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1

Functional analysis of the RNAi response in ovary-derived silkmoth Bm5 cells.  

PubMed

Experiments of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing in lepidopteran insects in vivo are characterized by high variability although lepidopteran cell cultures have shown an efficient response to RNAi in transfection experiments. In order to identify the core RNAi factors that regulate the RNAi response of Lepidoptera, we employed the silkmoth ovary-derived Bm5 cells as a test system since this cell line is known to respond potently in silencing after dsRNA transfection. Two parallel approaches were used; involving knock-down of the core RNAi genes or over-expression of the main siRNA pathway factors, in order to study possible inhibition or stimulation of the RNAi silencing response, respectively. Components from all three main small RNA pathways (BmAgo-1 for miRNA, BmAgo-2/BmDcr-2 for siRNA, and BmAgo-3 for piRNA) were found to be involved in the RNAi response that is triggered by dsRNA. Since BmAgo-3, a factor in the piRNA pathway that functions independent of Dicer in Drosophila, was identified as a limiting factor in the RNAi response, sense and antisense ssRNA was also tested to induce gene silencing but proved to be ineffective, suggesting a dsRNA-dependent role for BmAgo-3 in Bombyx mori. After efficient over-expression of the main siRNA factors, immunofluorescence staining revealed a predominant cytoplasmic localization in Bm5 cells. This is the first study in Lepidoptera to provide evidence for possible overlapping of all three known small RNA pathways in the regulation of the dsRNA-mediated silencing response using transfected B. mori-derived Bm5 cells as experimental system. PMID:23669468

Kolliopoulou, Anna; Swevers, Luc

2013-08-01

2

The Bombyx ovary-derived cell line endogenously expresses PIWI/PIWI-interacting RNA complexes  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies and large-scale sequencing experiments have revealed that the PIWI subfamily proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in germ line development and transposon control. Biochemical studies in vitro have greatly contributed to the understanding of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways. However, in vitro analyses of the piRNA pathway have been thus far quite challenging, because their expression is largely restricted to the germ line. Here we report that Bombyx mori ovary-derived cultured cell line, BmN4, endogenously expresses two PIWI subfamily proteins, silkworm Piwi (Siwi) and Ago3 (BmAgo3), and piRNAs associated with them. Siwi-bound piRNAs have a strong bias for uridine at their 5? end and BmAgo3-bound piRNAs are enriched for adenine at position 10. In addition, Siwi preferentially binds antisense piRNAs, whereas BmAgo3 binds sense piRNAs. Moreover, we identified many pairs in which Siwi-bound antisense and BmAgo3-bound sense piRNAs are overlapped by precisely 10 nt at their 5? ends. These signatures are known to be important for secondary piRNA biogenesis in other organisms. Taken together, BmN4 is a unique cell line in which both primary and secondary steps of piRNA biogenesis pathways are active. This cell line would provide useful tools for analysis of piRNA biogenesis and function. PMID:19460866

Kawaoka, Shinpei; Hayashi, Nobumitsu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Abe, Hiroaki; Sugano, Sumio; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

2009-01-01

3

The Bombyx ovary-derived cell line endogenously expresses PIWI/PIWI-interacting RNA complexes.  

PubMed

Genetic studies and large-scale sequencing experiments have revealed that the PIWI subfamily proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in germ line development and transposon control. Biochemical studies in vitro have greatly contributed to the understanding of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways. However, in vitro analyses of the piRNA pathway have been thus far quite challenging, because their expression is largely restricted to the germ line. Here we report that Bombyx mori ovary-derived cultured cell line, BmN4, endogenously expresses two PIWI subfamily proteins, silkworm Piwi (Siwi) and Ago3 (BmAgo3), and piRNAs associated with them. Siwi-bound piRNAs have a strong bias for uridine at their 5' end and BmAgo3-bound piRNAs are enriched for adenine at position 10. In addition, Siwi preferentially binds antisense piRNAs, whereas BmAgo3 binds sense piRNAs. Moreover, we identified many pairs in which Siwi-bound antisense and BmAgo3-bound sense piRNAs are overlapped by precisely 10 nt at their 5' ends. These signatures are known to be important for secondary piRNA biogenesis in other organisms. Taken together, BmN4 is a unique cell line in which both primary and secondary steps of piRNA biogenesis pathways are active. This cell line would provide useful tools for analysis of piRNA biogenesis and function. PMID:19460866

Kawaoka, Shinpei; Hayashi, Nobumitsu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Abe, Hiroaki; Sugano, Sumio; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

2009-07-01

4

Homing and Restorative Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Injured Ovaries in Rats  

PubMed Central

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a long-term adverse effect of chemotherapy treatment. However, current available treatment regimens are not optimal. Emerging evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could restore the structure and function of injured tissues, but the homing and restorative effects of BMSCs on chemotherapy injured ovaries are still not clear. In this study, we found that granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis induced by cisplatin was reduced when BMSCs were migrated to granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Chemotherapy-induced POF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin in rats. BMSCs labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were injected into the rats via the tail vein to investigate the homing and distribution of BMSCs in vivo. The number of BMSCs in the ovarian hilum and medulla was greater than in the cortex, but no BMSCs were found in the follicles and corpus lutea. In addition, the BMSCs treatment group’s antral follicle count and estradiol levels increased after 30 days, compared with the POF group. Hence, our study demonstrates that intravenously delivered BMSCs can home to the ovaries, and restore its structure and function in POF model rats. PMID:25410907

Liu, Jiabin; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Yun; Li, Nan; Wen, Yuku; Cao, Fanglei; Ai, Hao; Xue, Xiaoou

2014-01-01

5

Long-Term Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Pompe Disease With Recombinant Human Alpha-glucosidase Derived From Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive myopathy due to the deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. Clinical phenotypes range from the severe classic infantile form (hypotonia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), to milder late onset forms (skeletal myopathy and absence of significant heart involvement). Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human alpha-glucosidase derived from either rabbit milk or Chinese hamster ovary cells has

Massimiliano Rossi; Giancarlo Parenti; Roberto Della Casa; Alfonso Romano; Giuseppina Mansi; Teresa Agovino; Felice Rosapepe; Carlo Vosa; Ennio Del Giudice; Generoso Andria

2007-01-01

6

Dedifferentiated follicular granulosa cells derived from pig ovary can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

Transdifferentiation is the conversion of cells from one differentiated cell type into another. How functionally differentiated cells already committed to a specific cell lineage can transdifferentiate into other cell types is a key question in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In the present study we show that porcine ovarian follicular GCs (granulosa cells) can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Pure GCs isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 20% FBS (fetal bovine serum) proliferated and dedifferentiated into fibroblast-like cells. We referred to these cells as DFOG (dedifferentiated follicular granulosa) cells. Microarray analysis showed that DFOG cells lost expression of GC-specific marker genes, but gained the expression of osteogenic marker genes during dedifferentiation. After osteogenic induction, DFOG cells underwent terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro. Furthermore, when DFOG cells were transplanted subcutaneously into SCID mice, these cells formed ectopic osteoid tissue. These results indicate that DFOG cells derived from GCs can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that GCs provide a useful model for studying the mechanisms of transdifferentiation into other cell lineages in functionally differentiated cells. PMID:22839299

Oki, Yoshinao; Ono, Hiromasa; Motohashi, Takeharu; Sugiura, Nobuki; Nobusue, Hiroyuki; Kano, Koichiro

2012-01-01

7

Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 and a GATA family cofactor, FOG-2, are expressed in human ovary and sex cord-derived ovarian tumors.  

PubMed

Previous studies have implicated transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 in the regulation of murine ovarian development and function. In rodents, GATA-4 is expressed in granulosa cells of primary and early antral follicles, whereas GATA-6 is expressed in granulosa cells of late antral follicles and luteal glands. Both transcription factors can be detected in lesser amounts in theca cells and interstitial cells. We have now examined the expression of GATA-4 and GATA-6 in human ovaries, human granulosa-luteal (GL) cells and sex cord-derived tumors. We show by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry that GATA-4 and GATA-6 messenger RNA (mRNA) and GATA-4 protein are present in granulosa and theca cells in both preantral and antral follicles. Both human ovarian tissue samples and freshly isolated GL cells derived from preovulatory follicles of gonadotropin-treated women express GATA-4, GATA-6, and FOG-2 transcripts, and GATA-6 mRNA expression in GL cell cultures is stimulated by human CG and 8-bromo-cAMP. The vast majority of granulosa and theca cell tumors examined expressed GATA-4 and GATA-6. We also found that mRNA for FOG-2, a recently discovered regulator of GATA-4, is coexpressed with GATA-4 in human ovary samples, normal granulosa cells, and in sex cord-derived tumors. Our results demonstrate that GATA-4, GATA-6, and FOG-2 are expressed in human ovary and in granulosa and theca cell tumors. Our findings support a role for GATA-binding proteins in human ovarian folliculogenesis. Moreover, these data suggest that GATA factors may contribute to the phenotypes of sex cord-derived ovarian tumors. PMID:10999851

Laitinen, M P; Anttonen, M; Ketola, I; Wilson, D B; Ritvos, O; Butzow, R; Heikinheimo, M

2000-09-01

8

Differential gene expression and immunolocalization of platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors in caprine ovaries.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and immunolocalization of all members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family in caprine ovaries by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Detectable levels of PDGF-A mRNA were not observed in primordial follicles. Higher levels of PDGF-B mRNA were observed in primary follicles than in primordial follicles (P < 0.05). PDGF-D mRNA levels were higher in secondary follicles than in the other preantral follicle categories (P < 0.05). PDGF-B mRNA expression was higher than PDGF-C mRNA expression in primary follicles (P < 0.05). In antral follicles, PDGF-A mRNA expression was higher in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from small antral follicles than in those from large antral follicles and their respective granulosa/theca (GT) cells (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in COCs from small and large antral follicles, PDGF-A mRNA expression was higher than that of the other PDGF isoforms (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PDGF-B and PDGF-D and PDGFR-? and PDGFR-? were higher in GT cells from large antral follicles than in GT cells from small antral follicles and in their respective COCs (P < 0.05). In COCs and GT cells from small antral follicles, the mRNA levels of PDGFR-? were higher than those of PDGFR-? (P < 0.05). All proteins were observed in the cytoplasm of oocytes from all follicular categories. In granulosa cells, all PDGFs and PDGFR-? were detected from starting at the secondary stage, and in theca cells, all proteins, except PDGF-C, were detected starting at the antral stage. In conclusion, PDGF and its receptors are differentially expressed in the oocytes and ovarian cells according to the stage of follicular development, suggesting their role in the regulation of folliculogenesis in goats. PMID:25498237

Brito, I R; Sales, A D; Rodrigues, G Q; Lobo, C H; Castro, S V; Silva, A W B; Moura, A A A; Silva, J R V; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R

2015-04-01

9

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... condition called polycystic ovary sydrome (PCOS) . What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome? Polycystic (pronounced: pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovary syndrome ... having PCOS later on. Back Continue How Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Diagnosed? If you've taken your concerns about ...

10

The ovary.  

PubMed

The functions of the ovary can be described as a storehouse for oocytes as well as a factory to produce mature oocytes at the appropriate time for fertilization and hormones at the appropriate time and in the appropriate quantities to assure fertility. A complex multiple-job specification such as this requires control processes which allow all facets to operate successfully at the same time, and in a co-ordinated manner. This can only be achieved by hypothesizing control at several levels, namely, externally via gonadotrophins (and perhaps GH and prolactin), and internally via local regulators, where the local regulators control the gonadotrophin-independent processes and fine tune the gonadotrophin-dependent processes. The available evidence is consistent with a role for local regulators in the control of follicular and luteal function in the ovary. In most cases, however, the nature of the local regulator involved in a particular process is not known. On the other hand, the list of candidates continues to increase (see Table 1). A priority for future research will be to firmly establish many of these substances as local regulators and to understand how and when they exert their actions, particularly in vivo. A particularly complex question concerns the potential interaction between the local regulators which have either similar or opposing actions. The clinical significance of local regulation in the ovary is yet to be fully appreciated. The addition of GH to gonadotrophin therapy for ovulation induction (Homburg et al, 1988) is the first example of the application of findings from basic research on local regulators in the ovary. It may be that clinical syndromes such as resistant ovary syndrome, polycystic ovarian disease and luteinized unruptured follicle have some perturbation of local regulator production or action, which, if defined, would underline the importance of local regulation and could offer a means of treatment. PMID:1755814

Findlay, J K

1991-12-01

11

Platelet-derived growth factor BB and DD and angiopoietin1 are altered in follicular fluid from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological pathology among women of reproductive age, and is characterized by abnormalities in ovarian angiogenesis, among other features. Consistent with this association, follicular fluid (FF) concentration and ovarian expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are increased in PCOS patients. In this study, we examined the protein levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB and DD (PDGFBB and PDGFDD), angiopoietin 1 and 2 (ANGPT1 and ANGPT2), and their soluble receptor sTIE2 in FF from PCOS and control patients undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. We also analyzed the effect of FF from PCOS and control patients on tight and adherens junction protein expression in an endothelial cell line. PDGFBB and PDGFDD were significantly lower whereas ANGPT1 concentration was significantly higher in FF from PCOS patients than from control patients. No changes were found in the concentration of ANGPT2 or sTIE2. Expression of claudin-5 was significantly increased in endothelial cells incubated for 24?hr in the presence of FF from PCOS versus from control patients, while vascular-endothelial cadherin, ?-catenin, and zonula occludens 1 expression were unchanged. The changes observed in the levels of PDGF isoforms and ANGPT1 may prevent VEGF-induced vascular permeability in the PCOS ovary by regulating endothelial-cell-junction protein levels. Restoring the levels of angiogenic factors may provide new insights into PCOS treatment and the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in affected women. PMID:24889290

Scotti, Leopoldina; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; De Zuñiga, Ignacio; Bisioli, Claudio; Pettorossi, Hernan; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

2014-08-01

12

Polycystic ovary syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of female sex hormones. This may ... PCOS is linked to changes in hormone levels that make it harder for the ovaries to release ...

13

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts ( ... who are obese are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome. Symptoms of PCOS include: Infertility Pelvic pain Excess ...

14

Circulating levels and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor in polycystic ovary syndrome and normal women: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been recognized as a metabolic disorder, manifested by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is a pleiotropic protein known for its antiangiogenic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties and has been shown to induce insulin resistance and play a role in glucose metabolism. Recent studies investigating circulating PEDF levels show elevated serum PEDF in association with insulin resistance in normal-weight women with PCOS, but not in obese PCOS patients. The aims of this study were 1) to assess PEDF gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) from women with PCOS and nonhirsute, ovulatory controls, and 2) to determine the circulating levels of PEDF in these groups. Methods Total RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsy samples and reverse-transcribed to cDNA. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine relative gene expression levels. Results The 22 women with PCOS and 14 non-PCOS controls included in the study had similar age, BMI, and fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Participants with PCOS exhibited higher 2 h oral glucose tolerance test levels (p?=?0.006), total (p?=?0.026) and LDL-cholesterol (p?=?0.036), Ferriman-Gallwey score (p?=?0.003) and total testosterone (p?=?0.001) as compared to controls. BMI-adjusted PEDF serum levels and scAT gene expression were similar in the PCOS and control groups (p?=?0.622 and p?=?0.509, respectively). Circulating PEDF levels were not associated with scAT PEDF gene expression. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, in women with PCOS, insulin contributed positively and significantly to serum PEDF (p = 0.027), independently of testosterone. Conclusion Serum PEDF levels and scAT gene expression were associated with metabolic risk factors, but did not differ between women with PCOS and age- and BMI-matched controls. Circulating levels and scAT gene expression of PEDF were not associated in the study subjects, suggesting additional sources for PEDF in addition to or instead of fat tissue. PMID:23941060

2013-01-01

15

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

What are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Common PCOS signs and symptoms include the following: • Irregular menstrual periods—Menstrual bleeding may be absent, heavy, or unpredictable. • Infertility —PCOS is ...

16

Analysis of Individual and Combined Effects of Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 Cells with Mathematical Models  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are widespread mycotoxins that contaminate foodstuffs simultaneously, but sufficient data regarding their mixed toxicities are lacking. This study aims to analyze the style of combined effects of OTA and ZEA on cells of their target organs. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 and KK-1 cells treated with single and combined forms of OTA and ZEA. Furthermore, we have analyzed the data using two mathematical models based on the concepts of concentration addition (CA) and independent addition (IA). By analyzing data with nonlinear regression, toxins applied singly showed classic sigmoid dose-response curves in HepG2 cells whereas in KK-1 cells hormetic responses were observed. Exposure to equieffective mixtures of OTA and ZEA showed additive effects, irrespective of different nonlinear regression models used. Our results demonstrate that IA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of OTA and ZEA. The results in ROS generation indicate a departure from additivity to antagonism or synergism at different concentrations, probably due to potential interaction during ROS production. This study shows that a risk assessment of mycotoxins should account for mixture effects, and prediction models are valuable tools for mixture assessment. PMID:24674935

Li, Yuzhe; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Liang, Rui; Luo, Haoshu; Huang, Kunlun

2014-01-01

17

Mucinous Cancers: Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mucinous ovarian tumours are uncommon. Most are either benign or borderline malignant tumours. Invasive cancers represent\\u000a a small component of these tumours, and are mostly localised to the ovary and have an excellent prognosis when treated with\\u000a surgery. However, some of these tumours and the even rarer advanced mucinous tumours are metastatic cancers, often arising\\u000a from the gastrointestinal tract. Distinguishing

Jonathan A. Ledermann; Fharat A. Raja

18

Uptake of inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic associated with induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are exposed to arsenic and their organic derivatives, which are widely distributed in the environment, via food, water, and to a lesser extent, via air. Following uptake, inorganic arsenic undergoes biotransformation to mono- and dimethylated metabolites. Recent findings suggest that the methylation reactions represent a toxification rather than a detoxification pathway.In the present study, the genotoxic effects and the

E. Dopp; L. M. Hartmann; A.-M. Florea; U. von Recklinghausen; R. Pieper; B. Shokouhi; A. W. Rettenmeier; A. V. Hirner; G. Obe

2004-01-01

19

Computer-Generated Ovaries to Assist Follicle Counting Experiments  

PubMed Central

Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries), with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units. PMID:25812007

Skodras, Angelos; Marcelli, Gianluca

2015-01-01

20

APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711....

21

Seminiferous Tubules (human) Ovary (cat)  

E-print Network

#12;Seminiferous Tubules (human) #12;#12;Ovary (cat) #12;Ovum (squirrel) #12;Primordial Follicle the ovum. Calcium ion stimlates the release of cortical granules to the perivitelline space, which widens

Houde, Peter

22

Tumours of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Ovarian tumours are common in animals, the majority occurring in bitches and cows. The two most important germ cell tumours were dysgerminoma and teratoma; these morphologically resemble their counterparts in women, with the exception that teratomas in animals tend less to malignancy. The granulosa cell tumour is the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumour in all six species and it may contain luteinized areas or show differentiation towards a Sertoli cell pattern. The canine papillary adenoma and papillary adenocarcinoma, which are as common as granulosa tumours, have several features in common with their counterparts in women: they are of similar histological appearance, are frequently bilateral, and the adenocarcinomas have a great propensity for peritoneal implantation metastasis. Ovarian cysts are frequent in the bitch, sow, and cow and may originate from five different anatomical structures in the ovary. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 and 3Fig. 20-22Fig. 8-10Fig. 15 and 16Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 17-19Fig. 4 and 5Fig. 6 and 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 and 14 PMID:1086151

Nielsen, Svend W.; Misdorp, W.; McEntee, Kenneth

1976-01-01

23

Circadian Clocks in the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Clock gene expression has been observed in tissues of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. While the contribution of hypothalamic oscillators to the timing of reproductive biology is well known, the role of peripheral oscillators like those in the ovary is less clear. Circadian clocks in the ovary may play a role in the timing of ovulation. Disruption of the clock in ovarian cells or desynchrony between ovarian clocks and circadian oscillators elsewhere in the body may contribute to the onset and progression of various reproductive pathologies. Here we review evidence for clock function in the ovary across multiple species and offer a novel perspective on the role of this clock in normal ovarian physiology and in diseases that negatively impact fertility. PMID:20599392

Sellix, Michael T.; Menaker, Michael

2010-01-01

24

Treatment for Stromal Tumors of the Ovary  

MedlinePLUS

... tumors are treated with surgery to remove the ovary with the tumor. Most patients with stage I tumors are watched ... cancers are treated with surgery to remove the ovary with the tumor. Surgery is also used to stage and debulk ...

25

Polycystic ovary syndrome: Syndrome XX?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is now recognized as an important metabolic and reproductive disorder. It is associated with substantial defects in insulin action and secretion that confer a markedly increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance modifies reproductive function both by the direct actions of insulin on steroidogenesis and by disruption of insulin signaling pathways in the central

Susan Sam; Andrea Dunaif

2003-01-01

26

Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder in women and typically presents during adolescence. The clinical and biochemical presentation is heterogeneous, but elevated serum concentrations of androgens are the most consistent biochemical abnormality and may be considered to be the hallmark of the syndrome. Many women with PCOS also have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia, which may contribute to

S Franks

2008-01-01

27

Pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6 to 15% of reproductive age women worldwide. It is associated with increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, and birth of small for gestational age infant. Many studies on issues relating to pathophysiology and management of these complications have been published recently. These issues are being reviewed here using relevant articles retrieved from Pubmed database, especially from those published in recent past. PMID:23776851

Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

2013-01-01

28

IVF in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome is recognised as the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility in women and may affect up to 80%\\u000a of women with anovulatory infertility [1]. Although menstrual disturbance secondary to anovulation is the commonest presentation\\u000a of PCOS, other factors including abnormal steroidogenesis, hyperinsulinaemia and abnormal gonadotrophin secretion, specifically\\u000a hypersecretion of LH, will also contribute to the reduction of reproductive

Rehan Salim; Paul Serhal

29

Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many of the pregnancies in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be uneventful, there are several complications\\u000a of pregnancy associated with maternal PCOS. These include an increased prevalence of early pregnancy loss (EPL), gestational\\u000a diabetes (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (PET\\/PIH) and the birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) babies.\\u000a Increased risk of EPL has been attributed to obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, elevated

Roy Homburg

30

[Natural history of ovary cancer].  

PubMed

Ovary cancer is a disease charged of paradigms and a serious health problem. It's important to know its natural history, because has a multifactor origins, and understanding its behavior since risk factors until patient's death because metastatic disease is a challenger for oncology group. In this work we made a bibliographic, analytic review that brings up concepts related to its origin, evolution, risk factors, preclinical horizon, and clinical symptoms until the death of patient. PMID:25412555

Novoa-Vargas, Arturo

2014-09-01

31

OVARY  

Cancer.gov

The Est. Annual PC is the Estimated Annual Percent Change (EAPC) over the time interval. SEER Program. NCHS public use tape. The EAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). The EAPC for 1991-95 is significantly different from the EAPC for

32

Surgical transposition of the ovary: Radiologic appearance  

SciTech Connect

Therapeutic irradiation of the pelvis of a young female patient will result in loss of ovarian function. In a surgical technique termed ovarian transposition, the ovary is repositioned to the iliac fossa or paracolic gutter outside the radiation field. The computed tomographic (CT) scans and sonograms of five patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent this procedure were reviewed. The normal transposed ovary was of soft-tissue attenuation, often with one or more small cysts. Large cysts developed in the ovaries of three patients. One cyst was functional, another was due to a mesothelial inclusion cyst, and the third was most probably related to the transposition itself. Since the transposed ovary is difficult to palpate, CT or sonography can be used to demonstrate and follow up a cystic mass. Recognition of the appearance and location of the transposed ovary is important to avoid misinterpretation of a solid or cystic mass in patients who are at risk for tumor recurrence.

Bashist, B.; Friedman, W.N.; Killackey, M.A. (St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA))

1989-12-01

33

Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Obesity is now a major international health concern. It is increasingly common in young women with reproductive, metabolic and psychological health impacts. Reproductive health impacts are often poorly appreciated and include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy complications. PCOS is the most common endocrine condition in women and is underpinned by hormonal disturbances including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity exacerbates hormonal and clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS appear at higher risk of obesity, with multiple underlying mechanisms linking the conditions. Lifestyle intervention is first line in management of PCOS to both prevent weight gain and induce weight loss; however improved engagement and sustainability remain challenges with the need for more research. Medications like metformin, orlistat, GLP1 agonists and bariatric surgery have been used with the need for large scale randomised clinical trials to define their roles. PMID:25411807

Naderpoor, N; Shorakae, S; Joham, A; Boyle, J; De Courten, B; Teede, H J

2015-03-01

34

Derivatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Murray Bourne developed the Interactive Mathematics site while working as a mathematics lecturer at Ngee Ann Polytechnic in Singapore. The site contains numerous mathematics tutorials and resources for students and teachers alike. This specific page is focused on differentiation, or finding derivatives. Bourne walks users through an introduction to differentiation and limits, and then moves on to more specific applications like rate of change, derivatives of polynomials, and differentiating powers of a function. Each topic includes graphs and interactive materials designed to aid users in understanding the presented concepts. The information here is presented in a clear, straightforward manner that is appropriate for introductory and advanced calculus students alike.

Bourne, Murray

35

Derivate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

36

[Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance].  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Insulin resistance is frequently found in affected patients, and probably plays an important physiopathological role. In this paper, we will review the well recognized association between polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance, and discuss the increased risk of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome carried by patients diagnosed with this syndrome. We will also suggest a practical strategy for the screening and follow up of the various metabolic complications associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, in light of the rare existing recommendations of the current literature. PMID:19418980

Puder, Jardena; Pralong, François

2009-04-01

37

Linkage of regulators of TGF-? activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Although not often discussed, the ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) show all the hallmarks of increased TGF-? activity, with increased amounts of fibrous tissue and collagen in the ovarian capsule or tunica albuginea and ovarian stroma. Recent studies suggest that PCOS could have fetal origins. Genetic studies of PCOS have also found linkage with a microsatellite located in intron 55 of the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 3. Fibrillins regulate TGF-? bioactivity in tissues by binding latent TGF-? binding proteins. We therefore examined expression of fibrillins 1–3, latent TGF-? binding proteins 1–4, and TGF-? 1–3 in bovine and human fetal ovaries at different stages of gestation and in adult ovaries. We also immunolocalized fibrillins 1 and 3. The results indicate that TGF-? pathways operate during ovarian fetal development, but most important, we show fibrillin 3 is present in the stromal compartments of fetal ovaries and is highly expressed at a critical stage early in developing human and bovine fetal ovaries when stroma is expanding and follicles are forming. These changes in expression of fibrillin 3 in the fetal ovary could lead to a predisposition to develop PCOS in later life.—Hatzirodos, N., Bayne, R. A., Irving-Rodgers, H. F., Hummitzsch, K., Sabatier, L., Lee, S., Bonner, W., Gibson, M. A., Rainey, W. E., Carr, B. R., Mason, H. D., Reinhardt, D. P., Anderson, R. A., Rodgers, R. J. Linkage of regulators of TGF-? activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:21411746

Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bayne, Rosemary A.; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Sabatier, Laetitia; Lee, Sam; Bonner, Wendy; Gibson, Mark A.; Rainey, William E.; Carr, Bruce R.; Mason, Helen D.; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Anderson, Richard A.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

2011-01-01

38

Expression of SET Protein in the Ovaries of Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background. We previously found that expression of SET gene was up-regulated in polycystic ovaries by using microarray. It suggested that SET may be an attractive candidate regulator involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, expression and cellular localization of SET protein were investigated in human polycystic and normal ovaries. Method. Ovarian tissues, six normal ovaries and six polycystic ovaries, were collected during transsexual operation and surgical treatment with the signed consent form. The cellular localization of SET protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of SET protein were analyzed by Western Blot. Result. SET protein was expressed predominantly in the theca cells and oocytes of human ovarian follicles in both PCOS ovarian tissues and normal ovarian tissues. The level of SET protein expression in polycystic ovaries was triple higher than that in normal ovaries (P < 0.05). Conclusion. SET was overexpressed in polycystic ovaries more than that in normal ovaries. Combined with its localization in theca cells, SET may participate in regulating ovarian androgen biosynthesis and the pathophysiology of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:23861679

Boqun, Xu; Xiaonan, Dai; YuGui, Cui; Lingling, Gao; Xue, Dai; Gao, Chao; Feiyang, Diao; Jiayin, Liu; Gao, Li; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Xiang

2013-01-01

39

THE DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE OVARY  

E-print Network

into adult nude mice. 14 days later the tissue was removed for examination. In the part of the ovary is removed before the embryonal gonad is cultured under the skin of the nude mouse, follicles do not form

Boyer, Edmond

40

Periovulatory Leukocyte Infiltration in the Rat Ovary  

PubMed Central

Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (?500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (?1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a strong inverse relationship between leukocyte numbers in the ovary and spleen, as well as significant reduction of leukocyte infiltration in the splenectomized rats, were seen, indicating that the spleen may serve as an immediate supplier of leukocytes to the periovulatory ovary. PMID:20591976

Oakley, Oliver R.; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Patrick Lin, Po-Ching; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, CheMyong

2010-01-01

41

Ovarian localization by embryonal teratocarcinoma cells derived from female germ gells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonal carcinoma cells derived from several different spontaneous ovarian teratocarcinomas of strain LT mice form tumors that are located exclusively, in many cases, in the ovaries of female mice. Embryonal cells previously unselected for site specificity localize in the ovaries regardless of route of entry of the cells, and produce very few tumors in males following intraperitoneal injections. The ovary

Brenda Kahan

1979-01-01

42

[Psychosocial approach in polycystic ovary syndrome].  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most frequent endocrine disease among women of reproductive age. It is associated with increased risks of various metabolic disorders and complications. most recent data suggest that women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome are most exposed to several psychological problems. It has been shown that polycystic ovary syndrome exerts a negative impact on female identity and it contributes to the deterioration of quality of life and, eventually, to development of psychiatric problems. The mental consequences of the disease can be as depressing as physiological symptoms. This draws attention on the importance of the disease from the aspect of therapy as well and, therefore, it may be justified to involve a psychologist or psychiatrist in the process for a more effective treatment. The aim of the paper is to summarize the most frequent psychological symptoms associated with the disease. PMID:25403280

Kohlné Papp, Ildikó

2014-11-23

43

Synthetic shibkovite K(K1.67H2O0.33)(Ca1.3Na0.7)[Zn3Si12O30]: the crystal structure and comparative crystal chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of a single crystal of a synthetic analog of mineral shibkovite K(K1.67H2O0.33)(Ca1.3Na0.7)[Zn3Si12O30] (milarite structure type) obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in the AlPO4-K3PO4-CaCO3-Na2CO3-ZnCO3-SiO2-H2O system has been solved ( R = 0.0406) by X-ray diffraction analysis: a = 10.5327(2) Å, c = 14.2019(3) Å, sp. gr. P6/ mcc, Z = 2, and ?calcd = 2.90 g/cm3. The crystal-chemical features of the new phase are studied in comparison with the other terms of the milarite group. It is shown that the crystallization conditions for minerals and synthetic analogs of this group determine the presence or absence of crystallization water in the structures of compounds.

Kiriukhina, G. V.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Dimitrova, O. V.

2015-01-01

44

Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... therapy in increasing live births for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Letrozole could provide a less expensive, more effective treatment for women with this syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of female infertility. ...

45

Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus  

E-print Network

Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus inanitus. I. Ovary morphogenesis, amplification of viral DNA and ecdysteroid titres Dorothee Marti, Christa Grossniklaus, flanking DNA is rejoined. Little is known about ovarian morphogenesis, the mode of amplification

Lanzrein, Beatrice

46

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome): General Information Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts PCOS is a ... out of 10 women has PCOS. What is PCOS? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormone imbalance ...

47

Weight Loss and Medication in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Therapy.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome, which is a complex syndrome, affects approximately 6% of reproductive-age women. Many abnormalities are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, but confusion still exists about their causation. Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome is by exclusion. Management of the metabolic aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome focuses on minimizing insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia with diet therapy or insulin-lowering drugs. PMID:11984434

Tolstoi, Linda G.; Josimovich, John B.

2002-01-01

48

The human ovary during puberty J. GRINSTED, Hannah PETERS  

E-print Network

noted in a survey of the ovaries of 10 young girls who were killed in accidents. For example, we recently been reported that the two ovaries of a girl during childhood look remarkably similar, while ovaries of a girl are characterized by a remarkable morphological similarity. Both are populated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

E-print Network

Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells J. Goswami,1 A. J. Sinskey,2 H. Steller of the main problems in the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells continues to be the inability. Keywords: cell culture; Chinese Hamster Ovary; apopto- sis; caspase; bcl-2 INTRODUCTION Chinese Hamster

Sinskey, Anthony J.

50

Polycystic ovary syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of up to 10%. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed, generally centered around the features of hyperandrogenism and\\/or hyperandrogenemia, oligo-ovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology. Insulin resistance is present in a majority of cases, with compensatory hyperinsulinemia contributing to hyperandrogenism via stimulation of ovarian

Mark O. Goodarzi; Daniel A. Dumesic; Gregorio Chazenbalk; Ricardo Azziz

2011-01-01

51

The Mammalian Ovary from Genesis to Revelation  

PubMed Central

Two major functions of the mammalian ovary are the production of germ cells (oocytes), which allow continuation of the species, and the generation of bioactive molecules, primarily steroids (mainly estrogens and progestins) and peptide growth factors, which are critical for ovarian function, regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and development of secondary sex characteristics. The female germline is created during embryogenesis when the precursors of primordial germ cells differentiate from somatic lineages of the embryo and take a unique route to reach the urogenital ridge. This undifferentiated gonad will differentiate along a female pathway, and the newly formed oocytes will proliferate and subsequently enter meiosis. At this point, the oocyte has two alternative fates: die, a common destiny of millions of oocytes, or be fertilized, a fate of at most approximately 100 oocytes, depending on the species. At every step from germline development and ovary formation to oogenesis and ovarian development and differentiation, there are coordinated interactions of hundreds of proteins and small RNAs. These studies have helped reproductive biologists to understand not only the normal functioning of the ovary but also the pathophysiology and genetics of diseases such as infertility and ovarian cancer. Over the last two decades, parallel progress has been made in the assisted reproductive technology clinic including better hormonal preparations, prenatal genetic testing, and optimal oocyte and embryo analysis and cryopreservation. Clearly, we have learned much about the mammalian ovary and manipulating its most important cargo, the oocyte, since the birth of Louise Brown over 30 yr ago. PMID:19776209

Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Matzuk, Martin M.

2009-01-01

52

Re-torsion of the ovaries.  

PubMed

The increasing use of de-torsion of the ovaries may result in re-torsion. This review addresses risk of re-torsion and describes preventive strategies to avoid re-torsion in pre-menarcheal girls, and fertile and pregnant women. We clinically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Trip and Cochrane databases. The main outcome measures were re-torsion and viability of ovary with fixation measures. A total of 38 publications including 71 girls, 363 fertile women, and 69 pregnant women were found to be relevant. All studies were case reports or case series, sometimes with non-randomized controls. The studies show considerable heterogeneity in design, population, management and outcome. Only four studies included more than 50 cases. In pregnancy the risk of re-torsion was as high as 19.5-37.5%; among fertile women it was 28.6%. Most articles concluded that fixation of the ovaries to the pelvic sidewall or plication of the ovarian ligament after torsion may prevent re-torsion. In one case a girl experienced re-torsion after ovariopexy. Based on observational studies it seems that de-torsion and fixation of the ovary is a safe procedure that usually ensures maintenance of ovarian function and reduces the risk of recurrence, especially when there are no ovarian cysts or adnexal masses. PMID:25412114

Hyttel, Trine E W; Bak, Geske S; Larsen, Solveig B; Løkkegaard, Ellen C L

2015-03-01

53

Circadian clock function in the mammalian ovary.  

PubMed

Rhythmic events in the female reproductive system depend on the coordinated and synchronized activity of multiple neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues. This coordination is facilitated by the timing of gene expression and cellular physiology at each level of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, including the basal hypothalamus and forebrain, the pituitary gland, and the ovary. Central to this pathway is the primary circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that, through its myriad outputs, provides a temporal framework for gonadotropin release and ovulation. The heart of the timing system, a transcription-based oscillator, imparts SCN pacemaker cells and a company of peripheral tissues with the capacity for daily oscillations of gene expression and cellular physiology. Although the SCN sits comfortably at the helm, peripheral oscillators (such as the ovary) have undefined but potentially critical roles. Each cell type of the ovary, including theca cells, granulosa cells, and oocytes, harbor a molecular clock implicated in the processes of follicular growth, steroid hormone synthesis, and ovulation. The ovarian clock is influenced by the reproductive cycle and diseases that perturb the cycle and/or follicular growth can disrupt the timing of clock gene expression in the ovary. Chronodisruption is known to negatively affect reproductive function and fertility in both rodent models and women exposed to shiftwork schedules. Thus, influencing clock function in the HPO axis with chronobiotics may represent a novel avenue for the treatment of common fertility disorders, particularly those resulting from chronic circadian disruption. PMID:25367899

Sellix, Michael T

2015-02-01

54

A bovine model for polycystic ovary syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in the greatest single cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women (affecting 5-10%). Previously, research groups have created animal models utilizing non-human primates and sheep to better understand the mechanisms involved in PCOS. However, c...

55

Polycystic ovary syndrome: Challenges in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases in women of reproductive age. PCOS typically develops during adolescence and is a heterogeneous syndrome classically characterized by features of anovulation combined with signs of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne). Increasing obesity in adolescents probably exacerbates signs of PCOS, contributing to its earlier recognition. Recognizing the features of this

Ana Oliveira; Bernarda Sampaio; Ana Teixeira; Cíntia Castro-Correia; Manuel Fontoura; José Luís Medina

2010-01-01

56

Supernumerary ovary associated with Wilms' tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supernumerary ovaries are gynecological rarities. To the best of our knowledge, only 18 histologically confirmed cases have\\u000a been documented so far, all reported in adult women. We present the first such case in a 5-year-old child, who also had a\\u000a Wilms' tumor of the left kidney.

H. Kini; P. B. Baliga; K. G. Pai

1997-01-01

57

Ovaries of Tubificinae (Clitellata, Naididae) resemble ovary cords found in Hirudinea (Clitellata)  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructure of the ovaries and oogenesis was studied in three species of three genera of Tubificinae. The paired ovaries are small, conically shaped structures, connected to the intersegmental septum between segments X and XI by their narrow end. The ovaries are composed of syncytial cysts of germ cells interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges (ring canals) and surrounded by follicular cells. The architecture of the germ-line cysts is exactly the same as in all clitellate annelids studied to date, i.e. each cell in a cyst has only one ring canal connecting it to the central, anuclear cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. The ovaries found in all of the species studied seem to be meroistic, i.e. the ultimate fate of germ cells within a cyst is different, and the majority of cells withdraw from meiosis and become nurse cells; the rest continue meiosis, gather macromolecules, cell organelles and storage material, and become oocytes. The ovaries are polarized; their narrow end contains mitotically dividing oogonia and germ cells entering the meiosis prophase; whereas within the middle and basal parts, nurse cells, a prominent cytophore and growing oocytes occur. During late previtellogenesis/early vitellogenesis, the oocytes detach from the cytophore and float in the coelom; they are usually enveloped by the peritoneal epithelium and associated with blood vessels. Generally, the organization of ovaries in all of the Tubificinae species studied resembles the polarized ovary cords found within the ovisacs of some Euhirudinea. The organization of ovaries and the course of oogenesis between the genera studied and other clitellate annelids are compared. Finally, it is suggested that germ-line cysts formation and the meroistic mode of oogenesis may be a primary character for all Clitellata. PMID:21170399

Urbisz, Anna Z.; Krodkiewska, Mariola

2010-01-01

58

Fibrillins in Adult Human Ovary and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Is Fibrillin-3 Affected in PCOS?  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Although genetic linkage analyses have demonstrated a susceptibility locus for PCOS mapping to the fibrillin-3 gene, the presence of fibrillin proteins in normal and polycystic ovaries has not been characterized. This study compared and contrasted fibrillin-1, -2, and -3 localization in normal and polycystic ovaries. Immunohistochemical stainings of ovaries from 21 controls and 9 patients with PCOS were performed. Fibrillin-1 was ubiquitous in ovarian connective tissue. Fibrillin-2 localized around antral follicles and in areas of folliculolysis. Fibrillin-3 was present in a restricted distribution within the specialized perifollicular stroma of follicles in morphological transition from primordial to primary type [transitional follicles (TFs)]. Fibrillin-1 and -2 stainings of PCOS ovaries were similar to those of the controls. However, in eight of the nine PCOS ovaries, there was a decrease in the number of TFs associated with fibrillin-3, including no staining in five PCOS samples; decreased number of fibrillin-3-associated TFs/mm2 was confirmed by quantitative analysis. Our findings support a role for fibrillin-3 in the pathogenesis of PCOS and suggest fibrillin-3 may function in primordial to primary follicle transition. We propose that loss of fibrillin-3 during folliculogenesis may be an important factor in PCOS pathogenesis. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:903–915, 2010) PMID:20855553

Jordan, C. Diana; Bohling, Sandra D.; Charbonneau, Noe L.; Sakai, Lynn Y.

2010-01-01

59

Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23370180

Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

2013-01-01

60

GENETICS OF THE POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly complex endocrine disorder, characterized by hyperandrogenemia, menstrual irregularities and polycystic ovaries. A strong genetic component to the etiology of PCOS is evident. However, due to the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of PCOS and the lack of insufficiently large cohorts, studies to identify specific contributing genes to date have yielded only few conclusive results. In this review we discuss the currnt status of the genetic analysis of PCOS including the results of numerous association studies with candidate genes involved in TGF-? and insulin signaling, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity susceptibility. Furthermore, we address current challenges in genetic studies of PCOS, and the promise of new approaches, including genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing. PMID:23079471

KOSOVA, Gülüm; URBANEK, Margrit

2012-01-01

61

The distribution of actin in sheep ovaries.  

PubMed

The distribution of actin in sheep ovaries has been examined using immunofluorescent techniques. The germinal epithelium, which contained abundant microfibrils, fluoresced strongly while the underlying stroma was only weakly positive. During early follicular growth a band of fluorescence was associated with the base of those granulosa cells abutting onto the basal lamina. This transitional polarity of actin distribution was correlated with cell shape changes in the basal granulosa. PMID:4056698

Cran, D G; Musk, L

1985-09-01

62

Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms and the beneficial effects of acupuncture, exercise and resveratrol on animal models and on humans affected by PCOS. PMID:24809037

Aquino, C. I.; Nori, S. L.

2014-01-01

63

Polycystic ovary syndrome and its developmental origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in\\u000a women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS-like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH)\\u000a hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased\\u000a abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with

Daniel A. Dumesic; David H. Abbott; Vasantha Padmanabhan

2007-01-01

64

The Effects of Phthalates on the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure. PMID:25699018

Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

2015-01-01

65

The effects of phthalates on the ovary.  

