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Sample records for ovary derived kk1

  1. Host-derived transferrin is maintained and transferred from midgut to ovary in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Galay, Remil Linggatong; Maeda, Hiroki; Matsuo, Tomohide; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Mochizuki, Masami; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tanaka, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    Transferrin is known to be an iron transporter in vertebrates and several arthropods. Iron from host blood is essential for ovarian development in blood-sucking arthropods. However, tick transferrin has been identified in only a few species, and its function has yet to be elucidated, resulting in incomplete understanding of iron metabolism in ticks. Here, we investigated the transfer of host-derived transferrin in the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis using immunological methods. Western blot showed that host-derived transferrin was maintained in all developmental stages of ticks up to 28 days after engorgement and was detected in the midgut and the ovary of adult females following blood feeding. However, no host-derived transferrin was detected in eggs after laying or in larvae after hatching, indicating that host-derived transferrin is not transferred to offspring transovarially. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing showed the localization of host-derived transferrin in digestive cells of the midgut and oocytes of the ovary from engorged adult females. These results suggest that host-derived transferrin is transferred to the ovary through the midgut and the hemolymph, and raise the possibility of the function of host-derived transferrin as an iron source in the ovary, providing additional insight on iron metabolism in ticks. PMID:24268885

  2. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary.

    PubMed

    Fereydouni, Bentolhoda; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Heistermann, Michael; Dressel, Ralf; Lewerich, Lucia; Drummer, Charis; Behr, Rdiger

    2016-01-01

    We use the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a preclinical nonhuman primate model to study reproductive and stem cell biology. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary contains numerous primitive premeiotic germ cells (oogonia) expressing pluripotent stem cell markers including OCT4A (POU5F1). This is a peculiarity compared to neonatal human and rodent ovaries. Here, we aimed at culturing marmoset oogonia from neonatal ovaries. We established a culture system being stable for more than 20 passages and 5 months. Importantly, comparative transcriptome analysis of the cultured cells with neonatal ovary, embryonic stem cells, and fibroblasts revealed a lack of germ cell and pluripotency genes indicating the complete loss of oogonia upon initiation of the culture. From passage 4 onwards, however, the cultured cells produced large spherical, free-floating cells resembling oocyte-like cells (OLCs). OLCs strongly expressed several germ cell genes and may derive from the ovarian surface epithelium. In summary, our novel primate ovarian cell culture initially lacked detectable germ cells but then produced OLCs over a long period of time. This culture system may allow a deeper analysis of early phases of female primate germ cell development and-after significant refinement-possibly also the production of monkey oocytes. PMID:26664406

  3. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, Bentolhoda; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Heistermann, Michael; Dressel, Ralf; Lewerich, Lucia; Drummer, Charis; Behr, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    We use the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a preclinical nonhuman primate model to study reproductive and stem cell biology. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary contains numerous primitive premeiotic germ cells (oogonia) expressing pluripotent stem cell markers including OCT4A (POU5F1). This is a peculiarity compared to neonatal human and rodent ovaries. Here, we aimed at culturing marmoset oogonia from neonatal ovaries. We established a culture system being stable for more than 20 passages and 5 months. Importantly, comparative transcriptome analysis of the cultured cells with neonatal ovary, embryonic stem cells, and fibroblasts revealed a lack of germ cell and pluripotency genes indicating the complete loss of oogonia upon initiation of the culture. From passage 4 onwards, however, the cultured cells produced large spherical, free-floating cells resembling oocyte-like cells (OLCs). OLCs strongly expressed several germ cell genes and may derive from the ovarian surface epithelium. In summary, our novel primate ovarian cell culture initially lacked detectable germ cells but then produced OLCs over a long period of time. This culture system may allow a deeper analysis of early phases of female primate germ cell development and—after significant refinement—possibly also the production of monkey oocytes. PMID:26664406

  4. Differentiation potential of germ line stem cells derived from the postnatal mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarotti, Jason; Maki, Chad; Ramos, Thomas; Marh, Joel; Howerton, Kyle; Wong, Jadelind; Pham, Jane; Anorve, Sandra; Chow, Yung-Chiong; Izadyar, Fariborz

    2010-03-01

    General belief in reproductive biology is that in most mammals female germ line stem cells are differentiated to primary oocytes during fetal development and oogenesis starts from a pool of primordial follicles after birth. This idea has been challenged previously by using follicle kinetics studies and demonstration of mitotically active germ cells in the postnatal mouse ovary (Johnson et al., 2004; Kerr et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2008). However, the existence of a population of self-renewing ovarian germ line stem cells in postnatal mammals is still controversial (Eggan et al., 2006; Telfer et al., 2005; Gosden, 2004). Recently, production of offspring from a germ line stem cell line derived from the neonatal mouse ovary was reported (Zou et al., 2009). This report strongly supports the existence of germ line stem cells and their ability to expand in vitro. Recently, using a transgenic mouse model in which GFP is expressed under a germ cell-specific Oct-4 promoter, we isolated and generated multipotent cell lines from male germ line stem cells (Izadyar et al., 2008). Using the same strategy we isolated and derived cell lines from postnatal mouse ovary. Interestingly, ovarian germ line stem cells expanded in the same culture conditions as the male suggesting that they have similar requirements for their self-renewal. After 1 year of culture and many passages, ovarian germ line stem cells maintained their characteristics and telomerase activity, expressed germ cell and stem cell markers and revealed normal karyotype. As standard protocol for differentiation induction, these cells were aggregated and their ability to form embryoid bodies (EBs) was investigated. EBs generated in the presence of growth factors showed classical morphology and expressed specific markers for three germ layers. However, in the absence of growth promoting factors EBs were smaller and large cells with the morphological and molecular characteristics of oocytes were formed. This study shows the existence of a population of germ line stem cell in postnatal mouse ovary with multipotent characteristics. PMID:20138422

  5. Maternal-Effect Gene Expression in Cultured Preantral Follicles Derived from Vitrified-Warmed Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Fatehi, Roya; Ebrahimi, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess survival of follicles, their oocyte maturation and fertilization potential as well as expression of early embryo developmental genes in in vitro cultured pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovary. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, ovaries of 12-day old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) female mice were placed into non-vitrified and vitrifiedwarmed groups. Isolated preantral follicles from experimental groups were cultured in vitro for 12 days. On the 12th day of culture, oocyte maturation was induced and then matured oocytes were in vitro fertilized. The rates of oocyte maturation and two-cell stage embryo formation were assessed. Relative expression of Mater and Zar1 was evaluated on days 1, 6, 10 and 12 of culture. Data analysis was performed by t test and two-way ANOVA (P<0.05). Results Our data showed no significant difference between the control and vitrification groups in the rate of follicular survival, oocyte maturation and two-cell stage embryo formation. The level of gene expression was higher on the 6thand 10thdays of culture for Mater and Zar1 in vitrified-warmed group compared with non-vitrified group, however, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion It seems that the applied vitrification method did not reveal any negative effect on maturation and developmental competence of oocytes surrounded in preantral follicles and therefore could preserve follicular reserves efficiently. PMID:26199912

  6. Zinc inhibits the reproductive toxicity of Zearalenone in immortalized murine ovarian granular KK-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijia; He, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xuan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Liye; Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly injures the reproductive system of mammals. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which zinc inhibits ZEA-induced reproductive damage in KK-1 cells for the first time. The results shown that both zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate addition increased the intracellular zinc concentration and influenced the expression of zinc transporters (Slc30a1 and Slc39a1) in a time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of zinc with ZEA significantly reduced the ZEA-induced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde elevation by promoting the transcription of Mtf1 and Mt2. Meanwhile, two different zincs inhibited the ZEA-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation of late-stage apoptosis via activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by recovering the mRNA and protein expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Casp3, Casp9). Zinc also recovered cells from S-phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, both of them promoted the ZEA-induced estrogen production but regulated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1) in different way. All these results indicated that zinc could inhibit the reproductive toxicity of ZEA. PMID:26395757

  7. Zinc inhibits the reproductive toxicity of Zearalenone in immortalized murine ovarian granular KK-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijia; He, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xuan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Liye; Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly injures the reproductive system of mammals. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which zinc inhibits ZEA-induced reproductive damage in KK-1 cells for the first time. The results shown that both zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate addition increased the intracellular zinc concentration and influenced the expression of zinc transporters (Slc30a1 and Slc39a1) in a time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of zinc with ZEA significantly reduced the ZEA-induced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde elevation by promoting the transcription of Mtf1 and Mt2. Meanwhile, two different zincs inhibited the ZEA-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation of late-stage apoptosis via activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by recovering the mRNA and protein expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Casp3, Casp9). Zinc also recovered cells from S-phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, both of them promoted the ZEA-induced estrogen production but regulated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1) in different way. All these results indicated that zinc could inhibit the reproductive toxicity of ZEA. PMID:26395757

  8. Production of offspring from a germline stem cell line derived from neonatal ovaries.

    PubMed

    Zou, Kang; Yuan, Zhe; Yang, Zhaojuan; Luo, Huacheng; Sun, Kejing; Zhou, Li; Xiang, Jie; Shi, Lingjun; Yu, Qingsheng; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Ruoyu; Wu, Ji

    2009-05-01

    The idea that females of most mammalian species have lost the capacity for oocyte production at birth has been challenged recently by the finding that juvenile and adult mouse ovaries possess mitotically active germ cells. However, the existence of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) in postnatal mammalian ovaries still remains a controversial issue among reproductive biologists and stem cell researchers. We have now established a neonatal mouse FGSC line, with normal karyotype and high telomerase activity, by immunomagnetic isolation and culture for more than 15 months. FGSCs from adult mice were isolated and cultured for more than 6 months. These FGSCs were infected with GFP virus and transplanted into ovaries of infertile mice. Transplanted cells underwent oogenesis and the mice produced offspring that had the GFP transgene. These findings contribute to basic research into oogenesis and stem cell self-renewal and open up new possibilities for use of FGSCs in biotechnology and medicine. PMID:19363485

  9. Long-term enzyme replacement therapy for pompe disease with recombinant human alpha-glucosidase derived from chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Parenti, Giancarlo; Della Casa, Roberto; Romano, Alfonso; Mansi, Giuseppina; Agovino, Teresa; Rosapepe, Felice; Vosa, Carlo; Del Giudice, Ennio; Andria, Generoso

    2007-05-01

    Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive myopathy due to the deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. Clinical phenotypes range from the severe classic infantile form (hypotonia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), to milder late onset forms (skeletal myopathy and absence of significant heart involvement). Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human alpha-glucosidase derived from either rabbit milk or Chinese hamster ovary cells has been introduced and is undergoing clinical trials. Reported is a long-term follow-up of 3 Pompe patients presenting without cardiomyopathy, treated with recombinant human alpha-glucosidase derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells. This study suggests that enzyme replacement therapy can lead to significant motor and respiratory improvement in the subgroup of patients who start the therapy before extensive muscle damage has occurred. The recombinant enzyme derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells, administered at doses significantly higher than previously reported, appears to have the same safety as the drug derived from rabbit milk. PMID:17690063

  10. Homing and Restorative Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Injured Ovaries in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiabin; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Yun; Li, Nan; Wen, Yuku; Cao, Fanglei; Ai, Hao; Xue, Xiaoou

    2014-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a long-term adverse effect of chemotherapy treatment. However, current available treatment regimens are not optimal. Emerging evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could restore the structure and function of injured tissues, but the homing and restorative effects of BMSCs on chemotherapy injured ovaries are still not clear. In this study, we found that granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis induced by cisplatin was reduced when BMSCs were migrated to granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Chemotherapy-induced POF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin in rats. BMSCs labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were injected into the rats via the tail vein to investigate the homing and distribution of BMSCs in vivo. The number of BMSCs in the ovarian hilum and medulla was greater than in the cortex, but no BMSCs were found in the follicles and corpus lutea. In addition, the BMSCs treatment groups antral follicle count and estradiol levels increased after 30 days, compared with the POF group. Hence, our study demonstrates that intravenously delivered BMSCs can home to the ovaries, and restore its structure and function in POF model rats. PMID:25410907

  11. Fertilizability of oocytes derived from Holstein cows having different antral follicle counts in ovaries.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhisa; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2015-12-01

    In this study, to clarify the relationship between ovarian reserve and oocyte quality, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected repeatedly by ovum pick-up (OPU) from cows with high and low antral follicle counts (AFCs) at short (3-4 days) and long (7 days) intervals, and COC morphologies and oocyte fertilizability were examined. The relationship between AFC and follicular growth after OPU was also investigated. Cows showing AFC of ?30 in at least one OPU session were grouped into the high-AFC group. At a short interval, follicular sizes and COC morphologies were similar between the different AFC groups. However, the normal fertilization rate was higher in the high-AFC group than in the low one, although total penetration rates were similar. At a long interval, the percentage of COCs with poor morphology in the high-AFC group was higher and the normal fertilization rate was lower than in the low one. In the low-AFC group, normal fertilization rates at short and long intervals were similar, and mean follicular size became larger at a long than at a short interval. However, mean follicular sizes at short- and long-interval OPU were similar in the high-AFC group. In conclusion, it is suggested that oocytes derived from cows with high AFC had higher fertilizability than those from cows with low AFC when OPUs were performed at a short (3-4 days) interval. However, oocyte quality in high-AFC cows was impaired by long-interval (7 days) OPU, possibly due to the degradation of follicles. PMID:26588889

  12. Combination therapy with ONO-KK1-300-01, a cathepsin K inhibitor, and parathyroid hormone results in additive beneficial effect on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yasuo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawada, Naoki; Tanaka, Makoto; Imagawa, Akira; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a novel cathepsin K inhibitor, ONO-KK1-300-01 (KK1-300), used concurrently with parathyroid hormone (PTH) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. KK1-300 (3mg/kg, twice daily), alendronate (1mg/kg, once daily) or vehicle were orally administered to OVX rats for 56days, starting the day after ovariectomy, followed by combination treatment with or without PTH (3?g/kg, subcutaneously three times a week) for another 28days. OVX control animals exhibited a significant increase in both bone resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline; DPD) and formation markers (serum osteocalcin) as well as microstructural changes associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH significantly decreased urinary DPD and increased serum osteocalcin, indicating a sustained beneficial effect compared to the effect of each mono-therapy. On the other hand, combination therapy with alendronate and PTH weakened the PTH-induced increase in osteocalcin. In proximal tibia, combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH increased BMD to a level significantly higher than that achieved following single treatment with KK1-300 or PTH alone. On the other hand, combination treatment with alendronate and PTH failed to produce any significant additive effect on BMD following single treatment with alendronate or PTH alone. Microstructural analysis revealed that the PTH-induced increase in bone formation (MS/BS and BFR/BS) was fully maintained following combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH, but not following combination treatment with alendronate and PTH. These findings indicate that KK1-300, unlike alendronate, has an additive effect on the preventive action of PTH on bone loss in OVX rats. PMID:25762435

  13. Intravenously Administered Recombinant Human Type VII Collagen Derived from Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Reverses the Disease Phenotype in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yingping; Guey, Lin T; Wu, Timothy; Gao, Robert; Cogan, Jon; Wang, Xinyi; Hong, Elizabeth; Ning, Weihuang Vivian; Keene, Douglas; Liu, Nan; Huang, Yan; Kaftan, Craig; Tangarone, Bruce; Quinones-Garcia, Igor; Uitto, Jouni; Francone, Omar L; Woodley, David T; Chen, Mei

    2015-12-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is an inherited disorder characterized by skin fragility, blistering, and multiple skin wounds with no currently approved or consistently effective treatment. It is due to mutations in the gene encoding type VII collagen (C7). Using recombinant human C7 (rhC7) purified from human dermal fibroblasts (FB-rhC7), we showed previously that intravenously injected rhC7 distributed to engrafted RDEB skin, incorporated into its dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), and reversed the RDEB disease phenotype. Human dermal fibroblasts, however, are not used for commercial production of therapeutic proteins. Therefore, we generated rhC7 from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The CHO-derived recombinant type VII collagen (CHO-rhC7), similar to FB-rhC7, was secreted as a correctly folded, disulfide-bonded, helical trimer resistant to protease degradation. CHO-rhC7 bound to fibronectin and promoted human keratinocyte migration in vitro. A single dose of CHO-rhC7, administered intravenously into new-born C7-null RDEB mice, incorporated into the DEJ of multiple skin sites, tongue and esophagus, restored anchoring fibrils, improved dermal-epidermal adherence, and increased the animals' life span. Furthermore, no circulating or tissue-bound anti-C7 antibodies were observed in the mice. These data demonstrate the efficacy of CHO-rhC7 in a preclinical murine model of RDEB. PMID:26203639

  14. Ontogeny of the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, Daniel A.; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of primordial follicles into the growing pool, selection of the dominant follicle, and its eventual ovulation require complex endocrine and metabolic interactions as well as intraovarian paracrine signals to coordinate granulosa cell proliferation, theca cell differentiation, and oocyte maturation. Early preantral follicle development relies mostly upon mesenchymal-epithelial cell interactions, intraovarian paracrine signals, and oocyte-secreted factors, whereas development of the antral follicle depends on circulating gonadotropins as well as locally derived regulators. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), ovarian hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia from insulin resistance, and altered intrafollicular paracrine signaling perturb the activation, survival, growth, and selection of follicles, causing accumulation of small antral follicles within the periphery of the ovary, giving it a polycystic morphology. Altered adipocyte-ovarian interactions further compound these adverse events on follicle development and also can harm the oocyte, particularly in the presence of increased adiposity. Finally, endocrine antecedents of PCOS occur in female infants born to mothers with PCOS, which suggests that interactions between genes and the maternal-fetal hormonal environment may program ovarian function after birth. PMID:23472949

  15. Telomerase in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Ping; Li, He

    2010-08-01

    Telomerase, an enzyme complex that binds the chromosome ends (telomeres) and maintains telomere length and integrity, is present in germ cells, proliferative granulosa cells, germline stem cells, and neoplastic cells in the ovary, but it is absent in differentiated or aged cells. Activation of telomerase in the ovary underpins both benign and malignant cell proliferation in several compartments, including the germ cells, membrana granulosa, and the ovarian surface epithelium. The difference in telomerase operation between normal and abnormal cell proliferations may lie in the mechanisms of telomerase activation in a deregulated manner. Recent studies have implicated telomerase activity in ovarian cancer as well as oogenesis and fertility. Inhibition of telomerase and the shortening of telomeres are seen in occult ovarian insufficiency. Studies of how telomerase operates and regulates ovary development may provide insight into the development of both germ cells for ovarian reproductive function and neoplastic cells in ovarian cancer. The current review summarizes the roles of telomerase in the development of oocytes and proliferation of granulosa cells during folliculogenesis and in the process of tumorigenesis. It also describes the regulation of telomerase by estrogen in the ovary. PMID:20562297

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treated? Coping With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome en espaol Sndrome de ovario poliqustico Cecily never really worried that her periods weren't regular because, like many girls, she assumed her monthly cycle would take time to settle down. But then Cecily's periods stopped for several months, ...

  17. Cancer of the Ovary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2015 21,290 % of All New Cancer Cases 1.3% Estimated Deaths in 2015 14,180 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2012, there were an estimated 192,446 women living with ovary cancer in ...

  18. Anti-mosquito ovary antibodies reduce the fecundity of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera:Insecta).

    PubMed

    Gakhar, S K; Jhamb, A; Gulia, M; Dixit, R

    2001-10-01

    Rabbit antibodies to five antigens (AJ** 29, 35, 43, 64, and 80 kDa) derived from the ovaries of Anopheles stephensi tended to reduce the number of eggs produced. Ingestion of anti-mosquito ovary antibodies did not show a detectable effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Antisera raised against An. stephensi ovaries showed cross-reactivity in other tissues and in the ovaries of other Anopheles spp. by Western blotting. The results indicate that anti-mosquito ovary antibodies have the potential to disrupt the reproductive physiology of mosquitoes, and indicate the need for further studies with target antigens. PMID:11754155

  19. 4: Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norman, Robert J; Wu, Ruijin; Stankiewicz, Marcin T

    2004-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition characterised by menstrual abnormalities and clinical or biochemical features of hyperandrogenism. Features of PCOS may manifest at any age, ranging from childhood (premature puberty), teenage years (hirsutism, menstrual abnormalities), early adulthood and middle life (infertility, glucose intolerance) to later life (diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease). While pelvic ultrasound examination is useful, many women without PCOS have polycystic ovaries; ultrasound evidence is not necessary for the diagnosis. Testing for glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia is wise, especially in obese women, as diabetes mellitus is common in PCOS. Lifestyle changes as recommended in diabetes are fundamental for treatment; addition of insulin-sensitising agents (eg, metformin) may be valuable in circumstances such as anovulatory infertility. Infertility can be treated successfully in most women by diet and exercise, clomiphene citrate with or without metformin, ovarian drilling, or ovulation induction with gonadotrophins; in-vitro fertilisation should be avoided unless there are other indications. PMID:14748678

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Dewailly, D; Hieronimus, S; Mirakian, P; Hugues, J-N

    2010-02-01

    1. The Rotterdam classification should be used to define PCOS in the event of: menstrual cycle anomalies; amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or long cycles, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound appearance of polycystic ovaries. 2. The presence of two of these three criteria is sufficient once all other diagnoses have been ruled out. 3. Diagnosis of hirsutism should not be based on the Ferriman-Gallway score. 4. The ultrasound definition of PCOS contains precise criteria that must be included in the report: presence of at least 12 follicles in each ovary measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, and/or increase in ovary size>10 ml. 5. Screening for elevated plasma LH no longer necessary. Testing for GnRH serves no purpose. 6. Routine screening for metabolic abnormalities should be carried out systematically based on weight, height and BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and laboratory parameters: plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol. 7. In the case of obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)), oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is recommended where fasting serum glucose is normal. 8. Clomiphene citrate (CC) remains the first-line therapy for ovulation induction. In patients with BMI>30, it should be preceded by improvement of metabolic status through appropriate lifestyle modifications. PMID:20096827

  1. Synthetic shibkovite K(K1.67H2O0.33)(Ca1.3Na0.7)[Zn3Si12O30]: the crystal structure and comparative crystal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriukhina, G. V.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of a single crystal of a synthetic analog of mineral shibkovite K(K1.67H2O0.33)(Ca1.3Na0.7)[Zn3Si12O30] (milarite structure type) obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in the AlPO4-K3PO4-CaCO3-Na2CO3-ZnCO3-SiO2-H2O system has been solved ( R = 0.0406) by X-ray diffraction analysis: a = 10.5327(2) , c = 14.2019(3) , sp. gr. P6/ mcc, Z = 2, and ?calcd = 2.90 g/cm3. The crystal-chemical features of the new phase are studied in comparison with the other terms of the milarite group. It is shown that the crystallization conditions for minerals and synthetic analogs of this group determine the presence or absence of crystallization water in the structures of compounds.

  2. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:24260388

  3. [Polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vrbkov, Jana

    2015-10-01

    For diagnosing of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) it is currently recommended to follow the ESHRE criteria. For diagnosis according to them two of the following three symptoms are sufficient: 1. morphology of polycystic ovaria, 2. clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism or laboratory proof of hyperandrogenemia, and 3. oligo-anovulation. PCOS is a complex disorder in whose pathogenesis genetic and environmental effects interact. It is not a gynecological disorder alone, the syndrome is accompanied by insulin resistance which leads to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (4 times and twice, independently of BMI). Also gestational DM occurs more frequently. Dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, elevated CRP and homocysteine levels, endothelial dysfunction and greater intima-media thickness are also more frequent. It is not quite clear, however, whether women with PCOS suffer cardiovascular events more frequently as well. More often than is accidental PCOS is associated with depression, anxiety and eating disorders, further with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and with the sleep apnoea syndrome - especially in obese women. Therapeutic measures include non-pharmacological methods - lifestyle adjustments focused on weight reduction in obese individuals, cosmetic measures for dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism, in particular laser and pharmacotherapy (combined hormonal contraceptives and antiandrogens). Menstrual irregularities can be treated with contraceptives or cyclical administration of gestagens, also metformin can be used.Key words: antiandrogens - diabetes mellitus - hormonal contraception - insulin resistance - ischemic heart disease - metformin. PMID:26486483

  4. Antioxidant treatment during preservation of bovine ovaries increased the development potential of embryos.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Yoshikazu; Harada, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Mari; Igarashi, Akane; Ooshima, Yuki; Kato, Yoku

    2010-11-01

    The overnight preservation of bovine ovaries would be highly useful in the subsequent harvest of viable oocytes for reproductive study. The present study aimed to optimize conditions for overnight preservation of bovine ovaries by examining the effects of temperature, solution and supplementation. In Experiment 1, the rate of development to the blastocyst stage of oocytes derived from ovaries preserved at 15C was higher than that at either 5 or 25C (p < 0.05). In Experiment 2, the rate of development to the blastocyst stage of oocytes derived from ovaries preserved in University of Wisconsin solution was higher than when PBS or saline was used (p < 0.05). In Experiment 3, oocytes preserved in saline supplemented with 0.3 mM glutathione (GSH) exhibited an increase in the rate of blastocyst formation compared with oocytes supplemented with 0 or 3 mM GSH (p < 0.05). In Experiment 4, supplementation with 10 ?M epigallocatechin gallate during ovary preservation increased the rate of blastocyst formation (p < 0.05). The blastocysts derived from ovaries stored in saline supplemented with GSH at 15C for 24 h were shown to develop into normal offsprings following transfer to recipient heifers. Our studies indicate that bovine IVM/IVF embryos derived from ovaries preserved in saline supplemented with an antioxidant at 15C for 24 h can successfully develop to the blastocyst stage and result in offspring. PMID:20444311

  5. Circadian Clocks in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Sellix, Michael T.; Menaker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Clock gene expression has been observed in tissues of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. While the contribution of hypothalamic oscillators to the timing of reproductive biology is well known, the role of peripheral oscillators like those in the ovary is less clear. Circadian clocks in the ovary may play a role in the timing of ovulation. Disruption of the clock in ovarian cells or desynchrony between ovarian clocks and circadian oscillators elsewhere in the body may contribute to the onset and progression of various reproductive pathologies. Here we review evidence for clock function in the ovary across multiple species and offer a novel perspective on the role of this clock in normal ovarian physiology and in diseases that negatively impact fertility. PMID:20599392

  6. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  7. Multiple aster formation is frequently observed in bovine oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Tagiri, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2016-02-01

    We have recently reported that multiple aster formation after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was one of the factors that negatively affected the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine matured oocytes, and that short-term culture of the post-warm oocytes with an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) suppressed the multiple aster formation and improved the blastocyst yield. The present study was conducted to investigate whether increased multiple aster formation following IVF was involved in impaired developmental competence of stored ovary-derived bovine oocytes. Oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries had lower developmental potential to day 8 blastocysts when compared with those from fresh ovaries (37 versus 63%). Immunostaining of ?-tubulin 10 h post-IVF revealed that a higher incidence of multiple aster formation occurred in oocytes retrieved from stored ovaries than from fresh ovaries (31 versus 15%). Treatment of post-in vitro maturated (post-IVM) oocytes with ROCK inhibitor for 2 h significantly suppressed the incidence of multiple aster formation (10 versus 32% in the control group). However, the suppression effect of ROCK inhibitor on multiple aster formation in IVM/IVF oocytes did not improve blastocyst yield from stored ovary-derived oocytes (41 versus 37% in the control group). These results suggested that the higher incidence of multiple aster formation by bovine ovary storage was not responsible for the decreased developmental competence of IVF oocytes. PMID:25732862

  8. [Natural history of ovary cancer].

    PubMed

    Novoa-Vargas, Arturo

    2014-09-01

    Ovary cancer is a disease charged of paradigms and a serious health problem. It's important to know its natural history, because has a multifactor origins, and understanding its behavior since risk factors until patient's death because metastatic disease is a challenger for oncology group. In this work we made a bibliographic, analytic review that brings up concepts related to its origin, evolution, risk factors, preclinical horizon, and clinical symptoms until the death of patient. PMID:25412555

  9. Genetics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prapas, N; Karkanaki, A; Prapas, I; Kalogiannidis, I; Katsikis, I; Panidis, D

    2009-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome involving defects in primary cellular control mechanisms that result in the expression of chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. This syndrome has been for many years one of the most controversial entities in gynecological endocrinology. Polycystic ovary syndrome has been proven to be a familial condition. Although the role of genetic factors in PCOS is strongly supported, the genes that are involved in the etiology of the syndrome have not been fully investigated until now, as well as the environmental contribution in their expression. The heterogeneity of the syndrome entertains the mystery around this condition which concerns thousands of infertile women worldwide. Some genes have shown altered expression suggesting that the genetic abnormality in PCOS affects signal transduction pathways controlling steroidogenesis, steroid hormones action, gonadotrophin action and regulation, insulin action and secretion, energy homeostasis, chronic inflammation and others. The present review of the contemporary literature constitutes an effort to present all the trends in the current research for the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:20011085

  10. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. PMID:26280343

  11. Bilateral inguinal hernias containing ovaries.

    PubMed

    Basrur, Gurudutt Bhaskar

    2015-01-28

    Inguinal hernias are rare in females. The authors report a case of bilateral inguinal hernias in a 10-year-old female. On exploration, the patient was found to be having a sliding hernia containing incarcerated ovary as contents on both sides. Peroperatively the contents were reduced, the sac was transfixed at its base and the redundant sac was excised. The repair of this form of hernias is more difficult because of adhesions between the contents and the wall of the sac and risk of damage during dissection. A description of this clinical presentation in the pre operative assessment and operative management are discussed in this report. PMID:25918632

  12. Bilateral Inguinal Hernias Containing Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Basrur, Gurudutt Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernias are rare in females. The authors report a case of bilateral inguinal hernias in a 10-year-old female. On exploration, the patient was found to be having a sliding hernia containing incarcerated ovary as contents on both sides. Peroperatively the contents were reduced, the sac was transfixed at its base and the redundant sac was excised. The repair of this form of hernias is more difficult because of adhesions between the contents and the wall of the sac and risk of damage during dissection. A description of this clinical presentation in the pre operative assessment and operative management are discussed in this report. PMID:25918632

  13. Surgical transposition of the ovary: Radiologic appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Bashist, B.; Friedman, W.N.; Killackey, M.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Therapeutic irradiation of the pelvis of a young female patient will result in loss of ovarian function. In a surgical technique termed ovarian transposition, the ovary is repositioned to the iliac fossa or paracolic gutter outside the radiation field. The computed tomographic (CT) scans and sonograms of five patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent this procedure were reviewed. The normal transposed ovary was of soft-tissue attenuation, often with one or more small cysts. Large cysts developed in the ovaries of three patients. One cyst was functional, another was due to a mesothelial inclusion cyst, and the third was most probably related to the transposition itself. Since the transposed ovary is difficult to palpate, CT or sonography can be used to demonstrate and follow up a cystic mass. Recognition of the appearance and location of the transposed ovary is important to avoid misinterpretation of a solid or cystic mass in patients who are at risk for tumor recurrence.

