Simango, I; Elsen, M; Rensburg, C Van; Delft, D Von; Tovell Trollope, L

    2011-02-01

    African degenerative leiomyopathy (ADL) is a rare incurable disorder seen in African children, predominantly in southern and south-eastern Africa. ADL presents as chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Management is traditionally conservative, with surgery restricted to the management of complications. We have placed Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) stomas in the grossly dilated colon to vent accumulated gas and administer antegrade bowel enemas. This is done mainly for relief of gaseous distension and constipation in an attempt to provide symptomatic relief and improve quality of life. In this article, we present our preliminary results of laparoscopically assisted technique to insert a Mic-Key gastrostomy device as a 'button colostomy' in 8 patients over the past 6½ years. PMID:21933484

  3. Fluid seepage along the San Clemente Fault scarp: basin-wide impact on barium cycling

    E-print Network

    Huh, Chih-An

    Fluid seepage along the San Clemente Fault scarp: basin-wide impact on barium cycling Marta E present evidence that the barium released at cold seeps along the San Clemente Fault zone may significantly impact the geochemical budget of barium within the basin. Barium fluxes at seep localities

  4. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  5. Do all barium stars have a white dwarf companion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominy, J. F.; Lambert, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer short-wavelength, low-dispersion spectra were analyzed for four barium, two mild barium, and one R-type carbon star in order to test the hypothesis that the barium and related giants are produced by mass transfer from a companion now present as a white dwarf. An earlier tentative identification of a white dwarf companion to the mild barium star Zeta Cyg is confirmed. For the other stars, no ultraviolet excess attributable to a white dwarf is seen. Limits are set on the bolometric magnitude and age of a possible white dwarf companion. Since the barium stars do not have obvious progenitors among main-sequence and subgiant stars, mass transfer must be presumed to occur when the mass-gaining star is already on the giant branch. This restriction, and the white dwarf's minimum age, which is greater than 8 x 10 to the 8th yr, determined for several stars, effectively eliminates the hypothesis that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star creates a barium star. Speculations are presented on alternative methods of producing a barium star in a binary system.

  6. Enteroclysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bowel enema; CT enteroclysis; Small bowel follow-through; Barium enteroclysis ... Possible injury to bowel structures during the study Barium may cause constipation. Tell your health care provider ...

  7. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  8. Proton conductivity of potassium doped barium zirconates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaoxiang; Tao Shanwen; Irvine, John T.S.

    2010-01-15

    Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10%. Introducing extra potassium leads to the formation of second phase or YSZ impurities. The water uptake of barium zirconates was increased even with 5% doping of potassium at the A-site. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. The maximum solubility for yttrium at B-sites is around 15 at% after introducing 1 wt% zinc. The conductivity of Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} at 600 deg. C is 2.2x10{sup -3} S/cm in wet 5% H{sub 2}. The activation energies for bulk and grain boundary are 0.29(2), 0.79(2) eV in wet 5% H{sub 2} and 0.31(1), 0.74(3) eV in dry 5% H{sub 2}. A power density of 7.7 mW/cm{sup 2} at 718 deg. C was observed when a 1 mm thick Ba{sub 0.95}K{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.85}Y{sub 0.11}Zn{sub 0.04}O{sub 3-{delta}} pellet was used as electrolyte and platinum electrodes. - Graphical abstract: Potassium doped barium zirconates have been synthesized by solid state reactions. It was found that the solubility limit of potassium on A-sites is between 5% and 10 %. The sintering conditions and conductivity can be improved significantly by adding 1 wt% ZnO during material synthesis. Five percent doping of potassium at A-site can double the total conductivity.

  9. Large Flexoelectric Anisotropy in Paraelectric Barium Titanate.

    PubMed

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Saremi, Sahar; Hong, Jiawang; Stengel, Massimiliano; Catalan, Gustau

    2015-07-17

    The bending-induced polarization of barium titanate single crystals has been measured with an aim to elucidate the origin of the large difference between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured flexoelectricity in this material. The results indicate that part of the difference is due to polar regions (short-range order) that exist above T(C) and up to T*?200-225?°C. Above T*, however, the flexovoltage coefficient still shows an unexpectedly large anisotropy for a cubic material, with (001)-oriented crystals displaying 10 times more flexoelectricity than (111)-oriented crystals. Theoretical analysis shows that this anisotropy cannot be a bulk property, and we therefore interpret it as indirect evidence for the theoretically predicted but experimentally elusive contribution of surface piezoelectricity to macroscopic bending-induced polarization. PMID:26230825

  10. Theoretical isotope shifts in neutral barium

    E-print Network

    Nazé, Cédric; Godefroid, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with a set of problems in isotope shifts of neutral barium spectral lines. Some well known transitions ($6s^2~^1S_0-6s6p~^{1,3}P^o_1$ and $6s^2~^1S_0-6p^2~^3P_0$) are first investigated. Values of the changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radius are deduced from the available experimental isotope shifts using our ab initio electronic factors. The three sets $\\{ \\delta\\langle r^2\\rangle^{A,A'}\\} $ obtained from these lines are consistent with each other. The combination of the available nuclear mean-square radii with our electronic factors for the $6s5d~^3D_{1,2} -6s6p~^{1}P^o_1$ transitions produces isotope shift values in conflict with the laser spectroscopy measurements of Dammalapati et al. (Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 1 (2009)).

  11. Calculated emission rates for barium releases in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The optical emissions from barium releases in space are caused by resonance and fluorescent scattering of sunlight. Emission rates for the dominant ion and neutral lines are calculated assuming the release to be optically thin and the barium to be in radiative equilibrium with the solar radiation. The solar spectrum has deep Fraunhofer absorption lines at the primary barium ion resonances. A velocity component toward or away from the sun will Doppler shift the emission lines relative to the absorption lines and the emission rates will increase many-fold over the rest value. The Doppler brightening is important in shaped charge or satellite releases where the barium is injected at high velocities. Emission rates as a function of velocity are calculated for the 4554, 4934, 5854, 6142 and 6497 A ion emission lines and the dominant neutral line at 5535 A. Results are presented for injection parallel to the ambient magnetic field, B, and for injection at an angle to B.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal barium evaluation of duodenal pathology: A pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Like other parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), duodenum is subject to a variety of lesions both congenital and acquired. However, unlike other parts of the GIT viz. esophagus, rest of the small intestine and large intestine, barium evaluation of duodenal lesions is technically more challenging and hence not frequently reported. With significant advances in computed tomography technology, a thorough evaluation including intraluminal, mural and extramural is feasible in a single non-invasive examination. Notwithstanding, barium evaluation still remains the initial and sometimes the only imaging study in several parts of the world. Hence, a thorough acquaintance with the morphology of various duodenal lesions on upper gastrointestinal barium examination is essential in guiding further evaluation. We reviewed our experience with various common and uncommon barium findings in duodenal abnormalities. PMID:25170399

  13. Evolution of structure in the PLACES barium clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, D. J.; Lebeda, C. F.; Pongratz, M. B.; Fitzgerald, T. J.; Dupre, R. R.

    1984-02-01

    The PLACES (Position Location and Communication Effects Simulations) experiment is discussed. Intensified optical instruments are used to examine the barium ion and neutral resonance fluorescence light from the four barium ionospheric thermite releases. The effects of structured ionospheric plasmas on transionospheric radio communication lines are determined. As part of this experiment, it was necessary to characterize the evolution of the structure (striations) in the barium ionospheric plasma. The motivation for using barium to simulate these effects is examined. The theoretical and empirical basis for using optical diagnostics for deriving the electron column content of the ion clouds is discussed. The time evolution of the power spectral density (PSD) of striations for the electron column density perpendicular to the magnetic field is derived for the two clouds.

  14. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of making non-volatile digital memory devices of barium titanate, BaTiO3, that are integrated onto a silicon substrate with the required ferroelectric film produced by processing, compatible with silicon technology was examined.

  15. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jing; Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 ; Hu, Chenguo; Xi, Yi; Peng, Chen; Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. {yields} The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. {yields} The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g. {yields} The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and BaCl{sub 2} at 200 {sup o}C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} with small amount of Ba{sub 3}VO{sub 4.8} coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of {approx}20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO{sub 4} tetrahedron with T{sub d} symmetry in Ba{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10{sup -3} emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non-orthovanadate phase with spin S = 1/2.

  16. Outpatient commitment and procedural due process.

    PubMed

    Player, Candice Teri-Lowe

    2015-01-01

    A large empirical literature on Kendra's Law has assessed the impact of court ordered outpatient treatment on outcomes such as treatment adherence, psychiatric hospitalization, quality of life, and treatment costs. Missing from the empirical literature, however, is a better understanding of procedural due process under Kendra's Law. Procedural due process concerns the safeguards that must be in place when governments deprive persons of their liberties, for example--notice, the right to a hearing and the right to appeal. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study of procedural due process and assisted outpatient treatment hearings under Kendra's Law. Attorneys reported significant barriers to effective advocacy on behalf of their clients. Further, despite the shift from a medical model of civil commitment to a judicial model in the 1970s, by and large judges continue to accord great deference to clinical testimony. PMID:25748886

  17. Percutaneous renal biopsy as an outpatient procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Alebiosu, Christopher O.; Kadiri, Solomon

    2004-01-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is a safe and effective tool in the diagnosis and management of renal disease. It is the gold standard for evaluating renal parenchymal disease. It is both useful for diagnosis and monitoring progress of renal diseases. Where facilities and personnel are available to carry out the procedure in developing countries, it has become increasingly difficult for patients to pay for hospital admission fees, the procedure, and processing of the samples obtained. Information on the success rate and safety of the procedure is of interest to nephrologists for cost-benefit considerations and medicolegal purposes. This paper reports the outcome of outpatient PRB done among patients of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. With the use of ultrasound guidance, PRB remains a safe procedure and can be done on an outpatient basis. PMID:15481751

  18. 'Skidding' of the CRRES G-9 barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Mitchell, H. G.; Fedder, J. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A simulation study and experimental data of the CRRES G-9 ionospheric barium release are presented. The simulation study is based on a 2D electrostatic code that incorporates time-dependent coupling to the background plasma. It is shown that the densest portion of the barium ion cloud 'skids' about 15 km within the first three seconds following the release, consistent with the optical data analyses.

  19. A search for technetium (Tc II) in barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little-Marenin, Irene R.; Little, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors searched without success for the lines of Tc II at 2647.02, 2610.00 and 2543.24 A in IUE spectra of the barium stars HR 5058, Omicron Vir, and Zeta Cap. The lack of Tc II implies that the observed s-process enhancements were produced more than half a million years ago and supports the suggestion that the spectral peculiarities of barium stars are probably related to the binary nature of the stars.

  20. Pricing commodity outpatient procedures assessing the impact.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, William O

    2015-10-01

    Hospitals should carefully consider all relevant factors before choosing to lower prices and payments for certain outpatient commodity services in an effort to remain competitive in their market. Key steps to take in the evaluation process include: Determining current profitability. Assessing profitability by payer class. Understanding overall cost positions. Assessing the relative payment terms of current commercial contracts. Determining the net revenue effect of proposed changes. PMID:26595979

  1. A model for an outpatient imaging center.

    PubMed

    Hansen, S M; Hartz, W H; Brown, D R

    1992-12-01

    U.S. federally imposed efforts to regulate joint venturing are a result of certain physician strategies to circumvent anti-kickback statutes by investing in clinics, labs, and facilities for self-referral. This article addresses the ethical debate on physician ownership, MRI as an evolving modality, the 1989 Ethics in Patient Referrals Act and the subsequently released "safe harbors," and finally, describes an existing model for physician/hospital ownership in an outpatient MRI facility. PMID:1490470

  2. Disparities in internet use among orthopedic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth P; Rehman, Saqib; Goldhirsh, Jessie

    2014-02-01

    Internet access has lagged behind for patients with lower incomes and from certain ethnic groups. This study investigated the possible improvement of access to health-related information on the Internet for all patients in an urban outpatient setting, regardless of socioeconomic background. A 28-question survey was completed by 100 orthopedic outpatients evaluating associations between their age, ethnicity, income, or education level and their access to the Internet. The survey also examined how patients used the Internet to obtain information about their medical condition, their privacy concerns when conducting online research, and their use of mobile phones as a primary means of Internet access. The Internet was used by 57% of orthopedic outpatients in this urban setting. Internet access decreased with advancing age but increased with increasing income and education, findings consistent with similar studies. Despite the inability to identify an association between ethnicity and Internet access in this patient population, fewer Latinos (33%) than whites (67%) or African Americans (77%) sought information about their medical condition. Among patients who used a mobile phone as the primary method for online access, 74% were African American or Latino and 26% were white. This difference in mobile phone use for online access suggests that mobile phones have provided ethnic minorities with greater Internet access and thus may have narrowed the digital divide among the races. PMID:24679198

  3. High H? ionic conductivity in barium hydride.

    PubMed

    Verbraeken, Maarten C; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H(-)) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm(-1) at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on. PMID:25485988

  4. High H- ionic conductivity in barium hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C.; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H-) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm-1 at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  5. Prospects for Barium Tagging in Gaseous Xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, D.; Rollin, E.; Smith, J.; Mommers, A.; Ackerman, N.; Aharmim, B.; Auger, M.; Barbeau, P.S.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Cook, S.; Coppens, A.; Daniels, T.; DeVoe, R.; Dobi, A.; Dolinski, M.J.; Donato, K.; Fairbank, W., Jr.; Farine, J.; Giroux, G.; /Bern U., LHEP /Carleton U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Carleton U. /Laurentian U. /Carleton U. /SLAC /Indiana U. /Indiana U., CEEM /Korea U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Alabama U. /Colorado State U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Alabama U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Alabama U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /SLAC /Alabama U. /SLAC /Maryland U. /Moscow, ITEP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Maryland U. /Bern U., LHEP /Laurentian U. /SLAC /Maryland U.

    2012-05-03

    Tagging events with the coincident detection of a barium ion would greatly reduce the background for a neutrino-less double beta decay search in xenon. This paper describes progress towards realizing this goal. It outlines a source that can produce large quantities of Ba++ in gas, shows that this can be extracted to vacuum, and demonstrates a mechanism by which the Ba++ can be efficiently converted to Ba+ as required for laser identification. It is clear from this study that electrospray is a convenient mechanism for producing Ba++ is gas at atmospheric pressure. It is likely that the source will perform just as effectively at higher pressures. Even though the source region has water vapour and methanol vapour at the 0.3% level, there is no evidence for molecular formation. The use of TEA offers an effective method to achieve the charge state conversion. The overall design of the ion extraction from high pressure to vacuum is very similar to the scheme proposed for the final detector and this appears to work well although the efficiency is not yet determined.

  6. Outpatient vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Petereit, D. G.; Tannehill, S. P.; Grosen, E. A.; Hartenbach, E. M.; Schink, J. C.

    1999-11-01

    Petereit DG, Tannehill SP, Grosen EA, Hartenbach EM, Schink JC. Outpatient vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and complications of postoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal-cuff brachytherapy (VCB) in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Between August 1989 to September 1997, 191 patients were treated postoperatively after a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO) with outpatient adjuvant HDR VCB for low-risk endometrial cancer (IB-84%, grade 1 or 2-96%). Patients were treated with 2 HDR fractions, delivered one week apart while under conscious sedation (16.2 Gy X 2 to the vaginal surface). All clinical endpoints were calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. The median time in the brachytherapy suite was 60 min in which no acute complications were observed. The 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were both 0%. With a median follow-up of 38 months (12-82 months), the 4-year survival, relapse-free survival, and vaginal-control rates were 95%, 98%, and 100%, respectively. One patient developed a colo-vaginal fistula at 5 years. Adjuvant HDR VCB in 2 outpatient insertions produced 100% vaginal control rates with minimal morbidity. The advantages of high dose-rate compared to low dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy include patient convenience, markedly shorter treatment times (1 h per insertion), and reduction in the cost and potential morbidity of hospitalization. HDR brachytherapy approach is a cost-effective alternative to either low-dose-rate brachytherapy or whole pelvic radiotherapy in carefully selected patients. PMID:11240811

  7. [Prerequisites for outpatient treatment using general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Seiter, A; Dumbach, J; Altemeyer, K H

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of profound preoperative examination by an experienced anesthesiologist, the cooperation of dentists, oral and maxillo-facial surgeons, anesthesiologists, pediatricians, internal specialists and family doctors, careful planning, conduction and supervision of anesthesia and postoperative treatment in a recovery room are essential in safe outpatient treatment under general anesthesia in the field of oral and maxillo-facial surgery. In case of unexpected postoperative complications patients have to be hospitalized. All the aforementioned requirements in respect of staff, apparatus and rooms must be fulfilled. PMID:1611976

  8. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. PMID:25896809

  9. A South African outpatient drug treatment centre.

    PubMed

    Karassellos, C; Wilson, D

    1993-05-01

    The Cape Town Drug Counselling Centre is an outpatient drug treatment service which has been operational since 1985. Statistics obtained from 1990 are detailed, describing patient characteristics in respect of referral sources, age, sex, occupational status, educational level and drugs abused. The typical client profile that emerges is of a young employed male of limited education, referred from a non-professional source, who smokes cannabis alone or with methaqualone (Mandrax). Management of clients, which includes psychotherapy with an emphasis on group-work and medical intervention, is described, and proposed areas for further research are outlined. PMID:8211429

  10. Millimeter wave phase shifter based on ferromagnetic resonance in a hexagonal barium ferrite thin film

    E-print Network

    Millimeter wave phase shifter based on ferromagnetic resonance in a hexagonal barium ferrite thin of an M-type barium ferrite BaM thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition and a coplanar waveguide

  11. Tracking Phaselock Loop Characteristics with a VCO Using a Barium Strontium Titanate (BST)

    E-print Network

    Tracking Phaselock Loop Characteristics with a VCO Using a Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Thin University, Raleigh, NC-27695-7919,USA, Ph: +1-919-767-3277, Email: avictor@harris.com Abstract -- Barium

  12. Cooling laser system for quantum computing with barium-137 ions Tom Chartrand

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Cooling laser system for quantum computing with barium-137 ions Tom Chartrand Department of Physics for essentially any application. We have been trapping 137-barium with this end in mind. The odd isotope has

  13. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  14. Rocket having barium release system to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, B. W.; Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    A chemical system for releasing a good yield of free barium atoms and barium ions to create ion clouds in the upper atmosphere and interplanetary space for the study of the geophysical properties of the medium is presented.

  15. Pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate films: Effect of thermal M. W. Cole,2

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate films: Effect of thermal stresses J. Zhang,1 M pyroelectric properties of 001 -textured polycrystalline barium strontium titanate BaxSr1-xTiO3, BST films

  16. Enhanced dielectric properties from barium strontium titanate films with strontium titanate buffer layers

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Enhanced dielectric properties from barium strontium titanate films with strontium titanate buffer in their PE state. One of the leading material candidates for tunable materials is barium strontium titanate

  17. 42 CFR 419.22 - Hospital outpatient services excluded from payment under the hospital outpatient prospective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Hospital outpatient services furnished to SNF residents (as defined in § 411.15...care plan (and thus included under the SNF PPS) that are furnished by the hospital “under arrangements” but billable only by the SNF, regardless of whether or not the...

  18. 42 CFR 419.22 - Hospital outpatient services excluded from payment under the hospital outpatient prospective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Hospital outpatient services furnished to SNF residents (as defined in § 411.15...care plan (and thus included under the SNF PPS) that are furnished by the hospital “under arrangements” but billable only by the SNF, regardless of whether or not the...

  19. 42 CFR 419.22 - Hospital outpatient services excluded from payment under the hospital outpatient prospective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Hospital outpatient services furnished to SNF residents (as defined in § 411.15...care plan (and thus included under the SNF PPS) that are furnished by the hospital “under arrangements” but billable only by the SNF, regardless of whether or not the...

  20. 42 CFR 419.22 - Hospital outpatient services excluded from payment under the hospital outpatient prospective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary designates as requiring inpatient care. (o) Hospital outpatient services furnished to SNF... comprehensive care plan (and thus included under the SNF PPS) that are furnished by the hospital “under arrangements” but billable only by the SNF, regardless of whether or not the patient is in a Part A SNF...

  1. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  2. Emission spectrographic determination of barium in sea water using a cation exchange concentration procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Joensuu, O.

    1967-01-01

    A concentration technique employing Dowex 50W cation exchange resin is described for the determination of barium in sea water. The separated barium is precipitated as fluoride together with calcium and strontium and measured by emission spectrographic analysis. The vertical distribution of barium in sea water has been measured in the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The barium content varied between 7 and 23 ??g. per liter; in two profiles, the lowest concentrations were at a depth of about 1000 meters.

  3. Complications with Outpatient Angiography and Interventional Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Noel; Chi, Ka-Kit; Ajaka, Joe; McKay, Lesa; O'Neill, Diane; Wong, Kai Ping

    2002-03-15

    Purpose: To prospectively identify the complications, and rates of complication, in outpatient angiography and interventional procedures. Methods: There were 1050 consecutive patients, 646 men and 404 women, aged 17-89 years, with a total of 1239 procedures studied in a 2-year period, 1997 to 1999. Results: There were 560 cases of aorto-femoral angiography,resulting in 124 complications (22%), with pain or hematoma in 110.There were 206 cases of neck and cerebral angiography, resulting in 51 complications (25%), with pain and hematoma in 34, transient ischemic attack in 2 and cerebrovascular accident in 1. There were 197 interfentional procedures, with 177 being balloon dilatations, resulting in 68 complications (35%), with 2 having hematomas and 1 having hematoma/abscess requiring active treatment. There were 276 cases having various 'other' procedures (e.g., renal angiography),resulting in 65 complications (24%), with pain and hematoma in 61. No procedure-related death occurred. Eighteen cases (1.5%) had significant complications, with contrast allergy in eight. Conclusion: Outpatient angiography and intervention are relatively safe, with low significant complication rates.