PubMed

Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure. PMID:25699018

Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

2015-01-01

66

Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing stromal tumor is a rare ovarian tumor, occurring in young adults in the second and third decade of life. We report clinical and histopathological features of three cases of sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary with a review of literature. The tumor has distinct histological features and is easily recognizable when a high index of suspicion is maintained in young patients presenting with an ovarian mass. These tumors are benign and can be treated successfully by enucleation or unilateral ovariotomy. PMID:25264533

Atram, Manisha; Sharma, Satish; Gangane, Nitin

2014-01-01

67

The adrenal and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by androgen excess, oligo-ovulation and polycystic ovaries. Although ovaries are the main source of increased androgens in the syndrome, between 20 and 30% of patients with PCOS have adrenal androgen (AA) excess, detectable primarily by elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels. Patients with PCOS demonstrate a generalized hypersecretion of adrenocortical products, basally and in response to ACTH stimulation. The mechanisms of these abnormalities are unclear although AA excess in PCOS is likely a complex trait, modulated by both intrinsic and acquired factors. To date, no specific genetic defects have been identified. The production of AAs in response to ACTH appears to be closely related to altered factors regulating glucose-mediated glucose disposal, increased peripheral metabolism of cortisol, and to a less extent to the effects of extra-adrenal androgens, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia or obesity. Finally, DHEAS levels and the response of AAs to ACTH are relatively constant over time and are closely correlated between PCOS patients and their siblings suggesting that this abnormality is an inherited trait in PCOS. PMID:17932770

Yildiz, Bulent O; Azziz, Ricardo

2007-12-01

68

Cracking open cell death in the Drosophila ovary  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful yet simple system with only a few cell types. Cell death in the ovary can be induced in response to multiple developmental and environmental signals. These cell deaths occur at distinct stages of oogenesis and involve unique mechanisms utilizing apoptotic, autophagic and perhaps necrotic processes. In this review, we summarize recent progress characterizing cell death mechanisms in the fly ovary. PMID:19533361

Pritchett, Tracy L.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; McCall, Kimberly

2010-01-01

69

Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed

Francesco Giallauria; Francesco Orio; Gaetano Lombardi; Annamaria Colao; Carlo Vigorito; Maria Tafuri; Stefano Palomba

2009-01-01

70

Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients  

SciTech Connect

Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1989-11-01

71

Myxoid Leiomyosarcoma of Ovary-A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary is extremely rare, comprising of only 1% of the ovarian tumours. Patient presented with a mass in the right iliac fossa since three months. Radiological diagnosis of broad ligament fibroid was given. Right salphingo-oophorectomy with enucleation of ischial fossa and wedge biopsy of left ovary was carried out. Based on gross, microscopy and immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of primary myxoid leiomyosarcoma of ovary was made. We report a rare case of primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary with metastasis to ischial fossa emphasising on reliable prognostic markers. Ovarian leiomyosarcomas are highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis. PMID:25120990

V, Srinivasamurthy

2014-01-01

72

Anatomicohistological characteristics of the ovary of the coypu (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Using histological, histochemical and macroscopic and microscopic measurement techniques, the macroscopic and microscopic structures of coypu ovaries were studied in sexually mature virgin females. The mature ovaries of the coypu were ovoid or elongated bodies, not encapsulated, covered by a single layer of epithelium. They had a parenchyma formed by follicles at different stages of evolution and true and accessory corpora lutea. The interstitial tissue was a prominent and permanent structure in the ovaries. Some ovaries contained a few rete ovarii in the hilus. PMID:10386002

Felipe, A; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

1999-05-01

73

Gene Expression Profiling in the Aging Ovary  

PubMed Central

DNA microarray is an important discovery technology that allows the analysis of the expression of thousands of genes at a time. Data from DNA microarrays elucidate fundamental biological processes through discovery of differential expression of genes not previously known or predicted to be involved in a particular process. In the ovary and other hormone-responsive tissues, the technology can be used to examine the effects of gene mutations, pharmaceutical agents, disease, hormones, developmental changes, or changes in gene expression related to aging. PMID:19763498

Eyster, Kathleen M.; Brannian, John D.

2015-01-01

74

Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary treated with 2-incision total laparoscopic cystectomy  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is an extremely rare benign tumor of the ovary that is derived from the sex cord stroma [1,2] and occurs in young women [3–11]. Preoperative diagnosis of the tumor is difficult as it often mimics a malignant tumor. Oophorectomy is usually performed in many cases of young women [3], and diagnosis of SST is made based on post-operative pathological examination. Laparoscopic surgery is seldom performed in SST cases. Here, we report a case of SST of the ovary in an 18-year-old girl who was diagnosed by preoperative imaging and underwent laparoscopic cystectomy. Accurate preoperative imaging helped to perform minimally invasive surgery for SST. PMID:25732615

Furukawa, Shigenori; Kanno, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Manabu; Ohara, Miki; Soeda, Shu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takafumi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Tsuyoshi; Fujimori, Keiya

2015-01-01

75

The residual ovary syndrome: a 20-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To address the controversy of ovarian preservation during a hysterectomy for benign indications by using our experience with residual ovary syndrome (ROS). Study design: Over a period of 20 years, 2561 hysterectomies (during which one or both ovaries were preserved) were performed at the Golda Medical Center, Israel. A retrospective, quasi, case-control analysis was undertaken. Results: The incidence of

Arie Dekel; Zeev Efrat; Raoul Orvieto; Tally Levy; Dov Dicker; Rivka Gal; Zion Ben-Rafael

1996-01-01

76

Polycystic ovaries after precocious pubarche: relation to prenatal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 1998, we revealed a sequence departing from prenatal growth restraint in girls and evolving, through precocious pubarche (PP) in mid-childhood, towards anovulatory and hyperinsulinaemic hyperandrogenism. The latter condition fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which was then defined independently of the presence of polycystic ovaries (PCOs). Since 2003, the diagnosis of PCOS has

L. Ibanez; A. Jaramillo; G. Enriquez; E. Miro; A. Lopez-Bermejo; D. Dunger; F. de Zegher

2006-01-01

77

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet biophantoms  

E-print Network

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet to the ultrasonic backscatter coefficient BSC estimate using Chinese hamster ovary CHO cells. Also introduced

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

78

Sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.  

PubMed

It is well known that hormone secretion from endocrine glands is regulated by hierarchical feedback mechanisms. However, although Cannon revealed in the 1920s that sympathoadrenal medullary function increased during emergency situations, no studies on the autonomic nervous regulation of hormone secretion have been undertaken for many years. In the past 40 years, the autonomic nervous regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, gastrin secretion from the stomach, glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex, etc., has been demonstrated. Estradiol secretion from the ovary is strongly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and its possible regulation by autonomic nerves has been largely unnoticed. Some histological studies have revealed rich adrenergic sympathetic innervation in the ovary. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the activation of the sympathetic nerves to the ovary directly reduces estradiol secretion from the ovary. This article reviews physiological and morphological studies, primarily in rats, on the sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary. PMID:25465703

Uchida, Sae

2015-01-01

79

Polycystic ovary syndrome: challenges in adolescence.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases in women of reproductive age. PCOS typically develops during adolescence and is a heterogeneous syndrome classically characterized by features of anovulation combined with signs of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne). Increasing obesity in adolescents probably exacerbates signs of PCOS, contributing to its earlier recognition. Recognizing the features of this syndrome can be very challenging in adolescence. Although adolescents' concerns are often cosmetic, if left untreated these girls are at risk for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and infertility as they mature. Efforts should be made to diagnose and treat PCOS to minimize the development of symptoms and prevent the onset of cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances. PMID:20708160

Oliveira, Ana; Sampaio, Bernarda; Teixeira, Ana; Castro-Correia, Cíntia; Fontoura, Manuel; Luís Medina, José

2010-01-01

80

Transcriptome Analysis of the Capra hircus Ovary  

PubMed Central

Background Capra hircus is an important economic livestock animal, and therefore, it is necessary to discover transcriptome information about their reproductive performance. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome dataset for the goat ovary using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The result will contribute to research on goat reproductive performance. Method and Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 38.8 million clean paired end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 80,069 unigenes (mean size = 619 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 64,824 (60.6%) genes were identified, among which 29,444 and 11,271 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG) showed that 27,766 (63.4%) unigenes were mapped to 258 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome differences of goat ovaries at two different ages using a tag-based digital gene expression system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 5.6 million and 5.8 million tags for the two ages and identified a large number of genes associated with reproductive hormones, ovulatory cycle and follicle. Moreover, many antisense transcripts and novel transcripts were found; clusters with similar differential expression patterns, enriched GO terms and metabolic pathways were revealed for the first time with regard to the differentially expressed genes. Conclusions The transcriptome provides invaluable new data for a functional genomic resource and future biological research in Capra hircus, and it is essential for the in-depth study of candidate genes in breeding programs. PMID:25822507

Zhao, Zhong Quan; Wang, Li Juan; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Zhao, Yong Ju; Na, Ri Su; Zhang, Jia Hua

2015-01-01

81

Does ovary need D-chiro-inositol?  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial pathology that affects 10% of the women in reproductive age being the main cause of infertility due to menstrual dysfunction. Since 1980, it is known that PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR). The recognition of this association has prompted extensive investigation on the relationship between insulin and gonadal function, and has turned insulin sensitizer agent as the main therapeutic choice. In particular two different polyalcohol myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been shown to improve insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and to induce ovulation in PCOS women. In particular, while data on myo-inositol and restored ovulation were consistent, data on D-chiro-inositol were not . Recently, a comparative study, proposed a D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary of PCOS patients hypothesizing that only myo-inositol has a specific ovarian action. In the present study we aim to further study the role played by D-chiro-inositol at ovarian level. Methods A total of 54 women, aged <40 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study. Patients with insulin resistance and/or hyperglycaemia were excluded from the study. Patients were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10-12): a placebo group, and 4 groups (A-D) that received 300-600-1200-2400 mg of DCI daily respectively. All treatments were carried out for 8 weeks before follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) administration. Results Total r-FSH units increased significantly in the two groups that received the higher doses of DCI. The number of immature oocytes was significantly increased in the three groups that received the higher doses of DCI. Concurrently, the number of MII oocytes was significantly lower in the D group compared to placebo group. Noteworthy, the number of grade I embryos was significantly reduced by DCI supplementation. Conclusions Indeed, increasing DCI dosage progressively worsens oocyte quality and ovarian response. PMID:22587479

2012-01-01

82

Identification and characterization of putative stem cells in the adult pig ovary.  

PubMed

Recently, the concept of 'neo-oogenesis' has received increasing attention, since it was shown that adult mammals have a renewable source of eggs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the origin of these eggs and to confirm whether neo-oogenesis continues throughout life in the ovaries of the adult mammal. Adult female pigs were utilized to isolate, identify and characterize, including their proliferation and differentiation capabilities, putative stem cells (PSCs) from the ovary. PSCs were found to comprise a heterogeneous population based on c-kit expression and cell size, and also express stem and germ cell markers. Analysis of PSC molecular progression during establishment showed that these cells undergo cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of Oct4 in a manner reminiscent of gonadal primordial germ cells (PGCs). Hence, cells with the characteristics of early PGCs are present or are generated in the adult pig ovary. Furthermore, the in vitro establishment of porcine PSCs required the presence of ovarian cell-derived extracellular regulatory factors, which are also likely to direct stem cell niche interactions in vivo. In conclusion, the present work supports a crucial role for c-kit and kit ligand/stem cell factor in stimulating the growth, proliferation and nuclear reprogramming of porcine PSCs, and further suggests that porcine PSCs might be the culture equivalent of early PGCs. PMID:24866115

Bui, Hong-Thuy; Van Thuan, Nguyen; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Han, Jae-Woong; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-06-01

83

Fertility sparing management and pregnancy in patients with granulosa cell tumour of the ovaries.  

PubMed

Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) of the ovary are a rare entity among the neoplasms of gynaecological oncology. Deriving from the stroma of the ovary, GCTs are generally characterised by insidious growth, low malignancy potential and late recurrence. The standard treatment for these tumours is principally surgical, consisting of bilateral adnexectomy and hysterectomy. This is a narrative review of the current literature regarding the role of fertility sparing surgery in ovarian granulosa tumour. In the included studies, fertility sparing surgery was performed in 171 out of 350 patients. Recurrence rates ranged between 9.8-27.4%. Out of 131 patients, 15 achieved pregnancy. The data were limited regarding completion post-pregnancy surgery. Due to the fact that GCTs often affect younger ages, of crucial importance is the preservation of fertility by conserving the uterus and the contralateral ovary, while close monitoring is essential in order to achieve early identification and treatment of a possible recurrence. After completion of family planning, hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are recommended. PMID:25383508

Iavazzo, C; Gkegkes, I D; Vrachnis, N

2014-11-10

84

Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute ?rst-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome taking oral contraceptive and suffering from recurrent coronary ischemic attacks with increased eosinophils, and troponin levels suggesting Kounis syndrome. PMID:25548619

Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Kounis, Nicholas G

2014-01-01

85

Micro-bioreactor design for Chinese hamster ovary cells  

E-print Network

The research objective is to design a micro-bioreactor for the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. There is an increasing demand for upstream development in high-throughput micro-bioreactors specifically for the ...

Goh, Shireen

2013-01-01

86

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

87

Retroconversion of malignant immature teratomas of the ovary after chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Two cases are reported in which a malignant, immature teratoma of the ovary retroconverted to a benign mature teratoma following chemotherapy. The literature is reviewed and possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:6654184

Aronowitz, J; Estrada, R; Lynch, R; Kaplan, A L

1983-12-01

88

Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. PMID:23334671

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

2013-01-01

89

In vitro culture of ovaries of a viviparous gall midge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Ovaries of the viviparous pedogenetic gall midgeHeteropeza pygmaea can be cultured in hemolymph obtained from X-ray-sterilized larvae of the same species. In this culture medium, formation\\u000a of follicles is essentially the same as in vivo, and sometimes female larvae develop from these follicles. The ovaries of\\u000a such larvae, in their turn, have been cultured in vitro to produce larvae. In

Dirk F. Went

1977-01-01

90

Cystosarcoma phyllodes metastatic to a brenner tumor of the ovary.  

PubMed

A patient had cytosarcoma phyllodes that developed metastases to bone and to a Brenner tumor of the ovary. The original breast tumor was reported as benign, but the patient died of metastases four months following mastectomy. The rapid growth in the ovary may have been due to estrogenic stroma in the Brenner tumor. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of cystosarcoma phyllodes metastasizing to another tumor. PMID:176963

Hines, J R; Gordon, R T; Widger, C; Kolb, T

1976-03-01

91

Complicated giant polycystic ovary mimicking tumor: MR imaging findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously healthy 14-year-old girl presented with a 1-year history of abdominal pain that had worsened during the past\\u000a 4 days. She had a right lower abdominal mass that was initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. MR imaging revealed a unilaterally\\u000a enlarged and partially torted left polycystic ovary. Polycystic ovary is a common cause of increased ovarian volume in women\\u000a of

Îbrahim Öztoprak; Hulusi Eqilmez; Bilge Öztoprak; Cesur Gümüs

2007-01-01

92

An ovary as unusual contents of an incarcerated umbilical hernia.  

PubMed

We present the unusual case of a woman presenting with an incarcerated umbilical hernia. Intraoperatively, the contents of the hernia were found to be an ovary. We outline the clinical presentation of our patient, investigations and management as well as a discussion on unusual contents of umbilical hernias. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a non-malignant ovary incarcerated in an umbilical hernia. PMID:25198958

Ahmed, U; Ahmed, R; Kamat, S; Elkholy, K

2014-09-01

93

6-Bromocholesterol derivatives  

SciTech Connect

Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

Flanagan, R.J.

1984-02-07

94

Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

PubMed Central

In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

2013-01-01

95

Early origins of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The prenatally androgenised female rhesus monkey has become a model for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women, with early prenatal androgenisation entraining a permanent PCOS-like phenotype characterised by luteinising hormone (LH) hypersecretion due to reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess associated with increased abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities occur in combination with ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular arrest in adulthood, and with premature follicle differentiation and impaired embryo development during gonadotrophin therapy for in vitro fertilization (IVF). The ability of prenatal androgen excess in fetal rhesus monkeys to entrain multiple organ systems in utero provides evidence that the hormonal environment of intrauterine life programmes target tissue differentiation, raising the possibility that hyperandrogenism in human fetal development promotes PCOS in adulthood. This hypothesis developed in prenatally androgenised female rhesus monkeys, however, also must include data from clinical studies of PCOS to clarify the homology between human and non-human primates in intrafollicular steroidogenesis and its impact on oocyte developmental competency. By doing so, future studies promise to develop new clinical strategies that will lead to improved pregnancy outcome and reduced pregnancy loss in women with disorders of insulin action, including PCOS, obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:15745643

Dumesic, Daniel A; Schramm, R Dee; Abbott, David H

2005-01-01

96

Formation of apolar ecdysteroid conjugates by ovaries of the house cricket Acheta domesticus in vitro.  

PubMed

The newly laid eggs of the house cricket Acheta domesticus contain apolar ecdysteroid conjugates, which we have hypothesized to be ecdysone long-chain fatty acyl esters [Whiting & Dinan (1988) J. Insect Physiol., in the press]. The ovaries of mature adult female A. domesticus in vitro convert [3H]ecdysone into apolar conjugates identical with those found in newly laid eggs. Comparison of the radioactive metabolites produced on incubation of [3H]ecdysone with various organs of adult female A. domesticus in vitro indicate that the fat-body is the major producer of polar ecdysteroid metabolites at this stage of development, whereas the ovaries are the major site of production of apolar metabolites. Apolar metabolites are also produced to a lesser extent by the crop, gut sections and the fat-body. Hydrolysis of radioactive metabolites produced by the ovaries with Helix enzymes releases only [3H]ecdysone, and thus ecdysone is not metabolized before conjugation by the ovaries. Formation of chemical derivatives (acetonide and acetates) of these 3H-labelled apolar conjugates strongly indicates that the position of conjugation is through the hydroxy group at C-22 of ecdysone. Extensive chromatographic analysis of the 3H-labelled apolar metabolites produced by the ovaries by t.l.c. and h.p.l.c. and comparison with authenticated reference compounds have conclusively demonstrated that the conjugates consist of ecdysone esterified at C-22 to a mixture of common long-chain fatty acids. The major fatty acyl esters have been identified and their percentage contribution to the mixture determined: laurate (0.5%), myristate (2.8%), palmitate (25.8%), stearate (8.4%), arachidate (1.0%), oleate (15.7%), linoleate (38.8%) and linolenate (2.1%). In addition there are three minor unidentified peaks, one of which has been tentatively identified as ecdysone 22-palmitoleate (2.6%). Comparison of this percentage composition with the previously published fatty acid composition of A. domesticus haemolymph [Wang & Patton (1969) J. Insect Physiol. 15, 851-860] reveals remarkable similarities, indicating that the acyl transferase(s) forming the conjugates have a broad specificity with regard to the fatty acyl substrate. PMID:3421912

Whiting, P; Dinan, L

1988-05-15

97

TrkB receptors are required for follicular growth and oocyte survival in the mammalian ovary  

PubMed Central

Although it is well established that both follicular assembly and the initiation of follicle growth in the mammalian ovary occur independently of pituitary hormone support, the factors controlling these processes remain poorly understood. We now report that neurotrophins (NTs) signaling via TrkB receptors are required for the growth of newly formed follicles. Both neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the preferred TrkB ligands, are expressed in the infantile mouse ovary. Initially, they are present in oocytes, but this site of expression switches to granulosa cells after the newly assembled primordial follicles develop into growing primary follicles. Full-length kinase domain-containing TrkB receptors are expressed at low and seemingly unchanging levels in the oocytes and granulosa cells of both primordial and growing follicles. In contrast, a truncated TrkB isoform lacking the intracellular domain of the receptor is selectively expressed in oocytes, where it is targeted to the cell membrane as primary follicles initiate growth. Using gene-targeted mice lacking all TrkB isoforms, we show that the ovaries of these mice or those lacking both NT-4 and BDNF suffer a stage-selective deficiency in early follicular development that compromises the ability of follicles to grow beyond the primary stage. Proliferation of granulosa cells— required for this transition—and expression of FSH receptors (FSHR), which reflects the degree of biochemical differentiation of growing follicles, are reduced in trkB-null mice. Ovaries from these animals grafted under the kidney capsule of wild-type mice fail to sustain follicular growth and show a striking loss of follicular organization, preceded by massive oocyte death. These results indicate that TrkB receptors are required for the early growth of ovarian follicles and that they exert this function by primarily supporting oocyte development as well as providing granulosa cells with a proliferative signal that requires oocyte-somatic cell bidirectional communication. The predominance of truncated TrkB receptors in oocytes and their developmental pattern of subcellular expression suggest that a significant number of NT-4/BDNF actions in the developing mammalian ovary are mediated by these receptors. PMID:15013804

Paredes, Alfonso; Romero, Carmen; Dissen, Gregory A.; DeChiara, Tom M.; Reichardt, Louis; Cornea, Anda; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Xu, Baoji

2009-01-01

98

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and its Developmental Origins  

PubMed Central

The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS–like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular arrest in adulthood, as well as premature follicle differentiation and impaired embryo development during gonadotropin therapy for in vitro fertilization (IVF). A second animal model for PCOS, the prenatal T-treated sheep also is characterized by LH hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback, persistent follicles and insulin resistance, but also is associated with intrauterine growth retardation and compensatory growth after birth. The ability of prenatal T excess in both species to alter the developmental trajectory of multiple organ systems in utero provides evidence that the hormonal environment of intrauterine life programs target tissue differentiation, raising the possibility that T excess in human fetal development promotes PCOS in adulthood. Such a hypothesis must include data from clinical studies of PCOS women to clarify the homology between these PCOS-like animal models and PCOS per se in reproductive and metabolic function. Future studies should develop new clinical strategies that improve pregnancy outcome and minimize pregnancy loss in women with disorders of insulin action, including PCOS, obesity and diabetes mellitus as well as minimize transgenerational susceptibility to adult PCOS and its metabolic derangements in male close relatives. PMID:17659447

Dumesic, Daniel A.; Abbott, David H.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

2009-01-01

99

Adrenal androgen production in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Secondary PCOS may occur in association with disorders characterized by adrenal androgen excess, e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Primary PCOS is associated frequently with more subtle abnormalities in adrenal androgen status. However, it has not been established that the mild adrenal androgen occurring in PCOS is causally involved in the development of PCOS, although adrenal hyperresponsiveness to stimulation appears to be characteristic of PCOS. It remains to be clarified whether this is due to excess stimulation of the adrenal by the putative CASH, which with ACTH probably coordinates adrenal androgen steroidogenesis, or whether adrenal hyperresponsiveness occurs as a consequence of increased cortisol clearance with compensatory hypersecretion of ACTH, which is associated with excessive adrenal androgen production. The possibility also exists that the enzyme system responsible for 17-hydroxyprogesterone production and its conversion to androgens is excessively active and may occur as a common defect in the adrenal and ovaries as a consequence of a congenital disorder. For at least some patients, treatment with a nocturnal low-dose glucocorticoid is an effective form of treatment. Indeed, this is the only hormonal form of treatment for hirsutism that also facilitates fertility and pregnancy. It is possible that PCOS may occur as a consequence of any disorder in which anovulation is associated with normal or elevated oestrogen levels. For some patients with PCOS, mild adrenal androgen excess is probably primary to development of the disorder. Thus, a trial of treatment with low-dose glucocorticoid at night appears to be a reasonable option in susceptible patients who can probably be recognized by demonstration of an excessive androgen response to ACTH or metyrapone. PMID:7581958

McKenna, T J; Cunningham, S K

1995-10-01

100

Radioprotection of cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells by WR-255591.  

PubMed

We examined the radioprotective effect of the aminothiol WR-255591 and its phosphorothioate derivative WR-3689 on aerated cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. At concentrations up to 10 mmol dm-3, WR-3689 afforded little protection from the lethal effects of gamma-radiation. The free thiol WR-255591, on the other hand, efficiently protected these cells, giving a protection factor (PF) for cell survival of 2.3 at a concentration of 6 mmol dm-3. The effects of WR-255591 on the induction and rejoining of gamma-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks (ssb) and double-strand breaks (dsb) were measured using alkaline (pH 12.1) and neutral (pH 7.0 or 9.6) elution, respectively. PFs calculated from these data were compared with the PFs measured for cell survival. WR-255591 (6 mmol dm-3) protected against the induction of both DNA ssb and dsb; however, the magnitude of the modification of both ssb (PF of 1.23) and dsb (PF of 1.83 at pH 7.0 and 1.70 at pH 9.6) was less than that for cell survival (PF of 2.3) measured under identical conditions (irradiation on ice). Treatment of cells with WR-255591 prior to irradiation retarded the subsequent rate of ssb rejoining but had no effect on dsb rejoining. Postirradiation treatment with the drug slightly retarded ssb rejoining but had no effect on cell survival. The observation of lower PFs for DNA strand breaks than for cell survival suggests that radioprotection by WR-255591 probably does not result from a uniform decrease in the induction of all types of DNA lesions. Rather, the drug may differentially protect against the induction of subclasses of DNA damage--which could also explain the effects on the kinetics of ssb rejoining--and/or enhance cellular recovery processes. PMID:2900283

Murray, D; Altschuler, E M; Kerr, M S; Vanankeren, S C; Meyn, R E; Milas, L

1988-08-01

101

Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

2011-09-01

102

Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats  

PubMed Central

Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS) into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60?mg/kg/d) subcutaneously (s.c.) for all 20?days of pregnancy (Group A), or for the first 10?days (Group B), or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C). Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2?ml/day) s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D). The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A) lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B) exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P?

2012-01-01

103

Delayed menopause due to granulosa cell tumor of the ovary  

PubMed Central

A 52-year-old patient presented with complaints of menorrhagia. Endometrial biopsy revealed simple hyperplasia of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy was carried out. The ovaries looked grossly normal, but histopathology reported granulosa cell tumor of the right ovary. Granulosa cell tumors belong to the sexcord stromal category and account for approximately 2% of all ovarian tumors. We review the features and treatment of granulosa cell tumors and the importance of screening for ovarian tumors in a case of endometrial hyperplasia and delayed menopause. PMID:22408338

Murkey, Bhushan; Nadkarni, Trupti; Bhalerao, Sarita; Jassawalla, M. J.

2011-01-01

104

Giant Follicular Cyst of Ovary in an Adolescent Girl  

PubMed Central

Cystic abdominal lesions are extremely common in adolescent girls and are now diagnosed more frequently due to the availability of better imaging modalities. Presentations as huge cysts have become rare as most of them are diagnosed and treated early. Adolescent girls presenting with huge benign abdominal cysts is not uncommon, most of them due to serious cystadenomas of the ovary, but large follicular cysts are rare. We present a 13-year-old girl who presented with a large abdominal mass which was subsequently diagnosed as juvenile follicular cyst of the ovary. PMID:25177606

Gedam, Jaya; Bhalerao, Minal; Nadar, Ponambalaganpathi A

2014-01-01

105

Role of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Kinase, and Adiponectin in the Ovary  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms controlling the interaction between energy balance and reproduction are the subject of intensive investigations. The integrated control of these systems is probably a multifaceted phenomenon involving an array of signals governing energy homeostasis, metabolism, and fertility. Two fuel sensors, PPARs, a superfamily of nuclear receptors and the kinase AMPK, integrate energy control and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin, one of the adipocyte-derived factors mediate its actions through the AMPK or PPARs pathway. These three molecules are expressed in the ovary, raising questions about the biological actions of fuel sensors in fertility and the use of these molecules to treat fertility problems. This review will highlight the expression and putative role of PPARs, AMPK, and adiponectin in the ovary, particularly during folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation. PMID:18288279

Dupont, Joëlle; Chabrolle, Christine; Ramé, Christelle; Tosca, Lucie; Coyral-Castel, Stéphanie

2008-01-01

106

ALTERED STEROIDOGENESIS IN WHOLE-OVARY AND ADRENAL CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultures of minced, whole-ovary (whole-ovary culture) were used to determine if three selected chemicals altered steroidogenic profiles. irst, phenolaulfonthalein (PST), when used in culture medium, was tested for its influence on in vitro steroidogenesis. ext, aminoglutethimide ...

107

NICHD Research Networks Help Piece Together the Puzzle of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... research networks help piece together the puzzle of polycystic ovary syndrome Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... Consider, for example the puzzling disorder known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) . Women with this condition produce high levels ...

108

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in Teens: A Guide for Parents and Guardians  

MedlinePLUS

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Guide for Parents Posted under Parents' Articles . Updated 13 March 2014. +Related Content Key Facts PCOS is a ... help you to support your daughter. What is PCOS? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormone imbalance ...

109

Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

110

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis Associated with a Mixed-Cell Germinal Ovary Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a patient with membranoproliferative glomerulopathy associated with a mixed-cell germinal ovary tumor (embryonal and dysgerminoma components). Advanced renal failure ensued without remission of nephrotic syndrome after surgery. Five other cases of ovary tumor associated with glomerulopathy and reported in the literature are reviewed. The association between membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and mixed-cell germinal ovary tumor has not been previously reported.

D. Salazar-Exaire; A. Rodríguez; M. E. Galindo-Rujana; J. C. Briones; J. Arenas-Osuna; L. M. Rocha; R. Paniagua

2001-01-01

111

Identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs are the major class of gene-regulating molecules playing diverse roles through sequence complementarity to target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. Tightly regulated expression and interaction of a multitude of genes for ovarian folliculogenesis could be regulated by these miRNAs. Identification of them is the first step towards understanding miRNA-guided gene regulation in different biological functions. Despite increasing efforts in miRNAs identification across various species and diverse tissue types, little is known about bovine ovarian miRNAs. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary through cloning, expression analysis and target prediction. Results The miRNA library (5'-independent ligation cloning method), which was constructed from bovine ovary in this study, revealed cloning of 50 known and 24 novel miRNAs. Among all identified miRNAs, 38 were found to be new for bovine and were derived from 43 distinct loci showing characteristic secondary structure. While 22 miRNAs precursor loci were found to be well conserved in more than one species, 16 were found to be bovine specific. Most of the miRNAs were cloned multiple times, in which let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-21, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-126 and miR-143 were cloned 10, 28, 13, 4, 11, 7, 6, 4 and 11 times, respectively. Expression analysis of all new and some annotated miRNAs in different intra-ovarian structures and in other multiple tissues showed that some were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed among different tissue types. Bta-miR-29a was localized in the follicular cells at different developmental stages in the cyclic ovary. Bio-informatics prediction, screening and Gene Ontology analysis of miRNAs targets identified several biological processes and pathways underlying the ovarian function. Conclusion Results of this study suggest the presence of miRNAs in the bovine ovary, thereby elucidate their potential role in regulating diverse molecular and physiological pathways underlying the ovarian functionality. This information will give insights into bovine ovarian miRNAs, which can be further characterized for their role in follicular development and female fertility as well. PMID:19765282

Hossain, Md Munir; Ghanem, Nasser; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Phatsara, Chirawath; Tholen, Ernst; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

2009-01-01

112

Abnormal glucose tolerance in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to analyse the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and to assess the ability of screening tests to predict these abnormalities within this population. METHODS: A total of 102 PCOS patients were evaluated. All patients underwent oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) with

Xiaoli Chen; Dongzi Yang; Lin Li; Shuying Feng; Liangan Wang

2006-01-01

113

THE PRELEPTOTENE CHROMOSOME CONDENSATION AND DECONDENSATION IN THE OVARY  

E-print Network

THE PRELEPTOTENE CHROMOSOME CONDENSATION AND DECONDENSATION IN THE OVARY OF THE SHEEP EMBRYO P;RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the female sheep embryo, a development of chromosome condensation followed, in the human by S'rnxr, and I,ucmrm (1971) and in the rabbit. In this last species, a chromosome condensation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Vascular Dysfunction and Metabolic Parameters in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with in- sulin resistance (IR) and the metabolic syndrome; however, the car- diovascular (CV) manifestations of PCOS remain unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation- ships between IR, metabolic parameters, androgens, and markers of early CV disease in PCOS. Design: We conducted an observational study examining noninva- sive

C. Meyer; B. P. McGrath; J. Cameron; D. Kotsopoulos; H. J. Teede

2005-01-01

115

Worker Honeybee Sterility: A Proteomic Analysis of Suppressed Ovary Activation  

E-print Network

Worker Honeybee Sterility: A Proteomic Analysis of Suppressed Ovary Activation Dries Cardoen, Belgium *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Eusocial behavior is extensively studied in the honeybee, Apis mellifera, as it displays an extreme form of altruism. Honeybee workers are generally obligatory sterile

Wenseleers, Tom

116

Gonadotrophin regimens and oocyte quality in women with polycystic ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systemic endocrine environment during the later stages of follicle development has a crucial role in co-ordinating follicular and oocyte maturation before ovulation. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with abnormal circulating hormones, abnormal peri-follicular vascularity and significant abnormalities of granulosa cell function. After induction of ovulation, fertilization rates in vivo in women with PCOS are normal, but there is

Stephen Franks; Ruth Roberts; Kate Hardy

2003-01-01

117

Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

2012-01-01

118

THE EFFECT OF CHRONIC GAMMA IRRADIATION ON MOUSE OVARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

strain 57 (black), a quantitative decrease of all groups of follicles, ; in the body cavity. This is particularly apparent in the group of mice ; irradiated with the largest daily dosc of 0.4 r. Despite vast tissue injury ; individual ovaries contained a small number of cavity developing and primordial ; follicles of normal structure. Chronic irradiation did not

Kopylova

1958-01-01

119

Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary: Tumor Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms that originate from sex-cord stromal cells. The long natural history of granulosa cell tumors and their tendency to recur years after the initial diagnosis are the most prominent of their characteristics. The secretion of estradiol is the reason for signs at presentation such as vaginal bleeding and precocious puberty. Abdominal pain

Georgios V. Koukourakis; Vasilios E. Kouloulias; Michael J. Koukourakis; Georgios A. Zacharias; Christos Papadimitriou; Kyriaki Mystakidou; Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki; John Kouvaris; Athanasios Gouliamos

2008-01-01

120

Adenylylcyclase Supersensitization in -Opioid Receptor-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary  

E-print Network

Adenylylcyclase Supersensitization in -Opioid Receptor-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Following Chronic Opioid Treatment* (Received for publication, September 13, 1995) Tomer Avidor with rat -opioid receptor cDNA, we show that the -agonists morphine and [D-Ala2 , N-methyl-Phe4 ,Gly-ol5

Vogel, Zvi

121

Juvenile hypothyroidism presenting with hypertrichosis, multicystic ovaries, and pituitary adenoma.  

PubMed

Primary hypothyroidism may present with atypical features in children. Here we report a 6-year-old female child with primary hypothyroidism presenting with a combination of several atypical features in the form of hypertrichosis, bilateral cystic ovaries, and feedback pituitary adenoma. PMID:24251150

Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya; Halder, Partha Pratim; Apurba, Ghosh

2013-10-01

122

Juvenile hypothyroidism presenting with hypertrichosis, multicystic ovaries, and pituitary adenoma  

PubMed Central

Primary hypothyroidism may present with atypical features in children. Here we report a 6-year-old female child with primary hypothyroidism presenting with a combination of several atypical features in the form of hypertrichosis, bilateral cystic ovaries, and feedback pituitary adenoma. PMID:24251150

Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya; Halder, Partha Pratim; Apurba, Ghosh

2013-01-01

123

[Cancer of the ovary and pregnancy. Apropos of 4 cases].  

PubMed

The value and the limitations of echo scans and extemporaneous examination in four cases are reported. Any adnexial organic tumour should be treated in the knowledge that it could be a cancer of the ovary. This is the only possible approach for avoiding contamination during surgery insufficient exoresis and the necessity of further intervention. PMID:3912913

Dallay, D; Chabrand, S; Gonnet, J M; Soumireu-Mourat, J

1985-12-01

124

A snapshot of the lives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A photovoice investigation.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6??percent of women. Symptoms include hirsutism, acne, and infertility. This research explores the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on women's lives using photovoice. Nine participants photographed objects related to their quality of life and made diary entries explaining each photograph. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis of the diaries: control (of symptoms and polycystic ovary syndrome controlling their lives), perception (of self, others, and their situation), and support (from relationships, health care systems, and education). These findings illuminate positive aspects of living with polycystic ovary syndrome and the role pets and social networking sites play in providing support for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25205774

Williams, Sophie; Sheffield, David; Knibb, Rebecca C

2014-09-01

125

Downregulation of natriuretic peptide system and increased steroidogenesis in rat polycystic ovary.  

PubMed

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is known to regulate ovarian functions, such as follicular growth and steroid hormone production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the natriuretic peptide system in a rat model of chronic anovulation, the rat polycystic ovary. Adult female Wistar rats received a single subcutaneous injection of 2mg estradiol valerate to induce polycystic ovaries, while the control group received vehicle injection. Two months later, their ovaries were quickly removed and analyzed. Polycystic ovaries exhibited marked elevation of testosterone and estradiol levels compared to control ovaries. The levels of ANP and the expression of ANP mRNA were highly reduced in the polycystic ovaries compared to controls. By immunohistochemistry, polycystic ovaries showed weaker ANP staining in stroma, theca cells and oocytes compared to controls. Polycystic ovaries also had increased activity of neutral endopeptidase, the main proteolytic enzyme that degrades natriuretic peptides. ANP receptor C mRNA was reduced and ANP binding to this receptor was absent in polycystic ovaries. Collectively, these results indicate a downregulation of the natriuretic peptide system in rat polycystic ovary, an established experimental model of anovulation with high ovarian testosterone and estradiol levels. Together with previous evidence demonstrating that ANP inhibits ovarian steroidogenesis, these findings suggest that low ovarian ANP levels may contribute to the abnormal steroid hormone balance in polycystic ovaries. PMID:25111374

Pereira, Virginia M; Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Martins, Almir S; Reis, Fernando M; Reis, Adelina M

2014-10-01

126

Different promoter usage for CYP19 gene expression in buffalo ovary and placenta.  

PubMed

Aromatase is the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis and is coded by CYP19 gene. The expression of CYP19 gene is regulated in tissue-specific manner by alternate use of different promoters. In this study, we have analyzed tissue-specific expression and their regulation of CYP19 gene in preovulatory and postovulatory stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ovary and placenta. RT-PCR analysis showed that the CYP19 gene expression was significantly (p<0.05) higher in granulosa cells of large follicles as compared to the other tissues. The transcript analysis and transcriptional start site identified by 5'-RLM RACE for CYP19 expression indicated different transcriptional start sites within the different sized follicles during folliculogenesis. Sequence analysis showed that the transcription start site of transcript isolated from buffalo granulosa cells of small follicles was 37 bases upstream of the transcript isolated from granulosa cells of large follicles. However, both the transcripts were found to be derived from proximal promoter II. Difference in the transcriptional start site indicates the different promoter sequence usage in granulosa cells of different sized follicles. Further, in silico analysis of the difference in promoter sequence based on the 5'-UTRs isolated from granulosa cells of small follicles (151 bases) and large follicles (114 bases) showed that consensus sequence for certain important trans-elements (viz., TATA binding protein, E2F and CAAT binding protein) would lie in the promoter sequence isolated from the granulosa cells of large follicles. These transcription factors may be involved in regulation of CYP19 gene expression in ovary, either directly or indirectly. The difference in the size of 5'-UTR among the granulosa cells of ovary reflects the possible mechanism for the differential regulation of CYP19 gene during development. The transcripts isolated from buffalo corpus luteum and placental cotyledons were having same 5'-UTR comprises of 168 bases and found to be derived from PI.1. Estimates of CYP19 gene transcript concentration in the different tissues revealed that the CYP19 gene expression in granulosa cells is predominantly regulated by PII and to a minor extent by PI.1. However, PI.1 is almost exclusively responsible for CYP19 gene expression in placenta and residual expression in corpus luteum. In order to understand the complex CYP19 gene regulation in these tissues, further studies are needed to elucidate the activity of different promoters and define regulatory elements for binding of transcription factors. PMID:19375426

Sharma, Deepti; Ghai, Sandeep; Singh, Dheer

2009-07-01

127

Orexin a expression in the ovary of dog and cat.  

PubMed

Orexin A and B, also known as hypocretin A and B, are hypothalamic neuropeptides arising from a precursor to the 130 amino acid, called pre-pro orexin. They are synthesized mainly in lateral and posterior hypothalamus and are involved in different functions such as regulation of food intake and energy balance. Orexins and orexin receptors were previously described also in different tissues and organs outside the brain. The aim of this study was to demonstrate by means of the immunofluorescence technique, the presence of orexin A in the ovary of cat and dog, to support the hypothesis of the role of this substance also at the level of the female genital system. The presence of orexin A in the ovary either in dog or in cat is in agreement with previous data on the presence and role of orexins in the female genital system of other species. PMID:25601132

Levanti, M; Germanà, A; Abbate, F

2015-04-01

128

Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

2015-01-01

129

Thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome: An emerging relationship  

PubMed Central

As the prevalence of these endocrine dysfunctions increases, the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and autoimmune thyroid disease is increasingly being recognised. While the causality of this association is still uncertain, the two conditions share a bidirectional relationship. The exact nature of this link has not been elucidated yet. Both syndromes share certain common characteristics, risk factors, and pathophysiological abnormalities. Simultaneously, certain etiopathogenetic factors that operate to create these dysfunctions are dissimilar. Polycystic appearing ovaries are a clinical feature of hypothyroidism, though hypothyroidism should be excluded before diagnosing PCOS. Adiposity, increased insulin resistance, high leptin, evidence of deranged autoimmunity, all of which are present in both disease states, seem to play a complex role in connecting these two disorders. This brief communication explores the nature of the relationship between PCOS and hypothyroidism. It reviews current data and analyses them to present a unified pathophysiological basis, incorporating these complex relationships, for the same. PMID:25593822

Singla, Rajiv; Gupta, Yashdeep; Khemani, Manju; Aggarwal, Sameer

2015-01-01

130

Neuroendocrine cells are present in the domestic fowl ovary  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine cells are present in virtually all organs of the vertebrate body; however, it is yet uncertain whether they exist in the ovaries. Previous reports of ovarian neurons and neuron-like cells in mammals and birds might have resulted from misidentification. The aim of the present work was to determine the identity of neuron-like cells in immature ovaries of the domestic fowl. Cells immunoreactive to neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and chromogranin-A, with small, dense-core secretory granules, were consistently observed throughout the sub-cortical ovarian medulla and cortical interfollicular stroma. These cells also displayed immunoreactivity for tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine ?-hydroxylases, as well as to aromatic L-DOPA decarboxylase, implying their ability to synthesize both catecholamines and indolamines. Our results support the argument that the ovarian cells previously reported as neuron-like in birds, are neuroendocrine cells. PMID:23083425

Hofmann, Pablo G; Báez Saldaña, Armida; Fortoul Van Der Goes, Teresa; González del Pliego, Margarita; Gutiérrez Ospina, Gabriel

2013-01-01

131

Diversity of cell death pathways: insight from the fly ovary  

PubMed Central

Multiple types of cell death exist including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. The Drosophila ovary provides a valuable model to study the diversity of cell death modalities, and we review recent progress to elucidate these pathways. At least five distinct types of cell death occur in the ovary, and we focus on two that have been studied extensively. Cell death of mid-stage egg chambers uses a novel caspase-dependent pathway that involves autophagy, and triggers phagocytosis by surrounding somatic epithelial cells. For every egg, fifteen germline nurse cells undergo developmental programmed cell death, which occurs independently of most known cell death genes. These forms of cell death are strikingly similar to cell death observed in the germline of other organisms. PMID:23968895

Jenkins, Victoria Kathryn; Timmons, Allison K

2013-01-01

132

Ontogeny of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Creative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

olycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heteroge- neous familial disorder characterized by hyperandro- genism, oligo\\/amenorrhea, infertility, and insulin resistance\\/hy- perinsulinemia. Familial clustering of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia in this syndrome is well described (1-5). Both genetic and environmental factors con- tribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Affected women have a higher risk to develop impaired glucose tolerance and

133

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated With Endothelial Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We recently reported endothelial dysfunction as a novel cardiovascular risk factor associated with insulin resistance\\/obesity. Here, we tested whether hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who are at increased risk of macrovascular disease display impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and whether endothelial function in PCOS is associated with particular metabolic and\\/or hormonal characteristics. Methods and Results—We studied leg blood flow

Giancarlo Paradisi; Helmut O. Steinberg; Annette Hempfling; Jessica Cronin; Ginger Hook; Marguerite K. Shepard; Alain D. Baron

2001-01-01

134

Effective Regimens for Ovulation Induction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches have been used for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight reduction\\u000a should be recommended for obese women, because even 5% weight loss can be effective. Recent analyses still support the effectiveness\\u000a of clomiphene citrate (CC) as a first-line medical therapy. Of anovulatory women with PCOS, about 70% will ovulate in response\\u000a to CC, and

Juha S. Tapanainen; Laure Morin-Papunen

135

Immunohistochemical characterization of undifferentiated carcinomas of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunohistochemical characteristics of undifferentiated carcinomas of the ovary were examined using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues with an avidinbiotin staining approach. Eight cases were collected from the pathology files of our Institute from a total of 214 recorded malignant ovarian tumors. For immunostaining, antibodies reacting with epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), pankeratin, vimentin, CA 125, CA 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a-fetoprotein (AFP), a-l-antitrypsin

Yoshio Kuwashima; Toshitaka Uehara; Kiyozo Kishi; Kenji Shiromizu; Masumi Matsuzawa; Shojiro Takayama

1994-01-01

136

Evidence of proatherogenic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-level inflammation that can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We measured circulating proatherogenic inflammatory mediators in women with PCOS (8 lean: body mass index, 18-25 kg\\/m2; 8 obese: body mass index, 30-40 kg\\/m2) and weight-matched controls (8 lean, 8 obese). Blood samples were obtained fasting and 2 hours after glucose ingestion to

Frank González; Neal S. Rote; Judi Minium; John P. Kirwan

2009-01-01

137

Cardiopulmonary Impairment in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Insulin resistance is a feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and it is related to mitochondrial function, particularly with maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). At the moment, no evalua- tion of cardiopulmonary functional capacity in young patients with PCOS has been performed. Objective: Our objective was to assess cardiopulmonary functional capacity in young PCOS overweight patients. DesignandSetting:Weconductedaprospectivebaseline-controlled clinicalstudyatUniversity\\

Francesco Orio; Francesco Giallauria; Stefano Palomba; Teresa Cascella; Francesco Manguso; Laura Vuolo; Tiziana Russo; Achille Tolino; Gaetano Lombardi; Annamaria Colao; Carlo Vigorito

138

Menstrual Cyclicity After Metformin Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of insulin-lowering treatment on menstrual cyclicity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Forty oligoamenorrheic women with PCOS were recruited in a prospective clinical study to receive metformin for a minimum period of 6 months. Twenty-two women completed the study. Serum LH, FSH, free testosterone, and glucose and insulin response to oral glucose load were measured both

Elsy Velázquez M; Arnaldo Acosta; Soaira G Mendoza

1997-01-01

139

Therapeutic Aspects of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and insulin resistance. The syndrome\\u000a manifests with hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, dyslipidemia, as well as a higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus,\\u000a and cardiovascular disease. PCOS has a pubertal onset. The clinical signs and neuroendocrine features of adolescents with\\u000a PCOS resemble those found in adult women with the syndrome.