  14. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Buggs, Colleen; Rosenfield, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome of variable combinations of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism or acne, and obesity. It can be diagnosed in adolescence and has early childhood antecedents. PCOS is the single most common endocrine cause of anovulatory infertility and a major risk factor for the metabolic syndrome and, in turn, development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in women. Thus, it appears that PCOS increases a womans risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, identifying girls at risk for PCOS and implementing treatment early in the development of PCOS may be an effective means of preventing some of the long-term complications associated with this syndrome. This article reviews the definition, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of PCOS. PMID:16085166

  15. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naderpoor, N; Shorakae, S; Joham, A; Boyle, J; De Courten, B; Teede, H J

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is now a major international health concern. It is increasingly common in young women with reproductive, metabolic and psychological health impacts. Reproductive health impacts are often poorly appreciated and include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy complications. PCOS is the most common endocrine condition in women and is underpinned by hormonal disturbances including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity exacerbates hormonal and clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS appear at higher risk of obesity, with multiple underlying mechanisms linking the conditions. Lifestyle intervention is first line in management of PCOS to both prevent weight gain and induce weight loss; however improved engagement and sustainability remain challenges with the need for more research. Medications like metformin, orlistat, GLP1 agonists and bariatric surgery have been used with the need for large scale randomised clinical trials to define their roles. PMID:25411807

  16. Pre-anthesis ovary development determines genotypic differences in potential kernel weight in sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zongjian; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Jordan, David R.; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2009-01-01

    Kernel weight is an important factor determining grain yield and nutritional quality in sorghum, yet the developmental processes underlying the genotypic differences in potential kernel weight remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the stage in development at which genetic effects on potential kernel weight were realized, and to investigate the developmental mechanisms by which potential kernel weight is controlled in sorghum. Kernel development was studied in two field experiments with five genotypes known to differ in kernel weight at maturity. Pre-fertilization floret and ovary development was examined and post-fertilization kernel-filling characteristics were analysed. Large kernels had a higher rate of kernel filling and contained more endosperm cells and starch granules than normal-sized kernels. Genotypic differences in kernel development appeared before stamen primordia initiation in the developing florets, with sessile spikelets of large-seeded genotypes having larger floret apical meristems than normal-seeded genotypes. At anthesis, the ovaries for large-sized kernels were larger in volume, with more cells per layer and more vascular bundles in the ovary wall. Across experiments and genotypes, there was a significant positive correlation between kernel dry weight at maturity and ovary volume at anthesis. Genotypic effects on meristem size, ovary volume, and kernel weight were all consistent with additive genetic control, suggesting that they were causally related. The pre-fertilization genetic control of kernel weight probably operated through the developing pericarp, which is derived from the ovary wall and potentially constrains kernel expansion. PMID:19228817

  17. Cardiometabolic Aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee K.; Weickert, Martin O.; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E.; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome. PMID:22829562

  18. Does Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Affect Pregnancy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , 87, 524–529. [top] Morin-Papunen, L., Rantala, ... controlled randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , 97, 1492-1500. [top] ACOG. (2011a). High blood ...

  19. Offspring from heterotopic transplantation of newborn mice ovaries.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Qin, B-L; Li, W-L; Shi, Z-D; Tian, Y-B; Chen, X-J

    2009-10-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the developmental potential of the primordial follicles from ovaries of newborn mice after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen for long-term storage, thawing, and heterografting into the kidney capsules of ovariectomized adult female mice. After stimulation of recipient mice with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin on day-19 after heterografting, the primordial follicles of the transplanted ovaries could develop into antral follicles. When the oocyte-cumulus cell complexes were retrieved from these antral follicles, they could mature after in vitro culture for 1617 h. After in vitro fertilization, the rates of embryos derived from these oocytes that developed into the two-cell stage and the blastocyst stage after 1617 h and after day-4, respectively,in the culture medium were 55.40% (55/107) and 9.09% (5/55),respectively. In the ovarian transplantation groups, no pups were derived from the 410 embryos that were transferred into 10 pseudopregnant mothers at the pronuclear stage. However,of the 10 surrogate mothers in whom 570 embryos were transferred at the two-cell stage, four achieved pregnancy and gave birth to 20 live offspring. These results demonstrated that primordial follicles in newborn mice ovaries were capable of sustaining their developmental potential after freezing and thawing. Once transplanted into the kidney capsules of ovariectomized adult female mice, these primordial follicles could develop and respond to gonadotropin stimulation and reach the antral stage; further, live offspring could be derived from these follicles. PMID:21815287

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a relatively common disorder among adolescent women. The typical clinical features including menstrual irregularities and hirsutism are usually not apparent until middle to late adolescence. Yet studies suggest that PCOS may begin in early puberty. Young women with premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean Hispanic and African American ancestry, and/or obesity are more likely to develop PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS may have elevated total or free testosterone, androstenedione, and luteinizing hormone levels; insulin resistance; and hyperinsulinemia. The laboratory evaluation and management of the adolescent with suspected PCOS should be individualized on the basis of the clinical features and symptoms. The cornerstone of most treatment strategies includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin to decrease testosterone levels and regulate the menstrual cycle. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne and excess facial hair, and hair removal is dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. A healthy approach to eating, in some cases weight loss, and exercise is encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and often requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results. PMID:14593553

  1. Genetics of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Welt, Corrine K; Duran, Jessica M

    2014-05-01

    The etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been difficult to determine because its features are heterogeneous, and its origin may also be heterogeneous. Twin studies suggest that its etiology is strongly heritable and genetic approaches are rapidly uncovering new regions of the genome that appear to confer risk for PCOS. Recent genome-wide association studies in Han Chinese women with PCOS demonstrate 11 genetic loci that are associated with PCOS. The variants identified are in regions that contain genes important for gonadotropin action, genes that are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes, and other genes in which the relationship to PCOS is not yet clear. Replication studies have demonstrated that variants at several of these loci also confer risk for PCOS in women of European ethnicity. The strongest loci in Europeans contain genes for DENND1A and THADA, with additional associations in loci containing the LHCGR and FSHR, YAP1 and RAB5/SUOX. The next steps in uncovering the pathophysiology borne out by these loci and variants will include mapping to determine the causal variant and gene, phenotype studies to determine whether these regions are associated with particular features of PCOS and functional studies of the causal variant to determine the direct cause of PCOS based on the underlying genetics. The next years will be very exciting times as groups from around the world come together to further elucidate the genetic origins of PCOS. PMID:24715512

  2. The importance of neuronal growth factors in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Streiter, S; Fisch, B; Sabbah, B; Ao, A; Abir, R

    2016-01-01

    The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT4/5), in addition to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the neuronal growth factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vasointestinal peptide (VIP). Although there are a few literature reviews, mainly of animal studies, on the importance of neurotrophins in the ovary, we aimed to provide a complete review of neurotrophins as well as neuronal growth factors and their important roles in normal and pathological processes in the ovary. Follicular assembly is probably stimulated by complementary effects of NGF, NT4/5 and BDNF and their receptors. The neurotrophins, GDNF and VIP and their receptors have all been identified in preantral and antral follicles of mammalian species, including humans. Transgenic mice with mutations in the genes encoding for Ngf, Nt4/5 and Bdnf and their tropomyosin-related kinase ? receptor showed a reduction in preantral follicles and an abnormal ovarian morphology, whereas NGF, NT3, GDNF and VIP increased the in vitro activation of primordial follicles in rats and goats. Additionally, NGF, NT3 and GDNF promoted follicular cell proliferation; NGF, BDNF and VIP were shown to be involved in ovulation; VIP inhibited follicular apoptosis; NT4/5, BDNF and GDNF promoted oocyte maturation and NGF, NT3 and VIP stimulated steroidogenesis. NGF may also exert a stimulatory effect in ovarian cancer and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Low levels of NGF and BDNF in follicular fluid may be associated with diminished ovarian reserve and high levels with endometriosis. More knowledge of the roles of neuronal growth factors in the ovary has important implications for the development of new therapeutic drugs (such as anti-NGF agents) for ovarian cancer and PCOS as well as various infertility problems, warranting further research. PMID:26487421

  3. Ovulation and the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jansen, R P

    1994-06-01

    In the 1930s, Stein and Leventhal added amenorrhoea to anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding among the known clinical manifestations of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whatever the menstrual pattern, infrequent or absent ovulation with symmetrical enlargement of the ovaries is now a familiar abnormality in women of reproductive age. Diagnosis of PCOS has developed from just the clinically obvious to an appreciation, through ultrasound imaging of the ovaries and endocrine testing, of its subtler forms. Today's clinicians will identify PCOS on the ultrasound image of many small follicles apparent in the periphery of both ovaries, on raised serum unbound testosterone assays, on exaggeration of serum LH levels with the start of pulsatile GnRH therapy, and on follicular overresponsiveness to injections of FSH. Once among the most treatable causes of infertility, ovulation-induction for PCOS remained unsophisticated while microsurgery and assisted conception dissolved frontiers for other causes of infertility. Whereas we now have the benefit of high technology embryo cryostorage to cope with embarrassingly high yields of PCOS oocytes, we still need to explain why, the bigger the ovaries, the more likely (we have long known it to be) that PCOS can be cured simply by reducing ovarian mass. Some cases of PCOS are hereditary and most seem constitutionally determined. PCOS is so common that the questions must be asked, Are we appreciating an extreme of normal? Could the milder forms of PCOS have--or could PCOS have had--evolutionary usefulness? PMID:7848200

  4. Familial small cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Borges, Anibal R; Petty, John K; Hurt, Gail; Stribling, Jennifer T; Press, Joshua Z; Castellino, Sharon M

    2009-12-15

    Ovarian tumors have a low incidence in childhood, accounting for 1% of malignancies within the ages of 0-17 years. Small cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare histology and historically has a poor prognosis. We report a case of an 11-year-old female diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the ovary and hypercalcemia (SCCOHT). There was a strong family history of the disease, a reduction in the age of onset in the proband, and the absence of BRCA mutations. This case suggests the phenomenon of genetic anticipation in an ovarian cancer. PMID:19621450

  5. Abnormal gene expression profiles in human ovaries from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erik; Laven, Joop S E; Dommerholt, Henri B R; Polman, Jan; van Rijt, Cindy; van den Hurk, Caroline; Westland, Jolanda; Mosselman, Sietse; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2004-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. The current study is the first to describe consistent differences in gene expression profiles in human ovaries comparing PCOS patients vs. healthy normoovulatory individuals. The microarray analysis of PCOS vs. normal ovaries identifies dysregulated expression of genes encoding components of several biological pathways or systems such as Wnt signaling, extracellular matrix components, and immunological factors. Resulting data may provide novel clues for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Intriguingly, the gene expression profiles of ovaries from (long-term) androgen-treated female-to-male transsexuals (TSX) show considerable overlap with PCOS. This observation provides supportive evidence that androgens play a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Presented data may contribute to a better understanding of dysregulated pathways in PCOS, which might ultimately reveal novel leads for therapeutic intervention. PMID:15308691

  6. Foreign body granulomas in normal ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafa, S.A.; Bargeron, C.B.; Flower, R.W.; Rosenshein, N.B.; Parmley, T.H.; Woodruff, J.D.

    1985-11-01

    In 100 consecutive cases in which grossly normal ovaries were removed at the time of pelvic surgery, 9% were found to contain crystalline foreign particles. An additional 9% contained cortical granulomas. In four of six cases, computer-assisted x-ray analysis of the crystalline foreign particles was successful and revealed magnesium and silicon.

  7. The Mammalian Ovary from Genesis to Revelation

    PubMed Central

    Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Two major functions of the mammalian ovary are the production of germ cells (oocytes), which allow continuation of the species, and the generation of bioactive molecules, primarily steroids (mainly estrogens and progestins) and peptide growth factors, which are critical for ovarian function, regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and development of secondary sex characteristics. The female germline is created during embryogenesis when the precursors of primordial germ cells differentiate from somatic lineages of the embryo and take a unique route to reach the urogenital ridge. This undifferentiated gonad will differentiate along a female pathway, and the newly formed oocytes will proliferate and subsequently enter meiosis. At this point, the oocyte has two alternative fates: die, a common destiny of millions of oocytes, or be fertilized, a fate of at most approximately 100 oocytes, depending on the species. At every step from germline development and ovary formation to oogenesis and ovarian development and differentiation, there are coordinated interactions of hundreds of proteins and small RNAs. These studies have helped reproductive biologists to understand not only the normal functioning of the ovary but also the pathophysiology and genetics of diseases such as infertility and ovarian cancer. Over the last two decades, parallel progress has been made in the assisted reproductive technology clinic including better hormonal preparations, prenatal genetic testing, and optimal oocyte and embryo analysis and cryopreservation. Clearly, we have learned much about the mammalian ovary and manipulating its most important cargo, the oocyte, since the birth of Louise Brown over 30 yr ago. PMID:19776209

  8. Circadian clock function in the mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Sellix, Michael T

    2015-02-01

    Rhythmic events in the female reproductive system depend on the coordinated and synchronized activity of multiple neuroendocrine and endocrine tissues. This coordination is facilitated by the timing of gene expression and cellular physiology at each level of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, including the basal hypothalamus and forebrain, the pituitary gland, and the ovary. Central to this pathway is the primary circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that, through its myriad outputs, provides a temporal framework for gonadotropin release and ovulation. The heart of the timing system, a transcription-based oscillator, imparts SCN pacemaker cells and a company of peripheral tissues with the capacity for daily oscillations of gene expression and cellular physiology. Although the SCN sits comfortably at the helm, peripheral oscillators (such as the ovary) have undefined but potentially critical roles. Each cell type of the ovary, including theca cells, granulosa cells, and oocytes, harbor a molecular clock implicated in the processes of follicular growth, steroid hormone synthesis, and ovulation. The ovarian clock is influenced by the reproductive cycle and diseases that perturb the cycle and/or follicular growth can disrupt the timing of clock gene expression in the ovary. Chronodisruption is known to negatively affect reproductive function and fertility in both rodent models and women exposed to shiftwork schedules. Thus, influencing clock function in the HPO axis with chronobiotics may represent a novel avenue for the treatment of common fertility disorders, particularly those resulting from chronic circadian disruption. PMID:25367899

  9. A bovine model for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in the greatest single cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women (affecting 5-10%). Previously, research groups have created animal models utilizing non-human primates and sheep to better understand the mechanisms involved in PCOS. However, c...

  10. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana M; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A; Vallés, María P

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25-46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26150821

  11. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Ana M.; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A.; Vallés, María P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25–46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26150821

  12. Dissection and staining of Drosophila larval ovaries.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Iris; Gilboa, Lilach

    2011-01-01

    Many organs depend on stem cells for their development during embryogenesis and for maintenance or repair during adult life. Understanding how stem cells form, and how they interact with their environment is therefore crucial for understanding development, homeostasis and disease. The ovary of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has served as an influential model for the interaction of germ line stem cells (GSCs) with their somatic support cells (niche) (1, 2). The known location of the niche and the GSCs, coupled to the ability to genetically manipulate them, has allowed researchers to elucidate a variety of interactions between stem cells and their niches (3-12). Despite the wealth of information about mechanisms controlling GSC maintenance and differentiation, relatively little is known about how GSCs and their somatic niches form during development. About 18 somatic niches, whose cellular components include terminal filament and cap cells (Figure 1), form during the third larval instar (13-17). GSCs originate from primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGCs proliferate at early larval stages, but following the formation of the niche a subgroup of PGCs becomes GSCs (7, 16, 18, 19). Together, the somatic niche cells and the GSCs make a functional unit that produces eggs throughout the lifetime of the organism. Many questions regarding the formation of the GSC unit remain unanswered. Processes such as coordination between precursor cells for niches and stem cell precursors, or the generation of asymmetry within PGCs as they become GSCs, can best be studied in the larva. However, a methodical study of larval ovary development is physically challenging. First, larval ovaries are small. Even at late larval stages they are only 100?m across. In addition, the ovaries are transparent and are embedded in a white fat body. Here we describe a step-by-step protocol for isolating ovaries from late third instar (LL3) Drosophila larvae, followed by staining with fluorescent antibodies. We offer some technical solutions to problems such as locating the ovaries, staining and washing tissues that do not sink, and making sure that antibodies penetrate into the tissue. This protocol can be applied to earlier larval stages and to larval testes as well. PMID:21610675

  13. Concomitant loss of SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 expression in small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type.

    PubMed

    Jelinic, Petar; Schlappe, Brooke A; Conlon, Niamh; Tseng, Jill; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Mueller, Jennifer J; Hussein, Yaser; Soslow, Robert A; Levine, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type is an aggressive tumor generally affecting young women with limited treatment options. Mutations in SMARCA4, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, have recently been identified in nearly all small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type cases and represent a signature molecular feature for this disease. Additional biological dependencies associated with small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type have not been identified. SMARCA2, another catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex mutually exclusive with SMARCA4, is thought to be post-translationally silenced in various cancer types. We analyzed 10 archival small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type cases for SMARCA2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and found that SMARCA2 expression was lost in all but one case. None of the 50 other tumors that primarily or secondarily involved the ovary demonstrated concomitant loss of SMARCA2 and SMARCA4. Deep sequencing revealed that this loss of SMARCA2 expression is not the result of mutational inactivation. In addition, we established a small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type patient-derived xenograft and confirmed the loss of SMARCA2 in this in vitro model. This patient-derived xenograft model, established from a recurrent tumor, also had unexpected mutational features for this disease, including functional mutations in TP53 and POLE. Taken together, our data suggest that concomitant loss of SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 is another hallmark of small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type-a finding that offers new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:26564006

  14. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23370180

  15. The effects of phthalates on the ovary.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure. PMID:25699018

  16. Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, C. I.; Nori, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms and the beneficial effects of acupuncture, exercise and resveratrol on animal models and on humans affected by PCOS. PMID:24809037

  17. The Effects of Phthalates on the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure. PMID:25699018

  18. Metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Churchill, S J; Wang, E T; Pisarska, M D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear however if these associations lead to an increased risk of clinically significant long-term cardiovascular disease. Large prospective studies to date have not detected significant differences in overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS. The phenotypical variability in PCOS has made researching each of these associations challenging as different aspects of the syndrome may be contributing, opposing or confounding factors. The ability to detect significant differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes may also be due to the variable nature of the syndrome. In this review, we attempt to describe a summary of the current literature concerning the metabolic alterations and cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:26372304

  19. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathi-one peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway. PMID:26545251

  20. Data for comparative proteomics of ovaries from five non-model, crustacean amphipods☆

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, Judith; Almunia, Christine; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Pible, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Armengaud, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Ovaries were taken from five sexually mature amphipods: Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus pulex, Gammarus roeseli, Hyallela azteca and Parhyale hawaiensis. The soluble proteome extracted from individual pair of ovaries from five biological replicates was trypsin digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The spectra were assigned with four protein sequence databases with different specificities: a RNAseq-derived G. fossarum database; a RNAseq-derived P. hawaiensis database; both originating from ovaries transcriptome; the Daphnia pulex database derived from whole-genome sequencing and the NCBInr database. The best interpretation was obtained for most animals with the specific RNA-seq protein database previously established by means of RNAseq carried out on G. fossarum. Proteins identified in the five amphipod species allow defining the core-proteome of female reproductive tissues of the Senticaudata suborder. The data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis Trapp et al., 2015 [1] have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD002253 (G. fossarum), PXD002254 (G. pulex), PXD002255 (G. roeseli), PXD002256 (H. Azteca), and PXD002257 (P. hawaiensis). PMID:26380837

  1. Data for comparative proteomics of ovaries from five non-model, crustacean amphipods.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Judith; Almunia, Christine; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Pible, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Armengaud, Jean

    2015-12-01

    Ovaries were taken from five sexually mature amphipods: Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus pulex, Gammarus roeseli, Hyallela azteca and Parhyale hawaiensis. The soluble proteome extracted from individual pair of ovaries from five biological replicates was trypsin digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The spectra were assigned with four protein sequence databases with different specificities: a RNAseq-derived G. fossarum database; a RNAseq-derived P. hawaiensis database; both originating from ovaries transcriptome; the Daphnia pulex database derived from whole-genome sequencing and the NCBInr database. The best interpretation was obtained for most animals with the specific RNA-seq protein database previously established by means of RNAseq carried out on G. fossarum. Proteins identified in the five amphipod species allow defining the core-proteome of female reproductive tissues of the Senticaudata suborder. The data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis Trapp et al., 2015 [1] have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD002253 (G. fossarum), PXD002254 (G. pulex), PXD002255 (G. roeseli), PXD002256 (H. Azteca), and PXD002257 (P. hawaiensis). PMID:26380837

  2. Cracking open cell death in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Tracy L.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; McCall, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful yet simple system with only a few cell types. Cell death in the ovary can be induced in response to multiple developmental and environmental signals. These cell deaths occur at distinct stages of oogenesis and involve unique mechanisms utilizing apoptotic, autophagic and perhaps necrotic processes. In this review, we summarize recent progress characterizing cell death mechanisms in the fly ovary. PMID:19533361

  3. Myxoid Leiomyosarcoma of Ovary-A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    V, Srinivasamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary is extremely rare, comprising of only 1% of the ovarian tumours. Patient presented with a mass in the right iliac fossa since three months. Radiological diagnosis of broad ligament fibroid was given. Right salphingo-oophorectomy with enucleation of ischial fossa and wedge biopsy of left ovary was carried out. Based on gross, microscopy and immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of primary myxoid leiomyosarcoma of ovary was made. We report a rare case of primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary with metastasis to ischial fossa emphasising on reliable prognostic markers. Ovarian leiomyosarcomas are highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis. PMID:25120990

  4. The role of ovarian surface epithelium in folliculogenesis during fetal development of the bovine ovary: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, R A M; Vermehren, M; Ebach, K; Sinowatz, F

    2013-01-01

    Although many aspects of ovarian differentiation have been established, comparatively little is known about prenatal follicle formation and differentiation of bovine ovaries. The objective of this investigation was to study the role of the surface epithelium during the development of germ cell nests, germ cell cords and follicle formation in the fetal bovine ovary. Associated important proliferation and apoptotic features were further investigated. Additionally, the expression pattern of the S100 protein was detected. A strong increase of mitotic figures was detected in the surface epithelium, germ cell nests and germ cell cords of ovaries with a crown-rump length (CRL) of 13.0-58.0 cm. Oocytes were positively stained with S100 in bovine ovaries from fetuses with a CRL of 21.0 cm. The staining intensity enhanced parallel to increasing oocyte and follicle sizes during the ovary development. In later stages, a strong staining for S100 was observed in healthy oocytes in contradistinction to atretic oocytes where no expression of the S100 protein could be found. In conclusion, increasing mitosis index of surface epithelium cells, as well as oogonia directly beneath the surface epithelium, in combination with open surface connection during stages from a CRL of 11.0-94.0 cm of bovine fetal ovaries could play an important role in the period of time of ongoing folliculogenesis and derivation of granulosa cells. Additionally, S100-positive oocytes in primordial and later follicle stages joined by a high rate of Ki67-positive index in surrounding granulosa cells indicate that in the oocytes the S100 protein can perhaps be a useful marker for intact oocytes in bovine ovaries. PMID:23571709

  5. Estrogen and androgen receptor expression in surface epithelium and inclusion cyst in the ovary of premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of surface epithelium and epithelial inclusion cysts in the ovary arises from studies demonstrating that these structures are susceptible to epithelial ovarian cancer development. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), androgen receptor (AR), in epithelial cells of the ovary from premenopausal and postmenopausal women is interesting because sexual steroid hormones are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Methods The presence of ER alpha, AR, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in ovaries obtained from 79 pre and postmenopausal patients, undergoing histero-salpingo-oophorectomy for proliferative gynecological diseases. The proportion of patients that displayed positive reaction for estrogen and androgen receptors in epithelial cells of the ovary was evaluated according to menopausal status and associated pathology. Results The proportion of patients that displayed a positive receptor expression in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface and cortical inclusion cysts shows that ER alpha is present in 20 of 79 patients (0.25), AR in 33 of 79 (0.42) and GPR30 in 38 of 55 (0.69). There are no differences in ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 expression between pre and postmenopausal patients and considering the associated pathology, proportions for ER alpha and GPR30 are similar. The patients with cervical cancer show a higher proportion of AR expression in epithelial cells of the ovary, which is statistically significant (P?derivatives are observed with a proportion that is specific for each receptor. The proportion of expression for these receptors in the epithelial cells of the ovary does not change after menopause. The proportion of ovaries with AR positive epithelial cells in patients with cervical squamous carcinoma is higher compared with other gynecological pathologies. PMID:24279585

  6. [Heterotopic autotransplantation of the ovary in women].

    PubMed

    Von Theobald, P; Roff, J L; Berrocal, J; Le Porrier, M; Lvy, G; Muller, G

    1987-06-27

    Treatment of subdiaphragmatic Hodgkin's diseases with combined radio- and chemotherapy results in castration of more than 80% of the women treated, despite oophoropexy. We suggest a new technique of subcutaneous ovarian grafting which provides full protection against irradiation and preserves both ovarian function and fertility. To be successful this technique requires the creation, prior to grafting, of a receptive cavity, two surgical teams working together, and the use of an operative microscope during transplantation. A mature oocyte was collected by puncture of the ovary-containing cavity one year after the operation. PMID:2955375

  7. Reproductive endocrinology of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shayya, R; Chang, R J

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women, and it typically presents during adolescence. The objective of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of PCOS in adolescent girls and the underlying basis for the altered reproductive physiology. Recognising adolescents at risk for PCOS and taking the appropriate steps to reduce circulating androgen levels is critical in reducing the clinical symptomatology of this disorder, and the development of adulthood infertility, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in patients with PCOS. PMID:20002395

  8. Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tsikouras, P; Spyros, L; Manav, B; Zervoudis, S; Poiana, C; Nikolaos, T; Petros, P; Dimitraki, M; Koukouli, C; Galazios, G; von Tempelhoff, GF

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: To elucidate the prepubertal risk factors associated with the development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and determine the special clinical manifestations of the syndrome in this transitional time of a woman’s life. Objective: To propose therapeutic targets and regimens, not only to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, but also to improve the self-esteem of a young girl who matures into womanhood. Methods and Results: A systematic review of literature was performed through electronic database searches (Pubmed, Medline and Embase). Studies published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals from 1996 to 2013 were included. The selected studies focused on the risk factors, the unique features and treatment options of the PCOS in puberty. The pathogenesis of the PCOS was hypothesized to be based on interactions between genetic and certain environmental factors. The diagnosis was usually difficult in young girls. The syndrome was related to a greater risk of future infertility, type II diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Early treatment was crucial to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, especially infertility and cardiovascular disease. Discussion:The recognition of the early signs of PCOS during or even before adolescence is of great importance. It is essential to establish the correct diagnosis for PCOS and rule out other causes of androgen excess in young women with hyperandrogenism. The type of treatment applied should be considered on an individual basis. Abbreviations: PCOS = Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PMID:26351529

  9. Development of an in vitro Ovary Culture System to Evaluate Endocrine Disruption in Wood Frog Tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Vu, Maria; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan Manuel; Trudeau, Vance L

    2015-01-01

    Gonad-mesonephros complexes from wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles were incubated in vitro for 1 wk to examine direct effects of naphthenic acids (NA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on ovarian differentiation. Histological images reveal successful preservation of gonadal integrity where cultured oocytes exhibited no significant differences in diameters and areas compared to uncultured conditions. Ovaries exposed to 10 μg/L 17α-EE2 contained oocytes with significantly advanced atresia and diminished areas and diameters, indicating a degree of ovarian regression. A significant reduction in oocyte area was observed in ovaries exposed to 3 mg/L of a commercial extract of petroleum-derived NA. This novel approach has applications for screening direct effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadal function in tadpoles. PMID:26383587

  10. Treatments for Infertility Resulting from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... K. M., & Norman, R. J. (2009). Treatment of obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome: A position statement of the Androgen Excess and ... endocrine and ovarian function during dietary treatment of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford), 36, 105-111. [top] National ...

  11. A Comprehensive Transcriptomic Analysis of Infant and Adult Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Linlin; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaonuan; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2014-01-01

    Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD). We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development. PMID:25251848

  12. A comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of infant and adult mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Pan, Linlin; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaonuan; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2014-10-01

    Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD). We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development. PMID:25251848

  13. In vivo and in vitro study of the function of the left and right bovine ovaries.

    PubMed

    Karamishabankareh, Hamed; Hajarian, Hadi; Shahsavari, Mohammadhamed; Moradinejad, Ruhollah

    2015-09-15

    Inequality in function of the left and right bovine ovaries and uterine horns was evaluated in two separate experiments. In the first experiment (in vivo), the relationship between the left and right ovarian activities and reproductive indices was evaluated. Therefore, the total number of 1284 randomly chosen lactating dairy cows were examined from Day 50 to 60 postpartum, and according to the presence of an active CL on the ovaries, they were divided into 502 LCL3-cows and 782 RCL3-cows (cows with an active CL on the left [L] or right [R] ovary, respectively). To induce estrus synchronization and investigate the effects of PGF2? administration on the incidence of estrus in both LCL3-cows and RCL3-cows, the cows were treated with one luteolytic dose of PGF2? and were inseminated after observed estrus (via visual observation lasting at least 30 minutes three times a day). To investigate the effects of side of ovulation at the time of PGF2? administration on reproductive parameters, pregnancy diagnosis was performed 28 days after insemination (using ultrasound) and 42 days after insemination (using transrectal palpation). The results showed that the percentage of the RCL3-cows was greater than the LCL3-cows (60.9% vs. 39.1%, respectively). Furthermore, ovulations switching from the left to right ovary in two successive ovulations were greater than those that switched from the right to left ovary. On the other hand, the sex ratio (male percentage) in the right uterine horn was greater than that of the left one. In the second experiment (in vitro), the developmental potential of bovine oocytes derived from the left (L-oocytes) and right (R-oocytes) ovaries after in vitro embryo production and heterogeneity in the developmental competence of L-oocytes and R-oocytes using the brilliant cresyl blue staining test as a selection criterion were evaluated. Results of the in vitro experiment showed that the percentage of cleavage and blastocyst rate of R-oocytes were greater (P < 0.001) than those of L-oocytes. Moreover, it appears that the side of ovaries had greater effects on the developmental competence of oocytes than other factors associated with heterogeneity in the developmental competence of oocytes, which can be detected by the brilliant cresyl blue test. In conclusion, the results of the in vivo study confirmed the observations in previous studies in which the right ovarian response (distribution of ovulation) was superior to that of the left ones. Interestingly, the in vitro experiments for the first time clearly showed that more ovulation on the right side is not the only reason for this unequal activity. In fact, in cattle, the greater developmental potential of oocytes originating from right ovaries may cause superior activity of the right side, and the effect is even higher than the differences in ovulation response between the left and right ovaries. PMID:26037666

  14. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 57% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success. PMID:23084976

  15. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner. PMID:15380144

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Tasali, Esra; Van Cauter, Eve; Ehrmann, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of pre-menopausal women, is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, obesity and insulin resistance. Importantly, PCOS women are at increased risk for glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Recent reports indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in PCOS. Alterations in sex steroids (i.e. high androgen and low estrogen levels) and increased visceral adiposity in PCOS could potentially contribute to the increased prevalence of OSA in this disorder. There is some evidence to suggest that there may be strong associations between the presence and severity of OSA and the metabolic disturbances that characterize PCOS. Causal mechanisms in the link between PCOS and OSA remain to be elucidated. Clinicians who manage PCOS patients should be aware of the high prevalence of OSA in these patients and systematically evaluate these women for sleep disturbances. PMID:19255602

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Obesity, and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Joham, Anju E; Palomba, Stefano; Hart, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting up to one in five reproductive-aged women. It is underpinned by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism and is associated with metabolic, reproductive, and psychological features. Women with PCOS have higher rates of obesity and central adiposity compared with women without PCOS, and weight strongly influences prevalence and clinical severity of PCOS. Women with PCOS may have subfertility and women should be aware of factors affecting fertility, in particular the impact of obesity and age. Once pregnant, women with PCOS have significantly increased risk of pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, premature delivery, and delivery by cesarean section. The offspring of women with PCOS may have increased risk of congenital abnormalities and hospitalization in childhood. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk and screen, prevent, and manage accordingly. PMID:26854709

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome in the Indian Subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N; Merchant, Rubina

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, multifaceted, heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and chronic anovulation along with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia as frequent metabolic traits (metabolic syndrome) that culminate in serious long-term consequences such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, endometrial hyperplasia, and coronary artery disease. It is one of the most common causes of anovulatory infertility. However, the heterogeneous clinical features of PCOS may change throughout the life span, starting from adolescence to postmenopausal age, largely influenced by obesity and metabolic alterations, and the phenotype of women with PCOS is variable, depending on the ethnic background. The etiology of PCOS is yet to be elucidated; however, it is believed that in utero fetal programming may have a significant role in the development of PCOS phenotype in adult life. Though a woman may be genetically predisposed to developing PCOS, it is only the interaction of environmental factors (obesity) with the genetic factors that results in the characteristic metabolic and menstrual disturbances and the final expression of the PCOS phenotype. Irrespective of geographic locations, a rapidly increasing prevalence of polycystic ovarian insulin resistance syndrome, excess body fat, adverse body fat patterning, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity-related disease, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have been reported in Asian Indians, suggesting that primary prevention strategies should be initiated early in this ethnic group. In lieu of the epidemic increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in most industrialized countries including China and India owing to Westernization, urbanization, and mechanization, and evidence suggesting a pathogenetic role of obesity in the development of PCOS and related infertility, active intervention to combat the malice of these disorders is warranted. Pharmacologic therapy is a critical step in the management of patients with metabolic syndrome when lifestyle modifications fail to achieve the therapeutic goals, and studies in China and India have proved to be effective. PMID:18181079