  4. Outpatient provider concentration and commercial colonoscopy prices.

    PubMed

    Pozen, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the magnitude of various contributors to outpatient commercial colonoscopy prices, including market- and provider-level factors, especially market share. We used adjudicated fee-for-service facility claims from a large commercial insurer for colonoscopies occurring in hospital outpatient department or ambulatory surgery center from October 2005 to December 2012. Claims were matched to provider- and market-level data. Linear fixed effects regressions of negotiated colonoscopy price were run on provider, system, and market characteristics. Markets were defined as counties. There were 178,433 claims from 169 providers (104 systems). The mean system market share was 76% (SD = 0.34) and the mean real (deflated) price was US$1363 (SD = 374), ranging from US$169 to US$2748. For every percentage point increase in a system or individual facility's bed share, relative price increased by 2 to 4 percentage points; this result was stable across a number of specifications. Market population and price were also consistently positively related, though this relation was small in magnitude. No other factor explained price as strongly as market share. Price variation for colonoscopy was driven primarily by market share, of particular concern as the number of mergers increases in wake of the recession and the Affordable Care Act. Whether variation is justified by better quality care requires further research to determine whether quality is subsumed in prices. PMID:25870183

  5. Elderly outpatient profile and predictors of falls.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Cintra, Fernanda Aparecida; Batista, Fernanda Sotelo; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Guariento, Maria Elena; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosario de; D'Elboux, Maria José

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES Falls are a serious public health problem and are one of the biggest reasons for hospitalization, morbidity and mortality among elderly people. Moreover, few studies on predictors of falls have been conducted in low and middle income countries. The aim here was to identify elderly outpatient profiles according to sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional variables and correlate them with occurrences of falls among these subjects. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional descriptive study forming part of the project "Quality of Life of Frail Elderly People", carried out in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS The subjects were 145 elderly individuals (76.3 ± 7.8 years old), of whom 65% were women, who were living in the city of Campinas or nearby and were attended at the geriatric outpatient clinic of a University Hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional data, as well as fall occurrence data, were gathered. Cluster analyses and comparisons between groups were carried out. RESULTS Cluster analysis identified two distinct groups related to the study variables, and the determinants for this distinction were: gender, marital status, physical performance, handgrip strength and functional independence. These groups were compared according to occurrences of falls over the last year, and significant differences between them were found. CONCLUSIONS The results showed that greater occurrences of falls were associated with a profile of elderly people comprising female gender, single status, lower muscle strength and physical performance regarding balance and gait, and lower independence in motor tasks for activities of daily living. PMID:23538590

  6. Radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer with high-concentration barium sulfate compared with moderate-concentration barium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Azuma, M; Kuroda, C; Kubo, T; Yabunaka, K; Yamazaki, H; Katsuda, T; Takeda, Y

    2009-06-01

    Recently, high-concentration barium sulfate has been developed and is used in many medical facilities. This study compared radiation dose using high-concentration and moderate-concentration barium sulfate. The dose was evaluated with an experimental method using a gastric phantom and with a clinical examination. In the former, the dose and X-ray tube load were measured on the phantom with two concentrations of barium sulfate. In the latter, the fluoroscopic dose-area product (DAP), the radiographic DAP and their sum, the total DAP, were investigated in 150 subjects (112 males, 38 females) treated with both concentrations of barium sulfate. The effective dose was calculated by the software of PCXMC in every case. The results of the experimental evaluation indicated that the effective dose and X-ray tube load were greater with high-concentration barium sulfate than with moderate-concentration barium sulfate (p < 0.05). The results of the clinical evaluation indicated that the fluoroscopic DAP was greater with moderate-concentration barium sulfate than with high-concentration barium sulfate (p < 0.05), but the radiographic DAP was quite the reverse, so the total DAP and effective dose were almost same with both concentrations of barium sulfate. We conclude that high-concentration barium sulfate does not increase radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer. PMID:19623859

  7. Compact high power barium nitrite crystal-based Raman laser at 1197 nm

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    Compact high power barium nitrite crystal-based Raman laser at 1197 nm for photoacoustic imaging of fat Rui Li Mikhail N. Slipchenko Pu Wang Ji-Xin Cheng #12;Compact high power barium nitrite crystal such a barrier, we demonstrate the construction and use of a com- pact, barium nitrite crystal-based Raman laser

  8. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  9. Effect of Microwave Frequency on Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Tetragonal Barium Titanate

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    Effect of Microwave Frequency on Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Tetragonal Barium, 2007; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: April 29, 2008 Nanocrystalline tetragonal barium titanate (BaTiO3. The dependence of properties of barium titanate on microwave frequency could be due to different transverse

  10. Single-Crystalline Barium Titanate By Jeffrey J. Urban, Jonathan E. Spanier, Lian Ouyang,

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Single-Crystalline Barium Titanate Nanowires By Jeffrey J. Urban, Jonathan E. Spanier, Lian Ouyang composed of barium titanate (BaTiO3), a prototypical displacive ferroelectric material[14,15] that yields-volatile memory devices with an integration density approaching 1 terabit cm±2 . 2. Synthesis of Barium Titanate

  11. Phase associations of barium in marine sediments Meagan Eagle Gonneea *, Adina Paytan 1

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    Phase associations of barium in marine sediments Meagan Eagle Gonneea *, Adina Paytan 1 Department 2006 Abstract Barium (Ba) is associated with various phases in marine sediments, including carbonates-export productivity. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Barium; Barite; Marine sediment; Sedimentary

  12. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  13. Nanoscale Patterning of Barium Titanate on Block Tu Lee,, Nan Yao, and Ilhan A. Aksay*,,

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Nanoscale Patterning of Barium Titanate on Block Copolymers Tu Lee,, Nan Yao, and Ilhan A. Aksay of polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene (Kraton D1102) has been used to pattern barium titanate precursor on the unsaturated carbon bonds in the polybutadiene matrix with antistereochemistry. Anchoring the barium titanate

  14. CORRELATED STRONTIUM AND BARIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF ACID-CLEANED SINGLE MAINSTREAM SILICON CARBIDES FROM MURCHISON

    E-print Network

    CORRELATED STRONTIUM AND BARIUM ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF ACID-CLEANED SINGLE MAINSTREAM SILICON April 7 ABSTRACT We present strontium, barium, carbon, and silicon isotopic compositions of 61 acid effective in removing both strontium and barium contamination. For the first time, by using correlated 88 Sr

  15. The enhanced and optimal piezoelectric coefficients in single crystalline barium titanate with engineered domain configurations

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiangyu

    The enhanced and optimal piezoelectric coefficients in single crystalline barium titanate the effective electromechanical moduli of tetragonal barium titanate poled along 111 direction, where that poling along 111 direction does not lead to the optimal domain configuration, since barium titanate poled

  16. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  17. Structure evolution and dielectric behavior of polystyrene-capped barium titanate nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Structure evolution and dielectric behavior of polystyrene-capped barium titanate nanoparticles H35600g Polystyrene-capped barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles with sizes of 11 nm and 27 nm were nanocrystals. 1. Introduction Barium titanate (BaTiO3), one of the most commonly used perovskite compounds

  18. TEE BARIUM CONTENT IN THE CALCAREOUS SKELETAL MATERTALS OF SOME RECENT AND

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    TEE BARIUM CONTENT IN THE CALCAREOUS SKELETAL MATERTALS OF SOME RECENT AND FOSSIL CORALS known mlxtures of the 'vrlo m inerals. Ion-exchange methods hrere utllized to separate barium from on ln the Ilvlng eorals varled from 5- 2 + IOS ppn, to L2.5 + 6.1+% ppr. ThtB varJ-atlon ln barium

  19. PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE, 2003, VOL. 83, NO. 2, 165178 Synthesis and characterization of mixed-valence barium

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiqu

    -valence barium titanates Thomas Ho« chey, Paula Olhe, Ralf Keding, Christian Ru« sselz Otto October 2001 and accepted in revised form 9 August 2002] Abstract A single-crystal barium oxotitanate and bonding in related compounds. } 1. Introduction Barium titanate (BaTiO3) is an important electroceramic

  20. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  1. MNRAS 428, 32523261 (2013) doi:10.1093/mnras/sts270 Barium abundances in Cepheids

    E-print Network

    Maciel, Walter Junqueira

    2013-01-01

    MNRAS 428, 3252­3261 (2013) doi:10.1093/mnras/sts270 Barium abundances in Cepheids S. M. Andrievsky; in original form 2012 August 28 ABSTRACT We derived the barium atmospheric abundances for a large sample to 15 kpc, so it is appropriate to investigate the existence of radial barium abundance gradients

  2. Synthesis and Structural Diversity of Barium (N,N-Dimethylamino)diboranates

    E-print Network

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    Synthesis and Structural Diversity of Barium (N,N-Dimethylamino)diboranates Scott R. Daly, Brian J. The reaction of 1 or 1 with Lewis bases that bind more strongly to barium than diethyl ether results that several of the barium complexes are monomeric in the solid state, none is appreciably volatile up to 200

  3. A comparison between excess barium and barite as indicators of carbon export

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    A comparison between excess barium and barite as indicators of carbon export Meagan Eagle and Adina in many paleoproductivity studies. Barite, the main carrier of particulate barium in the water column in some locations. We demonstrate that Baexcess (total barium minus the fraction associated

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 052328 (2010) Hyperfine and optical barium ion qubits

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    2010-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 81, 052328 (2010) Hyperfine and optical barium ion qubits M. R. Dietrich,* N these profoundly quantum systems. Despite a long history in ion trapping [3­5], barium has never previously been a natural source without isotope-selective ionization [6,7]. Barium possesses a long-lived metastable state

  5. Enhanced Sintering of Yttrium-Doped Barium Zirconate by Addition of ZnO

    E-print Network

    Haile, Sossina M.

    Enhanced Sintering of Yttrium-Doped Barium Zirconate by Addition of ZnO Peter Babilo and Sossina M properties of doped barium zirconate have been examined. With the use of zinc ox- ide as a sintering aid, Ba of the material under flowing CO2 showed ZnO-modified barium zirconate to exhibit excellent chemical stability

  6. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  7. Influence of Ba content on grain size and dynamics of crystallization in barium ferrite thin films

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Influence of Ba content on grain size and dynamics of crystallization in barium ferrite thin films of the crystallization process, which ultimately determines the grain size, were studied in barium ferrite thin films. Rapid thermal annealing was used to crystallize the amorphous as-deposited barium ferrite films

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 023403 (2013) Production of translationally cold barium monohalide ions

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 88, 023403 (2013) Production of translationally cold barium monohalide ions M. V) We have produced sympathetically cooled barium monohalide ions BaX+ (X = F, Cl, Br) by reacting with these predictions. Producing BaX+ ions in this way is simple and allows for the study of different barium monohalide

  9. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles in Block Copolymer Tu Lee,*,, Nan Yao, Hiroaki Imai,, and Ilhan A. Aksay,

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Barium Titanate Nanoparticles in Block Copolymer Tu Lee,*,, Nan Yao, Hiroaki Imai,, and Ilhan A-polybutadiene-polystyrene (Kraton D1102). The barium titanated Kraton thin film had remnants of the cylindrical morphology of a plain Kraton thin film with an interdomain spacing of 23 nm. The procedure of barium titanation

  10. Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing T. Izuhara,a)

    E-print Network

    Reeves, Mark E.

    Single-crystal barium titanate thin films by ion slicing T. Izuhara,a) I.-L. Gheorma, and R. M, D.C. 20052 Received 19 September 2002; accepted 3 December 2002 Thin barium titanate films, 0.5­8 m.1063/1.1540727 Barium titanate, BaTiO3 BTO , is a ferroelectric crystal whose outstanding electrical and optical

  11. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  12. Barium ferrite thin film media with perpendicular c-axis orientation and small grain size

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Barium ferrite thin film media with perpendicular c-axis orientation and small grain size Zailong, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Barium ferrite thin films with perpendicular c conditions. The c-axis orientation of barium ferrite thin films is most sensitive to the oxygen partial

  13. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or...

  14. Strain effect on coercive field of epitaxial barium titanate thin films S. Choudhury,1,a

    E-print Network

    Chen, Long-Qing

    Strain effect on coercive field of epitaxial barium titanate thin films S. Choudhury,1,a Y. L. Li,1 polarizations of 001 -oriented epitaxial barium titanate thin films using the phase-field approach by strain. We use 001 -oriented epitaxial barium titanate BTO thin films as a model system. In the phase

  15. M-type barium hexaferrite synthesis and characterization for phase shifter applications

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    M-type barium hexaferrite synthesis and characterization for phase shifter applications A. T. Wise subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;M-type barium-type barium hexaferrite films have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy and examined by x-ray diffraction

  16. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721.10010...Chemical Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 ). (a...The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3 )...

  2. Journal of Crystal Growth 271 (2004) 128133 Growth of strontium barium niobate

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Crystal Growth 271 (2004) 128­133 Growth of strontium barium niobate: the liquidus. Roth Available online 11 September 2004 Abstract The liquidus­solidus phase diagram of strontium barium, and dielectric properties, strontium barium niobate, SrxBa1ÀxNb2O6--hen- ceforth denoted as SBN, is one

  3. Dielectric tunability of graded barium strontium titanate multilayers: Effect of thermal strains

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Dielectric tunability of graded barium strontium titanate multilayers: Effect of thermal strains M TEC of a multilayered barium strontium titanate Ba1-ySryTiO3 BST ferroelectric heterostructure such as barium strontium titanate Ba1-ySryTiO3 BST have emerged as leading candidates for such applications due

  4. Phase diagrams and dielectric response of epitaxial barium strontium titanate films: A theoretical analysis

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Phase diagrams and dielectric response of epitaxial barium strontium titanate films: A theoretical for publication 7 March 2002 We develop phase diagrams for single-domain epitaxial barium strontium titanate films. DOI: 10.1063/1.1473675 I. INTRODUCTION Thin films of barium strontium titanate BaxSr1 xTiO3 ,(BST

  5. Optimization of the tunability of barium strontium titanate films via epitaxial stresses

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Optimization of the tunability of barium strontium titanate films via epitaxial stresses Z.-G. Ban The tunability of epitaxial barium strontium titanate films is analyzed theoretically using a phenomenological.1063/1.1524310 I. INTRODUCTION Thin films of barium strontium titanate (BaxSr1 xTiO3, BST have long been recognized

  6. Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor Phase Transitions by

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions Unraveling Relaxor 2009 WILLIAMSBURG WORKSHOP ON FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS OF FERROELECTRICS #12;Introduction Strontium Barium ferroelectrics Introduction Strontium Barium Niobate k-Space Spectroscopy Results Conclusions SBN ­ SrxBa1-xNb2O6

  7. Optimization of High Tunability Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films Grown by RF Magnetron

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    Optimization of High Tunability Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films Grown by RF Magnetron Abstract-- Barium strontium titanate is a solid solution perovskite with a field-dependent permittivity.7 MV/cm. I. INTRODUCTION In recent years there has been much interest in thin-film barium strontium

  8. High tunability barium strontium titanate thin films for rf circuit applications

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    High tunability barium strontium titanate thin films for rf circuit applications N. K. Pervez,a) P) Large variations in the permittivity of rf magnetron sputtered thin-film barium strontium titanate have/cm. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.1818724] Barium strontium titanate (BST) is a solid

  9. Noncollinear Optical Frequency Doubling in Strontium Barium Niobate Arthur R. Tunyagi, Michael Ulex, and Klaus Betzler*

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Noncollinear Optical Frequency Doubling in Strontium Barium Niobate Arthur R. Tunyagi, Michael Ulex of a novel noncollinear optical second-harmonic generation mechanism is reported. In strontium barium niobate mechanism which we detected in crystals of strontium barium niobate (SBN)--cone-shaped second

  10. The effect of stress on the dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    The effect of stress on the dielectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films T. M Barium strontium titanate thin films are being developed as capacitors in dynamic random access memories to their large permittivities, barium strontium titan- ate BST bulk ceramics have long been used to make high

  11. Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals

    E-print Network

    Osnabrück, Universität

    Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals Ä. Andresen, A.-N. Bahar properties of single crystals of strontium barium niobate, grown from the congruently melting composition, electro-optic, pho- torefractive, and dielectric properties, the solid solution strontium barium niobate

  12. Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Thin-Film Interdigital Varactors on Alumina: Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and

    E-print Network

    Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Thin-Film Interdigital Varactors on Alumina: Design, Raleigh, NC-27695-7914, USA. Email:jayeshnath@ieee.org Abstract -- Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST, capacitors, BST, ferroelectric, thin-film, barium strontium titanate, bandpass filter, IP3, ACPR, temperature

  13. Barium-borate-flyash glasses: As radiation shielding materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Devinder; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation coefficients of barium-borate-flyash glasses have been measured for ?-ray photon energies of 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using narrow beam transmission geometry. The photon beam was highly collimated and overall scatter acceptance angle was less than 3°. Our results have an uncertainty of less than 3%. These coefficients were then used to obtain the values of mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number and electron density. Good agreements have been observed between experimental and theoretical values of these parameters. From the studies of the obtained results it is reported here that from the shielding point of view the barium-borate-flyash glasses are better shields to ?-radiations in comparison to the standard radiation shielding concretes and also to the ordinary barium-borate glasses.

  14. Chemical compositions of four barium stars

    E-print Network

    Y. C. Liang; G. Zhao; Y. Q. Chen; H. M. Qiu; B. Zhang

    2003-12-15

    Chemical compositions of four barium stars HD 26886, HD 27271, HD 50082 and HD 98839 are studied based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise Echelle spectra. Results show that all of them are disk stars. Their \\alpha and iron peak elements are similar to the solar abundances. The neutron-capture process elements are overabundant relative to the Solar. The heavy-element abundances of the strong Ba star HD 50082 are higher than those of other three mild Ba stars. Its mass is 1.32Msun (+0.28,-0.22Msun), and is consistent with the average mass of strong Ba stars (1.5Msun). For mild Ba star HD 27271 and HD 26886, the derived masses are 1.90Msun (+0.25,-0.20Msun) and 2.78Msun (+0.75,-0.78M_sun), respectively, which are consistent with the average mass of mild Ba stars. We also calculate the theoretical abundances of Ba stars by combining the AGB stars nucleosynthesis and wind accretion formation scenario of Ba binary systems. The comparisons between the observed abundance patterns of the sample stars with the theoretical results show that wind accretion scenario can explain the abundance patterns of HD 50082 and HD 27271 well, but fail to explain the abundances of HD 26886. It means that the mild Ba star HD 26886, with shorter orbital period (P11000 d), may be either a star with the heavy elements enriched by itself or a "true Ba" star.

  15. Ionization and expansion of barium clouds in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, T.-Z.; Schunk, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    A recently envelope 3D model is used here to study the motion of the barium clouds released in the ionosphere, including the ionization stage. The ionization and the expansion of the barium clouds and the interaction between the clouds and the background ions are investigated using three simulations: a cloud without a directional velocity, a cloud with an initial velocity of 5 km/s across the B field, and a cloud with initial velocity components of 2 km/s both along and across the B field.

  16. Photoionization and Photoelectric Loading of Barium Ion Traps

    E-print Network

    A. V. Steele; L. R. Churchill; P. F. Griffin; M. S. Chapman

    2007-03-22

    Simple and effective techniques for loading barium ions into linear Paul traps are demonstrated. Two-step photoionization of neutral barium is achieved using a weak intercombination line (6s2 1S0 6s6p 3P1, 791 nm) followed by excitation above the ionization threshold using a nitrogen gas laser (337 nm). Isotopic selectivity is achieved by using a near Doppler-free geometry for excitation of the triplet 6s6p 3P1 state. Additionally, we report a particularly simple and efficient trap loading technique that employs an in-expensive UV epoxy curing lamp to generate photoelectrons.

  17. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1981-01-01

    The photoelectric effect in structures consisting of metal deposited barium titanate film silicon is described. A radio frequency sputtering technique is used to deposit ferroelectric barium titantate films on silicon and quartz. Film properties are measured and correlated with the photoelectric effect characteristics of the films. It was found that to obtain good quality pin hole free films, it is necessary to reduce the substrate temperature during the last part of the deposition. The switching ability of the device with internal applied voltage is improved when applied with a ferroelectric memory device.

  18. Methods for producing monodispersed particles of barium titanate

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a low-temperature controlled method for producing high-quality, ultrafine monodispersed nanocrystalline microsphere powders of barium titanate and other pure or composite oxide materials having particles ranging from nanosized to micronsized particles. The method of the subject invention comprises a two-stage process. The first stage produces high quality monodispersed hydrous titania microsphere particles prepared by homogeneous precipitation via dielectric tuning in alcohol-water mixed solutions of inorganic salts. Titanium tetrachloride is used as an inorganic salt precursor material. The second stage converts the pure hydrous titania microsphere particles into crystalline barium titanate microsphere powders via low-temperature, hydrothermal reactions.

  19. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  20. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  1. 38 CFR 17.163 - Posthospital outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.163 Section 17.163 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.163 Posthospital outpatient dental treatment. The Chief, Dental Service may authorize outpatient dental care which is reasonably necessary to complete treatment of...

  2. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  3. 38 CFR 17.163 - Posthospital outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.163 Section 17.163 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.163 Posthospital outpatient dental treatment. The Chief, Dental Service may authorize outpatient dental care which is reasonably necessary to complete treatment of...

  4. 38 CFR 17.163 - Posthospital outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.163 Section 17.163 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.163 Posthospital outpatient dental treatment. The Chief, Dental Service may authorize outpatient dental care which is reasonably necessary to complete treatment of...

  5. Creative Art Therapy Groups: A Treatment Modality for Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Marie-Celine; Kronish, Neomi

    2007-01-01

    This brief report examines the benefits of a creative art therapy group program for outpatients suffering from psychiatric disorders. Included is a review of relevant treatment outcomes literature on the effectiveness of group art therapy. The authors describe the Creative Art Therapy Group Program offered to adult psychiatric outpatients that is…

  6. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  7. 38 CFR 17.163 - Posthospital outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.163 Section 17.163 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.163 Posthospital outpatient dental treatment. The Chief, Dental Service may authorize outpatient dental care which is reasonably necessary to complete treatment of...

  8. 38 CFR 17.161 - Authorization of outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1712(b) and 38 CFR 17.93 to the extent prescribed and in accordance with the applicable classification... outpatient dental treatment. 17.161 Section 17.161 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.161 Authorization of outpatient dental treatment....

  9. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

  10. 38 CFR 17.163 - Posthospital outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.163 Section 17.163 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.163 Posthospital outpatient dental treatment. The Chief, Dental Service may authorize outpatient dental care which is reasonably necessary to complete treatment of...

  11. 38 CFR 17.165 - Emergency outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dental treatment. 17.165 Section 17.165 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Dental Services § 17.165 Emergency outpatient dental treatment. When outpatient emergency dental care is provided, as a humanitarian service, to individuals who have no established...

  12. Bypassing the Local Rural Hospital for Outpatient Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Charles; Bellamy, Gail R.; Menachemi, Nir; Chukmaitov, Askar S.; Brooks, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the amount of local rural hospital outpatient department (HOPD) bypass for outpatient procedures. Methods: We analyzed data on colonoscopies and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed in the state of Florida over the period 1997-2004. Findings: Approximately, 53% of colonoscopy and 45% of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy…

  13. 75 FR 7218 - Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services at Non-Departmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services at Non-Departmental...payments for inpatient and outpatient health care professional services and other...Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services at...

  14. 42 CFR 413.198 - Recordkeeping and cost reporting requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis. 413.198 Section 413.198 Public...requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis. (a) Purpose and Scope. ...in furnishing outpatient maintenance dialysis as defined in § 413.170(a)....

  15. 42 CFR 413.198 - Recordkeeping and cost reporting requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis. 413.198 Section 413.198 Public...requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis. (a) Purpose and Scope. ...in furnishing outpatient maintenance dialysis as defined in § 413.170(a)....

  16. 42 CFR 413.198 - Recordkeeping and cost reporting requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis. 413.198 Section 413.198 Public...requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis. (a) Purpose and Scope. ...in furnishing outpatient maintenance dialysis as defined in § 413.170(a)....

  17. 42 CFR 413.198 - Recordkeeping and cost reporting requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis. 413.198 Section 413.198 Public...requirements for outpatient maintenance dialysis. (a) Purpose and Scope. ...in furnishing outpatient maintenance dialysis as defined in § 413.170(a)....

  18. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training. 414... § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training. (a...this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made...

  19. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training. 414... § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training. (a...this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made...

  20. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training. 414... § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training. (a...this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made...

  1. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training. 414... § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training. (a...this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made...

  2. Behavioural deviance and maternal depressive symptoms in paediatric outpatients.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M

    1985-01-01

    A consecutive series of 95 3 to 4 year old and 43 7 to 11 year old children attending surgical, and medical outpatient clinics was studied, using questionnaires that measured behavioural deviance and had adequate reliability and validity for screening populations of children. A control group was also studied in the 7 to 11 year old sample. Depressive symptoms in the mothers of the children were determined using the Wakefield depression inventory. There was considerable behavioural deviance in children attending the outpatient clinics; 44% of the 7 to 11 year olds who were surgical outpatients had deviant scores. Thirty two per cent of mothers of medical outpatients had deviant scores on the depression inventory. These findings have relevance for the approach paediatricians take to their outpatients. PMID:4015172

  3. Ferroelastic domains in lead-free barium zirconate titanate - barium calcium titanate piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmke, Matthias Claudius

    Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions. Piezoelectricity was first discovered by Pierre and Jaque Curie in the year 1880. Nowadays, piezoelectric materials are used in many application such as high voltage generation in gas igniters, actuation in micro-positioning devices, generation and detection of acoustic waves, emitters and receivers for sonar technology, ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasound medical therapy, and micropumps for ink-jet printers. The most commonly used piezoelectric material since the 1950's is the solid solution system lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that offers high piezoelectric performance under a large range of operating conditions. However, the toxicity of lead requires the replacement of PZT. The studied lead-free alternatives are commonly based on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) and bismuth sodium titanate (BNT), and more recently zirconium and calcium substituted barium titanate (BZT-BCT). The BZT-BCT system exhibits large piezoelectric coefficients that can exceed even those of most PZT compositions under certain conditions.

  4. PROPOSED ORAL REFERENCE DOSE (RFD) FOR BARIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a database of EPA's consensus opinion of the human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances found in the environment. A Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary were prepared for barium and compounds in 1998 ...

  5. BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

  6. HEALTH EFFECTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BARIUM IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this study was to examine by epidemiologic and supportive laboratory studies, the human health effects associated with ingestion of barium in drinking water exceeding the U.S. drinking water standard of 1.0 mg/l. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality ...

  7. Dynamics of a barium release in the magnetospheric tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.; Geller, S. P.; Doolittle, J. H.; Haerendel, G.

    1989-01-01

    The late time behavior of the May 13, 1985 magnetotail barium cloud is examined. The bulk dynamics of the cloud are studied based on triangulated data and data from Fabry-Perot Doppler velocity measurements. The changes in cloud morphology in relation to the in situ measurements made by the Ion Release Module satellite are discussed.

  8. REMOVING BARIUM AND RADIUM THROUGH CALCIUM CATION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra), which are found in many groundwater sources, was achieved in laboratory studies with an ion exchange process. In the studies, a strong acid resin in the calcium form effectively removed Ba(+2) and Ra (+2) to meet standards. The resin wa...

  9. BARIUM AND RADIUM REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER BY ION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the applicability of weak acid exchange resin in the hydrogen form for removal of hardness, barium and radium from groundwater. Weak acid resin in the hydrogen form eliminates the addition of sodium to drinking water. The capac...