Carolina Koliopoulos; George Creatsas

140

OCT4: a novel biomarker for dysgerminoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

The prognosis and therapy for dysgerminomas are different from those of other ovarian tumor types, making accurate diagnosis imperative for patient care. OCT4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of pluripotency during embryonic development. It can be detected in both pluripotent cells and other early germ cells. This study examines the expression of OCT4 in both dysgerminoma and nondysgerminomatous neoplasms involving the ovary. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell blocks of 33 cases of dysgerminoma including 2 cases of gonadoblastoma associated with dysgerminoma and 3 cases of metastatic dysgerminoma, and 111 cases of nondysgerminomatous neoplasms involving the ovary were stained using the antibody against OCT4. All cases of dysgerminomas and gonadoblastomas were positive for OCT4 with strong nuclear staining. More than 90% of dysgerminoma cells in each case showed diffuse strong nuclear staining. In addition, 3 metastatic dysgerminomas also showed uniform strong nuclear staining. All nondysgerminomatous tumors (mature teratoma, 14; yolk sac tumor, 4; Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, 15; granulosa cell tumor, 22; Brenner tumor, 3; carcinoid tumor, 4; struma ovarii, 2; fibroma, 5; thecoma, 1; serous adenocarcinoma, 5; endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 4; small cell carcinoma, 6; stromal sarcoma, 1; malignant lymphoma, 6; metastatic malignant melanoma, 1; metastatic carcinoid, 2; metastatic small cell carcinoma, 1; and metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast, 1) were negative for OCT4, except for some cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Four of 14 clear cell adenocarcinomas showed focal positive nuclear immunoreactivity for OCT4. OCT4 is a sensitive and relatively specific biomarker for the detection of dysgerminoma. It may also be useful in the diagnosis of gonadoblastoma, which contains similar cells and may be associated with dysgerminoma. OCT4 may aid in the detection of small foci of metastatic dygerminoma in extraovarian sites and may also help distinguish dysgerminoma from other primary and metastatic tumors of the ovary. PMID:15371950

Cheng, Liang; Thomas, Antoinette; Roth, Lawrence M; Zheng, Wenxin; Michael, Helen; Karim, Fadi W Abdul

2004-10-01

141

Wilms' tumor of the ovary: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of true extrarenal Wilms' tumor is extremely rare. The most frequently noted extrarenal sites are the retroperitoneal and inguinal regions. In the female genital tract, the occurrence of Wilms' tumor has been documented in the uterus, endocervix, and ovary in isolated case reports. In this article the authors describe a case of ovarian Wilms' tumor in a 3.5-year-old

Baran Tokar

2002-01-01

142

Immunohistochemical analysis of the microanatomy of primate ovary.  

PubMed

The ovary is a complex organ composed of cells of diverse lineages. Therefore, in this study we examined whether immunolocalization of various cytoskeletal, epithelial, immune-cell, and neural-associated proteins can differentiate various cells in the baboon and human ovaries. Surface epithelial cells exhibited immunoreactivity for cytokeratin and desmin, however, they did not immunostain for other epithelial markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen or epithelial membrane antigen. Smooth muscle actin was distributed apically whereas vimentin was localized basally in these cells. Ova exhibited strong immunoreactivity for S-100, Leu-M1, and neurofilament and did not show immunoreactivity for epithelial and cytoskeletal proteins. In antral follicles and theca cells, and after formation of corpus luteum, both granulosa and theca cells expressed immunoreactivity for vimentin. Cytokeratins were absent in the preantral and antral follicles. However, atresia and development of apoptosis was associated with expression of immunoreactive cytokeratins in atretic follicles. Development of corpus luteum led to major changes in the immunophenotype of follicular cells. The mere presence of immunoreactivity for cytokeratin and a strong immunoreactivity for desmin in the luteinized granulosa and not in the theca cells allowed discrimination of these cells from each other and from their ancestral cells. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was present in various ovarian cells except for ovum. The distinct patterns of expression of cytoskeletal, epithelial, and neural-associated proteins in various cells of the ovary facilitates their identification and discrimination. PMID:8835398

Khan-Dawood, F S; Yusoff Dawood, M; Tabibzadeh, S

1996-03-01

143

Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein is associated with markers of obesity, but is an unlikely link between obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women suffer from adiposity and insulin resistance (IR), which play an important role in the development and maintenance of PCOS. Adipocyte fatty acid- binding protein (A-FABP) is mainly expressed in adipocytes, and circulating A-FABP has been associated with markers of obesity and IR. Thus, as observed with other adipose tissue derived factors, secreted A-FABP

Matthias Mohlig; Martin O Weickert; Elham Ghadamgadai; Andrea Machlitt; Bettina Pfuller; Ayman M Arafat; Andreas F H Pfeiffer; Christof Schofl

2007-01-01

144

The impact of alpha lipoic acid on developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to those isolated from vitrified ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissues and pre-antral follicles is a promising prospect for preservation of women fertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to isolated pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified ovaries in the presence of alpha lipoic acid (ALA). Materials and Methods: Pre-antral follicles derived from fresh, vitrified-warmed ovarian tissues and vitrified–warmed pre-antral follicles were cultured individually with or without ALA, followed by adding hCG to induce ovulation. The follicle growth, oocyte maturation, and embryo development were assessed. Results: The diameter and development of follicles, oocyte maturation and embryo development rates were significantly higher in ALA supplemented groups compared to the respective ALA-free conditions groups. Aforementioned parameters were significantly higher in vitrified-warmed follicles in comparison to follicles derived from vitrified-warmed ovaries. Conclusion: These findings support a superior performance of pre-antral follicles when vitrified rather than when isolated from vitrified ovaries with regard to increasing the rates of developmental parameters. Moreover, ALA improves the in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles in vitrified and non-vitrified samples. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Sahar Hatami) PMID:24799862

Hatami, Sahar; Zavareh, Saeed; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Karimi, Isaac

2014-01-01

145

Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?  

PubMed Central

A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had oophorectomies, one had shrunken ovaries and ovarian failure, and one had previously undergone oophorectomy and the other ovary could not be seen; in one neither ovary could be seen, and three had ovaries of normal appearance, although two of these women were taking the contraceptive pill. Thirteen of the group had endocrine symptoms and signs characteristic of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Videocystometrography in 17 of the women who were examined by ultrasonography showed low flow rates and high residual volumes of urine after micturition in 12 women who could void, the other five having chronic urinary retention. A speculative hypothesis for the observed association of impaired voiding, abnormal electromyographic activity of the urinary sphincter, and polycystic ovaries is advanced, based on the relative progesterone deficiency that characterises the polycystic ovary syndrome. Progesterone stabilises membranes, and its depletion might permit ephaptic transmission of impulses between muscle fibres in the muscle of the urethral sphincter, giving rise to the abnormal electromyographic activity. This may impair relaxation of the sphincter, resulting in low flow rates of urine, incomplete emptying of the bladder, and, finally, urinary retention. PMID:3147005

Fowler, C. J.; Christmas, T. J.; Chapple, C. R.; Parkhouse, H. F.; Kirby, R. S.; Jacobs, H. S.

1988-01-01

146

Cancer of the supernumerary ovary in Mayer-Rokitansty-Küster-Hauser Syndrome: A case report  

PubMed Central

Mayer-Rokitansty-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a Müllerian anomaly that presents with varying degrees of uterovaginal aplasia and is secondarily associated with cervicothoracic, auditory and skeletal anomalies. However, MRKH syndrome patients have normal and functional ovaries. A supernumerary ovary is an extremely rare form of an ectopic ovary and there are no reported cases of MRKH syndrome with cancer of the supernumerary ovary in the current literature. A 31-year-old female with a history of MRKH syndrome that was diagnosed 4 years previously presented with abdominal pain and a suspected malignant pelvic mass was identified. During the staging surgery, both ovaries were separated from the main mass, observed and removed. A third ovary was discovered in the pelvic mass and the diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer from the third ovary was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We report the first known case of cancer of the supernumerary ovary in a patient with MRKH syndrome. Although both ovaries were confirmed to be normal in the patient with MRKH syndrome, we propose that an ovarian neoplasm should be considered in the diagnosis of a pelvic mass. PMID:23420814

BAE, HYO SOOK; RYU, MIN JI; KIM, IN SUN; KIM, SUN HAENG; SONG, JAE YUN

2013-01-01

147

Trichloroethylene Metabolism in the Rat Ovary Reduces Oocyte Fertilizability  

PubMed Central

Exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE, an environmental toxicant) reduced oocyte fertilizability in the rat. In vivo, TCE may be metabolized by cytochrome P450 dependent oxidation or glutathione conjugation in the liver or kidneys, respectively. Cytochrome P450 dependent oxidation is the higher affinity pathway. The primary isoform of cytochrome P450 to metabolize TCE in the liver, cytochrome P450 2E1, is present in the rodent ovary. Ovarian metabolism of TCE by the oxidative pathway and the production of reactive oxygen species may occur given the presence of the metabolizing enzyme. The objectives of this study were to define the sensitive interval of oocyte growth to TCE exposure, and to determine if TCE exposure resulted in the formation of ovarian protein carbonyls, an indicator of oxidative damage. Rats were exposed to TCE in drinking water (0.45% TCE (v/v) in 3% Tween) or 3% Tween (vehicle-control) during three 4–5 day intervals of oocyte development preceding ovulation. Oocytes from TCE-exposed females were less fertilizable compared with vehicle-control oocytes. Immunohistochemical labeling of ovaries and Western blotting of ovarian proteins demonstrated TCE treatment induced a greater incidence of protein carbonyls compared with vehicle controls. Protein carbonyl formation in the ovary is consistent with TCE metabolism by the cytochrome P450 pathway. Oxidative damage following ovarian TCE metabolism or the presence of TCE metabolites may contribute to reduced oocyte fertilizability. In summary, these results indicate maturing oocytes are susceptible to very short in vivo exposures to TCE. PMID:17673192

Wu, Katherine Lily; Berger, Trish

2007-01-01

148

Localization of luteinizing hormone receptor protein in the human ovary.  

PubMed

The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) plays a pivotal role during follicular development. Consequently, its expression pattern is of major importance for research and has clinical implications. Despite the accumulated information regarding LHR expression patterns, our understanding of its expression in the human ovary, specifically at the protein level, is incomplete. Therefore, our aim was to determine the LHR protein localization and expression pattern in the human ovary. We examined the presence of LHR by immunohistochemical staining of human ovaries and western blots of mural granulosa and cumulus cells aspirated during IVF treatments. We were not able to detect LHR protein staining in primordial or primary follicles. We observed equivocal positive staining in granulosa cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. The first appearance of a clear signal of LHR protein was observed in granulosa cells and theca cells of small antral follicles, and there was evidence of increasing LHR production as the follicles mature to the pre-ovulatory stage. After ovulation, LHR protein was ubiquitously produced in the corpus luteum. To confirm the expression pattern in granulosa cells and cumulus cells, we performed western blots and found that LHR expression was stronger in granulosa cells than in cumulus cells, with the later demonstrating low, but still significant, amounts of LHR protein. In summary, we conclude that LHR protein starts to appear on granulosa cells and theca cells of early antral follicles, and low but significant expression of LHR exists also in the cumulus cells. These results may have implications for the future design of clinical protocols and culture mediums for in vitro fertilization and especially in vitro maturation of oocytes. PMID:24874553

Yung, Y; Aviel-Ronen, S; Maman, E; Rubinstein, N; Avivi, C; Orvieto, R; Hourvitz, A

2014-09-01

149

Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence Rates by Registry (Ovary)  

Cancer.gov

Ovary excludes borderline cases or histologies 8442, 8451, 8462, 8472, and 8473. a Rates are per 100,000 and are age-adjusted to the 2000 US Std Population (19 age groups - Census P25-1130) b The SEER 9 areas are San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Seattle, Utah and Atlanta. The SEER 11 areas comprise the SEER 9 areas plus San Jose-Monterey and Los Angeles. The SEER 13 areas comprise the SEER 11 areas plus the Alaska Native Registry and Rural Georgia.

150

Collision Tumours of Ovary: A Very Rare Case Series  

PubMed Central

Collision tumours are composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms in the same organ without intermixture of cell types. Here the author present a case series of 4 cases of collision tumours of ovary with brief review of literature. Two cases have a combination of mucinous cystadenoma and teratoma whereas third case is a combination of serous papillary cystadenoma with teratoma and the fourth case has a combination of serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma and teratoma. The cases were diagnosed post-operatively. It is important to correctly diagnose the component of tumour for further management and favourable prognosis. PMID:25584236

Singh, Monika

2014-01-01

151

Disordered follicle development in ovaries of prenatally androgenized ewes.  

PubMed

Exposure to excess androgens in utero induces irreversible changes in gonadotrophin secretion and results in disrupted reproductive endocrine and ovarian function in adulthood, in a manner reminiscent of the common clinical endocrinopathy of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We have recently identified an abnormality in early follicle development in PCOS which we suggested might be an androgenic effect. We propose that altered ovarian function in androgenized ewes is due to prenatal androgens not only causing an abnormality of gonadotrophin secretion, but also exerting a direct effect on the early stages of folliculogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we explored the possible differences between small preantral follicles in the ovarian cortex of androgenized female lambs with those of normal lambs. At 8 months of age, small ovarian cortical biopsies (approximately 5 mm3) were obtained at laparotomy from nine female lambs that had been exposed to androgens in utero from embryonic days 30 to 90 of a 147-day pregnancy, and 11 control female lambs. Further, ovarian tissue was obtained at 20 months of age from ten androgenized and nine control animals. Tissue was either fixed immediately for histology or cultured for up to 15 days prior to fixing. The number of follicles in haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections was counted and recorded along with the stage of development. Before culture, the total follicle density (follicles/mm3 tissue) was not statistically significantly different between the two types of ovary at either 8 or 20 months of age. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences in the density of follicles at each stage of development. However, there was a lower percentage of primordial follicles, but a higher percentage of primary follicles, in biopsies taken at 8 months from androgenized lambs when compared with controls. At 20 months, the proportions of follicles at the primordial and primary stages were not significantly different between the two groups, but this was mainly attributable to an increase in the proportion of growing follicles in biopsies from control animals. Culture of ovarian cortex from 8-month-old lambs resulted in a progressive increase in the proportion of growing follicles when compared with tissue fixed on the day of surgery. However, there was no difference between androgenized and control tissue in the percentage of growing follicles. The increase in the proportion of growing follicles in the cortex of androgenized animals is reminiscent of similar observations in human polycystic ovaries and suggests that excess exposure to androgen in early life plays a part in the accelerated progression of follicle development from the primordial to the primary stage in polycystic ovaries. PMID:17283242

Forsdike, Rachel A; Hardy, Kate; Bull, Lauren; Stark, Jaroslav; Webber, Lisa J; Stubbs, Sharron; Robinson, Jane E; Franks, Stephen

2007-02-01

152

Frequent overexpression of p53 in dysgerminoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

The expression of p53 in 7 dysgerminomas of the ovary was investigated immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibodies DAKO-p53/Do-7 and Dianova-p53/Do-1. All the tumors exhibited overexpression of p53 protein. Immunoreactive tumor cell nuclei amounted to more than 50% in 2 tumors, 10-50% in 2 tumors, and less than 10% in 3 tumors. No relationship was found between tumor stage and the degree of p53 expression. Overexpression of p53 thus appears to be very common in dysgerminoma, as it is in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:8150371

Dietl, J; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E

1994-01-01

153

Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.  

PubMed

Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence. PMID:25437978

Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

2014-11-01

154

Letrozole versus Clomiphene for Infertility in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Clomiphene is the current first-line infertility treatment in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, but aromatase inhibitors, including letrozole, might result in better pregnancy outcomes. METHODS In this double-blind, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 750 women, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive letrozole or clomiphene for up to five treatment cycles, with visits to determine ovulation and pregnancy, followed by tracking of pregnancies. The polycystic ovary syndrome was defined according to modified Rotterdam criteria (anovulation with either hyperandrogenism or polycystic ovaries). Participants were 18 to 40 years of age, had at least one patent fallopian tube and a normal uterine cavity, and had a male partner with a sperm concentration of at least 14 million per milliliter; the women and their partners agreed to have regular intercourse with the intent of conception during the study. The primary outcome was live birth during the treatment period. RESULTS Women who received letrozole had more cumulative live births than those who received clomiphene (103 of 374 [27.5%] vs. 72 of 376 [19.1%], P = 0.007; rate ratio for live birth, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.87) without significant differences in overall congenital anomalies, though there were four major congenital anomalies in the letrozole group versus one in the clomiphene group (P = 0.65). The cumulative ovulation rate was higher with letrozole than with clomiphene (834 of 1352 treatment cycles [61.7%] vs. 688 of 1425 treatment cycles [48.3%], P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in pregnancy loss (49 of 154 pregnancies in the letrozole group [31.8%] and 30 of 103 pregnancies in the clomiphene group [29.1%]) or twin pregnancy (3.4% and 7.4%, respectively). Clomiphene was associated with a higher incidence of hot flushes, and letrozole was associated with higher incidences of fatigue and dizziness. Rates of other adverse events were similar in the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS As compared with clomiphene, letrozole was associated with higher live-birth and ovulation rates among infertile women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00719186.) PMID:25006718

Legro, Richard S.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Diamond, Michael P.; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Huang, Hao; Yan, Qingshang; Alvero, Ruben; Haisenleder, Daniel J.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Bates, G. Wright; Usadi, Rebecca; Lucidi, Scott; Baker, Valerie; Trussell, J.C.; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Snyder, Peter; Ohl, Dana; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

2014-01-01

155

Chemotherapeutic retroconversion of immature teratoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

There has been a growing interest in treating malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary with adjuvant chemotherapy following appropriate surgery. This is a report of 3 patients treated in this manner. Of interest is the finding in all 3 patients of residual mature metastatic teratomatous tissue representing many tissue types. The concept of possible chemotherapeutic "retroconversion" or "in situ destruction" of immature tissue may be the mechanism for this result. All patients are alive and presumably well at the time of this report. PMID:65751

DiSaia, P J; Saltz, A; Kagan, A R; Morrow, C P

1977-03-01

156

Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

2013-06-01

157

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

2014-01-01

158

MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome. PMID:25158044

Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise; Salö, Sofia; Englund, Anne Lis Mikkelsen; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

2014-01-01

159

Insulin and hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, and/or polycystic ovaries. But most experts consider that hyperandrogenism is the main characteristic of PCOS. Several theories propose different mechanisms to explain PCOS manifestations: (1) a primary enzymatic default in the ovarian and/or adrenal steroidogenesis; (2) an impairment in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion that promotes luteal hormone (LH) secretion; or (3) alterations in insulin actions that lead to insulin resistance with compensatory hyperinsulinemia. However, in the past 20 years there has been growing evidence supporting that defects in insulin actions or in the insulin signalling pathways are central in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Indeed, most women with PCOS are metabolically insulin resistant, in part due to genetic predisposition and in part secondary to obesity. But some women with typical PCOS do not display insulin resistance, which supports the hypothesis of a genetic predisposition specific to PCOS that would be revealed by the development of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia in most, but not all, women with PCOS. However, these hypotheses are not yet appropriately confirmed, and more research is still needed to unravel the true pathogenesis underlying this syndrome. The present review thus aims at discussing new concepts and findings regarding insulin actions in PCOS women and how it is related to hyperandrogenemia. PMID:20036327

Baptiste, Catherine G.; Battista, Marie-Claude; Trottier, Andréanne; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

2013-01-01

160

The Genetic Basis of Transgressive Ovary Size in Honeybee Workers  

PubMed Central

Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200–360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits. PMID:19620393

Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

2009-01-01

161

REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Endocrine differentiation of fetal ovaries and testes of the spotted  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Endocrine differentiation of fetal ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena ovaries and testis was hypothesized previously to induce phallic development in both sexes. We present-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3bHSD), and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc). Anti-Mu¨llerian-hormone

Moore, Ignacio T.

162

Gene Clustering Based on RNAi Phenotypes of Ovary-Enriched Genes in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a set of 766 genes that are enriched in the ovary as compared to the soma was identified by microarray analysis [1]. Here, we report a functional analysis of 98% of these genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Over half the genes tested showed at least one detectable phenotype, most commonly embryonic lethality, consistent with the expectation that ovary transcripts

Fabio Piano; Aaron J. Schetter; Diane G. Morton; Kristin C. Gunsalus; Valerie Reinke; Stuart K. Kim; Kenneth J. Kemphues

2002-01-01

163

Neonatal Exposure to Estrogens Suppresses Activin Expression and Signaling in the Mouse Ovary  

E-print Network

of estrogen action in the early mouse ovary. (Endocrinology 148: 1968­1976, 2007) OVARIAN FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT involves interactions be- tween multiple cell types within the ovary. Factors produced by ovarian granulosa cells (10, 11). The importance of estrogen in ovarian follicle development and maturation has been

Mayo, Kelly E.

164

The ovary structure, previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages in parthenogenetic species Dactylobiotus dispar (Murray, 1907) (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive system of Dactylobiotus dispar consists of the ovary and the oviduct that opens into the rectum. The sack-like ovary is filled with the developing oocytes, which are assisted by the trophocytes. In D. dispar, the mixed vitellogenesis takes place. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), the second part is absorbed by micropinocytosis

Izabela Poprawa

2005-01-01

165

Localisation and expression of arabinogalactan-proteins in the ovaries of Nicotiana alata Link and Otto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmitting-tissue cells of the style of flowering plants secrete a complex extracellular matrix through which pollen tubes grow to the ovary to effect fertilisation. This matrix is particularly rich in a class of proteoglycans, the arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). AGPs from the ovary of Nicotiana alata were found to be developmentally regulated, as the different charge classes of AGPs altered during

Alison M. Gane; Adrienne E. Clarke; Antony Bacic

1995-01-01

166

Resynthesizing Brassica napus from interspecific hybridization between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea through ovary culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using three varieties of Brassica rapa, cv. Hauarad (accession 708), cv. Maoshan-3 (714) and cv. Youbai (715), as the maternal plants and one variety of B. oleracea cv. Jingfeng-1 (6012) as the paternal plant, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques. A better response of seed formation was observed when ovaries were cultured in vitro at

G. Q. Zhang; G. X. Tang; W. J. Song; W. J. Zhou

2004-01-01

167

Endophytic and pathogenic fungi of developing cranberry ovaries from flower to mature fruit: diversity and succession  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Culturable fungal population diversity and succession were investigated in developing cranberry ovaries of fruit rot-resistant and rot-susceptible cranberry selections, from flower through mature fruit. Fungi were recovered in culture from 1185 of 1338 ovary tissues collected from June to September,...

168

Variation within the Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Gene Calpain-10 and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

E-print Network

Variation within the Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Gene Calpain-10 and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome LEMA HADDAD, JULIE C. EVANS, NEDA GHARANI, CAROLE ROBERTSON, KAREN RUSH, STEVEN WILTSHIRE, TIMOTHY M, and genetic overlap between type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), CAPN10 represents a strong

Cox, Nancy J.

169

Glandular hairs of the ovary: a helpful character for Asteroideae (Asteraceae) taxonomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface microcharacters of the ovary of the Asteraceae were studied, especially biseriate glandular hairs. Of 34 species belonging to the Asteroideae, only Dittrichia viscosa, Pulicaria dysenterica, Bellis perennis, Tanacetum parthenium, Achillea mar- itima, Matricaria chamomilla, and Eupatorium cannabinum possess glandular hairs on the ovary. Additional characters considered are hair morphology and distribution, cell number, and presence of subcuticular chambers and

Daniela Ciccarelli; Fabio Garbari; Anna M. Pagni

170

Incidence of metastasis to the ovaries from nongenital tract primary tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of metastatic tumors to the ovaries in nongenital tract primaries and to determine the route of dissemination.Methods. An IRB-approved study retrospectively reviewed patient records from January 1992 to January 2003. A tumor registry and pathology database search identified women with metastatic disease to the ovaries that had undergone surgery

Richard G Moore; Maureen Chung; Cornelius O Granai; Walter Gajewski; Margaret M Steinhoff

2004-01-01

171

Ovary growth and protein levels in ovary and fat body during adult-wintering period in the red mason bee, Osmia rufa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter months are supposed to be a crucial period for the development of the reproductive system, especially ovaries, in Osmia rufa females. During 7 months of the wintering period (from September till March), the length and width of terminal oocytes and\\u000a protein concentrations in ovary and fat body tissue extracts of red mason bee females, O. rufa, were studied. Our observations

Oskar Wasielewski; Karol Giejdasz; Tatiana Wojciechowicz; Marek Skrzypski

172

Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent pathology that affects more than 5% of women of reproductive age. Among other heterogeneous symptoms, PCOS is characterized by abnormalities in angiogenesis. Metformin has been introduced in the treatment of PCOS to manage insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Besides its metabolic effects, metformin has been shown to improve ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in PCOS patients. In the present study, we used a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS rat model to analyze the effect of metformin administration on ovarian angiogenesis. We found that metformin was able to restore the increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin (ANGPT)1, and ANGPT1/ANGPT2 ratio and the decreased levels of platelet-derived growth factor B and platelet-derived growth factor D observed in the dehydroepiandrosterone-treated rats. These effects could take place, at least in part, through a decrease in the levels of serum insulin. We also found an improvement in follicular development, with a lower percentage of small follicles and cysts and a higher percentage of antral follicles and corpora lutea after metformin administration. The improvement in ovarian angiogenesis is likely to restore the accumulation of small follicles observed in PCOS rats and to reduce cyst formation, thus improving follicular development and the percentage of corpora lutea. These results open new insights into the study of metformin action not only in glucose metabolism but also in ovarian dysfunction in PCOS women. PMID:25590243

Di Pietro, Mariana; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; Pascuali, Natalia; Bas, Diana; Bianchi, María Silvia; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

2015-04-01

173

Autophagy is a cell survival program for female germ cells in the murine ovary.  

PubMed

It is estimated that infertility affects 15-20% of couples and can arise from female or male reproductive defects. Mouse models have ascribed roles to over 100 genes in the maintenance of female fertility. Although previous models have determined roles for apoptosis in male and female fertility, we find that compromised autophagy within the perinatal ovary, through the loss of Becn1 or Atg7, results in the premature loss of female germ cells. Becn1(+/-) ovaries have a 56% reduction of germ cells compared with control ovaries at post-natal day 1, whereas Atg7(-/-) ovaries lack discernable germ cells at this stage. Thus autophagy appears to be a cell survival mechanism to maintain the endowment of female germ cells prior to establishing primordial follicle pools in the ovary. PMID:21464117

Gawriluk, Thomas R; Hale, Amber N; Flaws, Jodi A; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R; Rucker, Edmund B

2011-06-01

174

Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, Hippo Represses Notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic Ovaries, Triggering the Mitosis-Endocycle Switch in the Follicular Cells  

PubMed Central

During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only)-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries. PMID:25426635

Irles, Paula; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

2014-01-01

175

Assessment of ultrasonographic features of polycystic ovaries is associated with modest levels of inter-observer agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing acceptance that polycystic ovaries are an important marker of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) despite significant variability when making the ultrasound diagnosis. To better understand the nature of this variability, we proposed to evaluate the level of inter-observer agreement when identifying and quantifying individual ultrasonographic features of polycystic ovaries. METHODS: Digital recordings of transvaginal ultrasound scans performed

Marla E Lujan; Donna R Chizen; Andrew K Peppin; Anita Dhir; Roger A Pierson

2009-01-01

176

Polycystic ovary syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is now a well-recognized condition affecting 6%-25% of reproductive-aged women, depending on the definition. Over the past 3 decades, research has launched it from relative medical obscurity to a condition increasingly recognized as common in internal medicine practices. It affects multiple systems, and requires a comprehensive perspective on health care for effective treatment. Metabolic derangements and associated complications include insulin resistance and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome, and sleep apnea. Reproductive complications include oligo-/amenorrhea, sub-fertility, endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer. Associated psychosocial concerns include depression and disordered eating. Additionally, cosmetic issues include hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, and acne. This review organizes this multi-system approach around the mnemonic "MY PCOS" and discusses evaluation and treatment options for the reproductive, cosmetic, and metabolic complications of this condition. PMID:24859638

Setji, Tracy L; Brown, Ann J

2014-10-01

177

Anomalies in ovary following oral exposure to oxytocin: mechanistic studies.  

PubMed

Ovarian anomalies following oral oxytocin (OT) (1 and 10 ng/100 ?l) exposure of female Wistar rat pups (10-day old) for 25 days was undertaken as OT injections are illegally used for milk let down in cattle thereby causing oral exposure to human population from early age. OT exposure resulted in increased ovarian weight, ? globulin, total number of follicles, and number of corpus luteum (CLs); indicating higher ovulation. The mechanism may involve over-expression of pEGFR followed by downstream pERK1/2 and subsequently increased ovarian PGE-2 along with enhanced COX-2, HAS-2 & TSG-6 (matrix deposition proteins) and GDF-9 (oocyte factor) proteins, suggesting that oral exposure of OT may affect the physiology and function of the ovary. Further, in vitro studies showed increased internalization of OT in IEC-6 cells which further supports that orally administered OT may cause altered manifestations as shown above following internalization in mucosal membrane. PMID:23707249

Mishra, Manjari; Mishra, Vivek; Chaudhuri, Bhushan P; Khanna, Vinay K; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Ali, Shakir; Das, Mukul

2013-09-01

178

Animal models of the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype  

PubMed Central

The etiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unclear, despite its high prevalence among infertility disorders in women of reproductive age. Although there is evidence for a genetic component of the disorder, other causes, such as prenatal insults are considered among the potential factors that may contribute to the development of the syndrome. Over the past few decades, several animal models have been developed in an attempt to understand the potential contribution of exposure to excess steroids on the development of this syndrome. The current review summarizes the phenotypes of current animal models exposed to excess steroid during the prenatal and early postnatal period and how they compare with the phenotype seen in women with PCOS. PMID:23701728

Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

2013-01-01

179

Alternative splicing of the androgen receptor in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female subfertility. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of PCOS remains to be illustrated. Here, we identify two alternative splice variants (ASVs) of the androgen receptor (AR), insertion and deletion isoforms, in granulosa cells (GCs) in ?62% of patients with PCOS. AR ASVs are strongly associated with remarkable hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis, and are absent from all control subjects without PCOS. Alternative splicing dramatically alters genome-wide AR recruitment and androgen-induced expression of genes related to androgen metabolism and folliculogenesis in human GCs. These findings establish alternative splicing of AR in GCs as the major pathogenic mechanism for hyperandrogenism and abnormal folliculogenesis in PCOS. PMID:25825716

Wang, Fangfang; Pan, Jiexue; Liu, Ye; Meng, Qing; Lv, Pingping; Qu, Fan; Ding, Guo-Lian; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C. K.; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yao, Weimiao; Zhou, Cai-Yun; Shi, Biwei; Zhang, Junyu; Sheng, Jianzhong; Huang, Hefeng

2015-01-01

180

Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of cerebellar degeneration which initiated a suspicion of underlying malignancy. The patient presented with progressive ataxia and dysarthria and after excluding primary cerebellar pathology, paraneoplastic syndrome was suspected and she was investigated for a malignancy. CT scan of the pelvis showed a left-sided ovarian mass later diagnosed as serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. She underwent surgery and histology of the mass showed poorly-differentiated serous adenocarcinoma. Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome encompasses several neurological disorders including paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) caused by an immune-mediated mechanism in patients with an underlying malignancy. PCD is a rare condition that occurs in less than 1% of patients with cancer and is associated with specific groups of cancer. It is important to identify PCD due to its association with certain cancers and also to limit the disabilities associated with the syndrome. PMID:25432905

Saeed, Duaa B; Gupta, Limci

2014-01-01

181

A life course perspective on polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major public health problem in the US. Worldwide, the public is largely unaware of the condition and health care providers do not seem to fully understand it. Research on PCOS has primarily focused on its etiology and clinical characteristics and less on the psychosocial aspects of human development associated with PCOS. This paper posits that a life course perspective provides a framework for further understanding the psychosocial experiences of women with PCOS and the contexts in which they live. The paper discusses how life course principles of human development, constraints on agency, interdependence of lives, time and place, and timing of events and experiences are relevant to the management of PCOS and prevention of its complications. PMID:24489477

Sanchez, Ninive

2014-01-01

182

The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both ovary and uterus are in addition to age-related co-morbidities, which together have synergistic effects on reducing the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome. PMID:23103636

Nelson, S.M.; Telfer, E.E.; Anderson, R.A.

2013-01-01

183

Dexrazoxane abrogates acute Doxorubicin toxicity in marmoset ovary.  

PubMed

Preservation of ovarian function following chemotherapy for nonovarian cancers is a formidable challenge. For prepubescent girls, the only option to prevent chemotherapy damage to the ovary is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, an experimental procedure requiring invasive surgeries to harvest and reimplant tissue, which carries the risk of cancer reintroduction. Drugs that block the primary mechanism of chemotherapy insult, such as dexrazoxane (Dexra) in the context of anthracycline chemotherapy, provide a novel approach for ovarian protection and have the potential to overcome current limitations to oncofertility treatment. Dexra is a catalytic topoisomerase 2 inhibitor that protects the mouse ovary from acute doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy toxicity in vitro by preventing DXR-induced DNA damage and subsequent gammaH2AX activation. To translate acute DXR ovarian insult and Dexra protection from mouse to nonhuman primate, freshly obtained marmoset ovarian tissue was cultured in vitro and treated with vehicle or 20 ?M Dexra 1 h prior to 50 nM DXR. Cultured ovarian tissue was harvested at 2, 4, or 24 h post-DXR treatment. Dexra prevented DXR-induced DNA double-strand breaks as quantified by the neutral comet assay. DXR treatment for 24 h increased gammaH2AX phosphorylation, specifically increasing the number of foci-positive granulosa cells in antral follicles, while Dexra pretreatment inhibited DXR-induced gammaH2AX phosphorylation foci formation. Additionally, Dexra pretreatment trended toward attenuating DXR-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and caspase-9 activation as assayed by Western blots of ovarian tissue lysates. The combined findings suggest Dexra prevents primary DXR-induced DNA damage, the subsequent cellular response to DNA damage, and may diminish early apoptotic signaling in marmoset ovarian tissue. This study provides initial translation of Dexra protection against acute ovarian DXR toxicity from mice to marmoset monkey tissue. PMID:25609833

Salih, Sana M; Ringelstetter, Ashley K; Elsarrag, Mazin Z; Abbott, David H; Roti, Elon C Roti

2015-03-01

184

The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia.  

PubMed

Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of 'lower' primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

2014-08-01

185

Pollination Increases Gibberellin Levels in Developing Ovaries of Seeded Varieties of Citrus.  

PubMed Central

Reproductive and vegetative tissues of the seeded Pineapple cultivars of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) contained the following C-13 hydroxylated gibberellins (GAs): GA53, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA1, GA29, and GA8, as well as GA97, 3-epi-GA1, and several uncharacterized GAs. The inclusion of 3-epi-GA1 as an endogenous substance was based on measurements of the isomerization rates of previously added [2H2]GA1. Pollination enhanced amounts of GA19, GA20, GA29, and GA8 in developing ovaries. Levels of GA1 increased from 5.0 to 9.5 ng/g dry weight during anthesis and were reduced thereafter. The amount of GA in mature pollen was very low. Emasculation reduced GA levels and caused a rapid 100% ovary abscission. This effect was partially counteracted by either pollination or application of GA3. In pollinated ovaries, repeated paclobutrazol applications decreased the amount of GA and increased ovary abscission, although the pattern of continuous decline was different from the sudden abscission induced by emasculation. The above results indicate that, in citrus, pollination increases GA levels and reduces ovary abscission and that the presence of exogenous GA3 in unpollinated ovaries also suppresses abscission. Evidence is also presented that pollination and GAs do not, as is generally assumed, suppress ovary abscission through the reactivation of cell division. PMID:12223728

Ben-Cheikh, W.; Perez-Botella, J.; Tadeo, F. R.; Talon, M.; Primo-Millo, E.

1997-01-01

186

Pollination Increases Gibberellin Levels in Developing Ovaries of Seeded Varieties of Citrus.  

PubMed

Reproductive and vegetative tissues of the seeded Pineapple cultivars of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) contained the following C-13 hydroxylated gibberellins (GAs): GA53, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA1, GA29, and GA8, as well as GA97, 3-epi-GA1, and several uncharacterized GAs. The inclusion of 3-epi-GA1 as an endogenous substance was based on measurements of the isomerization rates of previously added [2H2]GA1. Pollination enhanced amounts of GA19, GA20, GA29, and GA8 in developing ovaries. Levels of GA1 increased from 5.0 to 9.5 ng/g dry weight during anthesis and were reduced thereafter. The amount of GA in mature pollen was very low. Emasculation reduced GA levels and caused a rapid 100% ovary abscission. This effect was partially counteracted by either pollination or application of GA3. In pollinated ovaries, repeated paclobutrazol applications decreased the amount of GA and increased ovary abscission, although the pattern of continuous decline was different from the sudden abscission induced by emasculation. The above results indicate that, in citrus, pollination increases GA levels and reduces ovary abscission and that the presence of exogenous GA3 in unpollinated ovaries also suppresses abscission. Evidence is also presented that pollination and GAs do not, as is generally assumed, suppress ovary abscission through the reactivation of cell division. PMID:12223728

Ben-Cheikh, W.; Perez-Botella, J.; Tadeo, F. R.; Talon, M.; Primo-Millo, E.

1997-06-01

187

Effects of carbon dioxide narcosis on ovary activation and gene expression in worker honeybees, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

In an effort to uncover genes associated with ovary activation in honey bee workers, the extent to which eight candidate genes co-varied in their expression with experimentally-induced changes in worker reproductive state was examined. Groups of caged, queenless workers narcotized with CO2 on consecutive days early in adult life showed a significantly lower level of ovary activation than did groups of untreated workers. This same experimental treatment, by contrast, is known to accelerate ovary activation and induce egg laying in virgin honey bee queens – an observation that suggests that CO2 narcosis has contrasting effects in queen versus worker ovary activation. Experimentally-induced changes to worker reproductive state were associated with changes in gene expression. Vitellogenin, an egg yolk precursor, and transferrin, an iron transporter, were two transcripts found to be significantly down-regulated as a function of the ovary-inhibiting treatment. CO2 narcosis did not effect the expression of six other genes selected as putative markers for processes that may underlie ovary activation. The show that the expression of vitellogenin and transferrin is correlated with ovary activation in workers, and may therefore be part of the gene network involved in the regulatory control of functional sterility in honeybees. PMID:17119618

Koywiwattrakul, Preeyada; Thompson, Graham J; Sitthipraneed, Sririporn; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Maleszka, Ryszard

2005-01-01

188

Struma Ovarii with Elevated Ca-125 Levels and Ascites Mimicking Advanced Ca Ovary  

PubMed Central

Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

Sinha, Navin Kumar

2014-01-01

189

Thyrostimulin, but Not Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH), Acts as a Paracrine Regulator to Activate the TSH Receptor in Mammalian Ovary*  

PubMed Central

The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), activated by either TSH or the newly discovered glycoprotein hormone thyrostimulin, plays a central role in the control of body metabolism. Interestingly, in addition to its thyroid expression, we discovered that the mRNA level of TSHR is periodically regulated in rat ovary by gonadotropins. Ovarian microdissection followed by real-time PCR analysis indicated that granulosa cells show the highest level of TSHR expression. Cultures of follicles and primary granulosa cells demonstrated that the level of TSHR is up-regulated and decreased by the gonadotropin-driven cAMP cascade and estradiol production, respectively. Furthermore, in contrast to the negligible expression of TSH in the ovary, we also found by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analysis that thyrostimulin is expressed mainly in oocytes. Evolving before the appearance of gonadotropins, thyrostimulin is considered the most ancestral glycoprotein hormone. Therefore, the presence of thyrostimulin in the ovary suggests that it may have a primitive function in reproduction when it activates ovarian TSHR. Next, we generated recombinant thyrostimulin protein and characterized its non-covalent heterodimeric nature. Using purified recombinant thyrostimulin, we show that the human ovarian cell line NIH:OVCAR-3 also expresses endogenous and functional TSHR. Using cultured rat granulosa cells isolated from different ovarian stages, we found that treatments with thyrostimulin significantly increase cAMP production and the c-fos gene response in the presence of gonadotropins. Thus, this study demonstrates that oocyte-derived thyrostimulin and granulosa cell-expressed TSHR compose a novel paracrine system in the ovary, where the activity is tightly controlled by gonadotropins. PMID:19955180

Sun, Su-Chin; Hsu, Pei-Jen; Wu, Fang-Ju; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lu, Chung-Hao; Luo, Ching-Wei

2010-01-01

190

The Genomic Sequence of the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) K1 cell line  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic proteins and antibodies represent a $125 billion annual market. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here, we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45Gb genomic sequence with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most scaffolds to 21 microfluidically-isolated chromosomes to identify chromosomal locations of genes. Furthermore, we investigate genes involved in glycosylation, which affects therapeutic protein quality, and viral susceptibility genes, which affect cell engineering and regulatory concerns. Specifically, homologs for most human glycosylation-associated genes are identified in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 are not expressed under exponential growth. In addition, many important viral entry genes are present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance property of CHO cell lines. We demonstrate how the availability of this genome sequence may facilitate genome-scale science for biopharmaceutical protein production. PMID:21804562

Xu, Xun; Nagarajan, Harish; Lewis, Nathan E.; Pan, Shengkai; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Xin; Chen, Wenbin; Xie, Min; Wang, Wenliang; Hammond, Stephanie; Andersen, Mikael R.; Neff, Norma; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Fan, H. Christina; Wang, Jianbin; Gui, Yaoting; Lee, Kelvin H.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Famili, Iman; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Wang, Jun

2011-01-01

191

Aromatase inhibitors for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: summary of a Cochrane review.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of anovulatory subfertility. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aromatase inhibitors compared with other methods of ovulation induction in women with anovulatory PCOS. PMID:25455536

Franik, Sebastian; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Farquhar, Cynthia; Marjoribanks, Jane

2015-02-01

192

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

193

MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffery and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Prot...

194

77 FR 59625 - NIH Evidence-Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary; Syndrome  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the public. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormone disorder that affects...women in the United States. Women with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant (i...Other organ systems that are affected by PCOS include the pancreas, liver,...

2012-09-28

195

Metformin and weight loss in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: comparison of doses   

E-print Network

CONTEXT: Metformin treatment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is widespread, as determined by studies with diverse patient populations. No comparative examination of weight changes or metabolite responses to different doses has been...

Harborne, L. R.; Sattar, N.; Norman, J. E.; Fleming, R.

196

Active Hypothermic Growth: A Novel Means For Increasing Total Interferon-? Production by Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

E-print Network

When grown under hypothermic conditions, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells become growth arrested in the G?/G? phase of the cell cycle and also often exhibit increased recombinant protein production. In this study, we ...