  19. Comprehensive clinical management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Setji, T L; Brown, A J

    2007-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-7% of reproductive-aged women. Although the diagnostic criteria for PCOS have been debated, it is frequently characterized by hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, male-pattern hair loss), oligo-anovulation, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. The reproductive and metabolic complications associated with the syndrome can be serious, so a comprehensive approach to the evaluation and treatment of affected women is important. Menstrual cycle control is necessary to prevent endometrial hyperplasia, and this can be accomplished with hormonal contraception, progesterone therapy, and weight loss (if overweight). In women desiring pregnancy, commonly used ovulation induction therapies include weight loss, clomiphene citrate, and/or metformin. Cosmetic issues such as hirsutism, acne and male-pattern hair loss can be challenging to cope with. Treatment options include estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptive agents, antiandrogens, and topical agents. More permanent hair reduction can be achieved with electrolysis and laser therapy. Evaluation of metabolic complications includes risk assessment for diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Women with PCOS should also be screened for sleep apnea, as this has been reported to occur more commonly in women with PCOS. Finally, mental health issues such as depression and eating disorders may be present. Many of the complications associated with PCOS can be managed with therapeutic lifestyle change, including a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss (if overweight), and psychological support. Pharmacological therapies are also available to effectively regulate menstrual cycles and manage cosmetic complications. This article will review the current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in PCOS. PMID:17592439

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of the Capra hircus Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhong Quan; Wang, Li Juan; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Zhao, Yong Ju; Na, Ri Su; Zhang, Jia Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background Capra hircus is an important economic livestock animal, and therefore, it is necessary to discover transcriptome information about their reproductive performance. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome dataset for the goat ovary using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The result will contribute to research on goat reproductive performance. Method and Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 38.8 million clean paired end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 80,069 unigenes (mean size = 619 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 64,824 (60.6%) genes were identified, among which 29,444 and 11,271 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG) showed that 27,766 (63.4%) unigenes were mapped to 258 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome differences of goat ovaries at two different ages using a tag-based digital gene expression system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 5.6 million and 5.8 million tags for the two ages and identified a large number of genes associated with reproductive hormones, ovulatory cycle and follicle. Moreover, many antisense transcripts and novel transcripts were found; clusters with similar differential expression patterns, enriched GO terms and metabolic pathways were revealed for the first time with regard to the differentially expressed genes. Conclusions The transcriptome provides invaluable new data for a functional genomic resource and future biological research in Capra hircus, and it is essential for the in-depth study of candidate genes in breeding programs. PMID:25822507

  1. [The polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Kreze, A; Hrnciar, J; Dobkov, M; Pekarov, E

    1997-10-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appear to have some following coincidences: the existence of subclinical acanthosis nigricans in PCOS hyperinsulinemic women, correlation of insulin levels and free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I binding protein (IGFIBP), and sex-hormone binding globulin. Insulin and IGFI act synergically with luteinizing hormone increasing the activity of cytochrome P450c17 and its enzymatic activity in the adrenals. The decrease in IGFI level and IGFI receptors in the ovarian granulosa cells reduce the steroids aromatisation. The increased expression of IGFI receptors in the theca cells favours the androgens' synthesis. Long-term insulin therapy results in an increase in ovary volume and the blood androgens levels. The deterioration of insulin resistance in PSOC women progresses also by the reduction of type I of skeletal muscle fibres which are sensitive to insulin, and the increase of type II fibres which are resistant to insulin in hyperandrogenemia. Testosterone deteriorates the skeletal as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity by both its facilitating effect on lipolysis and the increase of free fatty acids. Abdominal obesity seen in PCOS and insulin resistance is composed by adipocytes with glucocorticoid receptors, which after cortisol stimulation activate the lipoprotein lipase and fat accumulation. Gynoid obesity with the preferential aromatisation of steroids is not evolved because of the low estrogens and progesterone levels in PCOS. Low progesterone levels (with anticortisol effect) support the development of abdominal obesity. Ultimately, the early peak of insulin secretion (4-8 min) in PCOS is higher. This fact should testify a certain diabetic disposition. (Ref. 37.) PMID:9490171

  2. Comparison of Whole Ovary Cryotreatments for Fertility Preservation.

    PubMed

    Lotz, L; Hauenstein, T; Nichols-Burns, S M; Strissel, P; Hoffmann, I; Findeklee, S; Dittrich, R; Beckmann, M W; Oppelt, P G

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to compare a traditional slow-freeze method (TF) with an open unidirectional slow freeze cooling system (UF) for whole ovary cryopreservation. Therefore, whole pig ovaries were randomly assigned to (A) fresh control, (B) traditional slow freeze (TF) or (C) unidirectional slow freeze (UF). Ovaries were perfused with 10% DMSO in Krebs-Ringer. For TF, whole ovaries were placed in specimen jars containing 10% DMSO and placed into a specialized container for freezing filled with propan-2-ol. For UF, whole ovaries were placed within a specially designed container containing 10% DMSO and transferred to a specialized freezing machine (CTE 920). Histological evaluation demonstrated intact morphology of follicles in all groups; however, an overall decrease of follicle numbers in TF (46%) and UF (50%) compared to fresh control. Live/dead assay indicated significantly lower populations of live cells in both TF (60%) and UF (58%) compared to fresh tissue (74%). TUNEL assay confirmed a difference in percentage of apoptotic follicles between fresh and TF, but there was no significant difference between fresh and UF. To improve the structural and functional integrity of whole ovaries, further investigation, especially into directional freezing, is needed. Whole ovary cryopreservation could provide opportunities for women facing fertility loss due to chemo- or radiotherapy treatment. PMID:26446780

  3. Ultrastructural Analysis of Drosophila Ovaries by Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Thomas R.; Sanchez, Carlos G.; Teixeira, Felipe K.; Petzold, Chris; Dancel-Manning, Kristen; Wang, Ju-Yu S.; Lehmann, Ruth; Liang, Feng-Xia A.

    2016-01-01

    i. Summary The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful, genetically tractable system through which one can elucidate the principles underlying cellular function and organogenesis in vivo. In order to understand the intricate process of oogenesis at the subcellular level, microscopic analysis with the highest possible resolution is required. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of ovaries for ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. We discuss and provide protocols for chemical fixation of Drosophila ovaries that facilitate optimal imaging with particular attention paid to preserving and resolving mitochondrial membrane morphology and structure. PMID:26324436

  4. Ultrastructural Analysis of Drosophila Ovaries by Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Thomas R; Sanchez, Carlos G; Teixeira, Felipe K; Petzold, Chris; Dancel-Manning, Kristen; Wang, Ju-Yu S; Lehmann, Ruth; Liang, Feng-Xia A

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful, genetically tractable system through which one can elucidate the principles underlying cellular function and organogenesis in vivo. In order to understand the intricate process of oogenesis at the subcellular level, microscopic analysis with the highest possible resolution is required. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of ovaries for ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. We discuss and provide protocols for chemical fixation of Drosophila ovaries that facilitate optimal imaging with particular attention paid to preserving and resolving mitochondrial membrane morphology and structure. PMID:26324436

  5. Bilateral Cystic Lymphangioma of Ovary Associated with Chylous Ascites.

    PubMed

    Nerune, Savitri Mallikarjun; Arakeri, Surekha Ulhas; Patil, Vijaya L; Mulay, Himanshu Dilip

    2015-08-01

    Intraabdominal cystic lymphangiomas are rare and are located in retroperitoneum, mesentery, omentum and other visceral organs. Lymphangiomas of the ovary are rare and are usually unilateral. Cases with bilateral cystic lymphangiomas of the ovary are reported very rarely in literature. We report a rare case of bilateral cystic lymphangioma of ovary associated with chylous ascites in a 35-year-old lady who presented with complaints of severe dysmenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea since 6 months with history of chyluria for the past 3 years. PMID:26435959

  6. Bilateral Cystic Lymphangioma of Ovary Associated with Chylous Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Arakeri, Surekha Ulhas; Patil, Vijaya L.; Mulay, Himanshu Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Intraabdominal cystic lymphangiomas are rare and are located in retroperitoneum, mesentery, omentum and other visceral organs. Lymphangiomas of the ovary are rare and are usually unilateral. Cases with bilateral cystic lymphangiomas of the ovary are reported very rarely in literature. We report a rare case of bilateral cystic lymphangioma of ovary associated with chylous ascites in a 35-year-old lady who presented with complaints of severe dysmenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea since 6 months with history of chyluria for the past 3 years. PMID:26435959

  7. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most sophisticated adaptive mechanism created during the evolution of female reproduction. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. An essential mission of such follicular turnover might be elimination of spontaneous or environmentally induced genetic alterations of oocytes in resting primary follicles. PMID:15115550

  8. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries.

    PubMed

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-04-28

    Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 +/- 4.1 SD, range 27-38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25-30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most sophisticated adaptive mechanism created during the evolution of female reproduction. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. An essential mission of such follicular turnover might be elimination of spontaneous or environmentally induced genetic alterations of oocytes in resting primary follicles. PMID:15115550

  9. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  10. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

    2013-01-01

    The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented Nukazuke and Kasuzuke ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in Nukazuke and Kasuzuke ovaries decreased to 1/501/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented Nukazuke and Kasuzuke ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. PMID:23334671

  11. What Are the Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of PCOS? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... problems. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011). Polycystic ovary syndrome. Retrieved May 10, 2012, from http://www.acog. ...

  12. Treatments to Relieve Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... K. M., & Norman, R. J. (2009). Treatment of obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome: A position statement of the Androgen Excess and ... ... syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews , 2, CD007506. [top] ...

  13. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  14. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. )

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  15. Retinal tissue in mature cystic teratoma of ovary presenting with full-term pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nazoora; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Hakim, Seema; Ziyauddin, Farah

    2014-01-01

    Mature cystic teratomas are benign ovarian neoplasms which account for around 95% of all ovarian germ cell tumours and contain tissues derived from two or three embryonic germ layers. These tumours are frequently diagnosed in women of reproductive age group and can result in fetomaternal distress if concurrent pregnancy occurs. The authors describe a case of successful natural pregnancy in a 30-year-old woman with coexisting mature cystic teratoma of ovary that culminated in viable childbirth at term. Subsequent histopathological examination of the tumour revealed a mature teratoma composed predominantly of ectodermal elements along with retinal tissuesa rare finding that prompted this case report. PMID:24443341

  16. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Ahmed; Elnashar, Abubaker

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise) and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms. PMID:21339935

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinical phenotypes but different underlying pathophysiological processes. However, hyperandrogenism remains the syndrome's clinical hallmark. The clinical manifestations of PCOS often emerge during childhood or in the peripubertal years, suggesting that the syndrome is influenced by fetal programming and/or early postnatal events. However, given that the full clinical spectrum of PCOS does not typically appear until puberty, a two-hit hypothesis has been proposed: (1) a girl develops hyperandrogenism via one or more of many different potential mechanisms; (2) the preexisting hyperandrogenism subsequently disturbs the hypothalamicpituitaryovarian axis, resulting in ovulatory dysfunction and sustained hyperandrogenism. No consensus guidelines exist regarding the diagnosis and management of PCOS in the pediatric population; however, because the syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, the clinical evaluation of girls suspected of having PCOS is aimed at excluding other causes of androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction. For the syndrome's management, emphasis is placed on lifestyle and symptom-directed treatment. PMID:20939704

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  19. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  20. Pregnancy complications in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Katulski, Krzysztof; Czyzyk, Adam; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Genazzani, Andrea R; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-02-01

    Infertility is a widely disputed problem affecting patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). As a serious dysfunction, it frequently occurs in PCOS patients. It is, therefore, important to devote more attention to pregnancy in PCOS sufferers. According to various data, the risk of miscarriage in PCOS women is three times higher than the risk of miscarriage in healthy women. Unfortunately, the risk of most frequent pregnancy pathologies is also higher for PCOS patients, as gestational diabetes (GD), pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia, and small for gestational age (SGA) children. Impaired glucose tolerance and GD in pregnant PCOS patients occur more frequently than in healthy women. A quadruple increase in the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension linked to arterial wall stiffness has also been observed in PCOS patients. The risk of pre-eclampsia, the most severe of all complications, is also four times higher in those suffering from PCOS. Pre-eclampsia is also more frequent in patients presenting additional risk factors accompanying PCOS, such as obesity or GD. At that point, it should be mentioned that PCOS patients are under 2.5 higher risk of giving birth to SGA children than healthy women. It appears that SGA can be linked to insulin resistance and insulin-dependent growth dysfunction. Therefore, PCOS pregnant women are patients of special obstetrical care. PMID:25356655

  1. Adrenal involvement in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, F

    1997-05-01

    The etiology of hyperandrogenic chronic anovulation is heterogeneous and relatively unknown in the majority of cases. Affected individuals in this latter segment are considered to have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) of which 50 to 60% exhibit androgen excess of adrenal origin. An understanding of normal adrenal function provides insight into the factors that contribute to adrenal androgen excess in PCOS. Since pituitary ACTH secretion promotes developmental growth and overall steroidogenic efficiency within the adrenal cortex, it is probable that these actions of ACTH along with the adrenal's unique centripetal circulation play a major role in the induction of adrenarche. This latter phenomenon is characterized by alterations in adrenocortical morphology and steroidogenic enzyme activities culminating in increases in adrenal androgens to normal circulating adult levels. Thus, it is not surprising that adrenal dynamic testing has revealed increased 17,20 lyase activity or adrenal androgen hyper-responsiveness to ACTH as the two abnormalities leading to adrenal androgen excess in PCOS. Whereas 17,20 lyase hyperactivity diagnosed by defined criteria in response to pharmacological ACTH may be an intrinsic genetic defect, increases in 17,20 lyase activity and adrenal androgen hyper-responsiveness to ACTH in response to physiological ACTH may be promoted by the functional elevation of estrogen of ovarian origin in PCOS. The latest in vitro data suggest the estrogen may elicit its effect on the adrenal cortex through a receptor mediated mechanism. Therefore, the currently available data indicate that adrenal androgen excess in PCOS is also heterogeneous in etiology. PMID:9165658

  2. The management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Vincenza; Dei, Metella; Pontello, Valentina; Vangelisti, Paolo

    2003-11-01

    It is well known that subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) show very variable clinical and biochemical aspects. Considering long-term repercussions, two main disturbances, not always strictly related, need to be countered: hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance, with compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The aim of this review is to summarize therapeutic perspectives for PCOS, starting from basic approach, such as weight reduction and changes in lifestyle. The benefits of long-term use of oral contraceptives and the criteria of choice of the estro-progestin combinations are discussed. With severe hyperandrogenism, a pure antiandrogen should be added. The experiences with insulin-sensitizing drugs, especially metformin, are reviewed; while their beneficial role as an adjuvant to treatment of ovulatory infertility has been well established, the effects of a long-term treatment, especially in very young patients, are still under debate. Current studies are testing the results of combinations of different treatments at low dosage; randomized comparative trials on the long-term efficacy of these approaches have yet to be scheduled. PMID:14644838

  3. TrkB receptors are required for follicular growth and oocyte survival in the mammalian ovary

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Alfonso; Romero, Carmen; Dissen, Gregory A.; DeChiara, Tom M.; Reichardt, Louis; Cornea, Anda; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Xu, Baoji

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well established that both follicular assembly and the initiation of follicle growth in the mammalian ovary occur independently of pituitary hormone support, the factors controlling these processes remain poorly understood. We now report that neurotrophins (NTs) signaling via TrkB receptors are required for the growth of newly formed follicles. Both neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the preferred TrkB ligands, are expressed in the infantile mouse ovary. Initially, they are present in oocytes, but this site of expression switches to granulosa cells after the newly assembled primordial follicles develop into growing primary follicles. Full-length kinase domain-containing TrkB receptors are expressed at low and seemingly unchanging levels in the oocytes and granulosa cells of both primordial and growing follicles. In contrast, a truncated TrkB isoform lacking the intracellular domain of the receptor is selectively expressed in oocytes, where it is targeted to the cell membrane as primary follicles initiate growth. Using gene-targeted mice lacking all TrkB isoforms, we show that the ovaries of these mice or those lacking both NT-4 and BDNF suffer a stage-selective deficiency in early follicular development that compromises the ability of follicles to grow beyond the primary stage. Proliferation of granulosa cells required for this transitionand expression of FSH receptors (FSHR), which reflects the degree of biochemical differentiation of growing follicles, are reduced in trkB-null mice. Ovaries from these animals grafted under the kidney capsule of wild-type mice fail to sustain follicular growth and show a striking loss of follicular organization, preceded by massive oocyte death. These results indicate that TrkB receptors are required for the early growth of ovarian follicles and that they exert this function by primarily supporting oocyte development as well as providing granulosa cells with a proliferative signal that requires oocyte-somatic cell bidirectional communication. The predominance of truncated TrkB receptors in oocytes and their developmental pattern of subcellular expression suggest that a significant number of NT-4/BDNF actions in the developing mammalian ovary are mediated by these receptors. PMID:15013804

  4. Observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rodler, D; Stein, K; Korbel, R

    2015-06-01

    In most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. Right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. However, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. Four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparrow hawk and goshawk. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate structural differences of the gonads and tried to correlate the findings with folliculogenesis and endocrine functions. The right ovaries showed different sizes and shapes. Cytoskeletal elements (tubulin and vimentin) and ?-smooth muscle actin have been detected in different structures of the right ovaries, but their staining intensity was weaker compared with the left ovary. This shows that also the right ovary is mechanically able to ovulate. We could also demonstrate the expression of oestrogen receptor ? and progesterone receptor in the right ovaries, which indicates that also the right ovary can respond to steroid hormone stimuli. We assume that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the presumptive gonad is still sufficient to mediate the development of a right ovary in the studied species. We conclude that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the right ovary is involved in its post-natal development. The histological and immunohistochemical data also imply that in the right ovary, folliculogenesis and ovulation can occur. PMID:24895012

  5. Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary in perimenarchal girls.

    PubMed

    Sri Paran, T; Mortell, A; Devaney, D; Pinter, A; Puri, P

    2006-03-01

    Ovarian masses in children are an uncommon occurrence. They represent less than 2% of all tumours in girls less than 16 years of age. Mucinous tumours of the ovary occur principally in middle adult life and are extremely rare prior to menarche. To the best of our knowledge, there are only 13 previous cases of benign mucinous cystadenoma (MCA) of the ovary in perimenarchal girls reported in the literature. We present six cases of this rare tumour. We reviewed the charts of six patients who presented with large MCA of the ovary. The patient's ages ranged from 13 to 14 years (mean 13.6 years). Two were premenarchal and four were within 1 year of menarche. All children presented with marked abdominal distension and discomfort. Except for one child who had ultrasound scan alone, all the others had either CT or MRI scan as well. Ultrasound demonstrated a large multiloculated cystic mass arising from the pelvis reaching the level of the xiphoid. CT demonstrated an enormous mass occupying almost the entire abdomen. The mass was partly solid, partly cystic and the cystic elements were multiloculated in all patients. Three patients demonstrated contralateral hydronephrosis on imaging. Laparotomy revealed a tumour arising from the left ovary in five patients and from the right ovary in one. Several litres of fluid were aspirated in order to deliver the tumour from the abdomen. All patients underwent oophorectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy. Histology revealed benign MCA of the ovary in all cases. On follow up, ranging from 2.4 to 5 years, all patients were well with no evidence of recurrence. MCA in perimenarchal girls usually affects the left ovary. Although this tumour is rare, this diagnosis should be considered in 11 to 15-year-old girls presenting with a very large abdominal mass. PMID:16416281

  6. Electron spin resonance studies of the ovary of the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Roy S.; Curtis, Joseph C.

    1988-11-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of rat ovaries, isolated ovarian compartments, and ovarian subcellular fractions were compared with spectra of rat adrenals. Rat ovaries were found to exhibit ESR signals similar to those previously described in studies of mammalian adrenal and testis. Observations were made at 113 K in an anaerobic environment. ESR signals of the low-spin ferric cytochrome P-450, the non-heme protein ferredoxin, and the non-heme glycoprotein transferrin were consistently observed in whole ovaries. The first two signals were detected in mitochondrial fractions isolated from ovaries, while only cytochrome P-450 was detected in microsomal fractions. Signals from ferredoxin and cytochrome P-450 were also consistently observed in both whole adrenals and adrenal mitochondrial fractions. However, in the microsomal fraction only cytochrome P-450 was present. The g values for the cytochrome P-450 and ferredoxin signals found in this study of ovaries were identical to those previously reported and also found in this study in spectra of rat adrenals. The concentration of ferredoxin per milligram wet mass in rat ovaries appears to be only one-sixth of that in the rat adrenal. The concentration of cytochrome P-450 appears to be only one-ninth of that in the adrenal. Signals from ferredoxin were detected in all ovarian compartments except granulosa cells isolated from Graafian follicles. The third signal, that of transferrin, while often observed in the spectra of whole ovaries, has been attributed to residual blood in the tissues examined. The effects of oxygen on these spectra has been found to be considerable and is discussed.

  7. [Variation in the composition of fatty acids of zeaxanthin and astaxanthin monoesters in the ovary and hepatopancreas of Penaeus schmitti during ovogenesis].

    PubMed

    Vincent, M; Ramos, L; Oliva, M

    1989-02-01

    The carotenoid esters of the shrimp, Penaeus schmitti, were investigated by thin layer chromatography and absorption spectrophotometry. Astaxanthin monoester and zeaxanthin monoester were identified in hepatopancreas and ovaries during the sexual development. The nature of fatty acids derived from these natural esters has been determined quantitatively by gas chromatography of their methyl esters. The variations of linkage between fatty acids and carotenoids during ovogenesis are measured. The role of zeaxanthin monoester in carotenoids transfer from hepatopancreas to ovaries during this sexual development, and relations between lipid and carotenoid metabolism are discussed. PMID:2475093

  8. Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

  9. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation restores damaged ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shao-Fang; Hu, Hong-Bo; Xu, Hong-Yan; Fu, Xia-Fei; Peng, Dong-Xian; Su, Wei-Yan; He, Yuan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian injury because of chemotherapy can decrease the levels of sexual hormones and potentia generandi of patients, thereby greatly reducing quality of life. The goal of this study was to investigate which transplantation method for human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) can recover ovarian function that has been damaged by chemotherapy. A rat model of ovarian injury was established using an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide. Membrane-labelled HUMSCs were subsequently injected directly into ovary tissue or tail vein. The distribution of fluorescently labelled HUMSCs, estrous cycle, sexual hormone levels, and potentia generandi of treated and control rats were then examined. HUMSCs injected into the ovary only distributed to the ovary and uterus, while HUMSCs injected via tail vein were detected in the ovary, uterus, kidney, liver and lung. The estrous cycle, levels of sex hormones and potentia generandi of the treated rats were also recovered to a certain degree. Moreover, in some transplanted rats, fertility was restored and their offspring developed normally. While ovary injection could recover ovarian function faster, both methods produced similar results in the later stages of observation. Therefore, our results suggest that transplantation of HUMSCs by tail vein injection represents a minimally invasive and effective treatment method for ovarian injury. PMID:25922900

  10. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation restores damaged ovaries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shao-Fang; Hu, Hong-Bo; Xu, Hong-Yan; Fu, Xia-Fei; Peng, Dong-Xian; Su, Wei-Yan; He, Yuan-Li

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian injury because of chemotherapy can decrease the levels of sexual hormones and potentia generandi of patients, thereby greatly reducing quality of life. The goal of this study was to investigate which transplantation method for human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) can recover ovarian function that has been damaged by chemotherapy. A rat model of ovarian injury was established using an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide. Membrane-labelled HUMSCs were subsequently injected directly into ovary tissue or tail vein. The distribution of fluorescently labelled HUMSCs, estrous cycle, sexual hormone levels, and potentia generandi of treated and control rats were then examined. HUMSCs injected into the ovary only distributed to the ovary and uterus, while HUMSCs injected via tail vein were detected in the ovary, uterus, kidney, liver and lung. The estrous cycle, levels of sex hormones and potentia generandi of the treated rats were also recovered to a certain degree. Moreover, in some transplanted rats, fertility was restored and their offspring developed normally. While ovary injection could recover ovarian function faster, both methods produced similar results in the later stages of observation. Therefore, our results suggest that transplantation of HUMSCs by tail vein injection represents a minimally invasive and effective treatment method for ovarian injury. PMID:25922900

  11. Stem Cells, Progenitor Cells, and Lineage Decisions in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Russell, Darryl L.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic. PMID:25541635

  12. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, O.; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan D.; Tingek, Salim

    2012-01-01

    Summary During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level. PMID:21732186

  13. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  14. Role of ovary and adrenal glands in hyperandrogenemia in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamel, N; Tonyukuk, V; Emral, R; Corapio?lu, D; Ba?temir, M; Gll, S

    2005-02-01

    Ovary is the main source of the hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adrenal glands may also be involved in the pathogenesis of the development of PCOS. To investigate this possibility and to find out if buserelin test is able to distinguish PCOS patients from the patients with idiopathic hirsutism (IH), ACTH and buserelin tests were performed in 29 women with PCOS, 21 women with IH, and 20 control subjects (CS). We also aimed to determine the role of dysregulation of 17 hydroxylase in the development of PCOS. Basal and stimulated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and stimulated cortisol (F) levels after ACTH administration were significantly higher in PCOS group than in IH and CS groups (p<0.0001 and p<0.05, respectively). PCOS patients also possessed significantly higher basal and stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH P) levels, including the peak levels (p<0.02), during buserelin testing when compared with IH patients and CS. There was no significant correlation between the ACTH-stimulated and the buserelin-stimulated peak 17-OH P values. In conclusion, significantly higher basal and ACTH-stimulated levels of F and DHEA-S in PCOS compared with controls and patients with IH, reflect that adrenal hyperactivity also plays a role in hyperandrogenemia seen in PCOS. Because of the lack of the correlation between ACTH-stimulated and buserelin-stimulated 17-OH P levels, it is hard to say that adrenal hyperactivity seen in PCOS is the result of the dysregulation of cytochrome P450c17-alpha enzyme. Our results suggest that buserelin test which is an GnRH analogue could distinguish at least some of the patients with PCOS from the other patients presenting with the common symptoms of hyperandrogenemia. PMID:15772904

  15. [Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary with a small ganglioneuroma].

    PubMed

    Marucci, G; Collina, G

    2006-02-01

    A case of ganglioneuroma arising within a cystic mature teratoma of the ovary in a 34-year-old woman is reported. Patient underwent right adnexectomy. The ovary was completely replaced by a bilocular cystic lesion, measuring 8 cm in diameter and filled with adipose tissue and pilosebaceous material. Microscopically the cyst was composed by a mature cystic teratoma containing skin with dermal appendages, fatty tissue and bronchial epithelium. Furthermore a nodule (0.5 cm in size) composed of mature ganglion cells, axons and Schwann cells, was identified. Ganglion cells were positive for NSE and synaptophysin, while Schwann cells stained positively with S100 protein and GFAP. To the best of our knowledgment this is the first reported cases of ganglioneuroma arisen within a cystic mature teratoma of the ovary. PMID:16789685

  16. Concurrent tamoxifen-related Mllerian adenofibromas in uterus and ovary

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haiyan; Chen, Xiaoduan; Lv, Bingjian; Zhang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a widely used in anti-oestrogen treatment of breast cancer. Previous reports showed that tamoxifen is associated with proliferative endometrial lesions. We herein reported an unusual case of concurrent hyperplastic lesions in the uterine cavity and right ovary in a 45-year-old woman with tamoxifen therapy. Regular vaginal ultrasonography showed the progressive endometrial thickening and right ovary enlargement during the period of drug use. Both lesions in the uterine cavity and right ovary showed characteristics resembling that of Mllerian adenofibroma. There were also foci of endometriosis in her bilateral ovarian surfaces. We suggest that women taking tamoxifen with a known history of endometriosis should be followed with transvaginal ultrasonography periodically. PMID:26823898

  17. Role of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Kinase, and Adiponectin in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Jolle; Chabrolle, Christine; Ram, Christelle; Tosca, Lucie; Coyral-Castel, Stphanie

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling the interaction between energy balance and reproduction are the subject of intensive investigations. The integrated control of these systems is probably a multifaceted phenomenon involving an array of signals governing energy homeostasis, metabolism, and fertility. Two fuel sensors, PPARs, a superfamily of nuclear receptors and the kinase AMPK, integrate energy control and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin, one of the adipocyte-derived factors mediate its actions through the AMPK or PPARs pathway. These three molecules are expressed in the ovary, raising questions about the biological actions of fuel sensors in fertility and the use of these molecules to treat fertility problems. This review will highlight the expression and putative role of PPARs, AMPK, and adiponectin in the ovary, particularly during folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation. PMID:18288279

  18. Giant follicular cyst of ovary in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Disha; Gedam, Jaya; Bhalerao, Minal; Nadar, Ponambalaganpathi A

    2014-07-01

    Cystic abdominal lesions are extremely common in adolescent girls and are now diagnosed more frequently due to the availability of better imaging modalities. Presentations as huge cysts have become rare as most of them are diagnosed and treated early. Adolescent girls presenting with huge benign abdominal cysts is not uncommon, most of them due to serious cystadenomas of the ovary, but large follicular cysts are rare. We present a 13-year-old girl who presented with a large abdominal mass which was subsequently diagnosed as juvenile follicular cyst of the ovary. PMID:25177606

  19. ALTERED STEROIDOGENESIS IN WHOLE-OVARY AND ADRENAL CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultures of minced, whole-ovary (whole-ovary culture) were used to determine if three selected chemicals altered steroidogenic profiles. irst, phenolaulfonthalein (PST), when used in culture medium, was tested for its influence on in vitro steroidogenesis. ext, aminoglutethimide ...