  10. Outpatient provider contact prior to unintentional opioid overdose

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lewei (Allison); Bohnert, Amy; Ilgen, Mark; Pfeiffer, Paul Nelson; Ganoczy, Dara; Blow, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Prescribed opioid medications are the most commonly implicated substances in unintentional overdoses. Outpatient health care encounters represent a potential opportunity to intervene to reduce opioid overdose risk. This study assessed the timing and type of outpatient provider contacts prior to overdose. Methods This study examined all adult patients nationally in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) who died from unintentional prescription opioid overdose in fiscal years 2004–2007 and used VHA services anytime within two years of their deaths (n=1,813). For those whose last treatment contact was in an outpatient setting (n=1,457), demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics were compared among patients categorized by the location of their last contact. Results 33% (N=479) of those last seen in outpatient settings were seen within one week and 62% (N=910) within one month of their overdose. A substantial proportion of patients were last seen within one month of death in mental health or substance disorder outpatient settings (30% N=438). The majority of patients did not fill an opioid prescription on their last outpatient visit prior to unintentional opioid overdose. Conclusions The majority of patients who died by unintentional overdose on prescription opioids were seen within a month of their overdose in outpatient settings. These settings may provide an opportunity to prevent patients from dying from prescription opioid overdoses, and interventions to reduce risk should not be limited to visits that resulted in an opioid prescription. PMID:26129993

  11. Preliminary study of the CRRES magnetospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Lyon, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary theoretical and computational analyses of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) magnetospheric barium releases are presented. The focus of the studies is on the evolution of the diamagnetic cavity which is formed by the barium ions as they expand outward, and on the structuring of the density and magnetic field during the expansion phase of the releases. Two sets of simulation studies are discussed. The first set is based upon a 2D ideal MHD code and provides estimates of the time and length scales associated with the formation and collapse of the diamagnetic cavity. The second set uses a nonideal MHD code; specifically, the Hall term is included. This additional term is critical to the dynamics of sub-Alfvenic plasma expansions, such as the CRRES barium releases, because it leads to instability of the expanding plasma. Detailed simulations of the G4 and G10 releases were performed. In both cases the expanding plasma rapidly structured: the G4 release structured at time t less than about 3 s and developed scale sizes of about 1-2 km, while the G10 release structured at time t less than about 22 s and developed scale sizes of about 10-15 km. It is also found that the diamagnetic cavity size is reduced from those obtained from the ideal MHD results because of the structure. On the other hand, the structuring allows the formation of plasma blobs which appear to free stream across the magnetic field; thus, the barium plasma can propagate to larger distances traverse to the magnetic field than the case where no structuring occurs. Finally, a new normal mode of the system was discovered which may be excited at the leading edge of the expanding barium plasma.

  12. Characteristics of patients who continue with alcohol outpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    Verinis, J S

    1986-01-01

    Demographic data were collected on 121 patients who were screened and accepted by the outpatient selection of the West Side VA alcohol rehabilitation program. Patients who engaged in active outpatient treatment (26%) were more likely to be: employed at night, sober at the time of the screening, and living within 40 blocks of the hospital. Referring the patient to another facility for detoxification and admitting him to the inpatient section of the rehabilitation program decreased the chances that he would continue with outpatient care. PMID:3710639

  13. What I Need to Know about Diverticular Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You may be asked to drink liquid called barium instead of getting an injection. You are then ... pain, bleeding, or a blockage. X ray and barium enema. The doctor will insert liquid called barium ...

  14. Outpatient competence restoration: A model and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicole R; Candilis, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe a model outpatient competence restoration program (OCRP) and provide data on time to restoration of adjudicative competence. METHODS: The authors tracked the process by which individuals are referred for outpatient competence restoration (OCR) by courts in the United States capital, describing the unique requirements of American law, and the avenues available for compelling adherence. Competence to stand trial is a critical gate-keeping function of the judicial and forensic communities and assures that defendants understand courtroom procedures. OCR is therefore an effort to assure fairness and protection of important legal rights. Multi-media efforts are described that educate patients and restore competence to stand trial. These include resources such as group training, use of licensed clinicians, visual aids, structured instruments, and cinema. Aggregate data from the OCRP’s previous 4 years of OCR efforts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, restoration rate, and time to restoration. Poisson regression modeling identified the differences in restoration between sequential 45-d periods after entrance into the program. RESULTS: In the past 4 years, the DC OCRP has been successful in restoring 55 of 170 participants (32%), with an average referral rate of 35 persons per year. 76% are restored after the initial 45 d in the program. Demographics of the group indicate a predominance of African-American men with a mean age of 42. Thought disorders predominate and individuals in care face misdemeanor charges 78% of the time. Poisson regression modeling of the number attaining competence during four successive 45-d periods showed a substantial difference among the time periods for the rate of attaining competence (P = 0.0011). The three time periods after 45 d each showed a significant decrease in the restoration rate when compared to the initial 0 to 45 d period - their relative rates were only 22% to 33% as high as the rate for 0-45 d (all P-values, compared to the 0-45 d rate, were 0.013 or smaller). However, the three periods from day 45 to day 135 showed no difference among themselves (P = 0.87). CONCLUSION: The majority of restored participants were restored after 45 d, suggesting a model that may identify an optimal length of time to restoration. PMID:26110124

  15. Psychiatric Disorders in Outpatients With Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Comparison With Both Outpatients From Regular Mental Health Care and Outpatients With Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Jannelien; Haan, Sara Kapitein-de; Zitman, Frans G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the Netherlands, patients with borderline intellectual functioning are eligible for specialized mental health care. This offers the unique possibility to examine the mix of psychiatric disorders in patients who, in other countries, are treated in regular outpatient mental health care clinics. Our study sought to examine the rates of all main Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Axis I psychiatric diagnoses in outpatients with borderline intellectual functioning of 2 specialized regional psychiatric outpatient departments and to compare these with rates of the same disorders in outpatients from regular mental health care (RMHC) and outpatients with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Method: Our study was a cross-sectional, anonymized medical chart review. All participants were patients from the Dutch regional mental health care provider Rivierduinen. Diagnoses of patients with borderline intellectual functioning (borderline intellectual functioning group; n = 235) were compared with diagnoses of patients from RMHC (RMHC group; n = 1026) and patients with mild ID (mild ID group; n = 152). Results: Compared with the RMHC group, psychotic and major depressive disorders were less common in the borderline intellectual functioning group, while posttraumatic stress disorder and V codes were more common. Compared with the mild ID group, psychotic disorders were significantly less common. Conclusion: Mental health problems in people with borderline intellectual functioning may not be well addressed in general psychiatry, or by standard psychiatry for patients with ID. Specific attention to this group in clinical practice and research may be warranted lest they fall between 2 stools. PMID:25007114

  16. Chronic disease management: an outpatient approach.

    PubMed

    Paladichuk, A

    1997-12-01

    The current climate of managed care has sparked efforts to reduce costs in patient care. In many cases, this has resulted in more efficient methods of patient management: chronic disease management in an outpatient setting appears to be one such success story. For critical care nurses interested in working beyond the boundaries of a traditional ICU, chronic disease management clinics represent an alternative environment in which they may apply their skills. Nancy Brass-Mynderse, RN, MSN, CCRN, a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) with 18 years of experience in critical care, was instrumental in development of the Scripps Health Chronic Disease Clinic at Green Hospital of Scripps Clinic, San Diego, Calif. Brass-Mynderse currently supervises the operation of the clinic, along with Omana Kaliangara, RN, MSN, CFNP, a nurse practitioner. Brass-Mynderse received her bachelor's degree from the University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz, and her master's degree from San Diego State University. She recently obtained her family nurse practitioner certificate from California State University, Dominguez Hills, Calif. Kaliangara received her bachelor's degree from San Jose State University, San Jose, Calif, and her nurse practitioner certificate from the University of California, San Francisco, Calif. After working in family medicine and a diabetic clinic, Kaliangara developed an interest in the management of chronic diseases. In an interview with CRITICAL CARE NURSE in September, Brass-Mynderse and Kaliangara took time to discuss the development and operation of the clinic, and to recount some of their success stories. PMID:9418402

  17. Outpatient management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muncie, Herbert L; Yasinian, Yasmin; Oge', Linda

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 2% to 9% of patients seen in a family physician's office have alcohol dependence. These patients are at risk of developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome if they abruptly abstain from alcohol use. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome begins six to 24 hours after the last intake of alcohol, and the signs and symptoms include tremors, agitation, nausea, sweating, vomiting, hallucinations, insomnia, tachycardia, hypertension, delirium, and seizures. Treatment aims to minimize symptoms, prevent complications, and facilitate continued abstinence from alcohol. Patients with mild or moderate alcohol withdrawal syndrome can be treated as outpatients, which minimizes expense and allows for less interruption of work and family life. Patients with severe symptoms or who are at high risk of complications should receive inpatient treatment. In addition to supportive therapy, benzodiazepines, either in a fixed-dose or symptom-triggered schedule, are recommended. Medication should be given at the onset of symptoms and continued until symptoms subside. Other medications, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, valproic acid, and gabapentin, have less abuse potential but do not prevent seizures. Typically, physicians should see these patients daily until symptoms subside. Although effective treatment is an initial step in recovery, long-term success depends on facilitating the patient's entry into ongoing treatment. PMID:24364635

  18. Outpatient Management of Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cogen, Fran R.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM) continues to rise within the pediatric population. However, T1DM remains the most prevalent form diagnosed in children. It is critical that health-care professionals understand the types of diabetes diagnosed in pediatrics, especially the distinguishing features between T1DM and T2DM, to ensure proper treatment. Similar to all individuals with T1DM, lifelong administration of exogenous insulin is necessary for survival. However, children have very distinct needs and challenges compared to those in the adult diabetes population. Accordingly, treatment, goals, and age-appropriate requirements must be individually addressed. The main objectives for the treatment of pediatric T1DM include maintaining glucose levels as close to normal as possible, avoiding acute complications, and preventing long-term complications. In addition, unique to pediatrics, facilitating normal growth and development is important to comprehensive care. To achieve these goals, a careful balance of insulin therapy, medical nutrition therapy, and exercise or activity is necessary. Pharmacological treatment options consist of various insulin products aimed at mimicking prior endogenous insulin secretion while minimizing adverse effects. This review focuses on the management of pediatric T1DM in the outpatient environment, highlighting pharmacotherapy management strategies. PMID:26472948

  19. Laboratory tests and compliance of dermatologic outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehwan

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory tests, including blood tests and urine analysis, are frequently performed in the dermatology outpatient clinic, but doctors often do not consider the cognitive or psychological effect of the examinations. Based on terror management theory, we hypothesized that performing laboratory tests increases the patient’s fear of mortality, and therefore has a positive effect on the patient’s attitude toward the doctor’s recommendations and willingness to accept them. The study employed a single factor between-subjects design, using a questionnaire completed by the patients. One group consisted of patients who had undergone laboratory tests 1 week before the survey, and the other group consisted of patients who had not undergone a laboratory test. Although the differences between two groups were not statistically significant, the patients who had laboratory tests had tendency to show even lower positive attitude toward the doctor’s recommendations and less intention to follow the recommendations. In contrast to our hypothesis, performing laboratory tests does not subliminally increase patients’ fears or anxieties about their disease or their compliance with doctors’ recommendations. PMID:24555101

  20. Outpatient Management of Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Beck, Joni K; Cogen, Fran R

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM) continues to rise within the pediatric population. However, T1DM remains the most prevalent form diagnosed in children. It is critical that health-care professionals understand the types of diabetes diagnosed in pediatrics, especially the distinguishing features between T1DM and T2DM, to ensure proper treatment. Similar to all individuals with T1DM, lifelong administration of exogenous insulin is necessary for survival. However, children have very distinct needs and challenges compared to those in the adult diabetes population. Accordingly, treatment, goals, and age-appropriate requirements must be individually addressed. The main objectives for the treatment of pediatric T1DM include maintaining glucose levels as close to normal as possible, avoiding acute complications, and preventing long-term complications. In addition, unique to pediatrics, facilitating normal growth and development is important to comprehensive care. To achieve these goals, a careful balance of insulin therapy, medical nutrition therapy, and exercise or activity is necessary. Pharmacological treatment options consist of various insulin products aimed at mimicking prior endogenous insulin secretion while minimizing adverse effects. This review focuses on the management of pediatric T1DM in the outpatient environment, highlighting pharmacotherapy management strategies. PMID:26472948

  1. Doctors, Nurse Practitioners Offer Comparable Outpatient Heart Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155097.html Doctors, Nurse Practitioners Offer Comparable Outpatient Heart Care: Study While ... are needed to assess patient outcomes, satisfaction and value. SOURCES: Robert A. Harrington, M.D., professor, medicine ...

  2. 76 FR 49458 - TRICARE; Hospital Outpatient Radiology Discretionary Appeal Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...Secretary TRICARE; Hospital Outpatient Radiology Discretionary Appeal Adjustments AGENCY...opportunity for net adjusted payments for radiology services for which TRICARE payments were...services, DoD has determined that, for radiology services specified in the...

  3. [Advantages and limits of tumescent anesthesia in outpatient surgery].

    PubMed

    Pasta, V; Urciuoli, P; Macrina, N; Amabile, M I; Chiarini, S; Maturo, A; Vergine, M; Santucci, E; Biffoni, M; Scipioni, P; Monti, M

    2009-03-01

    The Authors report the results of the tumescent anesthesia in 187 patients submitted to various outpatient surgical procedures comparing with those in patients submitted to local anesthesia by direct infiltration. PMID:19351463

  4. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  5. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  6. Outpatient Vascular Intervention: A Two-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, Sumaira; Thomas, Steven M.; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of a range of interventional vascular procedures performed on outpatients. Methods: Suitability for outpatient procedures was assessed according to agreed protocols. An episode was defined as any procedure/s through a single access site at one attendance. Retrospective case-note review was performed. Results: There were 693 outpatient episodes between April 1998 and May 2000 (290 interventional, and 403 diagnostic procedures),comprising 25% (693/2769) of the total workload. Follow-up is available in 214; 38 of these were transfers from outlying hospitals and were excluded from analysis. One hundred and seventy-six were true outpatients. There were 98 iliac and 46 femoropopliteal interventions,2 aortic stents, 1 renal and 5 upper-limb angioplasties (PTAs), 5 embolizations, 8 Hickman lines, 1 line stripping, 3 atherectomies, 1 dialysis-graft PTA and 6 bypass-graft PTAs. Sixty-eight closure devices were used. Twelve patients were converted to inpatients (6.8%,12/176). The readmission rate was 3.4% (6/176). The reattendance rate was 1.1% (2/176), both subsequently attending for outpatient duplex ultrasound examination to exclude pseudoaneurysm. The major complication rate was 3.4% and the delayed major complication rate was 1.7%. Conclusion: Outpatient vascular intervention is safe with appropriate protocols and with careful patient selection. Local vascular services benefit from the release of inpatient beds.

  7. Barium and Yttrium abundance in intermediate-age and old open clusters

    E-print Network

    Mishenina, T; Carraro, G; Kovtyukh, V V; Yegorova, I A

    2013-01-01

    Barium is a neutron capture element, that, in open clusters, is frequently over-abundant with respect to the Iron. A clear explanation for this is still missing. Additionally, its gradient across the Galactic disk is poorly constrained. We measure the abundance of yttrium and barium using the synthetic spectrum method from UVES high-resolution spectra of eight distant open clusters, namely Ruprecht 4, Ruprecht 7, Berkeley 25, Berkeley 73, Berkeley 75, NGC 6192, NGC 6404, and NGC 6583. The barium abundance was estimated using NLTE approximation. We confirm that Barium is indeed over-abundant in most clusters, especially young clusters. Finally, we investigated the trend of yttrium and barium abundances as a function of distance in the Galaxy and ages. Several scenarios for the barium over-abundance are then discussed.

  8. Life Model of Hollow Cathodes Using a Barium Calcium Aluminate Impregnated Tungsten Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovaleski, S. D.; Burke, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Hollow cathodes with barium calcium aluminate impregnated tungsten emitters for thermionic emission are widely used in electric propulsion. These high current, low power cathodes are employed in ion thrusters, Hall thrusters, and on the International Space Station in plasma contactors. The requirements on hollow cathode life are growing more stringent with the increasing use of electric propulsion technology. The life limiting mechanism that determines the entitlement lifetime of a barium impregnated thermionic emission cathode is the evolution and transport of barium away from the emitter surface. A model is being developed to study the process of barium transport and loss from the emitter insert in hollow cathodes. The model accounts for the production of barium through analysis of the relevant impregnate chemistry. Transport of barium through the approximately static gas is also being treated. Finally, the effect of temperature gradients within the cathode are considered.

  9. The Skylab barium plasma injection experiments. I - Convection observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Peek, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two barium-plasma injection experiments were carried out during magnetically active periods in conjunction with the Skylab 3 mission. The high-explosive shaped charges were launched near dawn on November 27 and December 4, 1973, UT. In both cases, the AE index was near 400 gammas, and extensive pulsating auroras covered the sky. The first experiment, Skylab Alpha, occurred in the waning phase of a 1000-gamma substorm, and the second, Skylab Beta, occurred in the expansive phase of an 800-gamma substorm. In both, the convection was generally magnetically eastward, with 100-km-level electric fields near 40 mV/m. However, in the Alpha experiment the observed orientation of the barium flux tube fit theoretical field lines having no parallel current, but the Beta flux-tube orientation indicated a substantial upward parallel sheet current.

  10. Observations and theory of the AMPTE magnetotail barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Roussel-Dupre, R. A.; Pongratz, M. B.; Haerendel, G.; Valenzuela, A.

    1987-01-01

    The barium releases in the magnetotail during the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) operation were monitored by ground-based imagers and by instruments on the Ion Release Module. After each release, the data show the formation of a structured diamagnetic cavity. The cavity grows until the dynamic pressure of the expanding ions balances the magnetic pressure on its surface. The magnetic field inside the cavity is zero. The barium ions collect on the surface of the cavity, producing a shell. Plasma irregularities form along magnetic field lines draped over the surface of the cavity. The scale size of the irregularities is nearly equal to the thickness of the shell. The evolution and structuring of the diamagnetic cavity are modeled using magnetohydrodynamics theory.

  11. Numerical simulation of a radially injected barium cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.; Wescott, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic two-dimensional numerical simulations of a radially symmetric barium injection experiment demonstrate that ions created by solar UV irradiation are electrostatically bound to the electrons which remain tied to the field lines on which they are created. Two possible instabilities are identified, but neither of them causes the barium plasma cloud to polarize in a way that would permit the plasma to keep up with the neutrals. In a second model, the velocity of the neutrals is allowed to be a function of the azimuthal angle. Here, a portion of the cloud does polarize in a way that allows a portion of the plasma to detach and move outward at the approximate speed of the neutrals. No rapid detachment is found when only the density of the neutrals is given an azimuthal asymmetry.

  12. NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.

  13. Study of the photovoltaic effect in thin film barium titanate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grannemann, W. W.; Dharmadhikari, V. S.

    1982-01-01

    Ferroelectric films of barium titanate were synthesized on silicon and quartz substrates, and the photoelectric effect in the structure consisting of metal deposited ferroelectric barium titanate film silicon was studied. A photovoltage with polarity that depends on the direction of the remanent polarization was observed. The deposition of BaTiO3 on silicon and fused quartz substrates was accomplished by an rf sputtering technique. A series of experiments to study the growth of ferroelectric BaTiO3 films on single crystal silicon and fused quartz substrates were conducted. The ferroelectric character in these films was found on the basis of evidence from the polarization electric field hysteresis loops, capacitance voltage and capacitance temperature techniques and from X-ray diffraction studies.

  14. Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Nakao, Toshiya; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Teramachi, Hitomi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21-85 years) and 73 years (range, 30-90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3-3,585 days) and 219 days (24-3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4-5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence. PMID:25295117

  15. Synthesis and characterization of barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-González, M.A.; Mendoza-Suárez, G.; Padmasree, K.P.

    2013-10-15

    In this work, we prepared barium ferrite-silica (BaM-SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposites of different molar ratios by high-energy ball milling, followed by heat-treatment at different temperatures. The microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties were characterized for different synthesis conditions by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results indicate that 15 h of milling was enough to avoid the generation of hematite phase and to get a good dispersion of barium ferrite particles in the ceramic matrix. For milling periods beyond 15 h and heat treatment above 900 °C, the XRD patterns showed the presence of hematite phase caused by the decomposition of BaM. The agglomerate size observed through SEM analysis was around 150 nm with a good BaM dispersion into the SiO{sub 2} matrix. The highest saturation magnetization (Ms) value obtained was 43 emu/g and the corresponding coercivity (Hc) value of 3.4 kOe for the composition 60BaM-40SiO{sub 2} milled for 15 h and heat treated at 900 °C. This coercivity value is acceptable for the application in magnetic recording media. Highlights: • Barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites were prepared by high energy ball milling. • Optimal processing time is 15 h milling and heat treatment at 900 °C. • This is enough to avoid the generation of hematite phase. • Obtain good dispersion of barium ferrite particles in the ceramic matrix • Above this processing time shows the presence of increased amount of hematite.

  16. The Tordo 1 polar cusp barium plasma injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In January 1975, two barium plasma injection experiments were carried out with rockets launched into the upper atmosphere where field lines from the dayside cusp region intersect the ionosphere. The Tordo 1 experiment took place near the beginning of a worldwide magnetic storm. It became a polar cap experiment almost immediately as convection perpendicular to the magnetic field moved the fluorescent plasma jet away from the cusp across the polar cap in an antisunward direction. Convection across the polar cap with an average velocity of more than 1 km/s was observed for nearly 40 min until the barium flux tubes encountered large electron fields associated with a poleward bulge of the auroral oval near Greenland. Prior to the encounter with the aurora near Greenland there is evidence of upward acceleration of the barium ions while they were in the polar cap. The three-dimensional observations of the plasma orientation and motion give an insight into convection from the cusp region across the polar cap, the orientation of the polar cap magnetic field lines out to several earth radii, the causes of polar cap magnetic perturbations, and parallel acceleration processes.

  17. Barium and Tc-poor S stars: Binary masqueraders among carbon stars

    E-print Network

    A. Jorissen; S. Van Eck

    1997-08-06

    The current understanding of the origin of barium and S stars is reviewed, based on new orbital elements and binary frequencies. The following questions are addressed: (i) Is binarity a necessary condition to produce a barium star? (ii) What is the mass transfer mode (wind accretion or RLOF?) responsible for their formation? (iii) Do barium stars form as dwarfs or as giants? (iv) Do barium stars evolve into Tc-poor S stars? (v) What is the relative frequency of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars?

  18. Prompt striations observed in a barium thermite release at 335 km

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, D.J.; Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Barasch, G.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1981-03-01

    Three barium clouds have been released from a single rocket at altitudes of 335, 443, and 535 km. The releases were by means of barium thermite injection. Adding the different cross-field velocity components of the rocket at each of the releases resulted in barium clouds with different kinetic velocity distributions. The barium cloud with the most peaked velocity distribution striated promptly, in good agreement with theoretical predictions based on a kinetic plasma instability. Details of the data analysis and experiment are discussed.