Stephen R., Fox

197

Chinese hamster ovary cells can produce galactose-?-1,3-galactose antigens on proteins  

E-print Network

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for the manufacture of biotherapeutics, in part because of their ability to produce proteins with desirable properties, including 'human-like' glycosylation profiles. For ...

Bosques, Carlos J

198

A Case of Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma with Synchronous Bilateral Adenocarcinoma of Ovary  

PubMed Central

Endometrial stromal tumor is a rare mesenchymal uterine tumor. We report the case of a patient with endometrial stromal sarcoma and concomitant bilateral endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary in the context of pelvic endometriosis. The patient underwent a complete cytoreduction including total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, appendicectomy, infracolic omentectomy, and pelvic peritonectomy. This is the first report to our knowledge that describes a synchronous endometrial stromal sarcoma and bilateral endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary. PMID:23198197

Caramelo, Olga; Marinho, Carol; Rebelo, Teresa; Amaral, Natália; Mota, Fernando; Xavier da Cunha, Fernanda; Torgal, Isabel

2012-01-01

199

Prevalence of ultrasonography proved polycystic ovaries in North Indian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovaries (PCO) and their clinical expression (the polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common medical conditions linked through insulin resistance. We studied the prevalence of PCO and PCOS in women with diet and\\/or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM and non-diabetic control women. DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: One hundred and five reproductive age

Abdul H Zargar; Vipin K Gupta; Arshad I Wani; Shariq R Masoodi; Mir I Bashir; Bashir A Laway; Mohammad A Ganie; Mohammad Salahuddin

2005-01-01

200

Expression of P450c17 messenger ribonucleic acid in postmenopausal human ovary tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the expression of the P450c17 gene in postmenopausal human ovaries compared with normal cycling ovaries.Design: Prospective nonrandomized clinical research study.Setting: Servei de Medicina Reproductiva and Centre d’Investigacions en Bioqu??mica i Biologia Molecular, Hospitals Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.Patient(s): Six premenopausal women and four postmenopausal women undergoing bilateral oophorectomy for nonovarian gynecologic disease.Intervention(s): Extraction of 10 mL of peripheral

Marta José; Cristina Puche; Albert Cabero; Llu??s Cabero; Anna Meseguer

1999-01-01

201

[The conflict between obturator nerve and ovary: a cadaveric and radioanatomic study].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relationships between the ovary and the obturator nerve in its intrapelvic portion. Seven embalmed cadavers were dissected; 20 MRIs were then analyzed. The main distance between the lateral pole of the ovary and the obturator nerve was 29 mm. The authors describe various etiologies responsible for obturator neuralgia. An underdiagnosed cause is gonadal hypertrophy. PMID:23796698

Jendrzejewski, F; Peltier, J; Havet, E; Page, C; Foulon, P; Gondry, J; Le Gars, D

2013-06-01

202

FMR1 Genotype with Autoimmunity-Associated Polycystic Ovary-Like Phenotype and Decreased Pregnancy Chance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FMR1 gene partially appears to control ovarian reserve, with a specific ovarian sub-genotype statistically associated with a polycystic ovary (PCO)- like phenotype. Some forms of PCO have been associated with autoimmunity. We, therefore, investigated in multiple regression analyses associations of ovary-specific FMR1 genotypes with autoimmunity and pregnancy chances (with in vitro fertilization, IVF) in 339 consecutive infertile women (455

Norbert Gleicher; Andrea Weghofer; Irene H. Lee; David H. Barad; Thomas Mailund

2010-01-01

203

A histopathological and histochemical study of the ovaries of mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two female mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and 16 non-infected control mice were studied. They were killed by cervical dislocation, dissected and their ovaries examined histopathologically and histochemically. Ovaries of infected mice showed definite structural damage. No ova, worms or specific granulomata were detected. The study points to a possible immunological mechanism producing such changes simulating those occurring in schistosomal nephropathy. Detection of immune complexes in such organs is recommended. PMID:6838760

Abaza, H.; Asser, L.; Abdel Reheim, S. M.; Shaaban, N.; Marei, S. K.; Hagras, M. A.

1983-01-01

204

Selection of donor and recipient females by ultrasonic imaging of the bovine ovary  

E-print Network

SELECTION OF DONOR AND RECIPIENT FEMALES BY ULTRASONIC IMAGING OF THE BOVINE OVARY A Thesis by SAMUEL PAUL JACRSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction SELECTION OF DONOR AND RECIPIENT FEMALES BY ULTRASONIC IMAGING OF THE BOVINE OVARY A Thesis by SAMUEL PAUL JACKSON Approved as to style and content by: David W. Forrest...

Jackson, Samuel Paul

1988-01-01

205

Oocyte formation by mitotically active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically active cells that have a gene expression profile that is

Yvonne A R White; Dori C Woods; Yasushi Takai; Osamu Ishihara; Hiroyuki Seki; Jonathan L Tilly

2012-01-01

206

Hormonal effects on the development of the mouse ovary in vitro  

E-print Network

Committee: Dr. Robert C. Burghardt A serum free, chemically defined culture medium was developed for studying the processes of fol liculogenesis occurring before birth in mice. Ovarian organ cultures were initiated on fetal day 17 at the onset of fol 1... icul ogenesi s in mice, when the ovaries are composed of an extensive rete ovarii system and clusters of oocytes which have reached the dictyate stage of meiosis. After 14 days, ovaries cultured in Medium 199 supplemented with insulin, transferrin...

Mitchell, Philip Allen

1985-01-01

207

Glucose and lipopolysaccharide regulate proatherogenic cytokine release from mononuclear cells in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation, which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We examined the effect of glucose ingestion and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on markers of proatherogenic inflammation in the mononuclear cells (MNC) and plasma of women with PCOS. Sixteen women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 15 weight-matched controls (8 lean, 7 obese) underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) release from MNC cultured in the presence of LPS and plasma IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured from blood samples drawn while fasting and 2h after glucose ingestion. Truncal fat was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA). Lean women with PCOS and obese controls failed to suppress LPS-stimulated IL-6 and IL-1? release from MNC after glucose ingestion. In contrast, obese women with PCOS suppressed these MNC-derived cytokines under the same conditions. In response to glucose ingestion, plasma IL-6 and sVCAM-1 increased and CRP suppression was attenuated in both PCOS groups and obese controls compared with lean controls. Fasting plasma IL-6 and CRP correlated positively with percentage of truncal fat. The absolute change in plasma IL-6 correlated positively with testosterone. We conclude that glucose ingestion promotes proatherogenic inflammation in PCOS with a systemic response that is independent of obesity. Based on the suppressed MNC-derived cytokine responses suggestive of LPS tolerance, chronic low-grade inflammation may be more profound in obese women with PCOS. Excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may contribute to atherogenesis in PCOS. PMID:24576416

González, Frank; Kirwan, John P; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi; O'Leary, Valerie B

2014-06-01

208

Partial ovary development is widespread in honey bees and comparable to other eusocial bees and wasps  

PubMed Central

Honey bee workers have few opportunities for direct reproduction because their ovary development is chemically suppressed by queens and worker-laid eggs are destroyed by workers. While workers with fully developed ovaries are rare in honey bee colonies, we show that partial ovary development is common. Across nine studies, an average of 6% to 43% of workers had partially developed ovaries in queenright colonies with naturally mated queens. This shift by workers toward potential future reproduction is linked to lower productivity, which suggests that even small investments in reproductive physiology by selfish workers reduce cooperation below a theoretical maximum. Furthermore, comparisons across 26 species of bees and wasps revealed that the level of partial ovary development in honey bees is similar to that of other eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive conflict among colony members. Natural variation in the extent of partial ovary development in honey bee colonies calls for an exploration of the genetic and ecological factors that modulate shifts in cooperation within animal societies. PMID:24255737

Smith, Michael L.; Mattila, Heather R.; Reeve, H. Kern

2013-01-01

209

[Ovarian development and analysis of mating effects on ovary maturation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)].  

PubMed

As many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the Huanglongbing, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. These mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. However, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the association insect-symbiont to control insect vectored-pathogens, there are very few studies on the host reproductive biology and on the symbiont transovarial transmission. Therefore, we aimed at analyzing the ovary development during D. citri adulthood, and at verifying for the mating requirement as a trigger to initiate ovary development. Newly-emerged D. citri females were grouped as virgin or mated and ovary development was observed during adulthood. Newly-emerged females have immature ovaries, and ovaries remain without any mature eggs until females mate. Once female mates, the vitellogenesis synthesis and uptake are estimulated, and oocytes are quickly developed. Oocytes maturation in ovarioles is metachronic, with only one oocyte developing at a time in each oogenic cycle. Morphological observations of the reproductive system including the ovaries and spermatheca, after the first cluster of eggs is laid, indicated D. citri is polyandrous, and may require multiple mating to develop additional oogenic maturation cycles. PMID:20676515

Dossi, Fábio C A; Cônsoli, Fernando L

2010-01-01

210

Hyberbaric oxygen increases atresia in normal & steroid induced PCO rat ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we investigated the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the morphology of estradiol valerate (EV) induced polycystic ovary (PCO) to find a new treatment modality for improvement of PCO. Methods The rats were divided into four groups. Group1, control; group 2, PCO group; group 3, PCO with HBOT group and group 4, normal ovary with HBOT. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg EV in adult cycling rats. Other rats with normal ovaries had oil injection as placebo. HBOT was applied to third and fourth groups for six weeks. Histopathologic evaluation of ovaries of all groups were performed & compared. Results Six weeks of HBOT was resulted in increase in follicular atresia, decrease in the number of primary, secondary, tertiary follicles and decrease in the number of fresh corpus luteum in normal rat ovary. HBOT on polycystic rat ovary, resulted in significant increase in atretic follicles which were already present. Conclusions HBOT of six weeks itself, changed ovarian morphology in favor of atresia both in PCO group and control group. This result of aggravated follicular atresia after HBOT on EV induced PCO may be due to long-term exposure in our protocol which with this state seems to be inapplicable in the improvement of PCO morphology. PMID:22309835

2012-01-01

211

Effect of the Growth Retardant 3,5-Dioxo-4-butyryl-cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester, an Acylcyclohexanedione Compound, on Fruit Growth and Gibberellin Content of Pollinated and Unpollinated Ovaries in Pea.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of pollinated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska, line V1) ovaries with 3,5-dioxo-4-butyryl-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester (LAB), an acylcyclohexanedione derivative that competitively inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent gibberellin (GA) dioxygenases, caused a reduction of pod elongation proportional to the amount of inhibitor applied. The effect of LAB was counteracted by GA1 and GA3, and partially by GA20. The inhibitor decreased the contents of GA1 and GA3 (the purported active GAs) and GA8, increased those of GA19 and GA20, and did not affect that of GA29 in both the pod and the developing seeds. These results provide evidence that GA1 and/or GA3 control pod development in pea and show that GA20 is not active per se. In contrast to its effect on pollinated ovaries, LAB promoted parthenocarpic development of unpollinated ovaries, which is associated with an increase of GA1 and GA8 content. The inhibitor enhanced the response of unpollinated ovaries to GA1 and GA20, but it did not alter the response to GA3. LAB is proposed to promote parthenocarpic development and enhance the response to exogenous GAs by blocking the 2[beta]-hydroxylation of GA1 more efficiently than 3[beta]-hydroxylation of GA20. PMID:12228489

Santes, C. M.; Garcia-Martinez, J. L.

1995-01-01

212

Diagnostic features of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents (review).  

PubMed

The problem of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is of a special importance due to its connection with not only medical but with psychosocial factors. PCOS is the most common endocrine cause of anovulatory infertility. It is a major factor for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical symptoms of PCOS such as acne, hirsutism, obesity, alopecia represent psychological problem, especially for the adolescents. Many women who have PCOS have the onset of symptoms during adolescence. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS are important for preventing of the above mentioned long-term consequences associated with this condition. Adolescent patients often have diagnostic problems because the features of normal puberty are similar with symptoms of PCOS. This article reviews the diagnostic and differential diagnostic characteristics of PCOS in adolescents. In conclusion, consensus statement in adolescent patients is still awaiting. Our data suggest that it may be prudent to define adolescent PCOS according to the Carmina modified Rotterdam criteria. The increase rate of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS emphasize the importance of regular screening due to the high cardiometabolic disorders risk. PMID:25693210

Beltadze, K; Barbakadze, L

2015-01-01

213

The management of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The syndrome is typified by its heterogeneous presentation, which includes hirsutism (a function of hypersecretion of ovarian androgens), menstrual irregularity and infertility (that is due to infrequent or absent ovulation). Furthermore, PCOS predisposes patients to metabolic dysfunction and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aetiology of the syndrome has a major genetic component. Obesity exacerbates the insulin resistance that is a feature of PCOS in many women and amplifies the clinical and biochemical abnormalities. In clinical practice, the choice of investigations to be done depends mainly on the presenting symptoms. The approach to management is likewise dependent on the presenting complaint. Symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne and alopecia) require cosmetic measures, suppression of ovarian androgen function and anti-androgen therapy, alone or in combination. Ovulation rate is improved by diet and lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals but induction of ovulation by, in the first instance, anti-estrogens is usually required. Monitoring of glucose is important in overweight women and/or those with a family history of T2DM. Metformin is indicated for women with impaired glucose tolerance but whether this drug is otherwise useful in women with PCOS remains debatable. PMID:25022814

Jayasena, Channa N; Franks, Stephen

2014-10-01

214

Signet-ring stromal and related tumors of the ovary.  

PubMed

The signet-ring stromal tumor of the ovary, described only twice previously, is an enigmatic lesion in respect to its cell lineage and the nature of the cytoplasmic vacuoles that cause the signet-ring cell appearance. The vacuoles were shown in the initial report to contain no lipid, mucoprotein, or glycogen, and the ovarian stromal cell was assumed to be the cell of origin. The present study describes three ovarian neoplasms in which the immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings support a stromal origin for the cells, and a fourth tumor that simulated the other three closely on light microscopic examination but had several features supporting a sex-cord rather than stromal origin: immunohistochemical staining for keratin and alpha smooth muscle actin, and globular keratin staining, similar to that seen in granulosa cell tumors; and numerous prominent junctions including desmosomes on electron microscopy. In only one of the four tumors were the vacuoles similar ultrastructurally to those in the first reported case, appearing to result from generalized edema of the cytoplasmic matrix. In a second tumor, the vacuoles resulted from hydropic swelling of numerous mitochondria, which filled the cytoplasm of the cells. In the other two tumors, the vacuoles were not cytoplasmic, but cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions of edematous extracellular matrix. An additional interesting finding in one of the four tumors was the presence of hyaline globules within and adjacent to the signet-ring cells. Ultrastructural examination revealed the globules to be degenerating erythrocytes, many of which had been phagocytosed by the tumor cells. PMID:7483017

Dickersin, G R; Young, R H; Scully, R E

1995-01-01

215

PCOS Forum: Research in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Today and Tomorrow  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarize promising areas of investigation into polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to stimulate further research in this area. Summary Potential areas of further research activity include the analysis of predisposing conditions that increase the risk of PCOS, particularly genetic background and environmental factors, such as endocrine disruptors and lifestyle. The concept that androgen excess may contribute to insulin resistance needs to be re-examined from a developmental perspective, since animal studies have supported the hypothesis that early exposure to modest androgen excess is associated with insulin resistance. Defining alterations of steroidogenesis in PCOS should quantify ovarian, adrenal and extraglandular contribution, as well as clearly define blood reference levels by some universal standard. Intraovarian regulation of follicle development and mechanisms of follicle arrest should be further elucidated. Finally, PCOS status is expected to have long-term consequences in women, specifically the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hormone dependent cancers. Identifying susceptible individuals through genomic and proteomic approaches would help to individualize therapy and prevention. A potential limitation of our review is that we focused selectively on areas we viewed as the most controversial. PMID:21158892

Pasquali, Renato; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Yildiz, Bulent O.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Hoeger, Kathleen; Mason, Helen; Homburg, Roy; Hickey, Theresa; Franks, Steve; Tapanainen, Juha; Balen, Adam; Abbott, David H.; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Legro, Richard S.

2013-01-01

216

Voltage-dependent ionic conductances in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are becoming a widely used biological material. A number of studies report membrane ion conductance changes after transfection of channels and receptors, but there are few data available on the properties of membrane ion conductances of CHO cells before transfection. In this work we studied voltage-dependent ionic conductances in cultures of CHO native (CHO-K1) cells. Three types of voltage-dependent ionic conductances were identified: 1) a K+ conductance showing sensitivity to Ca2+ and a unit conductance of approximately 210 pS in symmetrical 150 mM K+ outside-out patches (this conductance, which did not inactivate during a 160-ms pulse, was inhibited by 30 nM charybdotoxin but not by 30 mM extracellular tetraethylammonium); 2) a rapidly activating and inactivating tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive inward current, peaking at about -10 to 0 mV (this current showed characteristics similar in many respects to Na+ current recorded in neurons); and 3) another voltage-dependent inward current, which had slow inactivation, was TTX insensitive but was blocked by Co2+ (current was also carried by Ba2+, peaked at approximately 0 to +10 mV, was identified as a Ca2+ conductance, and was inhibited by dihydropyridines but not by 10 microM omega-conotoxin). Cell-attached patch recordings of single Ca2+ channel currents demonstrated a unitary conductance of approximately 20 pS. PMID:7521129

Skryma, R; Prevarskaya, N; Vacher, P; Dufy, B

1994-08-01

217

Morphology of the ovary of Caiman crocodilus (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae).  

PubMed

We describe the ovarian histology and characterize the folliculogenesis of adult females of Caiman crocodilus in order to compare them with other species of Reptilia. The gonad has a thin irregular cortex and a well-developed reticular stroma, composed of vascularized chordae, drained by large lymphatic vessels and separated by extensive lacunae. Simple cuboidal to squamous epithelium, dense connective tissue with numerous elastin fibers, and smooth muscle constitute the ovarian wall. This morphology is similar to that of other Crocodylia, Aves and Testudines. Germinal nests are distributed in the ovarian cortex, some of them with oogonia. Oocytes leave the germinal nests with a single layered cuboidal granulosa, remaining simple during vitellogenesis, as in other Archosauria and Testudines and different from Squamata. As the oocyte grows, the theca is formed by numerous fibroblasts, collagen fibers, and smooth muscle fibers, becoming very thick, highly vascularized and developing muscle bands at advanced vitellogenesis. Folliculogenesis shares morphological features with other species of Reptilia. The corpus luteum is similar to that described for Archosauria; during luteolysis, the theca shrinks and the amount of luteinic cells decreases. The relationship of the corpus luteum to vitellogenesis and egg maintenance is unclear in Crocodylia. Follicular regression in Caiman crocodilus corresponds to an invasive atresia type. Histological features seen in the ovary of Caiman crocodilus are similar to those described in Alligator mississippiensis indicating that these features could be shared among Crocodylia. Also several of these morphological characteristics are observed in Aves suggesting a similar reproductive functional morphology in Archosauria. PMID:14994908

Calderón, Martha L; De Pérez, Gloria R; Ramírez Pinilla, Martha Patricia

2004-02-01

218

FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.  

PubMed

Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes. PMID:24049064

Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

2014-02-01

219

Valinomycin-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence endorses that excessive K(+) efflux is an ionic mechanism underlying apoptosis both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. K(+) channels play important roles in mediating the pro-apoptotic K(+) efflux. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely used for gene transfection experiments. These cells lack detectable endogenous voltage-gated K(+) channels. We were interested in knowing whether the absence of endogenous K(+) channels would render wild-type CHO cells more resistant to apoptotic death. We also wished to determine if direct stimulation of K(+) efflux would trigger apoptosis in these cells. Exposing CHO cells to hypoxia (1% O(2)) or to a typical apoptotic insult of serum deprivation for up to 24h did not affect cell survival. On the other hand, the K(+) ionophore valinomycin caused substantial cell death within 12h of its application. Valinomycin-treated CHO cells underwent several apoptotic events, including phosphatidylserine (PS) membrane translocation, caspase-3 activation, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization during the first few hours of exposure. Reducing K(+) efflux by elevating extracellular K(+) concentrations noticeably attenuated valinomycin-induced cell death. This study reinforces a K(+) efflux-mediated apoptotic mechanism in CHO cells and may help to explain the unique feature of their higher tolerance to apoptosis. PMID:16857314

Abdalah, Rany; Wei, Ling; Francis, Kevin; Yu, Shan Ping

2006-09-11

220

Initiation of puberty in mice following decellularized ovary transplant.  

PubMed

Clinical interventions to preserve fertility and restore hormone levels in female patients with therapy-induced ovarian failure are insufficient, particularly for pediatric cancer patients. Laparoscopic isolation of cortical ovarian tissue followed by cryopreservation with subsequent autotransplantation has temporarily restored fertility in at least 27 women who survived cancer, and aided in pubertal transition for one pediatric patient. However, reintroducing cancer cells through ovarian transplantation has been a major concern. Decellularization is a process of removing cellular material, while maintaining the organ skeleton of extracellular matrices (ECM). The ECM that remains could be stripped of cancer cells and reseeded with healthy ovarian cells. We tested whether a decellularized ovarian scaffold could be created, recellularized and transplanted to initiate puberty in mice. Bovine and human ovaries were decellularized, and the ovarian skeleton microstructures were characterized. Primary ovarian cells seeded onto decellularized scaffolds produced estradiol in vitro. Moreover, the recellularized grafts initiated puberty in mice that had been ovariectomized, providing data that could be used to drive future human transplants and have broader implications on the bioengineering of other organs with endocrine function. PMID:25736492

Laronda, Monica M; Jakus, Adam E; Whelan, Kelly A; Wertheim, Jason A; Shah, Ramille N; Woodruff, Teresa K

2015-05-01

221

Autonomic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Central obesity and hyperinsulinaemia of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with chronic sympathetic over activity. Objective: To evaluate the autonomic functions and to indicate the superiority, if any, for those functions in the diagnosis of sympathetic over activity in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four PCOS patients and 40 women served as the control group were studied. The two groups were subdivided according to the body mass index (BMI) into two obese and non-obese groups. Waist:hip ratio (WHR), plasma epinephrine level was estimated, sympathetic skin response (SSR); postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, heart rate variability (HRV), and valsalva ratio were measured in both groups. Results: Compared to the control group, obese PCOS patients demonstrated higher BMI and WHR, reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, altered HRV, higher plasma epinephrine level, and rapid pulse rate. Moreover, non-obese patients show reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, higher plasma epinephrine level, and higher pulse rate. BMI and WHR of the patients were positively correlated with plasma epinephrine level; while the HRV was negatively correlated WHR. Conclusion: Women with PCOS exhibits altered autonomic function and sympathoexcitation is more pronounced in obese than non-obese patients; therefor the SSR could be useful auxiliary electrophysiological test to predict autonomic dysfunction in those patients. Receiver operating characteristics curve demonstrate the pulse rate in standing position as the autonomic function test that is superior to others in predicting sympathetic over activity in those patients. PMID:25653673

Hashim, Zainab Hasan; Hamdan, Farqad Bader; Al-Salihi, Anam Rashid

2015-01-01

222

Genetic polymorphisms in pakistani women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the major cause of anovulatory infertility. Although the genetic basis of PCOS is not well understood, it is a common metabolic and endocrine disorder. This study investigates the possible genomic variants associated with PCOS in Pakistani women from the Punjab region. DNA samples from 96 patients with genetically unrelated PCOS and 96 controls were analyzed by direct sequencing to determine the polymorphisms of different loci on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr), follicle-stimulating hormone ? (fshr?), luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin (lhcgr), luteinizing hormone ? (lh?), estrogen receptor ? (esr1), and estrogen receptor ? (esr2) genes. Significant associations were observed within the genotype frequencies, allele frequencies, and multi-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype analysis of most polymorphisms studied. This study identified new SNPs at positions 605+52 Del/T in lhcgr genes occurring in this particular subpopulation. The strong r (2) value suggests that polymorphisms in the fshr and esr1 genes were in linkage disequilibrium. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant associations between susceptibility to PCOS in Pakistani women and the gene polymorphisms mentioned earlier. This suggests that the susceptible loci for PCOS lie within or very close to the chromosomal regions spanning these genes. PMID:25100445

Liaqat, Irfana; Jahan, Nusrat; Krikun, Graciela; Taylor, Hugh S

2015-03-01

223

Inositol: history of an effective therapy for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.  

PubMed

Inositol is a physiological compound belonging to the sugar family. The two inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol and D-chiroinositol are the two main stereisomers present in our body. Myo-inositol is the precursor of inositol triphosphate, a second messenger regulating many hormones such as TSH, FSH and insulin. D-chiroinositol is synthetized by an insulin dependent epimerase that converts myo-inositol into D-chiro-inositol. Polycistic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and hormonal disorder and a common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinaemia contribute to hyperandrogenism development, typical marker of PCOS. In these patients myo and/or D-chiro-inositol administration improves insulin sensivity while only myo-inositol is a quality marker for oocytes evaluation. Myo-inositol produces second messengers for FSH and glucose uptake, while D-chiroinositol provides second messengers promoting glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The physiological ratio of these two isomers is 40:1 (MI/DCI) and seems to be an optimal approach for the treatment of PCOS disorders. PMID:25010620

Bizzarri, M; Carlomagno, G

2014-07-01

224

Metformin use in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy characterised by increased resistance to insulin. Metformin is one of the longest established oral insulin sensitising agents. For decades its use was restricted to management of type 2 diabetes. However, in the past two decades, its properties as an insulin sensitising agent have been explored in relation to its applicability for women with PCOS. Metformin is an effective ovulation induction agent for non-obese women with PCOS and offers some advantages over other first line treatments for anovulatory infertility such as clomiphene. For clomiphene-resistant women, metformin alone or in combination with clomiphene is an effective next step. Women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilisation should be offered metformin to reduce their risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Limited evidence suggests that metformin may be a suitable alternative to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) for treating hyperandrogenic symptoms of PCOS including hirsutism and acne. More research is required to define whether metformin has a role in improving long term health outcomes for women with PCOS, including the prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and endometrial cancer. PMID:25333031

2014-01-01

225

Histology of the ovary of Chinchilla lanigera in captivity.  

PubMed

Chinchilla, the lanigera variety in particular, is one of the most valuable rodents in the fur industry. The chinchilla ovary is morphologically similar to that of other South American hystricognath rodents, especially as regards its anatomy and, to a lesser degree, its histology. The presence of numerous primary follicles throughout the annual cycle suggests that a few of them are recruited to initiate growth and differentiation during folliculogenesis. Primary follicles with two or more oocytes are common; this is not the case with follicles at more advanced stages, suggesting that they do not develop. Only one or two large corpora lutea (CL) and three to five small or accessories CL were observed but no corpora albicans. The presence of accessory CL may reflect the importance of continuous hormonal production to support prolonged gestation. Atretic CL were also present, showing signs of degeneration in luteal cells. The interstitial cells distributed throughout the cortex were the main histological feature shared with other species, as stated in previous reports. Antral atresia was observed in all sizes of antral follicles while basal atresia was confined exclusively to smaller follicles. PMID:24939708

Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Torres-Luque, A; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Bühler, M I

2014-08-01

226

Retroconversion of immature teratoma of the ovary: CT appearances.  

PubMed

We have studied seven patients presenting to the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1983 and 1989 with metastatic immature teratoma of the ovary. All patients underwent initial surgery followed by combination chemotherapy and a second laparotomy. Serial CT scans were performed at 2-3 monthly intervals from diagnosis until the second laparotomy, and the results of this were correlated with the CT appearances. In six of the seven patients CT scanning demonstrated 'retroconversion' of immature malignant tumour masses to benign mature disease during treatment. CT features of maturation included increased density of mass lesions, whose margins became better circumscribed in relation to adjacent tissues, and the onset of internal calcification, with fatty areas and cystic change. These changes on CT correlated exactly with normalization of an initially raised serum tumour marker, alpha feto-protein (AFP) in all six patients. The second laparotomy revealed only mature teratoma in all patients following chemotherapy. In three patients show continued growth of the mature deposits necessitated further surgery for local pressure symptoms, but overall, none has shown malignant relapse, and all are currently well between 1 and 6 years after diagnosis. This is the first report of the CT appearances of retroconversion of immature ovarian teratoma in a series of patients, which is an important radiological diagnosis to make in order to avoid confusion with advancing malignancy. A review of the literature is presented. PMID:2070582

Moskovic, E; Jobling, T; Fisher, C; Wiltshaw, E; Parsons, C

1991-06-01

227

Genetic characterization of small ovaries, a gene required in the soma for the development of the Drosophila ovary and the female germline  

SciTech Connect

The small ovary gene (sov) is required for the development of the Drosophila ovary. Six EMS-induced recessive alleles have been identified. Hypomorphic alleles are female sterile and have no effect on male fertility, whereas more severe mutations result in lethality. The female-sterile alleles produce a range of mutant phenotypes that affect the differentiation of both somatic and germline tissues. These mutations generally produce small ovaries that contain few egg cysts and disorganized ovarioles, and in the most extreme case no ovarian tissue is present. The mutant egg cysts that develop have aberrant morphology, including abnormal numbers of nurse cells and patches of necrotic cells. We demonstrate that sov gene expression is not required in the germline for the development of functional egg cysts. This indicates that the sov function is somatic dependent. We present evidence using loss-of-function and constitutive forms of the somatic sex regulatory genes that sov activity is essential for the development of the somatic ovary regardless of the chromosomal sex of the fly. In addition, the genetic mapping of the sov locus is presented, including the characterization of two lethal sov alleles and complementation mapping with existing rearrangements. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wayne, S.; Liggett, K.; Pettus, J.; Nagoshi, R.N. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1995-03-01

228

Laparoscopic repair of indirect inguinal hernia containing endometriosis, ovary, and fallopian tube in adult woman without genital anomalies.  

PubMed

Indirect inguinal hernia containing an ovary is a rare condition, especially in adult women who do not have any other genital tract anomalies. In addition, inguinal hernia containing an ovary and endometriosis is exceedingly rare. In the present report, we describe a case of indirect inguinal hernia containing an ovary, fallopian tube, and endometriosis. Laparoscopic repair was performed successfully using polypropylene mesh for the treatment of the inguinal hernia. PMID:25469350

Kim, Ji Hyun; Chong, Gun Oh; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Yoon Hee; Hong, Dae Gy; Park, Soo Yeun; Park, Ji Young

2014-11-01

229

Laparoscopic repair of indirect inguinal hernia containing endometriosis, ovary, and fallopian tube in adult woman without genital anomalies  

PubMed Central

Indirect inguinal hernia containing an ovary is a rare condition, especially in adult women who do not have any other genital tract anomalies. In addition, inguinal hernia containing an ovary and endometriosis is exceedingly rare. In the present report, we describe a case of indirect inguinal hernia containing an ovary, fallopian tube, and endometriosis. Laparoscopic repair was performed successfully using polypropylene mesh for the treatment of the inguinal hernia. PMID:25469350

Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Yoon Hee; Hong, Dae Gy; Park, Soo Yeun; Park, Ji Young

2014-01-01

230

Stereological study of the effects of letrozole and estradiol valerate treatment on the ovary of rats  

PubMed Central

Objective Letrozole and estradiol valerate are used to treat some hormonally-responsive symptoms and also in modeling of the polycystic ovary syndrome. However, the stereological analysis of the ovary has received less attention. Estimation of the whole ovary volume using the Cavalieri method can be applied in any orientation desired, but estimation of the mean volume of the oocytes requires isotropic uniform random sectioning. Here, a combined method was developed for estimating the parameters. To our knowledge, no comparison has been made of the effects of letrozole and estradiol on the ovary. Methods Sixty rats were divided into 4 groups receiving estradiol (4 mg/kg), olive oil, letrozole (1 mg/kg), or normal saline. After 21 days, their ovaries were studied. Results Relative to the control group, the total volume of the ovary and the cortex increased in the letrozole-treated and estradiol-treated rats. In addition, the number of the preantral, antral, and granulosa cells decreased by 43% to 56% in the letrozole- and estradiol-treated rats. On average, a 19% increase was observed in the atretic oocytes of the letrozole-treated and estradiol-treated rats, but the mean oocyte volume decreased by 29% to 44% in letrozole- and estradiol-treated rats. Furthermore, the letrozole-treated rats showed a 5-fold and 7-fold increase in the volume of the cysts and corpus luteum, respectively. A 3-fold increase was found in the volume of both the cysts and corpus luteum in the estradiol group. Conclusion The structural changes of the ovary were most pronounced in the letrozole-treated animals. PMID:24179868

Noorafshan, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mesbah, Seyed-Fakhroddin

2013-01-01

231

Predictors of depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a cross-sectional study of 114 women seeking consultation for symptoms of PCOS (menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, and/or acne), personal and family history of depression (HD and FHD respectively) were enquired. Vitamin D status (n?=?104) and manifest depressive symptoms assessed by personal health questionnaire (PHQ) (MD) were evaluated in a subset (85). Relationships between HD and MD with PCOS symptoms, FHD, and vitamin D status were assessed using adjusted analyses. Thirty-five percent acknowledged a HD; MD (PHQ?>?4) was apparent in 43 %. HD was associated with hirsutism (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.01-5.9), disturbed sleep (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.3-6.9), and with FHD (OR 4.8, 95 % CI 1.7-13.5). Disturbed sleep (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.01-5.7) and FHD (OR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.3-11.2) were independent predictors of HD adjusting for race and BMI. An inverse correlation was noted between serum 25 OH vitamin D (25OHD) levels and PHQ score, but only in those with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD???30 ng/ml, n?=?57, r?=-0.32, p?=?0.015). 25OHD?

Naqvi, Syed Haider; Moore, Ava; Bevilacqua, Kris; Lathief, Sanam; Williams, Joanne; Naqvi, Nighat; Pal, Lubna

2015-02-01

232

Outcome of Ovarian Drilling in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in inducing ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who failed to conceive after medical methods of ovulation induction. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of all women who underwent LOD as a treatment for anovulatory infertility between January 2010 and December 2011 was conducted. Women diagnosed to have PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria were considered for the study. Those who had PCOS but were associated with male factor infertility, deep infiltrating endometriosis and submucous fibroids were excluded. Results: A total of 43 women underwent LOD during the study period. Majority were aged 26 to 30 years and two-thirds were overweight or obese. Most (72%) of them had primary infertility. Other factors which could have contributed to infertility such as superficial endometriosis, septate uterus and unilateral tubal block were observed in 30.2% of the women, which were dealt with concomitantly. When we excluded the 14% who were lost to follow up, 23 of 43 (53.5%) women achieved pregnancy and almost 70% of them did so within the first 6 months. None of our study population had ovarian hyperstimulation or multiple pregnancy. Conclusion: LOD thus not only helps in regulating ovulation and enhancing conception rates but also provides an opportunity to assess the pelvis for other potential causes of subfertility which could be treated at the same time. We therefore believe that diagnostic hysteroscopy and laparoscopy should be offered quite high-up in the hierarchy of infertility investigations and treatment.

Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao

2015-01-01

233

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD. PMID:25024594

Vassilatou, Evangeline

2014-01-01

234

Circulating microRNAs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Aim: To explore the pattern of expression of circulating miRNAs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: Microarray and qRT-PCR were used to investigate circulating miRNAs in PCOS during clinical diagnosis. The targets of dys-regulated miRNAs were predicted using bioinformatics, followed by function and pathway analysis using the databases of Gene Ontology and the KEGG pathway. Results: BMI, triglyceride, HOMA-IR, Testosterone and CRP levels were significantly higher, while estradiol was significantly lower in PCOS than in control groups. After SAM analysis, 5 circulating miRNAs were significantly up-regulated (let-7i-3pm, miR-5706, miR-4463, miR-3665, miR-638) and 4 (miR-124-3p, miR-128, miR-29a-3p, let-7c) were down-regulated in PCOS patients. Hierarchical clustering showed a general distinction between PCOS and control samples in a heat map. After joint prediction by different statistical methods, 34 and 41 genes targeted were up-and down-regulated miRNAs, in PCOS and controls, respectively. Further, GO and KEGG analyses revealed the involvement of the immune system, ATP binding, MAPK signaling, apoptosis, angiogenesis, response to reactive oxygen species and p53 signaling pathways in PCOS. Conclusions: We report a novel non-invasive miRNA profile which distinguishes PCOS patients from healthy controls. The miRNA-target database may provide a novel understanding of PCOS and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25268995

Ding, Cai-Fei; Chen, Wang-Qiang; Zhu, Yu-Tian; Bo, Ya-Li; Hu, Hui-Min; Zheng, Ruo-Heng

2014-09-30

235

Mechanisms in endocrinology: thyroid and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Thyroid disorders, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are closely associated, based on a number of studies showing a significantly higher prevalence of HT in women with PCOS than in controls. However, the mechanisms of this association are not as clear. Certainly, genetic susceptibility contributes an important part to the development of HT and PCOS. However, a common genetic background has not yet been established. Polymorphisms of the PCOS-related gene for fibrillin 3 (FBN3) could be involved in the pathogenesis of HT and PCOS. Fibrillins influence the activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF?). Multifunctional TGF? is also a key regulator of immune tolerance by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are known to inhibit excessive immune response. With lower TGF? and Treg levels, the autoimmune processes, well known in HT and assumed in PCOS, might develop. In fact, lower levels of TGF?1 were found in HT as well as in PCOS women carrying allele 8 of D19S884 in the FBN3 gene. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency was shown to decrease Tregs. Finally, high estrogen-to-progesterone ratio owing to anovulatory cycles in PCOS women could enhance the immune response. Harmful metabolic and reproductive effects were shown to be more pronounced in women with HT and PCOS when compared with women with HT alone or with controls. In conclusion, HT and PCOS are associated not only with respect to their prevalence, but also with regard to etiology and clinical consequences. However, a possible crosstalk of this association is yet to be elucidated. PMID:25422352

Gaberš?ek, Simona; Zaletel, Katja; Schwetz, Verena; Pieber, Thomas; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth

2015-01-01

236

Expression of preproenkephalin-like mRNA and its peptide products in mammalian testis and ovary.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of preproenkephalin mRNA and proenkephalin-derived peptides have been examined in gonadal tissues from rats, hamsters, and cattle. A preproenkephalin mRNA band was detected in the ovaries of all three species and in hamster testis that is identical in size to the 1450-nucleotide mRNA typically found in tissues that express proenkephalin. Rat testis, on the other hand, expresses at least one preproenkephalin-like mRNA that is substantially greater in size (1900 nucleotides). [Met]enkephalin-containing peptides were also detected in each of the gonadal tissues examined. Although the abundance of preproenkephalin-like mRNA in rat testis was comparable to that in rat brain, the testicular content of proenkephalin-derived [Met]enkephalin sequences was less than 4% of the rat brain content. Together these data suggest that preproenkephalin-like mRNA in rat testis is not efficiently translated, proenkephalin-derived peptides undergo rapid turnover in this tissue, or the mRNA in rat testis has a frameshift resulting in an altered coding sequence. Images PMID:3864164

Kilpatrick, D L; Howells, R D; Noe, M; Bailey, L C; Udenfriend, S

1985-01-01

237

The presence of antibodies to oxidative modified proteins in serum from polycystic ovary syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age. Free radicals, as a product of oxidative stress, impair cells and tissue properties related to human fertility. These free radicals, together with the oxidized molecules, may have a cytotoxic or deleterious effects on sperm and oocytes, on early embryo development or on the endometrium. Aldehyde-modified proteins are highly immunogenic and circulating autoantibodies to new epitopes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), may affect the reproductive system. Autoantibodies or elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum are often associated with inflammatory response. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether PCOS women show increased levels of oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) and anti-endometrial antibodies (AEA) in their sera, compared with control patients, and to determine whether AEA specificity is related to oxidized protein derivatives. Sera from 31 women [10 patients with PCOS (PCOS group) and 21 women with male factor of infertility (control group)] were chosen from patients attending for infertility. Anti-endometrial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an endometrial cell line (RL-95). Antibodies against MDA modified human serum albumin (HSA–MDA) were also determined by ELISA. Oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) in serum were determined by a colorimetric assay. Patients with PCOS have significantly higher levels of AEA and anti-HSA–MDA, as well as oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) in serum than control patients. For the first time, we describe an autoimmune response in PCOS patients, in terms of AEA. The evidence of protein–MDA in the serum of these patients, together with the increased antibody reactivity to MDA-modified proteins (HSA–MDA) in vitro, supports the conclusion that oxidative stress may be one of the important causes for abnormal endometrial environment with poor embryo receptivity in PCOS patients. PMID:16634794

Palacio, J R; Iborra, A; Ulcova-Gallova, Z; Badia, R; Martínez, P

2006-01-01

238

Culture and Co-Culture of Mouse Ovaries and Ovarian Follicles  

PubMed Central

The mammalian ovary is composed of ovarian follicles, each follicle consisting of a single oocyte surrounded by somatic granulosa cells, enclosed together within a basement membrane. A finite pool of follicles is laid down during embryonic development, when oocytes in meiotic arrest form a close association with flattened granulosa cells, forming primordial follicles. By or shortly after birth, mammalian ovaries contain their lifetime’s supply of primordial follicles, from which point onwards there is a steady release of follicles into the growing follicular pool. The ovary is particularly amenable to development in vitro, with follicles growing in a highly physiological manner in culture. This work describes the culture of whole neonatal ovaries containing primordial follicles, and the culture of individual ovarian follicles, a method which can support the development of follicles from an immature through to the preovulatory stage, after which their oocytes are able to undergo fertilization in vitro. The work outlined here uses culture systems to determine how the ovary is affected by exposure to external compounds. We also describe a co-culture system, which allows investigation of the interactions that occur between growing follicles and the non-growing pool of primordial follicles. PMID:25867892

Morgan, Stephanie; Campbell, Lisa; Allison, Vivian; Murray, Alison; Spears, Norah

2015-01-01

239

Identification of the genes regulated by Wnt-4, a critical signal for commitment of the ovary.  

PubMed

The indifferent mammalian embryonic gonad generates an ovary or testis, but the factors involved are still poorly known. The Wnt-4 signal represents one critical female determinant, since its absence leads to partial female-to-male sex reversal in mouse, but its signalling is as well implicated in the testis development. We used the Wnt-4 deficient mouse as a model to identify candidate gonadogenesis genes, and found that the Notum, Phlda2, Runx-1 and Msx1 genes are typical of the wild-type ovary and the Osr2, Dach2, Pitx2 and Tacr3 genes of the testis. Strikingly, the expression of these latter genes becomes reversed in the Wnt-4 knock-out ovary, suggesting a role in ovarian development. We identified the transcription factor Runx-1 as a Wnt-4 signalling target gene, since it is expressed in the ovary and is reduced upon Wnt-4 knock-out. Consistent with this, introduction of the Wnt-4 signal into early ovary cells ex vivo induces Runx-1 expression, while conversely Wnt-4 expression is down-regulated in the absence of Runx-1. We conclude that the Runx-1 gene can be a Wnt-4 signalling target, and that Runx-1 and Wnt-4 are mutually interdependent in their expression. The changes in gene expression due to the absence of Wnt-4 in gonads reflect the sexually dimorphic role of this signal and its complex gene network in mammalian gonad development. PMID:25645944

Naillat, Florence; Yan, Wenying; Karjalainen, Riikka; Liakhovitskaia, Anna; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Xu, Qi; Sun, Zhandong; Shen, Bairong; Medvinsky, Alexander; Quaggin, Susan; Vainio, Seppo J

2015-03-15

240

Transcriptome comparison between inactivated and activated ovaries of the honey bee Apis mellifera L.  