  20. Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

  1. The effects of polycystic ovary syndrome on gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aktun, Hale Lebriz; Yorgunlar, Betul; Acet, Mustafa; Aygun, Banu Kumbak; Karaca, Nilay

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the inter-relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes mellitus, and demonstrate maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a case-control study in 1360 pregnant women who received a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age. Among all diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus, 150 pregnant women had received a polycystic ovary syndrome, and 160 women who did not have polycystic ovary syndrome were designated as controls. The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was 26.3% and 12% in the case and control groups, respectively. Preeclampsia was seen at an incidence of 12% and 6% in case and in control groups, respectively. The difference in neonatal hypoglycemia between the two groups was statistically significant, with an incidence of 17% and 5% in the case and in control groups, respectively. This study demonstrated that the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome along with gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension by 2.4 fold, preeclampsia by 2 fold and neonatal hypoglycemia by 3.2 fold, compared to gestational diabetes mellitus alone. PMID:26479686

  2. Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Zhou, Changqing; Rattan, Saniya; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-07-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are found abundantly in the environment, resulting in daily human exposure. This is of concern because many EDCs are known to target the female reproductive system and, more specifically, the ovary. In the female, the ovary is the key organ responsible for reproductive and endocrine functions. Exposure to EDCs is known to cause many reproductive health problems such as infertility, premature ovarian failure, and abnormal sex steroid hormone levels. Some EDCs and their effects on adult ovarian function have been studied extensively over the years, whereas the effects of others remain unclear. This review covers what is currently known about the effects of selected EDCs (bisphenol A, methoxychlor, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, phthalates, and genistein) on the adult ovary and the mechanisms by which they act upon the ovary, focusing primarily on their effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Furthermore, this review discusses future directions needed to better understand the effects of EDCs, including the need to examine the effects of multiple and more consistent doses and to study different mechanisms of action. PMID:26063868

  3. miRNA-Dependent Translational Repression in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Reich, John; Snee, Mark J.; Macdonald, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary. PMID:19252745

  4. Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in

  5. Fresh and cryopreserved ovary transplantation and resting follicle recruitment.

    PubMed

    Silber, Sherman; Pineda, Jorge; Lenahan, Kathleen; DeRosa, Michael; Melnick, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Ovary cryopreservation and transplantation has garnered increasing interest as a possible method to preserve fertility for cancer patients and to study ovarian resting follicle recruitment. Eleven consecutive women underwent fresh donor ovary transplantation, and 11 underwent cryopreserved ovary auto-transplantation in the same centre, with the same surgeon. Of the 11 fresh transplant recipients, who were all young but menopausal, nine women had normal ovarian cortex transplanted from an identical twin sister, and two had a fresh allograft from a non-identical sister. In the second group, 11 women with cancer had ovarian tissue cryopreserved before bone marrow transplant, and then after years of therapeutically induced menopause, underwent cryopreserved ovarian cortex autotransplantation. Recovery of ovarian function and follicle recruitment was assessed in all 22 recipients, and the potential for pregnancy was further investigated in 19 (11 fresh and 8 cryopreserved) with over 1-year follow-up. In all recipients, normal FSH levels and menstruation returned by about 150 days, and anti-Mllerian hormone reached much greater than normal concentrations by about 170 days. Anti-Mllerian hormone levels then fell below normal by about 240 days and remained at that lower level. Seventeen babies have been born to these 11 fresh and eight cryopreserved ovary transplant recipients. PMID:25892498

  6. Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

  7. Phagocytosis genes nonautonomously promote developmental cell death in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Allison K; Mondragon, Albert A; Schenkel, Claire E; Yalonetskaya, Alla; Taylor, Jeffrey D; Moynihan, Katherine E; Etchegaray, Jon Iker; Meehan, Tracy L; McCall, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is usually considered a cell-autonomous suicide program, synonymous with apoptosis. Recent research has revealed that PCD is complex, with at least a dozen cell death modalities. Here, we demonstrate that the large-scale nonapoptotic developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary occurs by an alternative cell death program where the surrounding follicle cells nonautonomously promote death of the germ line. The phagocytic machinery of the follicle cells, including Draper, cell death abnormality (Ced)-12, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), is essential for the death and removal of germ-line-derived nurse cells during late oogenesis. Cell death events including acidification, nuclear envelope permeabilization, and DNA fragmentation of the nurse cells are impaired when phagocytosis is inhibited. Moreover, elimination of a small subset of follicle cells prevents nurse cell death and cytoplasmic dumping. Developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary is an intriguing example of nonapoptotic, nonautonomous PCD, providing insight on the diversity of cell death mechanisms. PMID:26884181

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome in men: Stein-Leventhal syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Razelle; Cohen, Philip R

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also referred to as Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is one of the most common endocrinopathies. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia, central obesity, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. However, some of these manifestations, including the polycystic ovaries, are neither specific for the disorder, nor found in all affected individuals. PCOS appears to be due to one or more primary defects in the upstream gonadotropin/androgen and/or insulin pathway, with the polycystic ovaries being one of many downstream manifestations. Yet, the pathophysiology of PCOS is not completely elucidated. Since the primary defect underlying PCOS may be an upstream endocrine and/or metabolic disturbance, rather than a defect in the ovaries themselves, we hypothesize that this aberration can also arise in men and that the absence of polycystic ovaries in men with other stigmata of the disorder should not eliminate the diagnosis. Our hypothesis is supported by the observation that a genetic susceptibility to PCOS exists, and that PCOS-type manifestations are not limited to women. Indeed, male relatives may suffer from insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, recognition of this syndrome in men is important, since pharmacologic treatments identified for women with PCOS may alleviate metabolic problems related to insulin resistance and its sequelae in men with a similar underlying defect. We suggest that first-degree relatives of patients with PCOS should be examined not only for phenotypic features characteristic of PCOS but also for biochemical evidence of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. In addition to examining these individuals for obesity, the women should be evaluated for hirsutism and the men should be screened for early-onset male-pattern alopecia and excess hairiness. Serologic evaluation should included the ratio of fasting levels of glucose to insulin, a glucose tolerance test, the free testosterone level and the sex hormone-binding globulin level. Finally, both male and female first-degree relatives of patients with PCOS should be tested for the underlying molecular defect(s) of this condition, once it is identified. As new treatments for PCOS emerge, e.g. insulin-sensitizing drugs, it will be important to determine if these treatments have beneficial effects on the metabolic symptoms and complications in all afflicted patients, regardless of gender. PMID:17134841

  9. Genetic analysis of the clonal stability of Chinese hamster ovary cells for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwen; Chen, Kaiming; Wang, Zhe; Li, Dong; Lin, Jiannan; Yu, Chao; Yu, Fang; Wang, Xin; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Cizhong; Gu, Hua; Fang, Jianmin

    2016-01-15

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are frequently used for the production of recombinant proteins for therapeutical applications. However, the recombinant protein expression level of CHO cells may reduce during long-term culture. The physiological changes related to the stability of expression were not well understood. In this study, we performed a series of genetic analysis on stable and unstable clonal derived populations. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a large number of differentially expressed genes (>100) were identified in the unstable population between early and late generations, while only a few differentially expressed genes were found in the stable population, suggesting that the gene expression change is related to the instability of recombinant protein production. On the other hand, no significant differences were found in promoter methylation or gene copy numbers in the unstable population. Taken together, our data help better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the stability of recombinant protein production in CHO cells. PMID:26563441

  10. The fetal ovary exhibits temporal sensitivity to a 'real-life' mixture of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lea, Richard G; Amezaga, Maria R; Loup, Benoit; Mandon-Pépin, Béatrice; Stefansdottir, Agnes; Filis, Panagiotis; Kyle, Carol; Zhang, Zulin; Allen, Ceri; Purdie, Laura; Jouneau, Luc; Cotinot, Corinne; Rhind, Stewart M; Sinclair, Kevin D; Fowler, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    The development of fetal ovarian follicles is a critical determinant of adult female reproductive competence. Prolonged exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) can perturb this process with detrimental consequences for offspring. Here we report on the exposure of pregnant ewes to an environmental mixture of ECs derived from pastures fertilized with sewage sludge (biosolids): a common global agricultural practice. Exposure of pregnant ewes to ECs over 80 day periods during early, mid or late gestation reduced the proportion of healthy early stage fetal follicles comprising the ovarian reserve. Mid and late gestation EC exposures had the most marked effects, disturbing maternal and fetal liver chemical profiles, masculinising fetal anogenital distance and greatly increasing the number of altered fetal ovarian genes and proteins. In conclusion, differential temporal sensitivity of the fetus and its ovaries to EC mixtures has implications for adult ovarian function following adverse exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26931299

  11. The fetal ovary exhibits temporal sensitivity to a ‘real-life’ mixture of environmental chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Richard G.; Amezaga, Maria R.; Loup, Benoit; Mandon-Pépin, Béatrice; Stefansdottir, Agnes; Filis, Panagiotis; Kyle, Carol; Zhang, Zulin; Allen, Ceri; Purdie, Laura; Jouneau, Luc; Cotinot, Corinne; Rhind, Stewart M.; Sinclair, Kevin D.; Fowler, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of fetal ovarian follicles is a critical determinant of adult female reproductive competence. Prolonged exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) can perturb this process with detrimental consequences for offspring. Here we report on the exposure of pregnant ewes to an environmental mixture of ECs derived from pastures fertilized with sewage sludge (biosolids): a common global agricultural practice. Exposure of pregnant ewes to ECs over 80 day periods during early, mid or late gestation reduced the proportion of healthy early stage fetal follicles comprising the ovarian reserve. Mid and late gestation EC exposures had the most marked effects, disturbing maternal and fetal liver chemical profiles, masculinising fetal anogenital distance and greatly increasing the number of altered fetal ovarian genes and proteins. In conclusion, differential temporal sensitivity of the fetus and its ovaries to EC mixtures has implications for adult ovarian function following adverse exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26931299

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  13. Diversity of cell death pathways: insight from the fly ovary

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Victoria Kathryn; Timmons, Allison K

    2013-01-01

    Multiple types of cell death exist including necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. The Drosophila ovary provides a valuable model to study the diversity of cell death modalities, and we review recent progress to elucidate these pathways. At least five distinct types of cell death occur in the ovary, and we focus on two that have been studied extensively. Cell death of mid-stage egg chambers uses a novel caspase-dependent pathway that involves autophagy, and triggers phagocytosis by surrounding somatic epithelial cells. For every egg, fifteen germline nurse cells undergo developmental programmed cell death, which occurs independently of most known cell death genes. These forms of cell death are strikingly similar to cell death observed in the germline of other organisms. PMID:23968895

  14. Neuroendocrine cells are present in the domestic fowl ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Pablo G; Bez Saldaa, Armida; Fortoul Van Der Goes, Teresa; Gonzlez del Pliego, Margarita; Gutirrez Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine cells are present in virtually all organs of the vertebrate body; however, it is yet uncertain whether they exist in the ovaries. Previous reports of ovarian neurons and neuron-like cells in mammals and birds might have resulted from misidentification. The aim of the present work was to determine the identity of neuron-like cells in immature ovaries of the domestic fowl. Cells immunoreactive to neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and chromogranin-A, with small, dense-core secretory granules, were consistently observed throughout the sub-cortical ovarian medulla and cortical interfollicular stroma. These cells also displayed immunoreactivity for tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine ?-hydroxylases, as well as to aromatic L-DOPA decarboxylase, implying their ability to synthesize both catecholamines and indolamines. Our results support the argument that the ovarian cells previously reported as neuron-like in birds, are neuroendocrine cells. PMID:23083425

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Barthelmess, Erin K; Naz, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  16. A case control study of carcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, M L; Pearson, R M; Fullerton, J M; Boesen, E A; Shannon, H S

    1977-01-01

    There is increased concern over the apparent rise in incidence of patients with carcinoma of the ovary, particularly in older women. In an attempt to identify aetiological factors 300 women with cancer of the ovary diagnosed at laparatomy were studied. A questionnaire was administered to these women (Group A) and to two control groups matched by age. The first control group (Group B) comprised patients in a gynaecological ward and the second (Group C) comprised were shown in the obstetric history of the three groups. Fewer of the women in Group A had married and fewer had ever been pregnant and the family size was smaller. Significantly fewer of them recollected an attack of mumps, measles, or rubella. In all, only 81 of the whole series of 900 had used oral contraceptives, 19 of Group A and 31 in each of the control groups, a statistically significant deficiency. These findings support those of other investigations and suggest lines of further inquiry. PMID:588853

  17. The immature human ovary shows loss of abnormal follicles and increasing follicle developmental competence through childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R.A.; McLaughlin, M.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Albertini, D.F.; Telfer, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do the ovarian follicles of children and adolescents differ in their morphology and in vitro growth potential from those of adults? SUMMARY ANSWER Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of morphologically abnormal non-growing follicles, and follicles showed reduced capacity for in vitro growth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The pre-pubertal ovary is known to contain follicles at the early growing stages. How this changes over childhood and through puberty is unknown, and there are no previous data on the in vitro growth potential of follicles from pre-pubertal and pubertal girls. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Ovarian biopsies from five pre-pubertal and seven pubertal girls and 19 adult women were analysed histologically, cultured in vitro for 6 days, with growing follicles then isolated and cultured for a further 6 days. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Ovarian biopsies were obtained from girls undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation, and compared with biopsies from adult women. Follicle stage and morphology were classified. After 6 days in culture, follicle growth initiation was assessed. The growth of isolated secondary follicles was assessed over a further 6 days, including analysis of oocyte growth. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of abnormal non-growing follicles (19.4 versus 4.85% in pubertal ovaries; 4004 follicles analysed; P = 0.02) characterized by indistinct germinal vesicle membrane and absent nucleolus. Follicles with this abnormal morphology were not seen in the adult ovary. During 6 days culture, follicle growth initiation was observed at all ages; in pre-pubertal samples there was very little development to secondary stages, while pubertal samples showed similar growth activation to that seen in adult tissue (pubertal group: P = 0.02 versus pre-pubertal, ns versus adult). Isolated secondary follicles were cultured for a further 6 days. Those from pre-pubertal ovary showed limited growth (P < 0.05 versus both pubertal and adult follicles) and no change in oocyte diameter over that period. Follicles from pubertal ovaries showed increased growth; this was still reduced compared with follicles from adult women (P < 0.05) but oocyte growth was proportionate to follicle size. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION These data derive from only a small number of ovarian biopsies, although large numbers of follicles were analysed. It is unclear whether the differences between groups are related to puberty, or just age. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These findings show that follicles from girls of all ages can be induced to grow in vitro, which has important implications for some patients who are at high risk of malignant contamination of their ovarian tissue. The reduced growth of isolated follicles indicates that there are true intrafollicular differences in addition to potential differences in their local environment, and that there are maturational processes occurring in the ovary through childhood and adolescence, which involve the loss of abnormal follicles, and increasing follicle developmental competence. Study funding/competing interest(s) Funded by MRC grants G0901839 and G1100357. No competing interests. PMID:24135076

  18. Androgen actions in the ovary: balance is key.

    PubMed

    Prizant, Hen; Gleicher, Norbert; Sen, Aritro

    2014-09-01

    For many decades, elevated androgens in women have been associated with poor reproductive health. However, recent studies have shown that androgens play a crucial role in women's fertility. The following review provides an overall perspective about how androgens and androgen receptor-mediated actions regulate normal follicular development, as well as discuss emerging concepts, latest perceptions, and controversies regarding androgen actions and signaling in the ovary. PMID:25037707

  19. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of silkwormBmovo-1 and wild type silkworm ovary

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Renyu; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Liyuan; Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Song, Zuowei; Lu, Jiayu; Chen, Xueying; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    The detailed molecular mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovary size is unclear. To uncover the mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovarian development and oogenesis using RNA-Seq, we compared the transcriptomes of wild type (WT) and Bmovo-1-overexpressing silkworm (silkworm+Bmovo-1) ovaries. Using a pair-end Illumina Solexa sequencing strategy, 5,296,942 total reads were obtained from silkworm+Bmovo-1 ovaries and 6,306,078 from WT ovaries. The average read length was about 100 bp. Clean read ratios were 98.79% for silkworm+Bmovo-1 and 98.87% for WT silkworm ovaries. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed 123 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes in silkworm+Bmovo-1 ovaries. These differentially expressed genes were enriched in the extracellular and extracellular spaces and involved in metabolism, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, cellular processes and organismal systems. Bmovo-1 overexpression in silkworm ovaries might promote anabolism for ovarian development and oogenesis and oocyte proliferation and transport of nutrients to ovaries by altering nutrient partitioning, which would support ovary development. Excessive consumption of nutrients for ovary development alters nutrient partitioning and deters silk protein synthesis. PMID:26643037

  20. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of silkworm(Bmovo-1) and wild type silkworm ovary.

    PubMed

    Xue, Renyu; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Liyuan; Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Song, Zuowei; Lu, Jiayu; Chen, Xueying; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    The detailed molecular mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovary size is unclear. To uncover the mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovarian development and oogenesis using RNA-Seq, we compared the transcriptomes of wild type (WT) and Bmovo-1-overexpressing silkworm (silkworm(+Bmovo-1)) ovaries. Using a pair-end Illumina Solexa sequencing strategy, 5,296,942 total reads were obtained from silkworm(+Bmovo-1) ovaries and 6,306,078 from WT ovaries. The average read length was about 100?bp. Clean read ratios were 98.79% for silkworm(+Bmovo-1) and 98.87% for WT silkworm ovaries. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed 123 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes in silkworm(+Bmovo-1) ovaries. These differentially expressed genes were enriched in the extracellular and extracellular spaces and involved in metabolism, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, cellular processes and organismal systems. Bmovo-1 overexpression in silkworm ovaries might promote anabolism for ovarian development and oogenesis and oocyte proliferation and transport of nutrients to ovaries by altering nutrient partitioning, which would support ovary development. Excessive consumption of nutrients for ovary development alters nutrient partitioning and deters silk protein synthesis. PMID:26643037

  1. Preliminary observations on whole-ovary xenotransplantation as an experimental model for fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Nichols-Burns, Stephanie M; Lotz, Laura; Schneider, Heike; Adamek, Edyta; Daniel, Christoph; Stief, Andrea; Grigo, Christina; Klump, Dorothee; Hoffmann, Inge; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian tissue preservation and retransplantation is a promising strategy to restore fertility in cancer survivors. Ischaemia accompanying ovarian tissue grafting, however, can lead to significant follicle loss. Transplantation of the whole ovary by vascular anastomosis has been considered as an alternative to prevent widespread ischaemic damage. In this study, the feasibility and function of transplanting whole ovary with intact vasculature were evaluated, with the goal of developing a xenograft model for studies using donated human ovaries. Whole-swine ovaries with vascular pedicles were perfused and transplanted as intact ovaries by anastomosis into irradiated ovariectomized nude rats (n = 10). The observation period was between 1 and 4 weeks. Fresh swine ovaries served as controls (n = 10). Ovarian stroma and follicle populations were assessed through histological examination in both transplanted and control ovaries. Most of the transplanted whole ovaries (n = 6) maintained stromal quality and all preantral follicle classes were represented, although follicle numbers decreased compared with fresh control. Four transplanted ovaries were fibrotic after 1-4 weeks within the nude rat. Our results demonstrate transplantation of whole-pig ovary into nude rats is possible and support development of this xenograft model system for human studies. PMID:25246124

  2. Ovary starch reserves and pistil development in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, M Librada; Hormaza, J Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2010-12-01

    In avocado, only a very small fraction of the flowers are able to set fruit. Previous work in other woody perennial plant species has shown the importance of carbohydrates accumulated in the flower in the reproductive process. Thus, in order to explore the implications of the nutritive status of the flower in the reproductive process in avocado, the starch content in the pistil has been examined in individual pollinated and non-pollinated flowers at anthesis and during the days following anthesis. Starch content in different pistilar tissues in each flower was quantified with the help of an image analysis system attached to a microscope. Flowers at anthesis were rich in highly compartmentalized starch. Although no external morphological differences could be observed among flowers, the starch content varied widely at flower opening. Starch content in the ovary is largely independent of flower size because these differences were not correlated with ovary size. Differences in the progress of starch accumulation within the ovule integuments between pollinated and non-pollinated flowers occurred concomitantly with the triggering of the progamic phase. The results suggest that starch reserves in the ovary could play a significant role in the reproductive process in avocado. PMID:20849425

  3. Aromatase excess in cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Chen, Dong; Lu, Meiling; Zhao, Hong; Cheng, Youhong; Demura, Masashi; Yilmaz, Bertan; Martin, Regina; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Thung, Steven; Su, Emily; Marsh, Erica; Hakim, Amy; Yin, Ping; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Amin, Sanober; Imir, Gonca; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Erkut; Reierstad, Scott; Innes, Joy; Lin, Zhihong

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis and growth of three common women's cancers (breast, endometrium and ovary) are linked to estrogen. A single gene encodes the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis named aromatase, inhibition of which effectively eliminates estrogen production in the entire body. Aromatase inhibitors successfully treat breast cancer, whereas their roles in endometrial and ovarian cancers are less clear. Ovary, testis, adipose tissue, skin, hypothalamus and placenta express aromatase normally, whereas breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers overexpress aromatase and produce local estrogen exerting paracrine and intracrine effects. Tissue-specific promoters distributed over a 93-kb regulatory region upstream of a common coding region alternatively control aromatase expression. A distinct set of transcription factors regulates each promoter in a signaling pathway- and tissue-specific manner. In cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary, aromatase expression is primarly regulated by increased activity of the proximally located promoter I.3/II region. Promoters I.3 and II lie 215 bp from each other and are coordinately stimulated by PGE(2) via a cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway. In breast adipose fibroblasts exposed to PGE(2) secreted by malignant epithelial cells, PKC is also activated, and this potentiates cAMP-PKA-dependent induction of aromatase. Thus, inflammatory substances such as PGE(2) may play important roles in inducing local production of estrogen that promotes tumor growth. PMID:17590327

  4. Estrogen formation by the ovary of the rabbit embryo.

    PubMed

    Milewich, L; George, F W; Wilson, J D

    1977-01-01

    The conversion of [1,2,6,7-3H]- testosterone to radioactive estradiol was assessed in tissue slices of 18 different tissues from rabbit embryos that varied in age from 16 to 29 days gestation. Significant rates of estradiol synthesis were demonstrated only in ovaries [4.2 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SEM) pmol/h/mg) protein], placenta (0.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/h/mg protein) and brain (0.3 +/- 0.1 pmol/h/mg protein). Estradiol formation was undetectable in day 16 gonads of both sexes and in tests at all ages examined, but by day 18 it was demonstrable in ovaries and rose rapidly to reach a level of 6 pmol/h/mg protein by day 19. The time of appearance of the enzymatic capacity to convert testosterone to estradiol in the ovary is similar to the onset of the enzymatic capacity to form testosterone by the fetal testis, suggesting that the acquisition of the enzymatic activies that allow specific endocrine function by these two tissues may be regulated by the same or similar factors during embryonic development. PMID:830538

  5. [True hermaphrodite with ipsilateral vas deferens and intrascrotal ovary].

    PubMed

    Kyoku, I; Senzaki, A; Yamagiwa, K; Tanaka, T; Shinka, T

    1991-12-01

    A 15-year-old, legally male patient came to our department with chief complaint of gynecomastia. Serum testosterone was at a low level of 1.6 ng/ml, and prolactin a high level of 23 ng/ml. Blood type was a mixed type of both type A and type B, and a chromosomal analysis with peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated a mosaic of 46, XX/46, XY. During the follow-up, he complained a painful swelling in his right scrotum, and received an emergent surgery. A large amount of blood was noted in the right scrotum. Unicorn uterus, Fallopian tube and finbriae were observed, and a thumb-sized gonad with hemorrhage and fissure was also seen in the upper part of the scrotum. The right gonad was an ovary and no testicular tissue was confirmed in the right scrotum, whereas the right vas deferens was noted. The left testis was accompanied by an induration on its upper pole which was histologically found to be ovarian tissue. The patient was diagnosed as a true hermaphroditism with 46, XX/46, XY chimera that had an ovary with inguinal uterus hernia and an unusual vas deferens in the right scrotum and an ovotestis in the left. It was considered that an adequate amount of testosterone secreted from the left testis during the early embryonal period might have affected the descent of the right ovary into the scrotum and on the development of the right vas deferens. PMID:1779499

  6. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  7. [Convenience clinic redefine polycystic ovary syndrome (Stein-Leventhal)].

    PubMed

    Zárate-Treviño, Arturo; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Morán, Carlos; Manuel, Leticia; Saucedo, Renata

    2014-04-01

    In 1935 during a medical meeting behalf in New Orleans was presents a study that included seven cases of women that suffered menstrual dysfunctions, hirsutism and sterility, for laparotomy the description of the ovaries had a pearly white color and it was hypertrophic, the cuneiform resection in both ovaries resulted in correction of the menstrual dysfunction and two of them got pregnancy later on, receiving the name of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The technological advance facilitates the hormonal analyses demonstrating the hyperandrogenism existence and the mechanism of the anovulation, the PCOS showed to be heterogeneous, reason why it was hindered to define it, this advanced the current trend to question the existence of the PCOS and to accept the convenience, either to change the name or to redefine it, leaving it as a simple syndrome with several phenotypes. The endocrine component includes abnormal secretion of insulin and consequently outlying resistance to this hormone, likewise is hyperandrogenism, dislipoproteinemia and obesity. The hormonal exams are unnecessary for the diagnostic and treatment; it is convenient to demonstrate for sonography the ovarian growth. Other dysfunctions like the congenital suprarenal hyperplasia, hyperprolactinemia and hypotiroidism should be discarded. The treatment should be individualized with relationship to the reason of the consultation and the patients age. It has not been demonstrated that the sensibilitizers use to the insulin avoids long term cardiovascular illness and diabetes. Therefore, the phenotype is heterogeneous with a fickle metabolic component and for it has arisen the restlessness of a better definition of the SPO. PMID:24881358

  8. Follicle dynamics and global organization in the intact mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Faire, Mehlika; Skillern, Amanda; Arora, Ripla; Nguyen, Daniel H; Wang, Jason; Chamberlain, Chester; German, Michael S; Fung, Jennifer C; Laird, Diana J

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of tissues and organs can reveal large-scale patterning as well as the impact of perturbations and aging on biological architecture. Here we develop tools for imaging of single cells in intact organs and computational approaches to assess spatial relationships in 3D. In the mouse ovary, we use nuclear volume of the oocyte to read out quiescence or growth of oocyte-somatic cell units known as follicles. This in-ovary quantification of non-growing follicle dynamics from neonate to adult fits a mathematical function, which corroborates the model of fixed oocyte reserve. Mapping approaches show that radial organization of folliculogenesis established in the newborn ovary is preserved through adulthood. By contrast, inter-follicle clustering increases during aging with different dynamics depending on size. These broadly applicable tools can reveal high dimensional phenotypes and age-related architectural changes in other organs. In the adult mouse pancreas, we find stochastic radial organization of the islets of Langerhans but evidence for localized interactions among the smallest islets. PMID:25889274

  9. Expression of SIRT1 in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome before and after therapeutic intervention with exenatide

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xin; Zhang, Xiao; Ge, Shu-Qi; Zhang, Er-Hong; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its alteration after exenatide treatment. Methods: PCOS rat model was established by dehydroepiandrosterone induction. The animals were randomly divided into exenatide treatment group (EX group, n = 10), metformin treatment group (MF group, n = 10), PCOS group (PCOS group, n = 9) and normal control group (NC group, n = 10). Histological changes of the ovarian tissues were examined by HE staining. SIRT1 expression in the ovarian tissue was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results: Rats in the PCOS group lost their estrous cycle. Histological observation of the ovary showed saccular dilatation of the follicle, decreased number of corpora lutea, fewer layers of granulosa cells aligned loosely, and thickened layer of theca cells. The changes in reproductive hormones and the development of insulin resistance suggested the successful establishment of the animal models. Immunohistochemistry and Q-PCR detected the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1 in the ovary tissues of rats in the normal control group. The SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in PCOS group than in control group (P < 0.05); after drug intervention, the SIRT1 expression significantly increased in EX and MF groups (compared with the PCOS group), whereas no significant difference was noted between the EX group and MF group. Conclusions: The SIRT1 expression in the ovary tissue decreases in PCOS rats (compare with the normal rats) but can be up-regulated after Ex or MF treatment. These drugs may affect the process and development of PCOS by regulating the SIRT1 expression. Exenatide may be therapeutic for PCOS by up-regulating the SITR1 expression. PMID:26339397

  10. The impact of alpha lipoic acid on developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to those isolated from vitrified ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Hatami, Sahar; Zavareh, Saeed; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Karimi, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissues and pre-antral follicles is a promising prospect for preservation of women fertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to isolated pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified ovaries in the presence of alpha lipoic acid (ALA). Materials and Methods: Pre-antral follicles derived from fresh, vitrified-warmed ovarian tissues and vitrifiedwarmed pre-antral follicles were cultured individually with or without ALA, followed by adding hCG to induce ovulation. The follicle growth, oocyte maturation, and embryo development were assessed. Results: The diameter and development of follicles, oocyte maturation and embryo development rates were significantly higher in ALA supplemented groups compared to the respective ALA-free conditions groups. Aforementioned parameters were significantly higher in vitrified-warmed follicles in comparison to follicles derived from vitrified-warmed ovaries. Conclusion: These findings support a superior performance of pre-antral follicles when vitrified rather than when isolated from vitrified ovaries with regard to increasing the rates of developmental parameters. Moreover, ALA improves the in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles in vitrified and non-vitrified samples. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Sahar Hatami) PMID:24799862

  11. Female reproductive aging is master-planned at the level of ovary.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size. PMID:24788203

  12. Regulation of behaviorally associated gene networks in worker honey bee ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Kocher, Sarah D.; Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Grozinger, Christina M.; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Several lines of evidence support genetic links between ovary size and division of labor in worker honey bees. However, it is largely unknown how ovaries influence behavior. To address this question, we first performed transcriptional profiling on worker ovaries from two genotypes that differ in social behavior and ovary size. Then, we contrasted the differentially expressed ovarian genes with six sets of available brain transcriptomes. Finally, we probed behavior-related candidate gene networks in wild-type ovaries of different sizes. We found differential expression in 2151 ovarian transcripts in these artificially selected honey bee strains, corresponding to approximately 20.3% of the predicted gene set of honey bees. Differences in gene expression overlapped significantly with changes in the brain transcriptomes. Differentially expressed genes were associated with neural signal transmission (tyramine receptor, TYR) and ecdysteroid signaling; two independently tested nuclear hormone receptors (HR46 and ftz-f1) were also significantly correlated with ovary size in wild-type bees. We suggest that the correspondence between ovary and brain transcriptomes identified here indicates systemic regulatory networks among hormones (juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids), pheromones (queen mandibular pheromone), reproductive organs and nervous tissues in worker honey bees. Furthermore, robust correlations between ovary size and neuraland endocrine response genes are consistent with the hypothesized roles of the ovaries in honey bee behavioral regulation. PMID:22162860

  13. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: Is there a role of histology-specific treatment?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0); however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1?cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1?cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC) was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease. PMID:22655678

  14. Localization of luteinizing hormone receptor protein in the human ovary.

    PubMed

    Yung, Y; Aviel-Ronen, S; Maman, E; Rubinstein, N; Avivi, C; Orvieto, R; Hourvitz, A

    2014-09-01

    The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) plays a pivotal role during follicular development. Consequently, its expression pattern is of major importance for research and has clinical implications. Despite the accumulated information regarding LHR expression patterns, our understanding of its expression in the human ovary, specifically at the protein level, is incomplete. Therefore, our aim was to determine the LHR protein localization and expression pattern in the human ovary. We examined the presence of LHR by immunohistochemical staining of human ovaries and western blots of mural granulosa and cumulus cells aspirated during IVF treatments. We were not able to detect LHR protein staining in primordial or primary follicles. We observed equivocal positive staining in granulosa cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. The first appearance of a clear signal of LHR protein was observed in granulosa cells and theca cells of small antral follicles, and there was evidence of increasing LHR production as the follicles mature to the pre-ovulatory stage. After ovulation, LHR protein was ubiquitously produced in the corpus luteum. To confirm the expression pattern in granulosa cells and cumulus cells, we performed western blots and found that LHR expression was stronger in granulosa cells than in cumulus cells, with the later demonstrating low, but still significant, amounts of LHR protein. In summary, we conclude that LHR protein starts to appear on granulosa cells and theca cells of early antral follicles, and low but significant expression of LHR exists also in the cumulus cells. These results may have implications for the future design of clinical protocols and culture mediums for in vitro fertilization and especially in vitro maturation of oocytes. PMID:24874553

  15. Diagnostic Criteria for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Pitfalls and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, Marla E.; Chizen, Donna R.; Pierson, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that as many as 1.4 million Canadian women may be afflicted with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Although PCOS is heralded as one of the most common endocrine disorders occurring in women, its diagnosis, management, and associated long-term health risks remain controversial. Historically, the combination of androgen excess and anovulation has been considered the hallmark of PCOS. To date, while these symptoms remain the most prevalent among PCOS patients, neither is considered an absolute requisite for the syndrome. Inclusion of ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries as a diagnostic marker has substantially broadened the phenotypic spectrum of PCOS, yet much debate surrounds the validity of these newly identified milder variants of the syndrome. Difficulty in resolving the spectrum of PCOS stems from the continued use of inconsistent and inaccurate methods of evaluating androgen excess, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. At present, there is no clear-cut definition of biochemical hyperandrogenemia, particularly since we depend on poor laboratory standards for measuring androgens in women. Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism are ill-defined in women with PCOS, and the diagnosis of both hirsutism and polycystic ovarian morphology remains alarmingly subjective. Lastly, there is an inappropriate tendency to assign ovulatory status solely on the basis of menstrual cycle history or poorly timed endocrine measurements. In this review, we elaborate on these limitations and propose possible resolutions for clinical and research settings. By stimulating awareness of these limitations, we hope to generate a dialogue aimed at solidifying the evaluation of PCOS in Canadian women. PMID:18786289

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents: current and future treatment options.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, George; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Creatsas, George

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common disorder affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The pivotal endocrine abnormalities of this syndrome are insulin resistance and ovarian and, to a lesser degree, adrenal hypersensitivity to hormonal stimulation. PCOS may manifest itself as early as the first decade of life by premature pubarche or menarche. Oligoamenorrhea in the first postpubarchal years, although very common, may be an early symptom of PCOS, especially in overweight girls with hirsutism or acne. Girls with low birth weight as well as a family history of diabetes mellitus or premature cardiovascular disease are at high risk for developing PCOS. Circulating bioavailable testosterone levels are usually elevated, while total testosterone may be normal due to low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. The typical sonographic appearance of PCOS ovaries consists of high ovarian volume (>10 mL) and the presence of 12 or more follicles in each ovary measuring 2-9 mm in diameter. However, this finding is not specific, since it may occur in >20% of healthy girls. The therapeutic goals in adolescents with PCOS is first to restore bodyweight and menses and to reduce the signs of hyperandrogenism. The reduction of bodyweight in this young age group may require the collaboration of the pediatrician, dietitian, and psychotherapist. The adolescent should be urged to adopt a healthy lifestyle with the aim to maintain a normal body mass index throughout adolescence and adult life. The choice of medical therapy depends on the clinical presentation. Oral contraceptives are a good option when acne and hirsutism are the principal complaints. Adolescents with isolated cycle irregularity may be placed on a cyclical progestin regimen to induce withdrawal bleeding. Metformin, by decreasing insulin resistance, alleviates many of the hormonal disturbances and restores menses in a considerable proportion of patients. It may be used alone or in combination with oral contraceptives. Independently of medical treatment, restoration and maintenance of bodyweight within normal range is of paramount importance. PMID:17037948

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence. PMID:25437978

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome: the worrisome twosome?

