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1

Oogenesis in cultures derived from adult human ovaries  

PubMed Central

Ten years ago, we reported that in adult human females the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) is a source of germ cells. Recently, we also demonstrated that new primary follicles are formed by assembly of oocytes with nests of primitive granulosa cells in the ovarian cortex. The components of the new primary follicles, primitive granulosa and germ cells, differentiated sequentially from the OSE, which arises from cytokeratin positive mesenchymal progenitor cells residing in the ovarian tunica albuginea. In the present study, we investigated the possibility that the oocytes and granulosa cells may differentiate in cultures derived from adult human ovaries. Cells were scrapped from the surface of ovaries and cultured for 5 to 6 days, in the presence or absence of estrogenic stimuli [phenol red (PhR)]. The OSE cells cultured in the medium without PhR differentiated into small (15 micron) cells of granulosa phenotype, and epithelial, neural, and mesenchymal type cells. In contrast, OSE cells cultured in the presence of PhR differentiated directly into large (180 micron) cells of the oocyte phenotype. Such cells exhibited germinal vesicle breakdown, expulsion of the polar body, and surface expression of zona pellucida proteins, i.e. characteristics of secondary oocytes. These in vitro studies confirm our in vivo observations that in adult human ovaries, the OSE is a bipotent source of oocytes and granulosa cells. Development of numerous mature oocytes from adult ovarian stem cells in vitro offers new strategies for the egg preservation, IVF utilization, and treatment of female infertility. In addition, other clinical applications aiming to utilize stem cells, and basic stem cell research as well, may employ totipotent embryonic stem cells developing from fertilized oocytes. PMID:15871747

Bukovsky, Antonin; Svetlikova, Marta; Caudle, Michael R

2005-01-01

2

Retinoic acid derived from the fetal ovary initiates meiosis in mouse germ cells.  

PubMed

Meiotic initiation of germ cells at 13.5 dpc (days post-coitus) indicates female sex determination in mice. Recent studies reveal that mesonephroi-derived retinoic acid (RA) is the key signal for induction of meiosis. However, whether the mesonephroi is dispensable for meiosis is unclear and the role of the ovary in this meiotic process remains to be clarified. This study provides data that RA derived from fetal ovaries is sufficient to induce germ cell meiosis in a fetal ovary culture system. When fetal ovaries were collected from 11.5 to 13.5 dpc fetuses, isolated and cultured in vitro, germ cells enter meiosis in the absence of mesonephroi. To exclude RA sourcing from mesonephroi, 11.5 dpc urogenital ridges (UGRs; mesonephroi and ovary complexes) were treated with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) to block retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) activity in the mesonephros and the ovary. Meiosis occurred when DEAB was withdrawn and the mesonephros was removed 2 days later. Furthermore, RALDH1, rather than RALDH2, serves as the major RA synthetase in UGRs from 12.5 to 15.5 dpc. DEAB treatment to the ovary alone was able to block germ cell meiotic entry. We also found that exogenously supplied RA dose-dependently reduced germ cell numbers in ovaries by accelerating the entry into meiosis. These results suggest that ovary-derived RA is responsible for meiosis initiation. PMID:22886539

Mu, Xinyi; Wen, Jing; Guo, Meng; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Ge; Wang, Zhengpin; Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Cui, Yan; Xia, Guoliang

2013-03-01

3

Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Help Restore Function to Ovaries in a Premature Ovarian Failure Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. For this reason, they are considered a powerful tool for therapeutic cloning and offer new possibilities for tissue therapy. Recent studies showed that skin-derived stem cells can differentiate into cells expressing germ-cell specific markers in vitro and form oocytes in vivo. The idea that SMSCs may be suitable for the treatment of intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To determine the ability of SMSCs to reactivate injured ovaries, a mouse model with ovaries damaged by busulfan and cyclophosphamide was developed and is described here. Female skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-SMSCs) and male skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-SMSCs) from red fluorescence protein (RFP) transgenic adult mice were used to investigate the restorative effects of SMSCs on ovarian function. Significant increases in total body weight and the weight of reproductive organs were observed in the treated animals. Both F-SMSCs and M-SMSCs were shown to be capable of partially restoring fertility in chemotherapy-treated females. Immunostaining with RFP and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) antibodies demonstrated that the grafted SMSCs survived, migrated to the recipient ovaries. After SMSCs were administered to the treated mice, real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, TGF-?, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1?, and IFN? were significantly lower in the ovaries than in the untreated controls. Consistent with this observation, expression of oogenesis marker genes Nobox, Nanos3, and Lhx8 increased in ovaries of SMSCs-treated mice. These findings suggest that SMSCs may play a role within the ovarian follicle microenvironment in restoring the function of damaged ovaries and could be useful in reproductive health. PMID:24879098

Lai, Dongmei; Wang, Fangyuan; Dong, Zhangli; Zhang, Qiuwan

2014-01-01

4

Hydrostatic pressure improves in-vitro maturation of oocytes derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background: Cryopreservation has limited successes and in-vitro maturation is used to improve its results. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) plays an important role in follicular development. Objective: This study was designed to examine the effects of HP on in-vitro maturation of oocytes and cell death in cumulus cells derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries. Materials and Methods: Preovulatory follicles were harvested from non-vitrified and vitrified-warmed 6-8 week-old female NMRI mouse ovaries and randomly assigned to following groups: non-vitrified (control), non-vitrified with HP exposure (treatment I), vitrified-warmed (treatment II) and vitrified-warmed with HP exposure (treatment III). The follicles of treatments I and III were subjected to HP (20 mmHg) for 30 min and after that all groups were cultured for 24h and assessed for in-vitro maturation of oocytes. The viability and apoptosis of cumulus cells and oocytes were assessed using supravital nuclear staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. Results: Oocytes harvested follicles in both control and treatment II had a significantly lower percentage of metaphase II oocytes (MII) than the treatment I and III (23.5±3.1, 15.03±4.6 and 32.7±3.2, 25.5±4.6; respectively) (p<0.05). Viability of the cumulus cells reduced in treatment I, II and III (83.4, 83.3 and 77.7%) compared to control (86.9%), (p<0.05). The apoptotic index in cumulus and oocyte complexes in treatments I and III (10.7±0.8 and 15.3±0.8) was higher than in control and treatment II (6.7±0.5 and 9.7±0.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that HP had a mild effect on cell death incidence in cumulus cells without any effect on oocyte. However, it can be used as a mechanical force to improve in-vitro maturation of oocytes derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries. PMID:25243002

Rashidi, Zahra; Azadbakht, Mehri; Khazaei, Mozafar

2012-01-01

5

Bone induction by Escherichia coli -derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 compared with Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) is currently obtained from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. If rhBMP with more activity could be derived from Escherichia coli (E. coli), a large quantity of rhBMP could be produced at low cost. The bone-inducing ability of an E. coli -derived rhBMP-2 (ErhBMP-2) variant with an N-terminal sequence was examined and compared with

K. Bessho; Y. Konishi; S. Kaihara; K. Fujimura; Y. Okubo; T. Iizuka

2000-01-01

6

Homing and Restorative Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Injured Ovaries in Rats  

PubMed Central

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a long-term adverse effect of chemotherapy treatment. However, current available treatment regimens are not optimal. Emerging evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could restore the structure and function of injured tissues, but the homing and restorative effects of BMSCs on chemotherapy injured ovaries are still not clear. In this study, we found that granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis induced by cisplatin was reduced when BMSCs were migrated to granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Chemotherapy-induced POF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin in rats. BMSCs labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were injected into the rats via the tail vein to investigate the homing and distribution of BMSCs in vivo. The number of BMSCs in the ovarian hilum and medulla was greater than in the cortex, but no BMSCs were found in the follicles and corpus lutea. In addition, the BMSCs treatment group’s antral follicle count and estradiol levels increased after 30 days, compared with the POF group. Hence, our study demonstrates that intravenously delivered BMSCs can home to the ovaries, and restore its structure and function in POF model rats. PMID:25410907

Liu, Jiabin; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Yun; Li, Nan; Wen, Yuku; Cao, Fanglei; Ai, Hao; Xue, Xiaoou

2014-01-01

7

Effects of Upregulation of Hsp27 Expression on Oocyte Development and Maturation Derived from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a heat shock protein family member which can inhibit apoptosis. Our previous studies reported down-regulated Hsp27 in ovarian tissue derived from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) however, the exact effect of Hsp27 on oocyte maturation and developmental competence in PCOS is unclear. The effect of Hsp27 over-expression was studied in vitro using oocytes derived from PCOS patients. An artificial GFP-plasmid was injected into human oocyte to increase Hsp27 protein level. Oocyte maturation was evaluated by morphological observation. Mature oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryonic developmental competence was evaluated. Critical apoptotic factors and cytokines were measured at both the mRNA and protein level. Our results revealed that Overexpression of HSP27 lowered the maturation rate of oocytes derived from PCOS patients. Meanwhile, fertilization rate and high quality embryo rate were similar between the Hsp27 overexpressing group and controls; however, the blastocyst formation rate in this group was significantly higher than control. Expression analysis revealed that the oocyte-secreted factors, BMP15 and GDF9, and the apoptotic-related regulators, Caspase 3, 8 and 9, were all significantly decreased in Hsp27 overexpressing oocytes. In conclusion, upregulation of Hsp27 inhibits oocyte maturation from PCOS patients, but improves embryonic developmental potential. PMID:24391762

Liu, Shan; Liu, Jinjuan; Wang, Wei; Cui, Yugui; Ding, Wei; Mao, Yundong; Chen, Huiping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Zuomin; Liu, Jiayin

2013-01-01

8

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... condition called polycystic ovary sydrome (PCOS) . What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome? Polycystic (pronounced: pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovary syndrome ... having PCOS later on. Back Continue How Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Diagnosed? If you've taken your concerns about ...

9

25 developmental competence of cloned buffalo (bubalus bubalis) embryos produced by transfected or nontransfected fibroblasts transfer to enucleated oocytes derived from ovum pick-up and abattoir ovaries.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore whether fibroblasts transfection and the source of oocytes - ovum pick-up (OPU) versus abattoir ovaries - affected the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos in buffalo. To this aim, the serum-starved ear fibroblasts were fused into enucleated oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries (Group 1) and OPU (Group 2). Furthermore, the enucleated buffalo oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries were also fused with pEGFP-N1 transfected ear fibroblasts, and the cloned embryos were enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-positive confirmed by fluorescence microscopy (Group 3). The reconstructed embryos cultured in Groups 1 to 3 were 262, 83, 120, respectively (5 replicates); and the data were analysed by one-way ANOVA (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). As a result, the cleavage rate in Group 3 was significantly higher than that in Group 1 (75.0% v. 54.3%; P<0.01), and the total blastocyst rate of reconstructed embryos in Group 3 (27.3%) was significantly higher than that in Group 1 (17.4%; P<0.01) and Group 2 (24.4%; P<0.05). The SCNT blastocysts were vitrified with 20% ethylene glycol+20% dimethylsulfoxide+0.5M sucrose; the cryosurvival rates of SCNT blastocysts in the 3 groups were not different from each other (90.0%, 94.7%, 92.3%). Following culture, the cryosurvived blastocysts were transferred into synchronized local and crossbred buffaloes, with each recipient receiving 1 or 2 embryos. The pregnancy rates after transferring embryos derived from Groups 1 to 3 were not different from each other, and were 18.75% (3/16), 33.33% (4/12), and 26.67% (4/15), respectively. These results indicate that the oocytes derived from OPU can be enucleated as recipient cytoplasm and transfected fibroblast can be adopted as nuclei donor without decreasing the SCNT efficiency in buffalo. PMID:25472074

Yang, C; Shang, J; Zheng, H; Chen, M; Huang, F; Li, C; Yang, B; Liang, X

2014-12-01

10

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts ( ... who are obese are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome. Symptoms of PCOS include: Infertility Pelvic pain Excess ...

11

Polycystic ovary syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... temples, called male pattern baldness Enlargement of the clitoris Deepening of the voice Decrease in breast size ... exam. The exam may show: Swollen ovaries Swollen clitoris (very rare) The following health conditions are common ...

12

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... on the ovaries. These many follicles look like cysts, which is where the term “polycystic” comes from. ... Condition What it is Features similar to PCOS Thyroid disease Overactive or underactive thyroid gland Irregular menstrual ...

13

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but poorly understood endocrinopathy diagnosed by the combination of oligomenorrhea,\\u000a hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Many of the women with PCOS are also uniquely and variably insulin-resistant. This\\u000a can manifest as hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and frank diabetes. Affected women are plagued by infertility, menstrual\\u000a disorders, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and peripheral skin disorders including acne

Romana Dmitrovic; Richard S. Legro

14

“Secondary” Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularities are the most common endocrine symptoms in premenopausal women. The vast majority\\u000a of these women suffer from the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is defined as a state of “gonadotropin-dependent functional\\u000a hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation” in which no distinct autonomous source of androgen secretion is identified. PCOS is\\u000a a chronic disorder characterized by specific clinical, endocrine, and

Gregory Kaltsas; George Chrousos

15

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the one of the common cause of menstrual irregularity in the United States and a leading\\u000a cause of infertility. PCOS prevalence ranges from 6 to 10% in the United States. Because obesity may unmask PCOS, the incidence\\u000a may increase as obesity rates increase. PCOS has been viewed as a collection of reproductive disorders, including polycystic

Katherine Sherif

16

Uptake of inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic associated with induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are exposed to arsenic and their organic derivatives, which are widely distributed in the environment, via food, water, and to a lesser extent, via air. Following uptake, inorganic arsenic undergoes biotransformation to mono- and dimethylated metabolites. Recent findings suggest that the methylation reactions represent a toxification rather than a detoxification pathway.In the present study, the genotoxic effects and the

E. Dopp; L. M. Hartmann; A.-M. Florea; U. von Recklinghausen; R. Pieper; B. Shokouhi; A. W. Rettenmeier; A. V. Hirner; G. Obe

2004-01-01

17

Ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus  

SciTech Connect

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, together with dissection and light microscopy, have produced heretofore unavailable structural detail of the ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus. Structural and functional interrelationships among developing follicles and other histological elements, particularly as they might relate to vascularization of follicles, oocyte development, and ovulation, are described and discussed. Mature eggs, ovulated into the ovarian lumen, accumulate in the posterior ovisac region of the ovary prior to oviposition. This ovisac region is thin-walled and apparently nongerminal. The temporary retention of ovulated eggs permits cyclical oviposition even though oogenesis and ovulation are asynchronous. The histological differences between the ovisac and the anterior ovigerous region of the ovary are described. The lumenal epithelium of the ovisac displays a localized population of unusual cells with long cytoplasmic extensions. The ultrastructure of these cells suggests that they might function in the transport of ovulated eggs into the oviduct and/or in secreting the substance (jelly) which forms the surface coat of extruded eggs.

Brummett, A.R. (Oberlin Coll., OH); Dumont, J.N.; Larkin, J.R.

1982-01-01

18

The molecular characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ovary defined by human ovary cDNA microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders; it is characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. To obtain a global view of those genes that might be involved in the development of this complex clinical disorder, we used recently developed cDNA microarray technology to compare differential gene expressions between normal human ovary and ovaries

Fei-Yang Diao; Min Xu; Yanqiu Hu; Jianmin Li; Zhiyang Xu; Min Lin; Lirong Wang; Yadong Zhou; Zuomin Zhou; Jiayin Liu; Jiahao Sha

2004-01-01

19

Polycystic ovaries and obesity.  

PubMed

Almost 50% of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are obese. Obesity in PCOS affects reproduction via various mechanisms. Hyperandrogenism, increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. Several substances produced by the adipose tissue including leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin may play a role in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Infertility in PCOS is related to anovulation. For induction of ovulation, clomiphene citrate and human gonadotrophins are first- and second-line treatments, respectively. Other treatment modalities include the use of insulin sensitizers, such as metformin as well as aromatase inhibitors and laparoscopic ovarian drilling, while in vitro fertilization is the last resort. Obesity can adversely affect infertility treatment in PCOS. Diet and lifestyle changes are recommended for the obese women before they attempt conception. The use of anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery in PCOS require further evaluation. PMID:25487256

Messinis, Ioannis E; Messini, Christina I; Anifandis, George; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos

2014-11-12

20

Seminiferous Tubules (human) Ovary (cat)  

E-print Network

#12;Seminiferous Tubules (human) #12;#12;Ovary (cat) #12;Ovum (squirrel) #12;Primordial Follicle the ovum. Calcium ion stimlates the release of cortical granules to the perivitelline space, which widens

Houde, Peter

21

Pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6 to 15% of reproductive age women worldwide. It is associated with increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, and birth of small for gestational age infant. Many studies on issues relating to pathophysiology and management of these complications have been published recently. These issues are being reviewed here using relevant articles retrieved from Pubmed database, especially from those published in recent past. PMID:23776851

Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

2013-01-01

22

[Natural history of ovary cancer].  

PubMed

Ovary cancer is a disease charged of paradigms and a serious health problem. It's important to know its natural history, because has a multifactor origins, and understanding its behavior since risk factors until patient's death because metastatic disease is a challenger for oncology group. In this work we made a bibliographic, analytic review that brings up concepts related to its origin, evolution, risk factors, preclinical horizon, and clinical symptoms until the death of patient. PMID:25412555

Novoa-Vargas, Arturo

2014-09-01

23

Squamous carcinoma in situ of the ovary.  

PubMed

We report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the ovary in a patient previously submitted to radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for an epidermoid carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The histogenesis of epidermoid tumors of the ovary and their association with squamous malignancies of the uterine cervix are discussed. PMID:9415529

Pellegrino, A; Cormio, G; Cappellini, A; Perego, P; Rossi, R

1997-01-01

24

Derivatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Murray Bourne developed the Interactive Mathematics site while working as a mathematics lecturer at Ngee Ann Polytechnic in Singapore. The site contains numerous mathematics tutorials and resources for students and teachers alike. This specific page is focused on differentiation, or finding derivatives. Bourne walks users through an introduction to differentiation and limits, and then moves on to more specific applications like rate of change, derivatives of polynomials, and differentiating powers of a function. Each topic includes graphs and interactive materials designed to aid users in understanding the presented concepts. The information here is presented in a clear, straightforward manner that is appropriate for introductory and advanced calculus students alike.

Bourne, Murray

2008-04-22

25

Derivate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

26

Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Obesity is now a major international health concern. It is increasingly common in young women with reproductive, metabolic and psychological health impacts. Reproductive health impacts are often poorly appreciated and include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy complications. PCOS is the most common endocrine condition in women and is underpinned by hormonal disturbances including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity exacerbates hormonal and clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS appear at higher risk of obesity, with multiple underlying mechanisms linking the conditions. Lifestyle intervention is first line in management of PCOS to both prevent weight gain and induce weight loss; however improved engagement and sustainability remain challenges with the need for more research. Medications like metformin, orlistat, GLP1 agonists and bariatric surgery have been used with the need for large scale randomised clinical trials to define their roles. PMID:25411807

Naderpoor, N; Shorakae, S; Joham, A; Boyle, J; De Courten, B; Teede, H J

2015-03-01

27

[Does carcinoma originating in the ovary exist?].  

PubMed

According to the latest morphological and molecular knowledge it seems that the origin of epithelial ovarian cancers, i.e. carcinomas resides elsewhere than in the ovary, or that at least the early development of the disease takes place outside the ovary. According to the new scientific thought, tumors observed in the ovaries would be secondary processes by nature. Change of the viewpoint plays a crucial role in the development of prevention and early diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. The new knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma also opens possibilities for more effective post-operative treatments. PMID:24547622

Bützow, Ralf

2014-01-01

28

[Anatomic and functional characteristics of resistant ovaries].  

PubMed

Resistant ovary syndrome has been confirmed in 42 women using clinical, roentgenologic (craniography, hysterosalpingography, pneumogynecography, electroencephalography), genetic, sonographic, endoscopic and histologic studies. Fibrocystic breast disease was identified in 64% and normal ovarian size in 74% of the patients with resistant ovary syndrome. Progesterone test was positive in 84% of the patients. Resistant ovary syndrome was associated with higher serum estradiol levels as compared with ovarian dystrophy and pure gonadal dysgenesis. Diagnosis confirmation requires ovarian biopsy with a histological examination of ovarian specimen, but its outcome is not always significant. PMID:2221259

Smetnik, V P; Fanchenko, N D; Fuad, Kh; Adamian, L V; Balan, V E

1990-06-01

29

Cardiometabolic Aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome. PMID:22829562

Tan, Bee K.; Weickert, Martin O.; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E.; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

2012-01-01

30

Ovary growth and protein levels in ovary and fat body during adult-wintering period in the red mason bee,  

E-print Network

Ovary growth and protein levels in ovary and fat body during adult-wintering period in the red-dependent changes were noted also in the number of oocytes and protein concentrations in ovary and fat body tissue major changes in protein concentration in ovary and fat body tissue. Our results indicate that adult

31

Synthetic shibkovite K(K1.67H2O0.33)(Ca1.3Na0.7)[Zn3Si12O30]: the crystal structure and comparative crystal chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of a single crystal of a synthetic analog of mineral shibkovite K(K1.67H2O0.33)(Ca1.3Na0.7)[Zn3Si12O30] (milarite structure type) obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in the AlPO4-K3PO4-CaCO3-Na2CO3-ZnCO3-SiO2-H2O system has been solved ( R = 0.0406) by X-ray diffraction analysis: a = 10.5327(2) Å, c = 14.2019(3) Å, sp. gr. P6/ mcc, Z = 2, and ?calcd = 2.90 g/cm3. The crystal-chemical features of the new phase are studied in comparison with the other terms of the milarite group. It is shown that the crystallization conditions for minerals and synthetic analogs of this group determine the presence or absence of crystallization water in the structures of compounds.

Kiriukhina, G. V.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Dimitrova, O. V.

2015-01-01

32

Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus  

E-print Network

Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus inanitus. I. Ovary in the calyx cells of the ovary of some parasitic wasps. They have a segmented genome of circular double-stranded DNA and are injected along with the wasp's egg into the host, where they are essential for successful

Lanzrein, Beatrice

33

Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus  

E-print Network

Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus inanitus. II are unique symbiotic viruses that are formed only in calyx cells in the ovary of parasitic wasps with parasitic wasps and are formed only in a particular cell type of the wasp's ovary, the calyx cells

Lanzrein, Beatrice

34

Abnormal gene expression profiles in human ovaries from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. The current study is the first to describe consistent differences in gene expression profiles in human ovaries comparing PCOS patients vs. healthy normoovulatory individuals. The microarray analysis of PCOS vs. normal ovaries identifies dysregulated expression of genes encoding components of several biological pathways or systems such as Wnt signaling, extracellular matrix components, and immunological factors. Resulting data may provide novel clues for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Intriguingly, the gene expression profiles of ovaries from (long-term) androgen-treated female-to-male transsexuals (TSX) show considerable overlap with PCOS. This observation provides supportive evidence that androgens play a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Presented data may contribute to a better understanding of dysregulated pathways in PCOS, which might ultimately reveal novel leads for therapeutic intervention. PMID:15308691

Jansen, Erik; Laven, Joop S E; Dommerholt, Henri B R; Polman, Jan; van Rijt, Cindy; van den Hurk, Caroline; Westland, Jolanda; Mosselman, Sietse; Fauser, Bart C J M

2004-12-01

35

A bovine model for polycystic ovary syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in the greatest single cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women (affecting 5-10%). Previously, research groups have created animal models utilizing non-human primates and sheep to better understand the mechanisms involved in PCOS. However, c...

36

Polycystic ovary syndrome: Challenges in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases in women of reproductive age. PCOS typically develops during adolescence and is a heterogeneous syndrome classically characterized by features of anovulation combined with signs of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne). Increasing obesity in adolescents probably exacerbates signs of PCOS, contributing to its earlier recognition. Recognizing the features of this

Ana Oliveira; Bernarda Sampaio; Ana Teixeira; Cíntia Castro-Correia; Manuel Fontoura; José Luís Medina

2010-01-01

37

Polycystic ovary syndrome—diagnosis and etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous condition with signs and symptoms including menstrual dysfunction, weight disorders, hirsutism, acne, endometrial hyperplasia, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and hyperlipidemia. As such, diagnosis is controversial and differs between countries and communities. By consensus, recent definitions highlight ovarian morphology, hyperandrogenism and menstrual dysfunction. Etiology is undetermined and may include genetic and environmental aspects, including

R. J Norman; T Hickey; L Moran; J Boyle; J Wang; M Davies

2004-01-01

38

Polycystic ovary syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of up to 10%. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed, generally centered around the features of hyperandrogenism and\\/or hyperandrogenemia, oligo-ovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology. Insulin resistance is present in a majority of cases, with compensatory hyperinsulinemia contributing to hyperandrogenism via stimulation of ovarian

Mark O. Goodarzi; Daniel A. Dumesic; Gregorio Chazenbalk; Ricardo Azziz

2011-01-01

39

Re-torsion of the ovaries.  

PubMed

The increasing use of de-torsion of the ovaries may result in re-torsion. This review addresses risk of re-torsion and describes preventive strategies to avoid re-torsion in pre-menarcheal girls, and fertile and pregnant women. We clinically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Trip and Cochrane databases. The main outcome measures were re-torsion and viability of ovary with fixation measures. A total of 38 publications including 71 girls, 363 fertile women, and 69 pregnant women were found to be relevant. All studies were case reports or case series, sometimes with non-randomized controls. The studies show considerable heterogeneity in design, population, management and outcome. Only four studies included more than 50 cases. In pregnancy the risk of re-torsion was as high as 19.5-37.5%; among fertile women it was 28.6%. Most articles concluded that fixation of the ovaries to the pelvic sidewall or plication of the ovarian ligament after torsion may prevent re-torsion. In one case a girl experienced re-torsion after ovariopexy. Based on observational studies it seems that de-torsion and fixation of the ovary is a safe procedure that usually ensures maintenance of ovarian function and reduces the risk of recurrence, especially when there are no ovarian cysts or adnexal masses. PMID:25412114

Hyttel, Trine E W; Bak, Geske S; Larsen, Solveig B; Løkkegaard, Ellen C L

2015-03-01

40

Circadian Clock Function in the Mammalian Ovary.  

PubMed

Rhythmic events in the female reproductive system depend on the coordinated and synchronized activity of multiple neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues. This coordination is facilitated by the timing of gene expression and cellular physiology at each level of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, including the basal hypothalamus and forebrain, the pituitary gland, and the ovary. Central to this pathway is the primary circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that, through its myriad outputs, provides a temporal framework for gonadotropin release and ovulation. The heart of the timing system, a transcription-based oscillator, imparts SCN pacemaker cells and a company of peripheral tissues with the capacity for daily oscillations of gene expression and cellular physiology. Although the SCN sits comfortably at the helm, peripheral oscillators (such as the ovary) have undefined but potentially critical roles. Each cell type of the ovary, including theca cells, granulosa cells, and oocytes, harbor a molecular clock implicated in the processes of follicular growth, steroid hormone synthesis, and ovulation. The ovarian clock is influenced by the reproductive cycle and diseases that perturb the cycle and/or follicular growth can disrupt the timing of clock gene expression in the ovary. Chronodisruption is known to negatively affect reproductive function and fertility in both rodent models and women exposed to shiftwork schedules. Thus, influencing clock function in the HPO axis with chronobiotics may represent a novel avenue for the treatment of common fertility disorders, particularly those resulting from chronic circadian disruption. PMID:25367899

Sellix, Michael T

2014-11-01

41

Ovaries of Tubificinae (Clitellata, Naididae) resemble ovary cords found in Hirudinea (Clitellata)  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructure of the ovaries and oogenesis was studied in three species of three genera of Tubificinae. The paired ovaries are small, conically shaped structures, connected to the intersegmental septum between segments X and XI by their narrow end. The ovaries are composed of syncytial cysts of germ cells interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges (ring canals) and surrounded by follicular cells. The architecture of the germ-line cysts is exactly the same as in all clitellate annelids studied to date, i.e. each cell in a cyst has only one ring canal connecting it to the central, anuclear cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. The ovaries found in all of the species studied seem to be meroistic, i.e. the ultimate fate of germ cells within a cyst is different, and the majority of cells withdraw from meiosis and become nurse cells; the rest continue meiosis, gather macromolecules, cell organelles and storage material, and become oocytes. The ovaries are polarized; their narrow end contains mitotically dividing oogonia and germ cells entering the meiosis prophase; whereas within the middle and basal parts, nurse cells, a prominent cytophore and growing oocytes occur. During late previtellogenesis/early vitellogenesis, the oocytes detach from the cytophore and float in the coelom; they are usually enveloped by the peritoneal epithelium and associated with blood vessels. Generally, the organization of ovaries in all of the Tubificinae species studied resembles the polarized ovary cords found within the ovisacs of some Euhirudinea. The organization of ovaries and the course of oogenesis between the genera studied and other clitellate annelids are compared. Finally, it is suggested that germ-line cysts formation and the meroistic mode of oogenesis may be a primary character for all Clitellata. PMID:21170399

Urbisz, Anna Z.; Krodkiewska, Mariola

2010-01-01

42

Comparative Analysis of the Testis and Ovary Transcriptomes in Zebrafish by Combining Experimental and Computational Tools  

PubMed Central

Studies on the zebrafish model have contributed to our understanding of several important developmental processes, especially those that can be easily studied in the embryo. However, our knowledge on late events such as gonad differentiation in the zebrafish is still limited. Here we provide an analysis on the gene sets expressed in the adult zebrafish testis and ovary in an attempt to identify genes with potential role in (zebra)fish gonad development and function. We produced 10 533 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from zebrafish testis or ovary and downloaded an additional 23 642 gonad-derived sequences from the zebrafish EST database. We clustered these sequences together with over 13 000 kidney-derived zebrafish ESTs to study partial transcriptomes for these three organs. We searched for genes with gonad-specific expression by screening macroarrays containing at least 2600 unique cDNA inserts with testis-, ovary- and kidney-derived cDNA probes. Clones hybridizing to only one of the two gonad probes were selected, and subsequently screened with computational tools to identify 72 genes with potentially testis-specific and 97 genes with potentially ovary-specific expression, respectively. PCR-amplification confirmed gonad-specificity for 21 of the 45 clones tested (all without known function). Our study, which involves over 47 000 EST sequences and specialized cDNA arrays, is the first analysis of adult organ transcriptomes of zebrafish at such a scale. The study of genes expressed in adult zebrafish testis and ovary will provide useful information on regulation of gene expression in teleost gonads and might also contribute to our understanding of the development and differentiation of reproductive organs in vertebrates. PMID:18629171

Li, Yang; Chia, Jer Ming; Bartfai, Richard; Christoffels, Alan; Yue, Gen Hua; Ding, Ke; Ho, Mei Yin; Hill, James A.

2004-01-01

43

Regulation of germ cell meiosis in the fetal ovary.  

PubMed

Fertility depends on correct regulation of meiosis, the special form of cell division that gives rise to haploid gametes. In female mammals, germ cells enter meiosis during fetal ovarian development, while germ cells in males avoid entering meiosis until puberty. Decades of research have shown that meiotic entry, and germ cell sex determination, are not initiated intrinsically within the germ cells. Instead, meiosis is induced by signals produced by the surrounding somatic cells. More recently, retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been implicated in meiotic induction during fetal XX and postnatal XY germ cell development. Evidence for an intricate system of RA synthesis and degradation in the fetal ovary and testis has emerged, explaining past observations of infertility in vitamin A-deficient rodents. Here we review how meiosis is triggered in fetal ovarian germ cells, paying special attention to the role of RA in this process. PMID:23417400

Spiller, Cassy M; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

2012-01-01

44

Polycystic ovary syndrome in the adolescent.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is now recognized as a heterogeneous disorder that results in overproduction of androgens, primarily from the ovary, leading to anovulation and hirsutism and is associated with insulin resistance. Long-term sequellae of PCOS include higher risk for diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, endometrial hyperplasia, and anovulatory infertility. Symptoms in the adolescent include oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, acne, and weight gain. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes have also been demonstrated in adolescents who have PCOS. Treatment should be instituted early to decrease symptoms and long term sequellae of PCOS. Weight loss, oral contraceptives, and antiandrogens are effective in treating the symptoms of this disorder. Insulin-sensitizing medications have been shown to be effective but should be used with caution until larger randomized trials have shown short- and long term benefits and efficacy over traditional therapies in the adolescent population. PMID:19344852

Pfeifer, Samantha M; Kives, Sari

2009-03-01

45

Chronic Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The more immediate\\u000a benefits have been amply demonstrated and include improvement in acne, hirsutism, alopecia, as well as regulation of abnormal\\u000a cycles with the potential for preventing endometrial hyperplasia and, subsequently, cancer. In addition, OCPs provide protection\\u000a against pregnancy, especially if other

Shahla Nader

46

[Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary].  

PubMed

Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (TGO) are rare neoplasms. They arise from sex cord stromal cells of the ovaries. They are characterized by their slow natural history, and their tendency to relapse long time after the initial diagnosis. Complete staging surgery of the disease is the cornerstone of treatment. Chemotherapy is indicated for localized tumors with a high risk of recurrence, and for recurrent or advanced tumors. Prolonged follow-up is recommended. PMID:24445864

Sekkate, Sakina; Kairouani, Mouna; Serji, Badr; M'Rabti, Hind; El Ghissassi, Ibrahim; Errihani, Hassan

2014-01-01

47

Clinical Features of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be elicitable on obtaining the history or on physical exam. Biochemical\\u000a or radiographic evaluation may also reveal additional features (see Chapters 16 and 17). The medical history will provide important information regarding the presenting complaint, the onset\\u000a and progression of hyperandrogenic signs and symptoms, menstrual dysfunction and irregularity, and weight gain. Usually,

Walter Futterweit; Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Ricardo Azziz

48

Metabolic Complications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 4–7% of reproductive-aged women and is associated with serious metabolic complications\\u000a including type 2 diabetes. Forty percent of affected women have impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes by the age of\\u000a forty. Evaluation of women with PCOS includes metabolic risk assessment and counseling on the prevention of diabetes through\\u000a lifestyle therapies such as diet,

Tracy L. Setji; Ann J. Brown

49

Environmental Factors in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent disorder that is still not well understood. Genetic predisposition is important,\\u000a but neonatal, prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal factors participate in its clinical expression. In this chapter we will\\u000a review these factors and the evidence that supports causal association with the development of PCOS. Unfortunately, little\\u000a evidence exists for many of these factors. Obesity

Marie-France Hivert; Jean-Patrice Baillargeon

50

The Effects of Phthalates on the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure.

Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

2015-01-01

51

Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms and the beneficial effects of acupuncture, exercise and resveratrol on animal models and on humans affected by PCOS. PMID:24809037

Aquino, C. I.; Nori, S. L.

2014-01-01

52

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common disorder with important short-term and long-term consequences. Indeed,\\u000a affected women manifest many clinical and biochemical features of metabolic syndrome, putting them at increased risk for diabetes\\u000a and cardiovascular diseases. In the past 15 years, the key role of insulin resistance (IR) in the pathogenesis of PCOS has\\u000a been stressed, and this

Marie-Hélène Pesant; Jean-Patrice Baillargeon

53

Stem cell aging in the Drosophila ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence suggests that with time human stem cells may become defective or depleted, thereby contributing to aging\\u000a and aging-related diseases. Drosophila provides a convenient model system in which to study stem cell aging. The adult Drosophila ovary contains two types of stem cells: the germ-line stem cells give rise to the oocyte and its supporting nurse cells,\\u000a while the

Morris Waskar; Yishi Li; John Tower

2005-01-01

54

Development and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell-specific oligonucleotide microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line is one of the most widely used mammalian cell lines for biopharmaceutical production.\\u000a We have developed and characterized a gene expression microarray (WyeHamster2a) specific for CHO cells that has enabled the\\u000a study of ~3,500 sequences. Analysis of multiple sets of replicate scans showed that data derived from the WyeHamster2a array\\u000a is highly reproducible

Mark Melville; Padraig Doolan; William Mounts; Niall Barron; Louane Hann; Mark Leonard; Martin Clynes; Tim Charlebois

55

Myxoid Leiomyosarcoma of Ovary-A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary is extremely rare, comprising of only 1% of the ovarian tumours. Patient presented with a mass in the right iliac fossa since three months. Radiological diagnosis of broad ligament fibroid was given. Right salphingo-oophorectomy with enucleation of ischial fossa and wedge biopsy of left ovary was carried out. Based on gross, microscopy and immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of primary myxoid leiomyosarcoma of ovary was made. We report a rare case of primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary with metastasis to ischial fossa emphasising on reliable prognostic markers. Ovarian leiomyosarcomas are highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis. PMID:25120990

V, Srinivasamurthy

2014-01-01

56

Anatomicohistological characteristics of the ovary of the coypu (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Using histological, histochemical and macroscopic and microscopic measurement techniques, the macroscopic and microscopic structures of coypu ovaries were studied in sexually mature virgin females. The mature ovaries of the coypu were ovoid or elongated bodies, not encapsulated, covered by a single layer of epithelium. They had a parenchyma formed by follicles at different stages of evolution and true and accessory corpora lutea. The interstitial tissue was a prominent and permanent structure in the ovaries. Some ovaries contained a few rete ovarii in the hilus. PMID:10386002

Felipe, A; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

1999-05-01

57

Polycystic ovaries after precocious pubarche: relation to prenatal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 1998, we revealed a sequence departing from prenatal growth restraint in girls and evolving, through precocious pubarche (PP) in mid-childhood, towards anovulatory and hyperinsulinaemic hyperandrogenism. The latter condition fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which was then defined independently of the presence of polycystic ovaries (PCOs). Since 2003, the diagnosis of PCOS has

L. Ibanez; A. Jaramillo; G. Enriquez; E. Miro; A. Lopez-Bermejo; D. Dunger; F. de Zegher

2006-01-01

58

The association between polycystic ovaries and endometrial cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are assumed to be at increased risk of endometrial cancer (EC), albeit of a more differentiated type with better prognosis than in normal women. This study was designed to test these assumptions, as evidence for them is lacking. METHODS: The prevalence of polycystic ovaries (PCO), as a marker of PCOS, was investigated in

O. C. Pillay; L. F. Wong; Te Fong; J. C. Crow; E. Benjamin; T. Mould; W. Atiomo; P. A. Menon; A. J. Leonard; P. Hardiman

2005-01-01

59

Prevalence of polycystic ovaries in women with androgenic alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although androgenic alopecia is recognised to be a symptom of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is not known whether polycystic ovaries (PCO) and associated endocrine abnormalities are present in patients who present with alopecia as a primary complaint. We therefore set out to deter- mine the strength of the association between androgenic alopecia and PCO. We examined the preva-

Ester Cela; Carole Robertson; Karen Rush; Eleni Kousta; Davinia M White; Helen Wilson; Glenn Lyons; Philip Kingsley; Mark I McCarthy; Stephen Franks

2003-01-01

60

Magnetic resonance imaging of bovine ovaries in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 20 bovine ovaries were imaged in vitro using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to determine the visibility of various physiologic structures. In particular, the possibility of using NMR imaging to differentiate atretic follicles from physiologically selected and ovulatory follicles was examined. Five of the 20 ovaries were preserved in formalin, whereas the remaining 15 were preserved in

G. E. Sarty; E. J. Kendall; R. A. Pierson

1996-01-01

61

A comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of infant and adult mouse ovary.  

PubMed

Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD). We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development. PMID:25251848

Pan, Linlin; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaonuan; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

2014-10-01

62

Mucinous carcinoid of the ovary: report of a case with metastasis in the contralateral ovary after ten years.  

PubMed

Monodermal teratomas of the ovary can take the form of carcinoid tumors of which there are several types, mucinous carcinoid being the least common. Very few cases of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary have been reported in the literature and the behavior of these tumors over the long term is unclear. We describe a case of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary in a 39-year-old woman treated with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, where a metastasis occurred in the contralateral ovary ten years later. This case demonstrates that mucinous carcinoid of the ovary can metastasize even after a long interval, and careful follow-up of patients, particularly those treated conservatively, is appropriate. PMID:21139955

Buis, Christien C M; van Doorn, Helena C; Dinjens, Winand N M; Ewing, Patricia C

2010-01-01

63

Mucinous carcinoid of the ovary: report of a case with metastasis in the contralateral ovary after ten years  

PubMed Central

Monodermal teratomas of the ovary can take the form of carcinoid tumors of which there are several types, mucinous carcinoid being the least common. Very few cases of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary have been reported in the literature and the behavior of these tumors over the long term is unclear. We describe a case of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary in a 39-year-old woman treated with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, where a metastasis occurred in the contralateral ovary ten years later. This case demonstrates that mucinous carcinoid of the ovary can metastasize even after a long interval, and careful follow-up of patients, particularly those treated conservatively, is appropriate. PMID:21139955

Buis, Christien C.M; van Doorn, Helena C; Dinjens, Winand N.M; Ewing, Patricia C

2010-01-01

64

Polycystic ovary syndrome: challenges in adolescence.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases in women of reproductive age. PCOS typically develops during adolescence and is a heterogeneous syndrome classically characterized by features of anovulation combined with signs of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne). Increasing obesity in adolescents probably exacerbates signs of PCOS, contributing to its earlier recognition. Recognizing the features of this syndrome can be very challenging in adolescence. Although adolescents' concerns are often cosmetic, if left untreated these girls are at risk for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and infertility as they mature. Efforts should be made to diagnose and treat PCOS to minimize the development of symptoms and prevent the onset of cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances. PMID:20708160

Oliveira, Ana; Sampaio, Bernarda; Teixeira, Ana; Castro-Correia, Cíntia; Fontoura, Manuel; Luís Medina, José

2010-01-01

65

New adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome perspectives.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but heterogeneous disorder that usually arises during puberty. This endocrine disorder is associated with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenemia with clinical manifestation of oligomenorrhea, hirsutism and acne. While the underlying etiology of PCOS remains unknown, it is commonly associated with obesity and insulin resistance leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus in hyperandrogenemic phenotypes. Menstrual irregularities and insulin resistance in obese adolescents are usually indistinguishable from the clinical manifestations of PCOS and pose a diagnostic dilemma due to higher circulating androgens during puberty. Consequently, a universal consensus on the definition of hyperandrogenemia in adolescents has been elusive. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenemia, independent of obesity, in postmenarchal adolescents is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome. Therefore, treatment strategies including lifestyle changes and/or use of insulin-sensitizers, hormone replacement and antiandrogens should be utilized in order to delay long-term cardiovascular and metabolic complications of this endocrinopathy. PMID:21311428

Alemzadeh, R; Kansra, A R

2011-02-01

66

Estrogen-Dependent Gene Expression in the Mouse Ovary  

PubMed Central

Estrogen (E) plays a pivotal role in regulating the female reproductive system, particularly the ovary. However, the number and type of ovarian genes influenced by estrogen remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we have utilized wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO; estrogen free) mouse ovaries as an in vivo model to profile estrogen dependent genes. RNA from each individual ovary (n?=?3) was analyzed by a microarray-based screen using Illumina Sentrix Mouse WG-6 BeadChip (45,281 transcripts). Comparative analysis (GeneSpring) showed differential expression profiles of 450 genes influenced by E, with 291 genes up-regulated and 159 down-regulated by 2-fold or greater in the ArKO ovary compared to WT. Genes previously reported to be E regulated in ArKO ovaries were confirmed, in addition to novel genes not previously reported to be expressed or regulated by E in the ovary. Of genes involved in 5 diverse functional processes (hormonal processes, reproduction, sex differentiation and determination, apoptosis and cellular processes) 78 had estrogen-responsive elements (ERE). These analyses define the transcriptome regulated by E in the mouse ovary. Further analysis and investigation will increase our knowledge pertaining to how E influences follicular development and other ovarian functions. PMID:21347412

Liew, Seng H.; Sarraj, Mai A.; Drummond, Ann E.; Findlay, Jock K.