PubMed

Ovarian activity not only influences fertility, but is also involved with the regulation of division of labour between reproductive and behavioural castes of female honey bees. In order to identify candidate genes associated with ovarian activity, we compared the gene expression patterns between inactivated and activated ovaries of queens and workers by means of high-throughput RNA-sequencing technology. A total of 1615 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was detected between ovaries of virgin and mated queens, and more than 5300 DEGs were detected between inactivated and activated worker ovaries. Intersection analysis of DEGs amongst five libraries revealed that a similar set of genes (824) participated in the ovary activation of both queens and workers. A large number of these DEGs were predominantly related to cellular, cell and cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic processes. In addition, over 1000 DEGs were linked to more than 230 components of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, including 25 signalling pathways. The reliability of the RNA-sequencing results was confirmed by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in ovary activation and reproductive division of labour. PMID:25039886

Niu, D; Zheng, H; Corona, M; Lu, Y; Chen, X; Cao, L; Sohr, A; Hu, F

2014-10-01

241

Immunohistochemical localization of the bone morphogenetic protein receptors in the porcine ovary  

PubMed Central

The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family is emerging as playing a crucial role in regulating normal follicle growth and determining ovulation rate. BMPs exert their effects via BMP receptors (BMPR-IA, -IB and -II). However, there is a paucity of information relating to the expression of the BMPRs within the ovary of large polyovular species such as the pig. Furthermore, there is a lack of information on the expression of BMPRs by fetal ovaries of any species. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial expression of the BMPRs in the porcine ovary, at different developmental stages. Immunohistochemistry for BMPR-IA, BMPR-IB and BMPR-II was performed using sections from paraffin wax-embedded ovaries, obtained from fetal (n = 15), prepubertal (n = 3) and cycling postpubertal (n = 4) pigs. Results confirmed the presence of all three receptors in the fetal egg nests and in the granulosa cell layer of follicles ranging from primordial to late antral stages. Immunostaining was also observed in oocytes, theca layer, corpus luteum and ovarian surface epithelium. The expression of BMPRs by fetal ovaries may be related to follicle formation, whereas expression in pre- and post-pubertal animals indicates BMPs are involved in regulating porcine ovarian follicle growth. PMID:15255958

Quinn, Ruth L; Shuttleworth, Gail; Hunter, Morag G

2004-01-01

242

Immature Cryopreserved Ovary Restores Puberty and Fertility in Mice without Alteration of Epigenetic Marks  

PubMed Central

Background Progress in oncology could improve survival rate in children, but would probably lead to impaired fertility and puberty. In pre-pubertal girls, the only therapeutic option is the cryopreservation of one ovary. Three births have been reported after reimplantation of cryopreserved mature ovary. Conversely, reimplantation of ovary preserved before puberty (defined as immature ovary) has never been performed in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to analyze ovarian function, we performed transplantation using fresh or cryopreserved immature grafts in pre-pubertal or adult mice. Puberty as well as cyclic hormonal activity was restored. All follicle populations were present although a significant reduction in follicle density was observed with or without cryopreservation. Although fertility was restored, the graft is of limited life span. Because ex vivo ovary manipulation and cryopreservation procedure, the status of genomic imprinting was investigated. Methylation status of the H19 and Lit1 Imprinting Control Regions in kidney, muscle and tongue of offsprings from grafted mice does not show significant alteration when compared to those of unoperated mice. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that immature ovarian grafting can restore spontaneous puberty and fertility. However, these data suggest that follicle depletion leads to premature ovarian failure. This study addresses the very important epigenetics issue, and provides valuable information to the study of ovarian transplantation suggesting that these procedures do not perturb normal epigenetics marks. These results are highly relevant to the reimplantation question of immature cortex in women. PMID:18414667

Sauvat, Frédérique; Capito, Carmen; Sarnacki, Sabine; Poirot, Catherine; Bachelot, Anne; Meduri, Geri; Dandolo, Luisa; Binart, Nadine

2008-01-01

243

DMRT1 promotes oogenesis by transcriptional activation of Stra8 in the mammalian fetal ovary.  

PubMed

Dmrt1 belongs to the DM domain gene family of conserved sexual regulators. In the mouse Dmrt1 is expressed in the genital ridge (the gonadal primordium) in both sexes and then becomes testis-specific shortly after sex determination. The essential role of DMRT1 in testicular differentiation is well established, and includes transcriptional repression of the meiotic inducer Stra8. However Dmrt1 mutant females are fertile and the role of Dmrt1 in the ovary has not been studied. Here we show in the mouse that most Dmrt1 mutant germ cells in the fetal ovary have greatly reduced expression of STRA8, and fail to properly localize SYCP3 and ?H2AX during meiotic prophase. Lack of DMRT1 in the fetal ovary results in the formation of many fewer primordial follicles in the juvenile ovary, although these are sufficient for fertility. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitiation (ChIP-chip) and quantitative ChIP (qChIP) combined with mRNA expression profiling suggests that transcriptional activation of Stra8 in fetal germ cells is the main function of DMRT1 in females, and that this regulation likely is direct. Thus DMRT1 controls Stra8 sex-specifically, activating it in the fetal ovary and repressing it in the adult testis. PMID:21621532

Krentz, Anthony D; Murphy, Mark W; Sarver, Aaron L; Griswold, Michael D; Bardwell, Vivian J; Zarkower, David

2011-08-01

244

Ethanol alters vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced steroid release from immature rat ovaries in vitro  

SciTech Connect

The present study was conducted to examine the acute effects of ethanol (ETOH) on basal and VIP-induced release of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E{sub 2}) from immature ovaries in vitro. Ovaries were collected from anestrus (A) and both naturally occurring and pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-induced early proestrus (EP) animals. The ovaries were incubated in wither media alone, media plus 1 {mu}M VIP, media plus ETOH in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mM, or media plus each dose of ETOH containing VIP. The present results demonstrate that ETOH did not affect either basal or VIP-induced steroid release from ovaries collected from A animals. Likewise, the ETOH did not alter basal steroid secretion from EP animals; however, the drug significantly reduced the VIP-stimulated release of both T and E, from EP ovaries. Thus, these data demonstrate for the first time that ETOH is capable of altering prepubertal ovarian responsiveness to VIP, a peptide known to be involved in the developmental regulation of ovarian function.

Dees, W.L.; Hiney, J.K.; Fuentes, F.; Forrest, D.W. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-01-01

245

Cyclic AMP in oocytes controls meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary.  

PubMed

In mammalian ovaries, a fixed population of primordial follicles forms during the perinatal stage and the oocytes contained within are arrested at the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I. In the current study, we provide evidence that the level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in oocytes regulates oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary. Our results show that the early meiotic development of oocytes is closely correlated with increased levels of intra-oocyte cAMP. Inhibiting cAMP synthesis in fetal ovaries delayed oocyte meiotic progression and inhibited the disassembly and degradation of synaptonemal complex protein 1. In addition, inhibiting cAMP synthesis in in vitro cultured fetal ovaries prevented primordial follicle formation. Finally, using an in situ oocyte chromosome analysis approach, we found that the dictyate arrest of oocytes is essential for primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions. Taken together, these results suggest a role for cAMP in early meiotic development and primordial follicle formation in the mouse ovary. PMID:25503411

Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Li, Ge; Mu, Xinyi; Wang, Zhengpin; Feng, Lizhao; Niu, Wanbao; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Xi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Guoliang

2015-01-15

246

Restoration of ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole adult sheep ovaries  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to restore ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole ovaries, complete with vascular pedicle, in adult females from a large monovulatory animal model species (i.e. sheep)? SUMMARY ANSWER Full (100%) restoration of acute ovarian function and high rates of natural fertility (pregnancy rate 64%; live birth rate 29%), with multiple live births, were obtained following whole ovary cryopreservation and autotransplantation (WOCP&TP) of adult sheep ovaries utilizing optimized cryopreservation and post-operative anti-coagulant regimes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertility preservation by WOCP&TP requires successful cryopreservation of both the ovary and its vascular supply. Previous work has indicated detrimental effects of WOCP&TP on the ovarian follicle population. Recent experiments suggest that these deleterious effects can be attributed to an acute loss of vascular patency due to clot formation induced by damage to ovarian arterial endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Study 1 (2010–2011; N = 16) examined the effect of post-thaw perfusion of survival factors (angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic; n = 7–8) and treatment with aspirin (pre-operative versus pre- and post-operative (n = 7–9)) on the restoration of ovarian function for 3 months after WOCP&TP. Study 2 (2011–2012; N = 16) examined the effect of cryoprotectant (CPA) perfusion time (10 versus 60 min; n = 16) and pre- and post-operative treatment with aspirin in combination with enoxaparine (Clexane®; n = 8) or eptifibatide (Integrilin®; n = 8) on ovarian function and fertility 11–23 months after WOCP&TP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Both studies utilized mature, parous, Greyface ewes aged 3–6 years and weighing 50–75 kg. Restoration of ovarian function was monitored by bi-weekly blood sampling and display of behavioural oestrus. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotrophins, progesterone, anti-Müllerian Hormone and inhibin A. Fertility restoration in Study 2 was quantified by pregnancy rate after a 3 month fertile mating period and was confirmed by ultrasound, hormonal monitoring and live birth. Ovarian function was assessed at sacrifice by ovarian appearance and vascular patency (Doppler ultrasound) and by follicular histology. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In Study 1, survival factors were found to have no benefit, but the inclusion of pre-operative aspirin resulted in four ewes showing acute restoration of ovarian function within 3 weeks and a further six ewes showing partial restoration. The addition of post-operative aspirin alone had no clear benefit. In Study 2, combination of aspirin with additional post-operative anti-coagulants resulted in total acute restoration of ovarian function in 14/14 ewes within 3 weeks of WOCP&TP, with 9/14 ewes becoming pregnant and 4/14 giving birth to a total of seven normal lambs. There was no difference between anti-coagulants in terms of restoration of reproductive function and fertility. In contrast, the duration of CPA perfusion was highly significant with a 60 min perfusion resulting in ovaries of normal appearance and function with high rates of primordial follicle survival (70%) and an abundant blood supply, whereas ovaries perfused for 10 min had either resorbed completely and were vestigial (7/14) or were markedly smaller (P < 0.01). It is concluded that both the degree of CPA penetration and the maintenance of post-operative vascular patency are critical determinants of the success of WOCP&TP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Before application of this technology to fertility preservation patients, it will be critical to optimize the CPA perfusion time for different sized human ovaries, determine the optimum period and level of anti-coagulant therapy, and confirm the normality of offspring derived from this procedure. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This technology holds promise for the preservation of fertility in women. It could also

Campbell, B.K.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.; Onions, V.; Pincott-Allen, C.; Aljaser, F.; Fisher, J.; McNeilly, A.S.; Webb, R.; Picton, H.M.

2014-01-01

247

Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period  

PubMed Central

The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V) of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B.) microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium. PMID:25664337

Kanapadinchareveetil, Sreelekha; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Gopi, Jyothimol; Ranjan Lenka, Dibya; Vasu, Aswathi; KGopalan, Ajith Kumar; Nair, Suresh N.; Juliet, Sanis; Ghosh, Srikanta

2015-01-01

248

Histoarchitecture of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during pre- and postengorgement period.  

PubMed

The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V) of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B.) microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium. PMID:25664337

Kanapadinchareveetil, Sreelekha; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Gopi, Jyothimol; Lenka, Dibya Ranjan; Vasu, Aswathi; KGopalan, Ajith Kumar; Nair, Suresh N; Ravindran, Reghu; Juliet, Sanis; Ghosh, Srikanta

2015-01-01

249

Biochemical effects of some organophosphorus pesticides on the ovaries of albino rats.  

PubMed

An evaluation of the toxic effects of three organophosphates; monocrotophos, dimethoate and methyl parathion on female reproduction was made by biochemical estimations of cytoplasmic and membrance bound proteins, lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol in the rat ovaries after treatment with their low residual level doses (LD50 1/8-1/5) to three groups of six rats each for 90 days. All the three pesticides caused degenerative changes in the ovaries as evidenced by a significant decrease in the concentration of cytoplasmic as well as membrane bound proteins, total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol. The observations are thus indicative of the reproductive toxicity caused by organophosphates at cellular and molecular level in the ovaries of rats. PMID:16170982

Kaur, Sukhdeep; Dhanju, C K

2005-04-01

250

Mercury and other metals in muscle and ovaries of goldeye (Hiodon alosoides).  

PubMed

Concentrations of 24 trace metals were assessed in gravid ovaries and in muscle of female juvenile and adult female goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a fish with both low annual growth (16 g/year as adults) and a long life span (maximum longevity of 30 years). It was hypothesized that adult fish with these life-history characteristics would maintain stable concentrations of metals in their tissues with higher levels of essential elements compared with those that are potentially toxic. As hypothesized, the concentration of most metals in muscle of adult female goldeye was similar at all ages, suggesting that uptake and excretion of metals was equal. Mercury was a notable exception. Total Hg concentrations in muscle of adults increased throughout life from a mean of 206 ng/g wet weight at age 8 to 809 ng/g at age 28, or by 26.2 ng/g/year. Concentrations of Hg were low in ovaries (mean 21.1 ng/g wet wt) compared to the mean for muscle, only 7% of the concentration in muscle. This was the lowest percent of muscle concentration of all 24 metals. Concentrations of Al, Ba, La, V, and Mn were significantly greater in muscle of juveniles and in ovaries than in muscle of adults. Concentrations of 13 metals were higher in ovaries relative to muscle, seven were similar, and four were depleted. Silver was enriched by over 50-fold in ovaries. Overall, the present study suggests that low concentrations of some metals in muscle of adult female goldeye, relative to concentrations in female juveniles and ovaries, may be maintained in part by transfer of metals to the external environment in eggs at spawning. PMID:20821456

Donald, David B; Sardella, Gino D

2010-02-01

251

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of ovary-containing hernias of the canal of Nuck  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the ultrasonographic findings of ovary-containing hernias of the canal of Nuck. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 22 hernia cases of the canal of Nuck. The following gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features were analyzed: the site and the size of the hernia, the texture of the hernia contents, and the presence or absence of blood flow in the hernia contents. Results: All of the patients had swelling of the right inguinal region (n=10), left inguinal region (n=8), or both (n=2). On ultrasonography, the hernias appeared as either solid masses (n=17) or solid masses containing cysts (n=5). The mean anteroposterior diameter of the hernia sac of the canal of Nuck was 9.1 mm (range, 5 to 18 mm). The mean anteroposterior diameters of the hernia sac were 11.6 mm (range, 7.6 to 18 mm) for hernias containing an ovary, and 8.3 mm (range, 5 to 13 mm) for hernias containing omental fat. During surgery, among the 17 cases with solid-appearing hernia contents on ultrasonography, omental fat was identified in the hernia sac in four cases, but no structure was identified in 13 cases. All five cases that appeared as solid masses containing cysts on ultrasonography contained ovary tissue in the hernia sac. Among the four cases of ovary-containing hernias, color Doppler ultrasonography identified blood flow within the ovary in three cases, but no flow signal was seen in one case of incarcerated hernia. Conclusion: Ultrasonography may be helpful for the diagnosis of ovary-containing hernias of the canal of Nuck by detecting solid masses containing small cysts. PMID:25038807

2014-01-01

252

Derivatives Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Derivatives are financial securities whose value is derived from another "underlying" financial security. Options, futures, swaps, swaptions, and structured notes are all examples of derivative securities. Derivatives can be used in hedging, protecting against financial risk, or can be used to speculate on the movement of commodity or security prices, interest rates, or the levels of financial indices. The valuation of derivatives makes use of the statistical mathematics of uncertainty. With links to related articles. See also Derivatives Concepts A-Z, glossary of derivatives-related terminology designed to make the other articles in the Financial Pipeline's Derivatives section easier to understand.

253

Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary: Case Series and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a recently recognized, subtype of ovarian surface epithelial cancer; the pure form accounting for only 1% of surface epithelial tumors. It has been described as a primary ovarian carcinoma with definite urothelial features but no benign, metaplastic and/or proliferating Brenner tumor (BT) identified. Recognition of such tumours is important because of its rarity, favorable response to chemotherapy and an improved patient survival. A case series of primary TCC of the ovary (3 cases) with brief review of literature is being presented. PMID:25302204

Andola, Sainath K.; Zubair, Ashraf Ahmed

2014-01-01

254

How to Make a Gonad: Cellular Mechanisms Governing Formation of the Testes and Ovaries  

PubMed Central

Sex determination of the gonad is an extraordinary process by which a single organ anlage is directed to form one of two different structures, a testis or an ovary. Morphogenesis of these two organs utilizes many common cellular events; differences in the timing and execution of these events must combine to generate sexually dimorphic structures. In this chapter, we review recent research on the cellular processes of gonad morphogenesis, focusing on data from mouse models. We highlight the shared cellular mechanisms in testis and ovary morphogenesis and examine the differences that enable formation of the two organs responsible for the perpetuation of all sexually reproducing species. PMID:22614391

Ungewitte, E.K.; Yao, H.H.-C.

2012-01-01

255

Synchronous primary malignancies of the appendix and ovary causing carcinomatosis in one patient.  

PubMed

Associated tumors of the ovary and the appendix are commonly found in cases of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PP); the origin of these tumors are a continually debated topic. Outside of the setting of PP, this finding is exceedingly rare and there are no documented reports of two primary processes causing carcinomatosis in the absence of PP. Here, we present a patient who underwent cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis presumptively secondary to ovarian carcinoma and who on pathological examination was found to have synchronous primary malignant processes of both the appendix and the ovary. This represents the first documented case of carcinomatosis resulting from two separate malignant processes in the absence of PP. PMID:25832462

Redondo, Raquel Elisa; Giannotti, Giovanni; Thomas, Korathu; Ruiz, Ofelia S

2015-01-01

256

Effect of Freezing Condition on the Quality of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Ovary as Tarako Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tarako and Mentaiko are popular seafood products in Japan. They are prepared mainly from frozen Walleye Pollock roe which are mostly transported from Alaska or Russia. Fresh ovary as material for tarako products is generally believed to be of much better quality than frozen one, however it is yet to be scientifically evaluated. In this study, the effects of freezing rate on freeze-thaw ovarian quality were investigated through drip amount measurement, sensory test and morphological observation. Results showed that the freezing conditions (i.e. freezing rate and storage period) caused physical damage to the ovary resulting to the change its taste.

Uchiumi, Yu; Watanabe, Manabu; Ohsako, Kazufumi; Shirai, Takaaki; Suzuki, Toru

257

Isolated granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary: histologic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings.  

PubMed

An isolated granulocytic sarcoma (myelosarcoma) of the right ovary occurred in the absence of leukemia in a 49-year-old woman. The diagnosis of this tumor, which occurs extremely rarely in the ovary, was established by light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic investigations. The major cell population consisted of immature myeloid cells; scattered megakaryocytes were also seen. The tumor exhibited a prominent cellular stroma with scattered follicle-like collections of B-lymphocytes and many fibroblasts, giving the initial impression that the tumor could be of mesenchymal origin. Twelve months after operation, the patient still exhibits no evidence of leukemia. PMID:1563910

Pressler, H; Horny, H P; Wolf, A; Kaiserling, E

1992-01-01

258

Developmental Programming of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role of Prenatal Androgen Excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine\\/metabolic disorder in women, characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic\\u000a anovulation, and\\/or polycystic ovaries in association with android fat distribution and insulin resistance\\/hyperinsulinism.\\u000a The etiology of PCOS remains elusive but there is increasing evidence that the phenotypic traits of the syndrome may be programmed\\u000a in utero by androgen excess.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Thus, female primates, exposed to androgen

Agathocles Tsatsoulis

259

Sarcoma-like mural nodule in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary: A rare entity.  

PubMed

Sarcoma-like mural nodule (SLMN) is a very uncommon and misleading benign entity which may be associated with benign, borderline or malignant mucinous neoplasm of the ovary. It should be distinguished from other malignant mural nodules with sarcoma, carcinosarcoma or anaplastic carcinoma for proper management. We report a rare case of SLMN in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary in a 30-year-old lady. In spite of having confusing histopathological features the final diagnosis was made depending on the younger age of the patient, well circumscription of the nodule, absence of vascular invasion and immunohistochemical profile. PMID:25540570

Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik; Bhowmik, Sourav

2014-10-01

260

[The role of inositol deficiency in the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome disorders].  

PubMed

Inositol acts as a second messenger in insulin signaling pathway Literature data suggest inositol deficiency in insulin-resistant women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Supplementation of myo-inisitol decreases insulin resistance as it works as an insulin sensitizing agent. The positive role of myo-inositol in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome has been of increased evidence recently The present review presents the effects of myo-inositol on the ovarian, hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. PMID:24505965

Jakimiuk, Artur J; Szamatowicz, Jacek

2014-01-01

261

Lymphangioma of the ovary after radiation due to Wilms’ tumor in the childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To report a case of lymphangioma of the ovary after radiation due to Wilms’ tumor in the childhood. Patient: A 19-year-old nulliparous female. Interventions: The vaginal ultrasound showed the left ovary enlarged to 4.4cm×2.9cm×4.5cm in size including a 3.5cm×2.6cm×3.2cm measuring cystic solid tumor without hypervascularity. For exclusion of a malignant tumor, a laparoscopy for excision of the tumor and

Joerg Heinig; Veronika Beckmann; Tatiana Bialas; Raihana Diallo

2002-01-01

262

Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) of ovary is a rare type of epithelial tumor composed mainly of epithelioid cells with abundant acidophilic\\u000a cytoplasm, histologically indistinguishable from hepatocellular carcinoma. We report a previously unrecognized case of HC\\u000a of ovary concurrent with a Sertoli cell tumor.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 42-year-old woman patient with a long-term history of hepatitis C presented with a mass of left

Antonio D’Antonio; Gianfranco De Dominicis; Maria Addesso; Alessia Caleo; Amedeo Boscaino

2010-01-01

263

[Differential diagnosis of malignant forms of hormonally-active tumors of the ovary].  

PubMed

Case histories of 427 patients with main histotypes of hormone-producing tumors of the ovaries (201--theca-cell, 177--granulosa-cell, 28--mixed theca-granulosa-cell and 21--virilizing) were analyzed. The problem of differential diagnosis of malignant forms of these tumors by methods of clinical examination was studied. Major statistically significant clinical signs of malignancy of hormone-producing tumors of the ovaries--extension of abdomen and abdominal pain, relatively short duration of case history, bilateral lesions, large size of sessile tuberculous tumors, high level of ascites, especially hemorrhagic one, and comparatively young age of patients--were established. PMID:2837870

Adamian, R T

1988-01-01

264

Synchronous primary malignancies of the appendix and ovary causing carcinomatosis in one patient  

PubMed Central

Associated tumors of the ovary and the appendix are commonly found in cases of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PP); the origin of these tumors are a continually debated topic. Outside of the setting of PP, this finding is exceedingly rare and there are no documented reports of two primary processes causing carcinomatosis in the absence of PP. Here, we present a patient who underwent cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis presumptively secondary to ovarian carcinoma and who on pathological examination was found to have synchronous primary malignant processes of both the appendix and the ovary. This represents the first documented case of carcinomatosis resulting from two separate malignant processes in the absence of PP. PMID:25832462

Redondo, Raquel Elisa; Giannotti, Giovanni; Thomas, Korathu; Ruiz, Ofelia S.

2015-01-01

265

Troglitazone Improves Defects in Insulin Action, Insulin Secretion, Ovarian Steroidogenesis, and Fibrinolysis in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are characterized by defects in insulin action, insulin secretion, ovarian steroidogenesis, and fibrinolysis. We administered the insulin-sensitizing agent tro- glitazone to 13 obese women with PCOS and impaired glucose tol- erance to determine whether attenuation of hyperinsulinemia ame- liorates these defects. All subjects had oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, polycystic ovaries, and hyperandrogenemia. Before and after treat-

DAVID A. EHRMANN; DAVID J. SCHNEIDER; BURTON E. SOBEL; MELISSA K. CAVAGHAN; JACQUELINE IMPERIAL; ROBERT L. ROSENFIELD; KENNETH S. POLONSKY

2010-01-01

266

In vitro effect of a fish gonadotropin on aromatase and 17 ?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the ovary  

E-print Network

In vitro effect of a fish gonadotropin on aromatase and 17 ?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the ovary of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich.) O. SIRE, J. DÉPÊCHE Université Pierre. Summary. Aromatase activity has been studied in the rainbow trout ovary in a perifu- sion system. During

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Transvaginal ultrasound appearance of the ovary in infertile women with oligomenorrhea: association with clinical and endocrine profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to assess the morphological findings of the ovary based on transvaginal ultrasound in infertile oligomenorrheic women and their predictivity for endocrine signs of polycystic ovary syndrome Design: prospective controlled trial Setting: Kasr El-Aini Hospital Participants: Fifty women were recruited and divided into two groups: Group I: 30 patients suffering from primary or secondary infertility with oligomenorrhea. Group II: 20

Ahmed Aboul Nasr; Hesham Hamzah; Zakaria Abou El Maaty; Hesham Gaber; Omniah Azzam

2004-01-01

268

IMPACT OF LAPARASCOPIC OVARIAN ELECTROCAUTERY ON DOPPLER INDICES WOMEN STROMAL BLOOD FLOW IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrom (PCOS) is characterized by infertility, oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. Clomiphene citrate (CC), an antiestrogen, is first-line treatment for PCOS, if CC fails to induce ovulation, laparascopic electrocautery of the ovaries is offered. In this prospective controlled study, 52 women with clomiphen-resistant PCOS (group 1) and 46 women with regular menstrual cycles as a control group (group 2) were

L. Safdarian; L. Eslamian; M. Adineh; M. Aghahoseini; A. Aleyasin; H. Saidi

269

GENOMIC COMPARISON OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS ON FATHEAD MINNOW ( PIMEPHALES PROMELAS ) OVARIES REVEALS COMPENSATORY MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates compensatory mechanisms and feedback control within Fathead minnow ( Pimephales promelas ) by comparing genomic and biochemical responses of ovary tissue exposed in vitro to those of ovaries from intact fish after exposure to two model steroidogenesis...

270

Night temperature and source–sink effects on overall growth, cell number and cell size in bell pepper ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ovary swelling, and resultant fruit malformation, in bell pepper flowers is favoured by low night temperature or a high source–sink ratio. However, the interaction between night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary swelling and the contribution of cell size and cell number to ovary swelling are unknown. The present research examined the interactive effects of night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary size, cell number and cell size at anthesis in bell pepper flowers. Methods Bell pepper plants were grown in growth chambers at night temperatures of either 20 °C (HNT) or 12 °C (LNT). Within each temperature treatment, plants bore either 0 (non-fruiting) or two developing fruits per plant. Ovary fresh weight, cell size and cell number were measured. Key Results Ovary fresh weights in non-fruiting plants grown at LNT were the largest, while fresh weights were smallest in plants grown at HNT with fruits. In general, mesocarp cell size in ovaries was largest in non-fruiting plants grown at either LNT or HNT and smallest in fruiting plants at HNT. Mesocarp cell number was greater in non-fruiting plants under LNT than in the rest of the night temperature/fruiting treatments. These responses were more marked in ovaries sampled after 18 d of treatment compared with those sampled after 40 d of treatment. Conclusions Ovary fresh weight of flowers at anthesis increased 65 % in non-fruiting plants grown under LNT compared with fruiting plants grown under HNT. This increase was due primarily to increases in mesocarp cell number and size. These results indicate that the combined effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio on ovary swelling are additive. Furthermore, the combined effects of LNT and low source–sink ratio or HNT and high source–sink ratio can partially overcome the detrimental effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio. PMID:22933415

Darnell, Rebecca L.; Cruz-Huerta, Nicacio; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

2012-01-01

271

Histology of Prophylactically Removed Ovaries from BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers Compared with Noncarriers in Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome Kindreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The literature reports conflicting studies claiming premalignant histological features in benign ovaries from women who may have hereditary predilections for ovarian carcinoma. To test the veracity of these claims, this investigation studied ovaries prophylactically removed from members of hereditary breast ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome families who carry BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and compared these with the ovaries of mutation-negative

Murray Joseph Casey; Chhanda Bewtra; Laura L Hoehne; Abraham D Tatpati; Henry T Lynch; Patrice Watson

2000-01-01

272

[Uterovaginal agenesis and polycystic ovary syndrome: psychological disturbance in adolescence].  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients, age was negative correlated with attention problems and PCOS patients >18 reported significantly more somatic complaints compared with age-mate MRKHS patients and controls. PCO syndrome's clinical manifestations, including menstrual disorders, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility, may cause significant emotional distress. Nevertheless, they appear in great variety and our sample is characterized by mild features of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea. This may explain findings of milder psychological disturbance associated with PCOS in this sample in comparison to other studies. As far as MRKHS is concerned, diagnosis and loss of reproductive ability, especially in late adolescence, obstruct emotional stability, physical maturity and sexual identity development ending that are expected in this period of life. Undoubtedly, the management of MRKHS in adolescence constitutes a complex multidisciplinary issue and psychological support of patients is needed in order to prevent possible psychological consequences and to achieve a normal transition to adulthood. Among the limitations of this study is the small sample size, which limits the generalisability of the reported results, especially in "Youth Self Report" and in "Symptom Checklist-90-R" questionnaires, where the sample was divided according to the age. Nevertheless, the very low incidence of MRKHS (1/5000) emphasize the value of the present results, which support the need for further investigation. PMID:23073543

Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

2012-01-01

273

Gender Differences in Transcriptional Signature of Developing Rat Testes and Ovaries following Embryonic  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Transcriptional Signature of Developing Rat Testes and Ovaries following, Debard C, et al. (2012) Gender Differences in Transcriptional Signature of Developing Rat Testes.pone.0040306 Editor: Dmitry I. Nurminsky, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States of America

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Original article Grafts of ovaries in males and females of Pleurodeles  

E-print Network

to various experimental purposes such as life science research in space or sex differentiation studies. ovary by juvenile animals. In addition, ovarian parts supported a better recov- ery and differentiation than parts grafting / sex reversal / space flight / urodele amphibia Résumé ― Greffes d'ovaires chez les mâles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Marker genes identify three somatic cell types in the fetal mouse ovary.  

PubMed

The two main functions of the ovary are the production of oocytes, which allows the continuation of the species, and secretion of female sex hormones, which control many aspects of female development and physiology. Normal development of the ovaries during embryogenesis is critical for their function and the health of the individual in later life. Although the adult ovary has been investigated in great detail, we are only starting to understand the cellular and molecular biology of early ovarian development. Here we show that the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 is expressed in the cortical region of the fetal ovary and this expression is mutually exclusive to FOXL2. Strikingly, a third somatic cell population can be identified, marked by the expression of NR2F2, which is expressed in LGR5- and FOXL2 double-negative ovarian somatic cells. Together, these three marker genes label distinct ovarian somatic cell types. Using lineage tracing in mice, we show that Lgr5-positive cells give rise to adult cortical granulosa cells, which form the follicles of the definitive reserve. Moreover, LGR5 is required for correct timing of germ cell differentiation as evidenced by a delay of entry into meiosis in Lgr5 loss-of-function mutants, demonstrating a key role for LGR5 in the differentiation of pre-granulosa cells, which ensure the differentiation of oogonia, the formation of the definitive follicle reserve, and long-term female fertility. PMID:25158167

Rastetter, Raphael H; Bernard, Pascal; Palmer, James S; Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Chen, Huijun; Western, Patrick S; Ramsay, Robert G; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine; Wilhelm, Dagmar

2014-10-15

276

Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm[sup 3] dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimated doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-03-15

277

Pheromones affecting ovary activation and ovariole loss in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana.  

PubMed

The Asian hive bee Apis cerana has similar queen mandibular pheromones (QMP) to the Western honey bee Apismellifera. However the effects of individual QMP components have never been tested to determine their effects on the reproductive physiology of A. cerana workers. We fed one queen equivalent of each of the major components of A. cerana QMP to groups of c.a. 500day-old, caged, workers twice a day until the workers were 10days old. Half of the cages were also provided with 10% royal jelly in the food. Workers were sampled each day and dissected to determine the number of ovarioles and the degree of ovary activation (egg development). In cages treated with 9-carbon fatty acids ovary activation was minimal, whereas the 10-carbon acids suppressed ovary activation very little. Royal jelly enhanced ovary activation, especially in cages treated with 10-carbon acids. The number of ovarioles declined with bee age, but the rate of decline was slowed by the 9-carbon acids in particular. The results show conservation of the composition and function of QMP between A. cerana and A. mellifera and support the hypothesis that QMP is an honest signal of queen fecundity rather than a chemical castrator of workers. PMID:25614964

Tan, Ken; Liu, Xiwen; Dong, Sihao; Wang, Chao; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

2015-03-01

278

Premenstrual syndrome in a group of hysterectomized women of reproductive age with intact ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this prospective study 13 women of reproductive age, unselected with regard to the presence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and hysterectomized but with intact ovaries, eight variables were rated as indicative of PMS on visual analog scales (VAS) for 35 consecutive days. Their menstrual cycles were subsequently reconstructed in relation to the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge as pin-pointed in urine

M. Silber; K. Carlström; B. Larsson

1989-01-01

279

Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns provide insight into polycystic ovary syndrome development  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. However, the epigenetic mechanism involved in PCOS progression remains largely unknown. Here, combining the DNA methylation profiling together with transcriptome analysis, we showed that (i) there were 7929 differentially methylated CpG sites (? > 0.1, P < 0.05) and 650 differential transcripts (fold change > 1.5, P < 0.005) in PCOS compared to normal ovaries; (ii) 54 genes were identified with methylated levels that were correlated with gene transcription in PCOS; and (iii) there were less hypermethylated sites, but many more hypomethylated sites residing in CpG islands and N_Shore in PCOS. Among these genes, we identified that several significant pathways, including the type I diabetes mellitus pathway, p53 signaling pathway and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and some immune and inflammatory diseases may be highly involved in PCOS development. These results suggested that differences in genome-wide DNA methylation and expression patterns exist between PCOS ovaries and normal ovaries; epigenetic mechanisms may in part be responsible for the different gene expression and PCOS phenotype. All of this may improve our understanding of the basic molecular mechanism underlying the development of PCOS. PMID:25051372

Wang, Xiu-Xia; Wei, Jing-Zan; Jiao, Jiao; Jiang, Shu-Yi; Yu, Da-Hai; Li, Da

2014-01-01

280

Clinical and psychological correlates of quality-of-life in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been shown to cause a reduction in quality of life. This study examines the extent of different PCOS symptoms on quality-of-life, psychosocial well- being and sexual satisfaction. Methods: Complete metabolic, hormonal, clinical and psychosocial data were obtained from a total of 120 women with PCOS. Patients were compared with 50 healthy women to establish

Susanne Hahn; Onno E Janssen; Susanne Tan; Katja Pleger; Klaus Mann; Manfred Schedlowski; Rainer Kimmig; Sven Benson; Efthimia Balamitsa; Sigrid Elsenbruch

2005-01-01

281

Adipocyte Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Evidence of Adipocyte  

E-print Network

Hypertrophy and Tissue-Specific Inflammation Joseph S. Marino, Jeffrey Iler, Abigail R. Dowling, Streamson also had increased fat mass and adipocyte hypertrophy. These traits accompanied elevations in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Evidence of Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Tissue

Toledo, University of

282

Ovarian stimulation in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: the role of body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to examine whether body mass index (BMI) may influence IVF outcome in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing ovarian stimulation with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-agonist (agonist group) or antagonist (antagonist group), 100 IVF cycles were studied: 35 in the agonist and 65 in the antagonist groups. In both agonist and antagonist groups, patients with BMI ? 25

Raoul Orvieto; Ravit Nahum; Simion Meltcer; Roy Homburg; Jacob Rabinson; Eyal Y Anteby; Jacob Ashkenazi

2009-01-01

283

Expression of Muscarinic Receptor Types in the Primate Ovary and Evidence for Nonneuronal Acetylcholine  

E-print Network

Expression of Muscarinic Receptor Types in the Primate Ovary and Evidence for Nonneuronal-Ru¨ppurr, Germany; Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Regional Primate Research Center- Oregon Health Sciences unrecognized factor involved in the complex regulation of ovarian function in the primate, e.g. regulation

Rogers, Simon

284

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES: EXCELLENT MORPHOLOGY, APOPTOSIS DETECTION, AND SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Ovaries consist of numerous follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in different stages of development. Many of these follicles will undergo an apoptotic process during the lifetime of the animal. By using proper tissue preparation methods, the events within the whole...

285

An intrarenal supernumerary ovary concurrent with a completely duplicated pelvis and ureter.  

PubMed

An intrarenal supernumerary ovary is particularly rare. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been documented so far, all reported without other congenital malformations. In this case report, we present the first case of this lesion, which is concurrent with a completely duplicated pelvis and ureter on the right side. PMID:17364133

Zhigang, Zhao; Wenlu, Shen

2007-10-01

286

An intrarenal supernumerary ovary concurrent with a completely duplicated pelvis and ureter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intrarenal supernumerary ovary is particularly rare. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been documented\\u000a so far, all reported without other congenital malformations. In this case report, we present the first case of this lesion,\\u000a which is concurrent with a completely duplicated pelvis and ureter on the right side.

Zhao Zhigang; Shen Wenlu

2007-01-01

287

follicles must be being made somewhere in young mouse ovaries. They proposed an  

E-print Network

follicles must be being made somewhere in young mouse ovaries. They proposed an active population oocytes. Such lineage-tracing experiments will also address whether the progeny of mouse germline stem that germline stem cells in the mouse have been discovered, determining the cellular and molecular mechanisms

288

Location of oocyte-specific linker histone in pig ovaries at different developmental stages postpartum.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the location of oocyte-specific linker histone (H1foo) in pig ovaries at different developmental stages postpartum using histologic, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescent protocols. The pig ovaries were divided into three periods: proliferation of oogonia (P1, 3 days postpartum), slow growth of follicles (P2, from 40 days to 60 days postpartum), and rapid growth of follicles (P3, from 72 days to 165 days postpartum). With the development of the pig ovary, the boundary between the cortex and medulla gradually became obvious, and the cortex became thinner while the medulla thickened. The rete ovarii could only be observed in P1. The number of oogonia gradually declined after birth, whereas primordial follicles and early growing follicles all underwent an increasing trend followed by a decreasing trend. Developing antral follicles and antral follicles were first observed in 72 and 95 days postpartum, respectively. Both the immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence detection showed that H1foo was mainly located in the cytoplasm of oogonia and apoptotic oogonia, as well as in the ooplasm of follicles and apoptotic follicles. Moreover, with the development of the pig ovary, the range of the positive signals became larger. PMID:25662203

Sheng, Jie; Yang, Yange; Liu, Wei; Ji, Honglei; Lei, Anmin; Qing, Suzhu

2015-04-15

289

Relationships between free leptin and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Leptin is an adipokine that circulates in a free form and bound to a soluble leptin receptor. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have increased insulin resistance and high incidence of obesity. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate levels of leptin and free leptin in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and note any relationships with insulin resistance

Javad Mohiti-Ardekani; Nasim Tarof; Abbas Aflatonian

2009-01-01

290

What is new in polycystic ovary syndrome? Best articles from the past year.  

PubMed

This month, we focus on current research in polycystic ovary syndrome. Dr. Hansen discusses six recent publications, and each is concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts. PMID:25162266

Hansen, Keith A

2014-09-01

291

Ontogeny of polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance in utero and early childhood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent hyperandrogenic infertility and cardiometabolic disorder that increases a woman's lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is heritable and intensely familial. Progress toward a cure has been delayed by absence of an etiology. Evidence is mounting...

292

Metabolic evidence of diminished lipid oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Complex diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are not limited to specific genes, pathogens, toxicoses, or identifiable environmental influences. PCOS still remains a diagnosis of exclusion despite being the most common female endocrinopathy and the leading cause of metabolic syndrome, ...

293

Proinsulin serum concentrations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a marker of  -cell dysfunction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) adjusted for adiposity on proinsulin concentrations. METHODS: Ninety-one women with PCOS and 72 normal cycling (NC) women were recruited. A 2 h, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Glucose and insulin were measured in each sample. Proinsulin and C-peptide were determined at

M. Maliqueo; I. Atwater; R. Lahsen; F. Perez-Bravo; B. Angel; T. Sir-Petermann

2003-01-01

294

Meiosis in fetal freemartin gonads and in rat fetal ovaries J. PRPIN B. VIGIER A. JOST  

E-print Network

Meiosis in fetal freemartin gonads and in rat fetal ovaries in vitro J. PRÉPIN B. VIGIER A. JOST of meiosis. If one takes as a criterion the more conventionally recognized figures (leptotene, zygotene), meiosis was seen in the three freemartin fetuses aged 77 to 88 days, but the percentage of meiotic cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

In germ cells of mouse embryonic ovaries, the decision to enter meiosis precedes premeiotic DNA replication  

E-print Network

In germ cells of mouse embryonic ovaries, the decision to enter meiosis precedes premeiotic DNA Carpenter2, Dirk G de Rooij3 & David C Page1,2 The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a defining juncture in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms. In yeast, the decision to enter meiosis is made before

Carpenter, Anne E.

296

Recognition of follicles in ultrasound images of ovaries using geometric features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the status of the female reproductive system is important for fertility problems and age related family planning. The volume of these fertility requests in our emancipated society is steadily increasing. Transvaginal ultrasound imaging of the follicles in the ovary gives important information about the ovarian aging, i.e., number of follicles, size, position and response to hormonal stimulation. Manual

P. S. Hiremath; Jyothi R. Tegnoor

2009-01-01

297

Therapeutic effects of metformin on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia are associated with ovarian hyper- androgenism and menstrual irregularities in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Sixteen obese women with PCOS on a weight-maintaining diet were studied before and after 6 months of therapy with the insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agent metformin at a dose of 1700 mg per day. Compared with baseline values, glucose utilization was

Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Chryssa Kouli; Thomais Tsianateli; Angeliki Bergiele

1998-01-01

298

Metformin Treatment for Improving Outcomes Related to Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) A Bayesian Analysis  

E-print Network

Metformin Treatment for Improving Outcomes Related to Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) ­ A Bayesian Analysis Prasadini N. Perera, BS Pharmacy, Daniel C. Malone, PhD Metformin TreatmentD AbstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the usefulness of metformin therapy

Arizona, University of

299

Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the effectiveness of metformin in improving clinical and biochemical features of polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effect of metformin compared with either placebo or no treatment, or compared with an ovulation induction agent. Selection of studies 13 trials were included for analysis, including 543 women with

Jonathan M Lord; Ingrid H K Flight; Robert J Norman

2003-01-01

300

Hyperreninemia Characterizing Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Improves after Metformin Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenemia and insulin resistance. Hyperreninemia is observed in insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemic states. Aims: To investigate the levels of total plasma renin and their possible relationship with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia and to explore the effect of metformin on these parameters in PCOS women. Methods: 48 PCOS women who were

Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Frangiskos N. Economou; Sarantis Livadas; Evangelia Tantalaki; Christina Piperi; Athanasios G. Papavassiliou; Dimitrios Panidis

2009-01-01

301

CHANGES IN SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS DURING THE CELL CYCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronized populations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in confluent culture have been examined by scanning electron microscopy and their surface changes noted as the cells progress through the cycle . During G, it is characteristic for cells to show large numbers of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles . Except for the ruffles, these tend to diminish in prominence during S

KEITH PORTER; DAVID PRESCOTT; JEARL FRYE

1973-01-01

302

Signet Ring Stromal Tumor of the Ovary Occurring in Conjunction with Brenner Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A case is presented of a single ovarian mass that had elements of both signet ring stromal tumor of the ovary and Brenner tumor.Methods. The histologic features and the results of histocytochemical, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies are presented.Results. The signet ring component of the mass demonstrated features consistent with the few other cases previously reported. A positive immunohistochemical

Alan W. Cashell; W. Gray Jerome; Ernest Flores

2000-01-01

303

Pure cystic nephroblastoma of the ovary with a reviewof extrarenal Wilms' tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second case of pure ovarian extrarenal Wihns' tumor (EWT) ispresented. A clinical stage le tumor occurred in the right ovary of a 21-year-old female and corresponded to a 19-cm multilocular mass which histologically was a cystic, partially differentiated Wihns' tumor, closely resembling the highly differentiated metanephric adenoma. This pattern is reported for the first time in an ectopic location.

Maria A. Isaac; Suseelan Vijayalakshmi; Chiramugathu S. Madhu; Luisanna Bosincu; Francisco F. Nogales

2000-01-01

304

Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary mimicking struma ovarii and carcinoid tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clear cell carcinomas are considered as high-grade tumor often with poor prognosis. We describe 2 cases of clear cell carcinomas of the ovary mimicking benign or less aggressive tumors encountered in the female genital track. The first case is mimicking a benign monodermal teratoma, the so-called struma ovarii, and the second mimicking a carcinoid tumor.

Ahmad Alduaij; M. Ruhul Quddus

2011-01-01

305

Virilizing Cystic Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour of the Ovary: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of virilizing cystic juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary diagnosed by histopathological examination in a 17-year-old female presented with mass abdomen for two months, growing of the hairs on the face and abdomen and deepening of voice for one year. PMID:24959454

Singh, Reecha; Bharathi, K.V.; Himabindu

2014-01-01

306

Removal of Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes Cuts Cancer Risk for BRCA1/2 Carriers  

Cancer.gov

Surgery that removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes is one of the most effective ways to decrease a woman's risk of breast and gynecologic cancer if she carries a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, according to the Jan. 21, 2009, Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

307

Successful boll development after ovary damage during emasculation of upland cotton flowers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gossypium hirsutum flowers are easily emasculated by splitting the staminal column with the fingernail and removing the corolla and androecium. However, any damage to the ovary is considered detrimental to successful boll formation and damaged flowers are typically discarded. This study evaluated ...