  19. Cost of post-stroke outpatient care in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Seyed Majid Akhavan; Mazlan, Mazlina; Abdullah, Saini Jeffery Freddy; Engkasan, Julia Patrick

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to investigate the direct cost of outpatient care for patients with stroke, as well as the relationship between the aforementioned cost and the sociodemographic and stroke characteristics of the patients. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with first-ever stroke who were attending outpatient stroke rehabilitation, and their family members. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to obtain information regarding the cost of outpatient care. Stroke severity was measured using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. RESULTS This study comprised 49 patients (28 men, 21 women) with a mean age of 60.2 (range 35–80) years. The mean total cost incurred was USD 547.10 (range USD 53.50–4,591.60), of which 36.6% was spent on attendant care, 25.5% on medical aids, 15.1% on travel expenses, 14.1% on medical fees and 8.5% on out-of-pocket expenses. Stroke severity, age > 70 years and haemorrhagic stroke were associated with increased cost. The mean cost of attending outpatient therapy per patient was USD 17.50 per session (range USD 6.60–30.60), with travelling expenses (41.8%) forming the bulk of the cost, followed by medical fees (38.1%) and out-of-pocket expenses (10.9%). Multiple regression analysis showed that stroke severity was the main determinant of post-stroke outpatient care cost (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION Post-stroke outpatient care costs are significantly influenced by stroke severity. The cost of attendant care was the main cost incurred during the first three months after hospital discharge, while travelling expenses was the main cost incurred when attending outpatient stroke rehabilitation therapy. PMID:25715857

  20. A review of the health impacts of barium from natural and anthropogenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Julia; Darrah, Thomas H; Miller, Richard K; Lyerly, H Kim; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing public awareness of the relatively new and expanded industrial barium uses which are potential sources of human exposure (e.g., a shale gas development that causes an increased awareness of environmental exposures to barium). However, absorption of barium in exposed humans and a full spectrum of its health effects, especially among chronically exposed to moderate and low doses of barium populations, remain unclear. We suggest a systematic literature review (from 1875 to 2014) on environmental distribution of barium, its bioaccumulation, and potential and proven health impacts (in animal models and humans) to provide the information that can be used for optimization of future experimental and epidemiological studies and developing of mitigative and preventive strategies to minimize negative health effects in exposed populations. The potential health effects of barium exposure are largely based on animal studies, while epidemiological data for humans, specifically for chronic low-level exposures, are sparse. The reported health effects include cardiovascular and kidney diseases, metabolic, neurological, and mental disorders. Age, race, dietary patterns, behavioral risks (e.g., smoking), use of medications (those that interfere with absorbed barium in human organism), and specific physiological status (e.g., pregnancy) can modify barium effects on human health. Identifying, evaluating, and predicting the health effects of chronic low-level and moderate-level barium exposures in humans is challenging: Future research is needed to develop an understanding of barium bioaccumulation in order to mitigate its potential health impacts in various exposured populations. Further, while occupationally exposed at-risk populations exist, it is also important to identify potentially vulnerable subgroups among non-occupationally exposed populations (e.g., elderly, pregnant women, children) who are at higher risk of barium exposure from drinking water and food. PMID:24844320

  1. Tungsten and barium transport in the internal plasma of hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport, and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from 8200 h and 30 352 h ion engine wear tests. Erosion and subsequent redeposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduce the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  2. [Comparing the economy of outpatient versus inpatient rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Klingelhöfer, H E; Lätzsch, A

    2003-03-01

    This article outlines the findings of a project comparing the economic effects of outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The study statistically covers the total population of applicants for orthopaedic-traumatologic rehabilitation who are suitable for outpatient rehabilitation. As a randomised and controlled study, it compares outcome parameters of the two variants of rehabilitation. Because the results are approximately equal, analysing the differences between amounts and periods of payments and costs for the pension insurance agency do not result in disadvantages for the patients. The results obtained from the investigation confirm that, in suitable patients, outpatient rehabilitation can achieve approximately the same outcomes as inpatient rehabilitation--but at distinctly lower cost. PMID:12698385

  3. Service quality of hospital outpatient departments: patients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Ehsan

    2015-10-12

    Purpose - Assessment of patient perceptions of health service quality as an important element in quality assessments has attracted much attention in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to assess the service quality of hospital outpatient departments affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from the patients' perspective. Design/methodology/approach - This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in Tehran, Iran. The study samples included 500 patients who were selected by multi-stage random sampling from four hospitals. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of 50 items, and the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. For data analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Friedman test, and descriptive statistics were used through LISREL 8.54 and SPSS 18 applications. Findings - Eight significant factors were extracted for outpatient service quality, which explained about 67 per cent of the total variance. Physician consultation, information provided to the patient, and the physical environment of the clinic were the three determining factors of the quality of outpatient services. The highest and lowest perceptions were related to physician consultation and perceived waiting time dimension, respectively. The mean score of patients' perception of outpatient service quality was 3.89 (±0.60). About 59.5 per cent of patients assessed the quality of outpatient services as good, 38.2 per cent as moderate, and 2.3 per cent as poor. Practical implications - The instrument developed for this study is valid and reliable, and it can help hospital managers to identify the areas needing improvement and correction. Originality/value - According to the findings of this study, the majority of patients had a positive experience with outpatient departments of teaching hospitals, and the services provided in these centres were of adequate quality, based on patient assessments. PMID:26440482

  4. The effect of barium on perceptions of taste intensity and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Dietsch, Angela M.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Barium may affect the perception of taste intensity and palatability. Such differences are important considerations in the selection of dysphagia assessment strategies and interpretation of results. Methods Eighty healthy women grouped by age (younger, older) and genetic taste status (supertaster, non-taster) rated intensity and palatability for seven tastants prepared in deionized water with and without 40% w/v barium: non-carbonated and carbonated water, diluted ethanol, and high concentrations of citric acid (sour), sodium chloride (salty), caffeine (bitter) and sucrose (sweet). Mixed model analyses explored the effects of barium, taster status, and age on perceived taste intensity and acceptability of stimuli. Results Barium was associated with lower taste intensity ratings for sweet, salty, and bitter tastants, higher taste intensity in carbonated water, and lower palatability in water, sweet, sour, and carbonated water. Older subjects reported lower palatability (all barium samples, sour) and higher taste intensity scores (ethanol, sweet, sour) compared to younger subjects. Supertasters reported higher taste intensity (ethanol, sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and lower palatability (ethanol, salty, bitter) than non-tasters. Refusal rates were highest for younger subjects and supertasters, and for barium (regardless of tastant), bitter, and ethanol. Conclusions Barium suppressed the perceived intensity of some tastes and reduced palatability. These effects are more pronounced in older subjects and supertasters, but younger supertasters are least likely to tolerate trials of barium and strong tastant solutions. PMID:24037100

  5. The effect of barium on perceptions of taste intensity and palatability.

    PubMed

    Dietsch, Angela M; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Steele, Catriona M; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2014-02-01

    Barium may affect the perception of taste intensity and palatability. Such differences are important considerations in the selection of dysphagia assessment strategies and interpretation of results. Eighty healthy women grouped by age (younger, older) and genetic taste status (supertaster, nontaster) rated intensity and palatability for seven tastants prepared in deionized water with and without 40 % w/v barium: noncarbonated and carbonated water, diluted ethanol, and high concentrations of citric acid (sour), sodium chloride (salty), caffeine (bitter), and sucrose (sweet). Mixed-model analyses explored the effects of barium, taster status, and age on perceived taste intensity and acceptability of stimuli. Barium was associated with lower taste intensity ratings for sweet, salty, and bitter tastants, higher taste intensity in carbonated water, and lower palatability in water, sweet, sour, and carbonated water. Older subjects reported lower palatability (all barium samples, sour) and higher taste intensity scores (ethanol, sweet, sour) compared to younger subjects. Supertasters reported higher taste intensity (ethanol, sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and lower palatability (ethanol, salty, bitter) than nontasters. Refusal rates were highest for younger subjects and supertasters, and for barium (regardless of tastant), bitter, and ethanol. Barium suppressed the perceived intensity of some tastes and reduced palatability. These effects are more pronounced in older subjects and supertasters, but younger supertasters are least likely to tolerate trials of barium and strong tastant solutions. PMID:24037100

  6. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No. 731-TA... Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its review, the Department... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October...

  7. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result of its review, the Department... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October 29... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No....

  8. SHORT TERM TOXICITY (1 AND 10 DAY GAVAGE) OF BARIUM CHLORIDE IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess adverse effects that might be caused by an event resulting in high levels of barium in drinking water, rats were gavaged with barium chloride (BaCl2 at dosage levels of 30,100, and 300 rng/kg in a 1-day study and at 100,145,209, and 300 rng/kg for 10 days, and the effec...

  9. Impact of thermal strain on the dielectric constant of sputtered barium strontium titanate thin films

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    Impact of thermal strain on the dielectric constant of sputtered barium strontium titanate thin, California 93106 Received 6 November 2001; accepted for publication 10 January 2002 Barium strontium titanate: magnesium oxide, strontium titanate, sapphire, silicon, and vycor glass. These substrates were chosen

  10. Dielectric properties of MgO-doped compositionally graded multilayer barium strontium titanate films

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Dielectric properties of MgO-doped compositionally graded multilayer barium strontium titanate shifters and filters operat- ing in the microwave regime.1­4 Ferroelectrics FEs such as barium strontium in monolithic BST films especially with low strontium content, although the addition of MgO causes a reduction

  11. Microwave dielectric properties of graded barium strontium titanate films M. W. Cole,1,a

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Microwave dielectric properties of graded barium strontium titanate films M. W. Cole,1,a C. V strontium titanate BaxSr1-xTiO3 or BST multilayers 5 mol % MgO doped and undoped were prepared via metallo, delay lines, filters, and phase shifters for steerable antennas.1­3 Barium strontium titanate BaxSr1-x

  12. LACK OF EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER BARIUM ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. he purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for...

  13. Evidence against Barium in the Mushroom Trogia venenata as a Cause of Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths. PMID:23042168

  14. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.11.026 Barium uptake and adsorption in diatoms

    E-print Network

    Morel, François M. M.

    doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.11.026 Barium uptake and adsorption in diatoms ERIKA STERNBERG,1, *, DEGUI) Abstract--Using trace metal-defined culture conditions, we measured the cellular barium concentration and Dahmke, 1994) and the flux of particulate biogenic barium correlates well with the flux of organic carbon

  15. Nanoshell tubes of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate Yun Luo, Izabela Szafraniak, and Nikolai D. Zakharov

    E-print Network

    Ramesh, R.

    Nanoshell tubes of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate Yun Luo, Izabela templates, barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate tubes with diameters ranging from 50 nm up to several (PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 ,PZT) and barium titanate (BaTiO3 ,BTO) nanotubes were fabricated by using

  16. Barium Ions for Quantum Computing Matthew Dietrich, Ryan Bowler, Gary Howell, Adam Kleczewski, Nathan Kurz, Viki Mirgon,

    E-print Network

    Blinov, Boris

    Barium Ions for Quantum Computing Matthew Dietrich, Ryan Bowler, Gary Howell, Adam Kleczewski+ make it an excellent qubit candidate. Here we report trapping 138Ba+, an even isotope of barium production, using the S1/2 to P3/2 transition. Barium as a Qubit The two hyperfine levels of the 137Ba

  17. Diverse patterns of ocean export productivity change across the Cretaceous-7 Paleogene boundary: new insights from biogenic barium8

    E-print Network

    Paleogene boundary: new insights from biogenic barium8 9 10 11 12 Pincelli M. Hull1,2 and Richard D. Norris1 productivity patterns using new and compiled measurements of biogenic barium. Unlike a53 previous synthesis, we barium and other proxies in the central57 Pacific and some upwelling or neritic Atlantic sites indicate

  18. Self-biased planar millimeter wave notch filters based on magnetostatic wave excitation in barium hexagonal ferrite thin films

    E-print Network

    Self-biased planar millimeter wave notch filters based on magnetostatic wave excitation in barium; accepted 29 September 2010; published online 25 October 2010 The use of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite Ba-type barium hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 BaM thin films, as a replacement for those cubic garnets.4 Hexagonal

  19. Crossed-Beam Reactions of Barium with Hydrogen Halides Measurement of Internal State Distributions by Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Crossed-Beam Reactions of Barium with Hydrogen Halides Measurement of Internal State Distributions is presented and applied to the reactions of barium with the hydrogen halides. It is found that most-inducedfluorescenceas a molecular beam detector and apply it to the reactions of barium atoms with hydrogen halides, Reactions (1

  20. The effect of Pt interlayers on the magnetic and structural properties of perpendicularly oriented barium ferrite media

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    barium ferrite media Zailong Zhuang,a) Maithri Rao, David E. Laughlin, and Mark H. Kryder Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Perpendicular barium ferrite Ba-axis orientation for thicker films, Pt interlayers were added into the barium ferrite films. This article thus

  1. AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors using barium strontium titanate

    E-print Network

    York, Robert A.

    AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors using barium strontium-effect transistors have been formed by incorporating barium strontium titanate (BST) deposited by rf magnetron in increased leakage. Due to its large dielectric constant, barium strontium ti- tanate [Ba1-xSrxTiO3, (BST

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 2589 Barium and Strontium Ferrite Perpendicular Thin

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 2589 Barium and Strontium FerriteAlSi) as the soft magnetic underlayer for hexagonal barium ferrite (BaM) and strontium ferrite (SrM) was studied--Barium ferrite, multi-layer, sendust, soft under- layer, strontium ferrite, textured growth. I. INTRODUCTION M

  3. Empirical analysis of scaling and fractal characteristics of outpatients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Jiang; Liu, Zi-Xian; Guo, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses power-law frequency distribution, power spectrum analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and surrogate data testing to evaluate outpatient registration data of two hospitals in China and to investigate the human dynamics of systems that use the “first come, first served” protocols. The research results reveal that outpatient behavior follow scaling laws. The results also suggest that the time series of inter-arrival time exhibit 1/f noise and have positive long-range correlation. Our research may contribute to operational optimization and resource allocation in hospital based on FCFS admission protocols.

  4. Different methods for the induction of labour in outpatient settings

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Kelly, Anthony J; Livio, Stefania; Norman, Jane E; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2014-01-01

    Background Induction of labour is carried out for a variety of indications and using a range of pharmacological, mechanical and other methods. For women at low risk, some methods of induction of labour may be suitable for use in outpatient settings. Objectives To examine pharmacological and mechanical interventions to induce labour in outpatient settings in terms of feasibility, effectiveness, maternal satisfaction, healthcare costs and, where information is available, safety. The review complements existing reviews on labour induction examining effectiveness and safety. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (December 2009) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials examining outpatient cervical ripening or induction of labour with pharmacological agents or mechanical methods. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data and assessed eligible papers for risk of bias. We checked all data after entry into review manager software. Main results We included 28 studies with 2616 women examining different methods of induction of labour where women received treatment at home or were sent home after initial treatment and monitoring in hospital. Studies examined vaginal and intracervical PGE2, vaginal and oral misoprostol, isosorbide mononitrate, mifepristone, oestrogens, and acupuncture. Overall, the results demonstrate that outpatient induction of labour is feasible and that important adverse events are rare. There was no strong evidence that agents used to induce labour in outpatient settings had an impact (positive or negative) on maternal or neonatal health. There was some evidence that, compared to placebo or no treatment, induction agents reduced the need for further interventions to induce labour, and shortened the interval from intervention to birth. We were unable to pool results on outcomes relating to progress in labour as studies tended to measure a very broad range of outcomes. There was no evidence that induction agents increased interventions in labour such as operative deliveries. Only two studies provided information on women’s views about the induction process, and overall there was very little information on the costs to health service providers of different methods of labour induction in outpatient settings. Authors’ conclusions Induction of labour in outpatient settings appears feasible. We do not have sufficient evidence to know which induction methods are preferred by women, or the interventions that are most effective and safe to use in outpatient settings. PMID:20687092

  5. The changing face of outpatient bronchoscopy in 2013.

    PubMed

    Manaker, Scott; Vachani, Anil

    2013-05-01

    In 2013, the outpatient hospital payment from Medicare for a transbronchial needle aspiration more than doubled. At the same time, the recently updated American College of Chest Physicians guidelines for the diagnosis and management of lung cancer now recommend needle techniques, such as transbronchial needle aspiration, over surgical staging. The convergence of these two events will accelerate the existing forces of technology and economics that have been influencing both the practices of outpatient bronchoscopy and mediastinoscopy and the management of patients with lung cancer over the past 20 years. PMID:23648906

  6. Improving the view during flexible sigmoidoscopy: a systematic review of published randomized, controlled trials comparing the use of oral bowel preparation versus enema bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Shafique; Caswell, Jennifer F; Abbas, Mustafa A Q; Baig, Mirza K; McFall, Malcolm R

    2015-09-01

    To systematically analyse the published randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of oral bowel preparation (OBP) versus enema bowel preparation (EBP) for diagnostic or screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. Published RCTs, comparing the use of OBP versus EBP, were analysed using RevMan(®), and the combined outcomes were expressed as odds ratios (OR). Eight RCTs evaluating 2457 patients were retrieved from the standard electronic databases. There was significant heterogeneity among included trials. The compliance of the patients (p = 0.32) and the acceptability of both bowel preparation regimens (OR, 1.42; 95 % CI, 0.67, 2.99; z = 0.92; p = 0.36) were similar in both groups. In addition, the incidence of adverse reactions (OR, 0.87; 95 % CI, 0.54, 1.41; z = 0.57; p = 0.57), the risk of incomplete procedure due to poor bowel preparation (p = 0.18) and the incidence of poor bowel preparation (OR, 1.21; 95 % CI, 0.63, 2.33; z = 0.59; p = 0.56) were also similar in both groups. EBP and OBP were equally effective for bowel preparation in patients undergoing flexible sigmoidoscopy. Although this study failed to demonstrate the superiority of EBP, at least equivalent efficacy for bowel cleansing may be extrapolated. PMID:25894508

  7. Centrifugal Jet Spinning for Highly Efficient and Large-scale Fabrication of Barium Titanate Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Liyun; Kotha, Shiva P.

    2014-01-01

    The centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) method has been developed to enable large-scale synthesis of barium titanate nanofibers. Barium titanate nanofibers with fiber diameters down to 50 nm and grain sizes around 25 nm were prepared with CJS by spinning a sol-gel solution of barium titanate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) with subsequent heat treatment at 850 °C. XRD and FTIR analysis demonstrated high purity and tetragonal perovskite structured barium titanate nanofibers. SEM and TEM images confirm the continuous high aspect ratio structure of barium titanate nanofibers after heat treatment. It is demonstrated that the CJS technique offers a highly efficient method for large-scale fabrication of ceramic nanofibers at production rates of up to 0.3 gram/minute. PMID:24563566

  8. Fabrication of barium/strontium carbonate coated amorphous carbon nanotubes as an improved field emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, S.; Jha, A.; Das, N. S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2013-02-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (aCNTs) were synthesized by a chemical reaction between ferrocene and ammonium chloride at a temperature ˜250 ?C in an air furnace. As-synthesized aCNTs were coated with the barium/strontium carbonate through a simple chemical process. The coating of barium/strontium carbonate was confirmed by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Morphology of the as-prepared samples was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs are more stable than the pristine aCNTs. As-prepared barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs showed significantly improved field emission properties with a turn-on field as low as 2.5 V/?m. The variation of field emission characteristics of the barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs with interelectrode distances was also studied.

  9. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-03-20

    Data for /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The /sup 226/Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that /sup 226/Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River.

  10. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

    2014-05-01

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  11. Aspiration of barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres by a dog.

    PubMed

    Greci, V; Bissett, S A; Copple, C N; Hawkins, E C

    2010-05-01

    This case report describes an 11-year-old Belgian Malinois dog with acute onset of cough caused by aspiration of barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS) and pneumonia following an episode of suspected gastric dilation. Although bronchoscopic retrieval of the BIPS was largely unsuccessful, the dog recovered uneventfully, with most of the BIPS being coughed out and swallowed over a 1-month period. Aspiration of BIPS should be considered a potential complication of their administration. Furthermore, endoscopic removal of aspirated BIPS is challenging and may not be indicated because of their inert nature and possible self-clearance. PMID:20529021

  12. Two barium plasma injections into the northern magnetospheric cleft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, R. A.; Roach, W. H.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Winningham, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Two rocket experiments, performed in January 1975, investigated convection of plasma formed by solar photoionization of barium injected into the northern magnetospheric cleft at 13 km/s upward and parallel to the local geomagnetic field. Plasma convection was demonstrated from the cleft's poleward region, directly into and across the polar cap, and possibly into the convection system of the nightside auroral electrojet; plasma injected centrally within the cleft under quiet magnetic conditions remained in the cleft convection system for at least 22 min and revealed a highly structured E-field over about 600 km of longitudinal extent. Cleft location agreed with that predicted by ionosondes.

  13. A barium-rich binary central star in Abell 70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffin, Henri M. J.; Miszalski, Brent; Frew, David J.; Acker, Agnes; Köppen, Joachim; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Parker, Quentin A.

    2012-08-01

    We have found the central star of Abell 70 (PN G038.1-25.4, hereafter A 70) to be a binary consisting of a G8 IV-V secondary and a hot white dwarf. The secondary shows enhanced Ba II and Sr II features, firmly classifying it as a barium star. The nebula is found to have Type-I chemical abundances with helium and nitrogen enrichment, which combined with future abundance studies of the central star, will establish A 70 as a unique laboratory for studying s-process AGB nucleosynthesis.

  14. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, Lauren M. Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-03-07

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30?°C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d{sub 33} piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9?kV m{sup ?1}. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  15. Dielectric behavior of barium modified strontium bismuth titanate ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, P.; Badapanda, T.; Anwar, S.; Panigrahi, S.

    2014-04-24

    Barium Modified Strontium Bismuth Titanate(SBT) ceramic with general formula Sr1?xBaxBi4Ti4O15 is prepared by solid state reaction route. The structural analysis of the ceramics was done by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray patterns show that all the compositions are of single phase with orthorhombic structure. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows that the transition temperature decreases with Ba content but the maximum dielectric constant increases. The decreases of the transition with increase in Ba{sup 2+} ion, may be due to the decrease of orthorhombicity by the incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} ion in SBT lattice.

  16. Strain engineered barium strontium titanate for tunable thin film resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Khassaf, H.; Khakpash, N.; Sun, F.; Sbrockey, N. M.; Tompa, G. S.; Kalkur, T. S.; Alpay, S. P.

    2014-05-19

    Piezoelectric properties of epitaxial (001) barium strontium titanate (BST) films are computed as functions of composition, misfit strain, and temperature using a non-linear thermodynamic model. Results show that through adjusting in-plane strains, a highly adaptive rhombohedral ferroelectric phase can be stabilized at room temperature with outstanding piezoelectric response exceeding those of lead based piezoceramics. Furthermore, by adjusting the composition and the in-plane misfit, an electrically tunable piezoelectric response can be obtained in the paraelectric state. These findings indicate that strain engineered BST films can be utilized in the development of electrically tunable and switchable surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  17. 42 CFR 484.38 - Condition of participation: Qualifying to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. 484.38 Section...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. An HHA that wishes to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services must meet all...

  18. 42 CFR 484.38 - Condition of participation: Qualifying to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. 484.38 Section...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. An HHA that wishes to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services must meet all...

  19. 42 CFR 484.38 - Condition of participation: Qualifying to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. 484.38 Section...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. An HHA that wishes to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services must meet all...

  20. 42 CFR 484.38 - Condition of participation: Qualifying to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. 484.38 Section...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. An HHA that wishes to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services must meet all...

  1. 42 CFR 484.38 - Condition of participation: Qualifying to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. 484.38 Section...furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services. An HHA that wishes to furnish outpatient physical therapy or speech pathology services must meet all...

  2. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by Department...cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military...The outpatient medical and dental rates referenced are...

  3. 76 FR 72003 - Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...of outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services furnished by...The outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services rates...

  4. 78 FR 62709 - Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ...of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by Department...of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military...CY13 Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery rates referenced are...

  5. Endotrophic Calcium, Strontium, and Barium Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus1

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Harold F.; Foster, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Foerster, Harold F. (The University of Texas, Austin), and J. W. Foster. Endotrophic calcium, strontium, and barium spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 91:1333–1345. 1966.—Spores were produced by washed vegetative cells suspended in deionized water supplemented with CaCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2. Normal, refractile spores were produced in each case; a portion of the barium spores lost refractility and darkened. Thin-section electron micrographs revealed no apparent anatomical differences among the three types of spores. Analyses revealed that the different spore types were enriched specifically in the metal to which they were exposed during sporogenesis. The calcium content of the strontium and the barium spores was very small. From binary equimolar mixtures of the metal salts, endotrophic spores accumulated both metals to nearly the same extent. Viability of the barium spores was considerably less than that of the other two types. Strontium and barium spores were heat-resistant; however, calcium was essential for maximal heat resistance. Significant differences existed in the rates of germination; calcium spores germinated fastest, strontium spores were slower, and barium spores were slowest. Calcium-barium and calcium-strontium spores germinated readily. Endotrophic calcium and strontium spores germinated without the prior heat activation essential for growth spores. Chemical germination of the different metal-type spores with n-dodecylamine took place at the same relative rates as physiological germination. Heat-induced release of dipicolinic acid occurred much faster with barium and strontium spores than with calcium spores. The washed “coat fraction” from disrupted spores contained little of the spore calcium but most of the spore barium. The metal in this fraction was released by dilute acid. The demineralized coats reabsorbed calcium and barium at neutral pH. Images PMID:4956334

  6. Tungsten and Barium Transport in the Internal Plasma of Hollow Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushedback to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. Thisbarium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream endgreater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length,so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollowcathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  7. Dissolution of Barium from Barite in Sewage Sludges and Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, F.; Pepi, M.; Burrini, D.; Kniewald, G.; Scali, D.; Lanciotti, E.

    1996-01-01

    High concentrations of total barium, ranging from 0.42 to 1.58 mg(middot)g(sup-1) (dry weight) were found in sludges of two sewage treatment plants near Florence, Italy. Barium concentrations in the suspended matter decreased as redox potential values changed from negative to positive. An anoxic sewage sludge sample was aerated, and 30% of the total barium was removed in 24 h. To demonstrate that barium was solubilized from barite by sulfate-reducing bacteria, a strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used to study the solubilization of barium from barite under laboratory conditions. During cell growth with different concentrations of barite from 0.01 to 0.3 g(middot)liter(sup-1) (the latter is the MIC) as the only source of sulfates in the cultures, the D. desulfuricans strain accumulated barium up to 0.58 (mu)g(middot)mg(sup-1) (dry weight). Three times the quantity of barium was dissolved by bacteria than in the uninoculated medium (control). The unexpectedly low concentration of soluble barium (1.2 mg of Ba(middot)liter(sup-1)) with respect to the quantity expected (109 mg of Ba(middot)liter(sup-1)), calculated on the basis of the free H(inf2)S evolved from the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate from barite, was probably due to the formation of other barium compounds, such as witherite (BaCO(inf3)) and the transient species barium sulfide (BaS). The D. desulfuricans strain, growing on barite, formed visible aggregates. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that aggregates consisted of bacteria and barite. After 3 days of incubation, several autofluorescent crystals surrounded by a dissolution halo were observed. The crystals were identified as BaS by comparison with the commercial compound. PMID:16535353

  8. 77 FR 51542 - Medicare Program; Solicitation of Two Nominations to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...Solicitation of Two Nominations to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment AGENCY: Centers...nominations for two new members to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP, the Panel). There will be two vacancies on the...

  9. 78 FR 65660 - Medicare Program; Solicitation of Five Nominations to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...Solicitation of Five Nominations to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP, the Panel) AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...nominations for five new members to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP,...

  10. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...122 Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures...for determining Medicare payments for radiology services and other diagnostic...

  11. 75 FR 78901 - Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services at Non-Departmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services at Non-Departmental...payments for inpatient and outpatient health care professional services and other...reasonable. Payment methodology for health care professional services...