2011-01-01

67

Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute ?rst-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome taking oral contraceptive and suffering from recurrent coronary ischemic attacks with increased eosinophils, and troponin levels suggesting Kounis syndrome. PMID:25548619

Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Kounis, Nicholas G

2014-01-01

68

Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries  

PubMed Central

Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most sophisticated adaptive mechanism created during the evolution of female reproduction. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. An essential mission of such follicular turnover might be elimination of spontaneous or environmentally induced genetic alterations of oocytes in resting primary follicles. PMID:15115550

Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

2004-01-01

69

Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to provide a stepwise approach to treating the infertility/subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Defining polycystic ovary syndrome in a patient requires first investigating other possible causes for polycystic ovary morphology, acne, hirsutism, obesity, and the metabolic derangements that often accompany polycystic ovary syndrome. Beginning with lifestyle modification and use of metformin, the progressive inclusion of more intensive therapies for induction of ovulation is described. Second-line treatments are discussed and the new findings from a large multicenter trial are discussed in the context of evidence-based treatment strategies for first-line agents. Finally, monofollicular development as a treatment goal and in vitro fertilization are discussed for those with recalcitrant disease. PMID:24966697

Berger, Joshua J; Bates, G Wright

2014-01-01

70

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

71

Screening for diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

olycystic ovary syndrome is a common hormonal dis- order that affects an estimated 5%-10% of women of reproductive age.1 This condition usually begins in the early teens and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism; clinical manifestations include oligo- menorrhea or secondary amenorrhea, polycystic ovaries, hir- sutism, acne, male-pattern hair loss and infertility. Although the etiology of the syndrome is

David C. W. Lau

72

Cracking open cell death in the Drosophila ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful yet simple system with only a few cell types. Cell death in the ovary can be induced in response to multiple\\u000a developmental and environmental signals. These cell deaths occur at distinct stages of oogenesis and involve unique mechanisms\\u000a utilizing apoptotic, autophagic and perhaps necrotic processes. In this review, we summarize recent progress characterizing

Tracy L. Pritchett; Elizabeth A. Tanner; Kimberly McCall

2009-01-01

73

An ovary as unusual contents of an incarcerated umbilical hernia.  

PubMed

We present the unusual case of a woman presenting with an incarcerated umbilical hernia. Intraoperatively, the contents of the hernia were found to be an ovary. We outline the clinical presentation of our patient, investigations and management as well as a discussion on unusual contents of umbilical hernias. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a non-malignant ovary incarcerated in an umbilical hernia. PMID:25198958

Ahmed, U; Ahmed, R; Kamat, S; Elkholy, K

2014-09-01

74

Comparison of the carbohydrate moieties of recombinant soluble Fc ? receptor (sFc ? RII\\/sCD23) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Different O-glycosylation sites are used by yeast and mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human soluble low affinity receptor for the Fc portion of IgE (sFc?RII\\/sCD23) was produced inSaccharomyces cerevisiae or Chinese hamster ovary cells and subjected to carbohydrate analysis. Applied methods included analytical SDS-PAGE, reversed phase HPLC, methylation analysis and sequential degradation with exoglycosidases. The results revealed that sFc?RII derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells is glycosylated exclusively at Ser-147, containing mainly

Inge Kalsner; Franz-Josef Schneider; Rudolf Geyer; Horst Ahorn; Ingrid Maurer-Fogy

1992-01-01

75

Pregnancy complications in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Infertility is a widely disputed problem affecting patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). As a serious dysfunction, it frequently occurs in PCOS patients. It is, therefore, important to devote more attention to pregnancy in PCOS sufferers. According to various data, the risk of miscarriage in PCOS women is three times higher than the risk of miscarriage in healthy women. Unfortunately, the risk of most frequent pregnancy pathologies is also higher for PCOS patients, as gestational diabetes (GD), pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia, and small for gestational age (SGA) children. Impaired glucose tolerance and GD in pregnant PCOS patients occur more frequently than in healthy women. A quadruple increase in the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension linked to arterial wall stiffness has also been observed in PCOS patients. The risk of pre-eclampsia, the most severe of all complications, is also four times higher in those suffering from PCOS. Pre-eclampsia is also more frequent in patients presenting additional risk factors accompanying PCOS, such as obesity or GD. At that point, it should be mentioned that PCOS patients are under 2.5 higher risk of giving birth to SGA children than healthy women. It appears that SGA can be linked to insulin resistance and insulin-dependent growth dysfunction. Therefore, PCOS pregnant women are patients of special obstetrical care. PMID:25356655

Katulski, Krzysztof; Czyzyk, Adam; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Genazzani, Andrea R; Meczekalski, Blazej

2015-02-01

76

Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

PubMed Central

In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

2013-01-01

77

Dermatoglyphics in the virilizing polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative characteristics (form and orientation of the digital patterns, total digital ridges count, delta index, form and regional distribution of palmar patterns, palmar flexion creases, palmar delta index, atd angle, the direction of the A, B, C, and D palmar lines and the number of crests between the a, b, c, and d triradii) of digito-palmar dermatoglyphics in 33 women with virilizing polycystic ovary (VPO) were studied. The selection was made on the basis of the clinical examination and a complex bio-hormonal exploration of female patients with pilar virilism hospitalized in or treated at the outpatient clinic of the "C. I Parhon" Institute of Endocrinology between 1975 and 1984. The control lot was made up of 100 females and 100 males, clinically healthy, originally from various rural and urban areas in Romania. It was found that the VPO women come within the range of variability of the normal, with some dermatoglyphic peculiarities characteristic of the VPO syndrome; i.e., a lower total digital ridges count, and fewer ridges between the triradii at the basis of the fingers. Qualitatively, there is a preponderance of the loop-like digital patterns, especially those with radial orientation and palmar, compared to the normal, the VPO women present more frequently patterns in the interdigital space II. Palmar flexion lines indicate in VPO women a higher incidence of palmar transversal sulcus variants as compared to normal women. The existence of similar dermatoglyphic peculiarities both in VPO and in adrenogenital syndrome supports the hypothesis that the ovarian hormonogenesis disorders in the VPO syndrome may be genetically determined through an enzymatic defect. PMID:3738406

Ciovîrnache, M; Ioani?iu, D; Ionescu, B; Dumitrache, C; Milea, E; Dumitrache, M

1986-01-01

78

Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

2011-09-01

79

Stem cells, progenitor cells, and lineage decisions in the ovary.  

PubMed

Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic. PMID:25541635

Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E; Russell, Darryl L; Robertson, Sarah A; Rodgers, Raymond J

2015-02-01

80

Cystic ovaries in women affected with hereditary angioedema.  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary (PCO) syndrome is biochemically characterized by abnormal gonadotropin secretion and polycystic ovaries associated with increase in size and functional activity of stromal tissue; multifollicular ovaries (MFO) are defined by the presence of multiple cysts with no increase in stromal tissue. A central (hypothalamic-pituitary) abnormality, including high plasma beta-endorphin (BE) concentrations without simultaneous elevation of ACTH, was reported for subjects with PCO syndrome. Since we have found the presence of high plasma BE concentrations in hereditary angioedema (HANE) during attacks as well as during symptom-free periods, we studied, by means of pelvic ultrasound scanning employed to determine the prevalence of PCO and of MFO, 13 women of reproductive age affected with HANE who were not on oral contraceptives. We have found PCO in 5/13 (38.4%) and MFO in 7/13 (53.8%) HANE patients. Nine patients had oligomenorrhoea (five with PCO, three with MFO, one with normal ovaries), five (three with PCO, two with MFO) were hirsute and only one (with MFO) had weight loss. No patient was obese. Mean plasma LH, testosterone, prolactin, cortisol and ACTH concentrations were normal, while FSH was significantly reduced and LH/FSH ratio increased. BE concentrations were significantly high in all the patients studied. Our results clearly demonstrate that women with HANE frequently have cystic ovaries (polycystic or multifollicular) in the presence of high BE concentrations. PMID:1333923

Perricone, R; Pasetto, N; De Carolis, C; Vaquero, E; Noccioli, G; Panerai, A E; Fontana, L

1992-01-01

81

Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

2014-01-01

82

A Pak-regulated cell intercalation event leading to a novel radial cell polarity is involved in positioning of the follicle stem cell niche in the Drosophila ovary.  

PubMed

In the germarium of the Drosophila ovary, germline cysts are encapsulated one at a time by a follicular epithelium derived from two follicle stem cells (FSCs). Ovaries in flies mutant for the serine/threonine kinase Pak exhibit a novel phenotype, in which two side-by-side cysts are encapsulated at a time, generating paired egg chambers. This striking phenotype originates in the pupal ovary, where the developing germarium is shaped by the basal stalk, a stack of cells formed by cell intercalation. The process of basal stalk formation is not well understood, and we provide evidence that the cell intercalation is driven by actomyosin contractility of DE-Cadherin-adhered cells, leading to a column of disk-shaped cells exhibiting a novel radial cell polarity. Cell intercalation fails in Pak mutant ovaries, leading to abnormally wide basal stalks and consequently wide germaria with side-by-side cysts. We present evidence that Pak mutant germaria have extra FSCs, and we propose that contact of a germline cyst with the basal stalk in the pupal ovary contributes to FSC niche formation. The wide basal stalk in Pak mutants enables the formation of extra FSC niches which are mispositioned and yet functional, indicating that the FSC niche can be established in diverse locations. PMID:25516970

Vlachos, Stephanie; Jangam, Sharayu; Conder, Ryan; Chou, Michael; Nystul, Todd; Harden, Nicholas

2015-01-01

83

Testosterone environment of splenocytes modifies the steroidogenesis of polycystic ovary in rats.  

PubMed

The functional relationship between the ovary and immune cells is well known. The modulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in adult rats with polycystic ovary (PCO) by secretions of cultured splenocytes treated with 10 (-6) M testosterone or 10 (-6) M testosterone plus 10 (-4) M flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, was investigated. Polycystic ovary was induced by estradiol valerate (2 mg/rat). Polycystic ovary splenocyte secretions decreased the release of androstenedione from PCO ovaries in contrast to the effect of non-PCO splenocyte secretions. This decrease was associated with a significant decrease in androgen receptor and IL-12 mRNA expression in PCO splenocytes. When splenocytes were treated with testosterone, their conditioned media further decreased androstenedione release from the ovary and had a greater inhibitory effect on PCO ovary compared with non-PCO ovary. This effect was reversed by flutamide. Polycystic ovary splenocytes showed a decrease in IL-1 beta mRNA expression. Their secretions scarcely affected progesterone release from non-PCO ovaries but significantly stimulated progesterone release from PCO ovary by an androgen-independent mechanism. The differential steroidogenic ability of splenocyte secretions from PCO rats is associated with the IN VITRO testosterone environment. Polycystic ovary splenocytes might exert a protective action against PCO effects through their secretions by inducing a low androstenedione response from the ovary. PMID:18256972

Forneris, M; Rosales, E; Ciuffo, G; Oliveros, L

2008-04-01

84

ALTERED STEROIDOGENESIS IN WHOLE-OVARY AND ADRENAL CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultures of minced, whole-ovary (whole-ovary culture) were used to determine if three selected chemicals altered steroidogenic profiles. irst, phenolaulfonthalein (PST), when used in culture medium, was tested for its influence on in vitro steroidogenesis. ext, aminoglutethimide ...

85

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interferon response in the ovary.  

PubMed

Immune responses in the ovary are tightly regulated to provide protection for the developing germ cells, which are very sensitive to inflammatory responses. This characteristic immune response is often used by viral pathogens to evade the immune system, replicate and be transmitted to other specimens through the ovary. Taking into account that in teleost fish, the innate immune system is considered crucial to the outcome of viral infections and the interferon (IFN) system is considered as the first line of defence against viruses, we have studied the IFN response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovary using two viruses with different replicative capacity in this organ, namely viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Both VHSV and IPNV are shed from the ovary, but while VHSV actively replicates at this site, IPNV remains silent. In this context, we have determined the levels of expression of IFNs and the IFN-induced Mx genes in the ovary upon in vivo and in vitro infections with VHSV and IPNV, and compared to the effects provoked by the viral mimic poly I:C in vivo. We have demonstrated that while VHSV strongly up-regulates all the IFN genes studied, IPNV in vivo exposure either has no effect or even provokes strong suppression of IFN gene expression. These differences are not observed in vitro, even though IPNV does not replicate actively in this case either. Finally, to better understand the role that the production of type I IFN plays in the ovary, we have studied the effects of two type I recombinant rainbow trout IFNs (rtIFN1 and rtIFN2) to modulate both the expression of immune genes and to establish an antiviral state in the ovary. Interestingly, the ovary was able to respond to both rtIFN1 and 2, despite the fact that the IFN1 gene was not expressed here. Moreover, rtIFN1 and rtIFN2 not only modulated the expression of genes related to the IFN response, but also modulated inflammatory genes and significantly suppressed VHSV replication. PMID:20356627

Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J; Cuesta, Alberto; Tafalla, Carolina

2010-05-01

86

Granulosa Cell Production of Anti-Mullerian Hormone Is Increased in Polycystic Ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: There has been renewed interest in anti-Mullerian hor- mone (AMH) because of its role in the ovary. Data on its actions are sparse, but it appears to inhibit follicle growth. Interestingly, serum AMH is two to three times higher in women with polycystic ovary (PCO) syndrome than women with normal ovaries. Objective:WeexaminedtheproductionofAMHbycellsfromarange of follicle sizes from normal ovaries and

Laura Pellatt; Laurine Hanna; Mark Brincat; Ray Galea; Henrietta Brain; Saffron Whitehead; Helen Mason

2010-01-01

87

Gonadotropin binding sites in eel ovary : Autoradiographic visualization and new data on specificity  

E-print Network

Gonadotropin binding sites in eel ovary : Autoradiographic visualization and new data. An autoradiographic study of cGTH binding sites in eel ovary indicates that they were mainly located in the follicular layers. Eel ovary membranes exhibited specific 1251 -hCG binding in vitro. In control fish we observed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

The obstetrician-gynecologist’s role in the practical management of polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome come to the gynecologist with a variety of symptoms, including menstrual irregularities, hirsutism, acne, weight gain, obesity, and infertility. An accurate diagnosis requires both confirmation of signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and exclusion of other disorders. Once the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome has been established, the presence of concomitant conditions, such as

Sarah L. Berga

1998-01-01

89

Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

90

Ontogeny of responsiveness to gonadotrophins and prostaglandin E in the neonatal rat ovary  

E-print Network

Ontogeny of responsiveness to gonadotrophins and prostaglandin E in the neonatal rat ovary S. A of ovarian hormonal responsiveness and steroidogenic capability was studied by short- term incubations and organ culture of neonatal rat ovaries. Perinatal ovaries responded in vitro to PGE2 but not to LH

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Mary Kate Bonner1  

E-print Network

Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Mary Kate Bonner1 , Daniel S. Poole1 events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells A, Yates JR III, et al. (2011) Mitotic Spindle Proteomics in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. PLoS ONE 6

Skop, Ahna

92

Original article Identification of vitellogenin receptors in the ovary  

E-print Network

Original article Identification of vitellogenin receptors in the ovary of a teleost fish ; accepted 15 September 1996) Summary ― The characterization of vitellogenin (VTG) receptors / sea bass / Dicentrarchus labrax / vitellogenin / receptor Résumé ― Identification du récepteur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that afflicts about 4-12% of women of reproductive age. First discovered by Stein and Leventhal in 1935, it is currently defined by the National Institute of Health as oligo- or anovulation with features of hyperandrogenism, when all other possible causes of menstrual irregularity and hyperandrogenism have been ruled out. PCOS

Brandy Cannon

2008-01-01

94

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Connection to Insufficient Milk Supply?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in lactation skills and knowledge, insufficient milk production still continues to mystify mothers and lactation consultants alike. Based on 3 cases with similar threads, a connection is proposed between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insufficient milk supply. Described are the etiology and possible symptoms of PCOS such as amenorrhea\\/oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, persistent acne, ovarian cysts, elevated triglycerides,

Lisa Marasco; Chele Marmet; Ellen Shell

2000-01-01

95

Metformin for the Treatment of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 23-year-old woman with known polycystic ovary syndrome visits her family physi- cian. She has taken oral contraceptive pills in the past but did not tolerate them and is not currently receiving any treatment. She has three or four menstrual periods per year and is not interested in becoming pregnant now, but she will be getting married in a year.

John E. Nestler

2010-01-01

96

Combined Laparoscopic Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Disease and Gallstones  

PubMed

Laparoscopic surgery has largely replaced laparotomy in the management of both polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) and gallstones. The number of patients with a combination of these disorders has increased. From 1991 to 1996, 908 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In 29 women of reproductive age (18-41 yrs) with PCOD and gallstones, we performed combined laparoscopic cholecystectomy and various procedures on the ovaries (15 wedge resections, 8 multiple ovariotomies by thermocoagulation incisions, 5 electrosurgical coagulations of the ovaries). All operations were performed by the usual approach for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and in only four women did we place a supplemental cannula. The diagnosis of PCOD was established preoperatively in 22 women, but in 6 it was an incidental finding during laparoscopic inspection of abdominal cavity. We suggest that one-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and procedures on the ovaries may be performed with single-puncture technique. Performing the procedures simultaneously has the advantages of minor surgical trauma, much less adhesion formation, and ability to treat hormonal disorders and infertility. For best results in women with combined PCOD and gallstones, the joint participation of abdominal surgeon and gynecologist is preferred. PMID:9074124

Ghidirim; Gladun; Danch; Mishina

1996-08-01

97

EST sequencing for gene discovery in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are one of the most important cell lines in biological research, and are the most widely used host for industrial production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Despite their extensive applications, little sequence information is available for molecular based research. To facilitate gene discovery and genetic engineering, two cDNA libraries were con- structed from three CHO cell

Katie Fraass Wlaschin; Peter Morin Nissom; Marcela de Leon Gatti; Peh Fern Ong; Sanny Arleen; Kher Shing Tan; Anette Rink; Breana Cham; Kathy Wong; Miranda Yap; Wei-Shou Hu

2005-01-01

98

Early replication signals in nuclei of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA replication sites generally known as replicon domains were resolved as individual replication signals in interphase nuclei of permeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells by immunofluorescent microscopy. Biotin-11-dUTP was utilized as a tool to label newly replicated DNA in permeable cells and to study the distribution of nascent DNA in pulselabel and in pulsechase experiments. Active sites of DNA replication were

G. Banfalvi; H. Tanke; A. K. Raap; J. Slats; M. van der Ploeg

1990-01-01

99

Worker Honeybee Sterility: A Proteomic Analysis of Suppressed Ovary Activation  

E-print Network

happens to die and the subsequent breeding of a replacement queen fails, up to 30% of the worker bees in a bee colony headed by a queen, but the inhibition of ovary activation is lifted upon the absence of queen and larvae. Worker bees are then able to develop mature, viable eggs. The detailed repressive

Wenseleers, Tom

100

[Cancer of the ovary and pregnancy. Apropos of 4 cases].  

PubMed

The value and the limitations of echo scans and extemporaneous examination in four cases are reported. Any adnexial organic tumour should be treated in the knowledge that it could be a cancer of the ovary. This is the only possible approach for avoiding contamination during surgery insufficient exoresis and the necessity of further intervention. PMID:3912913

Dallay, D; Chabrand, S; Gonnet, J M; Soumireu-Mourat, J

1985-12-01

101

Ultrasound assessment of the polycystic ovary: international consensus definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition, the pathophysiology of which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The definition of the syndrome has been much debated. Key features include menstrual cycle disturbance, hyperandrogenism and obesity. There are many extra-ovarian aspects to the pathophysiology of PCOS, yet ovarian dysfunction is central. At a recent joint ASRM\\/ESHRE consensus meeting,

Adam H. Balen; Joop S. E. Laven; Seang-Lin Tan; Didier Dewailly

102

Contrast imaging ultrasound detects abnormalities in the marmoset ovary.  

PubMed

The development of a functional vascular tree within the primate ovary is critical for reproductive health. To determine the efficacy of contrast agents to image the microvascular environment within the primate ovary, contrast ultrasonography was performed in six reproductive-aged female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during the late luteal phase of the cycle, following injection of Sonovue™. Regions of interest (ROIs), representing the corpus luteum (CL) and noncorpus luteum ovarian tissue (NCLOT), were selected during gray-scale B-mode ultrasound imaging. The magnitude of backscatter intensity of CL and NCLOT ROIs were calculated in XnView, post hoc: subsequent gamma-variate modeling was implemented in Matlab to determine perfusion parameters. Histological analysis of these ovaries revealed a total of 11 CL, nine of which were identified during contrast ultrasonography. The median enhancement ratio was significantly increased in the CL (5.54AU; 95% CI -2.21-68.71) compared to the NCLOT (2.82AU; 95% CI 2.73-15.06; P < 0.05). There was no difference in time parameters between the CL and NCLOT. An additional avascular ROI was identified in the ovary of Animal 5, both histologically and by ultrasonography. This cystic ROI displayed a markedly lower enhancement ratio (0.79AU) and higher time parameters than mean CL and NCLOT, including time to peak and time to wash out. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of commercially available contrast agents, to differentiate structures within the nonhuman primate ovary. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has a promising future in reproductive medicine. PMID:22890799

Hastings, J M; Morris, K D; Allan, D; Wilson, H; Millar, R P; Fraser, H M; Moran, C M

2012-12-01

103

The immature human ovary shows loss of abnormal follicles and increasing follicle developmental competence through childhood and adolescence  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Do the ovarian follicles of children and adolescents differ in their morphology and in vitro growth potential from those of adults? SUMMARY ANSWER Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of morphologically abnormal non-growing follicles, and follicles showed reduced capacity for in vitro growth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The pre-pubertal ovary is known to contain follicles at the early growing stages. How this changes over childhood and through puberty is unknown, and there are no previous data on the in vitro growth potential of follicles from pre-pubertal and pubertal girls. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Ovarian biopsies from five pre-pubertal and seven pubertal girls and 19 adult women were analysed histologically, cultured in vitro for 6 days, with growing follicles then isolated and cultured for a further 6 days. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Ovarian biopsies were obtained from girls undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation, and compared with biopsies from adult women. Follicle stage and morphology were classified. After 6 days in culture, follicle growth initiation was assessed. The growth of isolated secondary follicles was assessed over a further 6 days, including analysis of oocyte growth. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of abnormal non-growing follicles (19.4 versus 4.85% in pubertal ovaries; 4004 follicles analysed; P = 0.02) characterized by indistinct germinal vesicle membrane and absent nucleolus. Follicles with this abnormal morphology were not seen in the adult ovary. During 6 days culture, follicle growth initiation was observed at all ages; in pre-pubertal samples there was very little development to secondary stages, while pubertal samples showed similar growth activation to that seen in adult tissue (pubertal group: P = 0.02 versus pre-pubertal, ns versus adult). Isolated secondary follicles were cultured for a further 6 days. Those from pre-pubertal ovary showed limited growth (P < 0.05 versus both pubertal and adult follicles) and no change in oocyte diameter over that period. Follicles from pubertal ovaries showed increased growth; this was still reduced compared with follicles from adult women (P < 0.05) but oocyte growth was proportionate to follicle size. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION These data derive from only a small number of ovarian biopsies, although large numbers of follicles were analysed. It is unclear whether the differences between groups are related to puberty, or just age. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These findings show that follicles from girls of all ages can be induced to grow in vitro, which has important implications for some patients who are at high risk of malignant contamination of their ovarian tissue. The reduced growth of isolated follicles indicates that there are true intrafollicular differences in addition to potential differences in their local environment, and that there are maturational processes occurring in the ovary through childhood and adolescence, which involve the loss of abnormal follicles, and increasing follicle developmental competence. Study funding/competing interest(s) Funded by MRC grants G0901839 and G1100357. No competing interests. PMID:24135076

Anderson, R.A.; McLaughlin, M.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Albertini, D.F.; Telfer, E.E.

2014-01-01

104

The overexpression of the insl3 in female mice causes descent of the ovaries.  

PubMed

Testicular descent in mice is dependent upon proper outgrowth of the gubernaculum primordia under the influence of the insulin-like 3 gene product (Insl3). Deletion of this gene prevents gubernaculum growth and causes bilateral cryptorchidism. In vitro experiments have led to the suggestion that Insl3 and androgens together induce outgrowth of the gubernacular primordia. The experiments reported here were designed specifically to determine whether in vivo the Insl3-mediated gubernaculum development is independent of androgens. To that effect transgenic male and female mice were generated that overexpressed Insl3 in the pancreas during fetal and postnatal life. Expression of the transgenic allele in the Insl3-deficient mice rescued the cryptorchidism in male mutant, indicating that the islet beta-cells efficiently processed the Insl3 gene product to the functional hormone. All transgenic females displayed bilateral inguinal hernia. The processus vaginalis developed containing intestinal loops. The Müllerian derivatives gave rise to oviduct, uterus, and upper vagina, and Wolffian duct derivatives were missing, indicating the absence of the androgen- and anti-Müllerian hormone-mediated activities in transgenic females. The ovaries descended into a position over the bladder and attached to the abdominal wall via the well developed cranial suspensory ligament and the gubernaculum. Administration of dihydrotestosterone during prenatal development suppressed formation of the cranial suspensory ligament and thereby allowed the descent of the ovaries into the processus vaginalis. These results suggest that Insl3-mediated activity induces gubernaculum development and precludes a role of androgen in this process. Furthermore, the transgenic females exhibit reduced fertility, which is due to fetal mortality during midgestation. PMID:11818498

Adham, Ibrahim M; Steding, Gerd; Thamm, Tarvo; Büllesbach, Erika E; Schwabe, Christian; Paprotta, Ilona; Engel, Wolfgang

2002-02-01

105

Thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome: An emerging relationship  

PubMed Central

As the prevalence of these endocrine dysfunctions increases, the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and autoimmune thyroid disease is increasingly being recognised. While the causality of this association is still uncertain, the two conditions share a bidirectional relationship. The exact nature of this link has not been elucidated yet. Both syndromes share certain common characteristics, risk factors, and pathophysiological abnormalities. Simultaneously, certain etiopathogenetic factors that operate to create these dysfunctions are dissimilar. Polycystic appearing ovaries are a clinical feature of hypothyroidism, though hypothyroidism should be excluded before diagnosing PCOS. Adiposity, increased insulin resistance, high leptin, evidence of deranged autoimmunity, all of which are present in both disease states, seem to play a complex role in connecting these two disorders. This brief communication explores the nature of the relationship between PCOS and hypothyroidism. It reviews current data and analyses them to present a unified pathophysiological basis, incorporating these complex relationships, for the same. PMID:25593822

Singla, Rajiv; Gupta, Yashdeep; Khemani, Manju; Aggarwal, Sameer

2015-01-01

106

Neuroendocrine cells are present in the domestic fowl ovary  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine cells are present in virtually all organs of the vertebrate body; however, it is yet uncertain whether they exist in the ovaries. Previous reports of ovarian neurons and neuron-like cells in mammals and birds might have resulted from misidentification. The aim of the present work was to determine the identity of neuron-like cells in immature ovaries of the domestic fowl. Cells immunoreactive to neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and chromogranin-A, with small, dense-core secretory granules, were consistently observed throughout the sub-cortical ovarian medulla and cortical interfollicular stroma. These cells also displayed immunoreactivity for tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine ?-hydroxylases, as well as to aromatic L-DOPA decarboxylase, implying their ability to synthesize both catecholamines and indolamines. Our results support the argument that the ovarian cells previously reported as neuron-like in birds, are neuroendocrine cells. PMID:23083425

Hofmann, Pablo G; Báez Saldaña, Armida; Fortoul Van Der Goes, Teresa; González del Pliego, Margarita; Gutiérrez Ospina, Gabriel

2013-01-01

107

Diversity of cell death pathways: insight from the fly ovary  

PubMed Central

Multiple types of cell death exist including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. The Drosophila ovary provides a valuable model to study the diversity of cell death modalities, and we review recent progress to elucidate these pathways. At least five distinct types of cell death occur in the ovary, and we focus on two that have been studied extensively. Cell death of mid-stage egg chambers uses a novel caspase-dependent pathway that involves autophagy, and triggers phagocytosis by surrounding somatic epithelial cells. For every egg, fifteen germline nurse cells undergo developmental programmed cell death, which occurs independently of most known cell death genes. These forms of cell death are strikingly similar to cell death observed in the germline of other organisms. PMID:23968895

Jenkins, Victoria Kathryn; Timmons, Allison K

2013-01-01

108

Thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome: An emerging relationship.  

PubMed

As the prevalence of these endocrine dysfunctions increases, the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and autoimmune thyroid disease is increasingly being recognised. While the causality of this association is still uncertain, the two conditions share a bidirectional relationship. The exact nature of this link has not been elucidated yet. Both syndromes share certain common characteristics, risk factors, and pathophysiological abnormalities. Simultaneously, certain etiopathogenetic factors that operate to create these dysfunctions are dissimilar. Polycystic appearing ovaries are a clinical feature of hypothyroidism, though hypothyroidism should be excluded before diagnosing PCOS. Adiposity, increased insulin resistance, high leptin, evidence of deranged autoimmunity, all of which are present in both disease states, seem to play a complex role in connecting these two disorders. This brief communication explores the nature of the relationship between PCOS and hypothyroidism. It reviews current data and analyses them to present a unified pathophysiological basis, incorporating these complex relationships, for the same. PMID:25593822

Singla, Rajiv; Gupta, Yashdeep; Khemani, Manju; Aggarwal, Sameer

2015-01-01

109

Managing Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: What Our Patients Are Telling Us  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience symptoms such as irregular menses, hirsutism, and acne, and are at heightened risk for developing obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, infertility, and some cancers. Data also indicate an inverse correlation between PCOS and health-related quality-of-life indicators and self-image. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of women with

Joan Crete; Pamela Adamshick

2011-01-01

110

Mechanisms and Treatment of Obesity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility because of anovulation, affects 4–7% of\\u000a women. Intriguingly, obesity has an important pathophysiological impact on PCOS, and obese PCOS women are characterized by\\u000a worsened endocrine and metabolic profiles and poorer fertility. Although it is believed that obesity simply emphasizes most\\u000a common alterations such as hyperandrogenism and the

Renato Pasquali; Alessandra Gambineri

111

Recommended Therapies for Metabolic Defects in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not just a reproductive condition but has metabolic sequelae. The heterogeneity of the\\u000a condition is reflected in different emphases in patients on expression of these abnormalities. These conditions include effects\\u000a on lipids, glucose and insulin metabolism, cardiovascular system and weight control. The metabolic syndrome appears to be\\u000a more common in PCOS. Treatment of metabolic sequelae

Robert J. Norman; Anneloes E. Ruifrok; Lisa J. Moran; Rebecca L. Robker

112

Metformin for the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Because of the high prevalence of insulin resistance, there is a growing interest in the application of insulin sensitizing\\u000a agents in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin is the most widely prescribed insulin sensitizing agent\\u000a in patients with PCOS. In this chapter, we address the importance of lifestyle modification as the initial intervention in\\u000a patients with PCOS. Furthermore, we

Satin S. Patel; Victor E. Beshay; Bruce R. Carr

113

Menstrual Cyclicity After Metformin Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of insulin-lowering treatment on menstrual cyclicity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Forty oligoamenorrheic women with PCOS were recruited in a prospective clinical study to receive metformin for a minimum period of 6 months. Twenty-two women completed the study. Serum LH, FSH, free testosterone, and glucose and insulin response to oral glucose load were measured both

Elsy Velázquez M; Arnaldo Acosta; Soaira G Mendoza

1997-01-01

114

Glucose intolerance in Japanese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hyperinsulinemia, which is related to obesity, played a pathogenic role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the\\u000a incidence of obesity in Japanese women with PCOS is different from that reported in patients with PCOS in Europe and USA.\\u000a We should determine if insulin resistance occurs in Japanese PCOS. The purpose of this study is to assess the presence of\\u000a insulin

Hiroko Kurioka; Kentaro Takahashi; Kohji Miyazaki

2007-01-01

115

Use of necrotic markers in the Drosophila ovary.  

PubMed

Necrosis is a form of cell death characterized by cytoplasmic and organelle swelling, compromised -membrane integrity, intracellular acidification, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic Ca(2+). In the Drosophila ovary, two distinct forms of cell death occur naturally. In response to starvation, caspase-dependent cell death occurs during mid-oogenesis. Additionally, the nurse cells, which support the developing oocyte, undergo developmental programmed cell death during late oogenesis after they dump their contents into the oocyte. Evidence suggests that necrosis may be playing an important role during developmental programmed cell death of the nurse cells during late oogenesis. Here, we describe several methods to detect events associated with necrosis in the Drosophila ovary. Propidium iodide is used to detect cells with compromised membrane integrity, and H2DCFDA is used as an indicator of ROS levels in a cell. In addition, LysoTracker detects intracellular acidification and X-rhod-1 detects cytosolic Ca(2+). We also describe transgenic methods to detect Ca(2+) levels and expression patterns. These methods performed in the Drosophila ovary, as well as other tissues, may lead to a further understanding of the mechanisms of necrosis as a form of programmed cell death. PMID:23733580

Timmons, Allison K; Meehan, Tracy L; Gartmond, Tori D; McCall, Kimberly

2013-01-01

116

Reversal of typical multidrug resistance by cyclosporin and its non-immunosuppressive analogue SDZ PSC 833 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the mdr 1 phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin derivative SDZ PSC 833 (PSC) is a potent agent used to overcome typical multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of themdr1 gene encoding for a P-170 glycoprotein. In the present study, the efficacy of PSC as compared with cyclosporin was determined in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines exhibiting different levels of resistance to colchicine (0, 0.1,

Peter A. W. Boekhorst; Jan van Kapel; Martijn Schoester; Pieter Sonneveld

1992-01-01

117

HOX cofactors expression and regulation in the human ovary  

PubMed Central

Background HOX cofactors enhance HOX binding affinities and specificities and increase HOX's unique functional activities. The expression and the regulation of HOX cofactors in human ovaries are unknown. Methods In this study, the expression of HOX cofactors, PBX1, PBX2, and MEIS1/2, were examined by using RT-PCR, immunofluorescence in cultured immortalized human granulosa (SVOG) cells. The distribution of these HOX cofactors in human ovaries was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on PBX2 in SVOG cells were investigated by western blot analysis. Binding activities of HOXA7 and PBX2 to the specific sequences in granulosa cells were determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results and conclusion In SVOG cells, PBX1, PBX2 and MEIS1/2 were expressed during cell culture. In normal human ovaries, PBX1 and MEIS1/2 were expressed in granulosa cells at essentially all stages of follicular development. These cofactors were expressed in the nuclei of the granulosa cells from the primordial to the secondary follicles, whereas beyond multilayered follicles was observed in the cytoplasm. The co-expression of PBX1 and MEIS1/2 in granulosa cells in normal human ovaries suggested that MEIS1/2 might control PBX1 sublocalization, as seen in other systems. PBX2 was not expressed or weakly expressed in the primordial follicles. From the primary follicles to the preovulatory follicles, PBX2 expression was inconsistent and the expression was found in the granulosa cell nuclei. The PBX2 expression pattern is similar to HOXA7 expression in ovarian follicular development. Furthermore, FSH down-regulated, GDF-9 did not change PBX2 expression, but co-treatment of the granulosa cells with FSH and GDF-9 up-regulated PBX2 expression. These results implicated a role for PBX2 expression in the steroidogenic activities of granulosa cells in humans. Moreover, PBX2 and HOXA7 bound together to the Pbx sequence, but not to the EMX2 promoter sequence, in SVOG cells. Our findings indicate that HOX cofactors expression in normal human ovary is temporally and spatially specific and regulated by FSH and GDF-9 in granulosa cells. HOX proteins may use different HOX cofactors, depending on DNA sequences that are specific to the granulosa cells. PMID:18973687

Ota, Takayo; Asahina, Haruka; Park, Se-Hyung; Huang, Qing; Minegishi, Takashi; Auersperg, Nelly; Leung, Peter CK

2008-01-01

118

Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary  

PubMed Central

The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size. PMID:24788203

Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

2014-01-01

119

Localization of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) mRNA and protein in rat ovaries and cDNA cloning of rat GDF-9 and its novel homolog GDF-9B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although targeted gene disruption of GDF-9, an oocyte derived growth factor, leads to an arrest of folliculogenesis and causes infertility in female mice, little is known on the expression of GDF-9 protein in the ovary. We show that GDF-9 protein is expressed in rat oocytes during folliculogenesis from the early primary follicle stage onwards but the most intensive immunostaining was

Risto Jaatinen; Mika P Laitinen; Kaisa Vuojolainen; Johanna Aaltonen; Henna Louhio; Kristiina Heikinheimo; Eero Lehtonen; Olli Ritvos

1999-01-01

120

Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: Is there a role of histology-specific treatment?  

PubMed Central

Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0); however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1?cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1?cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC) was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease. PMID:22655678

2012-01-01

121

Depression and body image among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and obesity, can be highly distressing. We compared 40 women with PCOS to women with infertility but not PCOS, and to women with neither PCOS nor infertility, on measures of depression and body image. Women with PCOS reported higher depression scores and greater body dissatisfaction (p < .001) than comparison group women. Body image was strongly associated with depression overall, even after controlling body mass. Among women with PCOS, body dissatisfaction measures and education explained 66 percent of the variance in depression, suggesting explanations of the PCOS-depression link should consider the role of potentially mediating psychosocial variables. PMID:16769740

Himelein, Melissa J; Thatcher, Samuel S

2006-07-01

122

Collision tumours of ovary: a very rare case series.  

PubMed

Collision tumours are composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms in the same organ without intermixture of cell types. Here the author present a case series of 4 cases of collision tumours of ovary with brief review of literature. Two cases have a combination of mucinous cystadenoma and teratoma whereas third case is a combination of serous papillary cystadenoma with teratoma and the fourth case has a combination of serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma and teratoma. The cases were diagnosed post-operatively. It is important to correctly diagnose the component of tumour for further management and favourable prognosis. PMID:25584236

Singh, Ajay Kr; Singh, Monika

2014-11-01

123

Letrozole versus Clomiphene for Infertility in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Clomiphene is the current first-line infertility treatment in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, but aromatase inhibitors, including letrozole, might result in better pregnancy outcomes. METHODS In this double-blind, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 750 women, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive letrozole or clomiphene for up to five treatment cycles, with visits to determine ovulation and pregnancy, followed by tracking of pregnancies. The polycystic ovary syndrome was defined according to modified Rotterdam criteria (anovulation with either hyperandrogenism or polycystic ovaries). Participants were 18 to 40 years of age, had at least one patent fallopian tube and a normal uterine cavity, and had a male partner with a sperm concentration of at least 14 million per milliliter; the women and their partners agreed to have regular intercourse with the intent of conception during the study. The primary outcome was live birth during the treatment period. RESULTS Women who received letrozole had more cumulative live births than those who received clomiphene (103 of 374 [27.5%] vs. 72 of 376 [19.1%], P = 0.007; rate ratio for live birth, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.87) without significant differences in overall congenital anomalies, though there were four major congenital anomalies in the letrozole group versus one in the clomiphene group (P = 0.65). The cumulative ovulation rate was higher with letrozole than with clomiphene (834 of 1352 treatment cycles [61.7%] vs. 688 of 1425 treatment cycles [48.3%], P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in pregnancy loss (49 of 154 pregnancies in the letrozole group [31.8%] and 30 of 103 pregnancies in the clomiphene group [29.1%]) or twin pregnancy (3.4% and 7.4%, respectively). Clomiphene was associated with a higher incidence of hot flushes, and letrozole was associated with higher incidences of fatigue and dizziness. Rates of other adverse events were similar in the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS As compared with clomiphene, letrozole was associated with higher live-birth and ovulation rates among infertile women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00719186.) PMID:25006718

Legro, Richard S.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Diamond, Michael P.; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D.; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Huang, Hao; Yan, Qingshang; Alvero, Ruben; Haisenleder, Daniel J.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Bates, G. Wright; Usadi, Rebecca; Lucidi, Scott; Baker, Valerie; Trussell, J.C.; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Snyder, Peter; Ohl, Dana; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

2014-01-01

124

Collision Tumours of Ovary: A Very Rare Case Series  

PubMed Central

Collision tumours are composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms in the same organ without intermixture of cell types. Here the author present a case series of 4 cases of collision tumours of ovary with brief review of literature. Two cases have a combination of mucinous cystadenoma and teratoma whereas third case is a combination of serous papillary cystadenoma with teratoma and the fourth case has a combination of serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma and teratoma. The cases were diagnosed post-operatively. It is important to correctly diagnose the component of tumour for further management and favourable prognosis. PMID:25584236

Singh, Monika

2014-01-01

125

More harm than good? The anatomy of misguided shielding of the ovaries  

PubMed Central

Objective Popular gonad shield designs aim to provide coverage of the true pelvis, which is presumed to be the probable location of the ovaries. Shields are frequently placed inaccurately, especially in children, obscuring important orthopaedic landmarks on pelvic radiographs. We aimed to identify the position of the ovaries and asses how this may vary with age and the degree of bladder filling. We aimed to identify the position of the ovaries and asses how this may vary with age and the degree of bladder filling. Methods Using MRI examinations of the pelvis in women and children, we located 594 ovaries in 306 female patients aged from birth to 59 years. Results This study provides new evidence that bladder filling affects ovary position. A lower than expected number of patients had both ovaries within the pelvis if the bladder contained more than a moderate volume of urine. Bladder emptying should be achieved wherever practical if a shield is used. In children under the age of 7 years, more than half (19/37) had at least one ovary outside the true pelvis. There was a significant association between age and ovary position, with the percentage of patients with one or both ovaries outside the true pelvis decreasing with age (?2, p<0.0001). Conclusion The embryological descent of the ovaries into the pelvis would appear to continue after birth, well into childhood. Current popular shield designs are therefore inappropriate for use in young children. Given the high risk of obscuring critical landmarks, coupled with the new evidence that even accurate placement will not necessarily protect the ovaries, the use of pelvic shields in girls should be reconsidered. PMID:22096220

Fawcett, S L; Gomez, A C; Barter, S J; Ditchfield, M; Set, P

2012-01-01

126

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of goat ovaries, follicles and oocytes in view of in vitro production of embryos  

PubMed Central

Goat ovaries were collected from the slaughterhouse and categorized as right, left, corpus luteum (CL)-present and -absent group and evaluated on the basis of weight (g), length (cm), width (cm), number of follicles, follicles aspirated and number and state of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs). Comparatively higher weight [(0.66±0.02) vs (0.64±0.02) g], length [(1.17±0.02) vs (1.11±0.02) cm] and width [(0.77±0.02) vs (0.74±0.02) cm] were found in right ovaries than those of left. On the other hand significantly (P<0.05) higher weight [(0.71±0.03) vs (0.64±0.01) g] and width [(0.76±0.03) vs (0.75±0.01) cm] were found in CL-present group than those of CL-absent group of ovaries. The left ovaries contained comparatively higher number of normal COCs [(1.06±0.09) per ovary] than right ovaries [(1.03±0.10) per ovary] and the similar trend was found in total number of follicles [(4.51±0.25) vs (4.30±0.23) per ovary] and follicles aspirated [(2.55±0.14) vs (2.52±0.12) per ovary]. But the total COCs per ovary was almost similar in both ovaries [right and left: (1.85±0.12) and (1.85±0.11) per ovary, respectively]. Higher number of total COCs [(1.87±0.09) vs (1.76±0.16) per ovary], total number of follicles [(4.45±0.19) vs (4.16±0.37) per ovary], follicles aspirated [(2.55±0.10) vs (2.48±0.21) per ovary] and normal COCs [(1.12±0.07) vs (0.76±0.14) per ovary] were found in CL-absent group than those of CL-present group of ovaries. PMID:17610325

Islam, M.R.; Khandoker, M.A.M.Y.; Afroz, S.; Rahman, M.G.M.; Khan, R.I.