    PubMed

    Shah, D; Rasool, S

    2016-02-01

    By virtue of insulin resistance being the common etiology for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome, the cardiometabolic risks of these two syndromes are shared. The usual concerns of a PCOS patient are cosmetic or reproductive. However, there are more serious concerns past the reproductive age. Early treatment of insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia reduces the long-term risk. This review highlights the unhealthy association of metabolic syndrome with PCOS and emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, patient education and long-term follow-up beyond the reproductive age into menopause to prevent the long-term serious co-morbidities. PMID:26624567

  19. Pharmacological treatment of obesity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kahal, Hassan; Atkin, Stephen L; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder affecting women of reproductive age and it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Obesity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS, and the majority of patients with PCOS are obese. Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased, with probable associated increase in PCOS. Weight reduction plays an integral part in the management of women with PCOS. In this paper, current available weight reduction therapies in the management of PCOS are discussed. PMID:21197149

  20. Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kahal, Hassan; Atkin, Stephen L.; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder affecting women of reproductive age and it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Obesity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS, and the majority of patients with PCOS are obese. Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased, with probable associated increase in PCOS. Weight reduction plays an integral part in the management of women with PCOS. In this paper, current available weight reduction therapies in the management of PCOS are discussed. PMID:21197149

  1. Diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Marcin; Norman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome, which can be defined as a group of recognisable patterns of symptoms or abnormalities that indicate a particular medical situation. The current definition of PCOS requires the presence of two of the following three conditions: (i) oligo- and/or anovulation; (ii) clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism; and (iii) polycystic ovaries--and the exclusion of other aetiologies. It is generally accepted that the prevalence of PCOS is approximately 5-10%, and that of polycystic ovaries alone is 21-23%. Other features of PCOS are obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnoea and infertility. An approach to a patient with possible PCOS should be directed towards making a diagnosis and screening for associated endocrine abnormalities. Therapeutic interventions are directed towards addressing the needs of the patient at present and towards preventing long-term complications of the syndrome. Body mass index, which is a primary mediator in the relationship between PCOS and health-related quality of life in obese PCOS adolescents, may play a similar role in other PCOS patients. Any intervention directed at reducing central obesity will not only improve quality of life but also correct hyperinsulinism and improve fertility and lipid and androgen profiles. It is also the only currently available intervention that can have a lifelong impact on reducing possible long-term complications of the syndrome. Lifestyle modification is the cardinal intervention. Pharmacological treatments are available for specific indications. Infertility can be treated with clomifene (clomiphene citrate), metformin, gonadotropins or surgery to the ovaries. Cyproterone (alone or in combination with ethinylestradiol) and spironolactone are the main drugs used in the treatment of hirsutism. Other drugs that can be considered include flutamide, ketoconazole and finasteride. Women with PCOS require ongoing surveillance to detect impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidaemia, endometrial hyperplasia and consequent complications. Obese women, in particular, require regular glucose tolerance testing because of the potential for rapid progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. The focus of this article is the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this common endocrine disorder. Diagnostic and co-morbid features are discussed separately to facilitate understanding of PCOS. Symptom-directed strategies, as well as short- and long-term goals of treatment, are outlined. PMID:16740005

  2. Quantitative mutagenesis and mutagen screening with Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, A.W.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Tan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented on the development of a specific gene mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cells/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system, and the utilization of this system to study structure-activity relationship affecting cytotoxicity and gene mutation by various carcinogens. Then, preliminary development and validation of a Multiplex CHO System for the simultaneous determination of chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange in addition to cytotoxicity and gene mutation is presented. The potential use of a CHO/human cell hybrid system for measuring chromosomal deletion and loss is discussed.

  3. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome – literature review

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Nebil; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-factorial disease. Its etiopathogenesis has not been elucidated in detail. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of child-bearing age. This disease entity is primarily characterized by disrupted ovulation and hyperandrogenism, but the clinical picture can be diversified and symptom intensity can vary. Currently, the sonographic assessment of ovaries is one of the obligatory criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus (2003) and Androgen Excess & PCOS Society (2006). This criterion is determined by the presence of ≥12 follicles within the ovary with a diameter of 2–9 mm and/or ovarian volume ≥10 cm3. Such an ultrasound image in one gonad only is sufficient to define polycystic ovaries. The coexistence of polycystic ovaries with polycystic ovary syndrome is confirmed in over 90% of cases irrespective of ethnic factors or race. However, because of the commonness of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries in healthy women, the inclusion of this sign to the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome is still questioned. The development of new technologies has an undoubted influence on the percentage of diagnosed polycystic ovaries. This process has caused an increase in the percentage of polycystic ovary diagnoses since the Rotterdam criteria were published. It is therefore needed to prepare new commonly accepted diagnostic norms concerning the number of ovarian follicles and the standardization of the technique in which they are counted. The assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone levels as an equivalent of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries is a promising method. However, analytic methods have to be standardized in order to establish commonly accepted diagnostic norms. PMID:26807298

  4. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome - literature review.

    PubMed

    Bachanek, Micha?; Abdalla, Nebil; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, W?odzimierz

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-factorial disease. Its etiopathogenesis has not been elucidated in detail. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of child-bearing age. This disease entity is primarily characterized by disrupted ovulation and hyperandrogenism, but the clinical picture can be diversified and symptom intensity can vary. Currently, the sonographic assessment of ovaries is one of the obligatory criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus (2003) and Androgen Excess & PCOS Society (2006). This criterion is determined by the presence of ?12 follicles within the ovary with a diameter of 2-9 mm and/or ovarian volume ?10 cm(3). Such an ultrasound image in one gonad only is sufficient to define polycystic ovaries. The coexistence of polycystic ovaries with polycystic ovary syndrome is confirmed in over 90% of cases irrespective of ethnic factors or race. However, because of the commonness of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries in healthy women, the inclusion of this sign to the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome is still questioned. The development of new technologies has an undoubted influence on the percentage of diagnosed polycystic ovaries. This process has caused an increase in the percentage of polycystic ovary diagnoses since the Rotterdam criteria were published. It is therefore needed to prepare new commonly accepted diagnostic norms concerning the number of ovarian follicles and the standardization of the technique in which they are counted. The assessment of anti-Mllerian hormone levels as an equivalent of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries is a promising method. However, analytic methods have to be standardized in order to establish commonly accepted diagnostic norms. PMID:26807298

  5. What every physician should know about polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine cause of hirsutism, acne, and pattern alopecia. It is a heterogeneous syndrome of hyperandrogenic anovulation that is typically due to intrinsic ovarian dysfunction, which is often aggravated by insulin-resistant hyperinsulinemia with its risks of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and their complications. Because there are many pitfalls to androgen assays, evaluation for hyperandrogenemia is suggested in women with moderate or severe hirsutism or hirsutism equivalents, menstrual irregularity, acanthosis nigricans, or intractable obesity. An endocrinologic work-up is necessary to rule out other hyperandrogenic disorders that require specific therapy (e.g., virilizing tumors, nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hyperprolactinemia, and Cushing's syndrome). Ultrasonography helps in the differential diagnosis and may demonstrate the polycystic ovaries that have recently been vetted as an alternative to oligo-anovulation as a diagnostic criterion. Management of PCOS is determined by symptomatology. For those women not desiring pregnancy, the most common therapies are oral contraceptive pills, antiandrogens (contraindicated in the absence of adequate contraception), and insulin-lowering treatments (which have little effect on hirsutism). PMID:18844713

  6. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Srensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise; Sal, Sofia; Englund, Anne Lis Mikkelsen; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome. PMID:25158044

  7. Primary hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mazouz, Aicha; Amaadour, Lamiae; Ameurtesse, Hassania; Chban, Laila; Amarti, Afaf; Kettani, Fouad; Addou, Omar; Tizniti, Siham; Mellas, Nawfel; Arifi, Samia

    2015-01-01

    Primary hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary (HCO) is a very rare type of high-grade invasive malignant ovarian tumor with hepatic differentiation and production of ?-fetoprotein (AFP). We describe a 78-year-old Moroccan woman who presented to our hospital with abdominal distension and purplish nodules infiltrating the para umbilical skin with weight loss and impairment of her performance status. Excisional biopsy of the para umbilical nodule revealed a cutaneous localization of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and pelvic ultrasonography noted the presence of a tumoral right adnexal mass. The patient underwent an exploratory laparoscopy which found peritoneal carcinomatosis with pelvic adhesions allowing only a peritoneal biopsy. Diagnosis of primary hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary was established on the basis of classic histopathologic findings, immunohistochemical staining and marked elevation in serum of ?-fetoprotein more than the carbohydrate antigen 125. The patient received 3 cycles of chemotherapy based on Carboplatin and Paclitaxel with disease progression. No second line chemotherapy was given because of the drop of patient's performance status to 3. The patient died one month later. PMID:26213594

  8. Radiation-induced tumors in transplanted ovaries. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

    1982-04-01

    A comparison was made of tumor induction in the ovaries of whole-body-irradiation mice (250-kV X rays, doses of 0.25-4.00 Gy) or in ovaries irradiated in vivo and then transplanted intramuscularly into castrated syngeneic hosts. The form of the dose-induction relationships was similar in the two cases, showing a steeply rising branch at doses up to 0.75 Gy followed by a maximum and an elevated plateau up to 4.00 Gy. A higher incidence of tumors in transplanted organs was apparent for doses up to the maximum, which was attributed to castration-induced hormonal imbalance. Specific death rate analysis of mice dying with ovarian tumors showed that in this system radiation acts essentially by decreasing tumor latency. Ovarian tumors were classified in various histological types and their development in time was followed by serial sacrifice. Separate analysis of death rate of animals carrying different tumor classes allowed further resolution of the various components of the tumor induction phenomenon. It was thus possible to show that the overall death rate analysis masks a true effect of induction of granulosa cell tumors in whole-body-irradiation animals. The transplantation technique offers little advantage for the study of radiation induction of ovarian tumor.

  9. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Musiał, K; Płachno, B J; Świątek, P; Marciniuk, J

    2013-06-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

  10. Ethnic differences in the phenotypic expression of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Qiao, Jie

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine problem affecting women of reproductive age and is investigated from many regions of the world. Some reports have indicated ethnic difference in its manifestation. This review addressed the evidences for ethnic variation in the expression of PCOS phenotypes and explored the potential ethnic-specific diagnosis of this syndrome. To determine ethnic variation, community prevalence and clinical and metabolic problems, including hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea, polycystic ovaries, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, had been compared from differing backgrounds and populations. Moreover, a link between ethnicity and variation in the metabolic phenotype of PCOS had also been identified. East Asian women with PCOS have a lower BMI and a milder hyperandrogenic phenotype, but with the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome. South Asians in particular have a high prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, and are at risk for type 2 diabetes, with central obesity more than BMI reflecting their metabolic risk. African American and Hispanic women are more obese and more prone to metabolic problems. Besides, there is a higher prevalence of hirsutism among women of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean origin. Ethnically appropriate guidelines are needed for identifying anthropometric thresholds for better screening and diagnosis in high-risk ethnic groups. PMID:23624030

  11. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%-20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%-70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

  12. [Metastatic cancer in the ovary--report of 57 cases].

    PubMed

    Liu, L Y

    1989-11-01

    Fifty-seven patients with metastatic ovarian cancer arising from extra-genital sites are analysed. 80.8%, 14% and 5.3% of the primary cancers were from gastrointestinal tract (GI), breast and lung, respectively. The primary carcinoma was diagnosed before the discovery of ovarian tumor in 24 patients. The ovarian and primary carcinomas were found simultaneously in 11 patients (including one autopsy), while in 22 patients, the primary cancer was not discovered until the ovarian tumor had been resected. Both ovaries were involved in 60% of GI cancer and 12.5% of breast cancer. 91.2% of the patients were found to have metastasis to other tissues and organs outside the ovary. Of patients with GI cancer, 80.8% had metastasis to the abdomino-pelvic cavity, 73.7% had ascites and 52.2% had lymphatic metastasis. The majority of the patients with breast cancer had lymphatic (75%) and hematogenous (50%) metastases. In this series, the prognosis was poor in all the patients with an average survival time of 11 months. 63.2% and 86% of the patients died within 1 and 2 years. These facts indicate that ovarian involvement may be an important part of widespread dissemination from the primary cancer. PMID:2561355

  13. The Genetic Basis of Transgressive Ovary Size in Honeybee Workers

    PubMed Central

    Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits. PMID:19620393

  14. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

  15. [Polycystic ovary syndrome of extra-ovarian origin. Review].

    PubMed

    Tern Dvila, J; Teppa-Garrn, A D

    2001-03-01

    An established fact in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS) is an abnormal ovarian steroidogenesis. Though this suggest an intrinsic ovarian defect, the syndrome could also be influenced by factors outside the ovaries. Although of unknown etiology, the POS is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in the gynecologic practice. The disorder is characterized by ultrasound findings of enlarged polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders, obesity and including the appearance of infertility. There are a series of mechanisms involved in the extraovarian androgen increase in patients with POS. Among these mechanisms are implicated those of central and peripheral origin, genetic factors and adrenocortical dysfunction. In the same way, the alterations produced could imply genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, physiological and endocrinological factors. Sometimes all these factors could interact at the same time. The high serum androgen level could stop the pituitary gonadotropin production, either as a direct mechanism or as a result of its peripheral conversion. The increased androgens also explain the manifestations of clinical acne, hirsutism, and the detention in follicular ovarian maturation. All these manifestations are related with the menstrual disorders, anovulation, and infertility that these patients develop. The characteristics of the extraovarian POS include the 17-hydroxyprogesterone elevation in response to the ACTH test and the dexamethasone suppression of adrenal androgens. It is possible to improve the ovarian function in some patients with POS. This could be achieved with clomiphene citrate associated with glucocorticoids to induce ovulation. PMID:11294032

  16. Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Limaiem, F; Boudabous, E; Ben Slama, S; Chelly, B; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Gara, F; Mzabi, S

    2013-04-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumours are rare benign ovarian neoplasms of the sex cord stromal that occur predominantly in the second and third decades of life. Herein, we report two cases of sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary. The two patients were 16 and 45 years old and both presented with pelvic pain. Ultrasonography demonstrated a heterogeneous solid mass of the left and right ovary, respectively, with some cystic foci in the second tumour. Laboratory tests including tumour markers and serum hormonal assays were normal in both cases. The two patients underwent left and right salpingo-oophrectomy, respectively. Microscopically, the tumours showed a pseudolobular pattern with cellular areas separated by oedematous and collagenous areas. The cellular areas were richly vascularized, with a hemangiopericytic pattern, and were composed of an admixture of theca-like and spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumour cells were positive for smooth muscle actin, inhibin and vimentin, but negative for cytokeratin. The final pathological diagnosis was sclerosing stromal tumour. Postoperative course was uneventful for both patients. PMID:23951586

  17. Pathophysiology of ovarian steroid secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R B

    1997-05-01

    The ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) produces markedly increased amounts of steroids in response to gonadotropin stimulation. Because FSH secretion is under tight long-loop negative-feedback control and LH is not, hyperandrogenism is the primary clinical manifestation of excess steroid production in PCOS. However, estrogen production by multiple, small follicles may inhibit FSH secretion sufficiently to prevent selection of a single, dominant follicle. Ovarian stimulation testing has suggested that ovarian hyperandrogenism is a result of dysregulation of the androgen producing enzyme P450c17. ACTH stimulation testing is consistent with dysregulation of adrenal P450c17 in about two-thirds of hyperandrogenic women. In most cases dysregulation appears to be due to an intrinsic abnormality of P450c17, or to an abnormality of autocrine/paracrine factors which regulate P450c17. Both LH and insulin hypersecretion are most often a result of the steroid secretory abnormalities. Once present they may amplify the underlying cause of dysregulation of P450c17. PMID:9165659

  18. Primary rhabdoid tumor of the ovary: When large cells become small cells.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Alex; Witkowski, Leora; Shaco-Levi, Ruthy; Meirovitz, Mihai; Hasselblatt, Martin; Foulkes, William D

    2015-04-01

    The third case of pure primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the ovary (MRTO) is describedSMARCA4 and SMARCB1 genetic analysis and immunohistochemistry are necessary for correct diagnosis of MRTOMRTO and small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type are essentially the same and should be treated as such. PMID:26076162

  19. Endophytic and pathogenic fungi of developing cranberry ovaries from flower to mature fruit: diversity and succession

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culturable fungal population diversity and succession were investigated in developing cranberry ovaries of fruit rot-resistant and rot-susceptible cranberry selections, from flower through mature fruit. Fungi were recovered in culture from 1185 of 1338 ovary tissues collected from June to September,...

  20. Promising Loci and Genes for Yolk and Ovary Weight in Chickens Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW) at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW) and ovary weight (OW) at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL) and Dongxiang chickens (DX). For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (0.25–0.38), while the estimates for FW (0.16) and OW (0.20) were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points. PMID:26332579

  1. Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; Pascuali, Natalia; Bas, Diana; Bianchi, Mara Silvia; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent pathology that affects more than 5% of women of reproductive age. Among other heterogeneous symptoms, PCOS is characterized by abnormalities in angiogenesis. Metformin has been introduced in the treatment of PCOS to manage insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Besides its metabolic effects, metformin has been shown to improve ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in PCOS patients. In the present study, we used a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS rat model to analyze the effect of metformin administration on ovarian angiogenesis. We found that metformin was able to restore the increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin (ANGPT)1, and ANGPT1/ANGPT2 ratio and the decreased levels of platelet-derived growth factor B and platelet-derived growth factor D observed in the dehydroepiandrosterone-treated rats. These effects could take place, at least in part, through a decrease in the levels of serum insulin. We also found an improvement in follicular development, with a lower percentage of small follicles and cysts and a higher percentage of antral follicles and corpora lutea after metformin administration. The improvement in ovarian angiogenesis is likely to restore the accumulation of small follicles observed in PCOS rats and to reduce cyst formation, thus improving follicular development and the percentage of corpora lutea. These results open new insights into the study of metformin action not only in glucose metabolism but also in ovarian dysfunction in PCOS women. PMID:25590243

  2. Androgen-producing bilateral large cortical adrenal adenomas associated with polycystic ovaries in a young female.

    PubMed Central

    Mici?, D.; Zori?, S.; Popovi?, V.; Jankovi?, R.; Janci?, M.; Han, R.; Manojlovi?, D.; Mi?i?, J.

    1992-01-01

    An association of bilateral large adrenocortical androgen-producing adenomas with polycystic ovaries in a young female is presented. She developed mild hirsutism and secondary amenorrhoea at the age of 17, and was treated for 3 years with an anti-androgen (cyproterone acetate) and ethinyloestradiol. Routine follow-up at the age of 21 showed bilateral large adrenal tumours and polycystic ovaries, together with high serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate values. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed, which resulted in lowering of the elevated androgens, and large bilateral adrenocortical adenomas were confirmed histologically. Contrary to expectations, the polycystic appearance of the ovaries persisted after adrenalectomy. This case supports the possible role of adrenal androgens in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries as well as the possibility of the persistence of polycystic ovaries without adrenal androgens once they have developed. Images Figure 1 PMID:1589384

  3. Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Proao, Karina; Alabad, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; Garca-Martnez, Jos L.

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of ?-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or ?-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. ?-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of ?-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  4. The restorative effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on damaged ovarian function

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Yuji; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Ezoe, Kenji; Kuroda, Tomoko; Yamadera, Rie; Sano, Chiaki; Murata, Nana; Aida, Takuya; Nakama, Ken; Aono, Fumihito; Aoyama, Naoki; Kato, Keiich; Kato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The clinical application of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as treatment for intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To address the ability of reactivating injured ovaries, we prepared a rat model with damaged ovaries by using an anticancer agent, cyclophosphamide (CTX). We then investigated the restorative effects on ovarian function and the safety of adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). MSCs were shown to be capable of inducing angiogenesis and restoring the number of ovarian follicles and corpus lutea in ovaries. No deformities, tumor formation or deaths were observed in F1 and F2 rats, indicating that the local injection of MSCs into the ovary did not have any obvious side effects. In addition, the localization of the Y chromosome was investigated using the fluorescent in situ hybridization method by injecting male A-MSCs into the ovaries; as a result, the Y chromosomes were localized not in the follicles, but in the thecal layers. ELISA revealed that A-MSCs secreted higher levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than tail fibroblast cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that higher expression levels of VEGF, IGF-1 and HGF were observed in CTX-treated ovaries after A-MSC transplantation. These findings suggest that MSCs may have a role in restoring damaged ovarian function and could be useful for regenerative medicine. PMID:23212100

  5. The restorative effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on damaged ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Yuji; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Ezoe, Kenji; Kuroda, Tomoko; Yamadera, Rie; Sano, Chiaki; Murata, Nana; Aida, Takuya; Nakama, Ken; Aono, Fumihito; Aoyama, Naoki; Kato, Keiich; Kato, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    The clinical application of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as treatment for intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To address the ability of reactivating injured ovaries, we prepared a rat model with damaged ovaries by using an anticancer agent, cyclophosphamide (CTX). We then investigated the restorative effects on ovarian function and the safety of adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). MSCs were shown to be capable of inducing angiogenesis and restoring the number of ovarian follicles and corpus lutea in ovaries. No deformities, tumor formation or deaths were observed in F1 and F2 rats, indicating that the local injection of MSCs into the ovary did not have any obvious side effects. In addition, the localization of the Y chromosome was investigated using the fluorescent in situ hybridization method by injecting male A-MSCs into the ovaries; as a result, the Y chromosomes were localized not in the follicles, but in the thecal layers. ELISA revealed that A-MSCs secreted higher levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than tail fibroblast cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that higher expression levels of VEGF, IGF-1 and HGF were observed in CTX-treated ovaries after A-MSC transplantation. These findings suggest that MSCs may have a role in restoring damaged ovarian function and could be useful for regenerative medicine. PMID:23212100

  6. Screening for and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Darren J; Zisser, Howard C; Jovanovic, Lois

    2004-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually arises during puberty and is marked by hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Adolescents with PCOS are at an increased risk of developing health problems later on in life such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and infertility. Furthermore, the physical signs of PCOS can be detrimental to a teenage girl's self-image. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS in adolescents are essential in ensuring adulthood health and restoring self-esteem. Treatments for an adolescent with PCOS include diet and exercise, metformin, and oral contraceptive pills. Each of these options has been shown to be effective in improving certain aspects of PCOS, and probably the best treatment plan involves some combination of them. PMID:15096648

  7. Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lanzo, Erin; Monge, Maria; Trent, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in adolescent girls that has both reproductive and metabolic implications. Patients with PCOS typically present to their pediatrician for evaluation of menstrual irregularity and/or signs of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism and acne. The diagnosis of PCOS is made by clinical symptoms and laboratory evaluation. Because of the long-term health consequences that can accompany the disorder, pediatricians should consider PCOS in their initial evaluation of menstrual irregularity. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of treatment for girls with PCOS; however, hormonal medication such as oral contraceptive pills and insulin-sensitizing agents are useful and effective adjuncts to therapy. The goals of treatment for girls with PCOS are to improve clinical manifestations of the disorder, health-related quality of life, and long-term health outcomes. PMID:26431241

  8. Alternative splicing of the androgen receptor in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangfang; Pan, Jiexue; Liu, Ye; Meng, Qing; Lv, Pingping; Qu, Fan; Ding, Guo-Lian; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C. K.; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yao, Weimiao; Zhou, Cai-Yun; Shi, Biwei; Zhang, Junyu; Sheng, Jianzhong; Huang, Hefeng

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female subfertility. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of PCOS remains to be illustrated. Here, we identify two alternative splice variants (ASVs) of the androgen receptor (AR), insertion and deletion isoforms, in granulosa cells (GCs) in ?62% of patients with PCOS. AR ASVs are strongly associated with remarkable hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis, and are absent from all control subjects without PCOS. Alternative splicing dramatically alters genome-wide AR recruitment and androgen-induced expression of genes related to androgen metabolism and folliculogenesis in human GCs. These findings establish alternative splicing of AR in GCs as the major pathogenic mechanism for hyperandrogenism and abnormal folliculogenesis in PCOS. PMID:25825716

  9. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.; Matthews, R.; Ercal, N.; Krishnan, K. )

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine demonstrating a radioprotective effect. The radioprotectant effect of glutamine for CHO cells was more pronounced at higher radiation doses. These results support the idea that glutamine protects body systems such as the gut more directly as a radioprotector as opposed to a more indirect route, such as preventing bacterial translocation from the gut. 16 refs.

  10. Clinical characteristics in Taiwanese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. It consists of a heterogeneous collection of signs and symptoms that together form a disorder spectrum. The diagnosis of PCOS is principally based on clinical and physical findings. The extent of metabolic abnormalities in women with PCOS varies with phenotype, body weight, age, and ethnicity. For general population, the prevalence of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea decreases with age, while complications such as insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances increase with age. Obese women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and lower luteinizing hormone (LH) to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) ratios than non-obese women with PCOS. The LH to FSH ratio is a valuable diagnostic tool in evaluating Taiwanese women with PCOS, especially in the diagnosis of oligomenorrhea. Overweight/obesity is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in women of reproductive age. PMID:26473107

  11. Animal models of the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unclear, despite its high prevalence among infertility disorders in women of reproductive age. Although there is evidence for a genetic component of the disorder, other causes, such as prenatal insults are considered among the potential factors that may contribute to the development of the syndrome. Over the past few decades, several animal models have been developed in an attempt to understand the potential contribution of exposure to excess steroids on the development of this syndrome. The current review summarizes the phenotypes of current animal models exposed to excess steroid during the prenatal and early postnatal period and how they compare with the phenotype seen in women with PCOS. PMID:23701728

  12. [Polycystic ovary syndrome: what are the obstetrical risks?].