  12. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410.141 ...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141...

  13. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410.141 ...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141...

  14. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410.141 ...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141...

  15. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410.141 ...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141...

  16. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410.141 ...MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141...

  17. Job Title Inpatient/Outpatient Therapists Westpark Springs Hospital

    E-print Network

    Paulsen, Vern

    Job Title Inpatient/Outpatient Therapists Employer/ Agency Westpark Springs Hospital Job Springs Hospital Address 6902 S. Peed Rd. City, State, Zip Richmond, Texas 77407 Contact Person http://newton.newtonsoftware.com/career/Job Online Application Must Be Completed Opening Date 11/18/2015 To post a job opportunity or if your

  18. 38 CFR 17.161 - Authorization of outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1712(b) and 38 CFR 17.93 to the extent prescribed and in accordance with the applicable classification... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... outpatient dental treatment. 17.161 Section 17.161 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...

  19. 38 CFR 17.161 - Authorization of outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1712(b) and 38 CFR 17.93 to the extent prescribed and in accordance with the applicable classification... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... outpatient dental treatment. 17.161 Section 17.161 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...

  20. 38 CFR 17.161 - Authorization of outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1712(b) and 38 CFR 17.93 to the extent prescribed and in accordance with the applicable classification... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... outpatient dental treatment. 17.161 Section 17.161 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...

  1. Behavioral Treatments During Outpatient Methadone Maintenance: A Controlled Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, George; And Others

    The Treatment Evaluation Project was established to evaluate the feasibility of using behavioral treatment in conjunction with methadone maintenance to improve the effectiveness of methadone treatment. Over 100 outpatients were accepted into treatment and randomly assigned to one of four behavioral treatment modalities in addition to the usual…

  2. ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

  3. Self-Esteem and Suicide Ideation in Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T.

    2008-01-01

    Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and…

  4. Research Article Outpatient blood pressure monitoring using bidirectional text messaging

    E-print Network

    Research Article Outpatient blood pressure monitoring using bi­directional text messaging Chris A. Anthony, MDa , Linnea A. Polgreen, PhDb,*, James Chounramany, BAb , Eric D. Foster, PhDc , Christopher J), EMR þ reminders (patients were sent text message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR

  5. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  6. Outpatient Psychiatrists' Practices for Requesting Prior Treatment Records.

    PubMed

    Recupero, Patricia R; Harms, Samara E

    2015-12-01

    Patients' treatment records often contain information critical to risk assessment. We sought to determine whether psychiatrists treating outpatients agree about the standard of care (SOC) for requesting records from a patient's past clinicians. This web-based survey invited psychiatrists to review a hypothetical outpatient clinical vignette and to indicate whether they would request a release of information (ROI) from the patient for treatment records from past clinicians. Respondents also described the community SOC for similar scenarios and what they would do if a patient refused the ROI. Data were collected from June 15 through June 19, 2012. Most psychiatrists would try to obtain treatment records from any therapist, psychiatrist, or primary care physician seen by the patient within the past year. Some would require the patient's consent to ROI as a prerequisite to treatment. Few respondents felt that obtaining records from several years ago would be necessary in a typical, moderate-risk outpatient case. In an average outpatient scenario, the SOC would be to request treatment records from the past year. Psychiatrists rely heavily on clinical judgment when determining whether to obtain medical records from other providers. PMID:26668221

  7. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient occupational therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  8. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient physical therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise +ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  9. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, a CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  10. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, a CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  11. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, a CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  12. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, a CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  13. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, an CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  14. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, an CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  15. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, an CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  16. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, an CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  17. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, an CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  18. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...certain inpatients of a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient...to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted...institution that is a hospital, a CAH, or a SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are...

  19. Addressing Principles of Recovery to Engage Consumers in Outpatient Treatment.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha D; George, Benoy

    2015-08-01

    Mental illness often requires hospitalization, with high readmission rates. One way to improve outcomes and reduce readmission rates is for consumers to attend outpatient appointments. However, a major challenge in delivery of mental health outpatient treatment is missed appointments. When consumers miss appointments for outpatient follow-up, they also miss an opportunity for recovery. Non-attendance rates in psychiatric outpatient clinics have been a topic of considerable interest and attendance at appointments has been used as an indicator of quality of service provision. Strategies used to address missed appointments have been met with minimal success in improving engagement in treatment and do not offer evidence-based guidance regarding solutions to this challenge. Simple measures to gain consumer feedback on levels of therapeutic alliance and engagement in shared decision-making are available and can be used in clinical sessions to support recovery-based care. Psychiatric mental health nurses can engage consumers in recovery-based services that have salience to motivate them to engage in treatment. PMID:26379139

  20. Painless extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for outpatients: a new option.

    PubMed

    Puppo, P; Bottino, P; Germinale, F; Caviglia, C; Ricciotti, G; Giuliani, L

    1989-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is becoming the most common procedure for the treatment of renal and ureteral stones. The introduction of a new generator and a new hemi-ellipsoid for the Dornier HM-III lithotripter improves patient comfort and requires no general or peridural anesthesia, thus making it easier to perform this procedure on an outpatient basis. PMID:2714311

  1. 42 CFR 482.54 - Condition of participation: Outpatient services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Outpatient services. 482.54 Section 482.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR...

  2. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient physical therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise +ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  3. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient physical therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise +ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  4. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient occupational therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  5. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient occupational therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  6. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient occupational therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise ineligible for... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  7. 42 CFR 410.60 - Outpatient physical therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a hospital or a CAH or SNF. Medicare Part B pays for outpatient physical therapy services furnished to an inpatient of a hospital, CAH, or SNF who requires them but who has exhausted or is otherwise... SNF. (iv) Treat individuals who are patients of the practice and for whom the practice collects...

  8. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  9. Hypomagnesemia Among Outpatient Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Users.

    PubMed

    Biyik, Murat; Solak, Yalcin; Ucar, Ramazan; Cifci, Sami; Tekis, Dilek; Polat, Ilker; Göktepe, Mevlüt Hakan; Sakiz, Davut; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali

    2014-10-28

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are extensively prescribed drugs usually used for a long period. Recent reports linked PPI use with development of hypomagnesemia. However, there is still uncertainty regarding risk of hypomagnesemia in outpatients who were on long-term PPI use. Thus, we aimed to evaluate frequency of hypomagnesemia among a well-defined outpatient patient cohort with no other possible risk factors affecting serum magnesium levels. This was a case-control study carried out at the outpatient gastroenterology clinic of a University hospital. Patients who were on PPI therapy for at least 6 months without diuretic use and chronic kidney disease were included. Patients who were subjected to the same inclusion and exclusion criteria and not using PPI were included as control subjects. One hundred fifty-four patients and 84 control subjects were included. The mean duration of PPI use was 27.5 ± 2.5 months. Mean serum magnesium levels of PPI users and nonusers were 2.17 ± 0.20 mg/dL and 2.19 ± 0.15 mg/dL, respectively. None of the patient had a serum magnesium level below laboratory lower range of 1.7 mg/dL. Our results showed that for typical gastroenterology outpatient clinic patients with no other risk factors affecting serum magnesium levels, long-term PPI use did not affect serum magnesium levels. PMID:25353358

  10. Patient satisfaction in Malaysia's busiest outpatient medical care.

    PubMed

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Jadoo, Saad Ahmed Ali; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore factors associated with patient satisfaction of outpatient medical care in Malaysia. A cross-sectional exit survey was conducted among 340 outpatients aged between 13 and 80 years after successful clinical consultations and treatment acquirements using convenience sampling at the outpatient medical care of Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR), Malaysia, being the country's busiest medical outpatient facility. A survey that consisted of sociodemography, socioeconomic, and health characteristics and the validated Short-Form Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18) scale were used. Patient satisfaction was the highest in terms of service factors or tangible priorities, particularly "technical quality" and "accessibility and convenience," but satisfaction was low in terms of service orientation of doctors, particularly the "time spent with doctor," "interpersonal manners," and "communication" during consultations. Gender, income level, and purpose of visit to the clinic were important correlates of patient satisfaction. Effort to improve service orientation among doctors through periodical professional development programs at hospital and national level is essential to boost the country's health service satisfaction. PMID:25654133

  11. Behaviour Profile of Hungarian Adolescent Outpatients with a Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinya, Elek; Csorba, Janos; Suli, Agota; Grosz, Zsofia

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour dimensions of 244 Hungarian adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a dual diagnosis (intellectual disability and psychiatric diagnosis) were examined by means of the adapted version of the Behaviour Problem Inventory (BPI, Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001). Four IQ subgroups were created: borderline, mild, moderate and…

  12. 38 CFR 17.161 - Authorization of outpatient dental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1712(b) and 38 CFR 17.93 to the extent prescribed and in accordance with the applicable classification... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... outpatient dental treatment. 17.161 Section 17.161 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...

  13. Aetiology of Intellectual Disability in Paediatric Outpatients in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhari, Prashant; Boggula, Raju; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Singh, Chandrakanta; Kohli, Neera; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the aetiology of intellectual disability in patients presenting to hospital and the diagnostic yield of a standardized examination. Method: Over a 1-year period, the first three children presenting to the paediatric outpatients department (OPD) on 2 selected weekdays with developmental delay, suspected intellectual disability, or…

  14. Outpatient Assessment of Neurovisual Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barca, Laura; Cappelli, Francesca R.; Di Giulio, Paola; Staccioli, Susanna; Castelli, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the Atkinson Battery for Child Development for Examining Functional Vision (Atkinson, Anker, Rae, et al., 2002) to evaluate neurovisual functions of children with neurodevelopmental disorders in outpatient setting. A total of 90 patients underwent a comprehensive evaluation. Among these, a group of 33…

  15. Barium titanate core – gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatments

    PubMed Central

    FarrokhTakin, Elmira; Ciofani, Gianni; Puleo, Gian Luigi; de Vito, Giuseppe; Filippeschi, Carlo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Piazza, Vincenzo; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-01-01

    The development of new tools and devices to aid in treating cancer is a hot topic in biomedical research. The practice of using heat (hyperthermia) to treat cancerous lesions has a long history dating back to ancient Greece. With deeper knowledge of the factors that cause cancer and the transmissive window of cells and tissues in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, hyperthermia applications have been able to incorporate the use of lasers. Photothermal therapy has been introduced as a selective and noninvasive treatment for cancer, in which exogenous photothermal agents are exploited to achieve the selective destruction of cancer cells. In this manuscript, we propose applications of barium titanate core–gold shell nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment against cancer cells. We explored the effect of increasing concentrations of these nanoshells (0–100 ?g/mL) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, testing the internalization and intrinsic toxicity and validating the hyperthermic functionality of the particles through near infrared (NIR) laser-induced thermoablation experiments. No significant changes were observed in cell viability up to nanoparticle concentrations of 50 ?g/mL. Experiments upon stimulation with an NIR laser revealed the ability of the nanoshells to destroy human neuroblastoma cells. On the basis of these findings, barium titanate core–gold shell nanoparticles resulted in being suitable for hyperthermia treatment, and our results represent a promising first step for subsequent investigations on their applicability in clinical practice. PMID:23847415

  16. Plasma waves associated with the first AMPTE magnetotail barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Luehr, H.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma waves observed during the March 21, 1985, AMPTE magnetotail barium release are described. Electron plasma oscillations provided local measurements of the plasma density during both the expansion and decay phases. Immediately after the explosion, the electron density reached a peak of about 400,000/cu cm, and then started decreasing approximately as t to the -2.4 as the cloud expanded. About 6 minutes after the explosion, the electron density suddenly began to increase, reached a secondary peak of about 240/cu cm, and then slowly decayed down to the preevent level over a period of about 15 minutes. The density increase is believed to be caused by the collapse of the ion cloud into the diamagnetic cavity created by the initial expansion. The plasma wave intensities observed during the entire event were quite low. In the diamagnetic cavity, electrostatic emissions were observed near the barium ion plasma frequency, and in another band at lower frequencies. A broadband burst of electrostatic noise was also observed at the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity. Except for electron plasma oscillations, no significant wave activity was observed outside of the diamagnetic cavity.

  17. Results of magnetospheric barium ion cloud experiment of 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, D.; Fricke, C. L.; Long, S. A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The barium ion cloud experiment involved the release of about 2 kg of barium at an altitude of 31 482 km, a latitude of 6.926 N., and a longitude of 74.395 W. Significant erosion of plasma from the main ion core occurred during the initial phase of the ion cloud expansion. From the motion of the outermost striational filaments, the electric field components were determined to be 0.19 mV/m in the westerly direction and 0.68 mV/m in the inward direction. The differences between these components and those measured from balloons flown in the proximity of the extremity of the field line through the release point implied the existence of potential gradients along the magnetic field lines. The deceleration of the main core was greater than theoretically predicted. This was attributed to the formation of a polarization wake, resulting in an increase of the area of interaction and resistive dissipation at ionospheric levels. The actual orientation of the magnetic field line through the release point differed by about 10.5 deg from that predicted by magnetic field models that did not include the effect of ring current.

  18. Ruthenium and hafnium abundances in giant and dwarf barium stars

    E-print Network

    Allen, D M

    2007-01-01

    We present abundances for Ru and Hf, compare them to abundances of other heavy elements, and discuss the problems found in determining Ru and Hf abundances with laboratory gf-values in the spectra of barium stars. We determined Ru and Hf abundances in a sample of giant and dwarf barium stars, by the spectral synthesis of two RuI (4080.574A and 4757.856A) and two HfII (4080.437A and 4093.155A) transitions. The stellar spectra were observed with FEROS/ESO, and the stellar atmospheric parameters lie in the range 4300 < Teff/K < 6500, -1.2 < [Fe/H] <= 0 and 1.4 <= log g < 4.6. The HfII 4080A and the RuI 4758A observed transitions result in a unreasonably high solar abundance, given certain known uncertainties, when fitted with laboratory gf-values. For these two transitions we determined empirical gf-values by fitting the observed line profiles of the spectra of the Sun and Arcturus. For the sample stars, this procedure resulted in a good agreement of Ru and Hf abundances given by the two availa...

  19. Factors Associated with Deliberate Self-Harm Behaviour among Depressed Adolescent Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether depressed adolescent outpatients with deliberate self-harm behaviour (DSH) differed from non-suicidal depressed adolescent outpatients in depressive and anxiety symptoms, alcohol use, perceived social support and number of negative life-events. Depressed adolescent outpatients (n = 155) aged 13-19 years were interviewed…

  20. 42 CFR 410.62 - Outpatient speech-language pathology services: Conditions and exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outpatient speech-language pathology services... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.62 Outpatient speech-language pathology services: Conditions and... for outpatient speech-language pathology services only if they are furnished by an individual...

  1. 42 CFR 410.62 - Outpatient speech-language pathology services: Conditions and exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outpatient speech-language pathology services... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.62 Outpatient speech-language pathology services: Conditions and... for outpatient speech-language pathology services only if they are furnished by an individual...

  2. 78 FR 6851 - Agency Information Collection (Dental Record Authorization and Invoice for Outpatient Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Agency Information Collection (Dental Record Authorization and Invoice for Outpatient Services) Activity....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Dental Record Authorization and Invoice for Outpatient Services, VA Form 10.... Abstract: VA Form 10-2570d is essential to the proper administration of VA outpatient fee dental...

  3. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  4. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  5. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  6. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  7. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  8. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management..., payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee schedule...

  9. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician...

  10. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician...

  11. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician...

  12. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management..., payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee schedule...

  13. Are the CMS Hospital Outpatient Quality Measures Relevant for Rural Hospitals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Michelle M.; Prasad, Shailendra; Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Context: Quality measures focused on outpatient settings are of increasing interest to policy makers, but little research has been conducted on hospital outpatient quality measures, especially in rural settings. Purpose: To evaluate the relevance of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) outpatient quality measures for rural hospitals,…

  14. Liquid-Phase Processing of Barium Titanate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David Thomas

    Processing of thin films introduces strict limits on the thermal budget due to substrate stability and thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Barium titanate serves as a model system for the difficulty in producing high quality thin films because of sensitivity to stress, scale, and crystal quality. Thermal budget restriction leads to reduced crystal quality, density, and grain growth, depressing ferroelectric and nonlinear dielectric properties. Processing of barium titanate is typically performed at temperatures hundreds of degrees above compatibility with metalized substrates. In particular integration with silicon and other low thermal expansion substrates is desirable for reductions in costs and wider availability of technologies. In bulk metal and ceramic systems, sintering behavior has been encouraged by the addition of a liquid forming second phase, improving kinetics and promoting densification and grain growth at lower temperatures. This approach is also widespread in the multilayer ceramic capacitor industry. However only limited exploration of flux processing with refractory thin films has been performed despite offering improved dielectric properties for barium titanate films at lower temperatures. This dissertation explores physical vapor deposition of barium titanate thin films with addition of liquid forming fluxes. Flux systems studied include BaO-B2O3, Bi2O3-BaB2O 4, BaO-V2O5, CuO-BaO-B2O3, and BaO-B2O3 modified by Al, Si, V, and Li. Additions of BaO-B2O3 leads to densification and an increase in average grain size from 50 nm to over 300 nm after annealing at 900 °C. The ability to tune permittivity of the material improved from 20% to 70%. Development of high quality films enables engineering of ferroelectric phase stability using residual thermal expansion mismatch in polycrystalline films. The observed shifts to TC match thermodynamic calculations, expected strain from the thermal expansion coefficients, as well as x-ray diffract measurements . Our system exhibits flux-film-substrate interactions that can lead to dramatic changes to the microstructure. This effect is especially pronounced onc -sapphire, with Al diffusion from the substrate leading to formation of an epitaxial BaAl2O4 second phase at the substrate-film interface. The formation of this second phase in the presence of a liquid phase seeds {111} twins that drive abnormal grain growth. The orientation of the sapphire substrate determines the BaAl2O 4 morphology, enabling control the abnormal grain growth behavior. CuO additions leads to significant grain growth at 900 °C, with average grain size approaching 500 nm. The orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition is clearly observable in temperature dependent measurements and both linear and nonlinear dielectric properties are improved. All films containing CuO are susceptible to aging. A number of other systems were investigated for efficacy at temperatures below 900 °C. Pulsed laser deposition was used to study flux + BaTiO 3 targets, layered flux films, and in situ liquids. RF-magnetron sputtering using a dual-gun approach was used to explore integration on flexible foils with Ba1-xSrxTiO3. Many of these systems were based on the BaO-B2O3 system, which has proven effective in thin films, multilayer ceramic capacitors, and bulk ceramics. Modifiers allow tailoring of the microstructure at 900 °C, however no compositions were found, and no reports exist in the open literature, that provide significant grain growth or densification below 900 °C. Liquid phase fluxes offer a promising path forward for low temperature processing of barium titanate, with the ultimate goal of integration with metalized silicon substrates. This work demonstrates significant improvements to dielectric properties and the necessity of understanding interactions in the film-flux-substrate system.

  15. X-Rays - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... radiographie - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (??????) Barium Enema ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

  16. The Evolving Mixture of Barium Isotopes in Milky Way Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Zareen; Kirby, E. N.; Guhathakurta, P.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in stars form through one of two types of neutron capture processes: the rapid r-process or slower s-process. The fraction of odd and even barium isotopes in stars can indicate which process predominantly contributed to a star’s heavy metals, since odd barium isotopes predominantly form through the r-process and even barium isotopes through the s-process. The “stellar model” predicts that older stars contain comparable amounts of odd and even barium isotopes, while the “classical model” states that they almost exclusively contain odd isotopes. This study investigated these competing models by analyzing high-resolution spectra of twelve Milky Way stars. These spectra were analyzed for the first time in this study. To quantify r- and s-process enrichment, we measured the odd barium isotope fraction in the stars by fitting models to the stars’ spectra. Generating models involved measuring the stars’ Doppler shift, resolution, and barium abundance. To reduce error margins we optimized resolution and barium abundance measurements by enhancing existing techniques through several rounds of revisions. Our results support the stellar model of heavy metal enrichment, and our proposed optimizations will enable future researchers to obtain a deeper understanding of chemical enrichment in the Universe. This research was supported by the Science Internship Program at the University of California Santa Cruz, Lick Observatory, and the National Science Foundation.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of cerium-doped barium titanate inverse opal by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Yi; Zhu Yihua Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong; Zhou Jinghong

    2007-01-15

    Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a polystyrene (PS) opal. This procedure involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template followed by hydrolytic polycondensation of the precursors to amorphous barium titanate and removal of the PS opal by calcination. The morphologies of opal and inverse opal were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pores were characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation showed the doping structure of cerium, barium and titanium. And powder X-ray diffraction allows one to observe the influence of doping degree on the grain size. The lattice parameters, crystal size and lattice strain were calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The synthesis of cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opals provides an opportunity to electrically and optically engineer the photonic band structure and the possibility of developing tunable three-dimensional photonic crystal devices. - Graphical abstract: Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate acid contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a PS opal, which involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template and removal of the PS opal by calcination.

  18. Assessment by Using a Water-Soluble Contrast Enema Study of Radiologic Leakage in Lower Rectal Cancer Patients With Sphincter-Saving Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Seok In; Lee, Jong Lyul; Park, Seong Ho; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the efficacy of a water-soluble contrast enema (WCE) in predicting anastomotic healing after a low anterior resection (LAR). Methods Between January 2000 and March 2012, 682 consecutive patients underwent a LAR or an ultra-low anterior resection (uLAR) and were followed up for leakage. Clinical leakage was established by using physical and laboratory findings. Radiologic leakage was identified by using retrograde WCE imaging. Abnormal radiologic features on WCE were categorized into four types based on morphology: namely, dendritic, horny, saccular, and serpentine. Results Of the 126 patients who received a concurrent diverting stoma, only two (1.6%) suffered clinical leakage due to pelvic abscess. However, 37 patients (6.7%) in the other group suffered clinical leakage following fecal diversion (P = 0.027). Among the 163 patients who received a fecal diversion, 20 showed radiologic leakage on the first WCE (eight with and 12 without a concurrent diversion); 16 had abnormal features continuously until the final WCE while four patients healed spontaneously. Eleven of the 16 patients (69%), by their surgeon's decision, underwent a stoma restoration based on clinical findings (2/3 dendritic, 3/4 horny, 5/7 saccular, 1/2 serpentine). After stoma reversal, only 2 of the 11 (19%) complained of complications related to the rectal anastomosis. Conclusion WCE is helpful for detecting radiologic leakage before stoma restoration, especially in patients suffering clinical leakage after an uLAR. However, surgeons appear to opt for stoma restoration despite the persistent existence of radiologic leakage in cases with particular features on the WCE. PMID:26361614

  19. Using Barium Ions for Heavy-Atom Derivatization and Phasing of Xylanse ll from Trichoderma longibrachiatum

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseeva,N.; Allaire, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of barium chloride to produce a heavy-atom derivative of xylanase II crystals from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, which was obtained either by cocrystallization or soaking. SAD phasing led to interpretable electron-density maps that allowed unambiguous chain tracing. In the best case, with a data set collected at 9.5 keV, 88% of the residues were built, with 83% of the side chains assigned. The barium ions are found to mainly interact with main-chain carbonyl groups and water molecules. It is suggested that barium ions could also be used as a potential anomalous scatterer in the quick cryosoaking procedure for phasing.

  20. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung

    2014-05-01

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba2Co2-xNixFe12O22 (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases with Ni contents. Ni2+, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co2+ having S = 3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba2Co1.5Ni0.5Fe12O22 shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718 K and 209 K, respectively. The Curie temperature TC is increased with Ni contents, while TS is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3bVI, 6cIV*, 6cVI, 18hVI, 6cIV, and 3aIV sites at below TC. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe3+ and obtained the isomer shift (?), magnetic hyperfine field (Hhf), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100 MHz and 4 GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna applications in UHF band.

  1. Magnetic properties of Ni substituted Y-type barium ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Mi Hee; Kim, Chul Sung

    2014-05-07

    Y-type barium hexaferrite is attractive material for various applications, such as high frequency antennas and RF devices, because of its interesting magnetic properties. Especially, Ni substituted Y- type hexaferrites have higher magnetic ordering temperature than other Y-type. We have investigated macroscopic and microscopic properties of Y-type barium hexaferrite. Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 2?x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x?=?0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) samples are prepared by solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as a network analyzer for high frequency characteristics. The XRD pattern is analyzed by Rietveld refinement method and confirms the hexagonal structure with R-3m. The hysteresis curve shows ferrimagnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decreases with Ni contents. Ni{sup 2+}, which preferentially occupies the octahedral site with up-spin sub-lattice, has smaller spin value S of 1 than Co{sup 2+} having S?=?3/2. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) measurement of Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} shows that Curie and spin transition temperatures are found to be 718?K and 209?K, respectively. The Curie temperature T{sub C} is increased with Ni contents, while T{sub S} is decreased with Ni. The Mössbauer spectra were measured at various temperatures and fitted by using a least-squares method with six sextet of six Lorentzian lines for Fe sites, corresponding to the 3b{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}*, 6c{sub VI}, 18h{sub VI}, 6c{sub IV}, and 3a{sub IV} sites at below T{sub C}. From Mössbauer measurements, we confirmed the spin state of Fe ion to be Fe{sup 3+} and obtained the isomer shift (?), magnetic hyperfine field (H{sub hf}), and the occupancy ratio of Fe ions at six sub-lattices. The complex permeability and permittivity are measured between 100?MHz and 4?GHz, suggesting that Y-type barium hexaferrite is promising for antenna applications in UHF band.