2007-01-01

127

Glandular hairs of the ovary: a helpful character for Asteroideae (Asteraceae) taxonomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface microcharacters of the ovary of the Asteraceae were studied, especially biseriate glandular hairs. Of 34 species belonging to the Asteroideae, only Dittrichia viscosa, Pulicaria dysenterica, Bellis perennis, Tanacetum parthenium, Achillea mar- itima, Matricaria chamomilla, and Eupatorium cannabinum possess glandular hairs on the ovary. Additional characters considered are hair morphology and distribution, cell number, and presence of subcuticular chambers and

Daniela Ciccarelli; Fabio Garbari; Anna M. Pagni

128

Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Benghazi Libya; A Retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition affecting women of reproductive age and characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. There are no published data on this syndrome in Libyan patients. Aims and objectives: To assess the frequency of clinical and biochemical features of PCOS in our patient population, and to compare this with data collected

Najem FI; Swalem AM

129

Structural homology and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification in Lithophragma (Saxifragaceae).  

PubMed

Lithophragma, comprising only ten species, encompasses a remarkable diversity of ovary positions, reported to range from inferior to superior. The structural homology of the gynoecium and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification are investigated for Lithophragma. Scanning electron and light microscopy indicate that all species of Lithophragma have epigynous flowers. Lithophragma campanulatum, L. glabrum, and L. heterophyllum have ovaries that externally appear nearly superior, but are actually shallowly inferior or "pseudosuperior." The inferior ovaries of Lithophragma species can be conceptually divided into superior and inferior regions that meet at the point of perianth and androecial insertion. Static and ontogenetic allometry reveal that across the species of Lithophragma the lengths of these two ovary regions are coordinated. Ovary regions in mature flowers display an approximately linear relationship that can be expressed through the allometric equation SL = -0.5314 IL + 2.0348 (where SL and IL are the lengths of the superior and inferior regions of the ovary, respectively; r = 0.7683, df = 35, P = 2.45 × 10). Mapping ontogenetic allometries onto a recent phylogeny for Lithophragma shows that ovary position evolution is bidirectional and has shifted toward greater superiority in some species and greater inferiority in others. PMID:11222242

Kuzoff, R K; Hufford, L; Soltis, D E

2001-02-01

130

Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had

C. J. Fowler; T. J. Christmas; C. R. Chapple; H. F. Parkhouse; R. S. Kirby; H. S. Jacobs

1988-01-01

131

Mortality of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome at Long-term Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic disturbances associated with insulin resistance are present in most women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This has led to suggestions that women with polycystic ovary syndrome may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. We undertook a long-term follow-up study to test whether cardiovascular mortality is increased in these women. A total of 786 women diagnosed with

T. Pierpoint; P. M. McKeigue; A. J. Isaacs; S. H. Wild; H. S. Jacobs

1998-01-01

132

REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Endocrine differentiation of fetal ovaries and testes of the spotted  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIONRESEARCH Endocrine differentiation of fetal ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena; Email: ajconley@ucdavis.edu Abstract Female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) have an erectile peniform the first data relating to the capacity of the ovaries and testes of the spotted hyena to synthesize

Moore, Ignacio T.

133

Ultrastructural investigation of the ovary structure of Ophyiulus pilosus (Myriapoda, Diplopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Histological and ultrastructural investigations of diplopod ovary structure have revealed that oogonia and early meiotic oocytes develop only in the laterodorsal parts of the ovarian wall, where they form groups called germ nests. Euplasmic growth forces diplotene oocytes out of the ovarian wall and into the lumen of the ovary, which leads to the formation of ovarian sacs. Ovarian

Janusz Kubrakiewicz

1991-01-01

134

Qualitative changes in medium and large antral follicles in the human ovary during the menstrual cycle  

E-print Network

on the freshly fixed ovaries of women with a well known reproductive history, we discuss the process folliculogenesis, we analyzed 370 (medium an large) follicles from the ovaries of 33 women aged 18 to 50 years folliculogenesis appears to be necessary today in order to deal with some clinical situations. In the treatment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

The management of an ectopic ovary in the inguinal canal: literature review and discussion.  

PubMed

We report the case of a female adolescent who had an ectopic ovary in the inguinal canal without an associated hernia, a unicornuate uterus, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. The incidental discovery of the ectopic ovary and other Mullerian anomalies, as well as the surgical correction that followed, highlights important fertility considerations in children and available treatment algorithms for these rare cases. PMID:25096300

Webb, James B; Fallon, Sara C; Lopez, Monica E; Boswell, Hillary B; Dietrich, Jennifer E; Brandt, Mary L

2014-10-01

136

Somatic Sex Reprogramming of Adult Ovaries to Testes by FOXL2 Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In mammals, the transcription factor SRY, encoded by the Y chromosome, is normally responsible for triggering the indifferent gonads to develop as testes rather than ovaries. However, testis differentiation can occur in its absence. Here we demonstrate in the mouse that a single factor, the forkhead tran- scriptional regulator FOXL2, is required to prevent transdifferentiation of an adult ovary

N. Henriette Uhlenhaut; Susanne Jakob; Katrin Anlag; Tobias Eisenberger; Ryohei Sekido; Jana Kress; Anna-Corina Treier; Claudia Klugmann; Christian Klasen; Nadine I. Holter; Dieter Riethmacher; Günther Schütz; Austin J. Cooney; Robin Lovell-Badge; Mathias Treier

2009-01-01

137

Insulin Resistance Is Attenuated in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with the Pro12  

E-print Network

Insulin Resistance Is Attenuated in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with the Pro12 Ala Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common in women of reproductive age and is associated with a high risk) to clinical and hormonal features of PCOS. Two hundred and eighteen women with PCOS had a 75-g oral glucose

Cox, Nancy J.

138

What every physician should know about polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine cause of hirsutism, acne, and pattern alopecia. It is a heterogeneous syndrome of hyperandrogenic anovulation that is typically due to intrinsic ovarian dysfunction, which is often aggravated by insulin-resistant hyperinsulinemia with its risks of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and their complications. Because there are many pitfalls to androgen assays, evaluation for hyperandrogenemia is suggested in women with moderate or severe hirsutism or hirsutism equivalents, menstrual irregularity, acanthosis nigricans, or intractable obesity. An endocrinologic work-up is necessary to rule out other hyperandrogenic disorders that require specific therapy (e.g., virilizing tumors, nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hyperprolactinemia, and Cushing's syndrome). Ultrasonography helps in the differential diagnosis and may demonstrate the polycystic ovaries that have recently been vetted as an alternative to oligo-anovulation as a diagnostic criterion. Management of PCOS is determined by symptomatology. For those women not desiring pregnancy, the most common therapies are oral contraceptive pills, antiandrogens (contraindicated in the absence of adequate contraception), and insulin-lowering treatments (which have little effect on hirsutism). PMID:18844713

Rosenfield, Robert L

2008-01-01

139

Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

2013-06-01

140

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%-20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%-70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

2013-01-01

141

MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome. PMID:25158044

Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise; Salö, Sofia; Englund, Anne Lis Mikkelsen; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

2014-01-01

142

Autophagy is a cell survival program for female germ cells in the murine ovary.  

PubMed

It is estimated that infertility affects 15-20% of couples and can arise from female or male reproductive defects. Mouse models have ascribed roles to over 100 genes in the maintenance of female fertility. Although previous models have determined roles for apoptosis in male and female fertility, we find that compromised autophagy within the perinatal ovary, through the loss of Becn1 or Atg7, results in the premature loss of female germ cells. Becn1(+/-) ovaries have a 56% reduction of germ cells compared with control ovaries at post-natal day 1, whereas Atg7(-/-) ovaries lack discernable germ cells at this stage. Thus autophagy appears to be a cell survival mechanism to maintain the endowment of female germ cells prior to establishing primordial follicle pools in the ovary. PMID:21464117

Gawriluk, Thomas R; Hale, Amber N; Flaws, Jodi A; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R; Rucker, Edmund B

2011-06-01

143

The synthesis and effects of prostaglandins on the ovary of the crab Oziotelphusa senex senex.  

PubMed

The possible involvement of prostaglandins in the regulation of ovarian development in the crab Oziotelphusa senex senex was investigated. Uptake of labelled arachidonic acid into the ovary of the crab was significantly greater than the other tissues. Prostaglandin H synthase activity was significantly increased in the ovary during the late vitellogenic stage when compared to immature ovary. The biosynthesis of different prostaglandins in the ovary was also measured during the crab reproductive cycle. Injection of prostaglandin F(2alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) significantly increased ovarian index and oocyte diameter in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, injection of prostaglandin D(2) did not affect ovarian growth. These results demonstrate the presence of prostaglandin biosynthetic system in ovary of the fresh water crabs. PMID:14644642

Reddy, P Sreenivasula; Reddy, P Ramachandra; Nagaraju, G Purna Chandra

2004-01-01

144

Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, Hippo Represses Notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic Ovaries, Triggering the Mitosis-Endocycle Switch in the Follicular Cells  

PubMed Central

During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only)-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries. PMID:25426635

Irles, Paula; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

2014-01-01

145

Cytotoxicity of Diimine Palladium (II) Complexes of Alkyldithiocarbamate Derivatives on Human Lung, Ovary and Liver Cells.  

PubMed

Three new Complexes of formula [pd(bpy)(R-NH-CSS)] Cl (where bpy is 2/2'- bipyridine, and R-NH-CSS is butylamine, hexylamine- and octyamine-dithiocabamate anion) have been synthesized by University of Sistan and Blachostan. These complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic methods such as ultraviolet-visible, infrared and (1)H-NMR as well as conductivity measurements and chemical analysis. In these complexes, each of the dithiocarbamate ligands coordinates to Pd (II) center as bidentate with two sulfur atoms. We have found a 1:1 electrolyte in water conductivity test for the above mentioned compounds. To measure the biologic activity and potential anticancer efficacy of these compounds, they have been compared with cisplatin and its palladium analogue of [Pd (NH3)2 Cl2] on three different cell lines of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2, human ovarian carcinoma OV2008, and human lung adenocarcinoma A549. Clonogenic assay has shown LD50s in the range of 0.131±0.025 to 0.934 ± 0.194 for these compounds on above cell lines. In comparison, cisplatin has shown LD50s of 0.838 ± 0.074, 2.196 ± 0.220, and 2.799 ± 0.733 on OV2008, HepG2 and A549 cell lines, respectively. As a conclusion, above three new complexes have shown higher cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin on three different human cell lines. Based on biological tests, these compounds may potentially be considered as good anticancer candidates for further pharmacological studies. PMID:24250494

Aryanpour, Narges; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan; Nakhjavan, Maryam; H Shirazi, Farshad

2012-01-01

146

Polycystic ovary syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is now a well-recognized condition affecting 6%-25% of reproductive-aged women, depending on the definition. Over the past 3 decades, research has launched it from relative medical obscurity to a condition increasingly recognized as common in internal medicine practices. It affects multiple systems, and requires a comprehensive perspective on health care for effective treatment. Metabolic derangements and associated complications include insulin resistance and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome, and sleep apnea. Reproductive complications include oligo-/amenorrhea, sub-fertility, endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer. Associated psychosocial concerns include depression and disordered eating. Additionally, cosmetic issues include hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, and acne. This review organizes this multi-system approach around the mnemonic "MY PCOS" and discusses evaluation and treatment options for the reproductive, cosmetic, and metabolic complications of this condition. PMID:24859638

Setji, Tracy L; Brown, Ann J

2014-10-01

147

[Polycystic ovary syndrome: what are the obstetrical risks?].  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and the leading cause of female infertility. This condition is frequently associated with significant metabolic disorders, including obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, it seems essential to focus on the pregnancy of these patients and possible obstetric complications. Many studies suggest an increase in the risk of obstetric pathology: early miscarriage, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed during early pregnancy, prematurity, low birthweight or macrosomia, neonatal complications and cesarean sections. However, it is difficult to conclude clearly about it, because of the heterogeneity of definition of PCOS in different studies. In addition, many confounding factors inherent in PCOS including obesity are not always taken into account and generate a problem of interpretation. However it seems possible to conclude that PCOS does not increase the risk of placental abruption, HELLP syndrome, liver disease, postpartum hemorrhage, late miscarriage and stillbirth. PMID:24485279

Bruyneel, A; Catteau-Jonard, S; Decanter, C; Clouqueur, E; Tomaszewski, C; Subtil, D; Dewailly, D; Robin, G

2014-02-01

148

Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females with a high prevalence. The etiology of this heterogeneous condition remains obscure and its phenotype expression varies. Two, widely cited, previous ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshops focused on diagnosis (published in 2004) and infertility management (published in 2008). The present third PCOS consensus paper summarizes current knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps regarding various women's health aspects of PCOS. Relevant topics addressed-all dealt with in a systematic fashion-include adolescence, hirsutism and acne, contraception, menstrual cycle abnormalities, quality of life, ethnicity, pregnancy complications, long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health and finally cancer risk. Additional, comprehensive background information is provided separately in an extended online publication. PMID:22147920

2012-01-01

149

Dyspnoea and the ovaries: a rare presentation of Krukenberg tumour  

PubMed Central

Krukenberg tumour is a metastatic signet-ring adenocarcinoma of the ovary, usually with a gastrointestinal primary detected metachronously or synchronously. We present here a case of a 48?year-old woman who presented with a prolonged history of dyspnoea on exertion. Workup had revealed a pelvic mass. Thoracocentesis of her pleural effusion, with cytology, and pathology reports from her total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed a carcinoma with signet-ring cells. Immunostains were positive for CDX2, CK7 and CK20, which was highly suggestive of a gastric primary. Colonoscopy was negative, and an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a few small crater ulcers, the biopsy of which was negative for cancer. A right-sided pleurodesis was performed for the unremitting malignant effusion, and a PleurX catheter was placed in her left pleural space. She was discharged home with a very poor prognosis. PMID:23378553

Rawasia, Wasiq Faraz; Chaddha, Udit; El-Kersh, Karim; Perez, Rafael L

2013-01-01

150

Prostatic tissue in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary.  

PubMed

We report two examples of mature cystic teratomas of the ovary containing prostatic tissue. Both were incidental findings in teratomas that were otherwise typical at clinical and pathologic levels. The prostatic tissue contained ducts and acini in a simple branching pattern similar to that seen in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. Transitional cell elements were present in both cases and compact acini resembling Cowper's gland were noted in one. No testicular or Wolffian duct tissue was noted. The immunohistochemical staining pattern of the glands was identical to that seen in normal prostate. In a literature review, four additional cases were identified. The presence of prostatic tissue in a 46XX tumor suggests induction by locally produced androgen. Some investigators have identified luteinized stromal cells and indicated these as the source of this androgen. Other possible androgenic origins include ovarian hilar cells, adrenal cortex, and tumor cells. PMID:1497118

McLachlin, C M; Srigley, J R

1992-08-01

151

Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor of Ovary- A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Sertoli Leydig Cell Tumours (SLCTs) are rare, unilateral, sex cord stromal tumours of ovary, which constitute less than 1% of all the ovarian neoplasms. These tumours can be functionally diverse and they may have heterologous elements. We aim to report a case of a 25-year- old woman who presented with suprapubic pain of 5 days duration, a unilateral adnexal mass, hypertestosteronism without virilization. Intraoperative frozen section of the unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy specimen was suggestive of granulosa cell tumour. Histopathological examination, supplemented with alpha-inhibin immunohistochemistry, was diagnostic of Meyer’s type II SLCT. Clinical presentation, pathology and the diagnostic pitfalls in the present case have been presented with a brief review of literature. PMID:24783104

C.S, Rohini Dhanya; Padhi, Somanath; Varghese, Renu G’Boy

2014-01-01

152

The role of Akt signalling in the mammalian ovary.  

PubMed

The serine/threonine protein kinase Akt is involved in many cellular processes including cell growth, survival, proliferation and metabolism. Akt activity is modulated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) in response to different extracellular stimuli. In the mammalian ovary, Akt collaborates with other kinases in the regulation of coordinate follicle and oocyte development. Akt determines the pool of primordial follicles and the transition from quiescent to growing phase. In addition, the kinase modulates granulosa cell apoptosis throughout folliculogenesis. In oocytes Akt participates in the control of meiosis resumption and, at metaphase II stage, regulates polar body emission and spindle organization. Its inhibition negatively affects preimplantation embryo development. As a consequence of such a central role, Akt dysregulation is associated with several human diseases including infertility and ovarian cancer. PMID:23417403

Cecconi, Sandra; Mauro, Annunziata; Cellini, Valerio; Patacchiola, Felice

2012-01-01

153

Insulin gene polymorphism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is one of the main characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and is probably genetically predisposed. Possible associations of variable nucleotide tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism of the insulin gene (INS) with insulin resistance and PCOS in Slovene patients were investigated. A total of 117 PCOS patients and 108 age-matched female controls were genotyped for the INS VNTR polymorphism using real-time polymerase chain reaction and measurement of appropriate biochemical and clinical parameters. Serum fasting insulin (I(0)) levels and the homeostasis model assessment index were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared with controls. Class III INS VNTR alleles were significantly more frequent in the PCOS group. The interaction between body mass index and INS VNTR genotype was a significant predictor of serum I(0) level. The interaction of obesity and the III/III INS VNTR genotype might be a risk factor for the development of PCOS. PMID:19094425

Ferk, P; Perme, M P; Gersak, K

2008-01-01

154

A life course perspective on polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major public health problem in the US. Worldwide, the public is largely unaware of the condition and health care providers do not seem to fully understand it. Research on PCOS has primarily focused on its etiology and clinical characteristics and less on the psychosocial aspects of human development associated with PCOS. This paper posits that a life course perspective provides a framework for further understanding the psychosocial experiences of women with PCOS and the contexts in which they live. The paper discusses how life course principles of human development, constraints on agency, interdependence of lives, time and place, and timing of events and experiences are relevant to the management of PCOS and prevention of its complications. PMID:24489477

Sanchez, Ninive

2014-01-01

155

The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both ovary and uterus are in addition to age-related co-morbidities, which together have synergistic effects on reducing the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome. PMID:23103636

Nelson, S.M.; Telfer, E.E.; Anderson, R.A.

2013-01-01

156

Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100?IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15?M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60?min with the rate of perfusion 50?mL/h (0.8?mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

157

The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia  

PubMed Central

Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

2014-01-01

158

Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

159

Pollination Increases Gibberellin Levels in Developing Ovaries of Seeded Varieties of Citrus.  

PubMed Central

Reproductive and vegetative tissues of the seeded Pineapple cultivars of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) contained the following C-13 hydroxylated gibberellins (GAs): GA53, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA1, GA29, and GA8, as well as GA97, 3-epi-GA1, and several uncharacterized GAs. The inclusion of 3-epi-GA1 as an endogenous substance was based on measurements of the isomerization rates of previously added [2H2]GA1. Pollination enhanced amounts of GA19, GA20, GA29, and GA8 in developing ovaries. Levels of GA1 increased from 5.0 to 9.5 ng/g dry weight during anthesis and were reduced thereafter. The amount of GA in mature pollen was very low. Emasculation reduced GA levels and caused a rapid 100% ovary abscission. This effect was partially counteracted by either pollination or application of GA3. In pollinated ovaries, repeated paclobutrazol applications decreased the amount of GA and increased ovary abscission, although the pattern of continuous decline was different from the sudden abscission induced by emasculation. The above results indicate that, in citrus, pollination increases GA levels and reduces ovary abscission and that the presence of exogenous GA3 in unpollinated ovaries also suppresses abscission. Evidence is also presented that pollination and GAs do not, as is generally assumed, suppress ovary abscission through the reactivation of cell division. PMID:12223728

Ben-Cheikh, W.; Perez-Botella, J.; Tadeo, F. R.; Talon, M.; Primo-Millo, E.

1997-01-01

160

Five cases of non-hodgkin B-cell lymphoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

The involvement of the ovary in lymphomatous process is rare. Such an involvement may occur in 2 ways, primary or secondary. We report 5 cases of ovarian non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with 3 of which primarily arising in the ovaries. Ovarian lymphoma can mimic more frequently occurring tumors including advanced epithelial carcinoma and radical surgery may be performed instead of a biopsy. The immunophenotypic and clinicopathologic features exhibited in this small series are described to call attention to early diagnosis and treatment of ovarian lymphoma. All patients were diagnosed as having DLBCL after ovary biopsy. Different treatment modalities were used and prognosis of the patients was reported. PMID:24587927

Senol, Taylan; Doger, Emek; Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Geduk, Ayfer; Kole, Emre; Yucesoy, Izzet; Caliskan, Eray

2014-01-01

161

Five Cases of Non-Hodgkin B-Cell Lymphoma of the Ovary  

PubMed Central

The involvement of the ovary in lymphomatous process is rare. Such an involvement may occur in 2 ways, primary or secondary. We report 5 cases of ovarian non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with 3 of which primarily arising in the ovaries. Ovarian lymphoma can mimic more frequently occurring tumors including advanced epithelial carcinoma and radical surgery may be performed instead of a biopsy. The immunophenotypic and clinicopathologic features exhibited in this small series are described to call attention to early diagnosis and treatment of ovarian lymphoma. All patients were diagnosed as having DLBCL after ovary biopsy. Different treatment modalities were used and prognosis of the patients was reported. PMID:24587927

Senol, Taylan; Doger, Emek; Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Geduk, Ayfer; Kole, Emre; Yucesoy, Izzet; Caliskan, Eray

2014-01-01

162

Anti-steroidogenic activity of floral extract of Thespesia populnea Corr. in mouse ovary.  

PubMed

Anti-steroidogenic activity of various extracts of T. populnea was screened in female albino mice. The weight of the uterus and ovaries were reduced significantly and the cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries were significantly elevated due to the treatment with extract of T. populnea. The significant inhibition of delta 5, 3 beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the two key enzymes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis were also observed in mouse ovaries after 15 days of treatment. PMID:10865891

Kavimani, S; Ilango, R; Karpagam, S; Suryaprabha, K; Jaykar, B

1999-12-01

163

A novel osteopontin-like protein is expressed in the trout ovary during ovulation.  

PubMed

Using suppression subtraction hybridization between ovulatory and postovulatory trout ovaries, a down-regulated cDNA was obtained that presumably encodes a novel ovarian protein ('NOP'). NOP mRNA is present in the ovary during ovulation and down-regulated by 48 h postovulation, suggesting an important role for NOP during ovulation. Besides the ovary, NOP is also strongly expressed in the testis and at lower levels in the skin, gills, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. While the overall identity is not high, NOP shares several sequence similarities with mammalian and chicken osteopontins, including the percentage of aspartate, serine and alanine residues and the presence of a cell attachment motif. PMID:11165234

Bobe, J; Goetz, F W

2001-02-01

164

Estimating live birth rates after ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome: sample size calculations for the pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome trial.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5% of the female population, and is a leading cause of infertility, primarily secondary to anovulation. Clomiphene citrate has been standard therapy for ovulation induction in patients seeking pregnancy, but recent evidence suggests that insulin sensitizing agents such as metformin may also be effective. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Reproductive Medicine Network has begun a randomized, double-blind trial of clomiphene vs. metformin vs. clomiphene plus metformin for the induction of ovulation in patients with PCOS seeking pregnancy, with live birth rate as the primary outcome. Because the available literature was largely limited to surrogate outcomes such as ovulation and pregnancy rates, we created a Markov model to derive estimates of likely live birth rates in each arm. Using these estimates, we then constructed an algorithm that allowed only two formal comparisons between the three arms. First, we assumed that combination therapy would have to be superior to the next best single-agent therapy in order to be preferred, because of complexity, costs, increased side effects, etc. If combination therapy is not superior to the next best single agent, then the only other comparison of interest is between the two single agent therapies. Because the third possible comparison, between the best and worst of the three therapies, is not clinically relevant, it can be eliminated from formal statistical consideration, with subsequent reduction in sample size. Based on the opinion of the Network Steering Committee that a 15% absolute difference in live birth rates would be clinically relevant, our methodology resulted in a sample size of 226 per arm, or a total of 678 subjects. The PPCOS trial should definitively answer the question of the relative efficacy of metformin, clomiphene, and combination therapy in the treatment of infertile women with PCOS. PMID:15911461

Myers, Evan R; Silva, Susan G; Hafley, Gail; Kunselman, Allen R; Nestler, John E; Legro, Richard S

2005-06-01

165

The Genomic Sequence of the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) K1 cell line  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic proteins and antibodies represent a $125 billion annual market. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here, we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45Gb genomic sequence with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most scaffolds to 21 microfluidically-isolated chromosomes to identify chromosomal locations of genes. Furthermore, we investigate genes involved in glycosylation, which affects therapeutic protein quality, and viral susceptibility genes, which affect cell engineering and regulatory concerns. Specifically, homologs for most human glycosylation-associated genes are identified in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 are not expressed under exponential growth. In addition, many important viral entry genes are present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance property of CHO cell lines. We demonstrate how the availability of this genome sequence may facilitate genome-scale science for biopharmaceutical protein production. PMID:21804562

Xu, Xun; Nagarajan, Harish; Lewis, Nathan E.; Pan, Shengkai; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Xin; Chen, Wenbin; Xie, Min; Wang, Wenliang; Hammond, Stephanie; Andersen, Mikael R.; Neff, Norma; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Fan, H. Christina; Wang, Jianbin; Gui, Yaoting; Lee, Kelvin H.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Famili, Iman; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Wang, Jun

2011-01-01

166

Cellular and genomic toxicity produced by UV light in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

UVB and UVC toxicity was detected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines AA8, UV5 and XEM2 (a V79-derived cell line expressing rat P450 1A1). Unlike FICZ-HPLC assay that showed induction of CYP1A1 enzyme activity after 20 minutes and 2 hour UVC exposure, the EROD assay showed no difference in cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activity after exposure to different doses of UVB and UVC light. Different cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of photo lesions induced by UVC and UVB light was investigated with the DRAG and HPRT assays, comparing the wild type cell line AA8 and the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) deficient cell line UV5. DRAG assay showed a significant difference in UV induced cytotoxicity between UVC and UVB reflecting the larger energy and toxic effect of UVC along with significant difference in UV induced toxicity between AA8 and UV5 cell lines. This was further validated through the HPRT assay, which also showed a significant difference in UVC (5 J/m(2)) induced mutagenic effect between these cell lines. In addition, HPRT assay showed the mutagenic effect of photosensitizer, acetophenone. These results show that UVB and UVC generate serious damage through photo products on DNA, and might induce the metabolic activity of CYP1A1. PMID:24577918

Rahman, Inayatur; Karim, Abdul; Idrees, Muhammad; Khan, Mohammad Iqbal

2014-03-01

167

Effect of soy phytoestrogen on metabolic and hormonal disturbance of women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Phytoestrogens are a group of plants derived compounds with weekly estrogen effect that appear to have protective effects on metabolic and hormonal abnormalities of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). So the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and lipid profiles in PCOS women. METHODS: In this quasi-randomized trial, 146 subjects with PCOS were divided into two groups; the experimental group who received Genistein (Bergamon, Italy) 18 mg twice a day orally and the control group that received similar capsules with cellulose for 3 months. Hormonal features and lipid profiles were measured before and after 3 months of supplement therapy. RESULTS: After 3 months of supplement therapy there were no statistically significant differences in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) serum levels in Genistein and placebo group before and after treatment; however serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), dehydroepiandrostrone sulfate (DHEAS) and testosterone were significantly decreased after 3 months therapy in Genistein group. CONCLUSIONS: Genistein consumption may prevent cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in PCOS patients by improving their reproductive hormonal and lipid profiles. PMID:22091248

Khani, Behnaz; Mehrabian, Ferdous; Khalesi, Elaheh; Eshraghi, Azadeh

2011-01-01

168

Aromatase inhibitors for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: summary of a Cochrane review.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of anovulatory subfertility. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aromatase inhibitors compared with other methods of ovulation induction in women with anovulatory PCOS. PMID:25455536

Franik, Sebastian; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Farquhar, Cynthia; Marjoribanks, Jane

2015-02-01

169

Primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary with multiple bone and breast metastases.  

PubMed

Although primary carcinoid tumor of the ovary is an extremely rare neoplasm, survival is excellent if the disease is confined to one ovary. Herein, we present a case of primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary, stage IA, borderline malignancy, in a 34-year-old woman. Histological findings of the right ovary indicated higher atypical nuclei, higher mitotic rate and focal necrosis of tumorous cells in some areas, findings that are compatible with atypical carcinoid of the lung. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, Ki-67, topoisomerase IIalpha, peptide YY, and thyroglobulin. Three and a half years postoperatively, multiple bone and breast metastases were found and anticancer chemotherapy was ineffective. The results in the present case indicate that an ovarian carcinoid tumor found to be 'atypical carcinoid' according to pulmonary carcinoid criteria or immunohistochemical staining (i.e. highly positive for topoisomerase IIalpha and Ki-67) may have a poor prognosis. PMID:20598039

Kurabayashi, Takumi; Minamikawa, Takahiro; Nishijima, Shota; Tsuneki, Ikunosuke; Tamura, Masaki; Yanase, Toru; Hashidate, Hideki; Shibuya, Hiroyuki; Motoyama, Teiichi

2010-06-01

170

Chinese hamster ovary cells can produce galactose-?-1,3-galactose antigens on proteins  

E-print Network

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for the manufacture of biotherapeutics, in part because of their ability to produce proteins with desirable properties, including 'human-like' glycosylation profiles. For ...

Bosques, Carlos J

171

Pure Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Ovary: A Rare Clinical Entity and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the ovary is a rare tumor and is now included in the World Health Organization tumor classification. Its prognosis is generally very poor even when the diagnosis is made at an early stage. We report a case of pure large cell neuroendocrine tumour of ovary, appearing 9 months following laparoscopic type I hysterectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection with ovarian preservation of anatomically normal looking ovaries performed for a cervical biopsy diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III with foci of invasion. The rarity lies in the rapid onset (9 months) of a large tumor following conservation of an anatomically normal ovaries. Surgical debulking and five cycles of chemotherapy (Etoposide and Cisplatin) were administered to the woman. She is on followup with no clinical or radiological evidence of disease recurrence for 6 months. PMID:23304586

Shakuntala, P. N.; Uma Devi, K.; Shobha, K.; Bafna, U. D.; Geetashree, M.

2012-01-01

172

NICHD Research Networks Help Piece Together the Puzzle of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Donating to the NICHD Staff Directory NICHD research networks help piece together the puzzle of polycystic ovary ... identified by researchers in an NICHD-supported research network, the Specialized Cooperative Centers Program in Reproduction and ...

173

Wolbachia infect ovaries in the course of their maturation: last minute passengers and priority travellers?  

PubMed

Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers). PMID:24722673

Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

2014-01-01

174

The structure of the ovary and oogenesis in the earthworm, Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida, Clitellata).  

PubMed

The structure of the ovary and the type of oogenesis were determined in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Oligochaeta, Haplotaxida, Lumbricidae) with histological, electron-microscopic and immunocytochemical methods. In this species the ovary is of the alimentary, nutrimentary type because it contains oocytes and the nurse cells (trophocytes). The ovarian stroma is built by somatic cells, the processes of which are connected to each other via numerous desmosomes. The somatic cells and their processes envelop the germ cells tightly and play a supportive role. Oogonia, oocytes and trophocytes are arranged in distinct zones in the ovary. Trophocytes form chains of cells, which are interconnected by intercellular bridges. Numerous microtubules are located within the latter. The oocytes are distally arranged in the ovary. Vitellogenesis involves both auto- and heterosyntheses. The results obtained were compared with the reports on oogenesis in other representatives of Annelida. PMID:12921708

Siekierska, E

2003-08-01

175

MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffery and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Prot...

176

Transvaginal Hydrolaparoscopic Ovarian Drilling Using Bipolar Electrosurgery to Treat Anovulatory Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo verify the value, feasibility, and reliability of transvaginal hydrolaparoscopic ovarian drilling using the bipolar VersaPoint system to treat clomiphene-resistant, anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Alessandro Casa; Francesco Sesti; Massimiliano Marziali; Lorenza Gulemì; Emilio Piccione

2003-01-01

177

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

178

Does hyperandrogenism have an effect on hearing loss in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Hormonal changes can affect hearing loss and inner ear functions. We evaluated hearing loss with audiometric tests in young patients with PCOS.

Fatih Oghan; Hakan Coksuer

179

Variation within the Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Gene Calpain-10 and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

E-print Network

­2610, 2002) POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS) is a hetero- geneous endocrine disorder of premenopausal women and the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility and hir- sutism (1, 2). In addition to these important endocrine

Cox, Nancy J.

180

Normal pregnancies and live births after autograft of frozen-thawed hemi-ovaries into ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate long-term outcome of autotransplantation of cryopreserved hemi-ovaries into ewes.Design: Animal study.Setting: University fertility center, Hospices Civils de Lyon; and Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon.Patients(s): Grivette ewes.Intervention(s): Six hemi-ovaries from 6 ewes aged 6 to 12 months were frozen with a slow cooling protocol using 2 M of dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant. After dissection of the medulla, the

Bruno Salle; Banu Demirci; Michel Franck; René Charles Rudigoz; Jean François Guerin; Jacqueline Lornage

2002-01-01

181

A Case of Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma with Synchronous Bilateral Adenocarcinoma of Ovary  

PubMed Central

Endometrial stromal tumor is a rare mesenchymal uterine tumor. We report the case of a patient with endometrial stromal sarcoma and concomitant bilateral endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary in the context of pelvic endometriosis. The patient underwent a complete cytoreduction including total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, appendicectomy, infracolic omentectomy, and pelvic peritonectomy. This is the first report to our knowledge that describes a synchronous endometrial stromal sarcoma and bilateral endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary. PMID:23198197

Caramelo, Olga; Marinho, Carol; Rebelo, Teresa; Amaral, Natália; Mota, Fernando; Xavier da Cunha, Fernanda; Torgal, Isabel

2012-01-01

182

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Metabolic Syndrome Long-Term Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous clinical entity defined as the association of hyperandrogenism with chronic\\u000a anovulation and the appearance of polycystic ovaries on sonography. Infertility is part of the syndrome but could be successfully\\u000a treated with modern reproductive techniques. Hirsutism can be managed with drugs that suppress ovarian function, increase\\u000a sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and\\/or blocking androgen

Eva Dahlgren; Per Olof Janson

183

Anti-Mullerian Hormone Inhibits Initiation of Primordial Follicle Growth in the Mouse Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment of primordial follicles is essential for female fer- tility; however, the exact mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown. Earlier studies using anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)-deficient mice suggested that AMH is in- volved in the regulation of primordial follicle recruitment. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal ovary culture system, in which ovaries from 2-d-old C57Bl\\/6J mice were cultured for

ALEXANDRA L. L. DURLINGER; MARIA J. G. GRUIJTERS; PIET KRAMER; BAS KARELS; HOLLY A. INGRAHAM; MARK W. NACHTIGAL; J. UILENBROEK; J. ANTON GROOTEGOED; AXEL P. N. THEMMEN

2006-01-01

184

Influence of the gametogenic cycle on the biochemical composition of the ovary of the great scallop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oogenic cycle and biochemical composition of the ovary of raft-cultured great scallop (Pecten maximus) were studied during the period April 1990–July 1991. The ovary condition index (FGI) and stereological studies showed the existence of two principal spawning periods, winter and late spring-early summer. No sexual resting period was found. Oocyte lysis was high throughout the year. Ovarian lipid levels

A. J. Pazos; G. Román; C. P. Acosta; M. Abad; J. L. Sánchez

1996-01-01

185

Hyberbaric oxygen increases atresia in normal & steroid induced PCO rat ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we investigated the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the morphology of estradiol valerate (EV) induced polycystic ovary (PCO) to find a new treatment modality for improvement of PCO. Methods The rats were divided into four groups. Group1, control; group 2, PCO group; group 3, PCO with HBOT group and group 4, normal ovary with HBOT. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg EV in adult cycling rats. Other rats with normal ovaries had oil injection as placebo. HBOT was applied to third and fourth groups for six weeks. Histopathologic evaluation of ovaries of all groups were performed & compared. Results Six weeks of HBOT was resulted in increase in follicular atresia, decrease in the number of primary, secondary, tertiary follicles and decrease in the number of fresh corpus luteum in normal rat ovary. HBOT on polycystic rat ovary, resulted in significant increase in atretic follicles which were already present. Conclusions HBOT of six weeks itself, changed ovarian morphology in favor of atresia both in PCO group and control group. This result of aggravated follicular atresia after HBOT on EV induced PCO may be due to long-term exposure in our protocol which with this state seems to be inapplicable in the improvement of PCO morphology. PMID:22309835

2012-01-01

186

A comprehensive survey of the genes involved in maturation and development of the rainbow trout ovary.  

PubMed

Development and maturation of the ovary requires precisely coordinated expression of specific gene classes to produce viable oocytes. We undertook identification of some of the genes involved in these processes by creating ovary-specific cDNA libraries by suppression subtractive hybridization and by microarray-based analyses. We present 5778 tissue- and sex-specific genes from subtracted ovary and testis libraries, many of which remain unidentified. A microarray containing 3557 salmonid cDNAs was used to compare the transcriptomes of precocious ovary at three different stages during the second year of life with a reference (normal ovary) transcriptome. On average, approximately 240 genes were developmentally regulated during the study period from June to October. Classes of genes maintaining relatively steady-state levels of expression, such as those controlling tissue remodeling, immunoregulation, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and growth also were identified. Concurrent expression of various cell division and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis regulators revealed the utility of microarray analysis to monitor important maturation events. We also report unequivocal evidence for expression of the transcripts that encode the common glycoprotein alpha, LH beta, FSH beta, thyroid-stimulating hormone beta, and retinol-binding protein in both the ovary and testis of trout. PMID:15496514

von Schalburg, Kristian R; Rise, Matthew L; Brown, Gordon D; Davidson, William S; Koop, Ben F

2005-03-01

187

Infertility in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians: the role of programmed cell death.  

PubMed

Ex-fissiparous planarians produce infertile cocoons or, in very rare cases, cocoons with very low fertility. Here, we describe the features of programmed cell death (PCD) occurring in the hyperplasic ovary of the ex-fissiparous freshwater planarian Dugesia arabica that may explain this infertility. Based on TEM results, we demonstrate a novel extensive co-clustering of cytoplasmic organelles, such as lysosomes and microtubules, and their fusion with autophagosomes during the early stage of oocyte cell death occurring through an autophagic pattern. During a later stage of cell death, the generation of apoptotic vesicles in the cytoplasm can be observed. The immunohistochemical labeling supports the ultrastructural results because it has been shown that the proapoptotic protein bax was more highly expressed in the hyperplasic ovary than in the normal one, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein bcl2 was slightly more highly expressed in the normal ovary compared to the hyperplasic one. TUNEL analysis of the hyperplasic ovary confirmed that the nuclei of the majority of differentiating oocytes were TUNEL-positive, whereas the nuclei of oogonia and young oocytes were TUNEL-negative; in the normal ovary, oocytes are TUNEL-negative. Considering all of these data, we suggest that the cell death mechanism of differentiating oocytes in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians is one of the most important factors that cause ex-fissiparous planarian infertility. We propose that autophagy precedes apoptosis during oogenesis, whereas apoptotic features can be observed later. PMID:25107610

Harrath, Abdel Halim; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Mansour, Lamjed; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Arfah, Maha; Al Anazi, Mohamed S; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Nyengaard, Jens R; Alwasel, Saleh

2014-11-01

188

Clinical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian women  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common diagnosis in women presenting with infertility. All the dimensions of PCOS have not been completely explored. Many studies have tried to characterize the exact presentation of the disease. In this study we studied clinical features of PCOS in Indian women to characterize different phenotypes of this syndrome. Prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) as surrogate marker of insulin resistance, obesity, hirsutism and hypothyroidism in PCOS women have been simultaneously studied. Materials and Methods: Present work is a non comparative cross-sectional open label study carried out over a period of 18 months in an endocrinology hospital in western Maharashtra, India. Results and Conclusion: Authors conclude that PCOS occurs both in obese and non-obese women; AN and hirsutism occur in equal proportion of patients. AN is correlated with obesity. Hormonal dysfunctions in PCOS manifested together or independently. PCOS women can be sub grouped based on clinical features suggestive of endocrinological malfunctions and can be investigated accordingly for selection of appropriate treatment modalities. PMID:23776867

Ramanand, Sunita J.; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.; Ramanand, Jaiprakash B.; Patwardhan, Milind H.; Ghanghas, Ravi R.; Jain, Suyog S.

2013-01-01

189

Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic comorbidities: therapeutic options.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women and the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, affecting 5-10% of the population. Approximately 60-70% of PCOS patients are obese. Although it is well known that obesity is associated with insulin resistance, most studies have shown that impaired insulin sensitivity is present without obesity. Hyper-insulinemia associated with insulin resistance has been causally linked to all features of the syndrome, such as hyperandrogenism, reproductive disorders, acne, hirsutism and metabolic disturbances. PCOS patients often have an atherogenic lipid profile and increased incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and type 2 diabetes. It has been demonstrated that by reducing hyper-insulinemia, insulin-lowering agents might improve endocrine and reproductive abnormalities in PCOS patients, and have numerous beneficial effects on multiple cardiovascular risk factors in PCOS. Metformin is currently the preferred insulin-sensitizing drug for chronic treatment of PCOS and has been shown to improve the metabolic profile, menstrual cyclicity and fertility in women with PCOS, and is associated with weight loss. In this review the metabolic comorbidities of PCOS and their therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:20069140

De Leo, V; Musacchio, M C; Palermo, V; Di Sabatino, A; Morgante, G; Petraglia, F

2009-10-01

190

Combined oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome - indications and cautions.  

PubMed

Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been used in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) for the treatment of menstrual disorders, acne and hirsutism. Despite years of their use and broad clinical experience, there are still ongoing doubts concerning their implications for the cardiovascular system and carbohydrate metabolism both in the general population and women with PCOS. In the general population, the risk of venous thromboembolism is reported to be increased. However, arterial thrombotic events seem to require concomitant risk factors to appear during administration of OCPs. In terms of carbohydrate metabolism, available data do not consistently suggest an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus, in spite of some subtle fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels. In subgroup analyses of epidemiological studies in the general population, there is no finding indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related mortality in premenopausal women with PCOS. There is no significant alteration in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism after use of OCP in PCOS either. The absence of further cardiometabolic risk with OCP use in PCOS might suggest some unproven preventive alterations in this patient population. PMID:24002409

Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

2013-01-01

191

Metformin use in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy characterised by increased resistance to insulin. Metformin is one of the longest established oral insulin sensitising agents. For decades its use was restricted to management of type 2 diabetes. However, in the past two decades, its properties as an insulin sensitising agent have been explored in relation to its applicability for women with PCOS. Metformin is an effective ovulation induction agent for non-obese women with PCOS and offers some advantages over other first line treatments for anovulatory infertility such as clomiphene. For clomiphene-resistant women, metformin alone or in combination with clomiphene is an effective next step. Women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilisation should be offered metformin to reduce their risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Limited evidence suggests that metformin may be a suitable alternative to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) for treating hyperandrogenic symptoms of PCOS including hirsutism and acne. More research is required to define whether metformin has a role in improving long term health outcomes for women with PCOS, including the prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and endometrial cancer. PMID:25333031

Johnson, Neil P

2014-06-01

192

Sex, stem cells and tumors in the Drosophila ovary.  

PubMed

The Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene encodes a female-specific RNA binding protein that in somatic cells globally regulates all aspects of female-specific development and behavior. Sxl also has a critical, but less well understood, role in female germ cells. Germ cells without Sxl protein can adopt a stem cell fate when housed in a normal ovary, but fail to successfully execute the self-renewal differentiation fate switch. The failure to differentiate is accompanied by the inappropriate expression of a set of male specific markers, continued proliferation, and formation of a tumor. The findings in Chau et al., (2012) identify the germline stem cell maintenance factor nanos as one of its target genes, and suggest that Sxl enables the switch from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell by posttranscriptional downregulation of nanos expression. These studies provide the basis for a new model in which Sxl directly couples sexual identity with the self-renewal differentiation decision and raises several interesting questions about the genesis of the tumor phenotype. PMID:23208193

Salz, Helen K

2013-01-01

193

FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.  