    PubMed

    Bruyneel, A; Catteau-Jonard, S; Decanter, C; Clouqueur, E; Tomaszewski, C; Subtil, D; Dewailly, D; Robin, G

    2014-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and the leading cause of female infertility. This condition is frequently associated with significant metabolic disorders, including obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, it seems essential to focus on the pregnancy of these patients and possible obstetric complications. Many studies suggest an increase in the risk of obstetric pathology: early miscarriage, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed during early pregnancy, prematurity, low birthweight or macrosomia, neonatal complications and cesarean sections. However, it is difficult to conclude clearly about it, because of the heterogeneity of definition of PCOS in different studies. In addition, many confounding factors inherent in PCOS including obesity are not always taken into account and generate a problem of interpretation. However it seems possible to conclude that PCOS does not increase the risk of placental abruption, HELLP syndrome, liver disease, postpartum hemorrhage, late miscarriage and stillbirth. PMID:24485279

  13. Treatment strategies for the infertile polycystic ovary syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Tannus, Samer; Burke, Yechiel Z; Kol, Shahar

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Infertility is a prevalent presenting feature of PCOS, and approximately 75% of these women suffer infertility due to anovulation. Lifestyle modification is considered the first-line treatment and is associated with improved endocrine profile. Clomiphene citrate (CC) should be considered as the first line pharmacologic therapy for ovulation induction. In women who are CC resistant, second-line treatment should be considered, as adding metformin, laparoscopic ovarian drilling or treatment with gonadotropins. In CC treatment failure, Letrozole could be an alternative or treatment with gonadotropins. IVF is considered the third-line treatment; the 'short', antagonist-based protocol is the preferred option for PCOS patients, as it is associated with lower risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (specifically by using a gonadotropin--releasing hormone agonist as ovulation trigger), but with comparable outcomes as the long protocol. PMID:26626234

  14. Ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Legro, Richard S

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. There are multiple ways to induce ovulation in PCOS patients, which will eventually provide a successful live birth. Each of these treatments varies in aggressiveness and effectiveness. Ranging from lifestyle modifications, through insulin-sensitizing agents, selective estrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropins, to laparoscopic ovarian drilling and assisted reproductive techniques, each method achieves ovulation induction through different mechanisms of action. This review provides a description and specific characteristics of the different methods used for ovulation induction which can help to design a personalized approach to each PCOS patient, and a general stepwise approach to ovulation induction in these patients. PMID:23707553

  15. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and recent human evolution.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Stephen; Morin-Papunen, Laure

    2013-07-01

    The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder characterised both by reproductive and metabolic disturbance, and is the most common cause globally of ovarian infertility. It is also a familial polygenic condition, linked genetically to both Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The striking evolutionary paradox of this prominent genetically-based condition, which impairs fertility, is that not only should it have diminished in prevalence, but it should have done so rapidly - unless there has been some form of balancing selection. The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine can provide important insights into the causes and patterns of occurrence of common diseases such as PCOS. In this paper we review the impacts of PCOS on infertility, fecundability and lifetime reproductive success and then critically appraise published hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of PCOS and related conditions. PMID:23352610

  16. Alternative splicing of the androgen receptor in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangfang; Pan, Jiexue; Liu, Ye; Meng, Qing; Lv, Pingping; Qu, Fan; Ding, Guo-Lian; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yao, Weimiao; Zhou, Cai-Yun; Shi, Biwei; Zhang, Junyu; Sheng, Jianzhong; Huang, Hefeng

    2015-04-14

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female subfertility. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of PCOS remains to be illustrated. Here, we identify two alternative splice variants (ASVs) of the androgen receptor (AR), insertion and deletion isoforms, in granulosa cells (GCs) in ?62% of patients with PCOS. AR ASVs are strongly associated with remarkable hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis, and are absent from all control subjects without PCOS. Alternative splicing dramatically alters genome-wide AR recruitment and androgen-induced expression of genes related to androgen metabolism and folliculogenesis in human GCs. These findings establish alternative splicing of AR in GCs as the major pathogenic mechanism for hyperandrogenism and abnormal folliculogenesis in PCOS. PMID:25825716

  17. Polycystic ovary (Stein-Leventhal) syndrome: etiology, complications, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Karri Lynn; Schmidt, Margaret C

    2004-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in approximately 3% to 5% of the female population and may be the leading cause of infertility in those of reproductive age. PCOS presents clinically with a variety of signs and symptoms; the most common being menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, infertility, and obesity. The true pathophysiology has not been clearly elucidated; however, there is growing agreement that gonadotropin dynamic dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance are key features. The diagnosing of PCOS involves radiologic and laboratory studies. Radiologic studies typically include pelvic ultrasound; laboratory data should be obtained regarding pertinent gonadotropins and other hormone levels. PCOS is not a benign condition. It may lead to complications involving glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The goals of treatment should focus on restoring menstrual regularity, decreasing androgen excesses, and decreasing insulin resistance. PMID:15314890

  18. Studying the Functions of TGF-? Signaling in the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Zhou, Jian-Jie; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, ovulation is a multistep physiological process that includes preovulatory follicle growth, oocyte meiotic maturation, cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) expansion, follicle rupture, and luteinization. TGF-? signaling pathway has multiple functions in mammalian ovary, as its complexity in ovarian function has been demonstrated by mouse models with knockouts of TGF-? receptors and SMADs. We describe the protocol that we use to study functions of TGF-? signaling pathway in follicle development and ovulation. Because total knockout of TGF-? pathway components often causes embryonic lethality, which prevents further investigation of these genes in ovarian functions, people have generated ovarian cell type-specific knockout mouse strains for TGF-? signaling pathway genes. These mouse models are also described. PMID:26520133

  19. The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S.M.; Telfer, E.E.; Anderson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both ovary and uterus are in addition to age-related co-morbidities, which together have synergistic effects on reducing the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome. PMID:23103636

  20. The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S M; Telfer, E E; Anderson, R A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both ovary and uterus are in addition to age-related co-morbidities, which together have synergistic effects on reducing the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome. PMID:23103636

  1. [The controversies in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Katulski, Krzysztof; Czyzyk, Adam; Meczekalski, B?azej

    2012-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological disorder in women of reproductive age. The main clinical features of PCOS include abnormal ovulation, clinical or laboratory indices of elevated androgen levels and polycystic morphology of the ovaries. Even though the PCOS was described primarily in the 1935 by Stein and Leventhal, to date we are lacking the commonly accepted agreement in the issue of diagnosis of this syndrome. Contemporary, greater part of clinicians worldwide accept and use the Rotterdam criteria published in 2003 for recognizing PCOS, although the National Institute of Health criteria (1990) are also popular. Recently, in 2009 Androgen Excess and PCOS Society published an upgraded guidelines for recognizing the syndrome. In spite the publication of those three statements, interpretation of the three main groups of symptoms of the PCOS remain in many aspects controversial. The assessment of hyperandrogenisation is highly subjective and can be performed using different scoring systems. The matter of measuring androgen levels is complicated by the lack of easy accessible and, at the same time, precise laboratory method. The ovulation evaluation is also not standardized. The evaluation of ovarian morphology, made by ultrasound is problematic, since the methods proposed by Rotterdam criteria are very difficult and time-consuming. As an result of existing controversies in field of diagnosis of the PCOS, women with different phenotypes can be recognized with PCOS by different clinicians. This in turn, complicates the treatment and follow-up of those women. In conclusion, there is need for a large scientific and clinical research concerning this syndrome, to settle improved and more reliable diagnosing criteria. PMID:22993908

  2. Dexrazoxane abrogates acute doxorubicin toxicity in marmoset ovary.

    PubMed

    Salih, Sana M; Ringelstetter, Ashley K; Elsarrag, Mazin Z; Abbott, David H; Roti, Elon C Roti

    2015-03-01

    Preservation of ovarian function following chemotherapy for nonovarian cancers is a formidable challenge. For prepubescent girls, the only option to prevent chemotherapy damage to the ovary is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, an experimental procedure requiring invasive surgeries to harvest and reimplant tissue, which carries the risk of cancer reintroduction. Drugs that block the primary mechanism of chemotherapy insult, such as dexrazoxane (Dexra) in the context of anthracycline chemotherapy, provide a novel approach for ovarian protection and have the potential to overcome current limitations to oncofertility treatment. Dexra is a catalytic topoisomerase 2 inhibitor that protects the mouse ovary from acute doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy toxicity in vitro by preventing DXR-induced DNA damage and subsequent gammaH2AX activation. To translate acute DXR ovarian insult and Dexra protection from mouse to nonhuman primate, freshly obtained marmoset ovarian tissue was cultured in vitro and treated with vehicle or 20 ?M Dexra 1 h prior to 50 nM DXR. Cultured ovarian tissue was harvested at 2, 4, or 24 h post-DXR treatment. Dexra prevented DXR-induced DNA double-strand breaks as quantified by the neutral comet assay. DXR treatment for 24 h increased gammaH2AX phosphorylation, specifically increasing the number of foci-positive granulosa cells in antral follicles, while Dexra pretreatment inhibited DXR-induced gammaH2AX phosphorylation foci formation. Additionally, Dexra pretreatment trended toward attenuating DXR-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and caspase-9 activation as assayed by Western blots of ovarian tissue lysates. The combined findings suggest Dexra prevents primary DXR-induced DNA damage, the subsequent cellular response to DNA damage, and may diminish early apoptotic signaling in marmoset ovarian tissue. This study provides initial translation of Dexra protection against acute ovarian DXR toxicity from mice to marmoset monkey tissue. PMID:25609833

  3. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100?IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15?M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60?min with the rate of perfusion 50?mL/h (0.8?mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  4. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia.

    PubMed

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-08-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of 'lower' primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  5. Ovaries and adrenals in murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. I. Histopathological changes of the ovaries in acute and chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Tiboldi, T

    1979-07-01

    Acute and chronic infections with schistosomiasis mansoni in mice were found to cause a reduction of the ovarian weight and atrophy of the corpus luteum cells, followed by lymphocytic and stroma cell infiltration. Finally, the corpora lutea disappeared completely. Acute schistosomiasis caused arrested development of the corpora lutea. Both acute and chronic schistosomiasis led to the formation of "wheel cells" in the interstitial tissue of the ovaries. A threshold level of intensity of disease was found to be necessary for these pathological changes. With less severe schistosomiasis, the morphology of the corpora lutea remained normal. The more intensive and long-lasting the infection, the greater became the atrophy of corpora lutea. The various factors which could have caused these pathological alterations are discussed in the light of available literature, and it is suggested that a pituitary hypofunction, and particularly a lack of luteinizing hormone effect, may play a role in the pathological transformation of the ovarian tissue. PMID:464186

  6. A Case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease Associated With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Mehmet Kaan; Turgut, Burak; Demir, Tamer; Celiker, Ulku; Gurates, Bilgin

    2011-01-01

    We report a female patient diagnosed as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). She has diagnosed as VKH with diminished vision, bilateral serous retinal detachment, the signs of fundus fluorescein angiography and the findings of optical coherence tomography. The patient was referred to the gynecology clinic for her complaints as weight gain, hirsutismus and amenorrhea. She has also been diagnosed with PCOS. With oral steroid treatment, visual acuity has improved and the detachments have resolved within a month. VKH disease may be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. The two conditions may have a common autoimmune pathogenesis. Keywords Autoimmune pathogenesis; Polycystic ovary syndrome; Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada PMID:21811536

  7. Struma Ovarii with Elevated Ca-125 Levels and Ascites Mimicking Advanced Ca Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

  8. Struma ovarii with elevated ca-125 levels and ascites mimicking advanced ca ovary.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

  9. Anti-steroidogenic activity of floral extract of Thespesia populnea Corr. in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Kavimani, S; Ilango, R; Karpagam, S; Suryaprabha, K; Jaykar, B

    1999-12-01

    Anti-steroidogenic activity of various extracts of T. populnea was screened in female albino mice. The weight of the uterus and ovaries were reduced significantly and the cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries were significantly elevated due to the treatment with extract of T. populnea. The significant inhibition of delta 5, 3 beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the two key enzymes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis were also observed in mouse ovaries after 15 days of treatment. PMID:10865891

  10. Lymphangioma of the ovary: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, E U; Peker, D; Ilvan, S; Calay, Z; Cetinaslan, I; Oruc, N

    2006-01-01

    Lymphangioma of the ovary is a very rare tumor which is usually silent and identified incidentally at operation or autopsy. We report on a 61-year-old woman with lymphangioma of the ovary and review the relevant literature. The microscopic examination of the left ovary revealed numerous vascular spaces of different dimensions of which the inner surfaces were lined with flattened endothelial cells with neither cellular atypia nor extraluminal or intraluminal proliferation. There was no evidence of haemorrhage or necrosis. The stroma was formed by fibrocollagenous tissue infiltrated by rare lymphocytes. The cells lining vascular spaces were immunoreactive for CD31 by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:17318960

  11. Synchronous mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and mucinous cystadenoma of bilateral ovaries presenting during fertility therapy.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, T; Hayashi, N; Takeda, S; Itoyama, S; Takano, M; Kikuchi, Y

    2004-01-01

    We describe a very rare case of synchronous mucinous tumor of the endometrium and ovaries presenting during ovulation induction. A 31-year-old woman received ovulation induction for 5-year primary infertility. Ultrasonography revealed mucus retention in the uterine cavity and bilateral multicystic ovaries during ovulation induction. Atypical hyperplasia was diagnosed by endometrial curettage. Repeated procedures including ovarian cystectomy, endometrial curettage and in vitro fertilization combined with progestine therapy resulted in no pregnancy but rapid recurrences. She finally underwent simple hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Microscopic examination revealed mucinous cystadenoma in the both ovaries and well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. PMID:14764048

  12. Effects of jnk inhibitor on inflammation and fibrosis in the ovary tissue of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Gulay; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Dnmez, Yeliz Bozdemir; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Erten, Remzi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor (SP600125) on fibrosis and inflammation in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Method: 50 Wistar-albino rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each): control group, sham group, PCOS group, SP600125+ PCOS group and SP600125 group. In the estradiol valerate (EV)-treated group in which PCOS was injected with a single 4 mg/kg i.p. of EV in 0.2 ml sesame oil and the rats were sacrificed on day 60. The estradiol valerate (EV)-treated + SP600125-treated group was injected with a single 4 mg/kg i.p. of EV in 0.2 ml sesame oil. As of day 60, the treatment group was additionally given 15 mg/kg i.p. of SP600125 once daily for 4 consecutive days and the rats were sacrificed on day 65. Histopathological findings (ovarian morphology, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular congestion and hyperemia) and collagen type IV immunoexpression were assessed. Results: The SP600125+ PCOS group showed a significant level of improvement in ovarian follicle morphology, edema, inflammatory infiltrate, vascular congestion and hyperemia as compared with the PCOS group. Furthermore, collagen type IV immunoexpression showed a significant reduction in staining intensity on the theca cell layer and ovary stroma as compared to the PCOS group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the therapeutic effect of SP600125 in the prevention of PCOS in an experimental model. PMID:26464620

  13. Distribution and HPLC study of chromium-51 binding sites in Chinese Hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Denniston, M.L.; Uyeki, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were cultured with chromium-51 chromate to study the site of chromium interaction with cell biomolecules. After incubation, cells were homogenized and separated into nuclear, mitochondrial, microsomal, and cytosolic fractions. Greater than 75% of the radioactivity was found in the cytosolic fraction. The supernatant from the centrifuged cell homogenate, which contained > 90% of the chromium radioactivity, was subjected to chromatographic investigation. The combination of anion exchange and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that at least three different molecular species interact with chromate or its reduced derivative, Cr(III). These species are glutathione, the nucleotides cytosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate, guanine triphosphate, adenosine triphosphate, and adenosine diphosphate, plus an as yet unknown species of protein or peptide. Preliminary data for the specific activity of nucleoside triphosphates range from 6000 to 18,000 cpm/..mu..g ribonucleoside triphosphate. The glutathione accounted for 50% of the observed radioactivity, the nucleotides for 30%, and the metalloprotein accounted for the remainder.

  14. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Kaina, B; Lohrer, H; Karin, M; Herrlich, P

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions. Images PMID:2320583

  15. Auto and heterotransplantation of the ovary to the uterus or parotid region in beef cows and prepuberal heifers.

    PubMed

    Acosta, R A; Randel, R D; Ocanto, D J

    1982-05-01

    Eighteen mature estrous cycling beef cows and 9 prepuberal heifers were stratified by breed, age and weight to determine the effect of ovary-transplantation to a proximal site (right uterine horn) (U) and distal site (parotid region) (P) upon ovarian activity. Active ovaries (AO), ovaries with the corpus luteum (CL), were autotransplanted to the myometrium of the U in 3 cows and to the muscles of the P in 2 cows and their inactive ovaries (IO), ovaries without a CL, remained. Active ovaries of 6 cows were removed and heterotransplanted to 6 prepuberal heifers and their 10 were heterotransplanted to the U or the parotid (3). Six heifers received either a mature AO in the U or in the parotid. Three heifers were ovariectomized and their ovaries were heterotransplanted to 6 cows, 3 per site. Cows and heifers were slaughtered randomly 2 months after surgery and their ovaries were collected for microscopic and histological analysis. The transplants were successfully accomplished in 94% of the cows and in 83% of the heifers. Both of the unsuccessful heterotransplantations were located in the uterus. More estrous activity was found (P<.025) in cows than in heifers with their own ovaries in situ . All prepuberal ovaries in situ showed follicular development when mature AO were transplanted to either the U or parotid. The same trend was found in prepuberal ovaries transplanted to mature cycling cows. Cows with an IO in situ and AO transplanted to either site had more estrous activity than did ovariectomized cows with an IO transplanted to either site. Pregnancy rates in mature cycling cows with an least one ovary in situ were higher (P<.005) in cows with an ovary in the parotid region than cows with an ovary transplanted to the uterus. PMID:16725710

  16. Origins of follicular cells and ontogeny of steroidogenesis in ovine fetal ovaries.

    PubMed

    Juengel, Jennifer L; Sawyer, Heywood R; Smith, Peter R; Quirke, Laurel D; Heath, Derek A; Lun, Stan; Wakefield, St John; McNatty, Kenneth P

    2002-05-31

    Using fetal sheep as the experimental model, we have elucidated some of the key events that culminate in the formation of primordial follicles. A special effort was made to determine the source of the somatic cells that ultimately become granulosa cells of primordial follicles. Between gestational days 38-100: (1) light and electron microscopy was used to characterize changes in ovarian histoarchitecture; (2) incorporation of BrdU was used to identify populations of proliferating cells within fetal ovaries before, during and after, follicular formation; and (3) in situ hybridisation was used to determine the cell-specific and temporal patterns of expression of mRNAs encoding for selected steroidogenic enzymes. At day 38 somatic (pregranulosa) cells were in contact with oogonia and easily distinguished from endothelial and mesenchymal cells. Between days 38 and 45, pregranulosa cell-oogonia complexes progressively coalesced to form 'tube-like' structures referred to as ovigerous cords. These cords consisted of pregranulosa cells and oogonia arranged such that pregranulosa cells formed the outer wall of the cords. Ovigerous cords were avascular, enveloped in a prominent basal lamina, open-ended where they interfaced with the ovarian surface epithelium, and formed a separate compartment whereby oogonia/oocytes were segregated from the surrounding stroma and vasculature until the time of follicular formation. The structural integrity of ovigerous cords was maintained through day 75, at which time primordial follicles (type 1 and type 1a) first emerged from the cords at the interface of the cortex and medulla. On the basis of the sequential structural changes that occurred during the differentiation and development of fetal ovaries and location of proliferating cells identified by the incorporation of BrdU, we conclude that the majority of the granulosa cells in primordial follicles are derived from mesothelial cells originating from the ovarian surface epithelium. In addition, from the cell-specific distribution and temporal pattern of expression of mRNAs for key steroidogenic enzymes we hypothesize that steroid hormones may play a pivotal paracrine/autocrine role in the formation and/or function of ovigerous cords as well as the development of the ovarian vascular network. PMID:12044912

  17. Steroidogenic relationships of gonadotrophin hormones in the ovary of the hen (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Robinson, F E; Etches, R J; Anderson-Langmuir, C E; Burke, W H; Cheng, K W; Cunningham, F J; Ishii, S; Sharp, P J; Talbot, R T

    1988-03-01

    The effects of chicken luteinizing hormone (cLH: IRC-2 and PRC AE1-1), turkey LH (B221B and HS-5-18), bovine follicle-stimulating hormone (bFSH: HS-2-17), chicken FSH (cFSH: PRC DC3(2) and AGCQSQ113445C), and turkey FSH (B150A and HS-1-153) on steroid output were evaluated by in vitro incubation of various ovarian tissues with the gonadotrophins. Output of androstenedione and estradiol was determined by 3-hr incubations of individual whole small follicles, classified by size and color as follows: small white (SWF, less than 1 mm), large white (LWF, 2-3 mm), and small yellow follicles (SYF, 5-10 mm). The effects of gonadotrophin preparations were also evaluated in large preovulatory follicles (F1-F5). Androstenedione and estradiol output was measured in incubation media from 100,000 theca cells and progesterone content was determined in the incubation media of 100,000 granulosa cells. All incubations were conducted in 1 ml of Medium 199 at 37 degrees. Steroid output was quantitated by radioimmunoassay of incubation media. Potency estimates were derived by calculation of a peak stimulation index. The standard reference preparation was bLH (NIAMDD-LH-B4). Steroidogenesis was stimulated by three avian LH preparations. preparations. PRC AE1-1 was the most potent, with IRC-2 and B150A showing approximately 50% of the biological activity of PRC AE1-1 in most tissues. Turkey LH HS-5-18 was generally not potent. The presence of multiple isohormones of LH was implied, as various LH preparations exhibited different potency estimates in different tissues. The effects of FSH on steroidogenesis were not significant in most cases. Although the addition of cFSH AGCQSQ113445C failed to significantly increase output of estradiol from small follicles, potency estimates of this preparation were 0.15, 0.20, and 0.13 relative to NIAMDD-LH-B4 follicles was more highly stimulated by LH than by FSH, and thus it would seem that FSH does not play a significant role in steroidogenesis in the hen's ovary. The results of this study suggest that steroid biosynthesis in the hen's ovary may be regulated by multiple forms of LH. PMID:3129332

  18. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

  19. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Ovary and Its Skin Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Cokmert, S; Demir, L; Doganay, L; Demir, N; Kocacelebi, K; Unek, IT; Gezer, E; Kilic, K; Alakavuklar, M

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the gynaecological organs affects the uterine cervix and ovary. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary is extremely rare, and prognosis is quite poor even when diagnosed at an early stage. These tumours respond poorly to standard chemotherapy regimens. The clinical observation of skin metastasis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer is relatively uncommon, occurring in only 3.5% of patients. These lesions are observed mostly in skin of the abdominal wall adjacent to the primary ovarian tumours. Metastatic skin lesions on extremities are much more rare; it is reported that only 12% of epithelial ovarian carcinoma skin metastases occur on the limbs. Skin metastasis due to large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary has not been previously reported. We report the case of a large cell neuroendocrine tumour of the ovary with skin metastases on extremities appearing two months after surgery in a 68-year old woman. PMID:25803388

  20. Semiochemicals from ovaries of gravid females attract ovipositing female houseflies, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Lei, Chao liang; Niu, Chang ying; Fang, Yu ling; Xiao, Chun; Zhang, Zhong ning

    2002-10-01

    Chemical signals originating from the ovaries of gravid females of Musca domestica (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha: Muscidae) attract ovipositing females to common egg-laying sites. Behavioral experiments indicated that females preferred to oviposit in fermented wheat bran containing ovaries from reproductively mature houseflies. Females preferred to oviposit in fermented wheat bran than wet wheat bran. This effect was additive with the attraction to housefly ovaries. Solvent extracts from housefly ovaries were attractive to gravid females. Extracts obtained with hexane were most attractive to gravid females for egg laying, and extracts obtained with ethyl acetate attracted more egg laying than extracts obtained by dichloromethane. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that tricosane and (Z)-9-tricosene were the main components of the hexane extracts. Both tricosane and (Z)-9-tricosene were shown to elicit dose-dependent aggregation of gravid females in oviposition bioassays, but high doses of either chemical were not attractive. PMID:12770041

  1. Wolbachia Infect Ovaries in the Course of Their Maturation: Last Minute Passengers and Priority Travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers). PMID:24722673

  2. Wolbachia infect ovaries in the course of their maturation: last minute passengers and priority travellers?

    PubMed

    Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers). PMID:24722673

  3. Aromatase inhibitors for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: summary of a Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Franik, Sebastian; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Farquhar, Cynthia; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of anovulatory subfertility. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aromatase inhibitors compared with other methods of ovulation induction in women with anovulatory PCOS. PMID:25455536

  4. Recovery of large preantral follicles from buffalo ovary: effect of season and corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P S P; Ramesh, H S; Nandi, S; Ravindra, J P

    2007-09-01

    Preantral follicle can be considered as an alternative source of oocyte for in vitro production of embryos. The objective of the present study was to standardize a procedure for the isolation of large preantral follicles (>150-500 microm) from buffalo ovaries and to determine the effect of season and the presence of corpus luteum on the recovery rate of the large preantral follicles. A combined enzymatic cum mechanical approach was adopted to recover the large preantral follicles. In the first experiment, the ovarian cortical pieces were suspended in trypsin (1000-1500 BAEE units for milligrams of solid) and incubated at various temperatures for different periods, i.e. (1) trypsin (1%), 37 degrees C for 10 min; (2) trypsin (1%), 37 degrees C for 10 min + 4 degrees C for 3 h; (3) trypsin (0.5%), 37 degrees C for 20 min; (4) trypsin (0.25%), 37 degrees C for 20 min. Although there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among the different protocols, the first protocol yielded more follicles (3.2, 2.6, 1.8 and 1.5 per ovary, respectively). Hence, the first protocol was selected and used in the second and third experiments. In the second experiment, the effect of season, i.e. peak breeding season (October-March) versus low breeding season (April-September) was evaluated on the recovery rate of the large preantral follicles. The recovery rate of large preantral follicles from the ovaries during the peak breeding season was significantly (P<0.05) greater (9.92+/-0.85 per ovary) than that of the low breeding season (4.95+/-0.27 per ovary). In the third experiment, effect of the presence of corpus luteum on the recovery rate of large preantral follicles was studied. There was a significantly (P<0.05) higher yield of large preantral follicles from the ovaries with corpus luteum (8.05+/-0.88 per ovary) than for the ovaries without corpus luteum (4.57+/-0.43 per ovary). This study confirms that the large preantral follicles can be isolated from buffalo ovaries using a combination of enzymatic cum mechanical methods and that more large preantral follicles can be recovered during the peak breeding season and from the ovaries having corpus luteum. PMID:17174490

  5. Novel expression and functional role of ghrelin in chicken ovary.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, A V; Grossmann, R; María-Peon, M T; Roa, J; Tena-Sempere, M; Klein, S

    2006-09-26

    Ghrelin has recently emerged as pleiotropic regulator of a wide array of endocrine and non-endocrine functions. The former likely includes the control of gonadal function, as expression of ghrelin and its putative receptor, the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), has been described in mammalian gonads, and direct effects of ghrelin in the control of testicular secretion and cell proliferation have been reported. Yet, the expression and/or functional role of ghrelin in gonads from non-mammalian species remain to be analyzed. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R genes in the chicken ovary, and to assess the potential involvement of ghrelin in the direct control of chick ovarian function. To this end, RT-PCR assays for ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNAs were performed in ovarian tissue, and cultures of chicken ovarian cells were conducted in the presence of increasing doses (1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) of the ghrelin analog, ghrelin 1-18. Our results demonstrate that both ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNAs are expressed in chick ovarian tissue. Moreover, challenge of ovarian granulosa cells with ghrelin 1-18 was able to induce markers of proliferation (i.e. expression of both PCNA and cyclin), and to modulate markers of apoptosis (i.e. decreased expression of caspase-3, bax, bcl-2 and TUNEL-positive cells). Moreover, ghrelin 1-18 increased the expression of PCNA, cyclin, bax and p53 in cultures of ovarian follicular fragments, where it also stimulated the release of progesterone, estradiol, arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and IGF-I, but not of testosterone. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for the gonadal expression of the genes encoding ghrelin and its cognate receptor in a non-mammalian species, i.e. the chicken ovary, and unravels the potential involvement of this newly discovered molecule in the control of key gonadal functions in the chick, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone release. PMID:16891055

  6. Solitary metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the ovaries: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, F S; Ho, E S; Lu, F; Chang, C Y

    1992-08-01

    Though renal cell carcinoma may metastasize to unusual sites via hematogenous spread, ovarian metastasis is very uncommon. This is explained by atrophy of the ovaries with decreased blood perfusion in most postmenopausal patients who are at the age of peak incidence of renal cell carcinoma. We report a 28-year-old woman with metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the ovaries. Special attention to the differential diagnosis and the management should be taken. PMID:1327476

  7. Metabolomics profiling of extracellular metabolites in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Chong, William P K; Goh, Lin Tang; Reddy, Satty G; Yusufi, Faraaz N K; Lee, Dong Yup; Wong, Niki S C; Heng, Chew Kiat; Yap, Miranda G S; Ho, Ying Swan

    2009-12-01

    A metabolomics-based approach was used to time profile extracellular metabolites in duplicate fed-batch bioreactor cultures of recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells producing monoclonal IgG antibody. Culture medium was collected and analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system in tandem with an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. An in-house software was developed to pre-process the LC/MS data in terms of filtering and peak detection. This was followed by principal component analysis (PCA) to assess variance amongst the samples, and hierarchical clustering to categorize mass peaks by their time profiles. Finally, LC/MS2 experiments using the LTQ-Orbitrap (where standard was available) and SYNAPT HDMS (where standard was unavailable) were performed to confirm the identities of the metabolites. Two groups of identified metabolites were of particular interest; the first consisted of metabolites that began to accumulate when the culture entered stationary phase. The majority of them were amino acid derivatives and they were likely to be derived from the amino acids in the feed media. Examples included acetylphenylalanine and dimethylarginine which are known to be detrimental to cell growth. The second group of metabolites showed a downward trend as the culture progressed. Two of them were medium components--tryptophan and choline, and these became depleted midway into the culture despite the addition of feed media. The findings demonstrated the potential of utilizing metabolomics to guide medium design for fed-batch culture to potentially improve cell growth and product titer. PMID:19902412

  8. Potential endocrine disruption of ovary synthesis in the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis by the insecticide pyriproxyfen.

    PubMed

    Linton, Stuart; Barrow, Lauren; Davies, Claire; Harman, Laura

    2009-11-01

    The effect of the insecticide, pyriproxyfen on early ovary synthesis was examined in the Gecarcinid land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis. Crabs were fed a mixture of either leaf litter and bait containing 0.5% (wt/wt) pyriproxyfen (experimental groups), or a mixture of leaf litter and a control bait containing no pyriproxyfen (control groups), at simulated baiting doses of 2 kg ha(-1) and 4 kg ha(-1), during the period in which G. natalis synthesises its ovaries. A third group of crabs were fed ad libitum either the bait containing 0.5% Pypriproxyfen or the control bait. Pyriproxyfen affected early ovary development in G. natalis. The ovaries from crabs in the experimental groups at all baiting levels had a higher total nitrogen content and dry mass than the ovaries from crabs in the control groups. Pyriproxyfen affected the histology of the ovaries. Ovaries from animals in the experimental groups were more mature, containing more previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes, of a larger diameter, than the ovaries from crabs in the control groups. Significant amounts of pyriproxyfen accumulated within the midgut gland and ovary, the hypothesised target tissues, while minor amounts of pyriproxyfen was accumulated in the muscle, a hypothesised non target tissue. Pyriproxyfen may have stimulated early ovary development and induced synthesis of yolk protein by mimicking methyl farnesoate and thus causing endocrine disruption. Given this, pyriproxyfen should not be used to control invasive insects in environments where gecarcinid and other land crab species are present. PMID:19249382

  9. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction.

    PubMed

    Cosso-Baygar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernndez-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narvez Padilla, Vernica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick. PMID:26456007

  10. Partial ovary development is widespread in honey bees and comparable to other eusocial bees and wasps.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Mattila, Heather R; Reeve, H Kern

    2013-09-01

    Honey bee workers have few opportunities for direct reproduction because their ovary development is chemically suppressed by queens and worker-laid eggs are destroyed by workers. While workers with fully developed ovaries are rare in honey bee colonies, we show that partial ovary development is common. Across nine studies, an average of 6% to 43% of workers had partially developed ovaries in queenright colonies with naturally mated queens. This shift by workers toward potential future reproduction is linked to lower productivity, which suggests that even small investments in reproductive physiology by selfish workers reduce cooperation below a theoretical maximum. Furthermore, comparisons across 26 species of bees and wasps revealed that the level of partial ovary development in honey bees is similar to that of other eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive conflict among colony members. Natural variation in the extent of partial ovary development in honey bee colonies calls for an exploration of the genetic and ecological factors that modulate shifts in cooperation within animal societies. PMID:24255737

  11. Afferent fibers involved in the bradykinin-induced cardiovascular reflexes from the ovary in rats.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako; Hotta, Harumi

    2015-12-01

    Bleeding or rupture of the ovary often accompanies ovarian cysts and causes severe pain and autonomic responses such as hypotension. It would be expected that ovarian afferents contribute to cardiovascular responses induced by ovarian failure. The present study examined cardiovascular responses to noxious chemical stimulation of the ovary by bradykinin, an algesic substance released by tissue damage, and explored the role of ovarian afferents in the ovarian-cardiovascular responses in anesthetized rats. Non-pregnant adult rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital and artificially ventilated. The carotid artery was cannulated to monitor blood pressure and heart rate. Noxious chemical stimulation was achieved by applying a small piece of cotton soaked with bradykinin to the surface of the ovary for 30s. Application of bradykinin (10(-4) M) to the ovary decreased heart rate and blood pressure. These cardiovascular responses were not significantly influenced by severance of the vagal nerves or the superior ovarian nerve, but were abolished by severance of the ovarian nerve plexus (ONP). Application of bradykinin (10(-4) M) to the ovary evoked afferent activity of the ONP both in vivo and in vitro preparations. These results indicate that the decreases in heart rate and blood pressure following chemical noxious stimulation of the ovary with bradykinin are reflex responses, whose afferent nerve pathway is mainly through afferent fibers in the ONP. PMID:26234483

  12. Histological Changes of the Ovary in Pregnant Mice Vaginally Exposed to Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    ESLAMIRAD, Zahra; BAYAT, Parvin-Dokht; BABAEI, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is one cause of abortion. Infection can disrupt ovarian cycles and because toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease may have a similar effect on the ovaries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathological changes in the ovaries due to toxoplasmosis. Methods: Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were harvested from peritoneal fluid of mice, experimentally infected. Two females and one male mouse were housed per cage for mating in the overnight. The pregnant mice were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group were infected by parasite but the control group received the normal saline. The experimental and control mice were euthanized. Ovaries and uterine horns of animals were removed and prepared for light microscopy. Results: Ovaries of infected pregnant mice presented gross morphological differences compared to the control groups. In ovaries of experimental groups, changes of corpus luteum were observed. The comparison of experimental and control groups revealed that the number of primary follicles, secondary follicle, atretic primary follicles and atretic secondary follicles had significant differences (P≤0.001). Conclusion: Toxoplasma gondii alters ovarian follicular growth and development in mice. In addition, it alters number of different phases of follicles and corpus luteum in ovaries of mice. PMID:26246826

  13. Hyberbaric oxygen increases atresia in normal & steroid induced PCO rat ovaries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the morphology of estradiol valerate (EV) induced polycystic ovary (PCO) to find a new treatment modality for improvement of PCO. Methods The rats were divided into four groups. Group1, control; group 2, PCO group; group 3, PCO with HBOT group and group 4, normal ovary with HBOT. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg EV in adult cycling rats. Other rats with normal ovaries had oil injection as placebo. HBOT was applied to third and fourth groups for six weeks. Histopathologic evaluation of ovaries of all groups were performed & compared. Results Six weeks of HBOT was resulted in increase in follicular atresia, decrease in the number of primary, secondary, tertiary follicles and decrease in the number of fresh corpus luteum in normal rat ovary. HBOT on polycystic rat ovary, resulted in significant increase in atretic follicles which were already present. Conclusions HBOT of six weeks itself, changed ovarian morphology in favor of atresia both in PCO group and control group. This result of aggravated follicular atresia after HBOT on EV induced PCO may be due to long-term exposure in our protocol which with this state seems to be inapplicable in the improvement of PCO morphology. PMID:22309835

  14. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction

    PubMed Central

    Cosso-Baygar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernndez-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narvez Padilla, Vernica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick. PMID:26456007

  15. Hormonal Control of Parthenocarpic Ovary Growth by the Apical Shoot in Pea1

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; García-Martínez, José L.