  2. Ruthenium and hafnium abundances in giant and dwarf barium stars

    E-print Network

    D. M. Allen; G. F. Porto de Mello

    2007-08-13

    We present abundances for Ru and Hf, compare them to abundances of other heavy elements, and discuss the problems found in determining Ru and Hf abundances with laboratory gf-values in the spectra of barium stars. We determined Ru and Hf abundances in a sample of giant and dwarf barium stars, by the spectral synthesis of two RuI (4080.574A and 4757.856A) and two HfII (4080.437A and 4093.155A) transitions. The stellar spectra were observed with FEROS/ESO, and the stellar atmospheric parameters lie in the range 4300 < Teff/K < 6500, -1.2 < [Fe/H] <= 0 and 1.4 <= log g < 4.6. The HfII 4080A and the RuI 4758A observed transitions result in a unreasonably high solar abundance, given certain known uncertainties, when fitted with laboratory gf-values. For these two transitions we determined empirical gf-values by fitting the observed line profiles of the spectra of the Sun and Arcturus. For the sample stars, this procedure resulted in a good agreement of Ru and Hf abundances given by the two available lines. The resulting Ru and Hf abundances were compared to those of Y, Nd, Sm and Eu. In the solar system Ru, Sm and Eu are dominated by the r-process and Hf, Nd and Y by the s-process, and all of these elements are enhanced in barium stars since they lie inside the s-process path. Ru abundances show large scatter when compared to other heavy elements, whereas Hf abundances show less scatter and closely follow the abundances of Sm and Nd, in good agreement with theoretical expectations. We also suggest a possible, unexpected, correlation of Ru and Sm abundances. The observed behaviour in abundances is probably due to variations in the 13C pocket efficiency in AGB stars, and, though masked by high uncertainties, hint at a more complex scenario than proposed by theory.

  3. First-principles study of optical properties of barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Meng-Qiu; Yin, Zhen; Zhang, Ming-Sheng

    2003-10-01

    The optical properties of perovskite barium titanate in the core-level spectra are investigated by the first principles under scissor approximation. There are nine peaks at the curve of the imaginary part of dielectric function. The optical spectra are assigned to interband contribution from O 2p valence bands to Ti 3d conduction bands in the low-energy region and outer core electron excitation (core level excitation) from near valence band semicore levels Ba 5p and O 2s to conduction band in the high-energy region. In contrast to the calculated results by the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method, our results are in better agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Tunability and relaxor properties of ferroelectric barium stannate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S. G.; Xu, Z. K.; Chen, Haydn

    2004-11-01

    Barium stannate titanate [Ba(SnxTi1-x)O3, x =0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4] ceramics were prepared using a conventional solid-state reaction process. Their dielectric properties were measured under direct current bias fields ranging from 0to2.5kV/cm. A transformation from normal to relaxor ferroelectrics was observed when x ?0.3. Broken long-range order or "dirty" ferroelectric domains and nanodomains were observed in Ba(Sn0.1Ti0.9)O3 and Ba(Sn0.4Ti0.6)O3 by transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Voltage driven tunability was found to decrease with increasing Sn content. The change from normal ferroelectric into relaxor ferroelectric had a negative impact on the tunability value of the materials.

  5. Supercritical fluid route for synthesizing crystalline Barium Strontium Titanate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reverón, H; Elissalde, C; Aymonier, C; Bidault, O; Maglione, M; Cansell, F

    2005-10-01

    Pure and well-crystallized Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) nanoparticles with controlled Ba/Sr ratio have been successfully synthesized under supercritical conditions using a continuous-flow reactor in the temperature range of 150-380 degrees C at 26 MPa. To synthesize the Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 composition, alkoxides, ethanol and water were used. The resulting nanopowder consists of fine particles with an average particle size of 23 nm. The results show that the Ba/Sr ratio of this powder can be accurately controlled from the composition of precursor. The characterization of the as-synthesized Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 solid-solution and the dielectric properties of the sintered ceramics are here reported. PMID:16245539

  6. Dynamics of the CRRES barium releases in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Mende, S. B.; Geller, S. P.; Miller, M.; Hoffman, R. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Pongratz, M.; Meredith, N. P.; Anderson, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) G-2, G-3, and G-4 ionized and neutral barium cloud positions are triangulated from ground-based optical data. From the time history of the ionized cloud motion perpendicular to the magnetic field, the late time coupling of the ionized cloud with the collisionless ambient plasma in the magnetosphere is investigated for each of the releases. The coupling of the ionized clouds with the ambient medium is quantitatively consistent with predictions from theory in that the coupling time increases with increasing distance from the Earth. Quantitative comparison with simple theory for the couping time also yields reasonable agreement. Other effects not predicted by the theory are discussed in the context of the observations.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    E-print Network

    Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conventional glass-ceramic one, resides in providing a small enough particle size for magnetic recording. We demonstrate using the X-ray diffraction patterns that the particle size decreases when substituting the hexaferrite by the Zn-Sn combination. This may improve the magnetic properties of the hexaferrite as a medium for HD magnetic recording

  8. Pulsating aurora induced by upper atmospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deehr, C.; Romick, G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports the apparent generation of pulsating aurora by explosive releases of barium vapor near 250 km altitude. This effect occurred only when the explosions were in the path of precipitating electrons associated with the visible aurora. Each explosive charge was a standard 1.5 kg thermite mixture of Ba and CuO with an excess of Ba metal which was vaporized and dispersed by the thermite explosion. Traces of Sr, Na, and Li were added to some of the charges, and monitoring was achieved by ground-based spectrophotometric observations. On March 28, 1976, an increase in emission at 5577 A and at 4278 A was observed in association with the first two bursts, these emissions pulsating with roughly a 10 sec period for approximately 60 to 100 sec after the burst.

  9. Barium titanate nanocomposite capacitor FY09 year end report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Tyler E.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.; Monson, Todd C.; Roesler, Alexander William; Fellows, Benjamin D.

    2009-11-01

    This late start RTBF project started the development of barium titanate (BTO)/glass nanocomposite capacitors for future and emerging energy storage applications. The long term goal of this work is to decrease the size, weight, and cost of ceramic capacitors while increasing their reliability. Ceramic-based nanocomposites have the potential to yield materials with enhanced permittivity, breakdown strength (BDS), and reduced strain, which can increase the energy density of capacitors and increase their shot life. Composites of BTO in glass will limit grain growth during device fabrication (preserving nanoparticle grain size and enhanced properties), resulting in devices with improved density, permittivity, BDS, and shot life. BTO will eliminate the issues associated with Pb toxicity and volatility as well as the variation in energy storage vs. temperature of PZT based devices. During the last six months of FY09 this work focused on developing syntheses for BTO nanoparticles and firing profiles for sintering BTO/glass composite capacitors.

  10. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Nurul; Free, Charles

    2015-04-01

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145 GHz and 155 GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.

  11. Properties of barium strontium titanate at millimeter wave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, Nurul; Free, Charles

    2015-04-24

    The trend towards using higher millimetre-wave frequencies for communication systems has created a need for accurate characterization of materials to be used at these frequencies. Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) is a ferroelectric material whose permittivity is known to change as a function of applied electric field and have found varieties of application in electronic and communication field. In this work, new data on the properties of BST characterize using the free space technique at frequencies between 145?GHz and 155?GHz for both thick film and bulk samples are presented. The measurement data provided useful information on effective permittivity and loss tangent for all the BST samples. Data on the material transmission, reflection properties as well as loss will also be presented. The outcome of the work shows through practical measurement, that BST has a high permittivity with moderate losses and the results also shows that BST has suitable properties to be used as RAM for high frequency application.

  12. On the nature of striae in strontium barium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Monchamp, R.R.; Mihalik, G.B.; Franks, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Strontium barium niobate crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. These crystals were 15--20 mm in diameter and 25 to 75 mm long. Two types stride, designated as coarse and fine, were characterized. The coarse stride are optically dense and are spaced by 100 to 500 {mu}m apart; the fine striae are optically less dense and spaced 5--50 {mu}m apart. The origins of the stride are attributed to thermal fluctuations in the melt related to the control system and to rotation of the growing crystal in non-isothermal radial gradients. Analysis of the crystals would indicated that the coarse striae may contain increased concentrations of sodium.

  13. SBN60, strontium-barium niobate at 100?K

    PubMed Central

    Stachowicz, Marcin; Gawryszewska, Olga; Swirkowicz, Marek A.; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 (strontium barium niobium oxide), belongs to the group of strontium–barium niobates with varying composition of Sr and Ba. Their general formula can be written as SrxBa1 - xNb2O6. Below the Curie temperature, T c, these materials indicate ferroelectric properties. The Curie temperature for SBN60 is equal to 346±0.5?K so the structure is in the ferroelectric phase at the measurement temperature of 100?K. Characteristic for this family of compounds is the packing along the z-axis. The NbO6 corner-sharing octa­hedra surround three types of vacancy tunnels with penta­gonal, square and triangular shapes. The Sr2+ ions partially occupy two unique sites, the first one located inside the penta­gon and the second one in the square tunnels. Consequently, they are situated on the mirror plane and the inter­section of two glide planes, respectively. The site inside the penta­gonal tunnel is additionally disordered so that the same position is shared by Ba2+ and Sr2+ ions whereas another part of the Ba2+ ion occupies a different position (relative occupancies 0.43:0.41:0.16). One of the NbV atoms and three of the O2? ions occupy general positions. The second NbV atom is located on the inter­section of the mirror planes. Two remaining O2? ions are located on the same mirror plane. Only the NbV atom and one of the O2? ions which is located on the mirror plane are not disordered. Each of the remaining O2? ions is split between two sites, with relative occupancies of 0.52:0.48 (O2? ions in general positions) and 0.64:0.36 (O2? ion on the mirror plane). PMID:24098159

  14. Barium tagging in solid xenon for the EXO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mong, Brian

    2011-07-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are searching for rare decay modes never before observed to uncover the absolute mass of the neutrino, as well as to discover if it is a Majorana fermion. Detection of the daughter nucleus can help provide positive identification of this event over most radioactive backgrounds. The goal of the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is to measure the rate of 0nubetabeta decay in 136Xe, incorporating 136Ba daughter identification by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Here, we investigate a technique in which the 136Ba daughter is grabbed with a cryogenic probe by freezing it in solid xenon ice, and detected directly in the solid xenon. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of barium in solid xenon were observed for the first time in this work. Identification of the 6s 2 1S0 ? 6s6p 1P 1 transition in both absorption (558 nm) and emission spectra (594 nm) were made. Additional blue absorption and emission lines were observed, but their transitions were not identified. Saturation of the 6s2 1S0 ? 6s6p 1P1 transition was not observed with increased excitation rates using resonance excitation at 558˜nm. From this a limit on the metastable decay rate was deduced to be greater than 104 s-1. Finally a fluorescence spectrum was obtained from a sample with only 20,000 atoms in the laser beam. With potential improvements of 107 in detection efficiency, single barium atom detection seems possible in solid xenon. A fiber probe detector based on a bare single mode fiber was also constructed and tested with fluorescing dye molecules. Successful detection of a few dye molecules in solution at the probe tip was demonstrated.

  15. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  16. Numberical simulation of the effects of radially injected barium plasma in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The morphology of the ion cloud in the radial shaped charge barium injection was studied. The shape of the ion cloud that remains after the explosive products and neutral barium clears away was examined. The ion cloud which has the configuration of a rimless wagon wheel is shown. The major features are the 2.5 km radius black hole in the center of the cloud, the surrounding ring of barium ion and the spokes of barium ionization radiating away from the center. The cloud shows no evolution after it emerges from the neutral debris and it is concluded that it is formed within 5 seconds of the event. A numerical model is used to calculate the motion of ions and electrons subject to the electrostatic and lorenz forces.

  17. Dielectric and pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate films on orthorhombic substrates with ,,110.../ /,,100... epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Dielectric and pyroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate films on orthorhombic of anisotropic misfit strains on the spontaneous polarization, dielectric properties, and pyroelectric response phases that cannot be observed in single-crystal perovskite ferroelectrics can be stabilized due

  18. Why the evidence for outpatient commitment is good enough.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S

    2014-06-01

    After nearly three decades of studies evaluating the legal practice of involuntary outpatient commitment, there is yet little consensus about its effectiveness and only limited implementation. Debate continues over how best to assist adults with serious mental illnesses who are unable or unwilling to participate in prescribed community treatment and as a result experience repeated involuntary hospitalizations or involvement with the criminal justice system. The authors comment on the Oxford Community Treatment Order Evaluation Trial (OCTET), a recently conducted randomized trial of outpatient commitment, and discuss the limitations of the study's design for resolving the persistent question of whether compulsory treatment is more effective than purely voluntary treatment for this difficult-to-reach target population. The authors conclude that the search for a definitive and generalizable randomized trial of outpatient commitment may be a quixotic quest; the field should, rather, welcome the results of well-conducted, large-scale, quasi-experimental and naturalistic studies with rigorous multivariable statistical controls. PMID:24881685

  19. Intensive outpatient comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Tabatha H; Lockhart, Ann-Louise T; Garcia, Rocio V; Raj, Jeslina J; Peterson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Recent randomized clinical trials have established the efficacy of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) in treating children and adults with Tourette syndrome and persistent tic disorders. However, the standard CBIT protocol uses a weekly outpatient treatment format (i.e., 8 sessions over 10 wk), which may be inconvenient or impractical for some patients, particularly patients, who are required to travel long distances in order to receive care. In contrast, an intensive outpatient program may increase accessibility to evidence-based behavioral treatments for Tourette syndrome and other persistent tic disorders by eliminating the necessity of repeated travel. This case series evaluated the use of an intensive outpatient program CBIT (IOP CBIT) for the treatment of 2 preadolescent males (ages 10 and 14 years) with Tourette syndrome. The IOP CBIT treatment protocol included several hours of daily treatment over a 4-d period. Both children evidenced notable reductions in their tics and maintained treatment gains at follow-up. Moreover, both patients and their parents expressed treatment satisfaction with the IOP CBIT format. This case series addresses an important research gap in the behavioral treatment of tic disorders literature. The patients’ treatment outcomes indicate that IOP CBIT is a promising treatment that warrants more systematic investigation. PMID:25325069

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Long-Term Outpatient Ertapenem Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Zubair A.; Syed, Alveena

    2014-01-01

    Ertapenem is increasingly utilized in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT), but data regarding the efficacy and safety of long-term ertapenem therapy have been limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients who received outpatient ertapenem therapy at our center between 2010 and 2013. Among 306 unique patients who were discharged on ertapenem therapy, the most common indications were intra-abdominal infections (38%), followed by pneumonia (12%), bone and joint infections (11%), bloodstream infections (10%), urinary tract infections (10%), surgical site infections (5%), and skin and soft-tissue infections (4%). Of these 306 patients, 68 received regular outpatient follow-up visits at our infectious disease clinic, where the majority of patients (91%) were successfully treated with ertapenem by the end of therapy. Of the 6 patients who experienced clinical failure, 2 had adverse events leading to discontinuation of therapy and 4 required additional source control for clinical success. In addition, 2 patients had recurrent infection at 6 months. PMID:24709258

  1. Expulsion of Barium and Methane at Mud Volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellini, D. G.; Dickens, G. R.; Snyder, G. T.; Gilhooly, W. P.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2003-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes and cold-seeps along continental margins transfer methane from gas-charged marine sediments to the water column. Such methane venting is dynamic and may provide an important and variable supply of carbon to the ocean and atmosphere through time. Barite mounds and chimneys have been found around some modern mud volcanoes and seeps, and similar structures can be identified in the geological record (e.g., bedded barite deposits). These observations suggest that expelled methane-rich fluids are greatly enriched in dissolved barium. However, there are very few analyses of barium concentrations in these systems. Here, we examine the dissolved barium of pore fluids from a series of shallow piston cores across two submarine mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico. Dissolved barium concentrations at 1.5 m below the seafloor at the Garden Bank volcano range from 18200 ? M at the center of the feature to 0.56 ? M on its flanks approximately 1 km away. Similarly, dissolved barium concentrations at the Mississippi Canyon volcano range from 15600 ? M to 0.50 ? M. Thus, the concentrations in the cores of the mud volcanoes are nominally 5 orders of magnitude greater than in mean ocean water ( ˜0.1 ? M). Anaerobic oxidation of upward flowing methane consumes sulfate, which leads to the dissolution of barite and release of barium to pore fluids. Because this mechanism alone cannot explain the extreme concentrations in the mud volcanoes, a deep source of barium may exist in the Gulf of Mexico strata. Our current work is focused on quantifying the fluxes and sedimentary fate of expelled barium at these locations. However, even if a large fraction of the barium precipitates adjacent to the sites of methane venting, fluid expulsion at mud volcanoes must significantly impact the barium cycle in the Gulf of Mexico. Conceivably, submarine mud volcanoes and cold-seeps along continental margins are a major source of barium to the deep ocean, a concept that has profound implications with respect to certain paleoceanographic reconstructions.

  2. Calculations of energy levels and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-03-15

    We use the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory to perform accurate calculations of energy levels, transition amplitudes, and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium. Calculations for radium are needed for the planning of measurements of parity- and time-invariance-violating effects which are strongly enhanced in this atom. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy of the calculations.

  3. Preparation of barium titanate nanoparticle sphere arrays and their dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Wada, Satoshi; Yazawa, Aki; Hoshina, Takuya; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Tsurumi, Takaaki; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) nanoparticles from 27 to 192 nm were prepared by the 2-step thermal decomposition method from barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. These particles were dispersed well into 1-propanol, and dense BaTiO(3); nanoparticle sphere arrays without stress-field were prepared by the meniscus method. Temperature dependence of dielectric properties was successfully measured using these dense nanoparticle sphere arrays, and size effect on dielectric properties was discussed. PMID:18986885

  4. Comparison of the reflectance characteristics of polytetrafluoroethylene and barium sulfate paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butner, C. L.; Schutt, J. B.; Shai, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the directional reflectance measurements taken on two tetrafluorethylene (TFE) paints formulated with silicone binders. Both paints are found to be more Lambertian than barium sulfate paint and pressed powder, although the pigment to binder ratios for barium sulfate and TFE paints are about 133 and 3.3 to 1, respectively. The TFE paints exhibit total visible reflectances above 90 percent and offer surfaces that are not significantly affected by water.

  5. Elevated Z line: a new sign of Barrett's esophagus on double-contrast barium esophagograms.

    PubMed

    Levine, Marc S; Ahmad, Nuzhat A; Rubesin, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    We describe an elevated Z line as a new radiographic sign of Barrett's esophagus characterized by a transversely oriented, zigzagging, barium-etched line extending completely across the circumference of the midesophagus. An elevated Z line is rarely seen in other patients, so this finding should be highly suggestive of Barrett's esophagus on double-contrast barium esophagograms. If the patient is a potential candidate for surveillance, endoscopy and biopsy should be performed to confirm the presence of Barrett's esophagus. PMID:26264955

  6. Generation of sub-100-fs Stokes pulses upon SRS in a barium nitrate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

    2010-10-15

    72-fs pulses are generated at the first Stokes component frequency upon stimulated Raman scattering in a barium nitrate crystal for the radiation of the Ti{sup 3+}:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laser with the pulse duration of 50 fs. The energy efficiency of conversion is 20%. The barium nitrate crystal was optically pumped by two consecutive orthogonally polarised chirped pulses with the following time compression of the Stokes radiation pulse. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  7. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  8. Synthesis and assembly of barium-doped iron oxide nanoparticles and nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liheng; Shen, Bo; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-10-01

    A facile organic-phase synthesis of monodisperse barium-doped iron oxide (Ba-Fe-O) nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The Ba-Fe-O NPs can be converted into hexagonal barium ferrite NPs at 700 °C, showing strong ferromagnetic properties with Hc reaching 5260 Oe and Ms at 54 emu g(-1). Moreover, the Ba-Fe-O NPs can be assembled into densely packed magnetic arrays, providing a unique model system for studying nanomagnetism and for nanomagnetic applications. PMID:26377439

  9. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  10. Diffusion of barium atoms in the 6s5d 3 DJ metastable levels and the 6s2 1

    E-print Network

    Huennekens, John

    Diffusion of barium atoms in the 6s5d 3 DJ metastable levels and the 6s2 1 S0 ground state through describe a set of experiments that investigate diffusion of barium 6s5d 3 DJ metastable level and 6s2 1 S0 ground-state atoms through the noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The barium metastable levels were

  11. Active experiments in space in conjunction with Skylab. [barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two papers are presented which relate to the Skylab barium shaped charge experiments. The first describes the L=6.6 OOSIK barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972. Rocket payload, instrumentation, data reduction methods, geophysical environment at the time of the experiment, and results are given. The second paper presents the observation of an auroral Birkeland current which developed from the distortion of a barium plasma jet during the above experiment.

  12. Supramolecular curcumin-barium prodrugs for formulating with ceramic particles.

    PubMed

    Kamalasanan, Kaladhar; Anupriya; Deepa, M K; Sharma, Chandra P

    2014-10-01

    A simple and stable curcumin-ceramic combined formulation was developed with an aim to improve curcumin stability and release profile in the presence of reactive ceramic particles for potential dental and orthopedic applications. For that, curcumin was complexed with barium (Ba(2+)) to prepare curcumin-barium (BaCur) complex. Upon removal of the unbound curcumin and Ba(2+) by dialysis, a water-soluble BaCur complex was obtained. The complex was showing [M+1](+) peak at 10,000-20,000 with multiple fractionation peaks of MALDI-TOF-MS studies, showed that the complex was a supramolecular multimer. The (1)H NMR and FTIR studies revealed that, divalent Ba(2+) interacted predominantly through di-phenolic groups of curcumin to form an end-to-end complex resulted in supramolecular multimer. The overall crystallinity of the BaCur was lower than curcumin as per XRD analysis. The complexation of Ba(2+) to curcumin did not degrade curcumin as per HPLC studies. The fluorescence spectrum was blue shifted upon Ba(2+) complexation with curcumin. Monodisperse nanoparticles with size less than 200dnm was formed, out of the supramolecular complex upon dialysis, as per DLS, and upon loading into pluronic micelles the size was remaining in similar order of magnitude as per DLS and AFM studies. Stability of the curcumin was improved greater than 50% after complexation with Ba(2+) as per UV/Vis spectroscopy. Loading of the supramloecular nanoparticles into pluronic micelles had further improved the stability of curcumin to approx. 70% in water. These BaCur supramolecule nanoparticles can be considered as a new class of prodrugs with improved solubility and stability. Subsequently, ceramic nanoparticles with varying chemical composition were prepared for changing the material surface reactivity in terms of the increase in, degradability, surface pH and protein adsorption. Further, these ceramic particles were combined with curcumin prodrug formulations and optimized the curcumin release properties in the combined formulations. Our proof concept study shows that, the conversion of curcumin to a metal-organic supramolecular prodrug improved the solubility, stability and release profile of curcumin. The prodrug approach with the micellisation strategy appears to be more appropriate to deliver intact curcumin in the presence of ceramic particles of varying surface reactivity. PMID:25064480

  13. NO{sub x} storage in barium-containing catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Fridell, E.; Skoglundh, M.; Westerberg, B.; Smedler, G.; Johansson, S.

    1999-04-25

    The effect of key parameters on the characteristics of barium oxide-based NO{sub x} storage catalysts was systematically investigated. Model Pt/BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt-Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pt-Rh/BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were prepared and evaluated with respect to NO{sub x} storage capacity using transient flow reactor studies, temperature-programmed desorption studies (TPD), and in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. The influence of temperature, storage and regeneration times, NO{sub x} source (NO or NO{sub 2}), oxygen concentration, reducing agent (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, CO, or H{sub 2}), and carbon dioxide concentration in NO{sub x} storage capacity was studied. Significant amounts of NO{sub x} were found to be stored in the catalysts containing both barium oxide and noble metals. For these catalysts the following observations were made: (1) maximum NO{sub x} storage was observed at about 380 C; (2) around this temperature no significant differences between NO and NO{sub 2} on NO{sub x} storage capacity could be observed; (3) a slow increase in stored NO{sub x} could be observed with increasing oxygen concentration during the lean phase; (4) significant NO{sub x} desorption peaks, mainly of NO, were observed immediately after the switch from lean to rich conditions; and (5) at about 380 C the in situ FTIR spectra show characteristic nitrate pea/ks in the region 1300--1400 cm{sup {minus}1} when NO{sub x} was stored under lean conditions and isocyanate peaks around 2230 cm{sup {minus}1} when the catalysts were regenerated under rich conditions in the presence of hydrocarbons. The step leading to stored NO{sub x} is believed to involve NO{sub 2} and the presence of atomic oxygen. During the rich period, the noble metal surfaces are probably reduced, leading to breakthrough peaks when NO desorbs.