308

Virilizing cystic juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of virilizing cystic juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary diagnosed by histopathological examination in a 17-year-old female presented with mass abdomen for two months, growing of the hairs on the face and abdomen and deepening of voice for one year. PMID:24959454

Kumar, Bipin; Singh, Reecha; Bharathi, K V; Himabindu

2014-04-01

309

Localization of resistin and its possible roles in the ovary of a vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and effect of resistin on ovarian activities of Scotophilus heathi. Immunohistochemical study showed marked variation in resistin immunostaining during different reproductive phases. Most intense immunostaining of resistin was noticed in thecal-interstitial cells in ovary during the period of delayed ovulation, the period of increased androgen synthesis and suppressed ovulation. The changes in ovarian resistin level also correlated positively with circulating leptin level and body white adipose tissue accumulation. The in vitro study showed that resistin alone preferentially stimulated progesterone synthesis, but with luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulated androgen secretion. Resistin alone dose-dependently increased expression of LH-receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and insulin receptor proteins in the ovary, whereas together with LH showed dose-dependent stimulatory effect on expression of androgen receptor and insulin receptor proteins in the ovary. In conclusion, during the period of fat accumulation increased ovarian resistin level may be responsible for increased androgen synthesis through insulin receptor mediated pathways in the ovary of S. heathi. PMID:25555474

Singh, Ajit; Suragani, Madhuri; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Krishna, Amitabh

2015-03-01

310

Histological examination of sublethal effects of diazinon on ovary of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the insecticide, diazinon (an organophosphorous compound), on the ovaries of bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) were studied. Histological preparations of bluegill ovarian tissue was examined at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following exposure to sublethal doses of diazinon (60 ?g\\/l). The control contained primary follicles with an intact ovigerous lamellae and tunica

Hiran M Dutta; Laura B Maxwell

2003-01-01

311

Morphofunctional changes in guinea pig ovaries in experimental chronic herpesvirus infection.  

PubMed

The ovaries of adult guinea pigs infected with herpesvirus-2 were examined by light microscopy under conditions of latent infection and relapse of infectious process. Morphofunctional changes in the ovarian follicles at all stages of folliculogenesis and in ovarian stroma were caused by the negative effects of type 2 herpes simplex virus. PMID:19145331

Shevlyagina, N V; Ivanova, A M; Borovaya, T G; Didenko, L V; Berezina, L K; Narovlyansky, A N; Ershov, F I

2008-08-01

312

Chinese hamster ovary cell growth and interferon production kinetics in stirred batch culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human interferon-? production by Chinese hamster ovary cells was restricted to the growth phase of batch cultures in serum-free medium. The specific interferon production rate was highest during the initial period of exponential growth but declined subsequently in parallel with specific growth rate. This decline in specific growth rate and interferon productivity was associated with a decline in specific

P. M. Hayter; E. M. A. Curling; A. J. Baines; N. Jenkins; I. Salmon; P. G. Strange; A. T. Bull

1991-01-01

313

TrkA and p75NTR in the ovary of adult cow and pig.  

PubMed

Neurotrophins play a critical role in the development of the mammalian ovary, oogenesis and folliculogenesis. In this study we investigated the cell localization of the two main receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF), TrkA and p75NTR, in the cow and pig ovary, using immunohistochemistry. Specific immunoreactivity for TrkA and p75NTR was detected in the ovary of both species, but the pattern and intensity of immunostaining were marginally different between them. The follicular cells regularly expressed immunoreactivity for both receptors. Immunoreactivity was also detected in the oocytes, independently of the maturational stage of the follicles, with the exception of primordial and primary follicles of the pig which did not display p75NTR. Taken together, these results suggest a possible direct role of NGF on oocytes expressing TrkA and p75NTR, in addition to the well-known roles in other ovary functions. The practical relevance of these data remains to be clarified. PMID:16011548

Levanti, M B; Germanà, A; Abbate, F; Montalbano, G; Vega, J A; Germanà, G

2005-07-01

314

The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

2014-01-01

315

Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary  

PubMed Central

The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON) will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV) to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh) and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry. PMID:20723258

2010-01-01

316

Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary.  

PubMed

The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON) will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV) to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh) and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry. PMID:20723258

Morales-Ledesma, Leticia; Linares, Rosa; Rosas, Gabriela; Morán, Carolina; Chavira, Roberto; Cárdenas, Mario; Domínguez, Roberto

2010-01-01

317

[Effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus in D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging].  

PubMed

The present study was to investigate the effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus of D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging. Aging female mice model caused by D-galactose were used as model group, the aging model mice intragastrically administered with kinetin solution (daily 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) were used as kinetin groups, and the mice with solvent as normal group (n = 20). To detect the effects of kinetin, estrous cycle, estradiol content, ovarian and uterine wet weight and organ index, SOD and GSH-Px activities, MDA and total protein contents, as well as the reserve function of ovaries were examined. The results showed that, kinetin-induced changes in two kinetin groups were observed, compared with the model group: (1) the estrous cycle was shortened; (2) serum estradiol content was significantly increased; (3) the wet weights of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (4) SOD and GSH-Px activities of ovary and uterus were significantly higher; (5) the MDA contents of the ovary and uterus were reduced significantly; (6) total protein contents of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (7) the numbers of mature oocytes in fallopian tubes were increased significantly. The results show that kinetin can protect ovary and uterus against oxidative damage, prevent low estrogen secretion caused by ovarian oxidative damage, shorten the estrous cycle in mice, and eventually maintain ovarian and uterine vitalities. PMID:23963070

Sun, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Yu-Mei; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Wu-Qing

2013-08-25

318

FOG-2 and GATA-4 Are coexpressed in the mouse ovary and can modulate mullerian-inhibiting substance expression.  

PubMed

Transcription factor GATA-4 has been suggested to have a role in mammalian gonadogenesis, e.g., through activation of the Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) gene expression. Although the expression of GATA-4 during gonadogenesis has been elucidated in detail, very little is known about FOG-2, an essential cofactor for GATA-4, in ovarian development. We explored in detail the expression of FOG-2 and GATA-4 in the fetal and postnatal mouse ovary and in the fetal testis using Northern blotting, RNA in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. GATA-4 and FOG-2 are evident in the bipotential urogenital ridge, and their expression persists in the fetal mouse ovary; this result is different from earlier reports of GATA-4 downregulation in the fetal ovary. In contrast to ovary, FOG-2 expression is lost in the fetal Sertoli cells along with the formation of the testicular cords, leading to the hypothesis that FOG-2 has a specific role in the fetal ovaries counteracting the transactivation of the MIS gene by GATA-4. In vitro transfection assays verified that FOG-2 is able to repress the effect of GATA-4 on MIS transactivation in granulosa cells. In postnatal ovary, granulosa cells of growing follicles express FOG-2, partially overlapping with the expression of MIS. These data suggest an important role for FOG-2 and the GATA transcription factors in the developing ovary. PMID:12606418

Anttonen, Mikko; Ketola, Ilkka; Parviainen, Helka; Pusa, Anna-Kaisa; Heikinheimo, Markku

2003-04-01

319

microRNA156-targeted SPL/SBP box transcription factors regulate tomato ovary and fruit development.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is well understood at the molecular level. However, information regarding genetic pathways associated with tomato ovary and early fruit development is still lacking. Here, we investigate the possible role(s) of the microRNA156/SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL or SBP box) module (miR156 node) in tomato ovary development. miR156-targeted S. lycopersicum SBP genes were dynamically expressed in developing flowers and ovaries, and miR156 was mainly expressed in meristematic tissues of the ovary, including placenta and ovules. Transgenic tomato cv. Micro-Tom plants over-expressing the AtMIR156b precursor exhibited abnormal flower and fruit morphology, with fruits characterized by growth of extra carpels and ectopic structures. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses showed the presence of meristem-like structures inside the ovaries, which are probably responsible for the ectopic organs. Interestingly, expression of genes associated with meristem maintenance and formation of new organs, such as LeT6/TKN2 (a KNOX-like class I gene) and GOBLET (a NAM/CUC-like gene), was induced in developing ovaries of transgenic plants as well as in the ovaries of the natural mutant Mouse ear (Me), which also displays fruits with extra carpels. Conversely, expression of the MADS box genes MACROCALYX (MC) and FUL1/TDR4, and the LEAFY ortholog FALSIFLORA, was repressed in the developing ovaries of miR156 over-expressors, suggesting similarities with Arabidopsis at this point of the miR156/SPL pathway but with distinct functional consequences in reproductive development. Altogether, these observations suggest that the miR156 node is involved in maintenance of the meristematic state of ovary tissues, thereby controlling initial steps of fleshy fruit development and determinacy. PMID:24580734

Ferreira e Silva, Geraldo Felipe; Silva, Eder Marques; Azevedo, Mariana da Silva; Guivin, Mike Anderson Corazon; Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Figueiredo, Cassia Regina; Carrer, Helaine; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira

2014-05-01

320

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Malignant transformation of a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is rare, occurring in approximately 2% of all cases. The most common malignancy arising in mature cystic teratoma is squamous cell carcinoma. Much less frequently, the malignant transformation is represented by sarcomas. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma usually develops in bone. There has been no case of a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary since the establishment of this diagnostic entity. This is a report of a definitive dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary, presenting clinicopathologic features. PMID:21623194

Yasunaga, Masafumi; Saito, Toshiaki; Eto, Takako; Okadome, Masao; Ariyoshi, Kazuya; Nishiyama, Ken-ichi; Oda, Yoshinao

2011-07-01

321

Three-dimensional culture of a mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: expression of in vivo characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) is a novel in vitro cell culture system used to successfully culture a cell line derived from a heterologous mixed mullerian tumor cell of the ovary. Although the original tumor was comprised of both epithelial and mesodermal components, long-term culture in conventional flasks established a cell line from this tumor with homogeneous epitheliallike growth characteristics (1). Cells from Passage 36 were seeded into a Rotating-Wall Vessel containing Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads. Scanning electron micrographs of tumor cells cultured for 32 d in the RWV showed the presence of heterogeneous cell populations organized into three-dimensional tissuelike architecture. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed the cellular heterogeneity, as demonstrated by expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal antigens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification demonstrated the presence of mRNA for cellular oncogenes HER-2/neu, H-ras, K-ras, and tumor suppressor p53. Thus, there are two advantages to propagation of tissue in the RWV culture system:(a) tissue diversification representing populations present in the original tumor, and (b) the three-dimensional freedom to organize tissues morphologically akin to those observed in vivo. These data indicate that the RWV culture system is suitable for generating large quantities of ovarian tumor cells in vitro that are amenable to immunocytochemical, oncogenic, morphologic characteristics demonstrated in vivo.

Goodwin, T. J.; Prewett, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.; Becker, J. L.

1997-01-01

322

Mechanism of hydroxylation at C-2 during the biosynthesis of ecdysone in ovaries of the locust, Schistocerca gregaria.  

PubMed Central

The stereochemistry of hydroxylation at C-2 during the biosynthesis of ecdysone in the ovaries of Schistocerca gregaria was investigated by incorporation of [1 alpha,2 alpha-3H(n)]cholesterol in admixture with [4-14C]cholesterol into oöcyte 2-deoxyecdysone and ecdysone conjugates in maturing adult female S. gregaria. Extraction of the eggs followed by enzymic hydrolysis of the ecdysteroid conjugate fraction yielded free ecdysteroids, from which 2-deoxyecdysone and ecdysone were purified. The 3H/14C ratios in the 2-deoxyecdysone and ecdysone were similar, suggesting that the 2 alpha hydrogen of cholesterol was retained during hydroxylation at C-2. This was corroborated by oxidation at C-2 of the 3,22-diacetate derivative of the ecdysone, yielding the corresponding 2-oxo compound with removal of essentially all the 3H originally present at the 2 alpha position of cholesterol. The results indicate that the 2 beta hydrogen of cholesterol has been eliminated during the hydroxylation at C-2. Thus, during ecdysone biosynthesis, hydroxylation at C-2 is direct and occurs with retention of configuration. PMID:6712595

Greenwood, D R; Dinan, L N; Rees, H H

1984-01-01

323

Abundant primary piRNAs, endo-siRNAs, and microRNAs in a Drosophila ovary cell line.  

PubMed

Piwi proteins, a subclass of Argonaute-family proteins, carry approximately 24-30-nt Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that mediate gonadal defense against transposable elements (TEs). We analyzed the Drosophila ovary somatic sheet (OSS) cell line and found that it expresses miRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), and piRNAs in abundance. In contrast to intact gonads, which contain mixtures of germline and somatic cell types that express different Piwi-class proteins, OSS cells are a homogenous somatic cell population that expresses only PIWI and primary piRNAs. Detailed examination of its TE-derived piRNAs and endo-siRNAs revealed aspects of TE defense that do not rely upon ping-pong amplification. In particular, we provide evidence that a subset of piRNA master clusters, including flamenco, are specifically expressed in OSS and ovarian follicle cells. These data indicate that the restriction of certain TEs in somatic gonadal cells is largely mediated by a primary piRNA pathway. PMID:19541914

Lau, Nelson C; Robine, Nicolas; Martin, Raquel; Chung, Wei-Jen; Niki, Yuzo; Berezikov, Eugene; Lai, Eric C

2009-10-01

324

Effects of Ddc cluster lethal alleles on ovary growth, attachment, and egg production in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The Ddc cluster of genes on the left arm of chromosome 2 in Drosophila has been extensively characterized by Wright and coworkers (Wright, '87b). Many of the genes in the cluster are associated with the pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle, and at least 12 have been shown to play a role in female fertility. To characterize further the actions of genes in the cluster, we have investigated the effect on fertility of a total of five of the previously untested genes (l(2)37Be, Bb, Bg, Bd, and Cg), and three of the partially characterized genes (l(2)37Ce, Ddc, and amd). Each allele was crossed to Df(2L)TW130 or49h flies in order to make it hemizygous over the 8-12 band deficiency covering the Ddc region, 37B9-C1,2;37D1-2. Ovaries taken from larvae produced by this cross were transplanted into female larval hosts of y f mal genotype, that were then mated to v f mal males. The wild type allele of mal in implanted tissue allowed identification and study of surviving implants by staining for the presence of aldehyde oxidase. Of the 18 alleles available, amdH149, l(2)37Bb1, Bb9, Bb11, Bd6, Be1, Bd7, Be2, Be3, Ce4, and Cg1 did not allow enough growth to form transplantable ovaries; l(2)37Bg1, Bg2, and Cgts1 prevented development of transplanted ovaries in their hosts; l(2)37Ce5 allowed implanted ovaries to attach to oviducts and grow, but insufficiently for production of eggs; and DdcN27, amd29, and l(2)37Bd4 appeared not to restrict ovary development. Heteroallelic heterozygotes of Bd7 x Bd4 also produced fully fertile ovaries, but no other heteroallelic combinations did so.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8176361

McCrady, E; Tolin, D J

1994-05-01

325

77 FR 70451 - Report of the Evidence-Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prevention.nih.gov/workshops/2012/pcos/default.aspx. DATES: Comments on...INFORMATION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormone disorder that affects...women in the United States. Women with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant...

2012-11-26

326

The ovary structure, previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages in parthenogenetic species Dactylobiotus dispar (Murray, 1907) (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada).  

PubMed

The reproductive system of Dactylobiotus dispar consists of the ovary and the oviduct that opens into the rectum. The sack-like ovary is filled with the developing oocytes, which are assisted by the trophocytes. In D. dispar, the mixed vitellogenesis takes place. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), the second part is absorbed by micropinocytosis while the third part is synthesized in the trophocytes and is transported to the oocytes through the cytoplasmatic bridges. Moreover, rRNA, lipids and mitochondria are transfered from the trophocytes to the oocytes. The histochemical researches show that the reserve material accumulated in the oocytes contains proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. PMID:16125743

Poprawa, Izabela

2005-10-01

327

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view. PMID:24073009

Johansson, Julia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

2013-01-01

328

Genetic modeling of ovarian phenotypes in mice for the study of human polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents with a range of clinical complications including hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, chronic oligo/anovulation, infertility, and metabolic alterations related to insulin resistance. Because the mechanism by which this disorder develops is poorly understood, information from experimental models of human disease phenotypes may help to define the mechanisms for the initiation and development of PCOS-related pathological events. The establishment of animal models compatible with human PCOS is challenging, and applying the lessons learned from these models to human PCOS is often complicated. In this mini-review we provide examples of currently available genetic mouse models, their ovarian phenotypes, and their possible relationship to different aspects of human PCOS. Because of the practical and ethical limitations of studying PCOS-related events in humans, our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of human PCOS may be enhanced through further study of these transgenic and knockout mouse models. PMID:23390562

Feng, Yi; Li, Xin; Shao, Ruijin

2013-01-01

329

Identification of germline stem cells in the ovary of the teleost medaka.  

PubMed

Germline stem cells continually produce sperm in vertebrate testes, whereas there is no direct evidence showing that germline stem cells are present in adult vertebrate ovaries. By using transgenic methods and clonal analysis, we identified germline stem cells that supported oogenesis and the production of offspring in the ovaries of adult medaka fish. Early-stage germ cells were localized in clusters along interwoven threadlike cords of sox9b-expressing somatic cells (termed germinal cradles) where the germ cells developed. Germline stem cells gave rise to germ cells that divided to produce cysts, which then underwent cell death or separated to form follicles. Our results provide insight into the germline stem cell biology of medaka and provide a model system for studying vertebrate stem cell niches. PMID:20488987

Nakamura, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Kayo; Nishimura, Toshiya; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Minoru

2010-06-18

330

Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer with a distinct clinical behavior. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of CCC. The CCC is more likely to be detected at an early stage than high-grade serous cancers, and when confined within the ovary, the prognosis is good. However, advanced disease is associated with a very poor prognosis and resistance to standard treatment. Cytoreductive surgery should be performed for patients with stage II, III, or IV disease. An international phase III study to compare irinotecan/cisplatin and paclitaxel/carboplatin as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIV CCC has completed enrollment (GCIG/JGOG3017). Considering the frequent PIK3CA mutation in CCC, dual inhibitors targeting PI3K, AKT in the mTOR pathway, are promising. Performing these trials and generating the evidence will require considerable international collaboration. PMID:25341576

Okamoto, Aikou; Glasspool, Rosalind M; Mabuchi, Seiji; Matsumura, Noriomi; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Takano, Masashi; Takano, Tadao; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke; Konishi, Ikuo; Covens, Alan; Ledermann, Jonathan; Mezzazanica, Delia; Steer, Christopher; Millan, David; McNeish, Iain A; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Kang, Sokbom; Gladieff, Laurence; Bryce, Jane; Oza, Amit

2014-11-01

331

[Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: retrospective study of 17 cases].  

PubMed

Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare tumor of ovary, included in the sex cord-stromal tumor category, hormone secreting. Seventeen patients with adult-type granulosa cell tumor were identified between 1995 and 2012. All have received surgical treatment first at stage I. Thirty-three percent of the patients relapsed with peritoneal nodules in 68% of the cases, treated surgically and sometimes with complementary therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal treatment. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were 100% and 58.3%, respectively at 10 years with median time to recurrence of 6 years (4-27). These tumors have therefore a good prognosis and require long-time follow-up. Finally, the prognostic factors of recurrence identified in the literature are FIGO stage, the presence of residual tumor and tumor size. PMID:24394321

Rebstock, L-E; Leufflen, L; Leroux, A; Harter, V; Verhaeghe, J-L; Marchal, F

2014-05-01

332

Growing Teratoma Syndrome of the Ovary Showing Three Patterns of Metastasis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is defined as metastatic masses during or after chemotherapy for germ cell tumors, which contain only mature teratoma components. The peritoneum of the pelvis and abdomen and the retroperitoneum are the most frequent sites of metastasis. We report a case of GTS of the ovary showing three patterns of metastasis: dissemination, lymphogenous metastasis, and hematogenous metastasis. The patient initially presented 5 years ago with a mixed germ cell tumor of the left ovary and positive cytology of ascites. After surgery and chemotherapy, mature teratomas recurred as pelvic peritoneal dissemination, a para-aortic lymph node mass, and a lung mass. Our case highlights the importance of long-term follow-up and a whole-body search. We think that our case is suggestive regarding the mechanism of critical GTS. PMID:24348391

Shibata, Kiyosumi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

2013-01-01

333

Hydatid cysts in abdominal wall and ovary in a case of diffuse abdominal hydatidosis: Imaging and pathological correlation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of diffuse abdominal hydatidosis with correlation of imaging findings with gross pathology. The patient had involvement of liver, diaphragm, pelvic cavity, ovary and abdominal wall. Hydatid cysts were morphologically different from each other including calcified, uniloculated and multiloculated cystic lesions. Our case is rare as ovary and abdominal wall involvement is described in less than 1 % cases of hydatid disease. PMID:22470661

Amin, Muhammad Umar; Mahmood, Rabia; Manzoor, Shahid; Ahmad, Shoib

2009-01-01

334

Mucinous tumors of the vermiform appendix and ovary, and pseudomyxoma peritonei: Histogenetic implications of cytokeratin 7 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokeratin 7 (CK-7) has been shown to be uncommonly expressed in colonic epithelial tumors, as opposed to ovarian epithelial tumors, which are always CK-7 positive. The authors investigated the expression of CK-7 in 17 appendiceal cystadenomas and carcinomas, 20 mucinous borderline tumors of the ovary, 10 cases of simultaneous mucinous tumors of the appendix and ovary, three so-called high-stage mucinous

Claudio Guerrieri; Birgitta Franlund; Staffan Fristedt; John F Gillooley; Bernt Boeryd

1997-01-01

335

Comparative studies on fatty acid composition of the ovaries and hepatopancreas at different physiological stages of the Chinese mitten crab  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of the ovary at different physiological stages (immature, mature, spawning, egg loss and abortion) of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was investigated with capillary gas chromatograph. A total of 18 types of fatty acids were found in the ovary of E. sinensis. Three of them were major fatty acids: oleic acid (C18:1) (31.96–37.31%), palmitic acid

Xue-Ping Ying; Wan-Xi Yang; Yong-Pu Zhang

2006-01-01

336

Metformin treatment before IVF\\/ICSI in women with polycystic ovary syndrome; a prospective, randomized, double blind study  

Microsoft Academic Search

form in Fertility and Sterility, Vol 81, supplement 3, page 7-9. BACKGROUND: Our aim was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) scheduled for IVF stimulation. METHODS: Seventy-three oligo\\/amenorrhoeic women with polycystic ovaries and at least one of the following criteria: hyperandrogenaemia, elevated LH\\/FSH ratio, hyperinsulinism, decreased SHBG levels or hirsutism, were

S. B. Kjøtrød; S. M. Carlsen

2004-01-01

337

Autoradiographic investigation of uptake and storage of exogenous sperm by the ovary of the compound ascidian Diplosoma listerianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of radiolabelled non-self sperm within the female reproductive tract of cultured specimens of the hermaphroditic ascidian Diplosoma listerianum Milne Edwards was investigated by light-microscope autoradiography. Passage of male gametes up the oviduct (fertilization canal) to the ovary was demonstrated for sperm known unequivocally to be of external (non-self) origin. The lumen of the ovary was directly confirmed as

J. D. D. Bishop; A. D. Sommerfeldt

1996-01-01

338

CD59 Silencing via Retrovirus-Mediated RNA Interference Enhanced Complement-Mediated Cell Damage in Ovary Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD59, belonging to membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs), inhibits the cytolytic activity of complement and is over-expressed in solid cancers, including ovary cancer. The aim of the present study was to construct recombinant retrovirus encoding shRNA targeted human CD59 and infect A2780 cells in order to investigate the relationship between decreased CD59 expression and tumorigenesis of ovary cancer. siCD59 and

Xuexiang Shi; Bei Zhang; Jinlin Zang; Guoying Wang; Meihua Gao

2009-01-01

339

Detection in Human Ovary and Prostate Tumors of DMA Polymerase Activity That Copies Poly(2 -O-methylcytidylate) oligodeoxyguanylate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participate DNA polymerase activity that copied poly(2 - O-methylcytidylate) oligodeoxyguanylate and banded at a density of 1.15 to 1.20 g\\/ml in sucrose gradients was detected in 8 of 16 human ovary tumors and in 11 of 16 malignant prostate tissues. None of the 10 nonmalignant ovary and prostate tissues examined contained detecta ble participate DNA polymerase activity that copied poly(2

Gary F. Gerard; Paul M. Loewenstein; Maurice Green

340

Small-cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type in an 8-year-old girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumors of the ovary in girls represent about 80% of pediatric genital tumors; approximately 30% of these tumors are malignant.\\u000a The risk of malignancy increases with decreasing age. The most frequent finding is a teratoma; other tumors are rare. Small-cell\\u000a carcinoma (SCCO) of the ovary is extremely rare, occurring mostly in young women. We present an 8-year-old girl with a

J. Schleef; A. Wagner; R. Kleta; K. Schaarschmidt; B. Dockhorn-Dworniczak; G.-H. Willital; H. Jürgens

1999-01-01

341

A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.  

PubMed

Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2?Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape. PMID:24519535

Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

342

Policing of adult honey bees with activated ovaries is error prone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Individually-marked day-old anarchistic (from a line where workers lay eggs at high frequency) and wild-type worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) were introduced to queenless sections of anarchistic or wildtype host colonies housed in observation hives. After 14 days, some introduced workers had activated ovaries, and we then removed the screens separating the queenless from the queenright sections of the

J. R. Dampney; A. B. Barron; B. P. Oldroyd

2002-01-01

343

Pharmaceutical Intervention in Metabolic and Cardiovascular risk Factors in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of women in reproductive age, its prevalence internationally\\u000a ranges between 6 and 8%. This syndrome is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and frequently, insulin resistance\\u000a (IR).\\u000a \\u000a The past decade, the central importance of IR in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been established, by pioneering elegant\\u000a studies. Subsequently, in addition to the

Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis

344

Identification and characterization of cryptochrome4 in the ovary of western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis.  

PubMed

CRY proteins can be classified into several groups based on their phylogenetic relationships, and they function as a photoreceptor, a photolyase, and/or a transcriptional repressor of the circadian clock. In order to elucidate the expression profile and functional diversity of CRYs in vertebrates, we focused on XtCRY4, a member of the uncharacterized cryptochrome family CRY4 in Xenopus tropicalis. XtCRY4 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR, and a phylogenetic analysis of deduced sequence of XtCRY4 suggested that the vertebrate Cry4 genes evolved at much higher evolutionary rates than mammalian-type Cry genes, such as the CRY1 and CRY2 circadian clock molecules. A transcriptional assay was performed to examine the transcriptional regulatory function as circadian repressor, and XtCRY4 had marginal effects on the transactivation of XtCLOCK/XtBMAL1 via E-box element. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect mRNA expression in native tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that XtCry4 mRNA was highly transcribed in the ovary. In situ hybridization showed the presence of XtCry4 transcripts in the oocytes, testis, renal tubules, the visual photoreceptors, and the retinal ganglion cells. A specific antiserum to XtCRY4 was developed to detect endogeneous expression of XtCRY4 protein in the ovary. The expression level was estimated by immunoblot analysis, and this is the first detection and estimation of endogenous expression of CRY protein in the ovary. These results suggest that X. tropicalis ovary may respond to blue-light by using XtCRY4. PMID:24601777

Takeuchi, Takahiro; Kubo, Yoko; Okano, Keiko; Okano, Toshiyuki

2014-03-01

345

A Phase I Study of Paclitaxel and Cyclophosphamide in Recurrent Adenocarcinoma of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a disease specific phase I study of paclitaxel and cyclophosphamide in recurrent adenocarcinoma of the ovary. This was done to take advantage of the cellular and molecular synergism between paclitaxel and DNA-damaging agents, with the hope of avoiding paclitaxel–cisplatin toxicities. Paclitaxel was given as a 24-hr CIVI, after which cyclophosphamide was given as a 60-min infusion. Cycles

Eddie Reed; Gisele Sarosy; Elise Kohn; Michaele Christian; Barry Goldspiel; Patricia Davis; Joan Jacob; Martha Maher

1996-01-01

346

Initiation and maintenance of long term somatic embryogenesis from anthers and ovaries of Vitis longii ‘Microsperma’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthers and ovaries of Vitis longii ‘Microsperma’ produced embryogenic callus when cultured on solidified Murashige and Skoog medium with 5µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1µM benzyladenine (BA). The initial callus was short-lived. However, long-term embryogenesis from callus was maintained through serial transfers by careful selection of clustered embryos with subtending callus. Alternatively, long term culture maintenance was through secondary embryogenesis

D. J. Gray; J. A. Mortensen

1987-01-01

347

Dominant activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway in the ovary alters theca development and prevents ovulation.  

PubMed

The role of the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway in ovarian function was examined in transgenic mice in which expression of a dominant active allele of the signal transducer smoothened (SmoM2) was directed to the ovary and Müllerian duct by cre-mediated recombination (Amhr2(cre/+)SmoM2). Mutant mice were infertile and had ovarian and reproductive tract defects. Ovaries contained follicles of all sizes and corpora lutea (CL), but oocytes were rarely recovered from the oviducts of superovulated mice and remained trapped in preovulatory follicles. Measures of luteinization did not differ. Cumulus expansion appeared disorganized, and in vitro analyses confirmed a reduced expansion index. Microarray analysis indicated that expression levels of genes typical of smooth muscle were reduced in mutant mice, and RT-PCR showed that levels of expression of muscle genes were reduced in the nongranulosa, theca-interstitial cell-enriched fraction. Whereas a layer of cells in the outer theca was positively stained for smooth muscle actin in control ovaries, this staining was reduced or absent in mutant ovaries. Expression of a number of genes in granulosa cells that are known to be important for ovulation did not differ in mutants and controls. Expression of components of the HH pathway was observed in both granulosa cells and in the nongranulosa, residual ovarian tissue and changed in response to treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin/human gonadotropin. The results show that appropriate signaling through the HH pathway is required for development of muscle cells within the theca and that impaired muscle development is associated with failure to release the oocyte at ovulation. PMID:19196835

Ren, Yi; Cowan, Robert G; Harman, Rebecca M; Quirk, Susan M

2009-05-01

348

Global transcriptional profile of Tranosema rostrale ichnovirus genes in infected lepidopteran hosts and wasp ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ichnovirus TrIV, transmitted by the endoparasitic wasp Tranosema rostrale to its lepidopteran host during oviposition, replicates asymptomatically in wasp ovaries and causes physiological dysfunctions\\u000a in parasitized caterpillars. The need to identify ichnoviral genes responsible for disturbances induced in lepidopteran hosts\\u000a has provided the impetus for the sequencing and annotation of ichnovirus genomes, including that of TrIV. In the latter,

Asieh Rasoolizadeh; Frédéric Dallaire; Don Stewart; Catherine Béliveau; Renée Lapointe; Michel Cusson

2009-01-01

349

Selection of tunicamycin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells with increased N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells resistant to the antibiotic tunicamycin (TM) have been isolated by a stepwise selection procedure with progressive increments of TM added to the medium. TM inhibits asparagine-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis by blocking the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to the lipid carrier. The TM-resistant cells exhibited a 200-fold increase in their LDso for TM and were morphologically

BARBARA A. CRISCUOLO; SHARON S. KRAG

1982-01-01

350

Twist Expression Predicts Poor Clinical Outcome of Patients with Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Twist is a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates the expression of E-cadherin and promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is critical for tumor infiltration. We examined the distribution and expression of this molecule in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) to elucidate their clinical significance. Methods: Paraffin sections from CCC tissues (n = 27) were immunostained

Hiroaki Kajiyama; Satoyo Hosono; Mikio Terauchi; Kiyosumi Shibata; Kazuhiko Ino; Eiko Yamamoto; Seiji Nomura; Akihiro Nawa; Fumitaka Kikkawa; M. Singh; S. Prasad

2006-01-01

351

Impaired lysosomes in a temperature-sensitive mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We describe here the properties of a mutant of Chinese hamster,ovary cells that expresses a conditional-lethal mutation,affecting dense lysosomes. This mutant, termed V.24.1, is a member of the End4 complementation,group,of temperature-sensitive mu- tants selected for resistance to protein toxins (Col- baugh, P. A., C.-Y. Kao, S.-P. Shia, M. Stookey, and R. K. Draper. 1988. Somatic Cell Mol. Genet. 14:499-507).

Penelope A. Colbaugh; Margaret Stookey; Rockford K. Draper

1989-01-01

352

Effects of somatotropin on the conceptus, uterus, and ovary during maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on ovarian and uterine function and the production of components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were examined during the period of maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle. Lactating dairy cows were treated with 25 mg\\/d rbST (n = 8) or saline (n = 8) for 16 d after estrus. Ovaries, uteri, and

M. C. Lucy; W. W. Thatcher; R. J. Collier; F. A. Simmen; Y. Ko; J. D. Savio; L. Badinga

1995-01-01

353

Unilateral or bilateral vagotomy induces ovulation in both ovaries of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development. Methods Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 90–92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear. Results In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats. Conclusions This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries. PMID:23866168

2013-01-01

354

Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

2013-01-01

355

A meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder associated with many characteristic features, including hyperandrogenaemia, insulin resistance and obesity which may have significant implications for pregnancy outcomes and long-term health of the woman. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the risk of pregnancy and neonatal complications in women with PCOS. Electronic databases were searched for the following MeSH headings:

C. M. Boomsma; M. J. C. Eijkemans; E. G. Hughes; G. H. A. Visser; B. C. J. M. Fauser; N. S. Macklon

2006-01-01

356

Strategies for Ovulation Induction in the Management of Anovulatory Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of anovulatory infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has traditionally involved the use of clomiphene\\u000a citrate (CC) and then gonadotropin therapy or laparoscopic ovarian surgery, in those who are clomiphene resistant. There is\\u000a no clear role for insulin sensitizing and insulin lowering drugs, and algorithms for their place in therapy are still to be\\u000a agreed upon. Newer

Adam Frcog

357

Operative transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy for treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a new minimally invasive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate a new minimally invasive surgery for treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in clomiphene-resistant infertile women.Design: Prospective study.Setting: University teaching hospital.Patient(s): Thirteen clomiphene citrate–resistant anovulatory women with PCOS.Intervention(s): Operative transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) using a coaxial bipolar electrode.Main Outcome Measure(s): Feasability, ovulation rate, and pregnancy rate.Result(s): Ovarian drilling was performed by THL in all patients; no surgical

Hervé Fernandez; Jean-Dominique Alby; Amélie Gervaise; Renaud de Tayrac; René Frydman

2001-01-01

358

Oocyte quality in polycystic ovaries revisited: Identification of a particular subgroup of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Our purpose was to assess the endocrine status of women with polycystic ovaries (PCO) undergoing IVF, and to compare oocyte\\u000a quality with endocrine markers of the syndrome, in an attempt to define a subpopulation with poor quality oocytes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: This was a retrospective study. Patients were first endocrinologically analyzed: serum levels of androgens (T, androstenedione,\\u000a DHEAS), FSH, and LH

Fidel Cano; Juan A. García-Velasco; Antón Millet; José Remohí; Carlos Simón; Antonio Pellicer

1997-01-01

359

Aspects of Mono and Multiple Dominant Follicle Development in the Human Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chapter 1 \\u000aThe introduction of this thesis starts with general information on reproduction, sub­fertility and reproductive medicine. It continues with a brief overview of current knowledge regarding the function of the human ovary, describing ovarian development and early and advanced follicle development. The importance of the threshold\\/win-dow concept for the selection of a single dominant follicle is stressed in more

F. P. Hohmann

2005-01-01

360

Occurrence of saxitoxins as a major toxin in the ovary of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven male and 14 female specimens of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum were collected from Oita and Iwate Prefectures, Japan. The toxicity assay using mouse showed that only ovary and skin of the female specimens were toxic, the toxicity scores being 5–740 as paralytic shellfish poison and <5–30MU\\/g as tetrodotoxin (TTX), respectively. The toxin extracts from the both tissues were

Kazuhito Nakashima; Osamu Arakawa; Shigeto Taniyama; Mamoru Nonaka; Tomohiro Takatani; Kunio Yamamori; Yuichi Fuchi; Tamao Noguchi

2004-01-01

361

Menstrual Dysfunction and Endometrial Neoplasia in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Other Androgen Excess Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 80% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) suffer from menstrual dysfunction (oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea) at\\u000a some point in their reproductive life. These conditions are associated with several factors, including obesity, degree of\\u000a hyperandrogenism, and insulin insensitivity. Menstrual irregularity improves with advancing age. Women with menstrual irregularity\\u000a are more likely to have an elevated luteinizing hormone (LH), altered LH-to-follicle-stimulating hormone

Abdulkadir Wagley; Paul Hardiman

362

Expression of Human Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells and Characterization of the Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complementary DNA clone from human placenta, encoding human extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD; superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1), has recently been isolated and characterized. An expression plasmid, based on the EC-SOD complementary DNA, was transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). The transfected cells secreted human EC-SOD to the culture medium. The secreted recombinant (r) EC-SOD was isolated in high yield

Lena Tibell; Karin Hjalmarsson; Thomas Edlund; Gunnar Skogman; Ake Engstrom; Stefan L. Marklund

1987-01-01

363

Effects of metformin on gonadotropin-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate whether pretreatment with metformin improves FSH-induced ovulation in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Randomized prospective trial.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Siena.Patient(s): Twenty women with clomiphene citrate–resistant PCOS.Intervention(s): The women were divided randomly into groups A and B (10 subjects each). Group B received 1,500 mg of metformin for at least a month

Vincenzo De Leo; Antonio la Marca; Antonino Ditto; Giuseppe Morgante; Antonio Cianci

1999-01-01

364

Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy reduces the development of gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether metformin safely reduced development of gestational diabetes in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective and retrospective study.Setting: Outpatient clinical research center.Patient(s): The prospective study included 33 nondiabetic women with PCOS who conceived while taking metformin and had live births; of these, 28 were taking metformin through delivery. The retrospective study included 39 nondiabetic women

C. J Glueck; Ping Wang; Suichi Kobayashi; Harvey Phillips; Luann Sieve-Smith

2002-01-01

365

Sphingolipids, apoptosis, cancer treatments and the ovary: investigating a crime against female fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premature ovarian failure and infertility are well-known side-effects observed in young girls and reproductive-age women treated for cancer. Although the need for tumor eradication in these patients is clear, the long-term consequences of chemotherapy and radiation on non-target tissues, such as the ovaries where large numbers of germ cells (oocytes) are also killed off, are substantial. Unfortunately, the mechanism mediating

Jonathan L Tilly; Richard N Kolesnick

2002-01-01

366

Ovary tumors in NMRI mice subjected to fractionated X-irradiation during fetal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionated X-irradiation of pregnant mice was performed either during late organogenesis (gestational days 11–13), during the early fetal period (g.d. 14–16), or during both periods (g.d. 11–16). The offspring were observed for 39 months. A significant increase of ovary tumor frequency was observed with 3x1.2 Gy, applied either in late organogenesis or in the early fetal period. Lower X-irradiation doses

W. Schmahl; H. Kriegel

1980-01-01

367

[The prognostic factors in patients with malignant granulosa-theca cell tumors of the ovaries].  

PubMed

The extent of tumor, as revealed by surgery in 113 primary patients with malignant granulosa-stromal cell tumors of the ovaries (granulosa cell--77, theca cell--17 and mixed theca-granulosa cell tumors--19 patients), was analysed versus duration of disease, laterality of tumor and patient age. Factors which were significantly or as a marked tendency associated with stage III and IV of disease and thus suggested poor prognosis were identified. PMID:1668808

Adamian, R T

1991-01-01

368

Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of the Ovary: MR-Pathologic Correlation in Three Cases  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) of the ovary is a very rare sex cord stromal tumor occurring in a younger age group than other types of stromal tumors and most commonly accompanied by menstrual irregularity. Several unique histologic features including pseudolobulation, sclerosis and prominent vascularity are clearly reflected at ultrasonography and MRI. We report the ultrasonographic and MR features of three cases of histologically confirmed SSTs, and relate them to the pathological findings. PMID:14530650

Kim, Jin Young; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Jin Hee; Youn, Sung Kook

2003-01-01

369

Reproductive Performance of Mouse Oocyte after In Vivo Exposure of The Ovary to Continuous Wave Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a lack of studies regarding the effects of ultrasound (US) and replication of its exposure on pre-implantation events in mammals. Thus, this study assesses the reproductive performance of mouse oocytes that have been obtained from ovaries irradiated with US waves versus non-irradiated ovaries. Also comparision of their parthenogenesis, ovulation, fertilization, and pre-implantation development rates. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we divided extracted ovaries into three experimental groups that received the same dosage, but different replicates of radiation for each group. Results were compared with the control and sham groups. Continuous wave (CW) US, at a spatial average intensity of 355 mW/cm2 and a frequency of 3.28 MHz, was administered for 5 minutes to the ovaries at an interval between pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injections. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA test and the level of significance was determined to be 0.05. Results: Data collection was based on microscopic visualization. According to the obtained results, metaphase II (MII) oocyte numbers and the percentage of blastocysts significantly reduced in the USexposed groups versus the unexposed groups. Fertilization rate was comparable between groups while parthenogenesis was significantly higher in the US-exposed groups compared to the unexposed groups. Conclusion: Structural damage to cells, intracellular organelles and proteins, as well as changes in signaling pathways induced by US may be reasons for some of the observed adverse effects in groups that have received more US exposure. PMID:24520439

Nasiri, Nahid; VosoughTaqi Dizaj, Ahmad; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Akhond, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

370

Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone functions independently of the insulin receptor in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Most mosquito species must feed on the blood of a vertebrate host to produce eggs. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, blood feeding triggers medial neurosecretory cells in the brain to release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH). Theses hormones thereafter directly induce the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which activates the synthesis of yolk proteins in the fat body for uptake by oocytes. ILP3 stimulates ECD production by binding to the mosquito insulin receptor (MIR). In contrast, little is known about the mode of action of OEH, which is a member of a neuropeptide family called neuroparsin. Here we report that OEH is the only neuroparsin family member present in the Ae. aegypti genome and that other mosquitoes also encode only one neuroparsin gene. Immunoblotting experiments suggested that the full-length form of the peptide, which we call long OEH (lOEH), is processed into short OEH (sOEH). The importance of processing, however, remained unclear because a recombinant form of lOEH (rlOEH) and synthetic sOEH exhibited very similar biological activity. A series of experiments indicated that neither rlOEH nor sOEH bound to ILP3 or the MIR. Signaling studies further showed that ILP3 activated the MIR but rlOEH did not, yet both neuropeptides activated Akt, which is a marker for insulin pathway signaling. Our results also indicated that activation of TOR signaling in the ovaries required co-stimulation by amino acids and either ILP3 or rlOEH. Overall, we conclude that OEH activates the insulin signaling pathway independently of the MIR, and that insulin and TOR signaling in the ovaries is coupled. PMID:24076067

Dhara, Animesh; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Robertson, Anne; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Vogel, Kevin J; Clark, Kevin D; Graf, Rolf; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

2013-12-01

371

Overview of Long-Term Morbidity and Economic Cost of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long- and short-term morbidities associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) result in significant economic costs.\\u000a Using figures obtained in the United States, it has been estimated that the total annual cost of evaluating and providing\\u000a care to reproductive-aged women with PCOS in the United States is $4.37 billion. The initial diagnostic evaluation represented\\u000a only 2.3% of costs; hormonally

Ricardo Azziz

372

Characterization of brain-type ryanodine receptor permanently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify a function of brain-type ryanodine receptor (RyR3) and its regulation, we established a stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR3 by transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells) with the cDNA and investigated characteristics of the RyR3. Scatchard analysis of [3H]-ryanodine binding to the membrane from CHO cells expressing RyR3 showed two distinct binding sites. The Kd values

Kazuhiko Saeki; Ichiro Obi; Noriko Ogiku; Yasuhiro Hakamata; Takeshi Matsumoto

1998-01-01

373

Maturation of stamens and ovaries on cultured ear inflorescences of maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on the maturation of stamens and ovaries from cultured maize (Zea mays L.) ear inflorescences. Immature ears (5.1–10.0 mm long) of maize were cultured in kinetin medium to study microsporogenesis and pollen maturation in developing stamens. Male spikelets developed on ears cultured in kinetin medium. Meiosis-I began by 7 days of culture in the developing anthers and

V. R. Bommineni

1990-01-01

374

Evaluating compliance to a low glycaemic index (GI) diet in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A low Glycaemic Index (GI) diet may decrease some long-term health risks in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) such as endometrial\\u000a cancer. This study was performed to assess compliance to a low GI diet in women with PCOS. Food diaries prospectively collected\\u000a over 6 months from women on a low GI diet or healthy eating diet were analysed retrospectively. The women

Nicola Egan; Anna Read; Paddy Riley; William Atiomo

2011-01-01

375

Replication of Association of DENND1A and THADA Variants with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in European Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with a strong familial component. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenemia and irregular menses. A recent genome wide association study of PCOS in a Chinese cohort identified three reproducible PCOS susceptibility loci mapping to 2p16.3 (luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor; LHCGR), 2p21 (thyroid associated protein; THADA), and 9q33.3 (DENN/MADD domain containing 1A; DENNDIA). The impact of these loci in non-Chinese PCOS cohorts remains to be determined. Methods/Results We tested association with PCOS of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to the three Chinese PCOS loci in two European-derived PCOS cohorts (Cohort A = 939 cases and 957 controls; Cohort B = 535 cases and 845 controls). Cases fulfilled the NICHD criteria for PCOS. Variation in DENND1A was strongly associated with PCOS in our cohort (pcombined cohorts=10?8 ); multiple variants in THADA were also associated with PCOS, while there was no significant evidence for association of LHCGR variation with PCOS. We had greater than 80% power to detect an effect of similar size as was observed by Chen et al. for DENND1A and THADA but reduced power (at <40%) for LHCGR at p=0.0001. We had sufficient power (57-88%) for LHCGR at p=0.01. Conclusions At least two of the PCOS susceptibility loci identified in the Chinese PCOS GWAS (DENND1A and THADA) are also associated with PCOS in European-derived populations, and therefore likely to be important in the etiology of PCOS regardless of ethnicity. Our analysis of the LHCGR gene was not sufficiently powered to detect modest effects. PMID:22180642

Goodarzi, Mark O; Jones, Michelle R; Li, Xiaohui; Chua, Angela K; Garcia, Obed; Chen, Yii-Der I; Krauss, Ronald M; Rotter, Jerome I; Ankener, Wendy; Legro, Richard S; Azziz, Ricardo; Strauss, Jerome F; Dunaif, Andrea; Urbanek, Margrit

2012-01-01

376

Role of Ovarian Transposition Based on the Dosimetric Effects of Craniospinal Irradiation on the Ovaries: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we present a case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function in an adult female patient treated with craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma. The prescribed dose to the craniospinal axis was 2340 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction and was delivered with 6-MV photons. Before ovarian transposition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained for localization of the ovaries and was registered with the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Surgical clips allowed for CT localization of the ovaries after transposition. As a result of ovarian transposition, mean and maximum radiation doses decreased from 983 to 68 cGy and 1624 to 84 cGy for the left ovary and from 166 to 87 cGy and 723 to 103 cGy for the right ovary, respectively. Review of the literature indicates that such radiation doses are below the threshold that causes ovarian dysfunction and infertility. We conclude that ovarian localization with an MRI of the pelvis can be offered to females undergoing craniospinal irradiation. Transposition of the ovaries provides an option to preserve ovarian function in cases where the ovaries would otherwise be included within the radiation field.