    1998-01-01

    The role of the apical shoot as a source of inhibitors preventing fruit growth in the absence of a stimulus (e.g. pollination or application of gibberellic acid) has been investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plant decapitation stimulated parthenocarpic growth, even in derooted plants, and this effect was counteracted by the application of indole acetic acid (IAA) or abscisic acid (ABA) in agar blocks to the severed stump. The treatment of unpollinated ovaries with gibberellic acid blocked the effect of IAA or ABA applied to the stump. [3H]IAA and [3H]ABA applied to the stump were transported basipetally, and [3H]ABA but not [3H]IAA was also detected in unpollinated ovaries. The concentration of ABA in unpollinated ovaries increased significantly in the absence of a promotive stimulus. The application of IAA to the stump enhanced by 2- to 5-fold the concentration of ABA in the inhibited ovary, whereas the inhibition of IAA transport from the apical shoot by triiodobenzoic acid decreased the ovary content of ABA (to approximately one-half). Triiodobenzoic acid alone, however, was unable to stimulate ovary growth. Thus, in addition to removing IAA transport from the apical shoot, the accumulation of a promotive factor is also necessary to induce parthenocarpic growth in decapitated plants. PMID:9490755

  16. Infertility in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians: the role of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Harrath, Abdel Halim; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Mansour, Lamjed; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Arfah, Maha; Al Anazi, Mohamed S; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Nyengaard, Jens R; Alwasel, Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Ex-fissiparous planarians produce infertile cocoons or, in very rare cases, cocoons with very low fertility. Here, we describe the features of programmed cell death (PCD) occurring in the hyperplasic ovary of the ex-fissiparous freshwater planarian Dugesia arabica that may explain this infertility. Based on TEM results, we demonstrate a novel extensive co-clustering of cytoplasmic organelles, such as lysosomes and microtubules, and their fusion with autophagosomes during the early stage of oocyte cell death occurring through an autophagic pattern. During a later stage of cell death, the generation of apoptotic vesicles in the cytoplasm can be observed. The immunohistochemical labeling supports the ultrastructural results because it has been shown that the proapoptotic protein bax was more highly expressed in the hyperplasic ovary than in the normal one, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein bcl2 was slightly more highly expressed in the normal ovary compared to the hyperplasic one. TUNEL analysis of the hyperplasic ovary confirmed that the nuclei of the majority of differentiating oocytes were TUNEL-positive, whereas the nuclei of oogonia and young oocytes were TUNEL-negative; in the normal ovary, oocytes are TUNEL-negative. Considering all of these data, we suggest that the cell death mechanism of differentiating oocytes in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians is one of the most important factors that cause ex-fissiparous planarian infertility. We propose that autophagy precedes apoptosis during oogenesis, whereas apoptotic features can be observed later. PMID:25107610

  17. Effect of the Growth Retardant 3,5-Dioxo-4-butyryl-cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester, an Acylcyclohexanedione Compound, on Fruit Growth and Gibberellin Content of Pollinated and Unpollinated Ovaries in Pea.

    PubMed Central

    Santes, C. M.; Garcia-Martinez, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of pollinated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska, line V1) ovaries with 3,5-dioxo-4-butyryl-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester (LAB), an acylcyclohexanedione derivative that competitively inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent gibberellin (GA) dioxygenases, caused a reduction of pod elongation proportional to the amount of inhibitor applied. The effect of LAB was counteracted by GA1 and GA3, and partially by GA20. The inhibitor decreased the contents of GA1 and GA3 (the purported active GAs) and GA8, increased those of GA19 and GA20, and did not affect that of GA29 in both the pod and the developing seeds. These results provide evidence that GA1 and/or GA3 control pod development in pea and show that GA20 is not active per se. In contrast to its effect on pollinated ovaries, LAB promoted parthenocarpic development of unpollinated ovaries, which is associated with an increase of GA1 and GA8 content. The inhibitor enhanced the response of unpollinated ovaries to GA1 and GA20, but it did not alter the response to GA3. LAB is proposed to promote parthenocarpic development and enhance the response to exogenous GAs by blocking the 2[beta]-hydroxylation of GA1 more efficiently than 3[beta]-hydroxylation of GA20. PMID:12228489

  18. Oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome: risk-benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bulent O

    2008-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been a key component of the chronic treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by improving androgen excess and regulating menstrual cycles. Earlier epidemiologic studies with second- and third-generation OCPs in the general population have raised important questions regarding long-term cardiometabolic effects of these agents. In PCOS, there are only a few short-term studies with contradictory results evaluating potential adverse effects of OCPs on cardiovascular risk factors and glucose homeostasis. These studies included a small number of participants and did not take into account several confounding factors that might influence the outcome. Nevertheless, limited available data support the benefits of long-term OCP use in PCOS. By contrast, solid evidence for cardiometabolic adverse outcome with the use of these agents, especially with newer OCPs containing antiandrogenic progestins, is lacking. More studies are needed to resolve controversies regarding the safety of long-term OCP use in PCOS. Meanwhile, assessment of each PCOS patient's personal cardiometabolic risk profile should be an essential component of the evaluation before prescribing OCPs and also during follow-up. PMID:18181089

  19. Recent advances in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Bulent O

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder that presents a challenge for clinical investigators. It is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women, yet the optimal therapeutic approach is unknown because the pathophysiological and molecular basis of the syndrome is not fully understood. Currently, the treatment is targeted to the patient's primary complaint. Treatment strategies focus on the reduction of clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism), restoration of regular menses and achieving pregnancy. Pharmacological agents available for the treatment of hirsutism include androgen suppressors and peripheral androgen blockers. Combined oral contraceptive pills are the most commonly used androgen suppressor and the treatment of choice for menstrual dysfunction in PCOS patients who do not desire pregnancy. The first-line treatment for infertility in PCOS is clomiphene-citrate, whereas parenteral gonadotropins are commonly used in clomiphene-resistant patients. The benefits of insulin-sensitising agents for PCOS patients have become increasingly clear over the last decade. Metabolic disturbances associated with PCOS appear to have important long-term health implications and require further attention. This review summarises the current and emerging therapeutic strategies for the management of PCOS. PMID:15461558

  20. Diagnosis and Challenges of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Agapova, Sophia E.; Cameo, Tamara; Sopher, Aviva B.; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have become less stringent over the years, determination of the minimum diagnostic features in adolescents is still an area of controversy. Of particular concern is that many of the features considered to be diagnostic for PCOS may evolve over time and change during the first few years after menarche. Nonetheless, attempts to define young women who may be at risk for development of PCOS is pertinent since associated morbidity such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia may benefit from early intervention. The relative utility of diagnostic tools such as persistence of anovulatory cycles, hyperandrogenemia, hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, or alopecia), or ovarian findings on ultrasound is not established in adolescents. Some suggest that even using the strictest criteria, the diagnosis of PCOS may not valid in adolescents younger than 18 years. In addition, evidence does not necessarily support that lack of treatment of PCOS in younger adolescents will result in untoward outcomes since features consistent with PCOS often resolve with time. The presented data will help determine if it is possible to establish firm criteria which may be used to reliably diagnose PCOS in adolescents. PMID:24715514

  1. Combined oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome - indications and cautions.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2013-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been used in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) for the treatment of menstrual disorders, acne and hirsutism. Despite years of their use and broad clinical experience, there are still ongoing doubts concerning their implications for the cardiovascular system and carbohydrate metabolism both in the general population and women with PCOS. In the general population, the risk of venous thromboembolism is reported to be increased. However, arterial thrombotic events seem to require concomitant risk factors to appear during administration of OCPs. In terms of carbohydrate metabolism, available data do not consistently suggest an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus, in spite of some subtle fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels. In subgroup analyses of epidemiological studies in the general population, there is no finding indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related mortality in premenopausal women with PCOS. There is no significant alteration in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism after use of OCP in PCOS either. The absence of further cardiometabolic risk with OCP use in PCOS might suggest some unproven preventive alterations in this patient population. PMID:24002409

  2. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%-12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic. PMID:26770659

  3. Immunolocalization of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in human ovary.

    PubMed

    Sasano, H; Mori, T; Sasano, N; Nagura, H; Mason, J I

    1990-07-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) was performed in 55 cases of morphologically normal human ovaries by using a specific polyclonal antibody against purified human placental 3 beta-HSD. In small developing follicles, immunoreactivity was observed only in the theca interna but also became recognizable in the membrana granulosa with development of the follicle. At a late stage of folliculogenesis, the intensity of the 3 beta-HSD activity in the membrana granulosa was nearly equal to that of theca interna in 2 or 3 large follicles examined. One to several layers of theca interna cells just beneath membrana granulosa did not demonstrate any immunoreactivity of 3 beta-HSD or that of cytochrome P-450 17 alpha-hydroxylase. These unstained theca interna cells did not appear to be directly involved in ovarian steroidogenesis and might be designated as 'enzymically inactive theca interna cells.' Marked immunoreactivity was observed in luteinized theca and granulosa cells of the corpus luteum. PMID:2401998

  4. Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Petsos, P; Ratcliffe, W A; Anderson, D C

    1986-12-01

    LH levels are inappropriately elevated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO). Regardless of whether this LH elevation is primary or secondary it may be involved in the establishment of chronic anovulation. We have therefore tried selectively to suppress LH by giving medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 5 mg twice daily for 14 d to 13 women with PCO (14 studies) and have examined their pituitary and ovarian response to assess whether follicular development and ovulation would be triggered post-treatment as a result of secretion of endogenous gonadotrophins in a more nearly physiological ratio. Blood samples were obtained before and two to three times weekly during and after treatment for 35-50 d. In two of these cycles MPA was started fortuitously during the luteal phase of a spontaneous cycle. In the remainder, three patterns of response were seen. In 9 cycles, after an initial rise, there was a progressive fall in gonadotrophin levels, LH (mean 48% of basal) more than FSH (mean 68% of basal); after MPA was stopped FSH levels recovered more rapidly than LH. In two cycles (one subject) MPA administration was associated with a progressive rise in serum oestradiol and progesterone. In a further cycle, treatment was also accompanied by an oestradiol rise and was followed by establishment of regular ovulatory cycles. The observed differential suppressive effect on LH and FSH levels suggests that MPA might be of therapeutic value if followed by treatment with anti-oestrogens or exogenous gonadotrophins in PCO. PMID:2958179

  5. The optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2005-08-01

    An optimal diet is one that not only prevents nutrient deficiencies by providing sufficient nutrients and energy for human growth and reproduction, but that also promotes health and longevity and reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. The composition of the optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not yet known, but such a diet must not only assist short term with weight management, symptoms and fertility, but also specifically target the long-term risks of type 2 diabetes, CVD and certain cancers. With insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia now recognised as a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, it has become clear that reducing insulin levels and improving insulin sensitivity are an essential part of management. Diet plays a significant role in the regulation of blood glucose and insulin levels, yet research into the dietary management of PCOS is lacking and most studies have focused on energy restriction rather than dietary composition per se. On the balance of evidence to date, a diet low in saturated fat and high in fibre from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods is recommended. Because PCOS carries significant metabolic risks, more research is clearly needed. PMID:16115348

  6. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karoli, Ritu; Fatima, Jalees; Chandra, Ashok; Gupta, Uma; Islam, Faraz-ul; Singh, Gagandeep

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) both are known to be associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of the study was to determine the presence of NAFLD and associated factors of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study of 54 women with PCOS and 55 healthy controls who were age and weight matched were included. Anthropometric parameters, biochemical and hormonal investigations were done in all the patients. Insulin resistance was calculated by Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Abdominal ultrasonography and biochemical tests were used to determine the presence of hepatic steatosis after excluding other causes liver disease. RESULTS: Women with PCOS had a higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis (67% vs 25%, P = 0.001) MS (35% vs. 7%, P < 0.01) and elevated transaminases (31% vs. 7%, P = 0.03) than controls. All patients with PCOS and controls with MS had presence of hepatic steatosis. Age, BMI, waist-hip ratio, HOMA-IR, HDL and PCOS diagnosis were the factors associated with presence of hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSION: NAFLD is commonly present in women with PCOS in combination with other metabolic derangements. Evaluation for liver disease should be considered at an earlier age in women with PCOS, particularly those who have an evidence of MS. PMID:23869143

  7. Use of metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Ricchieri, Federica; Lanzoni, Chiara

    2010-07-01

    Metformin is quite an old drug, but it is optimal for the control of glycemia in Type 2 diabetes. It was reported, 15 years ago, that insulin resistance was abnormally high in most polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Starting from that moment, increasing numbers of studies were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of metformin in controlling and/or modulating several aspects of PCOS, which is the most common cause of menstrual irregularity, inesthetisms and infertility. Metformin induces higher glucose uptake, thus inducing a lower synthesis/secretion of insulin. Such an effect permits the possible restoration of the normal biological functions that are severely affected by the compensatory hyperinsulinemia reactive to the increased peripheral insulin resistance. These are the basis of the many positive effects of this drug, such as the restoration of menstrual cyclicity, ovulatory cycles and fertility, because abnormal insulin levels affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian function, as well as the use of glucose in peripheral tissues. Metformin improves the impairments typically observed in hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients, reducing the possible evolution towards metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes; and when pregnancy occurs, it consistently reduces the risk of gestational diabetes, eclampsia and hypertension. PCOS seems to be the perfect physiopathological condition that might have higher benefits from metformin administration, obviously after Type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the many aspects of PCOS and on the possible issues of this disease for which metformin might be a putative optimal treatment. PMID:20597621

  8. FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-02-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes. PMID:24049064

  9. Optimal management of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hecht Baldauff, Natalie; Arslanian, Silva

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of reproduction and metabolism, which emerges at puberty, and is characterised by a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms of hyperandrogenism, anovulation, hyperinsulinaemia and associated comorbidities. Unlike adult PCOS, there are no agreed-upon diagnostic criteria for adolescent PCOS, but hyperandrogenaemia remains the sine qua non for its diagnosis. Many adolescent girls with PCOS are overweight/obese, and have a heightened risk for comorbidities such as dysglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, fatty liver disease, sleep apnoea and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential for implementation of appropriate treatment and management. Available treatments include lifestyle modifications, hormonal contraceptives and insulin sensitisers. However, there are limited data on the best treatment modalities in adolescents. The objective of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of PCOS in adolescents and the appropriate diagnostic work-up. The optimal treatment modalities based on a review of the available adult and adolescent literature will be discussed. PMID:26101431

  10. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%–12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic. PMID:26770659

  11. Metabolic effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yejin; Lee, Hye-Jin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenic anovulation in women of reproductive age. We investigated the metabolic effects of lean and overweight adolescents with PCOS. Methods Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 49 adolescents with PCOS and 40 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. We further divided both PCOS and control groups into those having BMI within the normal range of less than 85th percentile and those being overweight and obese with a BMI greater than 85th percentile. Results Hemoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (r-GT), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 2-hour postglucose load plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in the lean PCOS group than in the lean control group. In the overweight/obese PCOS group, hemoglobin and r-GT levels were significantly elevated than in the overweight/obese control group. In the normal weight group, none of the subjects had metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, but the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the overweight/obese PCOS group was 8.3% and that in the overweight/obese control group was 6.7%. Conclusion PCOS in adolescents causes metabolic abnormalities, underscoring the importance of early diagnosis of PCOS in oligomenorrheic adolescents. PMID:26512349

  12. Mouse Fyn induces pseudopodium formation in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Lei; Liu, Shengnan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yamei; Huang, Yingxue; Hu, Xinde; Chen, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of Fyn on cell morphology, pseudopodium movement, and cell migration were investigated. The Fyn gene was subcloned into pEGFP-N1 to produce pEGFP-N1-Fyn. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transfected with pEGFP-N1-Fyn. The expression of Fyn mRNA and proteins was monitored by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. Additionally, transfected cells were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and a series of time-lapse images was taken. Sequences of the recombinant plasmids pMD18-T-Fyn and pEGFP-N1-Fyn were confirmed by sequence identification using National Center for Biotechnology Information in USA, and Fyn expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The morphology of CHO cells transfected with the recombinant vector was significantly altered. Fyn expression induced filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Based on these results, we concluded that overexpression of mouse Fyn induces the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia in CHO cells, and promotes cell movement. PMID:24378585

  13. Diagnostic features of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents (review).

    PubMed

    Beltadze, K; Barbakadze, L

    2015-01-01

    The problem of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is of a special importance due to its connection with not only medical but with psychosocial factors. PCOS is the most common endocrine cause of anovulatory infertility. It is a major factor for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical symptoms of PCOS such as acne, hirsutism, obesity, alopecia represent psychological problem, especially for the adolescents. Many women who have PCOS have the onset of symptoms during adolescence. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS are important for preventing of the above mentioned long-term consequences associated with this condition. Adolescent patients often have diagnostic problems because the features of normal puberty are similar with symptoms of PCOS. This article reviews the diagnostic and differential diagnostic characteristics of PCOS in adolescents. In conclusion, consensus statement in adolescent patients is still awaiting. Our data suggest that it may be prudent to define adolescent PCOS according to the Carmina modified Rotterdam criteria. The increase rate of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS emphasize the importance of regular screening due to the high cardiometabolic disorders risk. PMID:25693210

  14. Interventions for the metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic disturbances including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Cardiometabolic risk should be assessed at regular intervals starting from diagnosis. A comprehensive clinical evaluation includes determination of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and measurement of serum lipid and glucose levels in all women with PCOS. A standard 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance test is required for women with a body mass index over 25kg/m(2) and with other risk factors for glucose intolerance. No long-term data are available for the risk or benefit of any medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS. For the initial management of metabolic dysfunction in PCOS, available guidelines recommend lifestyle intervention which improves androgen excess and insulin resistance without significant effect on glucose intolerance or dyslipidemia. Pharmacological interventions include insulin sensitizing agents and statins. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed insulin sensitizer in PCOS. Available randomized controlled trials suggest that metformin improves insulin resistance without any effect on body mass index, fasting glucose or lipid levels. Short term use of statins alone or in combination with metformin decreases total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides in PCOS patients with dyslipidemia. Low dose oral contraception in PCOS appears not to be associated with clinically significant metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23624033

  15. Genetic polymorphisms in Pakistani women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liaqat, Irfana; Jahan, Nusrat; Krikun, Graciela; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the major cause of anovulatory infertility. Although the genetic basis of PCOS is not well understood, it is a common metabolic and endocrine disorder. This study investigates the possible genomic variants associated with PCOS in Pakistani women from the Punjab region. DNA samples from 96 patients with genetically unrelated PCOS and 96 controls were analyzed by direct sequencing to determine the polymorphisms of different loci on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr), follicle-stimulating hormone ? (fshr?), luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin (lhcgr), luteinizing hormone ? (lh?), estrogen receptor ? (esr1), and estrogen receptor ? (esr2) genes. Significant associations were observed within the genotype frequencies, allele frequencies, and multi-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype analysis of most polymorphisms studied. This study identified new SNPs at positions 605+52 Del/T in lhcgr genes occurring in this particular subpopulation. The strong r (2) value suggests that polymorphisms in the fshr and esr1 genes were in linkage disequilibrium. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant associations between susceptibility to PCOS in Pakistani women and the gene polymorphisms mentioned earlier. This suggests that the susceptible loci for PCOS lie within or very close to the chromosomal regions spanning these genes. PMID:25100445

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome: do endocrine disrupting chemicals play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Sobolewski, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by multiple endocrine disturbances and its underlying causes, although uncertain, are likely to be both genetic and environmental. Recently, there has been interest in whether endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may contribute to the disorder. In animal models, exposure to BPA during the perinatal period, dramatically disrupts ovarian and reproductive function in females, often at doses similar to typical levels of human exposure. BPA also appears to have obesogenic properties, disrupting normal metabolic activity and making the body prone to overweight. In humans, cross-sectional data suggests that BPA concentrations are higher in women with PCOS than in reproductively healthy women, but the direction of causality has not been established. As this research is in its infancy, additional work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which EDCs may contribute to PCOS as well as the critical periods of exposure, which may even be transgenerational. Future research should also focus on translating the promising work in animal models into longitudinal human studies and determining whether additional EDCs, beyond BPA, may be important to consider. PMID:24715511

  17. [High frequency of thyroid abnormalities in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Calvar, Cecilia E; Bengolea, Sonia V; Deutsch, Susana I; Hermes, Ricardo; Ramos, Gustavo; Loyato, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities (TA) has not been sufficiently assessed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to evaluate this relationship. In this prospective study 194 women were included. The PCOS group consisted of 142 patients (diagnosed by Rotterdam 2003 criteria) and the control group included 52 age-matched healthy women. Fasting blood samples were drawn for free T4, thyrotropin, thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), fasting insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR were calculated. A total of 52 PCOS patients had either autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT+) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism (HSC) (36.6%) (thyroid abnormalities:TA+) compared with 7 women of the control group (13.5%), accounting for more than a five fold higher prevalence of TA in PCOS patients, compared with the age-matched controls (adjusted odds ratio: 5.6; CI 95%: 2.1 -14.9; p<0.001). TA+ patients had significantly higher FI and HOMA-IR values than patients without thyroid abnormalities (p<0.05). These results demonstrate a high rate of TA in young PCOS women, associated with higher levels of FI and HOMA-IR. As PCOS, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity may have a profound impact on reproductive health, our data indicate that PCOS patients should be screened for TA. PMID:26339875

  18. Complications and challenges associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Stefano; Santagni, Susanna; Falbo, Angela; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common endocrine dysfunction in fertile women and it is considered a heterogeneous and multifaceted disorder, with multiple reproductive and metabolic phenotypes which differently affect the early- and long-term syndrome’s risks. Women with PCOS present an adverse reproductive profile, including a high risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Patients with PCOS present not only a higher prevalence of classic cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, but also of nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors, including mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Moreover, at the moment, clinical data on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women with PCOS are controversial. Finally, women with PCOS show an increased risk of endometrial cancer compared to non-PCOS healthy women, particularly during premenopausal period. Currently, we are unable to clarify if the increased PCOS early- and long-term risks are totally due to PCOS per se or mostly due to obesity, in particular visceral obesity, that characterized the majority of PCOS patients. In any case, the main endocrine and gynecological scientific societies agree to consider women with PCOS at increased risk of obstetric, cardiometabolic, oncology, and psychological complications throughout life, and it is recommended that these women be accurately assessed with periodic follow-up. PMID:26261426

  19. Vitamin K metabolism in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Recent investigations suggest that vitamin K may have functions other than in blood coagulation and calcification. The present study was undertaken to investigate this hypothesis using cells in culture. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were chosen due to their active metabolism and growth and lack of similarity to liver and bone cells, in which vitamin K metabolism is well known. Cells were adapted to serum-free media, incubated in media containing the appropriate concentrations of vitamin K for specified times, scraped from plates, pelleted, extensively washed to remove adhering vitamin K, extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1, v/v) and analyzed on C18 HPLC columns. Uptake of vitamin K by CHO cells follows saturation kinetics at vitamin K concentrations up to 25 ..mu.. M and is transported into cells at the rate of 10 pmol/min. 10/sup 6/ cells. After 24 hours, /sup 3/H vitamin K is metabolized by CHO cells to several compounds, the major of which was isolated and identified as vitamin K epoxide. In 3 experiments, after 24 hours, the average cellular uptake of vitamin K was 8% with approximately half being metabolized to vitamin K epoxide. These results demonstrate that vitamin K is metabolized in cells with widely different functions and suggest a generalized function for vitamin K which has yet to be elucidated.

  20. Autonomic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Zainab Hasan; Hamdan, Farqad Bader; Al-Salihi, Anam Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central obesity and hyperinsulinaemia of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with chronic sympathetic over activity. Objective: To evaluate the autonomic functions and to indicate the superiority, if any, for those functions in the diagnosis of sympathetic over activity in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four PCOS patients and 40 women served as the control group were studied. The two groups were subdivided according to the body mass index (BMI) into two obese and non-obese groups. Waist:hip ratio (WHR), plasma epinephrine level was estimated, sympathetic skin response (SSR); postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, heart rate variability (HRV), and valsalva ratio were measured in both groups. Results: Compared to the control group, obese PCOS patients demonstrated higher BMI and WHR, reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, altered HRV, higher plasma epinephrine level, and rapid pulse rate. Moreover, non-obese patients show reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, higher plasma epinephrine level, and higher pulse rate. BMI and WHR of the patients were positively correlated with plasma epinephrine level; while the HRV was negatively correlated WHR. Conclusion: Women with PCOS exhibits altered autonomic function and sympathoexcitation is more pronounced in obese than non-obese patients; therefor the SSR could be useful auxiliary electrophysiological test to predict autonomic dysfunction in those patients. Receiver operating characteristics curve demonstrate the pulse rate in standing position as the autonomic function test that is superior to others in predicting sympathetic over activity in those patients. PMID:25653673

  1. Novel strategies in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, P M; Motta, A B; Sir-Petermann, T; Diamanti-Kandarakis, E

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. PCOS has been recognized as a syndrome combining reproductive and metabolic abnormalities with lifelong health implications. Cardiometabolic alterations require regular screening and effective and targeted lifestyle advice to lose weight as well as to prevent weight gain. Pharmacological therapy includes insulin-sensitizer drugs and agents that act directly on metabolic comorbidities, such as statins and antiobesity drugs. Bariatric surgery may be an option for severely obese women with PCOS Regarding reproductive aspects, ovulation induction with antiestrogens such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole is the first-line medical treatment. Exogenous gonadotropins and in vitro fertilization (IVF) are recommended as second-line treatment for anovulatory infertility. Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy may be used in special cases and metformin is no longer recommended for ovulation induction. Combined oral contraceptives (OCs) are the first-line treatment for the management of menstrual irregularities in women not seeking pregnancy, also providing endometrial protection and contraception. Progestin-only pills or cyclical progestins are recommended for those with contraindications to OCs. Metformin is also considered a second-line choice for improving menstrual cycles in women presenting insulin-resistance and dysglicemia. Hirsutism requires cosmetic procedures and medical treatment with OCs. More severe cases may need anti-androgen drugs added to the OCs. In conclusion, strategies regarding the management of reproductive issues in PCOS encompass a tailored approach to individual needs of each patient. PMID:25781065

  2. Tandem Affinity Purification in Drosophila Heads and Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Anita; Bhogal, Balpreet; Jongens, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Tandem affinity purification (TAP) (Pugi et al., 2001; Rigaut et al., 1999) is a method that uses a tagging approach of a target protein of interest for a two-step purification scheme in order to pull down protein complexes under native conditions and expression levels. The TAP tag consists of three components: a calmodulin-binding peptide, a Tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease cleavage site and Protein A which is an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding domain. This protocol was modified from the original methodology used in yeast cells (Pugi et al., 2001; Rigaut et al., 1999) for isolation of protein complexes from Drosophila heads and ovaries expressing a TAP tagged protein of interest. To determine in vivo binding partners of the Drosophila fragile X protein (dFMR1), we developed a transgenic strain of flies expressing a recombinant form of dFMR1 with a carboxy-terminal TAP tag (Tsai and Carstens, 2006). To ensure that the construct was expressed at wild-type levels, we engineered this form of the tagged protein in the context of a genomic rescue construct that rescued a mutant sterility phenotype. The purification process was performed using mild conditions to maintain native protein interactions. For TAP methods in Drosophila S2 cell culture, we have successfully used a protocol previously published by Tsai and Carstens (Tsai and Carstens, 2006; Bhogal et al., 2011).

  3. Looking for polycystic ovary syndrome genes: rational and best strategy.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Mark O

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex genetic disorder. Its inherited basis was established by studies demonstrating an increased prevalence of PCOS and hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and disordered insulin secretion in relatives of women with PCOS. To date, efforts in elucidating the genetic basis of PCOS have focused on candidate genes chosen from logical pathways, such as steroid synthesis or insulin signaling. Whereas several positive results have been reported, no genes are universally accepted as important in PCOS pathogenesis, largely due to lack of replication of positive results. This has resulted, in part, from various factors, most importantly lack of a universally accepted diagnostic scheme for PCOS, ability to assign PCOS diagnosis only in women of reproductive age, inadequate coverage of genes by the analysis of only one or two variants, and of small case-control cohorts in most studies. Candidate gene selection has been limited by our incomplete knowledge of the pathophysiology of PCOS. In the future, strict and uniform diagnostic criteria, improved application of the candidate gene approach using haplotype-based analyses, intermediate phenotypes, replication of positive results in large cohorts, more family-based studies, gene selection from expression studies, and whole-genome approaches will enhance gene discovery in PCOS. PMID:18181077

  4. Diabetes prevalence and risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Legro, R S

    2001-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a reproductive disorder with a significant impact on fertility. It is secondarily, and perhaps for the individual primarily, a disorder with a marked increase risk for diabetes and glucose intolerance. Physicians need to be aware that women who have PCOS are at high risk for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. In the author's opinion, they should be screened for these abnormalities. Minority women with PCOS may have higher prevalence rates of glucose intolerance, and further study of minority groups is indicated. The author's data indicate that fasting glucose levels are inadequate for such screenings. Fasting glucose levels are relatively poor predictors of type 2 diabetes as determined by glucose challenge testing in PCOS. These findings may have substantial clinical relevance. They strongly suggest that all PCOS women should be screened for glucose intolerance, and that basal and 2-hour, glucose-stimulated levels rather than fasting glucose levels alone are required for such screening. Further study is necessary to document conversion rates to worsening glucose tolerance over time, as well as the cardiovascular risk associated with glucose intolerance in PCOS. PMID:11293007

  5. Studies of prolactin secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, A P; Dunlop, W; Kendall-Taylor, P

    1986-02-01

    In order to investigate the postulated relationship between hyperprolactinaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) we have studied 62 patients with PCOS. Only two patients had persistent prolactin (PRL) concentrations greater than the normal range on both random sampling and after blood sampling from intravenous cannula over 2 hours. Twenty-eight of the remaining patients had basal PRL secretion studied in more detail. Samples were collected at 15 min intervals during a 6 h period in all 28 patients and hourly samples were collected overnight from four patients. Results failed to demonstrate differences from control subjects in mean basal PRL concentrations, in spontaneous fluctuations or in increments related to stress, food or sleep. Lactotroph response to thyrotrophin releasing hormone, luteinising hormone releasing hormone and insulin stress testing in PCOS were determined. Results confirm a previous observation that normal PRL increments occur after ovulation and a blunted response follows a period of anovulation. This study has failed to find a consistent abnormality of lactotroph function in patients with PCOS other than that associated with anovulation. PMID:3085993

  6. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment. PMID:24552422

  7. Inositol: history of an effective therapy for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, M; Carlomagno, G

    2014-07-01

    Inositol is a physiological compound belonging to the sugar family. The two inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol and D-chiroinositol are the two main stereisomers present in our body. Myo-inositol is the precursor of inositol triphosphate, a second messenger regulating many hormones such as TSH, FSH and insulin. D-chiroinositol is synthetized by an insulin dependent epimerase that converts myo-inositol into D-chiro-inositol. Polycistic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and hormonal disorder and a common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinaemia contribute to hyperandrogenism development, typical marker of PCOS. In these patients myo and/or D-chiro-inositol administration improves insulin sensivity while only myo-inositol is a quality marker for oocytes evaluation. Myo-inositol produces second messengers for FSH and glucose uptake, while D-chiroinositol provides second messengers promoting glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The physiological ratio of these two isomers is 40:1 (MI/DCI) and seems to be an optimal approach for the treatment of PCOS disorders. PMID:25010620

  8. Initiation of puberty in mice following decellularized ovary transplant.

    PubMed

    Laronda, Monica M; Jakus, Adam E; Whelan, Kelly A; Wertheim, Jason A; Shah, Ramille N; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2015-05-01

    Clinical interventions to preserve fertility and restore hormone levels in female patients with therapy-induced ovarian failure are insufficient, particularly for pediatric cancer patients. Laparoscopic isolation of cortical ovarian tissue followed by cryopreservation with subsequent autotransplantation has temporarily restored fertility in at least 27 women who survived cancer, and aided in pubertal transition for one pediatric patient. However, reintroducing cancer cells through ovarian transplantation has been a major concern. Decellularization is a process of removing cellular material, while maintaining the organ skeleton of extracellular matrices (ECM). The ECM that remains could be stripped of cancer cells and reseeded with healthy ovarian cells. We tested whether a decellularized ovarian scaffold could be created, recellularized and transplanted to initiate puberty in mice. Bovine and human ovaries were decellularized, and the ovarian skeleton microstructures were characterized. Primary ovarian cells seeded onto decellularized scaffolds produced estradiol invitro. Moreover, the recellularized grafts initiated puberty in mice that had been ovariectomized, providing data that could be used to drive future human transplants and have broader implications on the bioengineering of other organs with endocrine function. PMID:25736492

  9. Statistical Genomic Approach Identifies Association between FSHR Polymorphisms and Polycystic Ovary Morphology in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Du, Tao; Duan, Yu; Li, Kaiwen; Zhao, Xiaomiao; Ni, Renmin; Li, Yu; Yang, Dongzi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene are associated with PCOS. However, their relationship to the polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether PCOS related SNPs in the FSHR gene are associated with PCO in women with PCOS. Methods. Patients were grouped into PCO (n = 384) and non-PCO (n = 63) groups. Genomic genotypes were profiled using Affymetrix human genome SNP chip 6. Two polymorphisms (rs2268361 and rs2349415) of FSHR were analyzed using a statistical approach. Results. Significant differences were found in the allele distributions of the GG genotype of rs2268361 between the PCO and non-PCO groups (27.6% GG, 53.4% GA, and 19.0% AA versus 33.3% GG, 36.5% GA, and 30.2% AA), while no significant differences were found in the allele distributions of the GG genotype of rs2349415. When rs2268361 was considered, there were statistically significant differences of serum follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin between genotypes in the PCO group. In case of the rs2349415 SNP, only serum sex hormone binding globulin was statistically different between genotypes in the PCO group. Conclusions. Functional variants in FSHR gene may contribute to PCO susceptibility in women with PCOS. PMID:26273622

  10. Genetic characterization of small ovaries, a gene required in the soma for the development of the Drosophila ovary and the female germline

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, S.; Liggett, K.; Pettus, J.; Nagoshi, R.N.