PubMed

Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes. PMID:24049064

Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

2014-02-01

194

Autonomic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Central obesity and hyperinsulinaemia of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with chronic sympathetic over activity. Objective: To evaluate the autonomic functions and to indicate the superiority, if any, for those functions in the diagnosis of sympathetic over activity in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four PCOS patients and 40 women served as the control group were studied. The two groups were subdivided according to the body mass index (BMI) into two obese and non-obese groups. Waist:hip ratio (WHR), plasma epinephrine level was estimated, sympathetic skin response (SSR); postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, heart rate variability (HRV), and valsalva ratio were measured in both groups. Results: Compared to the control group, obese PCOS patients demonstrated higher BMI and WHR, reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, altered HRV, higher plasma epinephrine level, and rapid pulse rate. Moreover, non-obese patients show reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, higher plasma epinephrine level, and higher pulse rate. BMI and WHR of the patients were positively correlated with plasma epinephrine level; while the HRV was negatively correlated WHR. Conclusion: Women with PCOS exhibits altered autonomic function and sympathoexcitation is more pronounced in obese than non-obese patients; therefor the SSR could be useful auxiliary electrophysiological test to predict autonomic dysfunction in those patients. Receiver operating characteristics curve demonstrate the pulse rate in standing position as the autonomic function test that is superior to others in predicting sympathetic over activity in those patients. PMID:25653673

Hashim, Zainab Hasan; Hamdan, Farqad Bader; Al-Salihi, Anam Rashid

2015-01-01

195

Sexual Functioning among Married Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain factors re- lated to sexual functioning in 300 PCOS patients attending to the private practice centers in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran, from May to October 2012. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to measure sexual functioning. Moreover, the socio-demo-graphic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity, hirsutism, acne, mestrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile were recorded for each patient. Results Overall the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was 16.6%. In particular patients indicated poorer sexual functioning for the desire (48.3%) and the arousal (44.7%) subscales. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested patients with lower educational level (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.46-5.92) and irregular menstrual status (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.93-11) were more likely to report sexual dysfunction. Conclusion The findings suggest that desire and arousal were the most prevalent sexual disorders reported in this patient population. In addition, findings suggested that women with limited or no formal education and a history of menstrual irregularities were the most likely to report female sexual dysfunction. Further investigations are needed to examine female sexual functioning among women with PCOS, to educate their health care providers, and to develop therapeutic interventions. PMID:25379156

Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

2014-01-01

196

Valinomycin-induced apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence endorses that excessive K(+) efflux is an ionic mechanism underlying apoptosis both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. K(+) channels play important roles in mediating the pro-apoptotic K(+) efflux. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely used for gene transfection experiments. These cells lack detectable endogenous voltage-gated K(+) channels. We were interested in knowing whether the absence of endogenous K(+) channels would render wild-type CHO cells more resistant to apoptotic death. We also wished to determine if direct stimulation of K(+) efflux would trigger apoptosis in these cells. Exposing CHO cells to hypoxia (1% O(2)) or to a typical apoptotic insult of serum deprivation for up to 24h did not affect cell survival. On the other hand, the K(+) ionophore valinomycin caused substantial cell death within 12h of its application. Valinomycin-treated CHO cells underwent several apoptotic events, including phosphatidylserine (PS) membrane translocation, caspase-3 activation, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization during the first few hours of exposure. Reducing K(+) efflux by elevating extracellular K(+) concentrations noticeably attenuated valinomycin-induced cell death. This study reinforces a K(+) efflux-mediated apoptotic mechanism in CHO cells and may help to explain the unique feature of their higher tolerance to apoptosis. PMID:16857314

Abdalah, Rany; Wei, Ling; Francis, Kevin; Yu, Shan Ping

2006-09-11

197

Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) both are known to be associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of the study was to determine the presence of NAFLD and associated factors of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study of 54 women with PCOS and 55 healthy controls who were age and weight matched were included. Anthropometric parameters, biochemical and hormonal investigations were done in all the patients. Insulin resistance was calculated by Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Abdominal ultrasonography and biochemical tests were used to determine the presence of hepatic steatosis after excluding other causes liver disease. RESULTS: Women with PCOS had a higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis (67% vs 25%, P = 0.001) MS (35% vs. 7%, P < 0.01) and elevated transaminases (31% vs. 7%, P = 0.03) than controls. All patients with PCOS and controls with MS had presence of hepatic steatosis. Age, BMI, waist-hip ratio, HOMA-IR, HDL and PCOS diagnosis were the factors associated with presence of hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSION: NAFLD is commonly present in women with PCOS in combination with other metabolic derangements. Evaluation for liver disease should be considered at an earlier age in women with PCOS, particularly those who have an evidence of MS. PMID:23869143

Karoli, Ritu; Fatima, Jalees; Chandra, Ashok; Gupta, Uma; Islam, Faraz-ul; Singh, Gagandeep

2013-01-01

198

Diagnosis and challenges of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.  

PubMed

Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have become less stringent over the years, determination of the minimum diagnostic features in adolescents is still an area of controversy. Of particular concern is that many of the features considered to be diagnostic for PCOS may evolve over time and change during the first few years after menarche. Nonetheless, attempts to define young women who may be at risk for development of PCOS is pertinent since associated morbidity such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia may benefit from early intervention. The relative utility of diagnostic tools such as persistence of anovulatory cycles, hyperandrogenemia, hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, or alopecia), or ovarian findings on ultrasound is not established in adolescents. Some suggest that even using the strictest criteria, the diagnosis of PCOS may not valid in adolescents younger than 18 years. In addition, evidence does not necessarily support that lack of treatment of PCOS in younger adolescents will result in untoward outcomes since features consistent with PCOS often resolve with time. The presented data will help determine if it is possible to establish firm criteria which may be used to reliably diagnose PCOS in adolescents. PMID:24715514

Agapova, Sophia E; Cameo, Tamara; Sopher, Aviva B; Oberfield, Sharon E

2014-05-01

199

The management of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The syndrome is typified by its heterogeneous presentation, which includes hirsutism (a function of hypersecretion of ovarian androgens), menstrual irregularity and infertility (that is due to infrequent or absent ovulation). Furthermore, PCOS predisposes patients to metabolic dysfunction and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aetiology of the syndrome has a major genetic component. Obesity exacerbates the insulin resistance that is a feature of PCOS in many women and amplifies the clinical and biochemical abnormalities. In clinical practice, the choice of investigations to be done depends mainly on the presenting symptoms. The approach to management is likewise dependent on the presenting complaint. Symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne and alopecia) require cosmetic measures, suppression of ovarian androgen function and anti-androgen therapy, alone or in combination. Ovulation rate is improved by diet and lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals but induction of ovulation by, in the first instance, anti-estrogens is usually required. Monitoring of glucose is important in overweight women and/or those with a family history of T2DM. Metformin is indicated for women with impaired glucose tolerance but whether this drug is otherwise useful in women with PCOS remains debatable. PMID:25022814

Jayasena, Channa N; Franks, Stephen

2014-10-01

200

Combined oral contraceptives in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are the most often used treatment modality for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Undisputedly, COC suppress androgen production, thus ameliorating skin androgenic symptoms and improving menstrual dysfunction. On the other hand, there are still many unresolved issues concerning their metabolic effects. COC could decrease insulin sensitivity and deteriorate glucose tolerance, although the negative influence on insulin sensitivity is dependent on other factors (especially obesity) and this need not be expressed in non-obese patients. It is probable that the impairment of glucose tolerance is reversible, as the incidence of diabetes is not increased in past COC users. The effects of COC on the lipid spectrum are dependent on the type of gestagen, but lipid levels usually remain within the reference limits. Combination therapy of COC with weight reduction or insulin sensitizers could further suppress androgen levels and improve metabolic parameters. The establishment of COC after laparoscopic ovarian drilling may further decrease androgen levels. The combination of COC and GnRH analogues is not superior to COC therapy alone. Prospective data about the influence of COC on the risk of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and endometrial cancer in PCOS women are lacking. PMID:15790599

Vrbíková, J; Cibula, D

2005-01-01

201

Genetic characterization of small ovaries, a gene required in the soma for the development of the Drosophila ovary and the female germline  

SciTech Connect

The small ovary gene (sov) is required for the development of the Drosophila ovary. Six EMS-induced recessive alleles have been identified. Hypomorphic alleles are female sterile and have no effect on male fertility, whereas more severe mutations result in lethality. The female-sterile alleles produce a range of mutant phenotypes that affect the differentiation of both somatic and germline tissues. These mutations generally produce small ovaries that contain few egg cysts and disorganized ovarioles, and in the most extreme case no ovarian tissue is present. The mutant egg cysts that develop have aberrant morphology, including abnormal numbers of nurse cells and patches of necrotic cells. We demonstrate that sov gene expression is not required in the germline for the development of functional egg cysts. This indicates that the sov function is somatic dependent. We present evidence using loss-of-function and constitutive forms of the somatic sex regulatory genes that sov activity is essential for the development of the somatic ovary regardless of the chromosomal sex of the fly. In addition, the genetic mapping of the sov locus is presented, including the characterization of two lethal sov alleles and complementation mapping with existing rearrangements. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wayne, S.; Liggett, K.; Pettus, J.; Nagoshi, R.N. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1995-03-01

202

[Investigation of follicular development and oocyte maturation after cryopreservation and xenograft of newborn mouse ovaries].  

PubMed

In order to explore the feasibility of cryopreserving primordial follicles in attaining their developmental competence following freezing and thawing, ovaries from newborn mice were cryopreserved and the thawed ovaries were xenografted into kidney capsules of adult female mice. Ovaries were isolated from newborn B6C2F(1) female mice, infiltrated by Leibovitz 15 (L-15) medium containing 10% (V/V) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1.5 mol/L dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and then packed into 0.25 ml plastic straws. The ovaries contained in straws were frozen under nitrogen vapour at -40 degrees C in Cryocell 1200 programmable freezer, and stored in liquid nitrogen for periods ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Upon thawing, the straws were dipped into room temperature water for 10~20 s, after which the ovaries were collected and washed in L-15 buffer containing 10% (V/V) FBS without DMSO to remove cryoprotectant. The thawed ovaries were transplanted into kidney capsules of 8~12-week old adult B6C2F(1) female recipient mice by two protocols, with either 1 or 2 ovaries in each capsule. Upon withdrawal after at least 14 d of transplantation, only 45.00% (72/160) of the ovaries were recovered from 40 recipients transplanted with 2 ovaries in each capsule, compared to 82.50% (33/40) in 20 recipients with only 1 ovary in each capsule. The grafted ovaries exhibited similar follicular developmental progression to that of natural ovaries. There were antral follicles present in the transplanted ovaries on day 14, whose number increased more substantially on day 19 after transplantation. Following stimulation of the recipient mice with 10 IU PMSG on day 19 after xenografting, follicles further developed to preovulatory stage with appearance of cumulus oocytes and enlarged antrum. Oocytes from these fully grown antral follicles were collected and matured in vitro in modified essential medium-alpha (MEMalpha). After 16~17 h of culture, 40.90% of the oocytes exhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and among which 89.02% proceeded to the metaphase II (MII) stage as indicated by exclusion of the first polar body. The remaining oocytes were further cultured and 50.83% of which initiated GVBD by 20~21 h of culture, but only 21.40% of which proceeded to MII. The above results demonstrated that the primordial follicles in newborn mouse ovaries were capable of sustaining freezing and thawing, and reinitiating development following xenograft into kidney capsule in adult recipient female mice. Production of mature oocytes from such re-developed follicles following gonadotrophin priming and the subsequent oocyte in vitro maturation implied immense prospect of application of this method to preserve female germ cells, conserve endangered species, establish animal gene stock, and utilize oocytes in assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:16489402

Qin, Bo-Lin; Chen, Xue-Jin; Shi, Zhen-Dan; Li, Wan-Li; Tian, Yun-Bo

2006-02-25

203

Stereological study of the effects of letrozole and estradiol valerate treatment on the ovary of rats  

PubMed Central

Objective Letrozole and estradiol valerate are used to treat some hormonally-responsive symptoms and also in modeling of the polycystic ovary syndrome. However, the stereological analysis of the ovary has received less attention. Estimation of the whole ovary volume using the Cavalieri method can be applied in any orientation desired, but estimation of the mean volume of the oocytes requires isotropic uniform random sectioning. Here, a combined method was developed for estimating the parameters. To our knowledge, no comparison has been made of the effects of letrozole and estradiol on the ovary. Methods Sixty rats were divided into 4 groups receiving estradiol (4 mg/kg), olive oil, letrozole (1 mg/kg), or normal saline. After 21 days, their ovaries were studied. Results Relative to the control group, the total volume of the ovary and the cortex increased in the letrozole-treated and estradiol-treated rats. In addition, the number of the preantral, antral, and granulosa cells decreased by 43% to 56% in the letrozole- and estradiol-treated rats. On average, a 19% increase was observed in the atretic oocytes of the letrozole-treated and estradiol-treated rats, but the mean oocyte volume decreased by 29% to 44% in letrozole- and estradiol-treated rats. Furthermore, the letrozole-treated rats showed a 5-fold and 7-fold increase in the volume of the cysts and corpus luteum, respectively. A 3-fold increase was found in the volume of both the cysts and corpus luteum in the estradiol group. Conclusion The structural changes of the ovary were most pronounced in the letrozole-treated animals. PMID:24179868

Noorafshan, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mesbah, Seyed-Fakhroddin

2013-01-01

204

Tributyltin increases the expression of apoptosis- and adipogenesis-related genes in rat ovaries  

PubMed Central

Objective Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine disrupting chemical, has been reported to decrease ovarian function by causing apoptosis in the ovary, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined whether TBT increases the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary and the increased expression of these genes is associated with apoptosis induction. Methods Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered TBT (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight) or sesame oil as a control for 7 days. The ovaries were obtained and weighed on day 8, and then they were fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) or frozen for RNA extraction. Using the total RNA of the ovaries, adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The ovarian weight was significantly decreased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT compared to that in control rats. As determined by the TUNEL assay, the number of apoptotic follicles in ovary was significantly increased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT. The real-time PCR results showed that the expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as PPAR?, aP2, CD36, and PEPCK was increased after TBT administration. In addition, apoptosis-related genes such as TNF? and TNFR1 were expressed more in the TBT-administered rats compared with the control rats. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that TBT induces the expression of adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the ovary leading to apoptosis in the ovarian follicles. These results suggest that the increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary by TBT exposure might induce apoptosis resulting in a loss of ovarian function. PMID:22563546

Lee, Hyojin; Lim, Sojeong; Yun, Sujin; Yoon, Ayoung; Park, Gayoung

2012-01-01

205

characteristics of Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with Biological  

E-print Network

normal prion protein (PrP A c is converted to a protease-isoform by an apparent self-propagating activity resistant transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, a neuro-in disease. The cDNA encoding open reading degenerative (ORF) of the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp) was frame from Korean cattle by PCR, and was transfected cloned Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells using into The gene expression of the cloned cDNA was lipofectamine. by RT-PCR and Western blotting with the confirmed antibody, 6H4. Cellular changes in the monoclonal CHO-K1 cells were investigated using transfected such as MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), parameters superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, as well as nitric and (NO) production, and an apoptosis assay. In the MTT oxide LDH assays, the bovine PrnP-transfectant showed a and proliferation rate than the wild-type (p LPS or ConA stimulation, was not Production in either transfectants or CHO-K1 cells. In SOD detected under ConA stimulation, the SOD activity of assay was 10 times higher than that of CHO-K1 transfectants at 6 h after treatment (p < 0.05). The genomic DNA of cells the transfectants and control cells began to be both at 6 h after treatment with cyclohexamide. fragmented activity was reduced by transfection with the Caspase-3 Prnp (p< 0.05). Conclusively, the viability of bovine expressing exogenous bovine Prnp was transfectants while the capacities for cellular protection decreased antioxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. against spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is thought to Bovine among the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies be

unknown authors

206

MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Thyroid and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Thyroid disorders, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are closely associated, based on a number of studies showing a significantly higher prevalence of HT in women with PCOS than in controls. However, the mechanisms of this association are not as clear. Certainly, genetic susceptibility contributes an important part to the development of HT and PCOS. However, a common genetic background has not yet been established. Polymorphisms of the PCOS-related gene for fibrillin 3 (FBN3) could be involved in the pathogenesis of HT and PCOS. Fibrillins influence the activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF?). Multifunctional TGF? is also a key regulator of immune tolerance by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are known to inhibit excessive immune response. With lower TGF? and Treg levels, the autoimmune processes, well known in HT and assumed in PCOS, might develop. In fact, lower levels of TGF?1 were found in HT as well as in PCOS women carrying allele 8 of D19S884 in the FBN3 gene. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency was shown to decrease Tregs. Finally, high estrogen-to-progesterone ratio owing to anovulatory cycles in PCOS women could enhance the immune response. Harmful metabolic and reproductive effects were shown to be more pronounced in women with HT and PCOS when compared with women with HT alone or with controls. In conclusion, HT and PCOS are associated not only with respect to their prevalence, but also with regard to etiology and clinical consequences. However, a possible crosstalk of this association is yet to be elucidated. PMID:25422352

Gaberš?ek, Simona; Zaletel, Katja; Schwetz, Verena; Pieber, Thomas; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth

2015-01-01

207

Expression of FSH receptor in the hamster ovary during perinatal development.  

PubMed

FSH plays an important role in ovarian follicular development, and it functions via the G-protein coupled FSH receptor. The objectives of the present study were to determine if full-length FSHR mRNA and corresponding protein were expressed in fetal through postnatal hamster ovaries to explain the FSH-induced primordial follicle formation, and if FSH or estrogen (E) would affect the expression. A full-length and two alternately spliced FSHR transcripts were expressed from E14 through P20. The level of the full-length FSHR mRNA increased markedly through P7 before stabilizing at a lower level with the formation and activation of primordial follicles. A predicted 87?kDa FSHR protein band was detected in fetal through P4 ovaries, but additional bands appeared as ovary developed. FSHR immunosignal was present in undifferentiated somatic cells and oocytes in early postnatal ovaries, but was granulosa cells specific after follicles formed. Both eCG and E significantly up-regulated full-length FSHR mRNA levels. Therefore, FSHR is expressed in the hamster ovary from the fetal life to account for FSH-induced primordial follicle formation and cAMP production. Further, FSH or E regulates the receptor expression. PMID:25462586

Chakraborty, Prabuddha; Roy, Shyamal K

2015-01-15

208

Primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries: a new experimental tool.  

PubMed

In the present work, primary cell cultures from ovaries of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were developed in order to provide a simple and versatile experimental tool for researches in echinoderm reproductive biology. Ovary cell phenotypes were identified and characterized by different microscopic techniques. Although cell cultures could be produced from ovaries at all stages of maturation, the cells appeared healthier and viable, displaying a higher survival rate, when ovaries at early stages of gametogenesis were used. In terms of culture medium, ovarian cells were successfully cultured in modified Leibovitz-15 medium, whereas poor results were obtained in minimum essential medium Eagle and medium 199. Different substrates were tested, but ovarian cells completely adhered only on poly-L-lysine. To improve in vitro conditions and stimulate cell proliferation, different serum-supplements were tested. Fetal calf serum and an originally developed pluteus extract were detrimental to cell survival, apparently accelerating processes of cell death. In contrast, cells cultured with sea urchin egg extract appeared larger and healthier, displaying an increased longevity that allowed maintaining them for up to 1 month. Overall, our study provides new experimental bases and procedures for producing successfully long-term primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries offering a good potential to study echinoid oogenesis in a controlled system and to investigate different aspects of echinoderm endocrinology and reproductive biology. PMID:24002666

Mercurio, Silvia; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Sugni, Michela; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

2014-02-01

209

Cyclic AMP in oocytes controls meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary.  

PubMed

In mammalian ovaries, a fixed population of primordial follicles forms during the perinatal stage and the oocytes contained within are arrested at the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I. In the current study, we provide evidence that the level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in oocytes regulates oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary. Our results show that the early meiotic development of oocytes is closely correlated with increased levels of intra-oocyte cAMP. Inhibiting cAMP synthesis in fetal ovaries delayed oocyte meiotic progression and inhibited the disassembly and degradation of synaptonemal complex protein 1. In addition, inhibiting cAMP synthesis in in vitro cultured fetal ovaries prevented primordial follicle formation. Finally, using an in situ oocyte chromosome analysis approach, we found that the dictyate arrest of oocytes is essential for primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions. Taken together, these results suggest a role for cAMP in early meiotic development and primordial follicle formation in the mouse ovary. PMID:25503411

Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Li, Ge; Mu, Xinyi; Wang, Zhengpin; Feng, Lizhao; Niu, Wanbao; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Xi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Guoliang

2015-01-15

210

Ecdysteroid titer, ovary status, and dominance in adult worker and queen bumble bees (Bombus terrestris).  

PubMed

The role of ecdysteroids in the regulation of dominance and reproduction in social Hymenoptera is little explored. In the current study we compared ecdysteroid titers in hemolymph of individual queen and worker bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) that differ in their behavior, reproductive status and social environment. Egg-laying queens that head colonies and have ovaries exhibiting all stages of follicle development, had a higher ecdysteroid titer than virgin queens whose ovaries contained only follicles at initial stages. In workers, the relationship between ecdysteroid titers and follicle development appears to be more complex and to be influenced by the bee's social status and social environment. Shortly after emergence, young workers had only follicles at the initial stages of oogenesis and they exhibited a low ecdysteroid titer. No significant correlation was detected between ovary status and ecdysteroid titer in workers, with some workers showing activated ovaries but low ecdysteroid titers. However, at six days of age, a trend towards higher ecdysteroid titer was observed for workers in queenless groups, a condition characterized by rapid follicle development relative to queenright conditions. In these queenless groups, high social status was associated with high ecdysteroid titers. By contrast, in queenright workers ecdysteroid titers were low, even for bees with presumably high social status that had activated ovaries and were observed performing oviposition behavior. This study suggests that ecdysteroids are involved in regulation of reproduction in B. terrestris. PMID:10802116

Bloch; Hefetz; Hartfelder

2000-06-01

211

Transcriptome comparison between inactivated and activated ovaries of the honey bee Apis mellifera L.  

PubMed

Ovarian activity not only influences fertility, but is also involved with the regulation of division of labour between reproductive and behavioural castes of female honey bees. In order to identify candidate genes associated with ovarian activity, we compared the gene expression patterns between inactivated and activated ovaries of queens and workers by means of high-throughput RNA-sequencing technology. A total of 1615 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was detected between ovaries of virgin and mated queens, and more than 5300 DEGs were detected between inactivated and activated worker ovaries. Intersection analysis of DEGs amongst five libraries revealed that a similar set of genes (824) participated in the ovary activation of both queens and workers. A large number of these DEGs were predominantly related to cellular, cell and cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic processes. In addition, over 1000 DEGs were linked to more than 230 components of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, including 25 signalling pathways. The reliability of the RNA-sequencing results was confirmed by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in ovary activation and reproductive division of labour. PMID:25039886

Niu, D; Zheng, H; Corona, M; Lu, Y; Chen, X; Cao, L; Sohr, A; Hu, F

2014-10-01

212

Changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of porcine ovaries with cysts induced by dexamethasone administration.  

PubMed

We revealed earlier that induction of ovarian cysts in gilts by dexamethasone phosphate disodium salt (DXM) administration from the follicular phase of the estrous cycle (EC) changed the cholinergic innervation of the gonad. In the present study, the innervation of porcine ovaries by vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactive (IR) fibres, after induction of cystic changes from the middle luteal phase of the EC, was determined. The cystic changes were induced by DXM injections from days 7 to 21 of the EC, and 11 days later, the ovaries were collected. In the cystic ovaries, VAChT-, nNOS- and SOM-IR fibres were found around cysts and small tertiary follicles; nNOS-IR and also VAChT-IR fibres were observed near secondary follicles and veins; and VAChT- and nNOS-IR fibres were not found around cortical arteries. The number of VIP-IR fibres increased near the cysts and within the ground plexus, while the number of VAChT-IR fibres decreased within the medullar part of this structure. Thus, our study showed changes in the cholinergic innervation pattern of the porcine cystic ovaries induced from the middle phase of the cycle and confirmed that cystic ovary innervation depends partly on the phase of the EC in which the induction of cysts was started. PMID:24519145

Koz?owska, A; Majewski, M; Jana, B

2014-09-01

213

Derivatives Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Derivatives are financial securities whose value is derived from another "underlying" financial security. Options, futures, swaps, swaptions, and structured notes are all examples of derivative securities. Derivatives can be used in hedging, protecting against financial risk, or can be used to speculate on the movement of commodity or security prices, interest rates, or the levels of financial indices. The valuation of derivatives makes use of the statistical mathematics of uncertainty. With links to related articles. See also Derivatives Concepts A-Z, glossary of derivatives-related terminology designed to make the other articles in the Financial Pipeline's Derivatives section easier to understand.

214

Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period  

PubMed Central

The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V) of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B.) microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium.

Kanapadinchareveetil, Sreelekha; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Gopi, Jyothimol; Ranjan Lenka, Dibya; Vasu, Aswathi; KGopalan, Ajith Kumar; Nair, Suresh N.; Juliet, Sanis; Ghosh, Srikanta

2015-01-01

215

Mercury and other metals in muscle and ovaries of goldeye (Hiodon alosoides).  

PubMed

Concentrations of 24 trace metals were assessed in gravid ovaries and in muscle of female juvenile and adult female goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a fish with both low annual growth (16 g/year as adults) and a long life span (maximum longevity of 30 years). It was hypothesized that adult fish with these life-history characteristics would maintain stable concentrations of metals in their tissues with higher levels of essential elements compared with those that are potentially toxic. As hypothesized, the concentration of most metals in muscle of adult female goldeye was similar at all ages, suggesting that uptake and excretion of metals was equal. Mercury was a notable exception. Total Hg concentrations in muscle of adults increased throughout life from a mean of 206 ng/g wet weight at age 8 to 809 ng/g at age 28, or by 26.2 ng/g/year. Concentrations of Hg were low in ovaries (mean 21.1 ng/g wet wt) compared to the mean for muscle, only 7% of the concentration in muscle. This was the lowest percent of muscle concentration of all 24 metals. Concentrations of Al, Ba, La, V, and Mn were significantly greater in muscle of juveniles and in ovaries than in muscle of adults. Concentrations of 13 metals were higher in ovaries relative to muscle, seven were similar, and four were depleted. Silver was enriched by over 50-fold in ovaries. Overall, the present study suggests that low concentrations of some metals in muscle of adult female goldeye, relative to concentrations in female juveniles and ovaries, may be maintained in part by transfer of metals to the external environment in eggs at spawning. PMID:20821456

Donald, David B; Sardella, Gino D

2010-02-01

216

Uptake of low density lipoproteins by rat tissues. Special emphasis on the luteinized ovary.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine how luteal cells of the hormone-primed (luteinized) ovary process low density lipoproteins (LDL). Ovary uptake of perfused 125I-LDL was assessed by tissue levels of radioactivity; the distribution of LDL protein in cells was assessed on autoradiograms of the fixed tissue; and the level of stimulation of steroidogenesis, as well as degradation of LDL protein, was assessed on effluent perfusion samples. Human LDL ligand used in these studies was rigorously defined biochemically and physiologically. Homologous (rat) LDL was used as a special ligand control. Other tissue controls included the use of perfused or in vivo-infused luteinized ovaries from animals pretreated to reduce circulating lipoprotein levels, perfused ovaries from a second hormone-primed model, perfused liver from estrogen-treated rats, and isolated and cultured cells from the same ovarian tissues used in the perfusion experiments. The results show that perfused LDL promptly stimulates steroidogenesis. However, the labeled protein moiety of the LDL is not interiorized by the luteal cells, nor is there evidence of LDL protein degradation in the effluent samples. In contrast, internalization of the ligand occurs when luteal cells are incubated with the ligand in vitro. We have observed also that uptake of the 125I-LDL by the ovary can be displaced equally well by excess unlabeled LDL or HDL3. Overall, these experiments suggest that in the intact luteinized ovary, LDL binds to the same sites on the cell surface where HDL "binds," and that LDL cholesterol must be obtained by these steroid hormone-producing cells by a mechanism that does not require internalization of the intact lipoprotein particle. Images PMID:3711341

Reaven, E; Chen, Y D; Spicher, M; Hwang, S F; Mondon, C E; Azhar, S

1986-01-01

217

GENOMIC COMPARISON OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS ON FATHEAD MINNOW ( PIMEPHALES PROMELAS ) OVARIES REVEALS COMPENSATORY MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates compensatory mechanisms and feedback control within Fathead minnow ( Pimephales promelas ) by comparing genomic and biochemical responses of ovary tissue exposed in vitro to those of ovaries from intact fish after exposure to two model steroidogenesis...

218

Protein synthesis in developing ovaries of mealworm under in vivo and in vitro conditions: Effects of diflubenzuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of diflubenzuron (DFB) on protein synthesis in the ovaries of Tenebrio molitor was evaluated during oocyte maturation using in vivo and in vitro assays. When incorporated into the diet (5 and 10 mg g ?1), DFB was found to affect both the weight, the protein levels and the incorporation of tritiated leucine into proteins of ovaries. In addition,

N. Soltani; N. Soltani-Mazouni; B. Quennedey; J. Delachambre

1996-01-01

219

OOCYTE ORGANIZATION AND OVARY MATURATION OF THE BIGEYE TUNA (THUNNUS OBESUS) IN THE WEST TROPICAL ATLANTIC OCEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Oocytes organization and ovary maturity of bigeye tuna were examined using fish caught in the west tropical Atlantic Ocean. A total of 522 ovarian samples were examined on their external feature by neck eye. Samples of the ovary were cross-sectioned, stained and observed under light microscopic. The GSI was also registered. From the histological analysis, six oocytes developmental stages

M. B. Figueiredo; A. G. Santos; P. Travassos; C. M. Torres-Silva; F. H. V. Hazin; R. Coeli; B. R. Magalhães

2008-01-01

220

STEROIDOGENIC ASSESSMENT USING OVARY CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS: EFFECTS OF BIS(2-DIETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE ON OVARIAN STEROID PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

In vitro whole-ovary culture in rats was used to characterize ovarian steroidogenesis and to evaluate changes produced by In vivo exposure to bis (2-diethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Steroidogenic profiles [progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T)] from minced ovary ...

221

The induction of meiosis by ovaries of newborn hamsters and its relation to the action of the extra ovarian structures  

E-print Network

The induction of meiosis by ovaries of newborn hamsters and its relation to the action of the extra it was possible to characterize the meiosis inducing activities of the ovary and the extra ovarian structures post partum at the end of the prophase of the first meiotic division, the rete ovarii shows meiosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

Structure of the Ovaries of the Nimba Otter Shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar Hedgehog Tenrec, Echinops telfairi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been

A. C. Enders; A. M. Carter; H. Künzle; P. Vogel

2005-01-01

223

Anti-Mullerian hormone inhibits initiation of primordial follicle growth in the mouse ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment of primordial follicles is essential for female fertility;\\u000a however, the exact mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown.\\u000a Earlier studies using anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)-deficient mice\\u000a suggested that AMH is involved in the regulation of primordial follicle\\u000a recruitment. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal ovary culture system,\\u000a in which ovaries from 2-d-old C57Bl\\/6J mice were cultured for 2 or

A. L. L. Durlinger; M. J. G. Gruijters; P. Kramer; B. Karels; H. A. Ingraham; M. W. Nachtigal; J. Th. J. Uilenbroek; J. A. Grootegoed; A. P. N. Themmen

2002-01-01

224

Gonadotropin treatment augments postnatal oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly in adult mouse ovaries?  

PubMed Central

Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) exerts action on both germline and somatic compartment in both ovary and testis although FSH receptors (FSHR) are localized only on the somatic cells namely granulosa cells of growing follicles and Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. High levels of FSH in females are associated with poor ovarian reserve, ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome etc. and at the same time FSH acts as a survival factor during in vitro organotypic culture of ovarian cortical strips. Thus a further understanding of FSH action on the ovary is essential. We have earlier reported presence of pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs express Oct-4A in addition to other pluripotent markers) and their immediate descendants ‘progenitors’ ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs express Oct-4B in addition to other germ cell markers) in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) in various mammalian species including mice, rabbit, monkey, sheep and human. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on adult mice ovaries with a focus on VSELs, OGSCs, postnatal oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. Methods Ovaries were collected from adult mice during different stages of estrus cycle and after 2 and 7 days of PMSG (5 IU) treatment to study histo-architecture and expression for FSHR, pluripotent stem cells , meiosis and germ cell specific markers. Results PMSG treatment resulted in increased FSHR and proliferation as indicated by increased FSHR and PCNA immunostaining in OSE and oocytes of primordial follicles (PF) besides the granulosa cells of large antral follicles. Small 1–2 regions of multilayered OSE invariably associated with a cohort of PF during estrus stage in control ovary were increased to 5–8 regions after PMSG treatment. This was associated with an increase in pluripotent transcripts (Oct-4A, Nanog), meiosis (Scp-3) and germ cells (Oct-4B, Mvh) specific markers. MVH showed positive immuno staining on germ cell nest-like clusters and at places primordial follicles appeared connected through oocytes. Conclusions The results of the present study show that gonadotropin (PMSG) treatment to adult mouse leads to increased pluripotent stem cell activity in the ovaries, associated with increased meiosis, appearance of several cohorts of PF and their assembly in close proximity of OSE. This was found associated with the presence of germ cell nests and cytoplasmic continuity of oocytes in PF. We have earlier reported that pluripotent ovarian stem cells in the adult mammalian ovary are the VSELs which give rise to slightly differentiated OGSCs. Thus we propose that gonadotropin through its action on pluripotent VSELs augments neo-oogenesis and PF assembly in adult mouse ovaries. PMID:23134576

2012-01-01

225

Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary: Case Series and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a recently recognized, subtype of ovarian surface epithelial cancer; the pure form accounting for only 1% of surface epithelial tumors. It has been described as a primary ovarian carcinoma with definite urothelial features but no benign, metaplastic and/or proliferating Brenner tumor (BT) identified. Recognition of such tumours is important because of its rarity, favorable response to chemotherapy and an improved patient survival. A case series of primary TCC of the ovary (3 cases) with brief review of literature is being presented. PMID:25302204

Andola, Sainath K.; Zubair, Ashraf Ahmed

2014-01-01

226

The reproduction of Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae). I. Ovarial cycle, environmental factors and feeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blennius (Salaria) pavo is a very common coastal fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The development of the ovary was studied over a period of one year; seven stages of oogenesis are described. Ripe eggs are carried during the spawning season from Juni to August. The ovary shows a resting period of more than half a year (September to March). Environmental factors of the study area such as surface water temperature and daylength are described as well as the condition factors of male and female fish. Observations on food and behaviour during the winter months are also included.

Patzner, Robert A.

1983-03-01

227

Sarcoma-like mural nodule in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

Sarcoma-like mural nodule (SLMN) is a very uncommon and misleading benign entity which may be associated with benign, borderline or malignant mucinous neoplasm of the ovary. It should be distinguished from other malignant mural nodules with sarcoma, carcinosarcoma or anaplastic carcinoma for proper management. We report a rare case of SLMN in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary in a 30-year-old lady. In spite of having confusing histopathological features the final diagnosis was made depending on the younger age of the patient, well circumscription of the nodule, absence of vascular invasion and immunohistochemical profile.

Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik; Bhowmik, Sourav

2014-01-01

228

Aquaporin 5 expression is altered in ovarian tumors and ascites-derived ovarian tumor cells in the chicken model of ovarian tumor.  

PubMed

BackgroundAquaporin 5 (AQP5), a member of the aquaporin family of transmembrane channel proteins, is involved in water transport and cellular proliferation in various tumors. The objective of this study was to determine cellular localization of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in the ovarian tumors of chicken, a preclinical model for human ovarian tumor and to determine if AQP5 mRNA and protein expression levels in cancerous chicken ovaries and in ascites-derived chicken ovarian cancer (COVCAR) cell lines are different from normal ovaries and normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells, respectively.MethodsImmunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the localization of AQP5-immunoreactive (ir) cells in normal and cancerous ovaries. To determine AQP5 mRNA and protein concentrations in cancerous ovaries and COVCAR cell lines, quantitative real time PCR and Western blotting analysis were performed, respectively. Student¿s t-test was performed to compare the levels of AQP5 mRNA or protein in cancerous ovaries and COVCAR cell lines with that of normal ovaries and NOSE cells, respectively.ResultsAQP5-ir cells were localized in granulosa and theca layers of normal ovarian follicles whereas cancerous ovaries showed AQP5 immunostaining in the surface epithelium, fibroblast cells of the stroma, and in the cells lining tumor cysts and acini. AQP5 mRNA concentration were significantly lesser while AQP5 protein concentrations were significantly greater in cancerous ovaries compared to that in normal ovaries (P¿<¿0.05). Whereas AQP5 mRNA concentrations were significantly greater while AQP5 protein concentrations were lesser (P¿<¿0.05) in COVCAR cell lines compared with that in NOSE cells.ConclusionAQP5 is differentially expressed in ovarian tumor and in COVCAR cell lines suggesting a potential involvement of AQP5 in ovarian tumorigenesis, metastasis, and survival of ovarian tumor cells in ascites. PMID:25344048

Tiwari, Anupama; Hadley, Jill A; Ramachandran, Ramesh

2014-10-25

229

Molecular characterization of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen from Chinese hamster ovary and Hansenula polymorpha cells by high-performance size exclusion chromatography and multi-angle laser light scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular weight and size of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) derived from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and the Hansenula polymorph have been characterized by high-performance size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (HPSEC-MALLS). The average molecular weight of CHO-derived HBsAg particle (CHO-rHBsAg) (4921kDa) was higher than that of H. polymorpha yeast strain (Hans-rHBsAg) (3010kDa). The size of

Weibin Zhou; Jingxiu Bi; Jan-Christer Janson; Yan Li; Yongdong Huang; Yan Zhang; Zhiguo Su

2006-01-01

230

Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Primate Ovary Up-Regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1  in the Follicle and Corpus Luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent angio- genesis is crucial for follicular growth, and corpus luteum formation and function, in the primate ovary. In the ovary VEGF can be hormonally regulated, but in other systems, the main regulator of VEGF expression is hypoxia. We hypothe- sized that hypoxia was involved in the regulation of angio- genesis in the cycling ovary. We

W. Colin Duncan; Sander van den Driesche; Hamish M. Fraser

2008-01-01

231

[Uterovaginal agenesis and polycystic ovary syndrome: psychological disturbance in adolescence].  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients, age was negative correlated with attention problems and PCOS patients >18 reported significantly more somatic complaints compared with age-mate MRKHS patients and controls. PCO syndrome's clinical manifestations, including menstrual disorders, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility, may cause significant emotional distress. Nevertheless, they appear in great variety and our sample is characterized by mild features of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea. This may explain findings of milder psychological disturbance associated with PCOS in this sample in comparison to other studies. As far as MRKHS is concerned, diagnosis and loss of reproductive ability, especially in late adolescence, obstruct emotional stability, physical maturity and sexual identity development ending that are expected in this period of life. Undoubtedly, the management of MRKHS in adolescence constitutes a complex multidisciplinary issue and psychological support of patients is needed in order to prevent possible psychological consequences and to achieve a normal transition to adulthood. Among the limitations of this study is the small sample size, which limits the generalisability of the reported results, especially in "Youth Self Report" and in "Symptom Checklist-90-R" questionnaires, where the sample was divided according to the age. Nevertheless, the very low incidence of MRKHS (1/5000) emphasize the value of the present results, which support the need for further investigation. PMID:23073543

Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

2012-01-01

232

Insulin-Lowering Agents in the Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a medical condition that has brought multiple specialists together. Gynecologists, endo- crinologists, cardiologists, pediatricians, and dermatologists are all concerned with PCOS patients and share research data and design clinical trials to learn more about the syndrome. Insulin resistance is a common feature of PCOS and is more marked in obese women, suggesting that PCOS and

VINCENZO DE LEO; ANTONIO LA MARCA; FELICE PETRAGLIA

2010-01-01

233

Ontogeny of polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance in utero and early childhood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent hyperandrogenic infertility and cardiometabolic disorder that increases a woman's lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is heritable and intensely familial. Progress toward a cure has been delayed by absence of an etiology. Evidence is mounting...

234

A neuroimmune regulation at peripheral level on the steroidogenesis of polycystic ovary in rats.  

PubMed

It is known that noradrenergic sympathetic nerve fibers connect the ovary and the spleen from the celiac ganglion. The modulation of the ovarian steroidogenesis in rats with polycystic ovary (PCO) by secretions of culture splenocytes from control (non PCO), PCO and PCO rats with superior ovarian nerve transection (PCO+SON-t) is investigated. Splenocytes from PCO rats increased progesterone (P) and decreasing estradiol (E) and androstenedione (A) release, a steroidogenic response different from that obtained with splenocytes of control rats. PCO also decreased the number of splenocyte beta-adrenergic receptors (betaR). SON transection reverted the effect of PCO on splenocytes betaR numbers and secretions of these splenocytes also reverted the stimulatory effect of PCO on P release, while norepinephrine (NE) treatment to PCO+SON-t splenocytes decreased their betaR number and their secretions restored the stimulation on progesterone release. Inversely, PCO+SON-t splenocyte secretions intensified the inhibition in estradiol with no effect on A. Treatment of PCO+SON-t splenocytes with NE or neuropeptide Y partially reverted the effects of PCO and SON-t The P and E-A response of PCO ovary might be differentially regulated by the splenocyte secretions through the neural connection involving ovary, SON, celiac ganglion and spleen and the neurotransmitter NE. PMID:14656055

Forneris, M L; Aguado, L I; Oliveros, L B

2003-09-01

235

Malignant mixed germ cell tumour of ovary- an unusual combination and review of literature.  