  14. A new patient information leaflet for Dermatology outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Katrin; whittam, lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Lack of provision of information was the single most common cause of poor performance in the 2008/2009 NHS Patient Survey Programme of trusts in the UK. Information leaflets have been shown to improve patient satisfaction with consultations. We introduced a new patient information leaflet about the scheduled consultation in a district hospital's dermatology outpatient clinic. We then assessed in a small study its effect on the patients regarding helpfulness, preparation for and satisfaction with the out-patient consultation. Via the hospital's booking office, leaflets were sent to all patients (n=32) due to attend two outpatient clinics, accompanied by a letter about the survey. After the consultation, patients were given a short anonymous questionnaire to complete. Of the 32 patients, 12 patients did not receive the leaflet, three did not attend their consultation, and two left before they were handed the questionnaire. We gave out 15 questionnaires, and received 15 responses (100%). 46.9% of patients (n=15) answered the questionnaire. Of these 33.3% were new patients (n=5). 86.7% (n=13) found the leaflet helpful and 33% excellent (n=5). 86.7% felt well prepared for the consultation, 40% excellently (n=6). 86.7% were satisfied with the consultation, 73% rated their satisfaction as excellent (n=11). 60% of patients brought a list with their medication (n=9), 80% of the new patients (n=4). 13.3% of patients (n=2) wrote down questions prior to the consultation. Comments suggested the leaflet would be more useful for new patients. Patients scored highly for satisfaction with the consultation, whether or not they had received and information leaflet (we asked n=20 patients without leaflet). This short survey supports the idea that patients find it helpful to receive an information leaflet, and actively prepare by bringing a list of their medication, and thinking of questions.

  15. Modifiable Risk Factors for Increased Arterial Stiffness in Outpatient Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    Elewa, Usama; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Alegre, Raquel; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D.; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Perez-Gomez, Maria Vanessa; El-Fishawy, Hussein; Belal, Dawlat; Ortiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV) was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV) - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population). Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients. PMID:25880081

  16. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 ?M (145.1 ?g/L) barium in about 3 ?M (210.7 ?g/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 ?g/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 ?M) on arsenic (3 ?M)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-?B activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-?B activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways. PMID:22526373

  17. Categorization of major depression in an outpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Haslam, N; Beck, A T

    1993-12-01

    Intake Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) item scores of 400 outpatient major depressives were submitted to a categorization algorithm developed for artificial intelligence applications. The algorithm maximizes a function of "category utility" that is preferable in several respects to available clustering methods, and has demonstrated its capacity to locate the most informative, or "basic," level of categorization. The analysis yielded four syndromal subtypes: a common, general depressive type; a common and relatively severe melancholic type; an infrequent type characterized by self-critical features, generalized anxiety, and an absence of melancholic features; and an infrequent, mild type distinguished by enervation and anhedonic features. Implications for the classification of depression are discussed. PMID:8254323

  18. Use and cost of hospital outpatient services under Medicare, 1985

    PubMed Central

    Helbing, Charles; Latta, Viola B.

    1988-01-01

    Presented in this article are program data on the use and cost of hospital outpatient (HOP) services rendered to aged and disabled Medicare beneficiaries during calendar year 1985. Trend data are also presented for calendar years 1974-85. The data shown in this article focus on charges, reimbursements, and reimbursements per enrollee as a means of measuring the cost of HOP services. The data provide information to help identify trends and patterns of care for monitoring the Medicare HOP benefit and for evaluating the impact of the inpatient hospital prospective payment system (PPS) on the use and cost of HOP services. PMID:10312629

  19. Identifying early dropouts from a rehabilitation program for psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, K; Edstrom, K; Smith-Papke, L

    1995-10-01

    The attendance of 112 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric rehabilitation program was retrospectively examined, and characteristics of dropouts were compared with those of patients who remained in treatment during the first eight weeks. Discriminant function analysis revealed that a combination of three variables correctly predicted 81 percent of the dropout group. The variables were a hostile, labile, or bizarre affect; a diagnosis of personality disorder; and impaired orientation. Patients with these characteristics require a thorough assessment of specific needs and deficits and ongoing evaluation of treatment approaches such as adaptations of psychosocial rehabilitation, dialectical behavior therapy, and assertive case management. PMID:8829793

  20. Outpatient termination of pregnancy: experience in a family practice residency.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J H; Bergman, J J; Berg, A O; Leversee, J H

    1982-02-01

    At the University of Washington Family Medicine Clinic, termination of pregnancy procedures were performed on 260 patients. Their records were reviewed, and an analysis was completed on demographic data, technical procedure parameters, and complication rates during and following the procedure. The majority of patients were not primigravida. Fifteen percent were between six and eight weeks of gestation. Following the procedure, 3.8 percent had excessive bleeding, and 2.7 percent developed endometritis at rates comparable to those found in the obstetrics and gynecology literature. No known perforations occurred. Outpatient termination of pregnancy performed on selected patients in a family practice setting can be a procedure of low morbidity. PMID:7057146

  1. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  2. Communication: Barium ions and helium nanodroplets: Solvation and desolvation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaohang; Drabbels, Marcel

    2012-08-07

    The solvation of Ba{sup +} ions created by the photoionization of barium atoms located on the surface of helium nanodroplets has been investigated. The excitation spectra corresponding to the 6p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} Leftwards-Arrow 6s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} and 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} Leftwards-Arrow 6s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} transitions of Ba{sup +} are found to be identical to those recorded in bulk He II [H. J. Reyher, H. Bauer, C. Huber, R. Mayer, A. Schafer, and A. Winnacker, Phys. Lett. A 115, 238 (1986)], indicating that the ions formed at the surface of the helium droplets become fully solvated by the helium. Time-of-flight mass spectra suggest that following the excitation of the solvated Ba{sup +} ions, these are being ejected from the helium droplets either as bare Ba{sup +} ions or as small Ba{sup +}He{sub n} (n < 20) complexes.

  3. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-08-28

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ?32?MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  4. Barium from a mini r-process in supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.

    1983-01-01

    McCulloch and Wasserburg (1978) have reported nonlinear isotopic anomalies in barium for two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite, known as EK-1-4-1 and C-1. In an attempt to account for these anomalies, it has been proposed that Ba from an r-process of nucleosynthesis, containing Ba-135 and Ba-137, was injected into the primeval color system but was not totally homogenized. Questions arise in connection with the relations of Xe isotopes in carbonaceous chondrites. This has prompted Heymann and Dziczkaniec (1979, 1980, 1981) to study the formation of r-Xe, r-Kr, and r-Te by the mini r-process which is thought to occur in the O, Ne-rich shells of Type II supernovae. Lee et al. (1979) have studied the formation of r-Ba, r-Nd, and r-Sm by the same process. Certain differences regarding the approaches used by Lee et al. and by Heymann and Dziczkaniec make it necessary to restudy the work of Lee et al. Attention is given to the survival probabilities of nuclear species of interest, taking into accounts the elements Cs, Ba, I, and Xe.

  5. Ferroelectric superlattice based on barium-strontium titanate solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razumnaya, A. G.; Golovko, Yu. I.; Lyanguzov, N. V.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.; Shirokov, V. B.; Mukhortov, V. M.; El Marssi, M.

    2015-11-01

    A superlattice of the composition Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3/Ba0.4Sr0.6TiO3 has been grown by rf cathode sputtering on a MgO(001) substrate. The unit cell parameters of the superlattice layers along the normal to the substrate, modulation period, and orientation relationships between the film and the substrate have been determined using X-ray diffraction. Based on the temperature dependences of the polarized Raman spectra, it has been revealed that the frequency of soft mode E(TO) increases from 79 to 97 cm-1 in the temperature range of 80-350 K. It has been found that there are no characteristic indications of a sequence of phase transitions, which take place in bulk samples of barium-strontium titanate solid solutions of identical compositions, and the transition from the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase in the superlattice occurs at a temperature of ˜350 K.

  6. Two new barium sulfonates with pillared layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Li; Ma, Jian-Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    The reactions of BaCl 2·2H 2O with NaHL a and K 3L b (H 2L a=4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, H 3L b=4-hydroxy-5-nitro-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid) gave two pillared layered coordination polymers: Ba(HL a)(Cl) 1 and KBaL b(H 2O) 32, respectively. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction method and refined by full-matrix least-squares methods to R=0.0509 and wR=0.1216 using 1455 reflections with I>2 ?( I) for 1; and R=0.0288 and wR=0.0727 using 2661 reflections with I>2 ?( I) for 2. The interesting feature of compound 1 is the coordination actions of chloride anions, which help to form the polymeric layers by bridging barium cations. In compound 2 the Lb3- anion acts as an unusual dodecadente ligand to form a coordination polymer with pillared layered structure.

  7. Two new barium sulfonates with pillared layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Li; Ma, Jian-Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Cheng

    2006-05-01

    The reactions of BaCl 2·2H 2O with NaHL a and K 3L b (H 2L a=4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, H 3L b=4-hydroxy-5-nitro-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid) gave two pillared layered coordination polymers: Ba(HL a)(Cl) 1 and KBaL b(H 2O) 32, respectively. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction method and refined by full-matrix least-squares methods to R=0.0509 and wR=0.1216 using 1455 reflections with I>2 ?( I) for 1; and R=0.0288 and wR=0.0727 using 2661 reflections with I>2 ?( I) for 2. The interesting feature of compound 1 is the coordination actions of chloride anions, which help to form the polymeric layers by bridging barium cations. In compound 2 the Lb3- anion acts as an unusual dodecadente ligand to form a coordination polymer with pillared layered structure.

  8. Nanoscale inhomogeneities in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zahirul; Sinha, S. K.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, X.; Haskel, D.; Moss, S. C.; Srajer, G.; Veal, B. W.; Wermeille, D.; Lee, D. R.; Haeffner, D. R.; Welp, U.; Wochner, P.

    2004-03-01

    X-ray diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source reveal that nanoscale inhomogeneities, electronic or structural in origin, form in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x) superconductors and coexist with the superconducting (SC) state. Diffuse scattering from these inhomogeneous superstructures is due to atomic displacements with respect to equilibrium lattice sites (Z. Islam et al. Phys. Rev. B 66, 92501 (2002)), that are characterized by a wavevector of the form q=(q_x,0,0), where qx varies with hole doping from 2 unit cells (along shorter Cu-O-Cu direction) for very low doping to 4 unit cells at optimal doping. Interestingly, while these superstructures are 3-dimensionally ordered when the SC state is weakened (e.g., at x=0.4), as the doping increases, they become quasi 1D with correlation lengths comparable to SC coherence lengths in these cuprates. Recent first-principles calculations (D. de Fontaine et al., to be published) for the x=0.63 compound show that atomic displacements consistent with experimental data can be the result of ordering of O vacancies in YBCO. Models for various superstructures and their role in the phase diagram will be discussed.

  9. NLTE Strontium and Barium in metal poor red giant stars

    E-print Network

    C. I. Short; P. H. Hauschildt

    2006-01-10

    We present atmospheric models of red giant stars of various metallicities, including extremely metal poor (XMP, [Fe/H]Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba), treated in Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) with various degrees of realism. We conclude that 1) for all lines that are useful Sr and Ba abundance diagnostics the magnitude and sense of the computed NLTE effect on the predicted line strength is metallicity dependent, 2) the indirect NLTE effect of overlap between Ba and Sr transitions and transitions of other species that are also treated in NLTE non-negligibly enhances NLTE abundance corrections for some lines, 3) the indirect NLTE effect of NLTE opacity of other species on the equilibrium structure of the atmospheric model is not significant, 4) the computed NLTE line strengths differ negligibly if collisional b-b and b-f rates are an order of magnitude smaller or larger than those calculated with standard analytic formulae, and 5) the effect of NLTE upon the resonance line of Ba II at 4554.03 AA is independent of whether that line is treated with hyperfine splitting. As a result, the derivation of abundances of Ba and Sr for metal-poor red giant stars with LTE modeling that are in the literature should be treated with caution.

  10. Impact of vanadium ions in barium borate glass.

    PubMed

    Abdelghany, A M; Hammad, Ahmed H

    2015-02-25

    Combined optical and infrared spectral measurements of prepared barium borate glasses containing different concentrations of V2O5 were carried out. Vanadium containing glasses exhibit extended UV-visible (UV/Vis.) bands when compared with base binary borate glass. UV/Vis. spectrum shows the presence of an unsymmetrical strong UV broad band centered at 214 nm attributed to the presence of unavoidable trace iron impurities within the raw materials used for the preparation of such glass. The calculated direct and indirect optical band gaps are found to decrease with increasing the vanadium content (2.9:137 for indirect and 3.99:2.01 for direct transition). This change was discussed in terms of structural changes in the glass network. Infrared absorption spectra of the glasses reveal the appearance of both triangular and tetrahedral borate units. Electron spin resonance analyses indicate the presence of unpaired species in sufficient quantity to be identified and to confirm the spectral data. PMID:25194319

  11. Barium in landscape components of the western Transbaikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, V. K.

    2015-10-01

    Barium concentrations in parent materials, soils, and plants of the forest-steppe, steppe, and dry steppe landscapes of the Transbaikal region have been studied. The average concentration of this element in rocks and soils of this region exceeds its clarke by 1.8-2.1 times. A positive correlation between the contents of Ba in soils, soil-forming rocks, and plants has been found. The concentration of Ba in soils does not correlate with the soil pH and humus content. Distribution patterns of Ba in the soil profiles have been characterized. With respect to the coefficient of the biological uptake by plants, Ba is assigned to the group of low accumulation (0.55-0.65) for mineral soils and of strong accumulation (6.0) for alluvial bog soils. Average concentrations of Ba in the steppe, meadow, and cultivated vegetation of the region are 1.9-2.3 times higher in comparison with the average concentration of this element in plants of the continents. The biological migration of Ba is most active in meadow landscapes, whereas steppe landscapes are characterized by the least active biological migration of this element.

  12. SALT reveals the barium central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-39

    E-print Network

    Miszalski, B; Jones, D; Karakas, A I; Köppen, J; Tyndall, A A; Mohamed, S S; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Santander-García, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical barium stars are binary systems which consist of a late-type giant enriched in carbon and slow neutron capture (s-process) elements and an evolved white dwarf (WD) that is invisible at optical wavelengths. The youngest observed barium stars are surrounded by planetary nebulae (PNe), ejected soon after the wind accretion of polluted material when the WD was in its preceeding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Such systems are rare but powerful laboratories for studying AGB nucleosynthesis as we can measure the chemical abundances of both the polluted star and the nebula ejected by the polluter. Here we present evidence for a barium star in the PN Hen 2-39. The polluted giant is very similar to that found in WeBo 1. It is a cool (Teff=4250 +/- 150 K) giant enhanced in carbon ([C/H]=0.42 +/- 0.02 dex) and barium ([Ba/Fe]=1.50 +/- 0.25 dex). A spectral type of C-R3 C_24 nominally places Hen 2-39 amongst the peculiar early R-type carbon stars, however the barium enhancement and likely binary status mea...

  13. Chromospherically active stars. 11: Giant with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromsopherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (KO III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (KO III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35,000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  14. Chromospherically active stars. 6: Giants with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromospherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (K0 III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (K0 III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white-dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white-dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  15. Protective factors against suicide among young-old Chinese outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is common among the elderly worldwide. However, no literature could be found on the beliefs/expectations that protect young-old people from attempting suicide. The purpose of this study was to explore young-old outpatients’ reasons for not killing themselves in Taiwan. Method Data for this qualitative descriptive study were extracted from a large research series. From the 83 elderly outpatients in the original sample, 31 were chosen for this study because they were young-old (65–74 years old) and from two randomly selected medical centers in northern Taiwan. Data on participants’ reasons for not killing themselves in unhappy situations were collected in individual interviews using a semi-structured guide and analyzed by content analysis. Results Analysis of interview data identified six major themes: satisfied with one’s life, suicide cannot resolve problems, fear of humiliating one’s children, religious beliefs, never thought about suicide, and living in harmony with nature. Conclusion These identified protective factors (reasons for living) could be added to suicide-prevention programs for the elderly. Our findings may also serve as a reference for geriatric researchers in western countries with increasing numbers of elderly ethnic minority immigrants. PMID:24739419

  16. Socioeconomic determinants of outpatient antibiotic use in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Filippini, Massimo; Ferech, Matus; Goossens, Herman

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Outpatient antibiotic consumption widely varies across Europe. The investigation of the causes of such variation may help to identify interventions that would improve the efficient use of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic determinants and the role played by information about bacterial resistance. Methods Comparable data on systemically administered antibiotics and socioeconomic determinants in 17 European countries were available between 2000 and 2005. We estimated an ad hoc econometric model by means of a hybrid log–log functional form and random effects generalised least squares regressions. Lagged values and the instrumental variable method were applied to address endogeneity of bacterial resistance and infections. Bacterial resistance was measured by the rate of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (PNSP) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results The population income, demographic structure, density of general practitioners and their remuneration method appeared to be significant determinants of antibiotic consumption. Although countries with higher levels of bacterial resistance exhibited significantly higher levels of per capita antibiotic use, ceteris paribus, the responsiveness of antibiotic use to changes in bacterial resistance was relatively low (0.09–0.18). Conclusions The study confirms that socioeconomic factors should be taken into account while explaining differences in outpatient antibiotic use across countries. The impact of supply-side factors and incentives attached to payment schemes for physicians need to be considered in government interventions to reduce inequalities and improve effectiveness in antibiotic utilisation. PMID:20603713

  17. Outpatient alcoholism treatment – 24-month outcome and predictors of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Soyka, Michael; Schmidt, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the value of demographic and alcohol-related variables for predicting 24-month treatment outcome in an outpatient setting. Methods Prospective observational study with 92 alcohol-dependent patients. Assessments were made by personal interviews at the beginning and end of therapy, and at the 24-month follow-up. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: The mean age was 46.0 (SD = 9.9) years. There were 58 males (65.2%) and 31 females (34.8%). Of the 67 patients interviewed at 2-year follow-up, 58% were abstinent and 79% improved. Differences between abstainers and non-abstainers were found for number of previous detoxifications, and number of patients attempted suicides. In addition, female gender and a higher number of prior treatments predicted negative treatment outcome. Conclusion Matching patients to different types of treatment by means of empirically based characteristics may help to improve outcome but research has failed to establish reliable predictors in that area. Data from this follow-up study confirm the role of certain clinical outcome predictors. Additionally, results give further evidence for outpatient treatment as an effective setting for alcohol-dependent patients as indicated by a favourable retention rate (84%) and outcome (minimum abstinence rate 44%). PMID:19563659

  18. The Effect of Biaxial Texture on the Effective Electromechanical Constants of Pollycrystalline Barium Titanate and Lead Titanate Thin Films

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik

    Barium Titanate and Lead Titanate Thin Films Jennifer L. Ruglovsky1 , Jiangyu Li2 , Kaushik Bhattacharya1 titanate films, but not for lead titanate. Twist texturing about these out-of-plane angles shows a further for a polycrystalline film. We explore tetragonal 4MM materials, and give specific results for barium titanate and lead

  19. The role of thermally-induced internal stresses on the tunability of textured barium strontium titanate films

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    The role of thermally-induced internal stresses on the tunability of textured barium strontium) The tunability of highly textured thin films of barium strontium titanate (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3, BST) is analyzed

  20. Initial growth stages of titanium and barium oxide films on SrTiO3(001) Chen Wu, Karen Kruska, Martin R. Castell

    E-print Network

    Castell, Martin

    Initial growth stages of titanium and barium oxide films on SrTiO3(001) Chen Wu, Karen Kruska titanium and barium oxide films were grown on SrTiO3(001) substrate surfaces via Ti/Ba deposition Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Interest in the growth of titanium and barium oxide thin

  1. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 92, NO. A6, PAGES 5777-5794, JUNE 1, 1987 Observationsand Theory of the AMPTE Magnetotail Barium Releases

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    Theory of the AMPTE Magnetotail Barium Releases P. A. BERNHARDT,R. A. ROUSSEL-DUPRE,AND M. B. PONGRATZ Departmentof Physicsand Astronomy,Universityof Iowa, Iowa City The barium releasesin the magnetotail during surface. The magnetic field inside the cavity is zero. The barium ions collect on the surfaceof the cavity

  2. Planar millimeter wave band-stop filters based on the excitation of confined magnetostatic waves in barium hexagonal ferrite thin film strips

    E-print Network

    in barium hexagonal ferrite thin film strips Lei Lu, Young-Yeal Song, Joshua Bevivino, and Mingzhong Wua on confined magnetostatic wave MSW excitations in an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite BaM film strip for the realization of mm-wave devices is to use barium hexagonal ferrite films.6 Hexagonal ferrites can have a high

  3. Gen Shirane List of Publications 1. Sawada, S., Shirane, G., and Suganara, H. On the specific heat and thermal expansion of barium titanate. J.

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Peter D.

    heat and thermal expansion of barium titanate. J. Phys. Soc. Japan 2, 90-91 (1947). 2. Shirane, G titanate and lead barium titanate. J. Phys. Soc. Japan 6, 453-454 (1950). 7. Shirane, G., Hoshino, S of mechanical pressure on the dielectric properties of polycrystalline barium- strontium titanate. J. Phys. Soc

  4. GEOPHYSICALRESEARCHLETTERS,VOL. 13, NO. 7, PAGES644-647, JULY1986 PLASMA WAVES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FIRST AMPTE MAGNETOTAIL BARIUM RELEASE

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    WITH THE FIRST AMPTE MAGNETOTAIL BARIUM RELEASE D A Gurnett1 R R. Anderson1 P A. Bernhardt2 H. L·hr 3 G the magnetometer data were quiet, with magnetic dis- March 21, 1985, AMPTEmagnetotail barium release turbances the magnetic field at the IRM. observed near the barium ion plasma frequency, A fraction of a second after

  5. The L equals 6.7 quiet time barium shaped charge injection experiment 'Chachalaca'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Davis, T. N.; Rieger, E. P.; Peek, H. M.; Bottoms, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Near dawn on October 9, 1972, UT, a barium plasma injection experiment was carried out from Poker Flat, Alaska, during quiet magnetic conditions (Kp equals 1+). The visible plasma flux tube produced was more diffuse than the flux tubes in previous experiments, but it could be tracked for 30 min out to an altitude of 2.5 earth radii. The flux tube remained integral for about 20 min, when a single striation separated from the main streak. Comparisons of the observed flux tube orientation with theoretical field models show no significant deviations ascribable to field-aligned currents. Cross-field drift rates of the foot of the flux tube indicate an E field of approximately 7 mV/m at 200-km altitude. Although an attempt was made via a jet aircraft flight, barium ions were not detected in the southern conjugate region. No energetic particle precipitation phenomena were observed which could be ascribed to the barium plasma injection.

  6. Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba$^+$ deposits in solid xenon for barium tagging in nEXO

    E-print Network

    Mong, B; Walton, T; Chambers, C; Craycraft, A; Benitez-Medina, C; Hall, K; Fairbank, W; Albert, J B; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Basque, V; Beck, D; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Cao, G F; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Daniels, T; Daugherty, S J; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fabris, L; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Heffner, M; Hughes, M; Jiang, X S; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krucken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Moore, D; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Retiere, F; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Walton, J; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zhao, Y B

    2014-01-01

    Progress on a method of barium tagging for the nEXO double beta decay experiment is reported. Absorption and emission spectra for deposits of barium atoms and ions in solid xenon matrices are presented. Excitation spectra for prominent emission lines, temperature dependence and bleaching of the fluorescence reveal the existence of different matrix sites. A regular series of sharp lines observed in Ba$^+$ deposits is identified with some type of barium hydride molecule. Lower limits for the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the principal Ba emission transition are reported. Under current conditions, an image of $\\le10^4$ Ba atoms can be obtained. Prospects for imaging single Ba atoms in solid xenon are discussed.

  7. Observation and theory of the barium releases from the CRRES satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Scales, W. A.; Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between releases of barium from the NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) and enhanced auroral activity is discussed with reference to observational data. Barium releases were conducted at a variety of altitudes and injection velocities, and plasma irregularities are reported as a result of the interactions. Auroral activity increased within 5 min of each release, and references are made to the effects on diamagnetic cavities, bulk ion motion, and stimulated electron and ion precipitation. Artificially created structured diamagnetic cavities are noted for each release, plasma waves are generated by the high-speed ion clouds, and enhanced ionization is found in the critical ionization-velocity process. Barium releases are effective in stimulating electron precipitation, and the observed irregularities are related to cycloid bunching of the initial ion distributions.