Mitchell, James D.; Hitchen, Christine [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Vlachaki, Maria T. [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)], E-mail: mvlachaki@med.wayne.edu

2007-10-01

377

Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

Wallace, W. Hamish B. [Section of Child Life and Health, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Saran, Frank [Royal Marsden NHS Trust Foundation, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kelsey, Tom W. [School of Computer Science, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

378

Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17?-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females. PMID:25242521

Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

2014-10-10

379

Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (< 1200 Da) cytosolic materials. These channels are a growing family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

2001-01-01

380

Histomorphology of prepuberal ovaries in the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis Zimmerman, 1783).  

PubMed

The South American fur seal reproductive histophysiology is scarcely described. This study provides a histological description of prepuberal South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) ovaries as well as three-dimensional reconstructions of subcapsular crypts and primordial follicles. Ovaries from fresh dead animals were processed for histology and sliced into serial sections. A portion of the superficial cortex was photographed, and the images were processed using BioVis3d software in order to generate 3-dimensional reconstructions. A. australis prepuberal ovaries conform to the basic structure of pinnipedian species, with a subcapsular crypts system made up of interconnecting cisternae and tubules with multiple openings to the surface. Generally, the primordial follicles were arranged in a monolayer beneath the tunica albuginea and were closely associated with subcapsular crypts. The large number of interstitial cells distributed throughout the cortex was the main histological feature in comparison with previous reports in other seals. Three-dimensional reconstructions modelled the subcapsular crypts microarchitecture and showed the close spatial relationship between the crypts and the primordial follicles. Despite the fact that the general ovarian histological structure was similar to that of other pinnipeds, the large number of interstitial cells is a distinctive feature that raises the question about the origin and function in A. australis with regard to the steroidogenic activity reported in other seal species. PMID:19950080

Katz, H; Pérez, W; Bielli, A; Chavez, R

2009-11-01

381

Biocompatible core-shell electrospun nanofibers as potential application for chemotherapy against ovary cancer.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) core-shell nanofibers are successfully fabricated by a simple coaxial electrospinning method, in which PVA forms the core layer and CS forms the shell layer. With the change of the feed ratio between PVA and CS, the surface morphology and the microstructures of the nanofibers are largely changed. The as-prepared core-shell fibers can be used as a carrier for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. FT-IR analysis demonstrates that hydrogen bond between CS and PVA chains forms. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity test indicate that the core-shell fibers are completely biocompatible and the free DOX shows higher cytotoxicity than the DOX loaded nanofibers. The standing PVA/CS core-shell fibers remarkably promote the attachment, proliferation and spreading of human ovary cancer cells (SKOV3). Via observing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the DOX released from the fibers can be delivered into SKOV3 cell nucleus, which is significant for the future tumor therapy. And, the as-prepared fibers exhibit controlled release for loaded DOX via adjusting the feed ratio between PVA and CS, and the DOX loaded nanofibers are quite effective in prohibiting the SKOV3 ovary cells attachment and proliferation, which are potential for chemotherapy of ovary cancer. PMID:24907754

Yan, Eryun; Fan, Yingmei; Sun, Zhiyao; Gao, Jianwei; Hao, Xiaoyuan; Pei, Shichun; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Liguo; Zhang, Deqing

2014-08-01

382

Prevalence of ultrasonography proved polycystic ovaries in North Indian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovaries (PCO) and their clinical expression (the polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common medical conditions linked through insulin resistance. We studied the prevalence of PCO and PCOS in women with diet and/or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM and non-diabetic control women. Design Prospective study. Methods One hundred and five reproductive age group women with diet and /or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM were the subjects of the study. Sixty age-matched non-diabetic women served as controls. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of the ovaries was used to diagnose PCO. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were also noted. Results Ultrasonographic prevalence of PCO was higher in women with diabetes than in non-diabetic subjects (61.0% vs. 36.7%, P < 0.003) whereas that of PCOS was 37.1% in diabetic subjects and 25% in non-diabetic controls (P > 0.1). Diabetic women with PCO had diabetes of significantly longer duration than those without PCO (4.19±2.0 versus 2.9±1.6 yrs; p < 0.05). Among both diabetic and non-diabetic women, those with PCO had significantly higher plasma LH, LH/FSH ratio, total testosterone and androstenedione levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of PCO in women with T2DM as compared to non-diabetic subjects. PMID:16095537

Zargar, Abdul H; Gupta, Vipin K; Wani, Arshad I; Masoodi, Shariq R; Bashir, Mir I; Laway, Bashir A; Ganie, Mohammad A; Salahuddin, Mohammad

2005-01-01

383

Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. (Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))

1993-11-01

384

Diltiazem prevention of toxic effects of monosodium glutamate on ovaries in rats.  

PubMed

The female reproductive system is very sensitive to different harmful environmental factors. A great danger is hidden in an increased use of food additives like monosodium glutamate (MSG). Numerous studies have shown that application of high doses of MSG to different kinds of animals during the neonatal period may cause lesions of neural structures and the retina. Later in adulthood animals exhibit a series of neuroendocrine disorders: a stunted growth, obesity and infertility. The mechanism of MSG action is not well explained yet. We hypothesized that high concentration of MSG could alter permeability of neural membrane for calcium. We studied whether pretreatment with diltiazem prevented the effects of MSG on ovaries in rats. Female rat pups were treated with: 0.9% NaCl, MSG, diltiazem or diltiazem with MSG. MSG treatment resulted in a cystic degeneration of ovaries and irregular and prolonged estrus phase of estrus cycle. The other treated groups of rats had normal ovarian histology and estrus cycle. The pretreatment with diltiazem prevented development of morphological and functional disorders of ovaries. Our results suggest that calcium overloading play an important role in mechanisms of MSG toxicity. PMID:19893093

Bojani?, Vladmila; Bojani?, Zoran; Najman, Stevo; Savi?, Todorka; Jakovljevi?, Vladimir; Najman, Stasa; Janci?, Snezana

2009-01-01

385

Distribution and accumulation of storage protein-1 in ovary of Hyphantria cunea Drury.  

PubMed

Storage protein-1 (SP-1) is a major storage protein found in the hemolymph and fat body of Hyphantria cunea. In this study, the uptake and accumulation of SP-1 into the ovary of H. cunea was investigated using biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. SP-1 in H. cunea has a high methionine content (4.6%) but is not female-specific, like other high methionine storage proteins. In the 6-day-old pupal ovary, SP-1 was detectable in trace amounts but accumulated to significant levels toward the end of the pupal stage. After adult emergence, SP-1 rapidly decreased in the ovarian follicles and remained low in the egg. This suggest that SP-1 is either extensively modified or degraded, causing a loss of its antigenic property in the ovary after adult emergence. During vitellogenesis, SP-1 is present in the hemolymph and penetrates through the tunica propria to reach the perioocytic space. From there, SP-1 is incorporated into yolk bodies. These results clearly show that SP-1 is taken up by the developing oocyte. Its disappearance suggests that SP-1 might be an amino acid reservoir for providing precursors for egg formation, in contrast to yolk proteins, which are utilized during postembryonic development. PMID:9435094

Seo, S J; Kang, Y J; Cheon, H M; Kim, H R

1998-01-01

386

Expression of fibroblast growth factor 10 and cognate receptors in the developing bovine ovary.  

PubMed

In the mammalian ovary, FGF10 is expressed in oocytes and theca cells and is a candidate for paracrine signaling to the developing granulosa cells. To gain insight into the participation of FGF10 in the regulation of fetal folliculogenesis, we assessed mRNA expression patterns of FGF10 and its receptors, FGFR1B and FGFR2B, in relation to fetal follicle dynamics and localized FGF10 protein in bovine fetal ovaries at different ages. Primordial, primary, secondary, and antral follicles were first observed on Days 75, 90, 150, and 210 of gestation, respectively. The levels of GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA, markers for primordial and primary follicles, respectively, increased during fetal ovary development in a consistent manner with fetal follicle dynamics. CYP17A1 mRNA abundance increased from Day 60 to Day 75 and then from Day 120 to Day 150, coinciding with the appearance of secondary follicles. FGF10 mRNA abundance increased from Day 90, and this increase was temporally associated with increases in FGFR1B mRNA abundance and in the population of primary follicles. In contrast, FGFR2B mRNA expression was highest on Day 60 and decreased thereafter. FGF10 protein was localized to oogonia and oocytes and surrounding granulosa cells at all fetal ages. The present data suggest a role for FGF10 in the control of fetal folliculogenesis in cattle. PMID:24650928

Castilho, A C S; da Silva, R Bueno; Price, C A; Machado, M F; Amorim, R L; Buratini, J

2014-06-01

387

Enhancer-Trap Flippase Lines for Clonal Analysis in the Drosophila Ovary  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila melanogaster genetic tool box includes many stocks for generating genetically mosaic tissue in which a clone of cells, related by lineage, contain a common genetic alteration. These tools have made it possible to study the postembryonic function of essential genes and to better understand how individual cells interact within intact tissues. We have screened through 201 enhancer-trap flippase lines to identify lines that produce useful clone patterns in the adult ovary. We found that approximately 70% of the lines produced clones that were present in the adult ovary and that many ovarian cell types were represented among the different clone patterns produced by these lines. We have also identified and further characterized five particularly useful enhancer-trap flippase lines. These lines make it possible to generate clones specifically in germ cells, escort cells, prefollicle cells, or terminal filament cells. In addition, we have found that chickadee is specifically upregulated in the posterior escort cells, follicle stem cells, and prefollicle cells that comprise the follicle stem cell niche region. Collectively, these studies provide several new tools for genetic mosaic analysis in the Drosophila ovary. PMID:25024257

Huang, Pamela; Sahai-Hernandez, Pankaj; Bohm, Rudolf A.; Welch, William P.; Zhang, Bing; Nystul, Todd

2014-01-01

388

Disorders of follicle development and steroidogenesis in ovaries of androgenised foetal sheep.  

PubMed

The prenatally androgenised (PA) sheep is a well-recognised model for the study of developmental programming of adult polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Most of the studies to date have involved examination of the reproductive and metabolic effects in the offspring after puberty, but more recently, it has been reported that there is disruption of follicle formation and steroid gene expression in ovaries of foetal sheep after exposure of the mother to excess androgen. Our study examines evidence for precocious primordial follicle formation at day 90 of gestation in ovaries of foetal Poll Dorset sheep. Using a specific marker of germ cells (VASA homologue protein) in ovarian sections, we found that androgenised sheep had nearly double the proportion of germ cells enclosed in follicles compared with control animals. When analysed by follicle stage, there was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of primordial follicles and growing (transitional and primary) follicles. Differences between PA and control foetal sheep were found in both mRNA and in protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes and androgen receptor. Our results in Dorset ewes are complementary to previous reports, but suggest that the timing of follicle formation and steroidogenic activity may vary between different breeds as well as in response to androgen. These data show that granulosa cells constitute a specific target for programming by androgen in utero and raise key questions about the role of exposure to androgen in utero in developmental origins of PCOS. PMID:25792297

Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Robinson, Jane; Franks, Stephen

2015-04-01

389

Normal human ovary and ovarian tumors express glycodelin, a glycoprotein with immunosuppressive and contraceptive properties.  

PubMed Central

Glycodelin is a glycoprotein with potent immunosuppressive and contraceptive activities. It reacts with antibodies against placental protein 14, or progesterone-associated endometrial protein, and has a unique carbohydrate structure. Previous nomenclature is misleading, because glycodelin is neither synthesized in the placenta nor is it endometrium specific. No ovarian synthesis of glycodelin has been demonstrated. We present evidence for glycodelin synthesis in the human ovary and ovarian tumors. In follicular phase, immunoperoxidase staining of microwave-treated tissue sections employing affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies localized glycodelin to areas of stromal cell condensation in ovarian cortex, theca interna, and the granulosa. In luteal phase, cortical stroma was negative or only weakly positive, whereas glycodelin was present in theca interna of the corpus luteum and luteinized granulosa cells and also in corpus albicans and Leydig cells of the ovarian hilus. In situ hybridization gave negative results for glycodelin mRNA in normal ovary, whereas in ovarian tumors strong expression of both the glycodelin mRNA and the protein were found in benign and malignant serous cystadenomas, mucinous ovarian tumors being negative. We conclude that glycodelin is synthesized in human ovarian tumors, and its occurrence in normal human ovary may represent either synthesis or a site of glycodelin action. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8623915

Kämäräinen, M.; Leivo, I.; Koistinen, R.; Julkunen, M.; Karvonen, U.; Rutanen, E. M.; Seppälä, M.

1996-01-01

390

Transcriptional signature of progesterone in the fathead minnow ovary (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

A growing number of studies have examined transcriptional responses to sex steroids along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in teleost fishes. However, data are lacking on the molecular cascades that underlie progesterone signaling. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptional response in the ovary of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in response to progesterone (P4). Fathead minnow ovaries were exposed in vitro to 500 ng P4/L. Germinal vesicle migration and breakdown (GVBD) was observed and microarrays were used to identify gene cascades affected by P4. Microarray analysis identified 1702 differentially expressed transcripts after P4 treatment. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that transcripts involved in the molecular functions of protein serine/threonine kinase activity, ATP binding, and activity of calcium channels were increased after P4 treatment. There was an overwhelming decrease in levels of transcripts of genes that are structural constituents of ribosomes with P4 treatment. There was also evidence for gene expression changes in steroid and maturation-related transcripts. Pathway analyses identified cell cycle regulation, insulin action, hedgehog, and B cell activation as pathways containing an over-representation of highly regulated transcripts. Significant regulatory sub-networks of P4-mediated transcripts included genes regulated by tumor protein p53 and E2F transcription factor 1. These data provide novel insight into the molecular signaling cascades that underlie P4-signaling in the ovary and identify genes and processes that may indicate premature GVBD due to environmental pollutants that mimic progestins. PMID:23796460

Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Escalon, B Lynn; Spade, Daniel J; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-10-01

391

A novel virus transmitted through pollination causes ring-spot disease on gentian (Gentiana triflora) ovaries.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified a novel virus from gentian (Gentiana triflora) that causes ring-spots on ovaries. Furthermore, the virus causes unusual symptoms, ring-spots that appear specifically on the outer surface of the ovarian wall after pollination. Pollen grains carrying the virus were used to infect host plants by hand-pollination. RNA extracted from purified virions indicated that the virus had two segments, RNA1 and RNA2. The full-length cDNA sequence indicated that RNA1 had two ORFs: ORF1 had methyltransferase and helicase motifs, and ORF2 had an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motif. RNA2 had five ORFs encoding a coat protein, triple gene block proteins 1-3 and a cysteine-rich protein. The length of RNA1 was 5519 bases and that of RNA2 was 3810 bases not including a polyU/polyA region between the first and second ORFs. Viral RNA does not have a polyA tail at the 3' end. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the virus is closely related to members of the genera Pecluvirus and Hordeivirus but distinct from them. These combined results suggest that the causal agent inducing ring-spot symptoms on gentian ovaries is a new virus belonging to the family Virgaviridae but not to any presently known genus. We tentatively name the virus gentian ovary ring-spot virus. PMID:25351517

Atsumi, Go; Tomita, Reiko; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Sekine, Ken-Taro

2015-02-01

392

Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumour of Ovary with Menorrhagia: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCTs) are rare sex cord stromal neoplasms of ovary accounting for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumours. These are found in women of all age groups (2-75 y), but are most common in reproductive age group with an average age of 25 y. Mostly these are unilateral, confined to ovaries and usually stage I at the time of clinical diagnosis. The common presenting complaints in these patients are due to either mass occupying lesion (mostly pelviabdominal mass and/or pain) or hormonal production (mostly androgen and more rarely oestrogen). Androgenic manifestations, seen in 80% of patients with SLCT, are virilism, hirsutism, receding hairline, breast atrophy, clitoromegaly, acne, hoarseness of voice, etc. Estrogenic manifestations are precocious puberty, abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal vaginal bleeding, menstrual irregularities, generalised oedema, weight gain, breast hypertrophy, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps and endometrial carcinoma. Histologically these are classified (WHO) as well-differentiated, intermediately differentiated, poorly differentiated, with heterologous components and retiform type. Prognosis depends upon degree of tumour differentiation (grading) and tumour extent (staging). We herein report an unusual case of SLCT of ovary with oestrogenic manifestation of menorrhagia. PMID:25478358

Kanade, Umesh Sidheshwar; Dantkale, Sunita Sanjay; Narkhede, Rahul Ravindra; Bansode, Shubhada Yadavrao

2014-01-01

393

Sertoli-leydig cell tumour of ovary with menorrhagia: a rare case report.  

PubMed

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCTs) are rare sex cord stromal neoplasms of ovary accounting for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumours. These are found in women of all age groups (2-75 y), but are most common in reproductive age group with an average age of 25 y. Mostly these are unilateral, confined to ovaries and usually stage I at the time of clinical diagnosis. The common presenting complaints in these patients are due to either mass occupying lesion (mostly pelviabdominal mass and/or pain) or hormonal production (mostly androgen and more rarely oestrogen). Androgenic manifestations, seen in 80% of patients with SLCT, are virilism, hirsutism, receding hairline, breast atrophy, clitoromegaly, acne, hoarseness of voice, etc. Estrogenic manifestations are precocious puberty, abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal vaginal bleeding, menstrual irregularities, generalised oedema, weight gain, breast hypertrophy, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps and endometrial carcinoma. Histologically these are classified (WHO) as well-differentiated, intermediately differentiated, poorly differentiated, with heterologous components and retiform type. Prognosis depends upon degree of tumour differentiation (grading) and tumour extent (staging). We herein report an unusual case of SLCT of ovary with oestrogenic manifestation of menorrhagia. PMID:25478358

Kanade, Umesh Sidheshwar; Dantkale, Sunita Sanjay; Narkhede, Rahul Ravindra; Kurawar, Rupali Ramrao; Bansode, Shubhada Yadavrao

2014-10-01

394

Expression of oestrogen receptor isoforms in relation to enzymes of oestrogen synthesis in rat ovary.  

PubMed

Oestrogen acts as a local regulator of follicular development, mediated by specific nuclear oestrogen receptors (ER). The aim of this study was to examine the gene expression of two ER isoforms, ERalpha and beta, in relation to oestrogenic enzymes, P450aromatase (P450arom) and 17betaHSD type1 (17betaHSD1) during follicular maturation and luteinization. Ovaries were obtained from immature rats treated with PMSG (10 iu for 48 h) followed by hCG (10 iu). Expression of ERalpha and beta was down-regulated by the treatment with PMSG. Following the hCG injection, further down-regulation of both ERs occurred. Conversely, expression of P450arom and 17betaHSD1 was initially up-regulated by PMSG and then rapidly down-regulated following injection of hCG. In isolated granulosa cell, ERbeta was the predominant ER while ERalpha was mainly expressed in residual ovary and corpora lutea (CL). These results indicate that ERalpha and ERbeta mRNAs are expressed in different cell types and are both down-regulated during gonadotrophin stimulated follicular maturation and luteinization in the rat ovary. Down-regulation of ER is accompanied by down-regulation of oestrogenic enzymes during luteinization. Thus both oestrogen production and reception are shut down as ovulation approaches. PMID:9723882

Tetsuka, M; Milne, M; Hillier, S G

1998-06-25

395

Sequence and Expression Characteristics of Long Noncoding RNAs in Honey Bee Caste Development – Potential Novel Regulators for Transgressive Ovary Size  

PubMed Central

Division of labor in social insect colonies relies on a strong reproductive bias that favors queens. Although the ecological and evolutionary success attained through caste systems is well sketched out in terms of ultimate causes, the molecular and cellular underpinnings driving the development of caste phenotypes are still far from understood. Recent genomics approaches on honey bee developmental biology revealed a set of genes that are differentially expressed genes in larval ovaries and associated with transgressive ovary size in queens and massive cell death in workers. Amongst these, two contigs called special attention, both being over 200 bp in size and lacking apparent coding potential. Herein, we obtained their full cDNA sequences. These and their secondary structure characteristics placed in evidence that they are bona fide long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) differentially expressed in larval ovaries, thus named lncov1 and lncov2. Genomically, both map within a previously identified QTL on chromosome 11, associated with transgressive ovary size in honey bee workers. As lncov1 was over-expressed in worker ovaries we focused on this gene. Real-time qPCR analysis on larval worker ovaries evidenced an expression peak coinciding with the onset of autophagic cell death. Cellular localization analysis through fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed perinuclear spots resembling omega speckles known to regulate trafficking of RNA-binding proteins. With only four lncRNAs known so far in honey bees, two expressed in the ovaries, these findings open a novel perspective on regulatory factors acting in the fine tuning of developmental processes underlying phenotypic plasticity related to social life histories. PMID:24205350

Humann, Fernanda C.; Tiberio, Gustavo J.; Hartfelder, Klaus

2013-01-01

396

Derivative chameleons  

SciTech Connect

We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field ?, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ?{sub ?}??{sup ?}?,??,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(?,?{sub ?}??{sup ?}?). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for ? ? ?+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01

397

Identification of galectin I and thioredoxin peroxidase II as two arsenic-binding proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the identification of two arsenic-binding proteins from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The crude extract derived from CHO and SA7 (arsenic-resistant CHO cells) was applied to a phenylarsine oxide-agarose affinity column, and after extensive washing, the absorbed proteins were eluted with buffers containing 20 mM 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) or dithiothreitol (DTT). Three differentially expressed proteins, galectin 1 (Gal-1; in the 2-ME-eluted fraction from CHO cells), glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P) and thioredoxin peroxidase II (TPX-II), respectively in the 2-ME- and DTT-eluted fractions from SA7 cells, were identified by partial amino acid sequence analysis after separation by SDS/PAGE. The GST-P protein has been previously shown to facilitate the excretion of sodium arsenite [As(III)] from SA7 cells. TPX II was detected predominately in SA7 cells [routinely cultured in As(III)-containing medium], but not in CHO or SA7N (a revertant of SA7 cells cultured in regular medium) cells. In contrast, Gal-1 was specifically identified in CHO and SA7N cells, but not in SA7 cells. The preferential expression of Gal-1 in CHO cells and TPX-II in SA7 cells was further illustrated by quantitative PCR analysis. The binding of Gal-1 and TPX-II with As(III) was further verified by both co-immunoprecipitation and co-elution of Gal-1 and TPX-II with As(III). It is suggested that Gal-1 and TPX-II are two proteins that serve as high-affinity binding sites for As(III) and thus both may be involved in the biological action of As(III). PMID:12519079

Chang, Kwang Ning; Lee, Te Chang; Tam, Ming F; Chen, Yi Chin; Lee, Li Wen; Lee, Shin Ying; Lin, Pei Jung; Huang, Rong Nan

2003-01-01

398

Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: do they have any unique ultrasonographic and color Doppler flow features?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic and Doppler flow attributes of granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary and to compare these attributes to those of epithelial tumors of the ovary. Among 13,475 gynecological patients who were scanned in our ultrasound unit between 1992 and 1996, seven patients had GCT. The final diagnosis was confirmed, postoperatively, by pathologic examination and by applying the WHO classification. The ultrasonographic findings of the GCT patients were compared to those recorded in a second group of 29 patients who had been diagnosed with epithelial tumor of the ovary. The sonographic appearance of GCT of the ovary was semi-solid and the endometrium was thick in six of the seven patients. Doppler flow studies of vessels within or in the contour of the lesions showed the resistive index (RI) to be 0.448 +/- 0.018. The epithelial tumors had a similar appearance and flow pattern except for the presence of ascites in one-third of the patients. Ultrasound scanning, including color Doppler flow, did not contribute data that could assist in differentiating between GCT and epithelial tumors of the ovary. PMID:11437930

Sharony, R; Aviram, R; Fishman, A; Cohen, I; Altaras, M; Beyth, Y; Tepper, R

2001-01-01

399

Tumor spreading to the contralateral ovary in bilateral ovarian carcinoma is a late event in clonal evolution.  

PubMed

Cancer of the ovary is bilateral in 25%. Cytogenetic analysis could determine whether the disease in bilateral cases is metastatic or two separately occurring primary tumors, but karyotypic information comparing the two cancerous ovaries is limited to a single report with 11 informative cases. We present a series of 32 bilateral ovarian carcinoma cases, analyzed by karyotyping and high-resolution CGH. Our karyotypic findings showed that spreading to the contralateral ovary had occurred in bilateral ovarian cancer cases and that it was a late event in the clonal evolution of the tumors. This was confirmed by the large number of similar changes detected by HR-CGH in the different lesions from the same patient. The chromosomal bands most frequently involved in structural rearrangements were 19p13 (n = 12) and 19q13 (n = 11). The chromosomal bands most frequently gained by both tumorous ovaries were 5p14 (70%), 8q23-24 (65%), 1q23-24 (57%), and 12p12 (48%), whereas the most frequently lost bands were 17p11 (78%), 17p13 (74%), 17p12 (70%), 22q13 (61%), 8p21 and 19q13 (52%), and 8p22-23 (48%). This is the first time that 5p14 is seen gained at such a high frequency in cancer of the ovary; possibly oncogene(s) involved in bilateral ovarian carcinogenesis or tumor progression may reside in this band. PMID:19759843

Micci, Francesca; Haugom, Lisbeth; Ahlquist, Terje; Abeler, Vera M; Trope, Claes G; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Heim, Sverre

2010-01-01

400

Changes in ultrastructure and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in ovaries of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to glyphosate.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum organophosphate (OP) herbicide, highly soluble in water, and when applied in terrestrial systems it penetrates into soil, eventually reaching the aquatic community and affecting nontarget organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate on ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ovaries (n?=?18 per triplicate) were exposed to 65 ?g/L of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] for 15 d. This concentration was determined according to Resolution 357/2005/CONAMA/Brazil, which establishes the permissible concentration of glyphosate in Brazilian inland waters. Nonexposed ovaries (n?=?18 per triplicate) were used as control. Subsequently, morphology and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) of exposed and nonexposed ovaries was determined. No apparent changes were noted in general morphology of exposed and nonexposed ovaries. However, a significant increase in diameter of oocytes was observed after exposure to glyphosate. When ovarian ultrastructure was examined the presence of concentric membranes, appearing as myelin-like structures, associated with the external membranes of mitochondria and with yolk granules was found. After glyphosate exposure, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting revealed greater expression of SF-1 in the oocytes, which suggests a relationship between oocyte growth and SF-1 expression. These subtle adverse effects of glyphosate on oocytes raised a potential concern for fish reproduction. These results contribute to understanding glyphosate-induced toxicity to nontarget organisms, showing subcellular and molecular impairments that may affect reproduction in +female fish. PMID:24617544

Armiliato, Neide; Ammar, Dib; Nezzi, Luciane; Straliotto, Marcos; Muller, Yara M R; Nazari, Evelise M

2014-01-01

401

Advanced Stage Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ovary is both Rare and Highly Lethal: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the ovary are uncommon and their biologic behavior uncertain. Retrospective studies suggest that many mucinous carcinomas diagnosed as primary to the ovary were actually metastatic from another site. A prospective randomized trial provided an opportunity to estimate the frequency of mucinous tumors, diagnostic reproducibility, and clinical outcomes. Methods A phase III trial enrolled 4000 women with stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma, treated by surgical staging and debulking, with randomization to one of five chemotherapeutic arms. Slides and pathology reports classified as primary mucinous carcinoma were reviewed independently by three pathologists. Cases were re-classified as primary or metastatic to the ovary according to two methods. Overall survival (OS) of reclassified groups was compared with each other and with that of patients with serous carcinomas. Results Forty-four cases were classified as mucinous adenocarcinoma at review. Using either method, only about one third were interpreted by the three reviewers as primary mucinous carcinomas. Reproducibility of interpretations among the reviewers was high with unanimity of opinion in 30 of the 44 (68%) cases. The median survival (MS) did not differ significantly between the groups interpreted as primary or metastatic, but the OS was significantly less than that for women with serous carcinoma (14 vs 42 months, p<0.001). Conclusion Advanced stage mucinous carcinoma of the ovary is very rare and is associated with poor OS. Many mucinous adenocarcinomas that are diagnosed as primary ovarian neoplasms appear to be metastatic to the ovary. PMID:20862744

Zaino, Richard J.; Brady, Mark F.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michael, Helen; Greer, Benjamin; Bookman, Michael A.

2010-01-01

402

Selection of Internal Control Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Ovary and Uterus of Sows across Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Reproductive traits play a key role in pig production in order to reduce costs and increase economic returns. Among others, gene expression analyses represent a useful approach to study genetic mechanisms underlying reproductive traits in pigs. The application of reverse-transcription quantitative PCR requires the selection of appropriate reference genes, whose expression levels should not be affected by the experimental conditions, especially when comparing gene expression across different physiological stages. Results The gene expression stability of ten potential reference genes was studied by three different methods (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) in ovary and uterus collected at five different physiological time points (heat, and 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of pregnancy). Although final ranking differed, the three algorithms gave very similar results. Thus, the most stable genes across time were TBP and UBC in uterus and TBP and HPRT1 in ovary, while HMBS and ACTB showed the less stable expression in uterus and ovary, respectively. When studied as a systematic effect, the reproductive stage did not significantly affect the expression of the candidate reference genes except at 30d and 60d of pregnancy, when a general drop in expression was observed in ovary. Conclusions Based in our results, we propose the use of TBP, UBC and SDHA in uterus and TBP, GNB2L1 and HPRT1 in ovary for normalization of longitudinal expression studies using quantitative PCR in sows. PMID:23785467

Martínez-Giner, María; Noguera, José Luis; Balcells, Ingrid; Fernández-Rodríguez, Amanda; Pena, Ramona N.

2013-01-01

403

Estrogen Responsiveness of the TFIID Subunit TAF4B in the Normal Mouse Ovary and in Ovarian Tumors1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Estrogen signaling in the ovary is a fundamental component of normal ovarian function, and evidence also indicates that excessive estrogen is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the gonadally enriched TFIID subunit TAF4B, a paralog of the general transcription factor TAF4A, is required for fertility in mice and for the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells following hormonal stimulation. However, the relationship between TAF4B and estrogen signaling in the normal ovary or during ovarian tumor initiation and progression has yet to be defined. Herein, we show that Taf4b mRNA and TAF4B protein, but not Taf4a mRNA or TAF4A protein, are increased in whole ovaries and granulosa cells of the ovary after exposure to 17beta-estradiol or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol and that this response occurs within hours after stimulation. Furthermore, this increase occurs via nuclear estrogen receptors both in vivo and in a mouse granulosa cancer cell line, NT-1. We observe a significant increase in Taf4b mRNA in estrogen-supplemented mouse ovarian tumors, which correlates with diminished survival of these mice. These data highlight the novel response of the general transcription factor TAF4B to estrogen in the normal ovary and during ovarian tumor progression in the mouse, suggesting its potential role in regulating actions downstream of estrogen stimulation. PMID:24068106

Wardell, Jennifer R.; Hodgkinson, Kendra M.; Binder, April K.; Seymour, Kimberly A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.; Freiman, Richard N.

2013-01-01

404

Expression of adrenomedullin in human ovaries, ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and cultured granulosa-luteal cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterise the expression pattern of the multifunctional vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) in human ovarian tumors, and to find hormonal regulators of ADM expression in human ovaries. The expression of ADM messenger RNA (mRNA) was higher in granulosa cell tumors than in fibrothecomas and normal ovaries, as analysed by Northern blots. In normal ovaries, ADM immunoreactivity was localised in both granulosa and thecal cells. Eight of the 90 granulosa cell tumors (9%) showed moderate and 53 (59%) weak ADM immunoreactivity, whereas 27% (11/41) of the fibrothecomas displayed weak ADM staining. FSH, protein kinase A activator (Bu)(2)cAMP, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), activin A and the broad protein kinase regulator staurosporine decreased ADM mRNA accumulation in cultured granulosa-luteal cells time- and dose-dependently. FSH, (Bu)(2)cAMP and PGE(2) increased progesterone secretion and the accumulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA in these cells. In conclusion, ADM is expressed in normal human ovaries and sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly in those of granulosa cell origin. FSH, PGE(2,) (Bu)(2)cAMP and activin A suppress ADM gene expression in granulosa-luteal cells. Expression of ADM in human ovaries and its hormonal regulation in granulosa cells suggests a paracrine role for ADM in ovarian function. PMID:19253104

Liu, Jianqi; Bützow, Ralf; Hydén-Granskog, Christel; Voutilainen, Raimo

2009-02-01

405

Hormonal therapy for recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether hormonal therapies have efficacy in patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum. Methods We searched departmental databases for patients with histologically-confirmed, evaluable, recurrent low-grade serous ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma who received hormonal therapy at our institution between 1989 and 2009. We retrospectively reviewed patients' medical records for demographic, disease, hormonal therapy, and estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression data. We used the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 to determine patients' responses to hormonal therapy. Because patients could have received more than one evaluable hormonal therapy regimen, we chose to define the outcome metric as “patient-regimens.” Median time to disease progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were also calculated. Regression analysis was also performed. Results We identified 64 patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum. Patients' median TTP and median OS were 7.4 and 78.2 months, respectively. Patients received 89 separate hormonal patient-regimens, which produced an overall response rate of 9% (6 complete responses and 2 partial responses). Sixty-one percent of the patient-regimens resulted in a 6-month progression-free survival duration of at least 6 months. Patient-regimens involving ER+/PR+ disease produced a longer median TTP (8.9 months) than patient-regimens involving ER+/PR- disease did (6.2 months; p = 0.053). This difference approached but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Hormonal therapies have moderate anti-tumor activity in patients with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum. Further study to determine whether ER/PR expression status is a predictive biomarker for this rare cancer subtype is warranted. PMID:22406638

Gershenson, David M.; Sun, Charlotte C.; Iyer, Revathy B.; Malpica, Anais L.; Kavanagh, John J.; Bodurka, Diane C.; Schmeler, Kathleen; Deavers, Michael

2015-01-01

406

Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Regulates Androgen Receptor Gene Expression in Mouse Ovary  

PubMed Central

The androgen receptor (AR) is a nuclear receptor that is expressed in growing follicles and involved in folliculogenesis and follicle growth. The orphan nuclear receptor, Nur77, also has an important role in steroid signaling and follicle maturation. We hypothesized that AR levels and androgen signaling through AR are regulated by Nur77 in the ovary. In the ovaries of Nur77 knockout mice (n?=?5), real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA levels of AR and an androgen signaling target gene, Kitl, were decreased by 35% and 24%, respectively, relative to wild-type mice (n?=?5), which suggested transcriptional regulation of AR by Nur77 in vivo. In cultured mouse granulosa cells and a steroidogenic human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell line, KGN, mRNA and protein expression levels of AR were increased by overexpressing Nur77 but decreased by knocking down endogenous Nur77. Consistent with increased AR expression, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Nur77 bound to the NGFI-B response element (NBRE) in the AR promoter sequence. AR promoter activity was stimulated by Nur77 in HEK293T cells and attenuated in Nur77 knockout mouse granulosa cells (luciferase assay). Overexpression of Nur77 enhanced the androgenic induction of Kitl (200 nM; 48h), while knockout of Nur77 attenuated this induction. These results demonstrate that AR is regulated by Nur77 in the ovaries, and they suggest that the participation of Nur77 in androgen signaling may be essential for normal follicular development. PMID:22761936

He, Qinyuan; Jiang, Yue; Zhang, Qun; Fang, Ting; Ding, Lijun; Sun, Jianxin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali

2012-01-01

407

Association study of polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene and polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the distribution of polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and to explore its relationship with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: FXIIIVal34Leu genotype of 120 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 90 controls was detected, and the endocrine and metabolic conditions of PCOS patients and the control group were analyzed. Results: Body mass index (BMI) of PCOS patients (26.45±5.81) kg/m2 was higher than the control group (22.33±5.58) kg/m2, (p=0.00); the androgen level of PCOS group was (0.67±0.85) ng/mL higher than the control group (0.42±0.22) ng/mL, (p=0.02), and the luteinizing hormone (LH) (16.8±3.61 IU/L) level is higher than the control group (9.23±4.67) IU/L, (p=0.01). Frequency of Val34Leu allele in PCOS group was 1.25%, which was not statistically significant compared to the control group (P=0.56). BMI of patients with the genotype of FXIIIVal34Leu was relatively higher (with the average 34±1 kg/m2), and serum HDL level was significantly lower (0.23±0.11 mmol/L). Polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene had no correlation with susceptibility of PCOS. Conclusion: Polymorphism of FXIIIA1 gene may be related to metabolism of PCOS patients; the mutation of FXIIIAVal34Leu is not at the common site for PCOS; polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene may not have correlation with PCOS. PMID:25550970

Wang, Xuefeng; Yang, Yue; Huang, Yanbing; Wang, Qiongyao

2014-01-01

408

Expression of Ovary-Specific Acidic Protein in Steroidogenic Tissues: A Possible Role in Steroidogenesis  

PubMed Central

Ovary-specific acidic protein (OSAP) is a novel molecule discovered from a genomic project designed to identify ovary-selective genes in mice. Whereas public databases suggest extraovarian expression of OSAP, its tissue distribution has not yet been well documented. Thus, the expression profile of mouse and human OSAP was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR using RNAs isolated from various tissues. The results demonstrate that the human and mouse OSAP expression profiles are similar; OSAP is prominently expressed in steroidogenic tissues with the highest level of expression observed in the adrenal gland. Placenta served as an exception and possessed minimal level of OSAP mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies show that mouse OSAP localizes almost exclusively to the steroid-producing cells of the ovary, adrenal gland, and testis. Consistent with predictions made by several subcellular localization algorithms, dual labeling studies in Y-1 mouse adrenocortical cells indicate OSAP resides in the mitochondria. Because of its abundant expression in steroidogenic cells and mitochondrial localization, a role for OSAP in steroidogenesis was determined. OSAP silencing by specific small interfering RNAs significantly inhibits 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP-induced progesterone production in Y-1 cells. Reduction in OSAP levels results in mitochondrial fragmentation and a decrease in the cellular content of mitochondrial DNA, indicative of decreased mitochondrial abundance. Lastly, 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP does not regulate OSAP protein expression in Y-1 cells as is the case for other steroidogenic components known to be induced by cAMP. Collectively these results suggest that OSAP is involved in steroidogenesis, potentially through its ability to maintain mitochondrial abundance and morphology. PMID:19325000

Matsumoto, Tadashi; Minegishi, Kazuhiro; Ishimoto, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Hennebold, Jon D.; Teranishi, Takahide; Hattori, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masataka; Higuchi, Takayuki; Asai, Satoshi; Kim, Seon Hye; Miyakoshi, Kei; Yoshimura, Yasunori

2009-01-01

409

Ovary Peltate Trichomes of Zeyheria montana (Bignoniaceae): Developmental Ultrastructure and Secretion in Relation to Function  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Nectar production in the Bignoniaceae species lacking a nectariferous functional disc is ascribed to trichomatic glands around the ovary base and/or on the inner corolla wall. Nevertheless, knowledge about the secretion and function of these glands is very incomplete. The purpose of this paper is to study, from a developmental viewpoint, the ultrastructure, histochemistry and secretory process of the peltate trichomes on the ovary of Zeyheria montana, a species in the Bignoniaceae which has a rudimentary disc. • Methods Samples of the gynoecium at various developmental stages were fixed and processed for light and electron microscopy. Histochemistry and cytochemistry tests were performed to examine the chemical composition of exudates. Thin layer chromatography was used to determine the presence of alkaloids and terpenes in gynoecium and fruit extracts, and in fresh nectar stored in the nectar chamber. • Key Results Peltate trichomes at different developmental stages appear side by side from floral budding up to pre-dispersal fruit. Large plastids with an extensive internal membrane system consisting of tubules filled with lipophilic material, abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, few Golgi bodies, lipophilic deposits in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and scattered cytoplasmic oil droplets are the main characteristics of mature head cells. The secretion which accumulates in the subcuticular space stains positively for hydrophilic and lipophilic substances, with lipids prevailing for fully peltate trichomes. Histochemistry and thin layer chromatography detected terpenes and alkaloids. Fehling's test to detect of sugars in the secretion was negative. • Conclusions The continuous presence and activity of peltate trichomes on the ovary of Z. montana from early budding through to flowering and fruiting set, and its main chemical components, alkaloids and terpenes, suggest that they serve a protective function and are not related to the floral nectar source or to improving nectar quality. PMID:16371445

MACHADO, SILVIA RODRIGUES; GREGÓRIO, ELISA A.; GUIMARÃES, ELZA

2006-01-01

410

Management of peritoneal dissemination of recurrences granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.  