PubMed

Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary are malignant neoplasms of the ovary comprising of two or more types of germ cell components. Most of the malignant mixed germ cell tumours consists of dysgerminoma accompanied by endodermal sinus tumours, immature teratoma or choriocarcinoma. There are only few case reports of mixed germ cell tumours with different combinations of malignant components.We report a very rare case of mixed germ cell tumours consisted of malignant components of endodermal sinus tumour, emryonal carcinoma, and benign component of teratomatuos and trophoblastic differentiation. This is the first case report in the literature with both benign and malignant component of type described to best of our knowledge.Patient was an 18 year old girl, who presented with pain abdomen, abdominal mass and irregular bleeding. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a huge mass with solid and cystic component. Tumour markers i.e alpha feto- protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), lactate dehydrogenate (LDH) and Ca-125 were raised. We performed fertility sparing surgery by preserving one ovary, tube and uterus.ConclusionMalingnant mixed germ cell tumours of ovary are highly aggressive neoplasm and early intervention and fertility sparing surgery is required for any adolescent girl presenting with rapidly enlarging pelvic mass. PMID:25366470

Goyal, Lajya; Kaur, Sharanjit; Kawatra, Kanwardeep

2014-11-01

236

High prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Over a period of 30 months, 175 patients with PCOS were recruited to a prospective multi- center study to evaluate thyroid function and morphology; 168 age-matched women without PCOS were studied as a control group. Methods: PCOS was defined as a- or oligomenorrhea,

Onno E Janssen; Nadine Mehlmauer; Susanne Hahn; Alexandra H Offner; Roland Gartner

2004-01-01

237

Pregnancy outcomes among women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with metformin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether metformin, which had facilitated conception in 72 oligo- amenorrhoeic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), would safely reduce the rate of first trimester spontaneous abortion (SAB) and increase the number of live births without teratogenicity. METHODS: Seventy- two oligoamenorrheic women with PCOS conceived on metformin (2.55 g\\/day). They were prospectively assessed in an outpatient

Charles J. Glueck; Ping Wang; Naila Goldenberg; Luann Sieve-Smith

238

Metformin versus oral contraceptive pill in polycystic ovary syndrome: a Cochrane review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The object of this review was to compare metformin versus oral contraceptive pill (OCP) treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis employing the principles of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group was undertaken. RESULTS: Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (104 subjects) were included. Limited data demonstrated no evidence of a difference in effect between

Michael F. Costello; Bhushan Shrestha; John Eden; Neil P. Johnson; Peter Sjoblom

2007-01-01

239

Prevalence and Predictors of the Metabolic Syndrome in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the metabolic syn- drome have many features in common and may share the same pathogenesis. Objective: This study was performed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Design: The clinical, hormonal, and oral glucose tolerance test re- sults were analyzed in 394 PCOS women who were screened for participation

David A. Ehrmann; David R. Liljenquist; Kristen Kasza; Ricardo Azziz; Richard S. Legro; Mahmoud N. Ghazzi

2010-01-01

240

Identification of transcripts involved in meiosis and follicle formation during ovine ovary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The key steps in germ cell survival during ovarian development are the entry into meiosis of oogonies and the formation of primordial follicles, which then determine the reproductive lifespan of the ovary. In sheep, these steps occur during fetal life, between 55 and 80 days of gestation, respectively. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed ovarian

Adrienne Baillet; Béatrice Mandon-Pépin; Cédric Cabau; Elodie Poumerol; Eric Pailhoux; Corinne Cotinot

2008-01-01

241

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet biophantoms  

E-print Network

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet August 2010; accepted 6 August 2010 A cell pellet biophantom technique is introduced, and applied verification purposes. BSC estimates from CHO cell pellet biophantoms of known number density were performed

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

242

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from high-concentration Chinese hamster ovary cell  

E-print Network

ovary cell pellet biophantoms Aiguo Han, Rami Abuhabsah, James P. Blue, Jr., Sandhya Sarwate (CHO, 6.7 -lm cell radius) cell pellets. This study extends the work to higher cell concentrations (volume densities: 9.6% to 63%). At low concentra- tion, BSC magnitude is proportional to the cell

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

243

Plasma Ghrelin, Obesity, and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Correlation with Insulin Resistance and Androgen Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to its orexigenic properties, ghrelin has been shown to modulate the secretory pattern of pituitary hor- mones, and it may exert direct effects on peripheral organs such as the gonads and endocrine pancreas. To study possible interactions among ghrelin, glucose homeostasis, and the re- productive system, we investigated 10 obese women with poly- cystic ovary syndrome (OB-PCOS) in

UBERTO PAGOTTO; ALESSANDRA GAMBINERI; VALENTINA VICENNATI; MARK L. HEIMAN; MATTHIAS TSCHOP; RENATO PASQUALI

244

Diet and Lifestyle Factors in the Etiology and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions of overweight and obesity contribute to reproductive dysfunction. Appropriate dietary strategies and exercise can\\u000a reverse these disorders. This chapter covers the causes and consequences of lifestyle disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome\\u000a and relevant interventions.

R. J. Norman; L. J. Moran

245

[Action of testicular graft on the ovary of chick embryo having undergone a partial decapitation].  

PubMed

The absence of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal complex had neither influence on the ovarian atrophy, nor on the mullerian retrogression induced by an embryonic testicular graft in the female embryo. So, the hormone responsible of the mullerian retrogression had an inhibiting action on the embryonic ovary of the chick which is independant of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal complex. PMID:132235

Rashedi, M; Stoll, R; Maraud, R

1975-01-01

246

Removal of Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes Cuts Cancer Risk for BRCA1/2 Carriers  

Cancer.gov

Surgery that removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes is one of the most effective ways to decrease a woman's risk of breast and gynecologic cancer if she carries a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, according to the Jan. 21, 2009, Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

247

Ovarian stimulation in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: the role of body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to examine whether body mass index (BMI) may influence IVF outcome in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing ovarian stimulation with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-agonist (agonist group) or antagonist (antagonist group), 100 IVF cycles were studied: 35 in the agonist and 65 in the antagonist groups. In both agonist and antagonist groups, patients with BMI ? 25

Raoul Orvieto; Ravit Nahum; Simion Meltcer; Roy Homburg; Jacob Rabinson; Eyal Y Anteby; Jacob Ashkenazi

2009-01-01

248

Computerized image analysis of sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show that sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) can be analysed by computer-supported determination of areas and shapes of darkly stained chromatid sections. In combination with appropriate statistical analyses, our method leads to measurements of SCE frequencies in neocarzinostatin-treated Chinese hamster ovary cells which are nearly as precise as the ones obtained by classical microscopical analyses. We discuss

C Schunck; G Obe

1997-01-01

249

Genetic diversity of UV-sensitive DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutant lines of Chinese hamster ovary cells that show hypersensitivity to killing and mutagenesis by uv light were analyzed by genetic complementation analysis to determine whether defects in different gene loci might underlie a common cellular phenotype. To facilitate rapid screening of mutant clones, a procedure was devised that allowed presumptive complementation to be assessed on the basis of the

L. H. Thompson; D. B. Busch; K. Brookman; C. L. Mooney; D. A. Glaser

1981-01-01

250

Isolation and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in assembly of peroxisomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We made use of autoradiographic screening to isolate two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mu- tants deficient in peroxisomal dihydroxyacetonephos- phate acyltransferase, a key enzyme for the biosyn- thesis of ether glycerolipids such as plasmalogens. Morphological analysis revealed no evidence of perox- isome in these mutants. Catalase was as active as in the normal cells but was not sedimentable. Pulse-

Toshiro Tsukamoto; Sadaki Yokota; Yukio Fujiki

1990-01-01

251

DIRECT BIOCHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS OF MICROTUBULE ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A study was undertaken,to develop a means,of quantitating the amount,of tubulin present as a soluble pool and as intact microtubules,in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. A procedure,was developed,in which these cells grown,on monolayer culture in Petri dishes were,placed,in a \\

Robert W. Rubin; Gary D. Weiss

252

Increased Tumorigenicity of Fibronectin Receptor Deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a series of variant clona) Chinese hamster ovary cell sublines which are deficient in the expression of the n- ,i, integrin fibronectin receptor. When these clonal sublines were injected s.c. into nude mice, there were marked differences in the rate of tumor growth. Tumors from clones expressing very low levels of fibronectin receptor grew most rapidly, clones

Clara Schreiner; Michael Fisher; Saber Hussein; R. L. Juliano

253

The fluidity of Chinese hamster ovary cell and bull sperm membranes after cholesterol addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell plasma membrane fluidity is affected by membrane lipid and protein composition as well as temperature. Altering the cholesterol content of a membrane can change membrane fluidity at different temperatures and this may affect cell survival during cryopreservation. In these experiments, we examined the effect that adding cholesterol to the membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) and bull sperm

P. H. Purdy; M. H. Fox; J. K. Graham

2005-01-01

254

Expression Profiling Analysis of Sodium Butyrate-Induced Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells in Defined Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of recombinant protein for biopharmaceutical application typically requires vast numbers of cells, and agents that induce expression of the desired product to even higher levels. A typical strategy employed by the biotech industry is to express the protein of interest in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with the gene. Where even higher levels of expression are

MARK W. MELVILLE; Martin Sinacore; LOUANE E. HANN

255

Effect of endogenous methylglyoxal on Chinese hamster ovary cells grown in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylglyoxal is a ketoaldehyde that reacts readily under physiological conditions with biologically relevant ligands, such as amine and sulfhydryl groups. It is produced in mammalian cells primarily as a by-product of glycolysis. The level of glucose, L-glutamine and fetal bovine serum in culture media was found to significantly affect levels of intracellular methylglyoxal in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Medium with

Frank W. R. Chaplen; William E. Fahl; Douglas C. Cameron

1996-01-01

256

Isolation of Lysosomal alpha -mannosidase Mutants of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for detection of lysosomal hydrolase activity in situ in colonies of Chinese hamster ovary cells. This method was used to screen for mutants deficient in lysosomal alpha -mannosidase. Mutagenized cells were replicated onto filter papers [Esko, J. D. & Raetz, C. R. H. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 1190-1193] and allowed to divide for

April R. Robbins

1979-01-01

257

Chinese hamster ovary cell growth and interferon production kinetics in stirred batch culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human interferon-? production by Chinese hamster ovary cells was restricted to the growth phase of batch cultures in serum-free medium. The specific interferon production rate was highest during the initial period of exponential growth but declined subsequently in parallel with specific growth rate. This decline in specific growth rate and interferon productivity was associated with a decline in specific

P. M. Hayter; E. M. A. Curling; A. J. Baines; N. Jenkins; I. Salmon; P. G. Strange; A. T. Bull

1991-01-01

258

Electrophoretic shift mutants in Chinese hamster ovary cells: evidence for genetic diploidy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic shift mutants induced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells indicate that these cells are not extensively functionally hemizygotic. Therefore, effective haploidy is unsatisfactory as a general theory to explain the frequency of recessive mutants in this cell line. CHO cells were screened for electrophoretic shift variants of enzymes coded by approximately 40 genetic loci. Clones isolated after exposure to

M. J. Siciliano; J. Siciliano; R. M. Humphrey

1978-01-01

259

Marker genes identify three somatic cell types in the fetal mouse ovary.  

PubMed

The two main functions of the ovary are the production of oocytes, which allows the continuation of the species, and secretion of female sex hormones, which control many aspects of female development and physiology. Normal development of the ovaries during embryogenesis is critical for their function and the health of the individual in later life. Although the adult ovary has been investigated in great detail, we are only starting to understand the cellular and molecular biology of early ovarian development. Here we show that the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 is expressed in the cortical region of the fetal ovary and this expression is mutually exclusive to FOXL2. Strikingly, a third somatic cell population can be identified, marked by the expression of NR2F2, which is expressed in LGR5- and FOXL2 double-negative ovarian somatic cells. Together, these three marker genes label distinct ovarian somatic cell types. Using lineage tracing in mice, we show that Lgr5-positive cells give rise to adult cortical granulosa cells, which form the follicles of the definitive reserve. Moreover, LGR5 is required for correct timing of germ cell differentiation as evidenced by a delay of entry into meiosis in Lgr5 loss-of-function mutants, demonstrating a key role for LGR5 in the differentiation of pre-granulosa cells, which ensure the differentiation of oogonia, the formation of the definitive follicle reserve, and long-term female fertility. PMID:25158167

Rastetter, Raphael H; Bernard, Pascal; Palmer, James S; Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Chen, Huijun; Western, Patrick S; Ramsay, Robert G; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine; Wilhelm, Dagmar

2014-10-15

260

LH/HCG receptors of the ovary during early postnatal development  

E-print Network

rats were treated with neuraminidase, specific binding for 125i-HCG was detectable. The number of HCG binding sites in the neuraminidase-treated neonatal ovaries was nearly identical to the ovarian HCG was elevated by neuraminidase treatment by about 15-25 p. 100 as compared to untreated control rats. From

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

261

Therapeutic effects of metformin on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia are associated with ovarian hyper- androgenism and menstrual irregularities in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Sixteen obese women with PCOS on a weight-maintaining diet were studied before and after 6 months of therapy with the insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agent metformin at a dose of 1700 mg per day. Compared with baseline values, glucose utilization was

Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Chryssa Kouli; Thomais Tsianateli; Angeliki Bergiele

1998-01-01

262

Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the effectiveness of metformin in improving clinical and biochemical features of polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effect of metformin compared with either placebo or no treatment, or compared with an ovulation induction agent. Selection of studies 13 trials were included for analysis, including 543 women with

Jonathan M Lord; Ingrid H K Flight; Robert J Norman

2003-01-01

263

The Ovary as a Source of alpha -ecdysone in an Adult Mosquito  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovaries of the mosquito Aedes aegypti cultured in vitro secrete material that behaves like ecdysone in a radioimmunoassay. The material was identified as alpha -ecdysone by high-resolution liquid and gas-liquid chromatography. Secretion reached a maximum 16 hr after a blood meal as shown by bioassay and direct determination. Ovariectomy reduced the concentration of ecdysone in the adult after a

H. H. Hagedorn; J. D. O'Connor; Morton S. Fuchs; Becky Sage; Dorothy A. Schlaeger; M. K. Bohm

1975-01-01

264

Metabolic evidence of diminished lipid oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Complex diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are not limited to specific genes, pathogens, toxicoses, or identifiable environmental influences. PCOS still remains a diagnosis of exclusion despite being the most common female endocrinopathy and the leading cause of metabolic syndrome, ...

265

Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian autoimmunity—assessment of ovarian antibodies by EIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are conflicting reports of an association of ovarian antibodies, detected by immunofluorescence, with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of ovarian autoimmunity with PCOS. A validated immunoassay for ovarian antibodies was used to assess serum from women with PCOS and with menopause and normal cycling women as controls. The frequency of

J. L Luborsky; S Shatavi; P Adamczyk; C Chiong; B Llanes; J Lafniztzegger; B Soltes; P McGovern; N Santoro

1999-01-01

266

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES: EXCELLENT MORPHOLOGY, APOPTOSIS DETECTION, AND SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Ovaries consist of numerous follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in different stages of development. Many of these follicles will undergo an apoptotic process during the lifetime of the animal. By using proper tissue preparation methods, the events within the whole...

267

Serum Inhibin B in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Regulation by Insulin and Luteinizing Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibin B is a product of the granulosa cells of growing pre- antral and antral follicles. Despite the large ovarian volume and increased follicle number typically detected in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), previous studies demonstrate that inhibin B is not elevated as would be ex- pected in PCOS, but is inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI). We

CORRINE K. WELT; ANN E. TAYLOR; KATHRYN A. MARTIN; JANET E. HALL

268

Histological examination of sublethal effects of diazinon on ovary of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the insecticide, diazinon (an organophosphorous compound), on the ovaries of bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) were studied. Histological preparations of bluegill ovarian tissue was examined at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following exposure to sublethal doses of diazinon (60 ?g\\/l). The control contained primary follicles with an intact ovigerous lamellae and tunica

Hiran M Dutta; Laura B Maxwell

2003-01-01

269

Young Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Evidence of Early Coronary Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with co- morbidities that may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PCOS is associated with increased risk of metabolic syn- drome, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, but it remains unclear whether traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors can help predict coronary artery disease in this population. Objective: The objectives of the study were to detect

Rupal Shroff; Angela Kerchner; Michelle Maifeld; Edwin J. R. Van Beek; Dinesh Jagasia; Anuja Dokras

270

In germ cells of mouse embryonic ovaries, the decision to enter meiosis precedes premeiotic DNA replication  

E-print Network

In germ cells of mouse embryonic ovaries, the decision to enter meiosis precedes premeiotic DNA Carpenter2, Dirk G de Rooij3 & David C Page1,2 The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a defining juncture in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms. In yeast, the decision to enter meiosis is made before

Carpenter, Anne E.

271

Meiosis in fetal freemartin gonads and in rat fetal ovaries J. PRPIN B. VIGIER A. JOST  

E-print Network

Meiosis in fetal freemartin gonads and in rat fetal ovaries in vitro J. PRÃ?PIN B. VIGIER A. JOST of meiosis. If one takes as a criterion the more conventionally recognized figures (leptotene, zygotene), meiosis was seen in the three freemartin fetuses aged 77 to 88 days, but the percentage of meiotic cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

An algorithm for treatment of infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition with both a reproductive and metabolic phenotype. Women with PCOS often seek care because of infertility or menstrual cycle irregularities that result from chronic anovulation interspersed with occasional ovulatory cycles. Initially, it is important to delineate a differential diagnosis for oligo- or amenorrhea and to evaluate for disorders that may “masquerade” as

Jennifer F. Kawwass; Tammy L. Loucks; Sarah L. Berga

2010-01-01

273

Androgen receptor gene (CAG)n polymorphism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of the present case-control study was to evaluate the incidence of the (CAG)(n)AR polymorphism in Slovene polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. The polymorphism was not found to be a major risk factor for the presence of PCOS and for hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. PMID:18555222

Ferk, Polonca; Perme, Maja Pohar; Teran, Natasa; Gersak, Ksenija

2008-09-01

274

The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

2014-01-01

275

[Effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus in D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging].  

PubMed

The present study was to investigate the effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus of D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging. Aging female mice model caused by D-galactose were used as model group, the aging model mice intragastrically administered with kinetin solution (daily 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) were used as kinetin groups, and the mice with solvent as normal group (n = 20). To detect the effects of kinetin, estrous cycle, estradiol content, ovarian and uterine wet weight and organ index, SOD and GSH-Px activities, MDA and total protein contents, as well as the reserve function of ovaries were examined. The results showed that, kinetin-induced changes in two kinetin groups were observed, compared with the model group: (1) the estrous cycle was shortened; (2) serum estradiol content was significantly increased; (3) the wet weights of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (4) SOD and GSH-Px activities of ovary and uterus were significantly higher; (5) the MDA contents of the ovary and uterus were reduced significantly; (6) total protein contents of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (7) the numbers of mature oocytes in fallopian tubes were increased significantly. The results show that kinetin can protect ovary and uterus against oxidative damage, prevent low estrogen secretion caused by ovarian oxidative damage, shorten the estrous cycle in mice, and eventually maintain ovarian and uterine vitalities. PMID:23963070

Sun, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Yu-Mei; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Wu-Qing

2013-08-25

276

Neural activity between ovaries and the prevertebral celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia varies during the estrous cycle of the rat.  

PubMed

The ovaries' innervation arrives via the superior ovarian nerve, which originates from the celiac ganglion. Using True Blue as an antidromic marker, the present study analyzed the changes in the anatomical relation between each ovary and the prevertebral celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia during the estrous cycle. The number of labeled neurons increased from the day of diestrus 1 to the day of proestrus. The largest number of labeled cells was observed when tracer was injected into the left ovary on proestrus. The number of labeled cells was significantly higher when the tracer was injected into the left ovary on proestrus than when it was done in the right one. When tracer was injected into the left ovary, the average labeled area of cells increased significantly from diestrus 1 to proestrus, and declined at estrus. In contrast, when True Blue was injected into the right ovary, the average labeled area was similar in diestrus 1 and diestrus 2, and the values increased in proestrus and estrus. The results indicate an apparent asymmetry in the activity of neural connections between ovaries and the prevertebral celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia, and that the number of active neurons of these connections varies during the estrous cycle. PMID:15888926

Morán, Carolina; Franco, Alma; Morán, José Luis; Handal, Anabella; Morales, Leticia; Domínguez, Roberto

2005-03-01

277

Primary malignant melanoma of the ovary arising in a cystic teratoma; case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Primary malignant melanoma of the ovary arising in a cystic teratoma is extremely rare. There is no melanocytic component in the normal ovarian tissue. However, melanocytes may be present in a cystic teratoma of the ovary, especially at the basal layer of squamous epithelium. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the ovary arising in a cystic teratoma. We demonstrate junctional activity of melanocytes showing malignant transformation with both radial and vertical growth phases, a feature diagnostic for primary malignant melanoma but not always demonstrated in such cases. We compiled and reviewed twelve cases that are also able to demonstrate junctional activity. PMID:25525997

Lee, James; Magpayo, John; Panchari, Charles; Peng, Shi-Kaung

2014-01-01

278

88 changing maternal nutrition in early pregnancy modifies fetal ovary development in nellore cows.  

PubMed

Environmental influences such as nutritional restriction during early gestation in cattle may impair fetal development and compromise functions in adulthood. During the first trimester of gestation fetal gonads are formed. We hypothesised that either restriction or excess of nutrients ingested by cows during the first third of pregnancy interferes with fetal body weight (BW) and ovary development. Twenty-one uniparous Nelore cows (BW=488±24kg, body condition score, BCS=3.1±0.1) were subjected to timed AI with sexed semen (female) of a single bull and individually allocated to different diets. The diet of the control group (C) met the maintenance requirements, and the groups of high (A) and low (B) were either 180% or 60% of maintenance respectively. Live weight and BCS were assessed weekly to adjust the diet according to the individual weight of each animal. At 60 days of gestation, 9 fetuses (3/group) were removed by colpotomy (accessed through vagina), weighed, and their ovaries were dissected and weighed. One fetal ovary (of each pair) was analysed by RNA-seq (mRNA). The effects of treatments on both ovarian and fetal weight were compared by ANOVA (proc GLM, SAS 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). During the 60 days of treatment, cows from Group A gained 66kg (from 474±6kg to 541±10kg) and 1.25 points in BCS (from 3.0 to 4.25), whereas the cows in group B lost 61kg (from 458±3kg to 397±6kg) and 1 point in BCS (from 3.2 to 2.2). Fetal ovary weight (sum of the two) was lower in group B (0.007±0.001g; P<0.04) than in groups A (0.02±0.004g) and C (0.013±0.007g), which did not differ (P>0.08) between each other. Fetuses in group B weighed less (12.8±1.14g; P<0.006) than in groups A (20.56±2.2g) and C (20.03±0.8g). Maternal nutritional status during the first 60 days of gestation changed the transcriptome of fetal ovaries. There were differences in the pattern of gene expression between the control, high, and low intake groups. A total of 79 genes out of 20657 showed differential expression between treatments (false discovery rate 0.05), some of which were related to embryonic and ovarian development. Thus, we conclude that changing maternal nutrition during the first 60 days of gestation will change the transcriptomic profile of fetal ovaries. Poor maternal nutrition jeopardizes ovarian size and weight and fetal weight, suggesting impairment on the production of ovarian follicles. This is a critical period in fetal ovarian development, as oocytes grow and differentiate, and need to escape from degenerative processes to remain in the ovaries. Thus, the developmental impairment at the beginning of meiosis could reduce the number of oocytes in the fetal ovary. Histological examination of fetal ovaries is underway to evaluate the number of oocytes. PMID:25472137

Costa, H F; Miguel, M C V; Pedroso, A M; Gobbo, S P; Lopes, F L; Peiro, J R; Nogueira, G P

2014-12-01

279

High-antibody-producing chinese hamster ovary cells up-regulate intracellular protein transport and glutathione synthesis.  

PubMed

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) due to their ability to perform post-translational modifications and their successful approval history. The completion of the genome sequence for CHO cells has reignited interest in using quantitative proteomics to identify markers of good production lines. Here we applied two different proteomic techniques, iTRAQ and SWATH, for the identification of expression differences between a high- and low-antibody-producing CHO cell lines derived from the same transfection. More than 2000 proteins were quantified with 70 of them classified as differentially expressed in both techniques. Two biological processes were identified as differentially regulated by both methods: up-regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and down-regulation of DNA replication. Metabolomic analysis confirmed that the high producing cell line displayed higher intracellular levels of glutathione. SWATH further identified up-regulation of actin filament processes and intracellular transport and down regulation of several growth-related processes. These processes may be important for conferring high mAb production and as such are promising candidates for targeted engineering of high-expression cell lines. PMID:25495469

Orellana, Camila A; Marcellin, Esteban; Schulz, Benjamin L; Nouwens, Amanda S; Gray, Peter P; Nielsen, Lars K

2015-02-01

280

Three-dimensional culture of a mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: expression of in vivo characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) is a novel in vitro cell culture system used to successfully culture a cell line derived from a heterologous mixed mullerian tumor cell of the ovary. Although the original tumor was comprised of both epithelial and mesodermal components, long-term culture in conventional flasks established a cell line from this tumor with homogeneous epitheliallike growth characteristics (1). Cells from Passage 36 were seeded into a Rotating-Wall Vessel containing Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads. Scanning electron micrographs of tumor cells cultured for 32 d in the RWV showed the presence of heterogeneous cell populations organized into three-dimensional tissuelike architecture. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed the cellular heterogeneity, as demonstrated by expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal antigens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification demonstrated the presence of mRNA for cellular oncogenes HER-2/neu, H-ras, K-ras, and tumor suppressor p53. Thus, there are two advantages to propagation of tissue in the RWV culture system:(a) tissue diversification representing populations present in the original tumor, and (b) the three-dimensional freedom to organize tissues morphologically akin to those observed in vivo. These data indicate that the RWV culture system is suitable for generating large quantities of ovarian tumor cells in vitro that are amenable to immunocytochemical, oncogenic, morphologic characteristics demonstrated in vivo.

Goodwin, T. J.; Prewett, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.; Becker, J. L.

1997-01-01

281

Differential expression analysis of Paralichthys olivaceus microRNAs in adult ovary and testis by deep sequencing.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gonadal development and differentiation in fish. However, understanding of the mechanism of this process is hindered by our poor knowledge of miRNA expression patterns in fish gonads. In this study, miRNA libraries derived from adult gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus were generated by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to distinguish mature miRNA sequences from two classes of small RNAs represented in the sequencing data. A total of 141 mature miRNAs were identified, in which 21 miRNAs were found in P. olivaceus for the first time. Variance and preference of miRNAs expression were concluded from the deep sequencing reads. Some miRNAs, such as pol-miR-143, pol-miR-26a and pol-let-7a were found with quite high expression levels in both gonads, while some exhibited a clear sex-biased expression in different gonad. Approximate 20.0% and 13.1% of the isolated miRNAs were preferentially expressed in the testis (FC<0.5) or ovary (FC>2), respectively. The identification and the preliminary analysis of the sex-biased expression of miRNAs in P. olivaceus gonads in our work by using NGS will provide us a basic catalog of miRNAs to facilitate future improvement and exploitation of sexual regulatory mechanisms in P. olivaceus. PMID:24861804

Gu, Yifeng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaowu

2014-08-01

282

The FOXL2 C134W mutation is characteristic of adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.  

PubMed

Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary represent ?5% of malignant ovarian cancers. It has recently been reported that 95-97% of adult granulosa cell tumors carry a unique somatic mutation in the FOXL2 gene. We undertook this study to verify the presence of the FOXL2 Cys134Trp mutation in two geographically independent cohorts of granulosa cell tumors and to examine the expression pattern of FOXL2 in these tumors. A total of 56 tumors with the histological diagnosis of adult granulosa cell tumor from two centers, Melbourne and Helsinki, were examined for the presence of the mutation using direct sequence analysis. Two granulosa cell tumor-derived cell lines, COV434 and KGN, three juvenile granulosa cell tumors and control tissues were also examined. The expression of the FOXL2 gene was determined using quantitative RT-PCR and/or immunohistochemistry. We found that 52 of the 56 adult granulosa cell tumors harbor the mutation, of which three were hemi/homozygous. Of the four cases with wild-type FOXL2 sequence, reappraisal suggests that three may have been misclassified at primary diagnosis. The KGN cells were heterozygous for the mutation, whereas the COV434 cells had a wild-type FOXL2 genotype. The expression levels of FOXL2 were similar across the adult granulosa cell tumors and the normal ovary controls; one mutation-negative granulosa cell tumor had high FOXL2 mRNA levels, whereas the COV434 cells and two of the three juvenile granulosa cell tumors lacked the expression of FOXL2. Our data provide confirmation of the frequent presence of the FOXL2 C134W mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors and demonstrate that the mutation is not associated with altered FOXL2 expression. The mutation analysis may be a useful tool to differentiate particularly between cell-rich diffuse granulosa cell tumors and mitotically active sex cord-stromal tumors. This unique FOXL2 mutation appears to be characteristic of adult granulosa cell tumors. PMID:20693978

Jamieson, Stacey; Butzow, Ralf; Andersson, Noora; Alexiadis, Maria; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Heikinheimo, Markku; Fuller, Peter J; Anttonen, Mikko

2010-11-01

283

Biologically active constituents from Salix viminalis bio-oil and their protective activity against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

The protective antioxidative effect of the phenolic extract (PE) isolated from Salix viminalis pyrolysis derived bio-oil was shown in vitro on the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cells pretreated with 0.05 ?g/ml PE after exposure to different concentrations of H2O2 (300-900 ?M) showed up to 25 % higher viability than the unpretreated ones. The antioxidative effect of PE was also observed in a time-dependent manner. The results were confirmed by visual examination of the specimens using microscopy. Finally, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity modulation was shown by SOD assay, designed to determine the activity of enzymes removing free radicals. PMID:25172057

Ilnicka, Anna; Roszek, Katarzyna; Olejniczak, Andrzej; Komoszynski, Michal; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P

2014-11-01

284

77 FR 70451 - Report of the Evidence-Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prevention.nih.gov/workshops/2012/pcos/default.aspx. DATES: Comments on...INFORMATION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormone disorder that affects...women in the United States. Women with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant...

2012-11-26

285

A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.  

PubMed

Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2?Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape. PMID:24519535

Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

286

Mutational Specificity of l,3Bis(2-chloroethyl)-l-nitrosourea in a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutational specificity of the alkylating agent l-3-bis-(2-chloro- ethyl)-l-nitrosourea (BCNU) »asanalyzed at the endogenous hemizy- gous (alenine phosphoribosyl transferase gene of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line D422. A 1-h treatment of the Chinese hamster ovary cells with 50 UM BCNU resulted in a toxicity level of 62% and induced mutation at this target with a frequency of 32.1 mutants\\/106

Dana T. Minnick; Martina L. Veigl; W. David Sedwick

287

Biochemical Basis for the Cytotoxicity of 9-ß-D-Xylofuranosyladenine in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical determinants of the toxicity of 9-\\/?-D-xylo- furanosyladenine (xyl-A) to Chinese hamster ovary cells were evaluated in vitro. Cloning procedures indicated that the via bility of Chinese hamster ovary cells was decreased 90% by a five-hr incubation with 10 U.Mxyl-A. However, the toxicity of xyl-A was increased 100-fold by the addition of a nontoxic concentration (10 ¡IM)of the adenosine

Bruce A. Harris; William Plunkett

288

The relation between mixed mesodermal tumors and adenocarcinomas of the ovary. An immunopathologic study.  

PubMed

Mixed mesodermal tumor of the ovary is a rare neoplasm. The diagnosis is made if an ovarian carcinoma contains heterologous sarcomatous differentiation. With the help of an immunopathologic stain for desmin, the intermediate filament protein of muscle cells, twenty cases of ovarian adenocarcinoma were examined for the presence of morphologically unrecognizable heterologous tumor cells. Six of twenty tumors were positive. There was no significant correlation between a number of clinical parameters and desmin positivity. The authors conclude that mixed mesodermal tumor of the ovary may not be a separate entity. Instead, there may be a single group of ovarian epithelial tumors ranging from borderline or well-differentiated carcinomas to poorly-differentiated tumors which may show homologous (carcinosarcoma) or heterologous (mixed mesodermal tumor) differentiation. PMID:2832174

Noorduyn, L A; Herman, C J

1987-02-01

289

Nesprin-2 epsilon: a novel nesprin isoform expressed in human ovary and Ntera-2 cells.  

PubMed

The nuclear envelope-associated cytoskeletal protein, nesprin-2, is encoded by a large gene containing several internal promoters that produce shorter isoforms. In a study of Ntera-2 teratocarcinoma cells, a novel isoform, nesprin-2-epsilon, was found to be the major mRNA and protein product of the nesprin-2 gene. Its existence was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but this is the first direct demonstration of both the mRNA and the 120 kDa protein which is located at the nuclear envelope. In a panel of 21 adult and foetal human tissues, the nesprin-2-epsilon mRNA was strongly expressed in ovary but was a minor isoform elsewhere. The expression pattern suggests a possible link with very early development and a likely physiological role in ovary. PMID:21820406

Lam, Le Thanh; Böhm, Sabrina V; Roberts, Roland G; Morris, Glenn E

2011-08-26

290

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view. PMID:24073009

Johansson, Julia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

2013-01-01

291

Comparison of N-Glycan Pattern of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factors II and IX Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and African Green Monkey (Vero) Cells.  

PubMed

The N-glycan patterns of recombinant human coagulation factors II (rF-II) and IX (rF-IX), derived from both transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and African green monkay (Vero) cells produced at industrial scale, were analyzed by binding to carbohydrate-specific lectins and were compared with the glycan structure of human plasma-derived coagulation factors. Human plasma-derived coagulation factors II (hpF-II) and IX (hpF-IX) exhibited complex-type glycan structures with carbohydrate chains capped with alpha(2-6)-sialic acid. Terminal galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine units were detected in hpF-IX. Both CHO cell-derived rF-II and rF-IX exhibited complex-type glycosylation and contained alpha(2-3)-sialic acid in addition to terminal galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine. Vero cell-derived rF-IX exhibited a complex-type glycan structure similar to that of CHO cell-derived rF-IX. In contrast, rF-II produced by Vero cells exhibited a glycan microheterogeneity composed of hybrid-type glycosylation containing "high-mannose" structures and complex-type glycosylation containing alpha(2-3)-sialic acid. Galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine structures and a low concentration of alpha(2-6)-sialic acid were detected in both microheterogeneity fractions of Vero cell-derived rF-II. Although different in their carbohydrate structures, coagulation factors II and IX obtained recombinantly from both transformed CHO cells and Vero cells exhibited coagulation activities comparable with the plasma-derived proteins. PMID:10608038

Fischer; Mitterer; Dorner; Eibl

1996-01-01

292

Effects of metformin on adrenal steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether the administration of metformin, an insulin-sensitizing agent, is followed by changes in adrenal steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective trial.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.Patient(s): Fourteen women with PCOS.Intervention(s): Blood samples were obtained before (?15 and 0 minutes) and after (15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes) the administration

Antonio la Marca; Giuseppe Morgante; Tiziana Paglia; Liliana Ciotta; Antonio Cianci; Vincenzo De Leo

1999-01-01

293

Effects of metformin on gonadotropin-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate whether pretreatment with metformin improves FSH-induced ovulation in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Randomized prospective trial.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Siena.Patient(s): Twenty women with clomiphene citrate–resistant PCOS.Intervention(s): The women were divided randomly into groups A and B (10 subjects each). Group B received 1,500 mg of metformin for at least a month

Vincenzo De Leo; Antonio la Marca; Antonino Ditto; Giuseppe Morgante; Antonio Cianci

1999-01-01

294

Occurrence of saxitoxins as a major toxin in the ovary of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven male and 14 female specimens of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum were collected from Oita and Iwate Prefectures, Japan. The toxicity assay using mouse showed that only ovary and skin of the female specimens were toxic, the toxicity scores being 5–740 as paralytic shellfish poison and <5–30MU\\/g as tetrodotoxin (TTX), respectively. The toxin extracts from the both tissues were

Kazuhito Nakashima; Osamu Arakawa; Shigeto Taniyama; Mamoru Nonaka; Tomohiro Takatani; Kunio Yamamori; Yuichi Fuchi; Tamao Noguchi

2004-01-01

295

Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Related Disorders in Mexican Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been found to affect 4–8% of women of reproductive age; however, in Mexican-Americans a prevalence of 12.8% has been reported. This study determines the prevalence of PCOS in a sample of Mexican women. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included 150 female Mexican volunteers aged 20–45 years. Menstrual cycles were recorded and hirsutism was graded.

Carlos Moran; Gilberto Tena; Segundo Moran; Paola Ruiz; Rosario Reyna; Ximena Duque

2010-01-01

296

The Risks of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of female infertility due to anovulation in developed countries,\\u000a affecting about 5–10% of women of reproductive age [1, 2]. It is characterized by the presence of two or more of the following\\u000a features: chronic oligo- or anovulation, androgen excess (either biochemically or clinically as hirsutism, acne, or male pattern\\u000a alopecia), and

Susmeeta T. Sharma; John E. Nestler

297

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Common Endocrine Disorder and Risk Factor for Vascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, impacting 5–10% of premenopausal\\u000a American women. During the reproductive years, women with PCOS seek medical attention related to infertility, hirsutism, and\\u000a acne. About 60% of women with PCOS are obese and insulin resistant. Up to 40% of women with PCOS will develop diabetes by\\u000a the

Mary P. McGowan

298

Recommendations for the Early Recognition and Prevention of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) commonly occur during or soon after the onset of puberty, which may preclude\\u000a early recognition of the disorder, because the clinical expression of gonadal activation with pubertal development may bear\\u000a close resemblance to that of PCOS. The single-most important finding is that of progressive hirsutism. Chronic anovulation\\u000a is less reliable unless the pattern

R. Jeffrey Chang

299

Effect of plant growth regulators on ovary culture of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coconut is a cross pollinating palm, propagated only by seeds. Tissue culture is the only vegetative propagation method available\\u000a for coconut. Consistent callogenesis was obtained by culturing unfertilised ovaries at -4 stage in CRI 72 medium containing\\u000a 100 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.1% activated charcoal. Callusing was improved by application of 9 ?M thidiazuron\\u000a (TDZ). Embryogenic calli were subcultured onto somatic

P. I. P. Perera; V. R. M. Vidhanaarachchi; T. R. Gunathilake; D. M. D. Yakandawala; V. Hocher; J. L. Verdeil; L. K. Weerakoon

2009-01-01

300

Maturation of stamens and ovaries on cultured ear inflorescences of maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on the maturation of stamens and ovaries from cultured maize (Zea mays L.) ear inflorescences. Immature ears (5.1–10.0 mm long) of maize were cultured in kinetin medium to study microsporogenesis and pollen maturation in developing stamens. Male spikelets developed on ears cultured in kinetin medium. Meiosis-I began by 7 days of culture in the developing anthers and

V. R. Bommineni

1990-01-01

301

Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

2013-01-01

302

Heterogeneity in sexual bipotentiality and plasticity of granulosa cells in developing mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

In mammalian sex determination, SRY directly upregulates the expression of SOX9, the master regulatory transcription factor in Sertoli cell differentiation, leading to testis formation. Without SRY action, the bipotential gonadal cells become pre-granulosa cells, which results in ovarian follicle development. When, where and how pre-granulosa cells are determined to differentiate into developing ovaries, however, remains unclear. By monitoring SRY-dependent SOX9 inducibility (SDSI) in an Sry-inducible mouse system, we were able to identify spatiotemporal changes in the sexual bipotentiality/plasticity of ovarian somatic cells throughout life. The early pre-granulosa cells maintain the SDSI until 11.5 d.p.c., after which most pre-granulosa cells rapidly lose this ability by 12.0 d.p.c. Unexpectedly, we found a subpopulation of the pre-granulosa cells near the mesonephric tissue that continuously retains SDSI throughout fetal and early postnatal stages. After birth, these SDSI-positive pre-granulosa cells contribute to the initial round of folliculogenesis by the secondary follicle stage. In experimental sex reversal of 13.5-d.p.c. ovaries grafted into adult male nude mice, the differentiated granulosa cells re-acquire the SDSI before other signs of masculinization. Our data provide direct evidence of an unexpectedly high sexual heterogeneity of granulosa cells in developing mouse ovaries in a stage- and region-specific manner. Discovery of such sexually bipotential granulosa cells provides a novel entry point to the understanding of masculinization in various cases of XX disorders of sexual development in mammalian ovaries. PMID:23613466

Harikae, Kyoko; Miura, Kento; Shinomura, Mai; Matoba, Shogo; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Kanai, Yoshiakira

2013-07-01

303

Selection of donor and recipient females by ultrasonic imaging of the bovine ovary  

E-print Network

, 64). Hendricks et al. (65) proposed that ovulation rate in superovulated cows may be controlled by the number of follicles induced to grow while the corpus luteum is functional. A study 13 involving non-superovulated Holstein heifers reported...SELECTION OF DONOR AND RECIPIENT FEMALES BY ULTRASONIC IMAGING OF THE BOVINE OVARY A Thesis by SAMUEL PAUL JACRSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Jackson, Samuel Paul

1988-01-01

304

Characterization of brain-type ryanodine receptor permanently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify a function of brain-type ryanodine receptor (RyR3) and its regulation, we established a stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR3 by transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cells) with the cDNA and investigated characteristics of the RyR3. Scatchard analysis of [3H]-ryanodine binding to the membrane from CHO cells expressing RyR3 showed two distinct binding sites. The Kd values

Kazuhiko Saeki; Ichiro Obi; Noriko Ogiku; Yasuhiro Hakamata; Takeshi Matsumoto

1998-01-01

305

Mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells with defective methotrexate uptake are distinguishable by reversion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary cells that are about 50× more resistant to the cytotoxic action of methotrexate than wild-type cells were deficient in the ability to take up methotrexate. In the absence of any exogeneous folates, these cells require 100–250× the level of folinic acid as wild-type cells to support growth at a similar level. Two classes of mutants were distinguishable

T. Michael Underhill; Wayne F. Flintoff

1989-01-01

306

Acidification of morphologically distinct endosomes in mutant and wild- type Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the preceding paper (Yamashiro, D. J., and E R. Maxfield. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2713-2721), we have shown that there is rapid acidification of en- dosomal compartments to pH 6.3 by 3 min in wild- type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In contrast, early acidification of endosomes is markedly reduced in the CHO mutants, DTF 1-5-4 and DTF 1-5-1.

Darrell J. Yamashiro; Frederick R. Maxfield

1987-01-01

307

Inverted Repeated DNA from Chinese Hamster Ovary cells Studied with Cloned DNA Fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments from the DNA of Chinese hamster ovary cells produced by restriction endonuclease EcoRI were cloned in Charon 16A lambda bacteriophage and examined for the ability to hybridize in situ with 32P-labeled double-stranded regions from heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). Of 235 clones tested, 87 (37%) contained sequences that hybridized with the double-stranded hnRNA. Nine of these were examined for the

Warren R. Jelinek

1978-01-01

308

Cell cycle phase dependent productivity of a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO1-15500, producing recombinant human tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) via the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) amplification\\u000a system, was studied in batch culture. In this system both DHFR and tPA are under the control of the strong constitutive viral\\u000a SV40 early promoter. Employing the cumulative viable cell-hour approach, the specific productivity of tPA had maxima in

Roshni L. Dutton; Jeno Scharer; Murray Moo-Young

2006-01-01

309

Analysis of site-specific glycosylation in recombinant human follistatin expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Follistatin (FS), a glycoprotein, plays an important role in cell growth and differentiation through the neutralization of the biological activities of activins. In this study, we analyzed the glycosylation of recombinant human FS (rhFS) produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The results of SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS revealed the presence of both non-glycosylated and glycosylated forms. FS contains two potential

Masashi Hyuga; Satsuki Itoh; Nana Kawasaki; Miyako Ohta; Akiko Ishii; Sumiko Hyuga; Takao Hayakawa

2004-01-01

310

Genomic sequencing and analysis of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line using Illumina sequencing technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are among the most widely used hosts for therapeutic protein production. Yet few genomic resources are available to aid in engineering high-producing cell lines. RESULTS: High-throughput Illumina sequencing was used to generate a 1x genomic coverage of an engineered CHO cell line expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP). Reference-guided alignment and assembly produced 3.57 million

Stephanie Hammond; Jeffrey C Swanberg; Mihailo Kaplarevic; Kelvin H Lee

2011-01-01

311

Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells under low temperature and butyrate treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells selected for high productivity are capable of secreting immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules at a level that rivals plasma cells in vivo. Following butyrate treatment at 33°C, further increases in productivity are observed. To better understand the mechanisms by which this increased productivity is incurred, the transcriptional response of an antibody-producing cell line undergoing these

Anne Kantardjieff; Nitya M. Jacob; Joon Chong Yee; Eyal Epstein; Yee-Jiun Kok; Robin Philp; Michael Betenbaugh; Wei-Shou Hu

2010-01-01

312

Immunologies! Detection of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing a Multidrug Resistance Phenotype1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody (igG,) has been prepared that specifi cally detects Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing a multidrug- resistant phenotype. This antibody recognizes the membrane P- glycoprotein (M, 170,000) associated with drug resistance as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified P-glycoprotein and by Western blot analysis of cell extracts from drug-resistant and drug-sensitive cells. By immunofluorescence methods, the antibody

Bernd Lathan; Dean P. Edwards; Lynn G. Dressier; Daniel D. Von Hoff; William L. McGuire

313

Identification of Metabolites in the Normal Ovary and Their Transformation in Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we characterized the metabolome of the human ovary and identified metabolic alternations that coincide with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and metastatic tumors resulting from primary ovarian cancer (MOC) using three analytical platforms: gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS\\/MS) using buffer systems and instrument settings to catalog positive or negative ions.