  8. Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba$^+$ deposits in solid xenon for barium tagging in nEXO

    E-print Network

    B. Mong; S. Cook; T. Walton; C. Chambers; A. Craycraft; C. Benitez-Medina; K. Hall; W. Fairbank Jr.; J. B. Albert; D. J. Auty; P. S. Barbeau; V. Basque; D. Beck; M. Breidenbach; T. Brunner; G. F. Cao; B. Cleveland; M. Coon; T. Daniels; S. J. Daugherty; R. DeVoe; T. Didberidze; J. Dilling; M. J. Dolinski; M. Dunford; L. Fabris; J. Farine; W. Feldmeier; P. Fierlinger; D. Fudenberg; G. Giroux; R. Gornea; K. Graham; G. Gratta; M. Heffner; M. Hughes; X. S. Jiang; T. N. Johnson; S. Johnston; A. Karelin; L. J. Kaufman; R. Killick; T. Koffas; S. Kravitz; R. Krucken; A. Kuchenkov; K. S. Kumar; D. S. Leonard; C. Licciardi; Y. H. Lin; J. Ling; R. MacLellan; M. G. Marino; D. Moore; A. Odian; I. Ostrovskiy; A. Piepke; A. Pocar; F. Retiere; P. C. Rowson; M. P. Rozo; A. Schubert; D. Sinclair; E. Smith; V. Stekhanov; M. Tarka; T. Tolba; K. Twelker; J. -L. Vuilleumier; J. Walton; M. Weber; L. J. Wen; U. Wichoski; L. Yang; Y. -R. Yen; Y. B. Zhao

    2014-10-09

    Progress on a method of barium tagging for the nEXO double beta decay experiment is reported. Absorption and emission spectra for deposits of barium atoms and ions in solid xenon matrices are presented. Excitation spectra for prominent emission lines, temperature dependence and bleaching of the fluorescence reveal the existence of different matrix sites. A regular series of sharp lines observed in Ba$^+$ deposits is identified with some type of barium hydride molecule. Lower limits for the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the principal Ba emission transition are reported. Under current conditions, an image of $\\le10^4$ Ba atoms can be obtained. Prospects for imaging single Ba atoms in solid xenon are discussed.

  9. Plasma irregularities caused by cycloid bunching of the CRRES G-2 barium release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J. D.; Pongratz, M. B.; Simons, D. J.; Wolcott, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) spacecraft carried a number of barium thermite canisters for release into the upper atmosphere. The barium release labeled G-2 showed evidence of curved irregularities not aligned with the ambient magnetic field B. The newly discovered curved structures can be explained by a process called cycloid bunching. Cycloid bunching occurs when plasma is created by photoionization of a neutral cloud injected at high velocity perpendicular to B. If the injection velocity is much larger than the expansion speed of the cloud, the ion trail will form a cycloid that has irregularities spaced by the product of the perpendicular injection speed and the ion gyroperiod, Images of the solar-illuminated barium ions are compared with the results of a three-dimensional kinetic simulation. Cycloid bunching is shown to be responsible for the rapid generation of both curved and field-aligned irregularities in the CRRES G-2 experiment.

  10. Prompt ionization in the CRIT II barium releases. [Critical Ionization Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Liou, K.; Rau, D.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of electron and ion distributions inside a fast neutral barium jet in the ionosphere show significant fluxes within 4 km of release, presumably related to beam plasma instability processes involved in the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. Electron fluxes exceeding 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm-str-sec-keV were responsible for ionizing both the streaming barium and ambient oxygen. Resulting ion fluxes seem to be consistent with 1-2 percent ionization of the fast barium, as reported by optical observations, although the extended spatial distribution of the optically observed ions is difficult to reconcile with the in situ observations. When the perpendicular velocity of the neutrals falls below critical values, these processes shut off. Although these observations resemble the earlier Porcupine experimental results (Haerendel, 1982), theoretical understanding of the differences between these data and that of earlier negative experiments is still lacking.

  11. Barium isotopes in individual presolar silicon carbide grains from the Murchison meteorite.

    SciTech Connect

    Savina, M. R.; Davis, A. M.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.; Gallino, R.; Lugaro, M.; Univ. of Chicago; Washington Univ.; Univ. di Torino; Cambridge Univ.

    2003-09-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single 2.3-5.3 {mu}m presolar SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite were measured by resonant ionization mass spectrometry. Mainstream SiC grains are enriched in s-process barium and show a spread in isotopic composition from solar to dominantly s-process. In the relatively coarse grain size fraction analyzed, there are large grain-to-grain variations of barium isotopic composition. Comparison of single grain data with models of nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars indicates that the grains most likely come from low mass carbon-rich AGB stars (1.5 to 3 solar masses) of about solar metallicity and with approximately solar initial proportions of r- and s-process isotopes. Measurements of single grains imply a wide variety of neutron-to-seed ratios, in agreement with previous measurements of strontium, zirconium and molybdenum isotopic compositions of single presolar SiC grains.

  12. Plasma irregularities caused by cycloid bunching of the CRRES G-2 barium release

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, P.A.; Huba, J.D. ); Pongratz, M.B.; Simons, D.J.; Wolcott, J.H. )

    1993-02-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) spacecraft carried a number of barium thermite canisters for release into the upper atmosphere. The barium release labeled G-2 showed evidence of curved irregularities not aligned with the ambient magnetic field B. The newly discovered curved structures can be explained by a process called cycloid bunching. Cyclold bunching occurs when plasma is created by photoionization of a neutral cloud injected at high velocity perpendicular to B. If the injection velocity is much larger than the expansion speed of the cloud, the ion trail will form a cycloid that has irregularities spaced by the product of the perpendicular injection speed and the ion gyroperiod. Images of the solar-illuminated barium ions are compared with the results of a three-dimensional kinetic simulation. Cycloid bunching is shown to be responsible for the rapid generation of both curved and field-aligned irregularities in the CRRES G-2 experiment. 47 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Phase transition studies in barium and strontium titanates at microwave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahiya, Jai N.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives were the following: to understand the phase transformations in barium and strontium titanates as the crystals go from one temperature to the other; and to study the dielectric behavior of barium and strontium titanate crystals at a microwave frequency of 9.12 GHz and as a function of temperature. Phase transition studies in barium and strontium titanate are conducted using a cylindrical microwave resonant cavity as a probe. The cavity technique is quite successful in establishing the phase changes in these crystals. It appears that dipole relaxation plays an important role in the behavior of the dielectric response of the medium loading the cavity as phase change takes place within the sample. The method of a loaded resonant microwave cavity as applied in this work has proven to be sensitive enough to monitor small phase changes of the cavity medium.

  14. Are There Any Stars Lacking Neutron-Capture Elements? Evidence from Strontium and Barium

    E-print Network

    Roederer, Ian U

    2012-01-01

    The cosmic dispersion in the abundances of the heavy elements strontium and barium in halo stars is well known. Strontium and barium are detected in most cool, metal-poor giants, but are these elements always detectable? To identify stars that could be considered probable candidates for lacking these elements, I examine the stellar abundance data available in the literature for 1148 field stars and 226 stars in dwarf galaxies, 776 of which have metallicities lower than [Fe/H]Strontium or barium have been detected in all field, globular cluster, and dwarf galaxy environments studied. All upper limits are consistent with the lowest detected ratios of [Sr/H] and [Ba/H]. The frequent appearance of these elements raises the intriguing prospect that at least one kind of neutron-capture reaction operates as often as the nucleosynthesis mechanisms that produce lighter elements, like magnesium, calcium, or iron, although the yields of heavy elements may be more variable.

  15. Characterization, sintering and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline barium titanate synthesized through a modified combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.N.; Thomas, J.K. Kumar, H.P.; Suresh, M.K.; Kumar, V.R.; Wariar, P.R.S.; Jose, R.; Koshy, J.

    2009-04-15

    Nanocrystalline barium titanate has been synthesized through a modified combustion process in a single step for the first time. The as-prepared barium titanate powder is cubic perovskite with lattice constant a = 4.018 A. The phase purity of the nanopowder was examined using thermo gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic investigations have shown that the particle size of the as-prepared powder is in the range 20-40 nm. The agglomerate size distribution of the as-prepared powder was studied using atomic force microscopy. The nanoparticles of barium titanate were sintered to 97% of the theoretical density at a temperature of 1350 deg. C for 3 h. The microstructure of the sintered surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric constant and loss factor of the sintered pellets at 1 MHz measured at room temperature were 1223 and 3.5 x 10{sup -3} respectively.

  16. Solid solution barium-strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialy, Agata; Jensen, Peter B.; Blanchard, Didier; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-01

    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage-applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35-50% barium and 65-50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia.

  17. Early Working Alliance in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment: Predicting Substance Use Frequency and Client Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…

  18. Differentiating Elderly Medical and Psychiatric Outpatients with the Beck Anxiety Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, Robert A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether self-reported anxious symptoms differentiated elderly medical and psychiatric outpatients, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was administered to 45 medical outpatients and 117 psychiatric inpatients. Only two symptoms, fear of the worst happening and unsteady, contributed unique variance to the differentiation of the two groups. (SLD)

  19. The Effects of Capitation on Outpatient Mental Health Episodes of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Edward; Snowden, Lonnie; Libby, Anne; Ma, Yifei

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of the Colorado Medicaid Capitation Program on the duration and services of over 21,000 outpatient mental health episodes for young children. The study spanned a three year period before and after capitation was implemented, and compared episodes of outpatient care for children from 14 capitated Community Mental Health…

  20. 42 CFR 447.321 - Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment limits. 447.321 Section 447.321 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Clinic Services § 447.321 Outpatient hospital and clinic services: Application of upper payment...

  1. 42 CFR 440.20 - Outpatient hospital services and rural health clinic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... clinic services. 440.20 Section 440.20 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Definitions § 440.20 Outpatient hospital services and rural health clinic services. (a) Outpatient hospital... services that are not generally furnished by most hospitals in the State. (b) Rural health clinic...

  2. The natural history of outpatient alcohol and drug abuse treatment in a private healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, H M; Belden, P P; Evans, B D; Ruetsch, C R; Meyers, K; Jensen, J M

    1996-08-01

    Managed healthcare has had a major impact on the delivery of alcohol and drug abuse treatment services in the private setting, primarily by shifting patient enrollment from inpatient to outpatient treatment programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the natural history of outpatient alcohol and drug abuse treatment in a private, nonprofit healthcare setting. Patient profiles at pretreatment, their attendance record in a 6-week outpatient program, and their outcome in the year after treatment were evaluated in 120 patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of alcohol and/or cocaine dependence. There were 70 outpatients who successfully completed the program, and 50 who did not. Two subtypes of outpatient treatment failures were identified: S5 who prematurely left treatment against medical advice (n = 23), and S8 who attended treatment but continued heavy use of substances (Treatment Resistant, n = 27). A logistic regression revealed that younger age, multiple prior treatments, and employment problems were related to outpatient treatment failure. Outpatient failures did not immediately seek alternative treatment, and most of them continued heavy substance use in the year post-treatment: i.e., 82% vs. 43% successful completers (chi 2 = 13.8, df = 1, p < 0.01). Thus, there were a clinically relevant number of outpatient failures (42%), either because of lack of program attendance or continued substance use throughout treatment. These behaviors were related to continued heavy use of substances in the year after treatment. PMID:8865959

  3. 75 FR 78901 - Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services at Non-Departmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN37 Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services... concerning the payment methodology used to calculate VA payments for inpatient and outpatient health care... health facility furnishing the care or services if such care or services were provided in a...

  4. 75 FR 7218 - Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services at Non-Departmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN37 Payment for Inpatient and Outpatient Health Care Professional Services... calculate VA payments for inpatient and outpatient health care professional services and other medical... other health facility furnishing the care or services if such care or services were provided in...

  5. 38 CFR 17.108 - Copayments for inpatient hospital care and outpatient medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hospital care and outpatient medical care. 17.108 Section 17.108 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Copayments § 17.108 Copayments for inpatient hospital care and outpatient medical care. (a) General. This section sets forth requirements regarding copayments for...

  6. Kinetic analysis of barium currents in chick cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zidanic, M; Fuchs, P A

    1995-01-01

    Inward barium current (IBa) through voltage-gated calcium channels was recorded from chick cochlear hair cells using the whole-cell clamp technique. IBa was sensitive to dihydropyridines and insensitive to the peptide toxins omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Changing the holding potential over a -40 to -80 mV range had no effect on the time course or magnitude of IBa nor did it reveal any inactivating inward currents. The activation of IBa was modeled with Hodgkin-Huxley m2 kinetics. The time constant of activation, tau m, was 550 microseconds at -30 mV and gradually decreased to 100 microseconds at +50 mV. A Boltzmann fit to the activation curve, m infinity, yielded a half activation voltage of -15 mV and a steepness factor of 7.8 mV. Opening and closing rate constants, alpha m and beta m, were calculated from tau m and m infinity, then fit with modified exponential functions. The H-H model derived by evaluating the exponential functions for alpha m and beta m not only provided an excellent fit to the time course of IBa activation, but was predictive of the time course and magnitude of the IBa tail current. No differences in kinetics or voltage dependence of activation of IBa were found between tall and short hair cells. We conclude that both tall and short hair cells of the chick cochlea predominantly, if not exclusively, express noninactivating L-type calcium channels. These channels are therefore responsible for processes requiring voltage-dependent calcium entry through the basolateral cell membrane, such as transmitter release and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:7787021

  7. TWO BARIUM STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 5822

    SciTech Connect

    Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; De Castro, D. B. E-mail: claudio@on.br

    2013-08-01

    Open clusters are very useful examples to explain the constraint of the nucleosynthesis process with the luminosities of stars because the distances of the clusters are better known than those of field stars. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the chemical composition of two red giants in the young open cluster NGC 5822, NGC 5822-2, and NGC 5822-201. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, a mean overabundance of the elements created by the s-process, ''s'', with the notation [s/Fe] of 0.77 {+-} 0.12 and 0.83 {+-} 0.05. These values are higher than those for field giants of similar metallicity. We also found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, luminosities of 140 L{sub Sun} and 76 L{sub Sun }, which are much lower than the luminosity of an asymptotic giant branch star. We conclude that NGC 5822-2 and NGC 5822-201 are two new barium stars first identified in the open cluster NGC 5822. The mass transfer hypothesis is the best scenario to explain the observed overabundances.

  8. Hydrothermal crystallization of barium titanate: Mechanisms of nucleation and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Chang-Min

    Barium titanate is synthesized under hydrothermal conditions by the reaction of a variety of titania precursors with aqueous solutions of Ba(OH)sb2 at 80sp°C. Particles processed at relatively low concentrations of Ba(OH)sb2 are micro-sized and highly aggregated, but increasing concentrations cause the particle size to decrease, resulting in nanometer-sized and fairly monodispersed particles. The change in particle size and morphology at various Ba(OH)sb2 concentrations is controlled by the dissolution of titania and precipitation of BaTiOsb3. In order to explain the origin of "raspberry-like" BaTiOsb3 particles and the generation of hierarchically ordered BaTiOsb3 aggregate comprised of primary, crystalline particles, which exhibit an unusually high degree of crystallographic alignment, the role of colloidal stability and therefore controlled aggregation of precipitated primary particles is taken into account. Formation of SrTiOsb3 on BaTiOsb3 particles reveal that two different morphologies for the growing SrTiOsb3 exists and that the form taken by SrTiOsb3 depends on the degree of supersaturation. In concentrated solutions, homogeneous nucleation and aggregation growth occur. In dilute solutions, heterogeneous nucleation and continuous growth of SrTiOsb3 promote epitaxial growth. BaTiOsb3 particles prepared by the alkoxide (Ti(OCsb3Hsb7)sb4) -hydroxide (Ba(OH)sb2) route under hydrothermal conditions show that secondary processed such as aggregation and recrystallization are important to control the particle size and morphology. Particle clustering, and rearrangement of nanometer-sized BaTiOsb3 particles, and particulate uniformity can then be explained in terms of solution reactions and colloidal behavior.

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate (BZT) nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Simin; Aghayan, Mahdi; Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Behdani, Mohammad; Asoodeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    So far, the antibacterial activity of some organic and inorganic compounds has been studied. Barium zirconate titanate [Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3] (x = 0.05) nanoparticle is an example of inorganic materials. In vitro studies have provided evidence for the antibacterial activity of this nanoparticle. In the current study, the nano-powder was synthesized by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction showed that the powder was single-phase and had a perovskite structure at the calcination temperature of 1000 °C. Antibacterial activity of the desired nanoparticle was assessed on two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431 and Micrococcus luteus PTCC1625) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c and clinically isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria according to Radial Diffusion Assay (RDA). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of BZT nano-powder on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was acceptable. The minimum inhibitory concentration of this nano-powder was determined. The results showed that MIC values for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus were about 2.3 ?g/mL, 7.3 ?g/mL, 3 ?g/mL and 12 ?g/mL, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was also evaluated and showed that the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and S. aureus could be decreased at 2.3, 14, 3 and 18 ?g/mL of BZT. Average log reduction in viable bacteria count in time-kill assay ranged between 6 Log10 cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation with BZT nanoparticle. PMID:25763046

  10. Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Barium Orthoniobate Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Biswajit; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Das, Piyush R.; Parida, B. N.; Padhee, R.

    2013-06-01

    Barium orthoniobate (Ba3Nb2O8), a derivative of the perovskite family, was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique (calcination temperature = 1425°C and sintering temperature = 1450°C for 4 h). Preliminary x-ray structural analysis with room-temperature x-ray diffraction data confirmed the formation of a single-phase compound with hexagonal crystal structure. Study of the microstructure of a gold-coated pellet by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the sample has well-defined grains that are distributed uniformly throughout the surface of the sample. Detailed studies showed that the dielectric parameters ( ? r and tan ?) of the compound at three different frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, and 1000 kHz) are almost constant in the low-temperature region (from room temperature to about 200°C). An anomaly in the relative permittivity ( ? r) (˜357°C) suggests the possible existence of a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition of diffuse type in the material. Detailed studies of impedance and related parameters show that the electrical properties of the material are strongly dependent on temperature, showing good correlation with its microstructure. The bulk resistance (evaluated from impedance studies) is found to decrease with increasing temperature. This shows that the material has negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR), similar to that of semiconductors. Studies of electric modulus indicate the presence of a hopping conduction mechanism in the system with nonexponential-type conductivity relaxation. The nature of the variation of the direct-current (dc) conductivity with temperature confirms the Arrhenius and NTCR behavior in the material. The alternating-current (ac) conductivity spectra show a typical signature of an ionic conducting system and are found to obey Jonscher's universal power law.

  11. [Economic aspects of outpatient rehabilitation--methods and results of a study about economic efficiency of outpatient rehabilitation in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern].

    PubMed

    Klingelhöfer, H E; Lätzsch, A

    2002-01-01

    Since the recent changes in the German social code the outpatient rehabilitation system gains importance. While more and more studies investigate the medical outcomes of outpatient rehabilitation, the economic effects have hardly been examined so far. This article first presents fundamental methods to use for economic evaluation of outpatient rehabilitation and subsequently outlines the findings of a project comparing the economic effects of outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The study statistically covers the total population of applicants for orthopaedic-traumatologic rehabilitation who are suitable for outpatient rehabilitation. A randomized and controlled study, it investigates outcome parameters of the two variants of rehabilitation compared. If the results are approximately equal, the differences between amounts and periods of payments and costs for the pension insurance agency are analyzed. And in fact, the results obtained so far from the investigation confirm that, in suitable patients, outpatient rehabilitation can achieve approximately the same outcomes as inpatient rehabilitation - but at distinctly lower costs. Although in the short term (i. e., at the end of treatment) outcome levels are somewhat lower, better results found even one year later however indicate a more sustained effect. PMID:12007046

  12. An expanded delivery model for outpatient burn rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wiechman, Shelley A; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Esselman, Peter C; Klein, Matthew B; Martinez, Erin M; Engrav, Loren H; Gibran, Nicole S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous multidisciplinary services burn centers provide, a number of challenges to obtaining optimal outcomes exist. The goal of this study was to overcome the barriers to effective burn rehabilitation by utilizing an expanded care coordinator (ECC) to supplement the existing outpatient services. In this between-group, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial, the control group (n = 41) received standard outpatient care and the experimental group (n = 40) received additional services provided by the ECC, including telephone calls at set intervals (24 hours postdischarge, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks postdischarge and 5, 7, 9 months postdischarge). The ECC was trained in motivational interviewing, crisis intervention, and solution-focused counseling. He assisted patients before and after each clinic visit, coordinated outpatient services in their geographic area (physical and occupational therapy, counseling, primary care provider referrals, etc.), and helped develop problem-solving approaches to accomplish individualized goals. Outcome measures included patient identified goals utilizing the goal attainment scale, the urn-specific health scale-brief, the Short Form 12, a patient satisfaction survey, and a return to work survey. The average subject age was 43 years (SD = 16.9) with a mean TBSA of 19% (SD = 18.8). The average length of hospitalization was 36 days (SD = 42.9). The patient and injury characteristics were similar between the study groups. For the experimental group, 33% completed seven calls, with 23% completing all the eight calls. All were assessed using general linear models and were adjusted for sex, age, length of hospitalization, urban vs rural area of residence, %TBSA burn, and ethnicity. There was no difference between the control and experimental groups for any of the outcome measures at either 6 or 12 months postburn. No differences in outcomes between the groups were found. All participants appreciated the individualized goal setting process that was used as an outcome measure and this may have accounted for the similar outcomes in both the groups. (The measure may have been more of an intervention, thus contributing to the strength of the control group.) Although most patients with burn injuries may not need an intervention that is this intensive, a subset of patients at higher risk or with more severe injuries may benefit from more intensive and personalized services. Future research should examine the benefits of individual goal setting processes for all the patients and also attempt to identify those patients most at risk for poorer outcomes and therefore, likely to benefit of more intensive personalized services. PMID:25198101

  13. 78 FR 31558 - Medicare Program; Second Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...Second Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP Panel) August 26-27, 2013 AGENCY: Centers for...second semi-annual meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP, the...

  14. 77 FR 31366 - Medicare Program; Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...Program; Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP Panel)--August 27, 28, and 29, 2012 AGENCY...second semi-annual meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP, the...

  15. 77 FR 70447 - Medicare Program; Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...Program; Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP Panel)--March 11 and 12, 2013 AGENCY: Centers...the first semi-annual meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP, the...

  16. 78 FR 73547 - Medicare Program; Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...Program; Semi-Annual Meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP Panel) March 10-11, 2014 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...the first semi-annual meeting of the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (the...

  17. 77 FR 69504 - Calendar Year 2012 Cost of Outpatient Medical and Dental Services Furnished by Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ...2012 Cost of Outpatient Medical and Dental Services Furnished by Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities...and delegated to the Director of the Office of Management...the cost of outpatient medical and dental services...

  18. Physical Property of Magnesium Doped Barium Hexaferrite Particles By Citrate Precursor Route In Presence Of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Paladiya, Snehal; Chauhan, C. C.; Jotania, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    M-type Barium Magnesium hexaferrite with the composition BaMg{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} was successfully prepared with and without surfactant by using a citrate precursor route. The obtained precursors were calcined at various temperatures. The crystalline structure, phase analysis and particle size were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. It is observed that the surfactant addition controls the microstructure of the formed Barium Magnesium hexaferrite particles and the type of surfactant plays a crucial role in deciding the morphology of particles.

  19. Precipitation of Barite by Myxococcus xanthus: Possible Implications for the Biogeochemical Cycle of Barium

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Maria Teresa; Fernández-Luque, Belén; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Ben Chekroun, Kaoutar; Arias, José María; Rodríguez-Gallego, Manuel; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; de Linares, Concepción; Paytan, Adina

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial precipitation of barite (BaSO4) under laboratory conditions is reported for the first time. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus was cultivated in a solid medium with a diluted solution of barium chloride. Crystallization occurred as a result of the presence of live bacteria and the bacterial metabolic activity. A phosphorous-rich amorphous phase preceded the more crystalline barite formation. These experiments may indicate the involvement of bacteria in the barium biogeochemical cycle, which is closely related to the carbon cycle. PMID:12957970

  20. Comparative Analysis of Inpatient and Outpatient Interspinous Process Device Placement for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Alicia; Sarmiento, J Manuel; Patil, Chirag; Mukherjee, Debraj; Ugiliweneza, Beatrice; Nuño, Miriam; Lad, Shivanand; Boakye, Maxwell

    2015-11-01

    Purpose?To compare reoperations, health care utilization, and costs in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients undergoing interspinous process (ISP) device placement in an inpatient versus outpatient setting. Methods?The MarketScan database (2007-2009) was queried for adults with LSS undergoing ISP device placement as a primary procedure. Reoperations, health care utilization, and costs in patients with at least 18 months of follow-up were analyzed. Chi-square and Student t tests were used to assess the differences in characteristics and outcomes between patients treated in the inpatient and outpatient setting. Results?A total of 411 patients who underwent ISP device placement were identified; the mean age was 72 years, 51% were female, and most patients were insured by Medicare (73.7%). The average postoperative follow-up was 24.9 months. A subset of 182 patients (44.3%) had inpatient procedures; 229 (55.7%) underwent outpatient ISP device placements. The overall reoperation rate was 20.4%. ISP reoperation rates between inpatient and outpatient cohorts were comparable (23.1% versus 18.3%; p?=?0.24). Inpatients accrued significantly higher index procedural costs compared with outpatients ($17,432 versus $8854; p?=?0.0001), however, the outpatient cohort utilized more postoperative outpatient services (143 versus 112; p?=?0.09) and higher outpatient service costs ($25,376 versus $15,481; p?=?0.01). Consequently, cumulative overall cost was similar among the two cohorts ($51,059 versus $51,778; p?=?0.94). Conclusions?Long-term reoperation rates following ISP device placement are comparable in the inpatient and outpatient setting. Upfront cost savings may be achieved with outpatient ISP device placement, but this benefit is lost by 18 months following initial surgery. PMID:25915499