PubMed

Recurrences of granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary often occur as disseminated peritoneal metastasis or local mass in the pelvis. Although, various treatment options including surgery with/without systemic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy have also been reported for treatment of recurrent GCT, there is no standardized management for recurrence of this disease. Here, we report our management strategies for the patients with peritoneal dissemination of GCT. Prior to admission to our unit, four patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with the diagnosis of primary adult type GCT of the ovary. They were not received adjuvant therapy because of the localized disease in the ovary and followed-up by their gynecologists until they referred to us with metastases. The median disease free survival after primary treatment was 4.7 (range, 1-9) years. All patients with peritoneal metastases from recurrent GCT were treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) using peritonectomy procedures and intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy(HIPEC) using 100 mg cisplatin for 40 min at 43 °C in our unit. Postoperative complications were graded according to National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria. No complication and no in-hospitalization mortality were experienced in all patients. The median length of operation was 3.55 (range, 2.50-5.50) hours. The median length of stay in hospital was 13(range, 12-21) days. After a median follow-up of 4(range, 1-6) years, 1 patient was died and other 3 patients were alive with no disease progression. Our study identified that recurrent adult type of GCT with peritoneal metastases could be managed with definitive CRS and HIPEC. Larger series and long term outcome data of CRS and HIPEC will be mandatory to develop standard management option in these patients. PMID:23268102

Canbay, Emel; Ishibashi, Haruaki; Sako, Shozou; Miyata, Ryuwa; Nishino, Eisei; Yonemura, Yutaka

2012-11-01

411

Characterization of reproductive, metabolic, and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome in female hyperandrogenic mouse models.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age, causing a range of reproductive, metabolic and endocrine defects including anovulation, infertility, hyperandrogenism, obesity, hyperinsulinism, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent feature of PCOS, but its etiology remains unknown, and ethical and logistic constraints limit definitive experimentation in humans to determine mechanisms involved. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic PCOS traits in 4 distinct murine models of hyperandrogenism, comprising prenatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT, potent nonaromatizable androgen) treatment during days 16-18 of gestation, or long-term treatment (90 days from 21 days of age) with DHT, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Prenatal DHT-treated mature mice exhibited irregular estrous cycles, oligo-ovulation, reduced preantral follicle health, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, but lacked overall changes in body-fat composition. Long-term DHT treatment induced polycystic ovaries displaying unhealthy antral follicles (degenerate oocyte and/or > 10% pyknotic granulosa cells), as well as anovulation and acyclicity in mature (16-week-old) females. Long-term DHT also increased body and fat pad weights and induced adipocyte hypertrophy and hypercholesterolemia. Long-term letrozole-treated mice exhibited absent or irregular cycles, oligo-ovulation, polycystic ovaries containing hemorrhagic cysts atypical of PCOS, and displayed no metabolic features of PCOS. Long-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment produced no PCOS features in mature mice. Our findings reveal that long-term DHT treatment replicated a breadth of ovarian, endocrine, and metabolic features of human PCOS and provides the best mouse model for experimental studies of PCOS pathogenesis. PMID:24877633

Caldwell, A S L; Middleton, L J; Jimenez, M; Desai, R; McMahon, A C; Allan, C M; Handelsman, D J; Walters, K A

2014-08-01

412

Meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from the ovaries of Indian big cats at postmortem.  

PubMed

In order to increase the available sources of genetic material for endangered members of the great cat family, this study was designed to assess the meiotic competence of oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the Indian leopard, tiger and lion. The average number of oocytes that were recovered per ovary was 11.0?±?5.0, 11.0?±?3.5 and 21.3?±?8.8 for tiger, lion and leopard, respectively. The proportion of culture grade oocytes for tiger, lion and leopard were 72.7, 78.8 and 71.9%, respectively. The culture grade oocytes were matured in tissue culture medium 199 modified with sodium bicarbonate supplemented with 0.3% BSA (fatty acid-free) (w/v), 10 ?g/ml FSH, 6 IU/ml LH, 1 ?g/ml 17?-estradiol, 0.36 mM pyruvate, 2.2 mM calcium lactate, 2.0 mM L-glutamine, 100 IU/ml penicillin and 0.1 mg/ml streptomycin in an incubator with 5% CO2 under humidified air at 38.5°C for 36 h. After in vitro maturation, 56.3, 53.8 and 58.7% of the tiger, lion and leopard oocytes, respectively, were matured. The proportion of oocytes that extruded first polar body was significantly higher when the oocytes were collected from the animals of less than 15 yr of age compared to above 15 yr. These findings suggest that the oocytes recovered from ovaries of tiger, lion and leopard immediately postmortem can be successfully matured to MII stage. PMID:25124872

Rao, Brahmasani Sambasiva; Mahesh, Yelisetti Uma; Suman, Komjeti; Charan, Katari Venu; Nath, Rhisita; Rao, K Ramachander

2015-01-01

413

Adenocarcinoma arising from the gastrointestinal epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Malignant transformation of benign cystic teratoma of the ovary is rare, with an incidence of 1.8%. The commonest malignant neoplasm to develop is squamous carcinoma (80%). Adenocarcinoma occurs with less frequency, and only one of which has ever been cited to be of gastrointestinal origin. A 38-year-old female underwent TAH-BSO due to a large right ovarian tumor. Microscopically and immunohistochemically, the tumor was defined as mucinous adenocarcinoma originating from gastrointestinal epithelium in benign cystic teratoma. PMID:9790798

Fishman, A; Edelstein, E; Altaras, M; Beyth, Y; Bernheim, J

1998-09-01

414

Alterations in pituitary gland volume in polycystic ovary syndrome: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this prospectively designed cross-sectional observational study was to evaluate the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on pituitary gland volume (PGV) under the hypothesis that endocrinologic changes may lead to morphologic changes of the pituitary gland. Twenty-six PCOS patients and 31 control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. PGV was significantly larger in PCOS patients than in control subjects. Luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio was the only predictor of PGV. The association between pituitary gland enlargement and PCOS should be kept in mind when pituitary hypertrophy is detected on MRI. PMID:25457522

Unlu, Ebru; Unlu, Bekir Serdar; Turamanlar, Ozan; Acay, Mehtap Beker; Kacar, Emre; Y?ld?z, Yunus; Verim, Ozgur; Okur, Nazan; Balcik, Cinar; Tasgetiren, Suleyman; Yucel, Aylin

2015-01-01

415

3q27 aberrations in a childhood ovary teratoma with associated malignant germ cell component.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic studies of childhood ovary tumors have been poorly described. In the present article, the cytogenetic findings of an ovarian teratoma with malignant germ cell (yolk-sac) component occurring in an 8-year-old female are detailed. GTG-banding showed a karyotype of 46,XX, t(3;20)(q27;q13.3) [4]/46,XX, del3q27 [3]/46,XX [30]. Previous studies have demonstrated common sites of loss of heterozygosity at 3q27-q28 region in different types of cancer, suggesting the presence of tumor suppressor genes within this region. PMID:19023889

Brassesco, María Sol; Castro-Gamero, Angel Mauricio; Valera, Elvis Terci; Neder, Luciano; Elias, Jorge; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

2009-03-01

416

Mucinous tumours of appendix and ovary: an overview and evaluation of current practice.  

PubMed

Mucinous lesions of the appendix and ovary are commonly encountered in routine practice. There are several published classification schemes for appendiceal mucinous neoplasms with resultant inconsistent use of terms and clinical doubt. While nomenclature is more settled with regards to ovarian mucinous neoplasms, the difficulty here lies with distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous tumours. This review highlights the terminology and nomenclature for appendiceal mucinous tumours, the relationship with ovarian mucinous neoplasms and pseudomyxoma peritonei, and the features that assist in separating primary from secondary ovarian mucinous tumours. PMID:24265325

Rouzbahman, Marjan; Chetty, Runjan

2014-03-01

417

Synchronous mucinous tumors of the ovary and the appendix associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei: CT findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To present the computed tomographic (CT) findings of synchronous mucinous tumors of the ovary and the appendix associated\\u000a with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Imaging studies, mainly abdominal CT scans, of three women aged 49–75 years were reviewed. Attention was directed to the\\u000a ovarian masses, peritoneal seeding, and the presence of an appendiceal mucocele.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: The ovarian tumors and the

R. Zissin; G. Gayer; A. Fishman; E. Edelstein; M. Shapiro-Feinberg

2000-01-01

418

Republished: mucinous tumours of appendix and ovary: an overview and evaluation of current practice.  

PubMed

Mucinous lesions of the appendix and ovary are commonly encountered in routine practice. There are several published classification schemes for appendiceal mucinous neoplasms with resultant inconsistent use of terms and clinical doubt. While nomenclature is more settled with regards to ovarian mucinous neoplasms, the difficulty here lies with distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous tumours. This review highlights the terminology and nomenclature for appendiceal mucinous tumours, the relationship with ovarian mucinous neoplasms and pseudomyxoma peritonei, and the features that assist in separating primary from secondary ovarian mucinous tumours. PMID:25583738

Rouzbahman, Marjan; Chetty, Runjan

2015-01-01

419

Recent progress with the DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Repair deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are being used to identify human genes that correct the repair defects and to study mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis. Five independent tertiary DNA transformants were obtained from the EM9 mutant. In these clones a human DNA sequence was identified that correlated with the resistance of the cells to CldUrd. After Eco RI digestion, Southern transfer, and hybridization of transformant DNAs with the BLUR-8 Alu family sequence, a common fragment of 25 to 30 kb was present. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Thompson, L.H.; Salazar, E.P.; Brookman, K.W.; Collins, C.C.; Stewart, S.A.; Busch, D.B.; Weber, C.A.

1986-04-02

420

Mixed germ cell tumor of ovary and clitoromegaly in Swyer's syndrome: a case report.  

PubMed

Swyer syndrome is a type of pure gonadal dysgenesis correlating with 46 XY karyotype, primary amenorrhea, and female internal and external genitalia. It reveals a testicular differentiation abnormality.A 16-year old girl admitted to our center with primary amenorrhea and abdominal mass. In spite of the absence of normal testis, clitoromegaly was noticed. Peripheral blood karyotype analysis showed 46 XY. Histopathology of the excised gonads determined mixed germ cell tumor in right ovary and streak left gonad without gonadoblastoma in left side. In patients suffering from Swyer syndrome, high risk of gonadal neoplasia dictates early prophylactic gonadal excision to lengthen survival. PMID:22773216

Aminimoghaddam, S; Mokri, B; Mahmoodzadeh, F

2012-07-01

421

Laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An alternative but not the ultimate in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Since its introduction in 1984, laparoscopic ovarian drilling has evolved into a safe and effective surgical treatment for anovulatory, infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), unresponsive to clomiphene citrate. It is as effective as gonadotropins in terms of pregnancy and live birth rates, but without the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. It improves ovarian responsiveness to successive ovulation induction agents. Its favorable reproductive and endocrinal effects are sustained long. Despite its advantages, its use in unselected cases of PCOS or for non-fertility indications is not prudent owing to the potential risks of iatrogenic adhesions and ovarian insufficiency.

Mitra, Subarna; Nayak, Prasanta Kumar; Agrawal, Sarita

2015-01-01

422

Metformin therapy decreases hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of metformin therapy on hormonal and clinical indices in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective study.Setting: University hospital.Patient(s): Thirty-nine women with PCOS and fasting hyperinsulinemia.Intervention(s): Twelve weeks of therapy with oral metformin (500 mg three times per day).Main Outcome Measure(s): Levels of insulin, T, DHEAS, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), gonadotropins, and sex hormone-binding

Beata Kolodziejczyk; Antoni J Duleba; Robert Z Spaczynski; Leszek Pawelczyk

2000-01-01

423

The pericentriolar material in Chinese hamster ovary cells nucleates microtubule formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The,structure,and,function,of the,centrosomes,from,Chinese,hamster,ovary (CHO) cells were,investigated,by electron,microscopy,of negatively,stained whole- mount preparations of cell lysates. Ceils were trypsinized from culture dishes, lysed with Triton X-100, sedimented onto ionized, carbon-coated grids, and negatively,stained,with,phosphotungstate. The centrosomes,from,both,interphase and dividing cells consisted of pairs of centrioles, a fibrous pericentriolar material, and,a group,of virus-like particles which,were,characteristic,of the CHO cells and which,served,as markers,for the pericentriolar,material. Interphase,centrosomes anchored,up,to

R. R. Gould; G. G. Borisy

1977-01-01

424

Glomus tumor of the ovary masquerading as granulosa cell tumor: case report.  

PubMed

A solid right adnexal mass in a 73-year-old woman bled profusely with mobilization mimicking a granulosa cell tumor. There was almost complete replacement of the ovary by a circumscribed, 4.0 cm tumor with a hemorrhagic, solid cut surface. Morphologic and phenotypic correlation supported a diagnosis of glomus tumor. Large gaping vessels and small sinusoidal-type vessels formed an anastomotic vascular network with an inner endothelial lining (CD31+/CD34+) and an outer layer of glomocytes (actin+/desmin-/inhibin-). The hemangiopericytoma-like vasculature accounted for bleeding during surgery. PMID:19952942

Slone, Stephen P; Moore, Grace D; Parker, Lynn P; Rickard, Kyle A; Nixdorf-Miller, Allison S

2010-01-01

425

Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part I. Diagnosis and manifestations.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder among women who are of reproductive age. The pathogenesis involves several associated hormonal pathways that culminate in metabolic, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects. The hallmark features of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia have systemic long-term implications. Dermatologists frequently evaluate and manage the cutaneous manifestations of PCOS (ie, acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, acne, and alopecia), and therefore play a key role in its diagnosis and management. In part I of this continuing medical education article, we review the definition, etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of PCOS. PMID:25437977

Housman, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Rachel V

2014-11-01

426

Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary in an Adolescent: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Steroid cell tumors (SCTs) of the ovary are a rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, and also will present at any age. These tumors can produce steroids, especially testosterone, and may give symptoms like hirsutism, hair loss, amenorrhea, or oligomenorrhea. For the evaluation of androgen excess, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) are the first laboratory tests to be measured. A pelvic ultrasound and a magnetic resonance imaging are useful radiologic imaging techniques. Although steroid cell tumors are generally benign, there is a risk of malignant transformation and clinical malignant formation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment. PMID:23533429

Boyraz, Gokhan; Selcuk, Ilker; Yusifli, Zarife; Gunalp, Serdar

2013-01-01

427

Lateral high abdominal ovariopexy: an original surgical technique for protection of the ovaries during curative radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

An original surgical method for gonadal protection in young women given pelvic radiation for Hodgkin's disease is presented. Lateral high ovarian transposition (LHAO) consists of the transposition of the ovaries into the paracolic gutter during staging laparotomy, after disconnecting the gonads from the fallopian tubes by dividing the tubo-ovarian vessels. The technique's effectiveness was assessed by a study using clinical investigation, radioimmunoassay (RIA) determination of sex hormones, and dosimetry; of 18 patients treated, 10 participated in the study. All but one have normal menses and hormone values, and one pregnancy occurred. We also calculated the doses absorbed by the ovaries and proved that, during inverted Y irradiation following LHAO, the ovaries are exposed to nearly one-half the dose they receive after traditional medial transposition. During subtotal nodal irradiation after LHAO, the irradiation dose is higher than after medialisation, but absolute values are minimal and castration is not induced.

Gaetini, A.; De Simone, M.; Urgesi, A.; Levis, A.; Resegotti, A.; Ragona, R.; Anglesio, S.

1988-09-01

428

Alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SM actin) in normal human ovaries, in ovarian stromal hyperplasia and in ovarian neoplasms.  

PubMed

An immunohistochemical investigation of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SM actin) using the monoclonal anti-alpha-SM-1 antibody was carried out in 15 normal ovaries, in three ovaries with stromal hyperplasia and in 27 neoplastic ovaries. In selected cases the pattern of actin isoforms was examined by means of 2 D-gel electrophoresis. In addition, the tissues were stained for vimentin and desmin. In normal ovaries alpha-SM actin was found in the inner cortex and in the theca externa. In ovarian stromal hyperplasia expression of alpha-SM actin was minimal or absent. In primary and metastatic epithelial tumors there was positive stromal staining for alpha-SM actin, especially in the vicinity of epithelial elements. This tended to be more widespread in malignant neoplasms. Thecomas did not express alpha-SM-actin and could thus be differentiated from leiomyomas which stained intensely for alpha-SM actin. Only focal stromal staining of alpha-SM actin was observed in granulosa and germ cell tumors. In all the tissues studied blood vessels were strongly positive for alpha-SM actin. Desmin, although present in the stroma of most of the specimens, was less abundant than alpha-SM actin. We concluded that alpha-SM actin is a component of the normal human ovary where it may contribute to the contractility of its stroma. Its absence in the normal outer cortex and theca interna, and in stromal hyperplasia and thecoma implies that sex hormones do not constitute a stimulus for alpha-SM actin production in the ovary. Among neoplasms it is most widely represented in the stroma of epithelial tumors in which it may reflect stromal stimulation mediated by neoplastic epithelium. PMID:2567550

Czernobilsky, B; Shezen, E; Lifschitz-Mercer, B; Fogel, M; Luzon, A; Jacob, N; Skalli, O; Gabbiani, G

1989-01-01

429

Development and practical applications of a method for repeated transvaginal, ultrasound-guided biopsy collection of the bovine ovary.  

PubMed

In response to the increasing research into primordial and preantral follicular dynamics, a device for transvaginal, ultrasound-guided biopsy collection of the bovine ovary was developed and tested. The new device is based upon a commercially available Ovum Pick-up instrument and consists of a modified needle guidance system, which has been equipped with a trocar needle and caries a 60 cm long true-cut biopsy needle. Biopsies are captured in a 20mm long and 2mm wide specimen notch. In the present experiment, 10 cows were subjected to a twice weekly biopsy regime over a four-week period. A total of 208 attempts at biopsy collection were made, and 141 tissue samples collected (success rate of 68%). Through histological and immunological analyses, these tissue samples have been shown to contain primordial and preantral follicles. At the end of the trial period, several of the donor cows were slaughtered at timed intervals, and the ovaries were harvested for assessment of the damage inflicted by the repeated biopsy procedure. Post mortem ovaries were inspected macroscopically and examined by conventional histological staining. In ovaries retrieved 2 days after the last biopsy session, blood clots were macroscopically apparent throughout the ovaries. Histological examination showed increased infiltration of red blood cells in the ovarian stroma. Analysis from ovaries collected at subsequent slaughter points revealed reduced infiltration of blood, and clear indications of resumed antral follicle development were apparent towards the end of the first month after the trial period. We conclude that the biopsy sampling technique is a repeatable procedure which could serve as a renewable source of primordial and preantral follicles for culture, and as an in vitro model for the study of preantral follicular dynamics. PMID:16054498

Aerts, Jan M J; Oste, Marijke; Bols, Peter E J

2005-09-01

430

Isolation and characterization of stem cells in the adult mammalian ovary.  

PubMed

Female mammals are born with a fixed pool of germ cells, which does not replenish during adult life. However, this has been recently challenged and adult ovaries produce oocytes throughout adult life just like sperm in the testes. Evidence is accumulating on the presence of ovarian stem cells, but the need for robust protocols to isolate, identify, further characterize, and subject them to various functionality tests is essential. Knowledge about the function and potential of ovarian stem cells is well demonstrated by various groups, but their true identity remains elusive because of the variability in the approaches used to identify them by different groups. In order to address this we have made attempts to compile our protocols to isolate, identify, characterize, and culture the stem cells using different animal models including human. Two distinct populations of stem cells exist in adult mammalian ovary, including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and the progenitors termed ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs). VSELs are relatively quiescent and undergo asymmetric cell division to give rise to OGSCs, which divide rapidly, occasionally form germ cell nests and undergo meiosis and differentiation into oocytes, which are surrounded by granulosa cells to assemble as primordial follicles. PMID:25388396

Parte, Seema; Patel, Hiren; Sriraman, Kalpana; Bhartiya, Deepa

2015-01-01

431

Good Thermally Conducting Material Supports Follicle Morphologies of Porcine Ovaries Cryopreserved with Ultrarapid Vitrification  

PubMed Central

Effects of supporting materials during vitrification procedure on the morphologies of preantral follicles of pig ovaries were assessed. Ovarian cortical sections of prepubertal pigs were randomly allocated to 5 groups. The sections were vitrified ultrarapidly with 5 different vitrification devices. The sections were put on 4 fine needles (Cryosupport), on a thin copper plate, or on a carbon graphite sheet or were sandwiched between copper plates or between carbon graphite sheets before cooling. The cooling and warming rates with the graphite sheets were significantly higher than those with the copper plates (P<0.05). A total of 3,064 follicles were analyzed following HE staining after vitrification with 5 different devices. The morphologies follicles vitrified on the Cryosupport or on the graphite sheet were well preserved compared with those vitrified on the copper plate or between copper plates (P<0.01). The morphologies of follicles vitrified between copper plates were mostly damaged (P<0.05). Taken together, good thermally conducting material supports follicle morphologies of ovaries cryopreserved with ultrarapid vitrification. PMID:23774861

HASHIMOTO, Shu; SUZUKI, Nao; AMO, Ami; YAMOCHI, Takayuki; HOSOI, Yoshihiko; MORIMOTO, Yoshiharu

2013-01-01

432

Effects of Postmortem Interval on Mouse Ovary Oocyte Survival and Maturation  

PubMed Central

To study the time- and temperature-dependent survival of ovarian oocytes collected from postmortem carcass, ICR mice were killed and placed for different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) at different temperatures (25°C, 4°C and 37°C). After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte number, oocyte meiotic maturation percentage, mitochondrial distribution and intracellular glutathione (GSH) level were evaluated. The results showed no surviving oocytes could be collected by 2h, 6h, and 12 h after carcass preservation at 37°C, 25°C and 4°C, respectively. The number of collected GV oocytes in the ovary deceased as the preservation time lasted at the same temperature. Meanwhile at the same point in time, the ratio of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body emission (PBE) gradually reduced as preservation temperature increased. In addition, the percentage of abnormal mitochondrial distribution in the preserved oocytes was obviously higher than that in the control oocytes, while GSH level was not altered in collected oocytes. Unexpectedly, neither chromosome arrangement nor spindle organization was affected as long as the oocytes from preserved carcasses could complete maturation. These data are helpful for proper use of ovary oocytes from postmortem carcass of valuable individuals. PMID:24874949

Zhang, Guang-Li; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Quan; Hu, Meng-Wen; Yang, Xiu-yan; Gao, Si-Hua; Jiang, Guang-Jian

2014-01-01

433

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Navigating the Pathophysiologic Labyrinth  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic disorder that implies various severe consequences to female health, including alarming rates of infertility. Although its exact etiology remains elusive, it is known to feature several hormonal disturbances, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin appears to disrupt all components of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis, and ovarian tissue insulin resistance results in impaired metabolic signaling but intact mitogenic and steroidogenic activity, favoring hyperandrogenemia, which appears to be the main culprit of the clinical picture in PCOS. In turn, androgens may lead back to IR by increasing levels of free fatty acids and modifying muscle tissue composition and functionality, perpetuating this IR-hyperinsulinemia-hyperandrogenemia cycle. Nonobese women with PCOS showcase several differential features, with unique biochemical and hormonal profiles. Nevertheless, lean and obese patients have chronic inflammation mediating the long term cardiometabolic complications and comorbidities observed in women with PCOS, including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Given these severe implications, it is important to thoroughly understand the pathophysiologic interconnections underlying PCOS, in order to provide superior therapeutic strategies and warrant improved quality of life to women with this syndrome.

Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez, Mervin; Olivar, Luis; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Mejías, José; Calvo, María; Bermúdez, Valmore

2014-01-01

434

[Borderline tumors of the ovary. New aspects on morphologic prognosis determination].  

PubMed

Epithelial tumours of the ovary with a tumour status between benign and malignant are classified as borderline tumours (BOT). They are particularly frequent in women between 30 and 40 years of age, emphasising the need for effecting a therapy directed at preserving fertility. To keep the risk of this therapy at a minimum it is imperative to effect accurate determination of the prognosis on the basis of an examination of the histological preparation. Conventional histology is insufficient for this purpose, thus requiring the use of additional morphological methods. In the present study the DNA of the cell nucleus was determined via quantitative cytophotometry and also via several tumour or differentiating markers by immunohistology, in healthy ovaries, 10 benign and 20 malignant ovarian tumours and in 20 borderline tumours (BOT). The DNA histograms of the tumours classified histologically as BOT, yielded distribution patterns pointing towards a benign, proliferative or malignant potency of the tumours without a correlation to conventional histology being present in each case. Immunohistological identification of the carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA) and of the blood group substances (A, B, Lewis, Lewis) produced characteristic distribution patterns which correlated with the tendency to proliferation in DNA cytophotometry. To achieve relevant determination of prognosis of BOT in individual cases, conventional histology should be complemented by additional examinations using DNA cytophotometry and immunhistology as diagnostic tools. PMID:3891502

Dietel, M; Bodecker, R; Arps, H; Bahnsen, J; Hölzel, F

1985-04-01

435

Local expression and distribution of a storage protein in the ovary of Hyphantria cunea.  

PubMed

Storage protein-1 (HcSP-1) is a major storage protein found in the hemolymph and fat body of Hyphantria cunea. HcSP-1 has a high methionine (6.0%) and low aromatic amino acid content (8.5%) (Cheon et al., 1998). In this study, the accumulation and expression of HcSP-1 in ovary was investigated using biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. HcSP-1 was detected in the ovaries in 6-day-old pupae and accumulated toward the end of pupal life, when HcSP-1 transcripts were detectable by Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR. In situ hybridization showed that the HcSP-1 mRNA was located in the nurse cells and follicular epithelial cells, but not in the oocyte. Though most of the HcSP-1 that is incorporated in the yolk bodies of the oocyte is probably sequestered from the surrounding hemolymph, HcSP-1 is an important yolk protein contributing to early yolk body formation before the development of patency by the follicular epithelium. PMID:11673840

Cheon, H M; Kim, H J; Chung, D H; Kim, M O; Park, J S; Yun, C Y; Seo, S J

2001-11-01

436

Advanced ovarian dysgerminoma infiltrating both ovaries and uterus in a 7-year-old girl.  

PubMed

Introduction. Ovarian dysgerminoma is a rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumor with its peak incidence in young women. Abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and the presence of a palpable mass are common symptoms at presentation. Depending on the FIGO stage at presentation the prognosis of dysgerminomas after surgical treatment, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is promising. Case Presentation. A 7-year-old girl was presented at our clinic with abdominal pain in all abdominal quadrants. Later the pain localized in the region of her right ovary. CT scan revealed a massive formation which was connected to her right ovary. Conclusion. Although malignant ovarian germ cell tumours are rare in children, physicians must always consider the possibility of MOGT-occurrences. The clinical symptoms might not be specific: abdominal pain, abdominal distention, nausea, and vomiting. In order to make a correct diagnosis the patients should undergo a complete clinical examination including radiological scans. Initial management is frequently surgery, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although disgerminoma is malignant tumor, the prognosis is promising. PMID:24716051

Hyseni, Nexhmi; Llullaku, Sadik; Jashari, Hysni; Zahiti, Kaltrina; Hyseni, Fjolla; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Luci, Lumturije; Muqolli, Fehim; Hasani, Antigona

2014-01-01

437

Asymmetric steroidogenic response by the ovaries to the vasoactive intestinal peptide.  

PubMed

In vitro the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates progesterone, androgens, and estradiol secretion, and the effects are time-dependent. The present study analyzed the acute (1 h) and sub-acute (24 h) effects of unilateral injection of VIP into the ovarian bursa on each day of the estrous cycle on progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol serum levels. Cyclic 60-day-old virgin female rats on diestrus-1, diestrus-2, proestrus, or estrus were injected with saline or VIP 10(-6) M into the left or right ovarian bursa. One hour after saline injection on each day of estrus cycle, progesterone levels were higher than in control animals. The acute effects of saline solution on testosterone and estradiol levels were asymmetric and varied during the estrous cycle. In comparison with saline groups, the effects of VIPergic stimulation on progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol serum levels depend on the time elapsed between treatment and autopsy and vary during the estrous cycle. An acute asymmetric response from the ovaries to the VIP was observed at diestrus-1, diestrus-2, and proestrus on progesterone and estradiol levels. The asymmetries on testosterone levels were observed at diestrus-1, diestrus-2, and estrus days. The present results suggest that in the cyclic rat, each ovary has different sensitivities to VIPergic stimulation which depends on the endocrine status of the animal. PMID:25331816

Rosas, Gabriela; Ramírez, María Isabel; Linares, Rosa; Trujillo, Angélica; Domínguez, Roberto; Morales-Ledesma, Leticia

2015-04-01

438

Steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation. METHODS: Thirty-two virgin adult female rats were randomized to two groups as follows: the control group GI received vehicle and the experimental group GII received melatonin supplementation (10 µg/night per animal) for 60 consecutive days. After the treatment, animals were anesthetized and the collected ovaries were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray analyses. A GeneChip® Kit Rat Genome 230 2.0 Affymetrix Array was used for gene analysis and the experiment was repeated three times for each group. The results were normalized with the GeneChip® Operating Software program and confirmed through analysis with the secondary deoxyribonucleic acid-Chip Analyzer (dChip) software. The data were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Genes related to ovarian function were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found the upregulation of the type 9 adenylate cyclase and inhibin beta B genes and the downregulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element modulator and cytochrome P450 family 17a1 genes in the ovarian tissue of GII compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that melatonin supplementation decreases gene expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which changes ovarian steroidogenesis. PMID:25789524

Lima, Gisele Negro; Maganhin, Carla Cristina; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Baracat, Maria Cândida Pinheiro; da Silva Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues; Fuchs, Luiz Fernando Portugal; de Jesus Simões, Manuel; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Júnior, José Maria Soares

2015-01-01

439

Antioxidants and management of polycystic ovary syndrome in Iran: A systematic review of clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently there is a focus on the antioxidants as adjuvant treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most endocrinopathy in reproductive age women. Objective: The aim of this review is answer to the question whether antioxidants are effective for managing of hormonal and metabolic problems in women with PCOS based on first degree evidences from Iran. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of clinical trials was done in Persian and international databases including PubMed, Scientific Information Database, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, and Magiran up to 2013. Keywords were including polycystic ovary syndrome, Iran, vitamin, antioxidant. From 440 potential studies found electronically, 11 studies; including 444 women in intervention and 390 women in control groups. Intervention in three studies was Calcium-vitamin D or calcitriol; in three studies was ?-3 fatty acids; in two studies was N-acetyl cysteine; in one study was folic acid; in one study was Zinc; and in one study was Soy. Results: Finally, 11 studies that were relevant and met the inclusion criteria reviewed. There were 7 studies in English and 4 studies in Persian. We couldn’t include all studies because all full texts were not accessible. Conclusion: The results showed that antioxidants and vitamins have positive effects on management of PCOS women. Although it seems more studies is necessary in this field. PMID:25653669

Amini, Leila; Tehranian, Najmeh; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Ziaee, Saeedeh

2015-01-01

440

Evaluation of Mean Platelet Volume values in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is an important indicator of platelet activation. It is known that MPV increases in patients with coronory artery disease, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to measure the MPV in lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: The present study was designed to examine the platelet function by measuring MPV in non-obese women with PCOS. A total of 50 outpatients with PCOS were included. The control group consisted of 50 healthy subjects. Serum platelet, MPV, and white blood cell (WBC) levels were compared and evaluated retrospectively in all participants. These values were compared by statistical analysis. Results: There were no statistically significant difference in between groups regarding MPV (p?0.357), WBC (p?0,414) and platelet (p?0,666). Conclusion: There are studies implying MPV increase in PCOS patients, in our patients MPV levels did not correlate with PCOS except for patients with obesity. We think that PCOS itself has no effect on MPV levels and obesity changes MPV levels. PMID:24948985

Silfeler, Dilek Benk; Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Yengil, Erhan; Un, Burak; Arica, Secil; Baloglu, Ali

2014-01-01

441

Differential insulin response to myo-inositol administration in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries at ultrasound evaluation, and quite frequently by insulin resistance or compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Attention has been given to the role of inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) mediators of insulin action and growing evidences suggest that a deficiency of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) containing IPG might be at the basis of insulin resistance, frequent in PCOS patients. On such basis, we investigated the efficacy on insulin sensitivity and hormonal parameters of 8 weeks treatment with myo-inositol (MYO) (Inofert, ItalPharmaco, Milano, Italy) at the dosage of 2 g day in a group (n = 42) of obese PCOS patients,. After the treatment interval body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance decreased together with luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/FSH and insulin. When subdividing the patients according to their fasting insulin levels, Group A (n = 15) insulin below 12 µU/ml and Group B (n = 27) insulin above 12 µU/ml, MYO treatment induced similar changes in both groups but only patients of Group B showed the significant decrease of both fasting insulin plasma levels (from 20.3 ± 1.8 to 12.9 ± 1.8 µU/ml, p < 0.00001) and of area under the curve (AUC) of insulin under oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that MYO administration is more effective in obese patients with high fasting insulin plasma levels. PMID:22612517

Genazzani, Alessandro D; Prati, Alessia; Santagni, Susanna; Ricchieri, Federica; Chierchia, Elisa; Rattighieri, Erica; Campedelli, Annalisa; Simoncini, Tommaso; Artini, Paolo G

2012-12-01

442

Isolation, characterization and differentiation of cells expressing pluripotent/multipotent markers from adult human ovaries.  

PubMed

Pluripotent stem cells are still generally accepted not to exist in adult human ovaries, although increasing studies confirm the presence of pluripotent/multipotent stem cells in adult mammalian ovaries, including those of humans. The aim of this study is to isolate, characterize and differentiate in vitro stem cells that originate from the adult human ovarian cortex and that express markers of pluripotency/multipotency. After enzymatic degradation of small ovarian cortex biopsies retrieved from 18 women, ovarian cell cultures were successfully established from 17 and the formation of cell colonies was observed. The presence of cells/colonies expressing some markers of pluripotency (alkaline phosphatase, surface antigen SSEA-4, OCT4, SOX-2, NANOG, LIN28, STELLA), germinal lineage (DDX4/VASA) and multipotency (M-CAM/CD146, Thy-1/CD90, STRO-1) was confirmed by various methods. Stem cells from the cultures, including small round SSEA-4-positive cells with diameters of up to 4 ?m, showed a relatively high degree of plasticity. We were able to differentiate them in vitro into various types of somatic cells of all three germ layers. However, these cells did not form teratoma when injected into immunodeficient mice. Our results thus show that ovarian tissue is a potential source of stem cells with a pluripotent/multipotent character for safe application in regenerative medicine. PMID:23820736

Stimpfel, Martin; Skutella, Thomas; Cvjeticanin, Branko; Meznaric, Marija; Dovc, Peter; Novakovic, Srdjan; Cerkovnik, Petra; Vrtacnik-Bokal, Eda; Virant-Klun, Irma

2013-11-01

443

[Characterization of depression-like behavior in prenatally stressed female rats during ovary cycle].  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was a comparative analysis of dynamics of depression-like behavior in prenatally stressed and non-prenatally stressed female rats in the key phases of the ovary cycle. It was found that non-stressed female rats demonstrated high level of depression-like behavior in proestrous phase as compared to the diestrous phase, whereas these rats showed low level of depression-like behavior in estrous phase in Porsolt's test. On the contrary, there were no significant differences in extent of depression-like behavior between prenatally stressed rats in the diestrous and proestrous, although in the phase of estrous in these animals an increase in level of depression-like behavior was noted. Thus, the results of this study indicated pronounced effects of prenatal stress on the character of depression-like behavior of females in different phases of ovary cycle. This study revealed leveling and reversed action of prenatal stress on depression-like behavior in key phases of sexual cycle in female rats. PMID:22645947

Fedotova, Iu O; Kriukova, N N; Pivina, S G; Ordian, N E

2012-03-01

444

Compartment proteomics analysis of white perch (Morone americana) ovary using support vector machines.  

PubMed

Compartment proteomics enable broad characterization of target tissues. We employed a simple fractionation method and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) to characterize the cytosolic and membrane fractions of white perch ovary tissues by semiquantitative tandem mass spectrometry using label-free quantitation based on normalized spectral counts. FASP depletes both low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight substances that could interfere with protein digestion and subsequent peptide separation and detection. Membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to characterize due to their amphipathic nature and association with lipids. The simple fractionation we employed effectively revealed an abundance of proteins from mitochondria and other membrane-bounded organelles. We further demonstrate that support vector machines (SVMs) offer categorical classification of proteomics data superior to that of parametric statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). Specifically, SVMs were able to perfectly (100% correct) classify samples as either membrane or cytosolic fraction during cross-validation based on the expression of 242 proteins with the highest ANOVA p-values (i.e., those that were not significant for enrichment in either fraction). The white perch ovary cytosolic and membrane proteomes and transcriptome presented in this study can support future investigations into oogenesis and early embryogenesis of white perch and other members of the genus Morone. PMID:24494930

Schilling, Justin; Nepomuceno, Angelito; Schaff, Jennifer E; Muddiman, David C; Daniels, Harry V; Reading, Benjamin J

2014-03-01

445

Ulipristal blocks ovulation by inhibiting progesterone receptor-dependent pathways intrinsic to the ovary.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate (UPA), a progesterone receptor (PR) modulator, is used as an emergency contraceptive in women. Here, using a mouse model, we investigated the mechanism of action of UPA as an ovulation blocker. In mice, ovulation is induced ~12 hours following the treatment with exogenous gonadotropins, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH). When administered within 6 hours of hCG treatment, UPA is a potent blocker of ovulation. However, UPA's effectiveness declined significantly when it was given at 8 hours post hCG. Our study revealed that, when administered within 6 hours of hCG, UPA blocks ovulation by inhibiting PR-dependent pathways intrinsic to the ovary. At 8 hours post hCG, when the PR signaling has already occurred, UPA is unable to block ovulation efficiently. Collectively, these results indicated that UPA, when administered within a critical time window following the LH surge, blocks PR-dependent pathways in the ovary to function as an effective antiovulatory contraceptive. PMID:23012316

Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Kim, Jaeyeon; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Bagchi, Milan; Bagchi, Indrani

2013-04-01

446

Immature teratoma of the ovary with distant metastases: favorable prognosis and insights into chemotherapeutic retroconversion.  

PubMed

We present a case of a young woman with an immature teratoma of the right ovary that showed systemic metastases. The patient initially experienced abdominal distention at the age of 15 years. Radiographic assessment revealed a right ovarian tumor; thus, right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and the resected ovarian tumor showed a multilocular cystic lesion with partially solid areas. Pathologic diagnosis was an immature teratoma, grade 2. As brain, lung, and liver metastases were discovered within 2 years after the operation, sequential resections of the metastatic foci were performed before chemotherapy as well as during the early and late stages of chemotherapy. The resected specimens of each metastatic focus contained histologically more mature elements of the primary immature teratoma and exhibited a decrease in the Ki-67 labeling index, the later the resection was performed. As far as we know, this is the first case of brain metastasis stemming from an immature teratoma of the ovary. In addition, it was highly suggestive that chemotherapy itself was the main etiological factor for the promotion of maturation. The favorable prognosis of this malignant tumor even after brain metastasis was verified by the 10-year-survival of the patient. PMID:20736769

Kurata, Atsushi; Hirano, Kazuhiko; Nagane, Motoo; Fujioka, Yasunori

2010-09-01

447

Ulipristal Blocks Ovulation by Inhibiting Progesterone Receptor–Dependent Pathways Intrinsic to the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Ulipristal acetate (UPA), a progesterone receptor (PR) modulator, is used as an emergency contraceptive in women. Here, using a mouse model, we investigated the mechanism of action of UPA as an ovulation blocker. In mice, ovulation is induced ~12 hours following the treatment with exogenous gonadotropins, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH). When administered within 6 hours of hCG treatment, UPA is a potent blocker of ovulation. However, UPA’s effectiveness declined significantly when it was given at 8 hours post hCG. Our study revealed that, when administered within 6 hours of hCG, UPA blocks ovulation by inhibiting PR-dependent pathways intrinsic to the ovary. At 8 hours post hCG, when the PR signaling has already occurred, UPA is unable to block ovulation efficiently. Collectively, these results indicated that UPA, when administered within a critical time window following the LH surge, blocks PR-dependent pathways in the ovary to function as an effective antiovulatory contraceptive. PMID:23012316

Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Kim, Jaeyeon; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Bagchi, Milan

2013-01-01

448

An immunohistochemical study of the distribution of intermediate filaments in the ovary of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).  

PubMed

The immunohistochemical localization of the intermediate filaments desmin, vimentin and smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the ovary of the emu was described in the present study. The cortical region of the ovary contained developing and atretic primordial, pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic follicles. Vimentin immunostaining was demonstrated in the granulosa cell layer of primordial, pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic developing and atretic follicles. An interesting finding of the present study was the localization of SMA in fibroblasts located in the theca externa of late vitellogenic follicles. The presence of SMA in these fibroblasts suggests that they possess characteristics of smooth muscle cells. PMID:17845222

Madekurozwa, M-C

2007-10-01

449

Fibroma with minor sex cord elements – an incidental finding in a normal sized ovary A case report with literature review  

PubMed Central

Ovarian fibroma with minor sex cord element is a rare neoplasm. Microscopically it is composed of predominantly fibromatous or a thecomatous tumor containing scattered minor sex cord elements in less than 10% of the tumor area. A case of fibroma with minor sex cord elements discovered incidentally in a normal sized ovary in a patient who presented with dysfunctional uterine bleeding is being presented. This is the first case report describing this entity in a normal sized ovary as an incidental finding. PMID:18053193

Mandal, Shramana; Mahajan, Dipti; Roy, Somak; Singh, Meeta; Khurana, Nita

2007-01-01

450

True ectopic ovary in the right iliac fossa mimicking acute appendicitis and associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis.  

PubMed

Ectopic ovarian tissue is a rare gynecologic condition. The presence of ectopic ovary may be accompanied by maldevelopments of the genital and urinary tract. We report an extremely rare case of a 39-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain localized in the right lower quadrant. During the preoperative investigation and the exploratory laparotomy, an ectopic ovary in contact with the appendix accompanied by a single left kidney was found. The present report also includes a review of the related published work. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the very few cases reported describing the co-occurrence of true ovarian ectopia and ipsilateral renal agenesis. PMID:24320118

Kollia, Paraskevi; Kounoudes, Christos; Veloudis, George; Giannakou, Nikoletta; Gourgiotis, Stavros

2014-03-01

451

Food deprivation explains effects of mouthbrooding on ovaries and steroid hormones, but not brain neuropeptide and receptor mRNAs, in an African cichlid fish  

E-print Network

and body mass, brain neuropeptide and receptor gene ex- pression, and circulating steroid hormones feeding and reproduction as well as circulating sex steroid hormone levels and ovary growth during foodFood deprivation explains effects of mouthbrooding on ovaries and steroid hormones, but not brain

Fernald, Russell

452

Immunoreactivities to protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament protein and neuron specific enolase in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich ( Struthio camelus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innervation of the ovary has been studied in various species of birds and mammals. Despite the fact that the innervation of any organ is an essential factor in controlling its growth and function, no information is available on the distribution of nerve fibers in the ovary of the sexually immature ostrich. Thus, the present study was undertaken to investigate

W. H. Kimaro; M.-C. Madekurozwa

2006-01-01

453

Comparison of ultrastructure, pollen tube growth pattern and starch content in developing and abortive ovaries during the progamic phase in hazel.  

PubMed

HIGHLIGHTSIn an abortive ovary of hazel, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed.In an abortive ovary of hazel, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded.Ovary abortion in the four hybrid cultivars was indicated to be associated with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla was at least partly determined by pollen availability. In Northeast China, a high frequency of ovary abortion contributes to serious losses in yield of hazelnut. The development of pistillate inflorescences and fruit clusters of four large-fruited hybrid hazel cultivars and the small-fruited Corylus heterophylla were used to study ovary abortion and its possible causes during the progamic phase in hazel. The average number of pistillate (ANP) flowers per inflorescence and average number of fruit (ANF) per cluster of four hybrid hazel cultivars were 7.6-8.5 and 2.4-3.0 respectively; in C. heterophylla, its ANP and ANF was 5.8-6.2 and 3.5, respectively. The total drop varied from 50 to 67%. Ovary abortion in hazel initiated from about 30 days after blooming. The percentage of abortive ovaries (PAO) in the four hybrid hazel cultivars ranged from 63 to 72%, and was significantly higher than that of C. heterophylla (29-42%). Only the abortive ovary ratio of C. heterophylla was significantly reduced after artificial pollination. Fruit number per cluster was positively and negatively correlated with yield and nut mass, respectively. In abortive ovaries, the diameter remained less than 2 mm during the entire fruit development, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed. In addition, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded. Compared with abortive ovary, starch content in developing ovary of four hybrid hazel cultivars and C. heterophylla were significantly higher. This study suggests that abortive ovary was incapable to finish fertilization process due to the absence of mature embryo sac and arrested pollen tubes, and this is likely associate with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers in four hybrid hazel cultivars, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla is at least partly determined by pollen availability. PMID:25339969

Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Huidi; Cheng, Yunqing; Wang, Ju; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting

2014-01-01