Miranda Y. Fong; Jonathan McDunn; Sham S. Kakar

2011-01-01

314

DNA-mediated gene transfer in Chinese hamster ovary cells: Clonal variation in transfer efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymidine kinase-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were genetically transformed with the BamHI restriction fragment encoding the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV-tk). We have observed considerable clonal variation among independent CHO sublines with respect to transformation competence for the DNA-mediated gene transfer of HSV-tk. Transformation frequencies =3×10-4 were observed consistently in one subline, with a transformation efficiency

Rodney S. Nairn; Gerald M. Adair; Ronald M. Humphrey

1982-01-01

315

THE MITOTIC SPINDLE OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS ISOLATED IN TAXOL-CONTAINING MEDIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Mitotic spindles from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were isolated and purified by a one-step procedure in an isolation medium containing the microtubule-stabilizing drug, taxol. Released mitotic spindles were examined by phase-contrast, polarizing and differential-interference micro- scopy. They were also stained with monoclonal antibody raised against yeast tubulin and examined by epifluorescence microscopy. The spindles were free from visible

RYOKO KURIYAMA; GUY KERYER; GARY G. BORISY

1984-01-01

316

Preferential binding of cisplatin to mitochondrial DNA of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some chemical carcinogens localize preferentially in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) when compared with genomic DNA (gDNA). Here we compare the ability of cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatimum[II]) to induce DNA adducts in both genomic and mtDNA of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in culture. Cytotoxicity was examined by cell survival 4, 8 and 24 h afer exposure to 50 ?M cisplatin. Cisplatin-DNA adducts were

Ofelia A. Olivero; Cristina Semino; Ahmed Kassim; Daniel M. Lopez-Larraza; Miriam C. Poirier

1995-01-01

317

Effects of Hyperthermia on Survival and Progression of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to hyperthermic temperatures of 42.5-46.0° de creases exponentially as a function of duration of heat exposure in a manner quite similar to survival as a function of radiation dose. The data indicate that above 43°a 1° change in temperature requires a 2-fold change in time to achieve the same degree

Stephen A. Sapareto; Larry E. Hopwood; William C. Dewey; Mundundi R. Raju; Joe W. Gray

318

Effect of cadmium on cell cycle progression in chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO K1) cells are very sensitive to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. They were used to investigate the effect of Cd on cell cycle progression. Cells were cultured with 0.1, 0.4, 1 or 4?M Cd for various time intervals. There was no difference in growth rate when less than 0.4?M Cd was given within 24h. A dose-dependent reduction

Pei-Ming Yang; Shu-Jun Chiu; Kwei-Ann Lin; Lih-Yuan Lin

2004-01-01

319

Aberrant Metabolic Sialylation of Recombinant Proteins Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells in High Productivity Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of sialic acid into therapeutic recombinant glycoprotein expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells during growth in large bioreactors (10 l) has been monitored under high productivity conditions induced by the presence of sodium butyrate. Samples of the bioreactor culture (?4 × 106cells) were labeled with3H-N-acetylmannosamine, a metabolic precursor of sialic acid. After 24 h, the recombinant glycoprotein,

Lydia Santell; Thomas Ryll; Tina Etcheverry; Michael Santoris; George Dutina; Angie Wang; Jane Gunson; Thomas G. Warner

1999-01-01

320

Initiation and maintenance of long term somatic embryogenesis from anthers and ovaries of Vitis longii ‘Microsperma’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthers and ovaries of Vitis longii ‘Microsperma’ produced embryogenic callus when cultured on solidified Murashige and Skoog medium with 5µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1µM benzyladenine (BA). The initial callus was short-lived. However, long-term embryogenesis from callus was maintained through serial transfers by careful selection of clustered embryos with subtending callus. Alternatively, long term culture maintenance was through secondary embryogenesis

D. J. Gray; J. A. Mortensen

1987-01-01

321

Operative transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy for treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a new minimally invasive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate a new minimally invasive surgery for treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in clomiphene-resistant infertile women.Design: Prospective study.Setting: University teaching hospital.Patient(s): Thirteen clomiphene citrate–resistant anovulatory women with PCOS.Intervention(s): Operative transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) using a coaxial bipolar electrode.Main Outcome Measure(s): Feasability, ovulation rate, and pregnancy rate.Result(s): Ovarian drilling was performed by THL in all patients; no surgical

Hervé Fernandez; Jean-Dominique Alby; Amélie Gervaise; Renaud de Tayrac; René Frydman

2001-01-01

322

Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy reduces the development of gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether metformin safely reduced development of gestational diabetes in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective and retrospective study.Setting: Outpatient clinical research center.Patient(s): The prospective study included 33 nondiabetic women with PCOS who conceived while taking metformin and had live births; of these, 28 were taking metformin through delivery. The retrospective study included 39 nondiabetic women

C. J Glueck; Ping Wang; Suichi Kobayashi; Harvey Phillips; Luann Sieve-Smith

2002-01-01

323

Psychosocial and Quality-of-Life Consequences of Androgen Excess and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life is a multidimensional, subjective idea that defies exact definition. In androgen excess, and even more so\\u000a in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), changes in outer appearance, menstrual disturbances, and infertility result in psychological\\u000a distress, reduced quality of life, and a less satisfying sex life. Although obesity and hirsutism are major determinants of\\u000a the physical component of quality

Onno E. Janssen; Susanne Hahn; Sigrid Elsenbruch

324

Foxl2 functions in sex determination and histogenesis throughout mouse ovary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Partial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women. In animal models, Foxl2 is required for maintenance, and possibly induction, of female sex determination independently of other critical genes, e.g., Rspo1. Here we report expression profiling of mouse ovaries that lack Foxl2 alone or in combination with Wnt4 or Kit\\/c-Kit. RESULTS: Following

José Elias Garcia-Ortiz; Emanuele Pelosi; Shakib Omari; Timur Nedorezov; Yulan Piao; Jesse Karmazin; Manuela Uda; Antonio Cao; Steve W Cole; Antonino Forabosco; David Schlessinger; Chris Ottolenghi

2009-01-01

325

Do young women with polycystic ovary syndrome show early evidence of preclinical coronary artery disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is thought that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this study, we used transthoracic echocardiography to measure coronary flow reserve (CFR) in 28 women with PCOS and in 26 healthy women. RESULTS: The PCOS and the control groups were similar in terms of age (27.1 4.5 versus 28.8

Semra Topcu; Mustafa Caliskan; Emel Ebru Ozcimen; Derya Tok; Ayla Uckuyu; Dogan Erdogan; Hakan Gullu; Aylin Yildirir; Hulusi Zeyneloglu; Haldun Muderrisoglu

2005-01-01

326

Reproductive Performance of Mouse Oocyte after In Vivo Exposure of The Ovary to Continuous Wave Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a lack of studies regarding the effects of ultrasound (US) and replication of its exposure on pre-implantation events in mammals. Thus, this study assesses the reproductive performance of mouse oocytes that have been obtained from ovaries irradiated with US waves versus non-irradiated ovaries. Also comparision of their parthenogenesis, ovulation, fertilization, and pre-implantation development rates. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we divided extracted ovaries into three experimental groups that received the same dosage, but different replicates of radiation for each group. Results were compared with the control and sham groups. Continuous wave (CW) US, at a spatial average intensity of 355 mW/cm2 and a frequency of 3.28 MHz, was administered for 5 minutes to the ovaries at an interval between pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injections. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA test and the level of significance was determined to be 0.05. Results: Data collection was based on microscopic visualization. According to the obtained results, metaphase II (MII) oocyte numbers and the percentage of blastocysts significantly reduced in the USexposed groups versus the unexposed groups. Fertilization rate was comparable between groups while parthenogenesis was significantly higher in the US-exposed groups compared to the unexposed groups. Conclusion: Structural damage to cells, intracellular organelles and proteins, as well as changes in signaling pathways induced by US may be reasons for some of the observed adverse effects in groups that have received more US exposure. PMID:24520439

Nasiri, Nahid; VosoughTaqi Dizaj, Ahmad; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Akhond, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

327

The Endocrine Impact of Obesity and Body Habitus in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity, particularly the abdominal type, is associated with several abnormalities of sex steroid balance in women, including\\u000a an increased androgen production rate and decreased serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. It is hypothesized that\\u000a the increasing epidemic of obesity worldwide may also favor the high prevalence of obesity among women with polycystic ovary\\u000a syndrome (PCOS). Obesity has a profound impact

Renato Pasquali; Alessandra Gambineri

328

Menstrual Dysfunction and Endometrial Neoplasia in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Other Androgen Excess Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 80% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) suffer from menstrual dysfunction (oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea) at\\u000a some point in their reproductive life. These conditions are associated with several factors, including obesity, degree of\\u000a hyperandrogenism, and insulin insensitivity. Menstrual irregularity improves with advancing age. Women with menstrual irregularity\\u000a are more likely to have an elevated luteinizing hormone (LH), altered LH-to-follicle-stimulating hormone

Abdulkadir Wagley; Paul Hardiman

329

Psychological well-being and sexarche in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) such as hyperandrogenism and anovulation can be highly stressful and might negatively affect psychological well-being and sexuality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between PCOS characteristics and psychological well-being as well as sexarche. Methods Patients (n = 1148) underwent standardized clinical evaluation. Psychological well-being was investigated in 480

Niet de J. E; Koning de C. M; H. Pastoor; H. J. Duivenvoorden; O. Valkenburg; M. J. Ramakers; J. Passchier; C. de Klerk; J. S. E. Laven

2010-01-01

330

Identification of Metabolites in the Normal Ovary and Their Transformation in Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

In this study, we characterized the metabolome of the human ovary and identified metabolic alternations that coincide with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and metastatic tumors resulting from primary ovarian cancer (MOC) using three analytical platforms: gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) using buffer systems and instrument settings to catalog positive or negative ions. The human ovarian metabolome was found to contain 364 biochemicals and upon transformation of the ovary caused changes in energy utilization, altering metabolites associated with glycolysis and ?-oxidation of fatty acids—such as carnitine (1.79 fold in EOC, p<0.001; 1.88 fold in MOC, p<0.001), acetylcarnitine (1.75 fold in EOC, p<0.001; 2.39 fold in MOC, p<0.001), and butyrylcarnitine (3.62 fold, p<0.0094 in EOC; 7.88 fold, p<0.001 in MOC). There were also significant changes in phenylalanine catabolism marked by increases in phenylpyruvate (4.21 fold; p?=?0.0098) and phenyllactate (195.45 fold; p<0.0023) in EOC. Ovarian cancer also displayed an enhanced oxidative stress response as indicated by increases in 2-aminobutyrate in EOC (1.46 fold, p?=?0.0316) and in MOC (2.25 fold, p<0.001) and several isoforms of tocopherols. We have also identified novel metabolites in the ovary, specifically N-acetylasparate and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate, whose role in ovarian physiology has yet to be determined. These data enhance our understanding of the diverse biochemistry of the human ovary and demonstrate metabolic alterations upon transformation. Furthermore, metabolites with significant changes between groups provide insight into biochemical consequences of transformation and are candidate biomarkers of ovarian oncogenesis. Validation studies are warranted to determine whether these compounds have clinical utility in the diagnosis or clinical management of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:21625518

Fong, Miranda Y.; McDunn, Jonathan; Kakar, Sham S.

2011-01-01

331

Stem cell factor and c-Kit in human primordial germ cells and fetal ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and human embryonic gonads during weeks 5–8 of prenatal life, and fetal ovaries during weeks 9–36 of prenatal life. Distinct c-Kit and SCF staining was present in primordial germ cells in the wall of the hindgut

Poul Erik Høyer; Anne Grete Byskov; Kjeld Møllgård

2005-01-01

332

Role of Ovarian Transposition Based on the Dosimetric Effects of Craniospinal Irradiation on the Ovaries: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we present a case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function in an adult female patient treated with craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma. The prescribed dose to the craniospinal axis was 2340 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction and was delivered with 6-MV photons. Before ovarian transposition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained for localization of the ovaries and was registered with the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Surgical clips allowed for CT localization of the ovaries after transposition. As a result of ovarian transposition, mean and maximum radiation doses decreased from 983 to 68 cGy and 1624 to 84 cGy for the left ovary and from 166 to 87 cGy and 723 to 103 cGy for the right ovary, respectively. Review of the literature indicates that such radiation doses are below the threshold that causes ovarian dysfunction and infertility. We conclude that ovarian localization with an MRI of the pelvis can be offered to females undergoing craniospinal irradiation. Transposition of the ovaries provides an option to preserve ovarian function in cases where the ovaries would otherwise be included within the radiation field.

Mitchell, James D.; Hitchen, Christine [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Vlachaki, Maria T. [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)], E-mail: mvlachaki@med.wayne.edu

2007-10-01

333

Expression of LRH-1 and SF-1 in the mouse ovary: localization in different cell types correlates with differing function.  

PubMed

Steroid biosynthesis in ovary is enhanced by the orphan nuclear receptor, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1); however, we reported that liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), a closely related receptor to SF-1, is also expressed in mouse ovary. To further investigate the role of LRH-1 in mouse ovary, we used in situ hybridization to identify the cell types that express LRH-1 versus SF-1, and carried out functional studies to determine the role of LRH-1 in the regulation of the human (h) ovary-specific CYP19 promoter. LRH-1 expression was found to be abundant and highly restricted to cells involved in estrogen biosynthesis-granulosa cells during the estrous cycle, and in corpora lutea (CL) of pregnancy. In contrast, SF-1 was expressed most highly in C(19)-steroid-producing theca cells and interstitium, and at low levels in granulosa and luteal cells. Transfection studies using granulosa cells demonstrated that LRH-1 is a potent regulator of both basal and forskolin-induced transcription of the ovary-specific hCYP19 promoter. This activity was dependent upon two nuclear receptor half-sites within the proximal hCYP19 promoter. Based on these findings, we propose that LRH-1 plays an important role as a competence factor in regulating aromatase, and thus estrogen biosynthesis, in ovary. PMID:12972182

Hinshelwood, Margaret M; Repa, Joyce J; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Mangelsdorf, David J; Mendelson, Carole R

2003-09-30

334

Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor.  

PubMed Central

The divergently transcribed yolk protein genes (Yp1 and Yp2) of Drosophila melanogaster are expressed only in adult females, in fat body tissue and in ovarian follicle cells. Using an in vitro transcription assay, we have identified a single 12-bp DNA element that activates transcription from the promoters of both Yp genes. In vivo, this regulatory element is tissue specific: it activates transcription of Yp1 and Yp2 reporter genes in follicle cells but has no detectable effect in fat body or other tissues. The sequence of the element consists of two recognition sites for the GATA family of transcription factors. We show that among the Drosophila genes known to encode GATA factors, only dGATAb is expressed in ovaries. The single transcript that we detect in ovaries is alternatively spliced or initiated to produce an ovary-specific isoform of the protein. Bacterially expressed dGATAb binds to the 12-bp element; a similar binding activity is also present in the Kc0 nuclear extracts used for in vitro transcription assays. These in vitro and in vivo results lead us to propose that dGATAb makes several developmentally regulated products, one of which is a follicle cell-specific protein activating transcription of Yp1 and Yp2 from a known regulatory element. PMID:8524261

Lossky, M; Wensink, P C

1995-01-01

335

Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17?-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females. PMID:25242521

Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

2014-10-10

336

Sertoli-leydig cell tumour of ovary with menorrhagia: a rare case report.  

PubMed

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCTs) are rare sex cord stromal neoplasms of ovary accounting for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumours. These are found in women of all age groups (2-75 y), but are most common in reproductive age group with an average age of 25 y. Mostly these are unilateral, confined to ovaries and usually stage I at the time of clinical diagnosis. The common presenting complaints in these patients are due to either mass occupying lesion (mostly pelviabdominal mass and/or pain) or hormonal production (mostly androgen and more rarely oestrogen). Androgenic manifestations, seen in 80% of patients with SLCT, are virilism, hirsutism, receding hairline, breast atrophy, clitoromegaly, acne, hoarseness of voice, etc. Estrogenic manifestations are precocious puberty, abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal vaginal bleeding, menstrual irregularities, generalised oedema, weight gain, breast hypertrophy, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps and endometrial carcinoma. Histologically these are classified (WHO) as well-differentiated, intermediately differentiated, poorly differentiated, with heterologous components and retiform type. Prognosis depends upon degree of tumour differentiation (grading) and tumour extent (staging). We herein report an unusual case of SLCT of ovary with oestrogenic manifestation of menorrhagia. PMID:25478358

Kanade, Umesh Sidheshwar; Dantkale, Sunita Sanjay; Narkhede, Rahul Ravindra; Kurawar, Rupali Ramrao; Bansode, Shubhada Yadavrao

2014-10-01

337

Anatomical and Molecular Analyses of XY Ovaries from the African Pygmy Mouse Mus minutoides.  

PubMed

The African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides is characterized by the presence of a high proportion of fertile XY females in natural populations. This species displays 2 morphologically different X chromosomes: the ancestral X and a shorter one designated as X*, feminizing the X*Y individuals. This strongly suggests that in the presence of an X* chromosome, the male differentiation program is not activated despite a functional Y chromosome. In this study, we compared the histology of the adult ovaries of the 3 female genotypes (XX, XX* and X*Y) and investigated the expression of some of the main genes involved in male and female differentiation. We found that X*Y gonads display a typical ovarian structure without any testicular organization. Moreover, the ovarian somatic marker FOXL2 is detected in X*Y follicle cells and exhibits the same pattern as in XX and XX* ovaries, whereas SOX9 and DMRT1 are absent at all stages of follicular differentiation. However, surprisingly, X*Y ovaries display a higher level of Sry transcripts compared to testes. Our findings confirm the complete sex reversal in X*Y individuals with no apparent sign of masculinization, providing an attractive model to unravel new gene interactions involved in the mammalian sex determination system. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25359508

Rahmoun, Massilva; Perez, Julie; Saunders, Paul A; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Poulat, Francis; Veyrunes, Frédéric

2014-10-29

338

Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

Wallace, W. Hamish B. [Section of Child Life and Health, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Saran, Frank [Royal Marsden NHS Trust Foundation, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kelsey, Tom W. [School of Computer Science, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

339

Expression of fibroblast growth factor 10 and cognate receptors in the developing bovine ovary.  

PubMed

In the mammalian ovary, FGF10 is expressed in oocytes and theca cells and is a candidate for paracrine signaling to the developing granulosa cells. To gain insight into the participation of FGF10 in the regulation of fetal folliculogenesis, we assessed mRNA expression patterns of FGF10 and its receptors, FGFR1B and FGFR2B, in relation to fetal follicle dynamics and localized FGF10 protein in bovine fetal ovaries at different ages. Primordial, primary, secondary, and antral follicles were first observed on Days 75, 90, 150, and 210 of gestation, respectively. The levels of GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA, markers for primordial and primary follicles, respectively, increased during fetal ovary development in a consistent manner with fetal follicle dynamics. CYP17A1 mRNA abundance increased from Day 60 to Day 75 and then from Day 120 to Day 150, coinciding with the appearance of secondary follicles. FGF10 mRNA abundance increased from Day 90, and this increase was temporally associated with increases in FGFR1B mRNA abundance and in the population of primary follicles. In contrast, FGFR2B mRNA expression was highest on Day 60 and decreased thereafter. FGF10 protein was localized to oogonia and oocytes and surrounding granulosa cells at all fetal ages. The present data suggest a role for FGF10 in the control of fetal folliculogenesis in cattle. PMID:24650928

Castilho, A C S; da Silva, R Bueno; Price, C A; Machado, M F; Amorim, R L; Buratini, J

2014-06-01

340

Histopathological study of ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to different thymol concentrations.  

PubMed

Thymol is a monoterpene with proven acaricide action for several tick species. In addition to killing these ectoparasites, thymol can also reduce oviposition and egg hatch rate. However, the effects of thymol on the morphophysiology of tick ovaries are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphophysiological changes caused by this active principle in ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus after a 6-day feeding period, through the application of morphohistochemical techniques. After the feeding period, a total of 50 females were divided into five groups and immersed in the following solutions: (I) distilled water (control), (II) 30% ethanol (control), (III) 1.25 mg/mL thymol, (IV) 2.5 mg/mL thymol, and (V) 5.0 mg/mL thymol. The experimental groups were kept in a climatic chamber (27?±?1 °C; RH 80?±?10%) for 5 days. After this period, morphological (hematoxylin/eosin) and histochemical (von Kossa) techniques were applied after remotion of the ovaries. The morphological results revealed large vacuoles in germ cells at different developmental stages and invaginations that represent deformations in the chorionic membrane. From the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that thymol interfered with the development of oocytes, which showed degeneration signs. The treatment containing 5.0 mg/mL thymol affected more accentuately the morphological development. Moreover, thymol also altered the calcium content of yolk granules, which generally showed an intense staining for this element. PMID:25300417

da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes

2014-12-01

341

Expression of DMRT1 in the mammalian ovary and testis--from marsupials to mice.  

PubMed

Doublesex and mab3 related transcript (DMRT1) was identified as a candidate gene for human 9p24.3 associated sex reversal. DMRT1 orthologues have highly conserved roles in sexual differentiation from flies and worms to humans. A DMRT1 orthologue was isolated from a marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii. The wallaby gene is highly conserved with other vertebrate DMRT1 genes, especially within the P/S and DM domains. It is expressed in the differentiating testis from the late fetus, during pouch life and in the adult. As in eutherian mammals, DMRT1 protein was localized in the germ cells and the Sertoli cells of the testis, but in addition it was detected in the Leydig cells, peri-tubular myoid cells and within the acrosome of the sperm heads. DMRT1 protein was also detected in the fetal and adult ovary pre-granulosa, granulosa and germ cells. Similarly, we also detected DMRT1 in the granulosa cells of all developing follicles in the adult mouse ovary. This is the first report of DMRT1 expression in the adult mammalian ovary, and suggests a wider role for this gene in mammals, in both the testis and ovarian function. PMID:14684988

Pask, A J; Behringer, R R; Renfree, M B

2003-01-01

342

Biocompatible core-shell electrospun nanofibers as potential application for chemotherapy against ovary cancer.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) core-shell nanofibers are successfully fabricated by a simple coaxial electrospinning method, in which PVA forms the core layer and CS forms the shell layer. With the change of the feed ratio between PVA and CS, the surface morphology and the microstructures of the nanofibers are largely changed. The as-prepared core-shell fibers can be used as a carrier for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. FT-IR analysis demonstrates that hydrogen bond between CS and PVA chains forms. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity test indicate that the core-shell fibers are completely biocompatible and the free DOX shows higher cytotoxicity than the DOX loaded nanofibers. The standing PVA/CS core-shell fibers remarkably promote the attachment, proliferation and spreading of human ovary cancer cells (SKOV3). Via observing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the DOX released from the fibers can be delivered into SKOV3 cell nucleus, which is significant for the future tumor therapy. And, the as-prepared fibers exhibit controlled release for loaded DOX via adjusting the feed ratio between PVA and CS, and the DOX loaded nanofibers are quite effective in prohibiting the SKOV3 ovary cells attachment and proliferation, which are potential for chemotherapy of ovary cancer. PMID:24907754

Yan, Eryun; Fan, Yingmei; Sun, Zhiyao; Gao, Jianwei; Hao, Xiaoyuan; Pei, Shichun; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Liguo; Zhang, Deqing

2014-08-01

343

Similar luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone binding sites in rat anterior pituitary and ovary.  

PubMed Central

To study the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH; luliberin) receptors in the rat anterior pituitary gland and ovary, 125I-labeled [D-Ser(TBU)6des-Gly-NH2(10)]LH-RH ethylamide was used as a labeled ligand. The binding characteristics were assessed by Scatchard analysis of labeled ligand binding and by potency displacement with unlabeled peptides. Similar Kd values, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 nM, were found for the labeled and unlabeled peptides in both tissues. A similar order of potency was observed between the finding affinity of 15 peptides in anterior pituitary and ovarian homogenates and their biological activity on luteinizing hormone release in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. These data demonstrate that the LH-RH receptors present in the rat ovary have a specificity similar to that of the anterior pituitary LH-RH receptor controlling secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Moreover, the binding affinities of the LH-RH agonists and antagonists can account, at least up to a large extent, for their relative biological potencies. Although there definitely are specific LH-RH receptors in the ovary which may play a role in the antifertility effects observed after administration of LH-RH agonists, the possible physiological significance of these ovarian receptors is still unknown and of great biological interest. PMID:6254091

Reeves, J J; Séguin, C; Lefebvre, F A; Kelly, P A; Labrie, F

1980-01-01

344

Genome-wide analysis of genes related to ovary activation in worker honey bees.  

PubMed

A defining characteristic of eusocial animals is their division of labour into reproductive and nonreproductive specialists. Here, we used a microarray study to identify genes associated with functional sterility in the worker honey bee Apis mellifera. We contrasted gene expression in workers from a functionally sterile wild-type strain with that in a mutant (anarchist) strain selected for high rates of ovary activation. We identified a small set of genes from the brain (n = 7) and from the abdomen (n = 5) that are correlated in their expression with early stages of ovary activation. Sterile wild-type workers up-regulated two unknown genes and a homologue of Drosophila CG6004. By contrast, reproductive anarchist workers up-regulated genes for the yolk protein vitellogenin, venom peptides and a member of the AdoHycase superfamily, among others. The differentially expressed genes identified are likely to be involved in early differentiation into sterile and reproductive worker phenotypes and may therefore form part of the gene networks associated with the regulation of honey bee worker sterility. Our study may have lacked sufficient power to detect all but a minority of biologically relevant changes taking place; however, the differential expression of vitellogenin and a putative AdoHycase suggests that our screen has captured core reproductive genes and that ovary activation may involve an epigenetic mechanism. PMID:19133075

Thompson, G J; Kucharski, R; Maleszka, R; Oldroyd, B P

2008-12-01

345

Chinese hamster ovary cell lysosomes retain pinocytized horseradish peroxidase and in situ-radioiodinated proteins  

SciTech Connect

We used Chinese hamster ovary cells, a cell line of fibroblastic origin, to investigate whether lysosomes are an exocytic compartment. To label lysosomal contents, Chinese hamster ovary cells were incubated with the solute marker horseradish peroxidase. After an 18-h uptake period, horseradish peroxidase was found in lysosomes by cell fractionation in Percoll gradients and by electron microscope cytochemistry. Over a 24-h period, lysosomal horseradish peroxidase was quantitatively retained by Chinese hamster ovary cells and inactivated with a t 1/2 of 6 to 8 h. Lysosomes were radioiodinated in situ by soluble lactoperoxidase internalized over an 18-h uptake period. About 70% of the radioiodine incorporation was pelleted at 100,000 X g under conditions in which greater than 80% of the lysosomal marker enzyme beta-hexosaminidase was released into the supernatant. By one-dimensional electrophoresis, about 18 protein species were present in the lysosomal membrane fraction, with radioiodine incorporation being most pronounced into species of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons. After a 30-min or 2-h chase at 37 degrees C, radioiodine that was incorporated into lysosomal membranes and contents was retained in lysosomes. These observations indicate that lysosomes labeled by fluid-phase pinocytosis are a terminal component of endocytic pathways in fibroblasts.

Storrie, B.; Sachdeva, M.; Viers, V.S.

1984-02-01

346

In vivo inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and growth in tobacco ovary tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post fertilization growth of tobacco ovary tissues treated with inhibitors of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis was examined in relation to endogenous PA titers and the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17). DL-alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), specific, irreversible ("suicide") inhibitors of ODC and ADC in vitro, were used to modulate PA biosynthesis in excised flowers. ODC represented >99% of the total decarboxylase activity in tobacco ovaries. In vivo inhibition of ODC with DFMO resulted in a significant decrease in PA titers, ovary fresh weight and protein content. Simultaneous inhibition of both decarboxylases by DFMO and DFMA produced only a marginally greater depression in growth and PA titers, indicating that ODC activity is rate-limiting for PA biosynthesis in these tissues. Paradoxically, DFMA alone inhibited PA biosynthesis, not as a result of a specific inhibition of ADC, but primarily through the inactivation of ODC. In vivo inhibition of ODC by DFMA appears to result from arginase-mediated hydrolysis of this inhibitor to urea and DFMO, the suicide substrate for ODC. Putrescine conjugates in tobacco appear to function as a storage form of this amine which, upon hydrolysis, may contribute to Put homeostasis during growth.

Slocum, R. D.; Galston, A. W.

1985-01-01

347

Effects of granulosa cells on steroidogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis of stromal cells and theca cells derived from the goat ovary.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of granulosa cells from small antral follicles on steroidogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis of goat ovarian stromal and theca cells in vitro. Using Transwell co-culture system, we evaluated androgen production, LH responsiveness, cell proliferation and apoptosis and some molecular expression regarding steroidogenic enzyme and apoptosis-related genes in stromal and theca cells. The results indicated that the co-culture with granulosa cells increased steroidogenesis, LH responsiveness and bcl-2 gene expression as well as decreased apoptotic bax and bad expressions in stromal and theca cells. Thus, granulosa cells had a capacity of promoting steroidogenesis in stromal cell and LH responsiveness in cortical stromal cells, maintaining steroidogenesis in theca cells, inhibiting apoptosis of cortical stromal cells and improving anti-apoptotic abilities of stromal and theca cells. PMID:23816690

Qiu, Mingning; Quan, Fusheng; Han, Chengquan; Wu, Bin; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhongcai; Su, Feng; Zhang, Yong

2013-11-01

348

Sequence and Expression Characteristics of Long Noncoding RNAs in Honey Bee Caste Development – Potential Novel Regulators for Transgressive Ovary Size  

PubMed Central

Division of labor in social insect colonies relies on a strong reproductive bias that favors queens. Although the ecological and evolutionary success attained through caste systems is well sketched out in terms of ultimate causes, the molecular and cellular underpinnings driving the development of caste phenotypes are still far from understood. Recent genomics approaches on honey bee developmental biology revealed a set of genes that are differentially expressed genes in larval ovaries and associated with transgressive ovary size in queens and massive cell death in workers. Amongst these, two contigs called special attention, both being over 200 bp in size and lacking apparent coding potential. Herein, we obtained their full cDNA sequences. These and their secondary structure characteristics placed in evidence that they are bona fide long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) differentially expressed in larval ovaries, thus named lncov1 and lncov2. Genomically, both map within a previously identified QTL on chromosome 11, associated with transgressive ovary size in honey bee workers. As lncov1 was over-expressed in worker ovaries we focused on this gene. Real-time qPCR analysis on larval worker ovaries evidenced an expression peak coinciding with the onset of autophagic cell death. Cellular localization analysis through fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed perinuclear spots resembling omega speckles known to regulate trafficking of RNA-binding proteins. With only four lncRNAs known so far in honey bees, two expressed in the ovaries, these findings open a novel perspective on regulatory factors acting in the fine tuning of developmental processes underlying phenotypic plasticity related to social life histories. PMID:24205350

Humann, Fernanda C.; Tiberio, Gustavo J.; Hartfelder, Klaus

2013-01-01

349

Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.  

PubMed

The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative. PMID:16046864

Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Künzle, H; Vogel, P

2005-01-01

350

Complex derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

2013-03-01

351

Expression of adrenomedullin in human ovaries, ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and cultured granulosa-luteal cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterise the expression pattern of the multifunctional vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) in human ovarian tumors, and to find hormonal regulators of ADM expression in human ovaries. The expression of ADM messenger RNA (mRNA) was higher in granulosa cell tumors than in fibrothecomas and normal ovaries, as analysed by Northern blots. In normal ovaries, ADM immunoreactivity was localised in both granulosa and thecal cells. Eight of the 90 granulosa cell tumors (9%) showed moderate and 53 (59%) weak ADM immunoreactivity, whereas 27% (11/41) of the fibrothecomas displayed weak ADM staining. FSH, protein kinase A activator (Bu)(2)cAMP, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), activin A and the broad protein kinase regulator staurosporine decreased ADM mRNA accumulation in cultured granulosa-luteal cells time- and dose-dependently. FSH, (Bu)(2)cAMP and PGE(2) increased progesterone secretion and the accumulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA in these cells. In conclusion, ADM is expressed in normal human ovaries and sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly in those of granulosa cell origin. FSH, PGE(2,) (Bu)(2)cAMP and activin A suppress ADM gene expression in granulosa-luteal cells. Expression of ADM in human ovaries and its hormonal regulation in granulosa cells suggests a paracrine role for ADM in ovarian function. PMID:19253104

Liu, Jianqi; Bützow, Ralf; Hydén-Granskog, Christel; Voutilainen, Raimo

2009-02-01

352

The expression patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in human fetal and adult ovary.  

PubMed

The influence of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins on the cell death (caspase-3, TUNEL) of different ovarian cell lineages was immunohistochemically analyzed in six fetal and five adult human ovaries in order to disclose possible mechanisms of cell number control. Mild to moderate expression of Bcl-2 characterized ovarian surface epithelium, follicular cells and oocytes of 15 and 22 week human ovaries, while expression of Bax and caspase-3 gradually increased in all ovarian cell populations, except caspase-3 in the ovarian surface epithelium. Different levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins co-expression characterized fetal ovarian cells, while TUNEL and caspase-3 co-expression was found only in some of them. In adult ovaries, Bcl-2 was moderately and Bax strongly expressed in the surface ovarian epithelium and stroma. Bcl-2 and Bax expression in granulosa and theca interna cells varied depending on the stage of follicular atresia. Caspase-3 apoptotic cells characterized granulosa cells of adult atretic follicles. Our results indicate that intracellular levels of Bcl-2 and Bax protein might regulate the final destiny of developing germ cells. Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis seems to be the most important, but not the only cell death pathway in ovaries. In adult ovaries, caspase-dependent cell death characterized granulosa cells, but not the germ cells. PMID:23295106

Poljicanin, Ana; Vukusic Pusic, Tanja; Vukojevic, Katarina; Caric, Ana; Vilovic, Katarina; Tomic, Snjezana; Soljic, Violeta; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

2013-07-01

353

Hepatopancreas but not ovary is the site of vitellogenin synthesis in female fresh water crab, Oziothelphusa senex senex.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to explore the site of synthesis of vitellogenin (Vtg) in fresh water edible crab, Oziothelphusa senex senex. Vtg cDNA fragments were isolated from the hepatopancreas of female crabs using RT-PCR method, and the deduced amino acid sequence of O. senex senex showed more than 60% identity with other brachyuran Vtg sequences. RT-PCR analysis showed that Vtg mRNA can be detected only in hepatopancreas of female Oziothelphusa but not in other tissues including eyestalks, Y-organs, mandibular organs, thoracic ganglion, hypodermis and ovary. Antibodies were raised against vitellin purified from the ovary of O. senex senex. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed the presence of Vtg in the hepatopancreas of vitellogenic stage I females and in the hemolymph, hepatopancreas and ovary extracts from vitellogenic stage II females but absent in hemolymph and hepatopancreas extract of males. These results suggest that Vtg is synthesized only in hepatopancreas but not in the ovaries of O. senex senex. In addition, Vtg synthesized in hepatopancreas is transported to ovary through hemolymph. PMID:24713301

Girish, B P; Swetha, Ch; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

2014-05-01

354

Changes in ultrastructure and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in ovaries of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to glyphosate.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum organophosphate (OP) herbicide, highly soluble in water, and when applied in terrestrial systems it penetrates into soil, eventually reaching the aquatic community and affecting nontarget organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate on ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ovaries (n?=?18 per triplicate) were exposed to 65 ?g/L of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] for 15 d. This concentration was determined according to Resolution 357/2005/CONAMA/Brazil, which establishes the permissible concentration of glyphosate in Brazilian inland waters. Nonexposed ovaries (n?=?18 per triplicate) were used as control. Subsequently, morphology and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) of exposed and nonexposed ovaries was determined. No apparent changes were noted in general morphology of exposed and nonexposed ovaries. However, a significant increase in diameter of oocytes was observed after exposure to glyphosate. When ovarian ultrastructure was examined the presence of concentric membranes, appearing as myelin-like structures, associated with the external membranes of mitochondria and with yolk granules was found. After glyphosate exposure, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting revealed greater expression of SF-1 in the oocytes, which suggests a relationship between oocyte growth and SF-1 expression. These subtle adverse effects of glyphosate on oocytes raised a potential concern for fish reproduction. These results contribute to understanding glyphosate-induced toxicity to nontarget organisms, showing subcellular and molecular impairments that may affect reproduction in +female fish. PMID:24617544

Armiliato, Neide; Ammar, Dib; Nezzi, Luciane; Straliotto, Marcos; Muller, Yara M R; Nazari, Evelise M

2014-01-01

355

Wide-field spectral imaging of human ovary autofluorescence and oncologic diagnosis via previously collected probe data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With no sufficient screening test for ovarian cancer, a method to evaluate the ovarian disease state quickly and nondestructively is needed. The authors have applied a wide-field spectral imager to freshly resected ovaries of 30 human patients in a study believed to be the first of its magnitude. Endogenous fluorescence was excited with 365-nm light and imaged in eight emission bands collectively covering the 400- to 640-nm range. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify all image pixels and generate diagnostic maps of the ovaries. Training the classifier with previously collected single-point autofluorescence measurements of a spectroscopic probe enabled this novel classification. The process by which probe-collected spectra were transformed for comparison with imager spectra is described. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 51% were obtained in classifying normal and cancerous ovaries using autofluorescence data alone. Specificity increased to 69% when autofluorescence data were divided by green reflectance data to correct for spatial variation in tissue absorption properties. Benign neoplasm ovaries were also found to classify as nonmalignant using the same algorithm. Although applied ex vivo, the method described here appears useful for quick assessment of cancer presence in the human ovary.

Renkoski, Timothy E.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

2012-03-01

356

Immunohistochemical and nucleic acid analysis of somatotropin receptor populations in the bovine ovary.  

PubMed

Ovaries were analyzed for somatotropin receptor protein and mRNA through use of immunohistochemistry, solution hybridization/nuclease protection, Northern blotting, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As indicated by immunoperoxidase staining, CL expressed immunoreactive somatotropin receptor (positive stain). Ovarian stroma, connective tissue, endothelium, and erythrocytes did not express somatotropin receptor (negative stain). Within the CL, somatotropin receptor protein was expressed primarily in large luteal cells whereas small luteal cells were negative. Most follicles (1-5 mm, after fixation) were negative for somatotropin receptor. On the basis of solution hybridization/nuclease protection, the mRNA for somatotropin receptor was found in greatest abundance in CL and large luteal cells and was nearly undetectable in small luteal cells or follicles (class 1, 3-5 mm; class 2, 6-9 mm; and class 3, > or = 10 mm). Northern blotting of mRNA for somatotropin receptor showed expression of somatotropin receptor mRNA transcripts in whole ovary (4.7 and 4.4 kb), CL (4.7 and 4.4 kb), and liver (4.4 kb); and RT-PCR amplified a single amino acid coding region for somatotropin receptor in CL and liver. In summary, somatotropin receptor (both immunoreactive protein and mRNA) is found primarily in the large luteal cell, and lesser amounts of the expressed receptor or its message are found in the follicle. Alternative sizes of mRNA for somatotropin receptor suggest novel mRNA processing in the bovine ovary. PMID:8318577

Lucy, M C; Collier, R J; Kitchell, M L; Dibner, J J; Hauser, S D; Krivi, G G

1993-06-01

357

Characterization of reproductive, metabolic, and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome in female hyperandrogenic mouse models.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age, causing a range of reproductive, metabolic and endocrine defects including anovulation, infertility, hyperandrogenism, obesity, hyperinsulinism, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent feature of PCOS, but its etiology remains unknown, and ethical and logistic constraints limit definitive experimentation in humans to determine mechanisms involved. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic PCOS traits in 4 distinct murine models of hyperandrogenism, comprising prenatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT, potent nonaromatizable androgen) treatment during days 16-18 of gestation, or long-term treatment (90 days from 21 days of age) with DHT, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Prenatal DHT-treated mature mice exhibited irregular estrous cycles, oligo-ovulation, reduced preantral follicle health, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, but lacked overall changes in body-fat composition. Long-term DHT treatment induced polycystic ovaries displaying unhealthy antral follicles (degenerate oocyte and/or > 10% pyknotic granulosa cells), as well as anovulation and acyclicity in mature (16-week-old) females. Long-term DHT also increased body and fat pad weights and induced adipocyte hypertrophy and hypercholesterolemia. Long-term letrozole-treated mice exhibited absent or irregular cycles, oligo-ovulation, polycystic ovaries containing hemorrhagic cysts atypical of PCOS, and displayed no metabolic features of PCOS. Long-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment produced no PCOS features in mature mice. Our findings reveal that long-term DHT treatment replicated a breadth of ovarian, endocrine, and metabolic features of human PCOS and provides the best mouse model for experimental studies of PCOS pathogenesis. PMID:24877633

Caldwell, A S L; Middleton, L J; Jimenez, M; Desai, R; McMahon, A C; Allan, C M; Handelsman, D J; Walters, K A

2014-08-01

358

Meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from the ovaries of Indian big cats at postmortem.  

PubMed

In order to increase the available sources of genetic material for endangered members of the great cat family, this study was designed to assess the meiotic competence of oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the Indian leopard, tiger and lion. The average number of oocytes that were recovered per ovary was 11.0?±?5.0, 11.0?±?3.5 and 21.3?±?8.8 for tiger, lion and leopard, respectively. The proportion of culture grade oocytes for tiger, lion and leopard were 72.7, 78.8 and 71.9%, respectively. The culture grade oocytes were matured in tissue culture medium 199 modified with sodium bicarbonate supplemented with 0.3% BSA (fatty acid-free) (w/v), 10 ?g/ml FSH, 6 IU/ml LH, 1 ?g/ml 17?-estradiol, 0.36 mM pyruvate, 2.2 mM calcium lactate, 2.0 mM L-glutamine, 100 IU/ml penicillin and 0.1 mg/ml streptomycin in an incubator with 5% CO2 under humidified air at 38.5°C for 36 h. After in vitro maturation, 56.3, 53.8 and 58.7% of the tiger, lion and leopard oocytes, respectively, were matured. The proportion of oocytes that extruded first polar body was significantly higher when the oocytes were collected from the animals of less than 15 yr of age compared to above 15 yr. These findings suggest that the oocytes recovered from ovaries of tiger, lion and leopard immediately postmortem can be successfully matured to MII stage. PMID:25124872

Rao, Brahmasani Sambasiva; Mahesh, Yelisetti Uma; Suman, Komjeti; Charan, Katari Venu; Nath, Rhisita; Rao, K Ramachander

2015-01-01

359

Sox9-related signaling controls zebrafish juvenile ovary-testis transformation.  

PubMed

In almost all vertebrates, the downstream of the sox9 signaling axis is well conserved for testis differentiation. The upstream genes of this pathway vary from species to species during evolution. Yet, little is known about how these signaling cascades are regulated and what cellular processes are dominant in ovary-testis transformation in juvenile zebrafish. In this study, we find that the transforming gonads undergo activation of sox9a-expressing stromal cells with increased deposition of extracellular matrix and formation of degenerative compartments. This leads to follicle disassembly, oocyte degeneration, follicle cell-cyp19a1a-amh conversions, and, eventually, formation of the testis cord. In vitro primary culture of juvenile ovary tissue in gonadotropins increases cytoplasmic accumulation of sox9a and p-Erk1/2, and induces mesenchymal morphology. MAPK inhibitors (MKI), a mixture of PD98059 and U0216, eliminate the cytoplasmic distribution but do not eradicate nuclear localization of sox9a and p-Erk1/2. Nuclear p53 are relatively increased in MKI-treated cells that exhibit less spreading and reduced proliferation. Despite uniform nuclear condensation, only a fraction of cells displayed the apoptotic phenotype. These results suggest that high levels of cytoplasmic sox9a and p-Erk1/2 activity activate stromal cells and enhance the production of extracellular matrix required for testis cord formation, whereas deregulation and translocation of sox9a and p-Erk1/2 induce follicle disassembly and incomplete apoptosis associated with nuclear p53. Together with the established FSH/cAMP/MAPK/AMH pathway in mammalian granulosa and Sertoli cells, we demonstrated that the sox9 axis signaling that determines testis formation in mammals also induces zebrafish ovary-testis transition, and adds to its conserved role in sex reversal. PMID:24263104

Sun, D; Zhang, Y; Wang, C; Hua, X; Zhang, X A; Yan, J

2013-01-01

360

Introducing a rat model of prenatal androgen-induced polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women, with a prevalence of 8-12% during the reproductive years. In the present study, using prenatal exposure to a single dose of testosterone during the critical period of fetal development, we aimed to introduce an enhanced rat model that would exhibit both endocrine and ovarian disturbances similar to PCOS, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood. Ten pregnant rats were injected s.c. with 5 mg free testosterone on gestational day 20, while control rats received only solvent. The development and function of the reproductive system in female offspring were examined in adulthood. Prenatally androgenized offspring had irregular oestrous cycles compared with control animals, and their anogenital and anovaginal distances were increased compared with control rats (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the lengths of the vagina and clitoris or the number of nipples between the two groups. Levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone and the luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio were increased in prenatally androgenized offspring compared with control animals (P < 0.05). The numbers of preantral and antral follicles in the ovaries of prenatally androgenized offspring were also increased compared with control rats (P = 0.07 and P < 0.01, respectively). The number of corpora lutea was decreased in prenatally androgenized offspring compared with control rats. Cystic follicles were observed in the ovaries of prenatally androgenized offspring. Prenatal exposure to a single dose of testosterone during the critical period of fetal development could facilitate the development a functional rat model of PCOS in adulthood, with minimal morphological disorders in the reproductive system. PMID:24532600

Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Piryaei, Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun

2014-05-01

361

Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.  

PubMed

The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant potential in the clinic. PMID:24831605

Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

2014-10-01

362

Association study of polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene and polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the distribution of polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and to explore its relationship with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: FXIIIVal34Leu genotype of 120 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 90 controls was detected, and the endocrine and metabolic conditions of PCOS patients and the control group were analyzed. Results: Body mass index (BMI) of PCOS patients (26.45±5.81) kg/m2 was higher than the control group (22.33±5.58) kg/m2, (p=0.00); the androgen level of PCOS group was (0.67±0.85) ng/mL higher than the control group (0.42±0.22) ng/mL, (p=0.02), and the luteinizing hormone (LH) (16.8±3.61 IU/L) level is higher than the control group (9.23±4.67) IU/L, (p=0.01). Frequency of Val34Leu allele in PCOS group was 1.25%, which was not statistically significant compared to the control group (P=0.56). BMI of patients with the genotype of FXIIIVal34Leu was relatively higher (with the average 34±1 kg/m2), and serum HDL level was significantly lower (0.23±0.11 mmol/L). Polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene had no correlation with susceptibility of PCOS. Conclusion: Polymorphism of FXIIIA1 gene may be related to metabolism of PCOS patients; the mutation of FXIIIAVal34Leu is not at the common site for PCOS; polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene may not have correlation with PCOS.

Wang, Xuefeng; Yang, Yue; Huang, Yanbing; Wang, Qiongyao

2014-01-01

363

Recent progress with the DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Repair deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are being used to identify human genes that correct the repair defects and to study mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis. Five independent tertiary DNA transformants were obtained from the EM9 mutant. In these clones a human DNA sequence was identified that correlated with the resistance of the cells to CldUrd. After Eco RI digestion, Southern transfer, and hybridization of transformant DNAs with the BLUR-8 Alu family sequence, a common fragment of 25 to 30 kb was present. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Thompson, L.H.; Salazar, E.P.; Brookman, K.W.; Collins, C.C.; Stewart, S.A.; Busch, D.B.; Weber, C.A.

1986-04-02

364

Genotoxicity studies of methyl isocyanate in Salmonella, Drosophila, and cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

The genotoxic effects of methyl isocyanate (MIC) were investigated using four short-term tests: the Salmonella reversion assay (Ames test), the Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay, and the sister chromatic exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberration assays in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. No evidence was found for the induction of mutations in either Salmonella or Drosophila. MIC did, however, induce SCEs and chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells both in the presence and absence of Aroclor-induced rat liver S-9.

Mason, J.M.; Zeiger, E.; Haworth, S.; Ivett, J.; Valencia, R.

1987-01-01

365

26-Hydroxycholesterol: regulation of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 26-hydroxycholesteroI and other in- termediates in bile acid synthesis on HMG-CoA reductase ac- tivity was studied in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture. Incubation of CHO cells for 5 hr in 0.25 PM 26-hydroxycho- lesterol caused a 40% inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase ac- tivity. All other intermediates tested including 3B-hydroxy-5- cholenoic acid and cholest-5-ene-3B,7a,26-triol, oxidation products of

Abbie L. Esterman; Howard Baum; Norman B. Javitt; Gretchen J. Darlington

366

Metformin therapy decreases hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of metformin therapy on hormonal and clinical indices in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective study.Setting: University hospital.Patient(s): Thirty-nine women with PCOS and fasting hyperinsulinemia.Intervention(s): Twelve weeks of therapy with oral metformin (500 mg three times per day).Main Outcome Measure(s): Levels of insulin, T, DHEAS, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), gonadotropins, and sex hormone-binding

Beata Kolodziejczyk; Antoni J Duleba; Robert Z Spaczynski; Leszek Pawelczyk

2000-01-01

367

Unusually High Levels of CA19-9 Associated with Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Mature cystic teratoma is the benign tumor of the ovary. CA19-9 levels, although a marker of pancreatic malignancy, have been found to be raised in large ovarian mature cystic teratomas. Case Report. We report a case of a young female who had unusually high levels of CA19-9 in the blood associated with large ovarian mature cystic teratoma. The levels returned to normal 12 weeks after cystectomy was performed. Conclusion. This case highlights the fact that although raised tumor marker may be associated with a benign pathology thorough evaluation to rule out malignancy still must be done. PMID:25276448

Madaan, Monika; Puri, Manju; Sharma, Ritu; Kaur, Harvinder; Trivedi, Shubha Sagar

2014-01-01

368

Neuromuscular organization and aminergic modulation of contractions in the Drosophila ovary  

PubMed Central

Background The processes by which eggs develop in the insect ovary are well characterized. Despite a large number of Drosophila mutants that cannot lay eggs, the way that the egg is moved along the reproductive tract from ovary to uterus is less well understood. We remedy this with an integrative study on the reproductive tract muscles (anatomy, innervation, contractions, aminergic modulation) in female flies. Results Each ovary, consisting of 15–20 ovarioles, is surrounded by a contractile meshwork, the peritoneal sheath. Individual ovarioles are contained within a contractile epithelial sheath. Both sheaths contain striated muscle fibres. The oviduct and uterine walls contain a circular striated muscle layer. No longitudinal muscle fibres are seen. Neurons that innervate the peritoneal sheath and lateral oviduct have many varicosities and terminate in swellings just outside the muscles of the peritoneal sheath. They all express tyrosine decarboxylase (required for tyramine and octopamine synthesis) and Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT). No fibres innervate the ovarioles. The common oviduct and uterus are innervated by two classes of neurons, one with similar morphology to those of the peritoneal sheath and another with repeated branches and axon endings similar to type I neuromuscular junctions. In isolated genital tracts from 3- and 7-day old flies, each ovariole contracts irregularly (12.5 ± 6.4 contractions/minute; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Peritoneal sheath contractions (5.7 ± 1.6 contractions/minute) move over the ovary, from tip to base or vice versa, propagating down the oviduct. Rhythmical spermathecal rotations (1.5 ± 0.29 contractions/minute) also occur. Each genital tract organ exhibits its own endogenous myogenic rhythm. The amplitude of contractions of the peritoneal sheath increase in octopamine (100 nM, 81% P < 0.02) but 1 ?M tyramine has no effect. Neither affects the frequency of peritoneal sheath contractions. Conclusion The muscle fibres of the reproductive tract are circular and have complex bursting myogenic rhythms under octopaminergic neuromodulation. We propose a new model of tissue-specific actions of octopamine, in which strengthening of peritoneal sheath contractions, coupled with relaxation of the oviduct, eases ovulation. This model accounts for reduced ovulation in flies with mutations in the octopaminergic system. PMID:16768790

Middleton, C Adam; Nongthomba, Upendra; Parry, Katherine; Sweeney, Sean T; Sparrow, John C; Elliott, Christopher JH

2006-01-01

369

Morphological examination of the baboon ovary during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle  

E-print Network

af 9. 8 + or ? 0. 5 I dags as reported bg SHAIKH et al. [1982) is some~hat shorter in length thon those reparted bg HENDRICKX and KRAEMER (1969) and WILOT et al. L1977) using the same species of boboons. The preovulatorg ond per iovulatorg... an dominant and non-dominant ovaries. . B 2 27 Means for the per ipheral hormones LH, FSH, E2 and P& for the EFP, MFP ond LFP, . 83 LIST OF TABLES CCONTINUEQ] TABLE Page 2 B Mean levels af uter o-avar zan venous concentrations of A and T dur xng the EFP...

LaNoue, Kara Dae

2012-06-07

370

Alterations in pituitary gland volume in polycystic ovary syndrome: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this prospectively designed cross-sectional observational study was to evaluate the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on pituitary gland volume (PGV) under the hypothesis that endocrinologic changes may lead to morphologic changes of the pituitary gland. Twenty-six PCOS patients and 31 control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. PGV was significantly larger in PCOS patients than in control subjects. Luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio was the only predictor of PGV. The association between pituitary gland enlargement and PCOS should be kept in mind when pituitary hypertrophy is detected on MRI. PMID:25457522

Unlu, Ebru; Unlu, Bekir Serdar; Turamanlar, Ozan; Acay, Mehtap Beker; Kacar, Emre; Y?ld?z, Yunus; Verim, Ozgur; Okur, Nazan; Balcik, Cinar; Tasgetiren, Suleyman; Yucel, Aylin

2014-10-16

371

Clinical evaluation of a confocal microendoscope system for imaging the ovary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a mobile confocal microendoscope system that provides live cellular imaging during surgery to aid in diagnosing microscopic abnormalities including cancer. We present initial clinical trial results using the device to image ovaries in-vivo using fluorescein and ex-vivo results using acridine orange. The imaging catheter has improved depth control and localized dye delivery mechanisms than previously presented. A manual control now provides a simple way for the surgeon to adjust and optimize imaging depth during the procedure while a tiny piezo valve in the imaging catheter controls the dye delivery.

Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Sampliner, Richard E.; Udovich, Josh A.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

2008-02-01

372

Polycystic ovary syndrome: A review for dermatologists: Part I. Diagnosis and manifestations.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder among women who are of reproductive age. The pathogenesis involves several associated hormonal pathways that culminate in metabolic, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects. The hallmark features of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia have systemic long-term implications. Dermatologists frequently evaluate and manage the cutaneous manifestations of PCOS (ie, acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, acne, and alopecia), and therefore play a key role in its diagnosis and management. In part I of this continuing medical education article, we review the definition, etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of PCOS. PMID:25437977

Housman, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Rachel V

2014-11-01

373

Histochemical localization of enzymes and lipids in the ovary of a vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi, during the reproductive cycle.  

PubMed

The present study describes seasonal changes in delta5 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), glusose-6 phosphates dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and lipids in the ovary of a vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi. Total lipids and 3beta-HSD activity are restricted to thecal and interstitial cells of the ovary. The total lipids, 3beta-HSD, and G-6-PD significantly increase during recrudescence, and remain high during winter dormancy and breeding as compared to the other reproductive phases. High incidence of lipids and enzyme activity in interstitial cells during the breeding period and at the time of ovulation clearly suggests that these cells are actively involved in steroidogenesis. A decline in enzymes and lipid activity during winter dormancy, which correlates with the declining levels of steroidogenesis, might be the factors responsible for prolonged survival of the Graafian follicle in the ovary of S. heathi. PMID:16025916

Singh, U P; Krishna, A; Smith, T D; Bhatnagar, K P

2005-02-01

374

Micro structure analysis of the ovaries of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. inhabiting a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The study uses microscopy to analyze damage caused to the ovaries of a fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio L., owing to its exposure to municipal wastes in a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India. Histological analysis of the ovary showed atretic oocytes, detached ovarian wall, detached follicular linings, and necrosis of nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed deformed oocytes with a rough and distorted surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed a poorly developed chorion, presence of relatively less electron-dense materials as compared with control, multinucleation in some cells surrounding the oocytes, and distorted and condensed mitochondria. The importance of microscopy in its different forms in analyzing histological, surface microstructural and fine structural damage to fish ovaries in response to environmental pollution owing to municipal wastes and city garbage is discussed with the help of available literature. PMID:25089745

Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, Karabi

2014-10-01

375

A comparison of the multiple oocyte maturation gene expression patterns between the newborn and adult mouse ovary  

PubMed Central

Background: The interaction between follicular cells and oocyte leads to a change in gene expression involved in oocyte maturation processes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify the expression of more common genes involved in follicular growth and oocyte developmental competence. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the expression of genes was evaluated with qRT-PCR assay in female BALB/c mice pups at 3-day of pre-pubertal and 8 week old virgin adult ovaries. The tissue was prepared by H&E staining for normal morphological appearance. The data were calculated with the 2-?Ct formula and assessed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The data showed a significant increase in the level of Stra8 and GDF9 in adult compared with newborn mice ovaries (p=0.049). In contrast, a significant decrease in the level of Mvh, REC8, SCP1, SCP3, and ZP2 was observed in adult mice ovaries compared to those in the newborn mice ovaries (all p=0.049 except SCP1: p=0.046). There was no significant difference in the level of OCT4 and Cx37 expression between adult and newborn mice ovaries. Conclusion: The modifications in gene expression patterns coordinate the follicular developmental processes. Furthermore, the findings showed higher expression level of premeiotic gene (Stra8) and lower level of meiotic entry markers (SCP1, SCP3, and REC8) in juvenile than newborn mouse ovaries. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Nehleh Zarei fard) PMID:24639702

Bahmanpour, Soghra; Talaei Khozani, Tahereh; Zarei fard, Nehleh; Jaberipour, Mansoureh; Hosseini, Ahmah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

2013-01-01

376

CD59 Silencing via Retrovirus-Mediated RNA Interference Enhanced Complement-Mediated Cell Damage in Ovary Cancer  

PubMed Central

CD59, belonging to membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs), inhibits the cytolytic activity of complement and is over-expressed in solid cancers, including ovary cancer. The aim of the present study was to construct recombinant retrovirus encoding shRNA targeted human CD59 and infect A2780 cells in order to investigate the relationship between decreased CD59 expression and tumorigenesis of ovary cancer. siCD59 and siCD59-C were successfully constructed and identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analyses and DNA sequencing, respectively. The siCD59 was able to efficiently infect A2780 cells, which was confirmed by Western blotting. When incubated with fresh normal human serum (8%, v/v) for 1 h at 37°C, the cell viability was decreased and cell damage was increased in siCD59 infected A2780 cells compared to siCD59-C infected cells. This led to the activation of caspase-3. The apoptosis in siCD59 infected cells was shown with hypercondensed nuclei using Hoechst staining. Meanwhile, the weight of ovary tumor graft in nude mice was significantly decreased in siCD59 group compared to that of siCD59-C group. And the expression of CD59 protein in tumor tissue in siCD59 group was significantly decreased. These results suggested that CD59 silencing in ovary cancer cells via retrovirus-mediated RNAi can enhance complement-mediated cell damage, inhibiting growth of ovary cancer. CD59 might be a potential target for gene therapy in ovary cancer. PMID:19254481

Shi, Xuexiang; Zhang, Bei; Zang, Jinlin; Wang, Guoying; Gao, Meihua

2009-01-01

377

Insulin Stimulates Testosterone Biosynthesis by Human Thecal Cells from Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome by Activating Its Own Receptor and Using Inositolglycan Mediators as the Signal Transduction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether insulin stimulates human ovarian testos- terone production in the polycystic ovary syndrome by activating its own receptor and using inositolglycan mediators as the signal trans- duction system, thecal cells from polycystic ovary syndrome women were isolated and cultured. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I stimulated thecal testosterone biosynthesis. Antibody blockade of the insulin receptor abolished insulin's stimulatory

JOHN E. NESTLER; DANIELA J. JAKUBOWICZ; AIDA FALCON DE VARGAS; CARLOS BRIK; NITZA QUINTERO; FRANCISCO MEDINA

378

Identification of miRNAs associated with sexual maturity in chicken ovary by Illumina small RNA deep sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in various biological processes. To investigate the function of miRNAs in chicken ovarian development and folliculogenesis, two small RNA libraries constructed from sexually mature (162-day old) and immature (42-day old) ovary tissues of Single Comb White Leghorn chicken were sequenced using Illumina small RNA deep sequencing. Results In the present study, 14,545,100 and 14,774,864 clean reads were obtained from sexually mature (162-d) and sexually immature (42-d) ovaries, respectively. In total, 202 known miRNAs were identified, and 93 of them were found to be significantly differentially expressed: 42 miRNAs were up-regulated and 51 miRNAs were down-regulated in the mature ovary compared to the immature ovary. Among the up-regulated miRNAs, gga-miR-1a has the largest fold-change (6.405-fold), while gga-miR-375 has the largest fold-change (11.345-fold) among the down-regulated miRNAs. The three most abundant miRNAs in the chicken ovary are gga-miR-10a, gga-let-7 and gga-miR-21. Five differentially expressed miRNAs (gga-miR-1a, 21, 26a, 137 and 375) were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the expression patterns of the five miRNAs were analyzed in different developmental stages of chicken ovary and follicles of various sizes. Conclusion The present study provides the first miRNA profile in sexually immature and mature chicken ovaries. Some miRNAs such as gga-miR-1a and gga-miR-21are expressed differentially in immature and mature chicken ovaries as well as among different sized follicles, suggesting an important role in the follicular growth or ovulation mechanism in the chicken. PMID:23705682

2013-01-01

379

Different routes of progesterone administration and polycystic ovary syndrome: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in woman of reproductive age. Although extensive studies have been performed in past decades to investigate the pathobiological mechanisms underlying the unset of this disease, its etiology remains unknown. Progesterone is a hormone of paramount importance in ovulation, implantation and luteal phase support. Low levels of progesterone have been found in the early luteal phase in PCOS patients. Granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries show an altered progesterone production. Moreover, the lack of cyclical exposure to progesterone may have a role in the development of the gonadotropin and androgen abnormalities found in PCOS patients. Ovulation failure and progesterone deficiency may facilitate the hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities causing the associated disordered luteinizing hormone secretion in PCOS. Progesterone may be administered to PCOS patients in the following cases: to induce withdrawal bleeding, to suppress secretion of luteinizing hormone, in ovulation induction in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients and in luteal phase support in assisted reproduction. We discuss the pharmacologic characteristics of the different routes of progesterone administration with reference to these diverse indications, the therapeutic objectives and patient compliance. PMID:16109599

Unfer, Vittorio; Casini, Maria Luisa; Marelli, Guido; Costabile, Loredana; Gerli, Sandro; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

2005-08-01

380

Vitellogenin of Fujian oyster, Crassostrea angulata: Synthesized in the ovary and controlled by estradiol-17?.  

PubMed

In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding vitellogenin (Vg) in the Fujian oyster Crassostrea angulata. The complete Vg cDNA consists of 5160 nucleotides with a long open reading frame encoding 1641 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shared high similarity with the Vgs of other mollusc, fish, nematode and arthropod species, particularly in the N-terminal region. We analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of caVg transcripts by Real-time Quantitative PCR. In common with other mollusc Vgs, the caVg gene was expressed primarily in the ovary, and the levels were 348 and 177 times higher in maturation and ripeness stages (P<0.01), respectively, than in the partially spent stage. There was negligible expression in male oysters. In situ hybridization analysis further localized caVg mRNA to the follicle cells (also named auxiliary cells) surrounding the oocytes in the ovary. Moreover, in vivo waterborne exposure experiments in early gametogenesis oysters showed that estradiol-17? (E2) administration resulted in a significant increase in caVg mRNA expression. We conclude that caVg is synthesized in the follicle cell surrounding the vitellogenic oocyte in C. angulata, and directly passed to oocytes through the extracellular space without mediation through hemolymph. Also, we hypothesize that this process is mediated by E2 in a dose dependent. PMID:24709360

Ni, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhen; Kong, Dezheng; Hou, Lin; Huang, Heqing; Ke, Caihuan

2014-06-01

381

Proteomics of Follicular Fluid from Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Suggests Molecular Defects in Follicular Development.  

PubMed

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a major cause of anovulatory infertility, is characterized by arrested follicular growth. Altered protein levels in the follicular fluid surrounding the ovum may reflect the molecular defects of folliculogenesis in these women. Objective: s: To identify differentially regulated proteins in PCOS by comparing follicular fluid protein repertoire of PCOS with healthy women. Methods: The follicular fluid samples were collected from PCOS and normo-ovulatory women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Follicular fluid proteins were subjected to digestion using trypsin and resultant peptides were labeled with iTRAQ reagents and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differential abundance of selected proteins was confirmed by ELISA. Results: A total of 770 proteins were identified of which 186 showed differential abundance between controls and women with PCOS. Proteins involved in various processes of follicular development including amphiregulin; heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2; tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 6; plasminogen and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 were found to be deregulated in PCOS. We also identified a number of new proteins from follicular fluid, whose function in the ovary is not yet clearly established. These include suprabasin; S100 calcium binding protein A7 and helicase with zinc finger 2, transcriptional coactivator. Conclusions: Proteins indispensible for follicular growth were found to be differentially expressed in follicular fluid of women with PCOS, which may in part explain the aberrant folliculogenesis observed in these women. PMID:25393639

Ambekar, Aditi S; Kelkar, Dhanashree S; Pinto, Sneha M; Sharma, Rakesh; Hinduja, Indira; Zaveri, Kusum; Pandey, Akhilesh; Prasad, T S Keshava; Gowda, Harsha; Mukherjee, Srabani

2014-11-13

382

Antioxidants and management of polycystic ovary syndrome in Iran: A systematic review of clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently there is a focus on the antioxidants as adjuvant treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most endocrinopathy in reproductive age women. Objective: The aim of this review is answer to the question whether antioxidants are effective for managing of hormonal and metabolic problems in women with PCOS based on first degree evidences from Iran. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of clinical trials was done in Persian and international databases including PubMed, Scientific Information Database, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, and Magiran up to 2013. Keywords were including polycystic ovary syndrome, Iran, vitamin, antioxidant. From 440 potential studies found electronically, 11 studies; including 444 women in intervention and 390 women in control groups. Intervention in three studies was Calcium-vitamin D or calcitriol; in three studies was ?-3 fatty acids; in two studies was N-acetyl cysteine; in one study was folic acid; in one study was Zinc; and in one study was Soy. Results: Finally, 11 studies that were relevant and met the inclusion criteria reviewed. There were 7 studies in English and 4 studies in Persian. We couldn’t include all studies because all full texts were not accessible. Conclusion: The results showed that antioxidants and vitamins have positive effects on management of PCOS women. Although it seems more studies is necessary in this field. PMID:25653669

Amini, Leila; Tehranian, Najmeh; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Ziaee, Saeedeh

2015-01-01

383

Identification of protein components from the mature ovary of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).  

PubMed

The gonads of sea urchins are a high value seafood product, with considerable research being undertaken worldwide on the development of sea urchin aquaculture. As the best prices are obtained for specific gonad attributes, research has also focused on the development of artificial diets that enhance gonad quality and quantity. Total protein has been used as a measure of gonad quality; yet no studies to date have applied proteomics technology to diet development. Here we use a MudPIT and 2-DE approach to describe the major proteins in mature ovaries of a New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus. This tissue, which is a target seafood product, contained 138 proteins that were identified from the recently completed sea urchin genome (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) with high confidence. The majority of these proteins had general functions, with only 12 related to ovarian reproductive function. Eighteen proteins were located on the 2-DE; four of these were directly identified from S. purpuratus protein sequences. In combination this paper shows that the genome resources of S. purpuratus can be used to identify proteins in sea urchins from different families; describes the proteome of E. chloroticus mature ovary; and, provides proteomic tools for analysis of gonads from other edible sea urchins. PMID:18563751

Sewell, Mary A; Eriksen, Soren; Middleditch, Martin J

2008-06-01

384

Effects of Postmortem Interval on Mouse Ovary Oocyte Survival and Maturation  

PubMed Central

To study the time- and temperature-dependent survival of ovarian oocytes collected from postmortem carcass, ICR mice were killed and placed for different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) at different temperatures (25°C, 4°C and 37°C). After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte number, oocyte meiotic maturation percentage, mitochondrial distribution and intracellular glutathione (GSH) level were evaluated. The results showed no surviving oocytes could be collected by 2h, 6h, and 12 h after carcass preservation at 37°C, 25°C and 4°C, respectively. The number of collected GV oocytes in the ovary deceased as the preservation time lasted at the same temperature. Meanwhile at the same point in time, the ratio of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body emission (PBE) gradually reduced as preservation temperature increased. In addition, the percentage of abnormal mitochondrial distribution in the preserved oocytes was obviously higher than that in the control oocytes, while GSH level was not altered in collected oocytes. Unexpectedly, neither chromosome arrangement nor spindle organization was affected as long as the oocytes from preserved carcasses could complete maturation. These data are helpful for proper use of ovary oocytes from postmortem carcass of valuable individuals. PMID:24874949

Zhang, Guang-Li; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Quan; Hu, Meng-Wen; Yang, Xiu-yan; Gao, Si-Hua; Jiang, Guang-Jian

2014-01-01

385

Isolation and characterization of stem cells in the adult mammalian ovary.  

PubMed

Female mammals are born with a fixed pool of germ cells, which does not replenish during adult life. However, this has been recently challenged and adult ovaries produce oocytes throughout adult life just like sperm in the testes. Evidence is accumulating on the presence of ovarian stem cells, but the need for robust protocols to isolate, identify, further characterize, and subject them to various functionality tests is essential. Knowledge about the function and potential of ovarian stem cells is well demonstrated by various groups, but their true identity remains elusive because of the variability in the approaches used to identify them by different groups. In order to address this we have made attempts to compile our protocols to isolate, identify, characterize, and culture the stem cells using different animal models including human. Two distinct populations of stem cells exist in adult mammalian ovary, including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and the progenitors termed ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs). VSELs are relatively quiescent and undergo asymmetric cell division to give rise to OGSCs, which divide rapidly, occasionally form germ cell nests and undergo meiosis and differentiation into oocytes, which are surrounded by granulosa cells to assemble as primordial follicles. PMID:25388396

Parte, Seema; Patel, Hiren; Sriraman, Kalpana; Bhartiya, Deepa

2015-01-01

386

Steroid receptor coactivator-3, a homolog of Taiman that controls cell migration in the Drosophila ovary, regulates migration of human ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

Border cell migration is a process that occurs during Drosophila ovarian development in which cells derived from a simple epithelium migrate and invade neighboring tissue. This process resembles the behavior of cancerous cells that derive from the simple epithelium of the human ovary. One important regulator of border cell migration is Taiman, a homolog of steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3). Because increasing evidence indicates that similarities exist between the molecular control of migration of border cells and of cancer cells, we investigated whether SRC-3 controls ovarian cancer cell migration. Little or no SRC-3 expression was detected in normal ovarian surface epithelium, ovarian cysts and borderline ovarian tumors that lack stromal invasion. In contrast, SRC-3 was abundantly expressed in high-grade ovarian carcinomas. Inhibiting SRC-3 expression in ovarian cancer cells markedly reduced cell spreading and migration, and altered intracellular localization of focal adhesion kinase. This inhibitory effect on cell migration was independent of the estrogen receptor (ER) status of the cells. These studies reveal a novel role for SRC-3 in ovarian cancer progression by promoting cell migration, independently of its role in estrogen receptor signaling. PMID:16298470

Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Liu, Jinsong; Samuel, Shaija; Cheng, Wenjun; Rosen, Daniel; Naora, Honami

2005-12-21

387

Glycal Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycals are unsaturated sugar derivatives in which the double bond engages the anomeric carbon atom. Such cyclic vinyl ethers are characterized by high reactivity, allowing for regio- and stereoselective transformations, directly or indirectly related to glycosylation, as well as to formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds at the anomeric center. This review provides a systematic survey of chemical synthetic methods, by which the carbon-carbon double bond is introduced next to the ring oxygen, in an endo- or exocyclic position. Some mechanistic aspects are discussed in relation to traditional methods of glycal preparation, which rely on elimination reactions. Glycal-to-glycal rearrangement and applications of organometallic chemistry and heteroatom-induced transformations for syntheses and activation of glycals are also highlighted.

Priebe, Waldemar; Fokt, Izabela; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz

388

Ketoconazole Inhibits Ovulation as a Result of Arrest of Follicular Steroidogenesis in the Rat Ovary  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Ketoconazole (KCZ) is a known inhibitor of steroidogenic P450 enzymes in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. Previous studies examined the potential clinical use of KCZ for attenuation of ovarian response to gonadotropin treatments. This study aimed to use the superovuating rat model to explore the effect of KCZ on ovarian steroidogenesis, follicular function, and development toward ovulation. METHODS Prepubertal rats were treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)/human CG (hCG) resulting in multiple follicular development and ovulation. The effect of KCZ on this model was examined by administration of KCZ-gel formula and subsequent analyses of ovarian steroidogenesis, rate of ovulation, morphometric assessments of follicular parameters, and cell-specific steroidogenic maturation of the treated ovaries. RESULTS When applied shortly before gonadotropin stimulation, KCZ markedly reduced ovarian progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol levels down to 18.7, 36.5, and 19.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). A single KCZ-gel administration of 6, 12, and 24 mg/rat resulted in reduction of ovulated ova/ovary down to 8.6 ± 4.9, 5.1 ± 4.3, and 2.4 ± 3.2, respectively, as compared to 13.6 ± 4.4 ova found in the oviduct of control-gel-injected animals (P < 0.001). An alternative protocol made use of small KCZ doses injected in non-gel formula (5 mg/dose/8 hours), commenced with the eCG administration and terminated 24 hours later; this treatment readily inhibited the ovulation rates to 6.6 ± 6.6 as compared to 16.5 ± 4.1 ova/ovary in the control group (P < 0.01). By contrast, KCZ failed to inhibit ovulation if administered 24 hours after eCG injection. Anovulation by KCZ resulted from arrest of follicular development at the stage of 800–840 ?m Graafian follicles as compared to 920 ?m of peri-ovulatory follicles (OFs) observed in the control group, P = 0.029. In addition, absence of CYP11A1 expression was evident in the granulosa cell layers of the growth-arrested follicles, which also lacked mucified mature cumulus cell complexes. CONCLUSION These results suggest that KCZ-mediated inhibition of follicular maturation probably results from impaired steroidogenesis at early phase of follicular development toward ovulation. Hence, attenuation of folliculogenesis by KCZ may be harnessed to modulate gonadotropin-ovarian stimulation in fertility treatments. PMID:24987273

Gal, Michael; Orly, Joseph

2014-01-01

389

Heritability of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Action in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Their First Degree Relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common en- docrine disorders of reproductive age women, is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Defects in both insulin action and insulin secretion contribute to this predisposition to dia- betes, but the extent to which these defects are heritable among PCOS families has not been examined. In the

SUSAN COLILLA; NANCY J. COX; DAVID A. EHRMANN

2010-01-01

390

A Survey of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Greek Island of Lesbos: Hormonal and Metabolic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperan- drogenism, chronic anovulation, and oligomenorrhea (O\\/M). PCOS has variable clinical phenotypes, biochemical features, and metabolic abnormalities. To determine the prevalence of PCOS in the Greek population as well as the metabolic parameters, we performed a cross-sectional study of 192 women of reproductive age (17- 45 yr), living on the Greek island of

EVANTHIA DIAMANTI-KANDARAKIS; CHRYSSA R. KOULI; ANGELIKI T. BERGIELE; FANNY A. FILANDRA; THOMAIS C. TSIANATELI; GIOVANNA G. SPINA; EVANGELIA D. ZAPANTI; MICHAEL I. BARTZIS

2010-01-01

391

Selective effects of pioglitazone on insulin and androgen abnormalities in normo- and hyperinsulinaemic obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of pioglitazone (45 mg\\/day) on clinical and endocrine- metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we studied 18 obese PCOS patients, classified as normo- insulinaemic (N-PCOS, n = 6) and hyperinsulinaemic (H-PCOS, n = 12) according to their insulin secretion. METHODS: Evaluation of clinical signs, hormonal and lipid profile assays, oral glucose tolerance

D. Romualdi; M. Guido; M. Ciampelli; M. Giuliani; F. Leoni; C. Perri; A. Lanzone

2003-01-01

392

A Rare Coexistence of Villoglandular Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix and Brenner Tumor of the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Synchronous primary gynecological cancers have been reported to be seen rarely in the literature. In this report, we aimed to describe a 51-year-old patient with the coexistence of villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and Brenner tumor in the right ovary. She successfully underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salphing-oopherectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24716032

Guzin, Kadir; Sahin, Sadik; Goynumer, Gokhan; Ero?lu, Mustafa; Usta, Ak?n; Ozel, Nurver

2014-01-01

393

O R IGINAL AR T ICLE Evaluation of the Pituitary-adrenal axis in hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Impaired adrenal function is common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormal regulation of cytochrome P450 17 alpha is believed to cause the exaggerated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) response to ACTH stimulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate cortisol and 17OHP response to low dose (1 µg) ACTH test and to compare it with the standard ACTH (250

Rafael Luboshitzky; Abraham Ishai; Paula Herer

394

Dietary factors and cancers of breast, endometrium, and ovary: Strategies for modifying fat intake in African American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of dietary fat and fiber could help prevent cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary that are prevalent in African-American women. Dietary intervention programs aimed at reducing fat intake have had mixed results in this population. The transtheoretic model is proposed for achieving dietary change. Strategies for changing health behaviors in African-American women include heightening sensitivity to cultural values

Margaret K. Hargreaves; Maciej S. Buchowski; Robert E. Hardy; Susan R. Rossi; Joseph S. Rossi

1997-01-01

395

Influence Of Serum Luteinising Hormone Concentrations On Ovulation, Conception, And Early Pregnancy Loss In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with the polycystic ovary syndrome do not respond well to treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone. To determine whether this might be due to an underlying endocrine disturbance basal concentrations of luteinising hormone were measured in 54 infertile women treated with pulsatile luteinising hormone releasing hormone and concentrations at the time of maximum follicular growth were measured in 23

R. Homburg; N. A. Armar; A. Eshel; J. Adams; H. S. Jacobs

1988-01-01

396

Cell cycle analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells stimulated by phosphatidic acid in serum-free culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

When recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with pertussis toxin or genistein, not only lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) but also phosphatidic acid (PA) failed to stimulate progression through the cell cycle in serum-free culture, suggesting that PA and LPA induce cell growth through the same signal transduction pathway. Cell cycle analysis also indicates that cell growth promoted by PA results

Hideki Yamaji; Kentaro Sakai; Tsukasa Joho; Eiji Izumoto; Hideki Fukuda

2004-01-01

397

Ornithine Decarboxylase and S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Expression during the Cell Cycle of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells in mitosis were harvested from exponentially growing Chinese hamster ovary cells by the mitotic detachment technique. Immediately after harvesting, the mitotic cells were seeded in tissue culture flasks and incubated at 37°C in a CO2 incubator. Care was taken not to perturb the progression of cells through the cell cycle. At every hour after seeding for 14 h, cells

Jan O. Fredlund; Maria C. Johansson; Ewa Dahlberg; Stina M. Oredsson

1995-01-01

398

Chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange tests in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro III: Results with 27 chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven chemicals previously tested in rodent carcinogenicity assays were tested for induction of chromosomal aberrations (ABS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as part of a larger analysis of the correlation between results of in vitro genetic toxicity assays and carcinogenicity bioassays. Chemicals were tested up to toxic doses with and without exogenous metabolic activation.

D. K. Gulati; K. Witt; B. Anderson; E. Zeiger; M. D. Shelby

1989-01-01

399

Daunorubicin-resistant Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Multidrug Resistance and a Cell-Surface P-Glycoprotein1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent lines of Chinese hamster ovary cells resistant to the antineoplastic drug, daunorubicin, were obtained by clonal isolation in increasing drug concentrations. A single daunorubi- cin-resistant phenotype typified by reduced cellular drug accu mulation was observed. These mutants displayed a complex phenotype of resistance to a variety of unrelated drugs. Such properties are similar to those of membrane-altered colchicine- resistant

Norbert Kartner; Michael Shales; John R. Riordan; Victor Ling

1983-01-01

400

Cellular toxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures. I Analysis of cytotoxicity endpoints for twenty-nine priority pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to 29 toxic chemical substances which were representative of several classes of compounds listed by the Natural Resources Defense Council Consent Decree as priority toxic pollutants. After cell cultures were exposed to the test substance, cell samples were assayed for protein and DNA synthesis, ATP, cell number, and viability. A filter-disk technique employing a

N. E. Garrett; J. Lewtas

1983-01-01

401

Chinese hamster ovary cell mitosis and its response to ionizing radiation: A morphological analysis of the living cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated microscopic observations of exponentially growing Chinese hamster ovary cells were made and the times and mitotic stages were recorded in control and irradiated cultures at 37\\/degree\\/C. As determined by autoradiography, the time from the end of S phase to early prophase (the G2 phase) was 46 min, to breakdown of the nuclear envelope was 91 min, and to restoration

1989-01-01

402

Ongoing Activity of RNA Polymerase II Precludes Chromatin Collapse and DNA Fragmentation in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of ongoing RNA synthesis in chromatin organization in Chinese hamster ovary cells was examined upon exposure to the transcription inhibitor ?-amanitin. Treatment with ?-amanitin led to pleomorphic nuclei with chromatin heavily condensed and with the remaining ribonucleoprotein aggregated in large compact granular masses around the margins of the nuclear periphery. Concommitant with the changes in nuclei morphology transient

Jesper Damgaard; Yael Balslev; Kjeld Møllgaard; Karsten Wassermann

1996-01-01

403

Chromosomal localization of the reduced folate transporter gene (SLC19A1) in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using biotinylated genomic and cDNA probes with FISH analysis, the gene for the reduced folate transporter in Chinese hamster ovary cells (SLC19A1) has been localized to chromosome 1 and Z1 at the position q2?q3.Copyright © 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel

F. P. H. Chan; F. M. R. Williams; K. A. Rogers; W. F. Flintoff

1995-01-01

404

Expression of Human Chromosome 2 Ornithine Decarboxylase Gene in Ornithine Decarboxylase-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ornithine decarboxylase (OIK ) belongs to a multigene family and some of these may very well be nonfunctional (pseudogenes). We isolated an ODC gene from a human chromosome 2-specific library and trans- fected the gene into ODC-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells to directly demonstrate that this ODC gene is functional and OIK is essential for cell proliferation. After screening 2.5

Jer-Tsong Hsieh; Mitchell F. Denning; Shawn M. Heidel; Ajit K. Verma

1990-01-01

405

Radiation-induced division delay in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast and carcinoma cells: dose effect and ploidy. [X-ray  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was utilized to investigate the Gâ transition point for and the duration of radiation-induced division delay in diploid and tetraploid Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts and in Chinese hamster ovarian carcinoma cells. The location of the radiation-induced division delay transition point was dose independent at high doses and located approximately 42 min

B. F. Kimler; D. B. Leeper; M. H. Schneiderman

1981-01-01

406

Effect of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expression on growth and specific tissue plasminogen activator productivity in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that secretion of cloned proteins synthesized by recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells can be adenosine triphosphate (ATP) limited. Other research indicates that the presence of cloned Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) enhances ATP production in oxygen-limited Escherichia coli. To evaluate the influence of VHb expression on recombinant CHO cell productivity, the vhb gene has been fused to the

Girish J. Pendse; James E. Bailey

1994-01-01

407

Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Developed by Retroviral Insertional Mutagenesis That Is Resistant to Sindbis Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alphavirus Sindbis virus (SV) has a wide host range and infects many types of cultured cells in vitro. The outcome of infection is dependent on the strain of virus used for infection and the properties of the cells infected. To identify cellular determinants of susceptibility to SV infection we mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by retroviral insertion with

JIA-TSRONG JAN; ANDREW P. BYRNES; DIANE E. GRIFFIN

1999-01-01

408

Rare Extraperitoneal Involvement with Fatal Outcome in a Case of Bilateral Luteinized Thecoma of the Ovaries with Sclerosing Peritonitis  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a woman diagnosed with bilateral luteinized thecoma of the ovaries with sclerosing peritonitis, multiple intraperitoneal cystic lesions, and extraperitoneal lesions of the liver, inferior to the spleen, and high suspicion of bone marrow involvement. The patient developed profound pancytopenia with rapid clinical deterioration and a fatal outcome. PMID:24995140

Medhat, Mohamed A.; Abdel Malek, Mohamed A. Y.; Zaki, Saad; Helmy, Ahmed; Driscoll, James J.

2014-01-01

409

In polycystic ovary syndrome, adrenal steroids are regulated differently in the morning versus in response to nutrient intake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate adrenal steroid regulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). A 5-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a 3-h frequently sampled-intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) were administered to 30 patients with PCOS. Anthropometric parameters (hei...

410

Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened

H Teede; A Deeks; L Moran

2010-01-01

411

Insulin resistance is not strictly associated with energy intake or dietary macronutrient composition in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Around 60% of PCOS patients are obese. Weight loss has consistently been shown to improve the clinical status of women with PCOS. We hypothesized that dietary factors are associated with the hormonal and metabolic abnormalities of PCOS. This case-control study included 43 women with PCOS and

Mariana K. Toscani; Fernanda M. Mario; Simone Radavelli-Bagatini; Poli Mara Spritzer

2011-01-01

412

High Prevalence of Polycystic Ovaries and Associated Clinical, Endocrine, and Metabolic Features in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of polycystic ovaries, according to ultrasonography, and associated clinical, endocrine, and metabolic features were in- vestigated in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Thirty-four women with GDM 3-5 yr before the investigation and 36 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies, selected for similar age, parity, and date of delivery, were investigated. The women with previous GDM showed a higher

JAN HOLTE; GIANLUCA GENNARELLI; LEIF WIDE; HANS LITHELL; CHRISTIAN BERNE

2010-01-01

413

Different modulation of steroidogenesis and prostaglandin production in frog ovary in vitro by ACE and ANG II.  

PubMed

Our aim was to study the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) on ovarian steroidogenesis and prostaglandin production of amphibian. Hormonal effects of ACE, ACE inhibitors, synthetic bullfrog angiotensin I (ANG I), and [Val5]ANG II were compared on frog ovaries of postreproductive and prereproductive periods. Very high ACE activity was found in ovary of water frog (Rana esculenta) compared with other frog tissues, and this activity was inhibited by the typical ACE inhibitors, captopril and lisinopril. Frog ovary tissue in postreproductive and prereproductive periods was incubated in vitro in the presence of ACE (2.5 mU/ml), captopril (0.1 mM), lisinopril (0.1 mM), [Val5]ANG II (1 microM), and synthetic bullfrog ANG I (1 microM). Production of 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone, androgens, and prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha was determined. The data showed a modulation of 17 beta-estradiol, progesterone, and prostaglandin E2 production by ovary ACE; on the other hand, [Val5]ANG II modulated the production of progesterone and prostaglandin F2 alpha, whereas androgen production was not influenced. The present in vitro studies suggest the existence of two pathways independently regulated by ACE and ANG II modulating ovarian steroidogenesis and prostaglandin production. PMID:9435665

Bramucci, M; Miano, A; Gobbetti, A; Zerani, M; Quassinti, L; Maccari, E; Murri, O; Amici, D

1997-12-01

414

The importance of rock crab ( Cancer irroratus) for growth, condition and ovary development of adult American lobster ( Homarus americanus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rock crab (Cancer irroratus) fishery is a growing industry in eastern Canada. Considering that American lobster (Homarus americanus) is highly dependent on the rock crab as a food source, questions have arisen as to the impacts such a fishery would have. This study examines how different rations of rock crab can affect somatic growth, condition and ovary development of

Louise Gendron; Pierre Fradette; Guillaume Godbout

2001-01-01

415

Concentration of PCBs,HCB,DDT, and HCH isomers in the ovaries, mammary gland, and liver of cows  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organic chlorine compounds such as DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) play an important role in chronic poisoning and take part in a number of pathological processes. This study estimates the degree of accumulation of organic Chlorine compounds and polychlorinated biphynyls in the liver, ovaries, and mammary gland tissues of cows.12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Faundez, R. [Agricultural Univ. of Warsaw (Poland)]|[National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

1995-12-01

416

A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Unselected Caucasian Women from Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively estimated the prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as defined by the NIH\\/NICHHD 1990 endocrine criteria, in a population of 154 Caucasian women of reproductive age reporting spontaneously for blood donation. Anthropometric data; the presence of hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia; and the men- strual history were recorded by a single investigator. In 145 women, blood samples

MIRYAM ASUNCION; ROSA M. CALVO; SERGIO AVILA; HECTOR F. ESCOBAR-MORREALE

2010-01-01

417

Modulation of Cx43 and Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication by Androstenedione in Rat Polycystic Ovary and Granulosa Cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is implicated in physicological processes and it is vitally important for granulosa cell (GC) differentiation and oocyte growth. We investigated the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junctional protein, in normal and androstenedione-induced polycystic ovary (PCO), the effects of androstenedione on Cx43 expression, GJIC and progesterone production in granulosa cells in vitro. Methods Isolated GCs from rat ovary were supplemented with FSH and dripped with EHS-matrix (EHS-drip) in culture media, were treated with physiological (10?7 M) or pathological (10?5 M) androstenedione concentrations to induce differentiation. Cx43 protein levels were assessed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also used to determine the localization of Cx43 in GCs and corpus luteum (CL) of controls and PCOs. Differentiation of GCs was determined by progesterone assay and Lucifer yellow dye transfer for GJIC status. The degree of significance of variations between the results was analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS (version 11.5; 2002). Results Cx43 localized in the GC layer of both the control and PCOs. Its protein levels were upregulated in PCO rat ovaries. GCs in culture with or without androstenedione had a punctate membranous distribution of Cx43. However, androstenedione increased GJIC and upregulated progesterone and Cx43 protein levels. Inhibiting GJIC by 18-? GA in androstenedione-treated GCs caused partial inhibition of progesterone production, suggesting a possible role of GJIC in mediating the action of androstenedione on GC differentiation. Conclusion This study presented a suitable culture model for polycystic ovary syndrome and showed that Cx43 and GJIC might contribute to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:23926521

Talhouk, Rabih; Tarraf, Charbel; Kobrossy, Laila; Shaito, Abdallah; Bazzi, Samer; Bazzoun, Dana; El-Sabban, Marwan

2012-01-01

418

Ultrastructure of the ovary of Amphilina japonica Goto & Ishii, 1936 (Cestoda) and its implications for phylogenetic studies.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the ovary of the amphilinidean cestode Amphilina japonica Goto & Ishii, 1936 from the body-cavity of the American sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus Richardson is described using transmission electron microscopy. The characters of the ovary of Amphilina japonica are different from those of all other cestodes. The most important difference is in the nature of the relationship between the germ and accessory cells within the ovary. In A. japonica the oocytes and accessory cells form numerous different intercellular contacts (desmosome-like junctions and zonulae adherentes). Gap junctions are present between the narrow cytoplasmic processes of the accessory cells. Numerous micropinocytotic vesicles and vacuoles from the accessory cells discharge their content into spaces between the oocytes and the accessory cells. The accessory cells are closely associated with the oocytes during the early and middle stages of oogenesis. As the volume of oocytes increases, the accessory cells gradually lose their association with the oocyte surfaces. Peripherally located individual accessory cells of A. japonica give rise to a cellular epithelial layer of irregular shape and thickness which breaks down via numerous invaginations of the basal membrane and underlying basal matrix. The different arrangements of the interconnection of cell components in the Amphilinidea compared with the Gyrocotylidea and Eucestoda (the absence of specialised cell contacts and the syncytial nature of the accessory 'interstitial' cells) are evidence suggesting the presence of unrelated groups within the Cestoda. The nature of the association of the accessory and germ cells in ovary of A. japonica more closely resembles the ovary of non-platyhelminth invertebrates rather than that of other neodermatans. PMID:20960088

Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Xylander, Willi E R

2010-11-01

419

Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare complication of mature cystic teratoma. The epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and management of this rare tumor are reviewed. Clinical characteristics, preoperative imaging, and tumor markers may help to predict malignancy preoperatively. Complete cytoreduction should be the aim of surgery. The prognosis for stage 1A disease is good, but for women with advanced or recurrent disease, it is very poor and has not improved in recent years. At present, there are insufficient data to provide clear guidance on the optimal management strategy for advanced disease, and there is a need to gain an understanding of the biology and to develop novel effective therapies. This will require coordinated international collaboration. PMID:25126954

Glasspool, Rosalind M; González Martín, Antonio; Millan, David; Lorusso, Domenica; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Hurteau, Jean A; Davis, Alison; Hilpert, Felix; Kim, Jae-Weon; Alexandre, Jérôme; Ledermann, Jonathan A

2014-11-01

420

Bisphenol A (BPA) and its potential role in the pathogenesis of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and the most heterogeneous endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. Apart from signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, hirsutism and hair loss, women with PCOS usually present with menstrual irregularities and fertility problems.Additionally, they are often characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, which usually leads to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review article describes current and novel approach to the pathomechanisms of PCOS and the potential role of an endocrine disrupting chemical ("endocrine disruptor" - ED) - bisphenol A (BPA), which is commonly used as a plasticizer and due to its molecular structure can interact with estrogen receptors (ERs). Recent observations point to the higher levels of BPA in biological fluids of women with PCOS and its role in the pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia. It seems that mother's exposure to BPA during pregnancy may also lead to the development of PCOS in the female offspring. PMID:24397396

Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Racho?, Dominik

2014-04-01

421

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

422

The role of adiponectin in reproduction: from polycystic ovary syndrome to assisted reproduction  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarize the effects of the adipokine adiponectin on the reproductive endocrine system, from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to the gonads and target tissues of the reproductive system. Design A Medline computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Setting Research institution. Intervention(s) None. Result(s) Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that acts to reduce insulin resistance and atherogenic damage, but it also exerts actions in other tissues. Adiponectin mediates its actions in the periphery mainly via two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Adiponectin receptors are present in many reproductive tissues, including the central nervous system, ovaries, oviduct, endometrium, and testes. Adiponectin influences gonadotropin release, normal pregnancy, and assisted reproduction outcomes. Conclusion(s) Adiponectin, a beneficial adipokine, represents a major link between obesity and reproduction. Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with improved menstrual function and better outcomes in assisted reproductive cycles. PMID:20561616

Michalakis, Konstantinos G.; Segars, James H.

2011-01-01

423

Antimutagenic activities of naturally occurring polyamines in Chinese hamster ovary cell in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Spermine and spermidine, ubiquitous polyamines present in bacteria and animal cells, are also involved in cell growth. Since they interact with the double helix, they can stabilize the DNA molecule. Recent evidence of the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic capacity of spermine has focused attention on the he mechanism(s) by which such agents can protect cells from induced damages. In the present paper the authors show the ability of spermine and spermidine to decrease the level of sister chromatid exchanges induced in Chinese hamster ovary cells cultivated in vitro, by treating them with Psoralen + UVA irradiation (able to induce mainly monoadducts and DNA cross-links). Two different mechanisms of polyamine action can be invoked to explain the preservative activity of this class of agents.

Cozzi, R.; Perticone, P.; Bona, R.; Polani, S. (Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy))

1991-01-01

424

Effects of x rays on DNA synthesis in synchronized Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Chinese hamster ovary cells were synchronized at the beginning of S phase with 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and irradiated with moderte levels (< 3000 rad) of x rays. The block was reversed by pulse-labeling the cells with medium containing (/sup 3/H)thymidine at various times after irradiation. The cells were lysed immediately after termination of the pulse, and the rate of DNA synthesis, size of the nascent strands, and number of active replicons were determined. The level of DNA synthesis in cells pulse-labeled immediately after x irradiation with 1000 rad was suppressed 20 to 25% but returned to control levels within 4 h after irradiation. Our data demonstrate that this x-ray-induced suppression of DNA synthesis was due entirely to a reduction in the number of active replicons, with no appreciable change in the rate of chain growth.

Laughlin, T.J.; Taylor, J.H.

1980-07-01

425

Selective Inhibition of Steroidogenic Enzymes by Ketoconazole in Rat Ovary Cells  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Ketoconazole (KCZ) is an anti-fungal agent extensively used for clinical applications related to its inhibitory effects on adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis. Much less information is available on the effects of KCZ on synthesis of steroid hormones in the ovary. The present study aimed to characterize the in situ effects of KCZ on steroidogenic enzymes in primary rat ovary cells. METHODS Following the induction of folliculogenesis in gonadotropin treated rats, freshly prepared ovarian cells were incubated in suspension for up to four hours while radiolabeled steroid substrates were added and time dependent generation of their metabolic products was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). RESULTS KCZ inhibits the P450 steroidogenic enzymes in a selective and dose dependent manner, including cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1/P450scc), the 17?-hydroxylase activity of CYP17A1/P450c17, and CYP19A1/P450arom, with IC50 values of 0.3, 1.8, and 0.3 ?g/mL (0.56, 3.36, and 0.56 ?M), respectively. Unaffected by KCZ, at 10 ?g/mL, were the 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1, as well as five non-cytochrome steroidogenic enzymes including 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-?5–4 isomerase type 1 (3?HSD1), 5?-reductase, 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD), and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17HSD1). CONCLUSION These findings map the effects of KCZ on the ovarian pathways of progestin, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Hence, the drug may have a potential use as an acute and reversible modulator of ovarian steroidogenesis in pathological circumstances. PMID:24812532

Gal, Michael; Orly, Joseph

2014-01-01

426

False paracarpy in Seemannaralia (Araliaceae): from bilocular ovary to unilocular fruit  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seemannaralia appears to be fundamentally different from all other Araliaceae in the presence of a well-developed symplicate zone in its gynoecium, as well as in the ovule insertion in the symplicate zone (rather than in the cross-zone). The present investigation re-examined the floral structure of Seemannaralia with emphasis on the morphology and evolution of its gynoecium. Methods Flowers and fruits of Seemannaralia gerrardii at various developmental stages were examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Ovaries in the flowers of Seemannaralia are bilocular. Each ovary locule corresponds to a carpel whose ascidiate part is distinctly longer than the plicate part. Each carpel contains one fertile ovule attached to the cross-zone, and one sterile ovule as well. The fruit is unilocular: its central cavity is occupied by a single large seed. In the course of fruit development, the growth of one ovule stops while another ovule develops into the mature seed. When this ovule outgrows the available space in the locule, the septum is ruptured, forming a united cavity of two carpels. Conclusions Despite literature data, the synascidiate zone is well developed in the gynoecium of Seemannaralia, and the ovules are attached to the cross-zone. Its preanthetic and anthetic gynoecium has nearly the same structure as gynoecia of most other Araliaceae. The Seemannaralia fruit resembles the paracarpous gynoecium but its ground plan is very different because the central cavity is formed by mechanical rupture of the septum. The term ‘pseudoparacarpy’ (‘false paracarpy’) is proposed to describe this condition, which has not been reported to date for indehiscent fruits in any taxa other than Seemannaralia. In this genus, the pseudoparacarpy has probably resulted from a decrease in seed number in the course of the transition from zoochory to anemochory. PMID:20462851

Oskolski, Alexei A.; Sokoloff, Dmitry D.; Van Wyk, Ben-Erik

2010-01-01

427

Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases in Siberian hamsters impedes photostimulated recrudescence of ovaries.  

PubMed

Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod for 14 weeks induces ovarian regression. Subsequent transfer to long photoperiod restores ovarian function, and 2 weeks of photostimulation increases plasma estradiol (E(2)), antral follicles, and corpora lutea (CL). Because tissue remodeling involved with photostimulated ovarian recrudescence is associated with differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), we hypothesized that inhibiting MMP activity using a broad-spectrum in vivo MMP inhibitor, GM6001, would curtail recrudescence. One group of hamsters was placed in long days (LD; 16 h light:8 h darkness) for 16 weeks. Another group was placed in inhibitory short days (SD; 8 h light:16 h darkness) for 14 weeks. A third group was placed in SD for 14 weeks and transferred to LD for 2 weeks to stimulate recrudescence. During weeks 14-16, animals were either not treated or treated daily with i.p. injections of GM6001 (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (DMSO). GM6001 reduced gelatinase activity and decreased immunohistochemical staining for MMP1, MMP2, and MMP3 compared with vehicle. No differences between controls, vehicle, or GM6001 treatment were observed among LD animals, despite a trend toward reduction in CL and E(2) with GM6001. Although SD reduced ovarian function, photostimulation of transferred controls increased uterine mass, plasma E(2), appearance of antral follicles, and CL. With GM6001 treatment, photostimulation failed to increase uterine mass, plasma E(2), antral follicles, or CL. These data show, for the first time, that in vivo GM6001 administration inhibits MMP activity in hamster ovaries during photostimulation, and indicate that this inhibition may impede photostimulated recrudescence of ovaries. This study suggests an intriguing link between MMP activity and return to ovarian function during photostimulated recrudescence. PMID:20881024

Whited, Julie; Shahed, Asha; McMichael, Carling F; Young, Kelly A

2010-12-01

428

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is required for normal gonadotropin responsiveness in the mouse ovary  

SciTech Connect

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of a variety of environmental chemicals. Although little is known about the physiological role of the AHR, studies suggest that it plays an important role in regulating ovulation because Ahr deficient (AhRKO) mice have a reduced number of ovulations compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The reasons for the reduced ability of AhRKO mice to ovulate are unknown. Normal ovulation, however, requires estrous cyclicity, appropriate luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, and LH and FSH responsiveness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ahr deletion regulates ovulation by altering cyclicity, FSH and LH levels, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) and luteinizing hormone receptor (Lhcgr) levels and/or gonadotropin responsiveness. The data indicate that AhRKO and WT mice have similar levels of FSH and LH, but AhRKO mice have reduced Fshr and Lhcgr mRNA levels compared to WT mice. Furthermore, AhRKO ovaries contain fewer corpora lutea compared to WT ovaries after 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment. Lastly, both AhRKO and WT mice ovulate a similar number of eggs in response to 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but AhRKO mice ovulate fewer eggs than WT mice in response to 2.5 IU and 1.25 IU hCG. Collectively, these data indicate that AhRKO follicles have a reduced capacity to ovulate compared to WT follicles and that this is due to reduced responsiveness to gonadotropins. Thus, in addition to mediating toxicity of environmental chemicals, the Ahr is required for normal ovulation.

Barnett, Kimberly R.; Tomic, Dragana [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Gupta, Rupesh K. [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Babus, Janice K. [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Roby, Katherine F. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Terranova, Paul F. [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A. [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)], E-mail: jflaws@uiuc.edu

2007-08-15

429

FMR1 Genotype with Autoimmunity-Associated Polycystic Ovary-Like Phenotype and Decreased Pregnancy Chance  

PubMed Central

The FMR1 gene partially appears to control ovarian reserve, with a specific ovarian sub-genotype statistically associated with a polycystic ovary (PCO)- like phenotype. Some forms of PCO have been associated with autoimmunity. We, therefore, investigated in multiple regression analyses associations of ovary-specific FMR1 genotypes with autoimmunity and pregnancy chances (with in vitro fertilization, IVF) in 339 consecutive infertile women (455 IVF cycles), 75 with PCO-like phenotype, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, medication dosage and number of oocytes retrieved. Patients included 183 (54.0%) with normal (norm) and 156 (46%) with heterozygous (het) FMR1 genotypes; 133 (39.2%) demonstrated laboratory evidence of autoimmunity: 51.1% of het-norm/low, 38.3% of norm and 24.2% het-norm/high genotype and sub-genotypes demonstrated autoimmunity (p?=?0.003). Prevalence of autoimmunity increased further in PCO-like phenotype patients with het-norm/low genotype (83.3%), remained unchanged with norm (34.0%) and decreased in het-norm/high women (10.0%; P<0.0001). Pregnancy rates were significantly higher with norm (38.6%) than het-norm/low (22.2%, p?=?0.001). FMR1 sub-genotype het-norm/low is strongly associated with autoimmunity and decreased pregnancy chances in IVF, reaffirming the importance of the distal long arm of the X chromosome (FMR1 maps at Xq27.3) for autoimmunity, ovarian function and, likely, pregnancy chance with IVF. PMID:21179569

Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Lee, Irene H.; Barad, David H.

2010-01-01

430

Germ cell specification and ovary structure in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis  

PubMed Central

Background The segregation of the germline from somatic tissues is an essential process in the development of all animals. Specification of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) takes place via different strategies across animal phyla; either specified early in embryogenesis by the inheritance of maternal determinants in the cytoplasm of the oocyte ('preformation') or selected later in embryonic development from undifferentiated precursors by a localized inductive signal ('epigenesis'). Here we investigate the specification and development of the germ cells in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a member of the poorly-characterized superphyla Lophotrochozoa, by isolating the Brachionus homologues of the conserved germ cell markers vasa and nanos, and examining their expression using in situ hybridization. Results Bpvasa and Bpnos RNA expression have very similar distributions in the Brachionus ovary, showing ubiquitous expression in the vitellarium, with higher levels in the putative germ cell cluster. Bpvas RNA expression is present in freshly laid eggs, remaining ubiquitous in embryos until at least the 96 cell stage after which expression narrows to a small cluster of cells at the putative posterior of the embryo, consistent with the developing ovary. Bpnos RNA expression is also present in just-laid eggs but expression is much reduced by the four-cell stage and absent by the 16-cell stage. Shortly before hatching of the juvenile rotifer from the egg, Bpnos RNA expression is re-activated, located in a subset of posterior cells similar to those expressing Bpvas at the same stage. Conclusions The observed expression of vasa and nanos in the developing B. plicatilis embryo implies an epigenetic origin of primordial germ cells in Rotifer. PMID:20849649

2010-01-01

431

Prognostic impact of lymphadenectomy in clinically early stage malignant germ cell tumour of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of lymphadenectomy and nodal metastasis on survival in clinical stage I malignant ovarian germ cell tumour (OGCT). Methods: Data were obtained from the National Cancer Institute registry from 1988 to 2006. Analyses were performed using Student's t-test, Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazard methods. Results: In all, 1083 patients with OGCT who have undergone surgical treatment and deemed at time of the surgery to have disease clinically confined to the ovary were included 590 (54.48%) had no lymphadenectomy (LND?1) and 493 (45.52%) had lymphadenectomy. Of the 493 patients who had lymphadenectomy, 441 (89.5%) were FIGO surgical stage I (LND+1) and 52 (10.5%) were upstaged to FIGO stage IIIC due to nodal metastasis (LND+3C). The 5-year survival was 96.9% for LND?1, 97.7% for LND+1 and 93.4% for LND+3C (P=0.5). On multivariate analysis, lymphadenectomy was not an independent predictor of survival when controlling for age, histology and race (HR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.62–2.58, P=0.5). Moreover, the presence of lymph node metastasis had no significant effect on survival (HR: 2.7, 95% CI: 0.67–10.96, P=0.16). Conclusion: Neither lymphadenectomy nor lymph node metastasis was an independent predictor of survival in patients with OGCT confined to the ovary. This probably reflects the highly chemosensitive nature of these tumours. PMID:21772335

Mahdi, H; Swensen, R E; Hanna, R; Kumar, S; Ali-Fehmi, R; Semaan, A; Tamimi, H; Morris, R T; Munkarah, A R

2011-01-01

432

Intrafollicular levels of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in patients with polycystic ovaries are not associated with pregnancy rate during IVF cycle.  

PubMed

This study aimed to detect the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, in the follicular fluid of 35 patients with polycystic ovaries, compare them with the levels found in 35 normally ovulating women enrolled in their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle and then correlate them with pregnancy rates in these two groups. Levels of MMP-9 were found significantly increased in women with polycystic ovaries when compared with the controls, while MMP-2 levels were higher in women with polycystic ovaries without reaching statistical significance. The two groups did not differ in age, in the number of embryos transferred or in pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the results indicated an increased gelatinolytic activity in patients with polycystic ovaries after ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment without detecting any association between levels of MMP-2 and 9 and IVF pregnancy rates. PMID:19368130

Baka, Stavroula; Zourla, Konstantina; Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne; Makrakis, Evangelos; Kaparos, George; Demeridou, Stella; Moustakarias, Theodore; Tzanakaki, Despoina; Hassiakos, Dimitris; Kouskouni, Evangelia

2009-01-01

433

Perturbation of N-linked oligosaccharide structure results in an altered incorporation of (³H)palmitate into specific proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased (³H)palmitate incorporation into specific cellular proteins has been reported to occur in Chinese hamster ovary and yeast mutant cells. In this paper we report studies concerning the relationship between N-linked oligosaccharide structure and (³H)palmitate incorporation into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We have compared the incorporation of (³H)palmitate into proteins of wild-type and four different mutant CHO

R. B. Wellner; P. C. Ghosh; B. Roecklein; H. C. Wu

1987-01-01

434

Vasoactive intestinal peptide enhanced aromatase activity in the neonatal rat ovary before development of primary follicles or responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the factors that regulate aromatase activity in fetal-neonatal rat ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity (assessed by measuring the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed from (1..beta..-/sup 3/H)testosterone) is low prior to birth and increases to values greater than 30 pmol/hr per mg of protein between days 8 and 12 after birth. The appearance of ovarian aromatase coincides with the development of primordial follicles. Fetal-neonatal ovaries maintained in serum-free organ culture do not develop aromatase activity at the expected time. Ovine follicle-stimulating hormone, ovine luteinizing hormone, or their combination failed to induce the enzyme activity in cultured fetal ovaries, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone is effective in preventing the decline in aromatase activity when postnatal day 8 ovaries are placed in culture. In contrast to follicle-stimulating hormone, dibutyryl-cAMP markedly enhances ovarian aromatase in cultured fetal ovaries. Likewise, enhancement of endogenouse cAMP formation with forskolin or cholera toxin caused an increase in enzyme activity within 24 hr. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a peptide known to occur in ovarian nerves, caused a dose-dependent increase in aromatase activity in fetal ovaries prior to folliculogenesis. Of related peptides tested, only the peptide having N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine amide was capable of inducing aromatase activity in fetal ovaries. The fact that VIP can induce aromatase activity in fetal rat ovaries prior to follicle formation and prior to responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone suggests that this neuropeptide may play a critical role in ovarian differentiation.

George, F.W.; Ojeda, S.R.

1987-08-01

435

Primary non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the ovary in the background of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): a bold and curative approach to treatment.  

PubMed

Non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the ovary is a rare disease and there is only one previously documented case arising in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this report, the authors discuss the management of a case of non-Hodgkins Lymphoma of the ovary occurring in a patient with HIV and demonstrate that treatment regimens may be successfully implemented in this immunocompromised population without an increase in adverse effects. PMID:20349792

Govender, P S; Moodley, M

2010-01-01

436

Fibrillins and latent TGF? binding proteins in bovine ovaries of offspring following high or low protein diets during pregnancy of dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsatellite D19S884, located in intron 55 of fibrillin-3 (FBN3) gene, associates with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in familial studies. The family of fibrillin proteins (FBN1-3), which includes latent TGF-? binding proteins (LTBP-1 to -4), are extracellular matrix proteins. We localized and examined the expression of these proteins in the adult bovine ovaries (n=7–10 per group, average age 681 days)

Mark J. Prodoehl; Helen F. Irving-Rodgers; Wendy M. Bonner; Tracy M. Sullivan; Gina C. Micke; Mark A. Gibson; Vivienne E. Perry; Raymond J. Rodgers

2009-01-01

437

Effects of reproductive stage and 11-ketotestosterone on LPL mRNA levels in the ovary of the shortfinned eel  

PubMed Central

To understand the dynamics of lipid uptake into the ovary and the potential role that lipoprotein lipase plays in this event, changes in LPL transcript abundance during oogenesis were measured in both wild-caught and pituitary homogenate-induced artificially maturing eels. Also, the effects of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) on LPL mRNA levels were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Normalized ovarian LPL transcript abundance increased as oogenesis advanced, and it rose particularly rapidly during midvitellogenesis, corresponding to pronounced increases in ovarian lipid deposits and LPL activity. Furthermore, LPL mRNA levels were dramatically increased following 11-KT treatment in vivo, findings that were reinforced as trends in ovarian tissue incubated in vitro. Ovarian LPL appears to be directly involved in the uptake of lipids into the eel ovary, an involvement that appears to be controlled, at least in part, by the androgen 11-KT. PMID:20713648

Divers, Sean L.; McQuillan, H. James; Matsubara, Hajime; Todo, Takashi; Lokman, P. Mark

2010-01-01

438

A rare case of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma localized to the ovary and detected via abdominal computed tomography angiography  

PubMed Central

Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are rare tumors that originate from the chromaffin tissue of the sympathetic nervous system. Ovarian extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma is even more rare. The present study reports a rare case of an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma that was localized to the right ovary, but was gynecologically asymptomatic. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) detected the tumor and indicated that it was well defined, highly vascularized and obtained its blood supply from the right ovarian artery. This is the second case of ovarian extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma reported in the literature, and the first description of the CTA manifestations in the ovary. Gynecologists and radiologists should consider the possibility that an ovarian mass could be an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, which would allow time to prepare appropriately for the surgical removal of the mass.

LIU, HUI; LI, WEN-ZHENG; WANG, XIAO-YI; PEI, YI-GANG; LONG, XUE-YIN; CHEN, CHANG-YONG; HU, YONG-BIN

2015-01-01

439

Polycystic ovary syndrome in Salvador, Brazil: a prevalence study in primary healthcare  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and polycystic ovaries. It is associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. No studies have been conducted on the prevalence of PCOS in Brazilian or South American women. Few studies using the Rotterdam criteria have been published. The objective of the present study was to calculate the prevalence of PCOS at primary healthcare level in Salvador, Brazil based on these criteria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, two-phase study conducted in a probability sample of women of 18–45?years of age screened for cervical cancer in the primary healthcare network of the city of Salvador, Brazil. In the first phase, interviews were conducted, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and random blood sugar levels were measured, and the presence of acne and hirsutism was investigated. Women with at least one diagnostic criterion were referred for the second phase, which consisted of specialist consultation, pelvic ultrasonography and hormone measurements for differential diagnosis and/or investigation of a second criterion. Results Of the 859 women interviewed, 88.5% were black and 58.7% had 11?years of schooling or less. A diagnosis of PCOS was excluded in 84.4%, undetermined in 7.1% and confirmed in 8.5% (95%CI: 6.80–10.56). There were no statistically significant differences between these three groups with respect to weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood sugar levels or arterial blood pressure. Women with PCOS were younger (p?=?0.00), taller (p?=?0.04), had fewer children (p?=?0.00), were better educated (p?=?0.01), and had higher total testosterone levels (p?=?0.01) and a higher LH/FSH ratio (p?=?0.01). Conclusion According to the Rotterdam criteria, the prevalence of PCOS in women seeking primary healthcare in Salvador, Brazil, was 8.5%. PMID:23173761

2012-01-01

440

Identification and characterization of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in granulosa cells of the human ovary  

PubMed Central

Background Granulosa cells (GCs) represent a major endocrine compartment of the ovary producing sex steroid hormones. Recently, we identified in human GCs a Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa) of big conductance (BKCa), which is involved in steroidogenesis. This channel is activated by intraovarian signalling molecules (e.g. acetylcholine) via raised intracellular Ca2+ levels. In this study, we aimed at characterizing 1. expression and functions of KCa channels (including BKCa beta-subunits), and 2. biophysical properties of BKCa channels. Methods GCs were obtained from in vitro-fertilization patients and cultured. Expression of mRNA was determined by standard RT-PCR and protein expression in human ovarian slices was detected by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone production was measured in cell culture supernatants using ELISAs. Single channels were recorded in the inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Results We identified two KCa types in human GCs, the intermediate- (IK) and the small-conductance KCa (SK). Their functionality was concluded from attenuation of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone production by KCa blockers (TRAM-34, apamin). Functional IK channels were also demonstrated by electrophysiological recording of single KCa channels with distinctive features. Both, IK and BKCa channels were found to be simultaneously active in individual GCs. In agreement with functional data, we identified mRNAs encoding IK, SK1, SK2 and SK3 in human GCs and proteins of IK and SK2 in corresponding human ovarian cells. Molecular characterization of the BKCa channel revealed the presence of mRNAs encoding several BKCa beta-subunits (beta2, beta3, beta4) in human GCs. The multitude of beta-subunits detected might contribute to variations in Ca2+ dependence of individual BKCa channels which we observed in electrophysiological recordings. Conclusion Functional and molecular studies indicate the presence of active IK and SK channels in human GCs. Considering the already described BKCa, they express all three KCa types known. We suggest that the plurality and co-expression of different KCa channels and BKCa beta-subunits might allow differentiated responses to Ca2+ signals over a wide range caused by various intraovarian signalling molecules (e.g. acetylcholine, ATP, dopamine). The knowledge of ovarian KCa channel properties and functions should help to understand the link between endocrine and paracrine/autocrine control in the human ovary. PMID:19351419

Traut, Matthias H; Berg, Dieter; Berg, Ulrike; Mayerhofer, Artur; Kunz, Lars

2009-01-01

441

Metformin treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome improves health-related quality-of-life, emotional distress and sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), changes in physical appearance, menstrual disturbances and infertility result in psychological distress and reduced quality-of-life. Metformin improves biochemical, clinical and reproductive parameters in PCOS women. In a prospective, observational study, we analysed the effects of met- formin treatment on health-related quality-of-life (HRQL), emotional well-being and sexuality in PCOS. No placebo- treated control group was

Susanne Hahn; Sven Benson; Sigrid Elsenbruch; Katja Pleger; Susanne Tan; Klaus Mann; Manfred Schedlowski; Walburga Bering van Halteren; Rainer Kimmig; Onno E. Janssen

2006-01-01

442

Piwi Is Required in Multiple Cell Types to Control Germline Stem Cell Lineage Development in the Drosophila Ovary  

PubMed Central

The piRNA pathway plays an important role in maintaining genome stability in the germ line by silencing transposable elements (TEs) from fly to mammals. As a highly conserved piRNA pathway component, Piwi is widely expressed in both germ cells and somatic cells in the Drosophila ovary and is required for piRNA production in both cell types. In addition to its known role in somatic cap cells to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs), this study has demonstrated that Piwi has novel functions in somatic cells and germ cells of the Drosophila ovary to promote germ cell differentiation. Piwi knockdown in escort cells causes a reduction in escort cell (EC) number and accumulation of undifferentiated germ cells, some of which show active BMP signaling, indicating that Piwi is required to maintain ECs and promote germ cell differentiation. Simultaneous knockdown of dpp, encoding a BMP, in ECs can partially rescue the germ cell differentiation defect, indicating that Piwi is required in ECs to repress dpp. Consistent with its key role in piRNA production, TE transcripts increase significantly and DNA damage is also elevated in the piwi knockdown somatic cells. Germ cell-specific knockdown of piwi surprisingly causes depletion of germ cells before adulthood, suggesting that Piwi might control primordial germ cell maintenance or GSC establishment. Finally, Piwi inactivation in the germ line of the adult ovary leads to gradual GSC loss and germ cell differentiation defects, indicating the intrinsic role of Piwi in adult GSC maintenance and differentiation. This study has revealed new germline requirement of Piwi in controlling GSC maintenance and lineage differentiation as well as its new somatic function in promoting germ cell differentiation. Therefore, Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control GSC lineage development in the Drosophila ovary. PMID:24658126

Ma, Xing; Wang, Su; Do, Trieu; Song, Xiaoqing; Inaba, Mayu; Nishimoto, Yoshiya; Liu, Lu-ping; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ying; Li, Hui; McDowell, William; Park, Jungeun; Malanowski, Kate; Peak, Allison; Perera, Anoja; Li, Hua; Gaudenz, Karin; Haug, Jeff; Yamashita, Yukiko; Lin, Haifan; Ni, Jian-quan; Xie, Ting

2014-01-01

443

Lipid Accumulation and Foam Cell Formation in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Overexpressing Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rabbit very low density lipoprotein receptor gene was introduced into LDL receptor-negative Chinese hamster ovary cells (ldl-A7). Incubation of the transfected cells with rabbit ?-VLDL (5 to 8 ?g protein\\/ml), for 6 days, induced foam cell formation. The cells accumulated lipid droplets visualized by oil red-O staining; the cellular cholesteryl ester and triglyceride content increased two- to threefold. [3H]Oleate

J. Suzuki; S. Takahashi; K. Oida; A. Shimada; M. Kohno; T. Tamai; S. Miyabo; T. Yamamoto; T. Nakai

1995-01-01

444

Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein gpII, Secreted by Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary cells have been engineered to secrete an anchorless form of the varicella-zoster virus gpII protein. Purification of the recombinant product was achieved by a combination of hydrophobic and gel filtration chromatography giving rise to a protein more than 85% pure. Recombinant gpII was composed of several polypeptides which, on the basis of amino-terminal sequence analysis, corresponded to

A. Jacquet; M. Massaer; M. Haumont; S. Houard; V. Deleersnyder; A. Bollen; P. Jacobs

1995-01-01

445

Cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and p53 expression in nickel(II) acetate-treated Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel(II) compounds are known human and animal carci- nogens. In this study, the effects of nickel(II) acetate on cell cycle, apoptosis and p53 expression were investigated in order to unveil the elements of early cellular responses to the metal. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were grown for 72 h in Ham's F-12 medium containing 0, 40, 80, 160, 240, 320,

Yih-Horng Shiao; Sang-Han Lee; Kazimierz S. Kasprzak

1998-01-01

446

A PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE MECHANISM OF CYTOTOXICITY OF 9-BETA-D- XYLOFURANOSYLADENINE IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical determinants of cytotoxicity of the purine nucleoside analog, 9-(beta)-D-xylofuranosyladenine (xyl-A) were studied in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells and in nucleoside kinase deficient mutants. It was found that {('3)H}xyl-A was readily phosphorylated to the triphosphate level in both the wild-type and deoxycytidine kinase deficient mutant, but not by the adenosine kinase deficient cells. Values for the apparent Km

BRUCE ALAN HARRIS

1981-01-01

447

Limitations to the comparative proteomic analysis of thrombopoietin producing Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with sodium butyrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium butyrate (NaBu) is known to enhance the specific productivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human thrombopoietin. In order to better understand the intracellular responses of these cells resulting from NaBu treatment, the proteomic profiles of cells treated with various concentrations of NaBu (0–3mM) were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Based on spot intensities, 80 high intensity protein spots

Jong Youn Baik; Eun Jin Joo; Young Hwan Kim; Gyun Min Lee

2008-01-01

448

A fucan from the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi inhibits Chinese hamster ovary cell adhesion to several extracellular matrix proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucans, a family of sulfated polysaccharides present in brown sea- weed, have several biological activities. Their use as drugs would offer the advantage of no potential risk of contamination with viruses or particles such as prions. A fucan prepared from Spatoglossum schrederi was tested as a possible inhibitor of cell-matrix interac- tions using wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and

H. A. O. Rocha; C. R. C. Franco; E. S. Trindade; L. C. M. Carvalho; S. S. Veiga; E. L. Leite; C. P. Dietrich; H. B. Nader

2001-01-01

449

Lack of correlation between deoxyribonucleotide pool sizes, spontaneous mutation rates and malignant potential in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between altered spontaneous mutation rates and malignant characteristics of cells, two hydroxyurea-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, with alterations in ribonucleotide reductase, were examined for their rates of spontaneous mutation to 6-thioguanine and ouabain resistance, tumor growth rates and their ability to form experimental lung metastases. The most resistant cell line, HR-R2T, showed no changes in

Aaron Y. Tagger; Jacqueline E. Damen; Arnold H. Greenberg; Jim A. Wright

1989-01-01

450

Sialylated carbohydrate chains of recombinant human glycoproteins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells contain traces of N-glycolylneuraminic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC analysis of sialic acid released from recombinant variants of human tissue plasminogen activator, human chimeric plasminogen activator, human erythropoietin, and human follitropin, expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, demonstrates for each glycoprotein the presence of N-acetylneuraminic and N-glycolylneuraminic acid in a ratio of 97:3. Structural analysis by 500 MHz1H-NMR spectroscopy, of the enzymatically released N-linked carbohydrate chains of chimeric

J. F. G. Vliegenthart; C. H. Hokke; A. A. Bergwerff; G. W. K. van Dedem; J. van Oostrum; J. P. Kamerling

1990-01-01

451

Amplification of the gene for SCAP, coupled with Insig-1 deficiency, confers sterol resistance in mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum membrane proteins Insig-1 and Insig-2 limit cholesterol synthesis, in part through their sterol-dependent binding to sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). This binding prevents proteolytic processing of SREBPs, membrane-bound transcription factors that enhance choles- terol synthesis. We report here the characterization of mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, designated SRD-19, that are resistant to 25-hydroxycholesterol,

Peter C. W. Lee; Pingsheng Liu; Wei-Ping Li; Russell A. DeBose-Boyd

2007-01-01

452

Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines temperature conditional for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described to select mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells that are conditionally defective for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins, including the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. Using a combination of cell sorting and biochemical screening, seven cell lines were obtained that express more cell-surface HA at 32°C than at 39°C. The production of infectious vesic-

Janet Hearing; Eric Hunter; Linda Rodgers; Mary-Jane Gething; Joe Sambrookll

1989-01-01

453

Analysis of bromodeoxyuridine-induced single and twin sister chromatid exchanges in tetraploid Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture of cells in high exogenous levels (>10-4 M) of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) or thymidine will increase the baseline sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency. The effect is thought to be related to the balance of the DNA precursors thymidine and deoxycytidine. Exogenous addition of deoxycytidine will reverse this effect. Single and twin SCEs were analysed in Colcemid-induced tetraploid Chinese hamster ovary

Jeffrey L. Schwartz

1986-01-01

454

Selective Loss of Wheat Germ Agglutinin Binding to Agglutinin-Resistant Mutants of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding of 125I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to parental and three distinct WGA-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines possessing modified cell surface carbohydrate structures has been examined over a 106-fold range of WGA concentrations. The Scatchard plot for WGA binding to parental cells was complex and exhibited positively cooperative binding at the high affinity sites. One of the WGA-resistant

Pamela Stanley; Jeremy P. Carver

1977-01-01

455

Analysis of mutations in alleles of the fur gene from an endoprotease-deficient chinese hamster ovary cell strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

RPE. 40 mutant cells differ from wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in their increased resistance toPseudomonas exotoxin A and their inability to process the insulin proreceptor and certain viral envelope proproteins. Northern analysis revealed that RPE. 40 cells maintained a substantially lower steady-state level of 4.0 kbfur mRNA than did CHO-K1 cells. Analysis offur cDNAs showed that RPE. 40

Michael J. Spence; Joseph F. Sucic; Brian T. Foley; Thomas J. Moehring

1995-01-01

456

Identification of Cellular Defect in UVS1, a UV-sensitive Chinese Hamster Ovary Mutant Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

UVS1 is an intermediately UV-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary mutant originally isolated by its hypersensitivity to an anticancer drug, l-((4- amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride. By cell fusion analysis, UVS1 complemented the UV sen sitivity of the mouse lymphoma cell line US31 from the eighth comple mentation group of UV-sensitive rodent cell lines. By enzyme-linked im- munosorbent assay we found that within 3 h

Masayuki Ninnala; Hiroaki Hata; Tadahiro Shiomi; Tsukasa Matsunaga; Toshio Mori; Osanni Nikaido; Akira Yasui; Atsushi Oikawa

457

Characterization of chromosome replication during S-phase with bromodeoxyuridine labelling in Chinese hamster ovary and HeLa cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HeLa cells were successively pulse labelled at 1-h intervals after the cultures were synchronized at the end of G1 (monitored by flow cytometry). The metaphases analysed afterwards showed R-type replication patterns after 1-h pulses during the early S-phase (SE; from h 1–5 after release) and replication of G- and C-bands in late S-phase (SL: from

Walther Vogel; Sabine Boldin; Anton Reisacher; Giinter Speit

1985-01-01

458

Application of transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy for ovarian drilling using Nd:YAG laser in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) was introduced as the first-line procedure in the early stage of the exploration\\u000a of the tubo-ovarian structures in infertile women, it has been shown that THL is a less traumatic and a more suitable outpatient\\u000a procedure than diagnostic laparoscopy In the present study a minimally invasive surgery was carried out in infertile women\\u000a with polycystic ovary

Yuki Hirano; Hiroaki Shibahara; Satoru Takamizawa; Izumi Suzuki; Seiji Yamanaka; Tatsuya Suzuki; Hiroyuki Fujiwara; Mitsuaki Suzuki

2003-01-01

459

Metformin-induced resumption of normal menses in 39 of 43 (91%) previously amenorrheic women with the polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 43 amenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 31 (74%) with fasting hyperinsulinemia (? 20 ?U\\/mL), our aim was to determine whether Metformin (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ), which reduces hyperinsulinemia, would reverse the endocrinopathy of PCOS, allowing resumption of regular normal menses. A second aim was to assess the effects of weight loss versus other Metformin-induced effects on ovarian

C. J. Glueck; Ping Wang; Robert Fontaine; Trent Tracy; Luann Sieve-Smith

1999-01-01

460

Metformin therapy improves ovulatory rates, cervical scores, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of metformin therapy on hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, cervical scores, ovulation, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Setting: Infertility clinic of a tertiary referral center.Patient(s): Fifty-six women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS.Intervention(s): Two cycles of oral metformin therapy (850 mg, twice daily) in group I and placebo

Müberra Kocak; Eray Caliskan; Coskun Simsir; Ali Haberal

2002-01-01

461

Metformin therapy improves the menstrual pattern with minimal endocrine and metabolic effects in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the clinical, hormonal, and biochemical effects of 4–6 months of metformin therapy in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective study.Setting: The Gynecological Endocrine Unit of University Central Hospital, Oulu, Finland.Patient(s): Twenty obese patients with PCOS.Intervention(s): Patients were treated with 0.5 g of metformin three times daily for 4–6 months.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical symptoms, menstrual pattern,

Laure C. Morin-Papunen; Riitta M. Koivunen; Aimo Ruokonen; Hannu K. Martikainen

1998-01-01

462

The Influence of Therapeutic Radiation on the Patterns of Bone Remodeling in Ovary-Intact and Ovariectomized Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize changes in bone remodeling associated with localized radiation that models therapeutic cancer treatment in ovary-intact and ovariectomized mice and evaluate the influence of radiation on the pattern of bone mineral remodeling. Methods Young adult, female BALB/c mice, ovary-intact (I) and ovariectomized (OVX), were used (n=71). All mice were intravenously injection with 15 ?Ci 45Ca. Thirty days post-45Ca administration, the hind limbs of 17 mice were exposed to a single 16 Gy radiation (R). The time course of 45Ca excretion, serum CTx and osteocalcin markers, and cancellous bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) of the distal femur were measured. Cellular activity and dynamic histomorphometry were performed. Results Irradiation resulted in rapid increases in fecal 45Ca excretion compare