    1995-03-01

    The small ovary gene (sov) is required for the development of the Drosophila ovary. Six EMS-induced recessive alleles have been identified. Hypomorphic alleles are female sterile and have no effect on male fertility, whereas more severe mutations result in lethality. The female-sterile alleles produce a range of mutant phenotypes that affect the differentiation of both somatic and germline tissues. These mutations generally produce small ovaries that contain few egg cysts and disorganized ovarioles, and in the most extreme case no ovarian tissue is present. The mutant egg cysts that develop have aberrant morphology, including abnormal numbers of nurse cells and patches of necrotic cells. We demonstrate that sov gene expression is not required in the germline for the development of functional egg cysts. This indicates that the sov function is somatic dependent. We present evidence using loss-of-function and constitutive forms of the somatic sex regulatory genes that sov activity is essential for the development of the somatic ovary regardless of the chromosomal sex of the fly. In addition, the genetic mapping of the sov locus is presented, including the characterization of two lethal sov alleles and complementation mapping with existing rearrangements. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Arginase, Arginine Decarboxylase, Ornithine Decarboxylase, and Polyamines in Tomato Ovaries (Changes in Unpollinated Ovaries and Parthenocarpic Fruits Induced by Auxin or Gibberellin).

    PubMed Central

    Alabadi, D.; Aguero, M. S.; Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.

    1996-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) activity has been found in the ovaries and Young fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers).Changes in arginase, arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and ornithine decarboxylase activity (EC 4.1.1.17) and levels of free and conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were determined in unpollinated ovaries and in parthenocarpic fruits during the early stages of development induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or gibberellic acid (GA3). Levels of arginase, free spermine, and conjugates of the three polyamines were constant in unpollinated ovaries and characteristic of a presenescent step. A marked decrease in arginase activity, free spermine, and polyamine conjugates was associated with the initiation of fruit growth due to cell division, and when cell expansion was initiated, the absence of arginase indicated a redirection of nitrogen metabolism to the synthesis of arginine. A transient increase in arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase was also observed in 2,4-D-induced fruits. In general, 2,4-D treatments produced faster changes than GA3, and without treatment, unpollinated ovaries developed only slightly and senescence was hardly visible. Sensitivity to 2,4-D and GA3 treatment remained for at least 2 weeks postanthesis. PMID:12226441

  12. Localization of bFGF mRNA in cyclic rat ovary, diethylstilbesterol primed rat ovary, and cultured rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Guthridge, M; Bertolini, J; Cowling, J; Hearn, M T

    1992-01-01

    Evidence from in vitro studies strongly implicates basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a local regulator of ovarian function. However, the in vivo function of this growth factor in the ovary is uncertain. The objective of this study has thus been to investigate the biological role of bFGF in the rat ovary by monitoring bFGF gene expression using in situ hybridization in 3 systems; (1) the naturally cycling ovary, (2) ovaries of immature rats treated with diethylstilbesterol (DES), and (3) primary rat granulosa cell cultures. The rat estrus cycle can be divided into 4 stages as determined by vaginal cytology; diestrus, proestrus, estrus and metestrus. bFGF mRNA transcripts were localized to granulosa and theca cells of developing follicles during proestrus and estrus and in the corpus luteum following ovulation during metestrus. The estrogen analogue DES induced extensive in vivo folliculogenesis and high levels of bFGF mRNA in both granulosa and theca cells when compared to controls. Detectable levels of bFGF mRNA were also observed in primary granulosa cell cultures grown to high density. Employment of this in situ hybridization procedure has enabled the in vivo cellular sources of bFGF mRNA to be identified and the time course of expression during the estrus cycle to be monitored. The biological significance of this expression and the interplay between bFGF, extra- and intra-ovarian modulators are discussed. PMID:1503780

  13. [Investigation of follicular development and oocyte maturation after cryopreservation and xenograft of newborn mouse ovaries].

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo-Lin; Chen, Xue-Jin; Shi, Zhen-Dan; Li, Wan-Li; Tian, Yun-Bo

    2006-02-25

    In order to explore the feasibility of cryopreserving primordial follicles in attaining their developmental competence following freezing and thawing, ovaries from newborn mice were cryopreserved and the thawed ovaries were xenografted into kidney capsules of adult female mice. Ovaries were isolated from newborn B6C2F(1) female mice, infiltrated by Leibovitz 15 (L-15) medium containing 10% (V/V) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1.5 mol/L dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and then packed into 0.25 ml plastic straws. The ovaries contained in straws were frozen under nitrogen vapour at -40 degrees C in Cryocell 1200 programmable freezer, and stored in liquid nitrogen for periods ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Upon thawing, the straws were dipped into room temperature water for 10~20 s, after which the ovaries were collected and washed in L-15 buffer containing 10% (V/V) FBS without DMSO to remove cryoprotectant. The thawed ovaries were transplanted into kidney capsules of 8~12-week old adult B6C2F(1) female recipient mice by two protocols, with either 1 or 2 ovaries in each capsule. Upon withdrawal after at least 14 d of transplantation, only 45.00% (72/160) of the ovaries were recovered from 40 recipients transplanted with 2 ovaries in each capsule, compared to 82.50% (33/40) in 20 recipients with only 1 ovary in each capsule. The grafted ovaries exhibited similar follicular developmental progression to that of natural ovaries. There were antral follicles present in the transplanted ovaries on day 14, whose number increased more substantially on day 19 after transplantation. Following stimulation of the recipient mice with 10 IU PMSG on day 19 after xenografting, follicles further developed to preovulatory stage with appearance of cumulus oocytes and enlarged antrum. Oocytes from these fully grown antral follicles were collected and matured in vitro in modified essential medium-alpha (MEMalpha). After 16~17 h of culture, 40.90% of the oocytes exhibited germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and among which 89.02% proceeded to the metaphase II (MII) stage as indicated by exclusion of the first polar body. The remaining oocytes were further cultured and 50.83% of which initiated GVBD by 20~21 h of culture, but only 21.40% of which proceeded to MII. The above results demonstrated that the primordial follicles in newborn mouse ovaries were capable of sustaining freezing and thawing, and reinitiating development following xenograft into kidney capsule in adult recipient female mice. Production of mature oocytes from such re-developed follicles following gonadotrophin priming and the subsequent oocyte in vitro maturation implied immense prospect of application of this method to preserve female germ cells, conserve endangered species, establish animal gene stock, and utilize oocytes in assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:16489402

  14. Transcriptional networks associated with 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovary.

    PubMed

    Ornostay, Anna; Marr, Joshua; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Androgens play a significant role in regulating oogenesis in teleost fishes. The androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a potent non-aromatizable androgen involved in sexual differentiation in mammals; however, its actions are not well understood in teleost fish. To better characterize the physiological role of DHT in the fathead minnow (FHM) ovary on a temporal scale, in vitro assays for 17?-estradiol (E2) production were conducted in parallel with microarray analysis. Ovarian explants were incubated at different concentrations of DHT (10(-6), 10(-7), and 10(-8)M DHT) in three separate experiments conducted at 6, 9, and 12h. DHT treatment resulted in a rapid and consistent increase in E2 production from the ovary at all three time points. Therefore, DHT may act to shift the balance of metabolites in the steroidogenic pathway within the ovary. Major biological themes affected by DHT in the ovary in one or more of the time points included those related to blood (e.g. vasodilation, blood vessel contraction, clotting), lipids (e.g. lipid storage, cholesterol metabolism, lipid degradation) and reproduction (e.g. hormone and steroid metabolism). Gene networks related to immune responses and calcium signaling were also affected by DHT, suggesting that this androgen may play a role in regulating these processes in the ovary. This study detected no change in mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes (cyp19a1, star, 11?hsd, 17?hsd, srd5a isoforms), suggesting that the observed increase in E2 production is likely more dependent on the pre-existing gene or protein complement in the ovary rather than the de novo expression of transcripts. This study increases knowledge regarding the roles of DHT and androgens in general in the teleost ovary and identifies molecular signaling pathways that may be associated with increased E2 production. PMID:26344943

  15. Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Waters, David J; Kengeri, Seema S; Clever, Beth; Booth, Julie A; Maras, Aimee H; Schlittler, Deborah L; Hayek, Michael G

    2009-12-01

    To move closer to understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of sex differences in human longevity, we studied pet dogs to determine whether lifetime duration of ovary exposure was associated with exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, age at death, and cause of death for a cohort of canine 'centenarians'--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than average life expectancy for the breed. Sex and lifetime ovary exposure in the oldest-old Rottweilers (age at death, > or = 13 years) were compared to a cohort of Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death, 8.0-10.8 years). Like women, female dogs were more likely than males to achieve exceptional longevity (OR, 95% CI = 2.0, 1.2-3.3; P = 0.006). However, removal of ovaries during the first 4 years of life erased the female survival advantage. In females, a strong positive association between ovaries and longevity persisted in multivariate analysis that considered other factors, such as height, body weight, and mother with exceptional longevity. A beneficial effect of ovaries on longevity in females could not be attributed to resistance against a particular disease or major cause of death. Our results document in dogs a female sex advantage for achieving exceptional longevity and show that lifetime ovary exposure, a factor not previously evaluated in women, is associated with exceptional longevity. This work introduces a conceptual framework for designing additional studies in pet dogs to define the ovary-sensitive biological processes that promote healthy human longevity. PMID:19732047

  16. Calcium influx enhances neuropeptide activation of ecdysteroid hormone production by mosquito ovaries.

    PubMed

    McKinney, David A; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Dhara, Animesh; Strand, Michael R; Brown, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    A critical step in mosquito reproduction is the ingestion of a blood meal from a vertebrate host. In mosquitoes like Aedes aegypti, blood feeding stimulates the release of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3). This induces the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which then drives egg maturation. In many immature insects, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) stimulates the prothoracic glands to produce ECD that directs molting and metamorphosis. The receptors for OEH, ILP3 and PTTH are different receptor tyrosine kinases with OEH and ILP3 signaling converging downstream in the insulin pathway and PTTH activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Calcium (Ca(2+)) flux and cAMP have also been implicated in PTTH signaling, but the role of Ca(2+) in OEH, ILP3, and cAMP signaling in ovaries is unknown. Here, we assessed whether Ca(2+) flux affects OEH, ILP3, and cAMP activity in A. aegypti ovaries and also asked whether PTTH stimulated ovaries to produce ECD. Results indicated that Ca(2+) flux enhanced but was not essential for OEH or ILP3 activity, whereas cAMP signaling was dependent on Ca(2+) flux. Recombinant PTTH from Bombyx mori fully activated ECD production by B. mori PTGs, but exhibited no activity toward A. aegypti ovaries. Recombinant PTTH from A. aegypti also failed to stimulate either B. mori PTGs or A. aegypti ovaries to produce ECD. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of mosquito reproduction and ECD biosynthesis by insects generally. PMID:26772671

  17. Pituitary-ovarian responses to nafarelin testing in the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R B; Rosenfield, R L; Burstein, S; Ehrmann, D A

    1989-03-01

    To investigate the basis of polycystic ovary syndrome, we examined the responses of patients to nafarelin, a specific gonadotropin-releasing-hormone agonist, given to stimulate pituitary and gonadal secretion. We compared 16 normal women in the follicular phase, 5 normal men, 8 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 1 woman with polycystic ovary syndrome caused by a 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. After 100 micrograms of nafarelin was given subcutaneously, serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone increased rapidly to peak levels within four hours. The women with polycystic ovary syndrome had a pattern similar to that of the men, with greater early luteinizing-hormone responses (30 minutes to 1 hour) and lower peak follicle-stimulating-hormone responses than normal women (P less than 0.05). Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome responded to gonadotropin stimulation with normal to increased production of plasma estrogens and increased levels of androstenedione at 16 to 24 hours (P less than 0.05). Elevated production of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was found in all the women with polycystic ovary syndrome and in the men. These abnormal responses were unchanged by pretreatment with dexamethasone to suppress adrenal function. In the patient with the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, both basal and stimulated plasma levels of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroids before the enzymatic block were elevated, whereas plasma levels of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione--the steroids immediately beyond the block--were low. We conclude that women with polycystic ovary syndrome have masculinized pituitary and ovarian responses to stimulation by nafarelin. Our findings suggest that the regulation of the ovarian 17-hydroxylase and C-17,20-lyase activities is abnormal in such women. PMID:2521688

  18. Endocrine and metabolic characteristics in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte

    2016-04-01

    Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas. The manifestations of PCOS are diverse, and up to 50% patients are normal weight. In most cases, however, the severity of symptoms can be related to abdominal obesity. Increased inflammation in PCOS can be measured as decreased adiponectin levels and increased levels of adipokines, chemokines, and interleukins. In the present thesis the use of these inflammatory markers is reviewed, but more data including hard end points are needed to determine which of these markers that should be introduced to the daily clinic. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulates ovarian and adrenal androgen production, whereas SHBG levels are decreased. Increased testosterone levels may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, therefore describing PCOS as a vicious cycle. Abdominal obesity and increased activation of the inflammatory system is seen in both normal weight and obese PCOS patients leading to an increased risk of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and possibly cardiovascular disease. Patients diagnosed with PCOS therefore should be screened for elements in the metabolic syndrome including weight, waist, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipid status. Our data supported that prolactin and HbA1c levels could be markers of cardiovascular risk and should be confirmed by prospective studies. PCOS is a life-long condition and treatment modalities involve lifestyle modification, insulin sensitizers such as metformin, or inhibition of testosterone levels with OCP. Treatment with pioglitazone supported that increased insulin sensitivity in PCOS is associated with improved inflammatory and cardiovascular risk markers. Our data supported that one year's metformin treatment was associated with a minor but significant weight loss in patients with PCOS irrespective of BMI at study inclusion. Treatment with OCP improved sex-hormone levels, but was associated with minor weight gain. Based on the study results, clinicians should consider the combined treatment with metformin and OCP also in normal weight patients with PCOS. The challenge in the future is to ensure sufficient evaluation and treatment of patients with hirsutism and PCOS and to determine which subgroups of patients should be treated by their general practitioner and which patients should be referred for hospital and/or gynecological evaluation and treatment. Furthermore more data are needed to determine the optimal follow-up program regarding metabolic risk in different subgroups of patients with PCOS. PMID:27034186

  19. Prediction of metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ersan, F?rat; Arslan, Esra; Esmer, Aytl orbac?o?lu; Ayd?n, Serdar; Gedikba??, Asuman; Gedikba??, Ali; Alk??, ?smet; Ark, Cemal

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify biochemical factors that serve as predictors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate the value of adipocytokines in the prediction of metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods A total of 91 pre-menopausal women with PCOS diagnosed according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria were recruited as study subjects. Waist circumference, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, serum lipids, insulin, FSH, LH, E2, total testosteron, homeostatic model assessmentinsulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum leptin and adiponectin levels were evaluated for all patients. Results Of the 91 women with PCOS, 15 patients met the criteria for MetS. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL concentrations were significantly higher and HDL was significantly lower in women with PCOS+MetS compared with those with PCOS only. However, the level of LDL, FSH, LH, E2 and total testesterone was not significantly different between these two groups. Women with PCOS+MetS had significantly higher levels of leptin and HOMA-IR, and significantly lower levels of adiponectin compared to the women with PCOS only. In the multiple logistic regression model, the association between HOMA-IR and leptin, and MetS remained statistically significant (p=0.001 and 0.018), while the association between adiponectin and MetS was no longer statistically significant. Conclusion Aside from the biochemical markers such as glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride, adipose tissue factors and insulin resistance are valuable parameters in the prediction of MetS in patients with PCOS. PMID:24592034

  20. Outcome of Ovarian Drilling in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in inducing ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who failed to conceive after medical methods of ovulation induction. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of all women who underwent LOD as a treatment for anovulatory infertility between January 2010 and December 2011 was conducted. Women diagnosed to have PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria were considered for the study. Those who had PCOS but were associated with male factor infertility, deep infiltrating endometriosis and submucous fibroids were excluded. Results: A total of 43 women underwent LOD during the study period. Majority were aged 26 to 30 years and two-thirds were overweight or obese. Most (72%) of them had primary infertility. Other factors which could have contributed to infertility such as superficial endometriosis, septate uterus and unilateral tubal block were observed in 30.2% of the women, which were dealt with concomitantly. When we excluded the 14% who were lost to follow up, 23 of 43 (53.5%) women achieved pregnancy and almost 70% of them did so within the first 6 months. None of our study population had ovarian hyperstimulation or multiple pregnancy. Conclusion: LOD thus not only helps in regulating ovulation and enhancing conception rates but also provides an opportunity to assess the pelvis for other potential causes of subfertility which could be treated at the same time. We therefore believe that diagnostic hysteroscopy and laparoscopy should be offered quite high-up in the hierarchy of infertility investigations and treatment. PMID:25859492

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD. PMID:25024594

  2. The Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Consensus has recently been reached by international pediatric subspecialty societies that otherwise unexplained persistent hyperandrogenic anovulation using age- and stage-appropriate standards are appropriate diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. The purpose of this review is to summarize these recommendations and discuss their basis and implications. Anovulation is indicated by abnormal uterine bleeding, which exists when menstrual cycle length is outside the normal range or bleeding is excessive: cycles outside 19 to 90 days are always abnormal, and most are 21 to 45 days even during the first postmenarcheal year. Continued menstrual abnormality in a hyperandrogenic adolescent for 1 year prognosticates at least 50% risk of persistence. Hyperandrogenism is best indicated by persistent elevation of serum testosterone above adult norms as determined in a reliable reference laboratory. Because hyperandrogenemia documentation can be problematic, moderate-severe hirsutism constitutes clinical evidence of hyperandrogenism. Moderate-severe inflammatory acne vulgaris unresponsive to topical treatment is an indication to test for hyperandrogenemia. Treatment of PCOS is symptom-directed. Cyclic estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives are ordinarily the preferred first-line medical treatment because they reliably improve both the menstrual abnormality and hyperandrogenism. First-line treatment of the comorbidities of obesity and insulin resistance is lifestyle modification with calorie restriction and increased exercise. Metformin in conjunction with behavior modification is indicated for glucose intolerance. Although persistence of hyperandrogenic anovulation for ≥2 years ensures the distinction of PCOS from physiologic anovulation, early workup is advisable to make a provisional diagnosis so that combined oral contraceptive treatment, which will mask diagnosis by suppressing hyperandrogenemia, is not unnecessarily delayed. PMID:26598450

  3. Predictors of depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Haider; Moore, Ava; Bevilacqua, Kris; Lathief, Sanam; Williams, Joanne; Naqvi, Nighat; Pal, Lubna

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a cross-sectional study of 114 women seeking consultation for symptoms of PCOS (menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, and/or acne), personal and family history of depression (HD and FHD respectively) were enquired. Vitamin D status (n?=?104) and manifest depressive symptoms assessed by personal health questionnaire (PHQ) (MD) were evaluated in a subset (85). Relationships between HD and MD with PCOS symptoms, FHD, and vitamin D status were assessed using adjusted analyses. Thirty-five percent acknowledged a HD; MD (PHQ?>?4) was apparent in 43 %. HD was associated with hirsutism (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.01-5.9), disturbed sleep (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.3-6.9), and with FHD (OR 4.8, 95 % CI 1.7-13.5). Disturbed sleep (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.01-5.7) and FHD (OR 3.8, 95 % CI 1.3-11.2) were independent predictors of HD adjusting for race and BMI. An inverse correlation was noted between serum 25 OH vitamin D (25OHD) levels and PHQ score, but only in those with vitamin D deficiency (25OHD???30 ng/ml, n?=?57, r?=-0.32, p?=?0.015). 25OHD?

  4. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-07-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD. PMID:25024594

  5. Intraovarian Transplantation of Female Germline Stem Cells Rescue Ovarian Function in Chemotherapy-Injured Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng; Zhang, Jinjin; Cheng, Jing; Luo, Aiyue; Shen, Wei; Fang, Li; Zhou, Su; Wang, Shixuan

    2015-01-01

    Early menopause and infertility often occur in female cancer patients after chemotherapy (CTx). For these patients, oocyte/embryo cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the current modality for fertility preservation. However, the above methods are limited in the long-term protection of ovarian function, especially for fertility preservation (very few females with cancer have achieved pregnancy with cryopreserved ovarian tissue or eggs until now). In addition, the above methods are subject to their scope (females with no husband or prepubertal females with no mature oocytes). Thus, many females who suffer from cancers would not adopt the above methods pre- and post-CTx due to their uncertainty, safety and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, millions of women have achieved long-term survival after thorough CTx treatment and have desired to rescue their ovarian function and fertility with economic, durable and reliable methods. Recently, some studies showed that mice with infertility caused by CTx can produce normal offspring through intraovarian injection of exogenous female germline stem cells (FGSCs). Though exogenous FGSC can be derived from mice without immune rejection in the same strain, it is difficult to obtain human female germline stem cells (hFGSCs), and immune rejection could occur between different individuals. In this study, infertility in mice was caused by CTx, and the ability of FGSCs to restore ovarian function or even produce offspring was assessed. We had successfully isolated and purified the FGSCs from adult female mice two weeks after CTx. After infection with GFP-carrying virus, the FGSCs were transplanted into ovaries of mice with infertility caused by CTx. Finally, ovarian function was restored and the recipients produced offspring long-term. These findings showed that mice with CTx possessed FGSCs, restoring ovarian function and avoiding immune rejection from exogenous germline stem cells. PMID:26431320

  6. The presence of antibodies to oxidative modified proteins in serum from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Palacio, J R; Iborra, A; Ulcova-Gallova, Z; Badia, R; Martínez, P

    2006-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Free radicals, as a product of oxidative stress, impair cells and tissue properties related to human fertility. These free radicals, together with the oxidized molecules, may have a cytotoxic or deleterious effects on sperm and oocytes, on early embryo development or on the endometrium. Aldehyde-modified proteins are highly immunogenic and circulating autoantibodies to new epitopes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), may affect the reproductive system. Autoantibodies or elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum are often associated with inflammatory response. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether PCOS women show increased levels of oxidized proteins (protein-MDA) and anti-endometrial antibodies (AEA) in their sera, compared with control patients, and to determine whether AEA specificity is related to oxidized protein derivatives. Sera from 31 women [10 patients with PCOS (PCOS group) and 21 women with male factor of infertility (control group)] were chosen from patients attending for infertility. Anti-endometrial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an endometrial cell line (RL-95). Antibodies against MDA modified human serum albumin (HSA-MDA) were also determined by ELISA. Oxidized proteins (protein-MDA) in serum were determined by a colorimetric assay. Patients with PCOS have significantly higher levels of AEA and anti-HSA-MDA, as well as oxidized proteins (protein-MDA) in serum than control patients. For the first time, we describe an autoimmune response in PCOS patients, in terms of AEA. The evidence of protein-MDA in the serum of these patients, together with the increased antibody reactivity to MDA-modified proteins (HSA-MDA) in vitro, supports the conclusion that oxidative stress may be one of the important causes for abnormal endometrial environment with poor embryo receptivity in PCOS patients. PMID:16634794

  7. Intraovarian Transplantation of Female Germline Stem Cells Rescue Ovarian Function in Chemotherapy-Injured Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jiaqiang; Lu, Zhiyong; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Jinjin; Cheng, Jing; Luo, Aiyue; Shen, Wei; Fang, Li; Zhou, Su; Wang, Shixuan

    2015-01-01

    Early menopause and infertility often occur in female cancer patients after chemotherapy (CTx). For these patients, oocyte/embryo cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the current modality for fertility preservation. However, the above methods are limited in the long-term protection of ovarian function, especially for fertility preservation (very few females with cancer have achieved pregnancy with cryopreserved ovarian tissue or eggs until now). In addition, the above methods are subject to their scope (females with no husband or prepubertal females with no mature oocytes). Thus, many females who suffer from cancers would not adopt the above methods pre- and post-CTx due to their uncertainty, safety and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, millions of women have achieved long-term survival after thorough CTx treatment and have desired to rescue their ovarian function and fertility with economic, durable and reliable methods. Recently, some studies showed that mice with infertility caused by CTx can produce normal offspring through intraovarian injection of exogenous female germline stem cells (FGSCs). Though exogenous FGSC can be derived from mice without immune rejection in the same strain, it is difficult to obtain human female germline stem cells (hFGSCs), and immune rejection could occur between different individuals. In this study, infertility in mice was caused by CTx, and the ability of FGSCs to restore ovarian function or even produce offspring was assessed. We had successfully isolated and purified the FGSCs from adult female mice two weeks after CTx. After infection with GFP-carrying virus, the FGSCs were transplanted into ovaries of mice with infertility caused by CTx. Finally, ovarian function was restored and the recipients produced offspring long-term. These findings showed that mice with CTx possessed FGSCs, restoring ovarian function and avoiding immune rejection from exogenous germline stem cells. PMID:26431320

  8. Low circulating adiponectin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Huang, Xiamei; Zhong, Huizhi; Peng, Qiliu; Chen, Siyuan; Xie, Yantong; Qin, Xue; Qin, Aiping

    2014-05-01

    Adiponectin, as an important adipocytokine, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and metabolism. It has been reported that circulating adiponectin levels were decreased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the results remained inconsistent. In order to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship, a large meta-analysis was performed in this study. A comprehensive systematic electronic search was conducted in electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to November 30, 2013. Pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. A meta-analysis technique was used to study 38 trials involving 1,944 PCOS women and 1,654 healthy controls. Overall pooled adiponectin levels in women with PCOS were significantly reduced compared with healthy controls (WMD -2.67, 95% CI -3.22 to -2.13; P?=?0.000), yet with significant heterogeneity across studies (I(2)?=?95.9%, P?=?0.000). In subgroup analysis by HOMA-IR ratio and total testosterone ratio, inconsistent results were presented. No single study was found to affect the overall results by sensitivity testing. Meta-regression suggested that BMI might contribute little to the heterogeneity between including studies. Cumulative meta-analysis demonstrated the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis results. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Our meta-analysis suggested that circulating adiponectin levels in women with PCOS were significantly lower than those in healthy controls, which indicated that circulating adiponectin might play a role in the development of PCOS. PMID:24414393

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis of Ovaries from Pigs with High And Low Litter Size

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yifang; Ding, Yueyun; Ye, Pengfei; Yin, Zongjun

    2015-01-01

    Litter size is one of the most important economic traits for pig production as it is directly related to the production efficiency. Litter size is affected by interactions between multiple genes and the environment. While recent studies have identified some genes associated with prolificacy in pigs, transcriptomic studies of specific genes affecting litter size in porcine ovaries are rare. In order to identify candidate genes associated with litter size in swine, we assessed gene expression differences between the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs with extremely high and low litter sizes using the RNA-Seq method. A total of 1 243 differentially expressed genes were identified: 897 genes were upregulated and 346 genes were downregulated in high litter size ovary samples compared with low litter size ovary samples. A large number of these genes related to steroid hormone regulation in animal ovaries, including 59 Gene Ontology terms and 27 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis and ovarian steroidogenesis. From these differentially expressed genes, we identified a total of 11 genes using a bioinformatics screen that may be associated with high litter size in Yorkshire pigs. These results provide a list of new candidate genes for porcine litter size and prolificacy to be further investigated. PMID:26426260

  10. The Essential Role of Vitellogenin Receptor in Ovary Development and Vitellogenin Uptake in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Cong, Lin; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Shen, Guang-Mao; Ran, Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) functions as an essential component in uptaking and transporting vitellogenin (Vg) in female adults, which is involved in ovary development and oviposition. This study aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics and function of VgR in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Here, we identified the full-length of BdVgR (GenBank Accession No. JX469118), encoding a 1925 residue (aa) protein with a 214.72 kDa molecular mass and several typical motifs of low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR). Phylogenic analysis suggested that BdVgR was evolutionary conserved with other Dipteran VgRs. The expression of BdVgR was exclusively detected in the ovaries rather than head, thorax or other tissues. The developmental expression patterns showed that the signal of BdVgR was detectable in very beginning of adult stage, and positively correlated with the growth rate of ovaries and the expression levels of its ligands. In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression level of BdVgR, and ovary development were significantly suppressed after being injected with BdVgR-targeted dsRNA. Together, all of these results indicated that BdVgR was critical for yolk protein absorption and ovary maturation in B. dorsalis, playing a vital role in female reproduction. PMID:26262609

  11. Ethanol alters vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced steroid release from immature rat ovaries in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, W.L.; Hiney, J.K.; Fuentes, F.; Forrest, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the acute effects of ethanol (ETOH) on basal and VIP-induced release of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E{sub 2}) from immature ovaries in vitro. Ovaries were collected from anestrus (A) and both naturally occurring and pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-induced early proestrus (EP) animals. The ovaries were incubated in wither media alone, media plus 1 {mu}M VIP, media plus ETOH in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mM, or media plus each dose of ETOH containing VIP. The present results demonstrate that ETOH did not affect either basal or VIP-induced steroid release from ovaries collected from A animals. Likewise, the ETOH did not alter basal steroid secretion from EP animals; however, the drug significantly reduced the VIP-stimulated release of both T and E, from EP ovaries. Thus, these data demonstrate for the first time that ETOH is capable of altering prepubertal ovarian responsiveness to VIP, a peptide known to be involved in the developmental regulation of ovarian function.

  12. Study of Oostatic Peptide Uptake and Metabolism in Developing Ovaries of the Flesh Fly, Neobellieria bullata

    PubMed Central

    Bennettov, Blanka; Slaninov, Ji?ina; Vlaskov, V?ra; Hlav?ek, Jan; Holk, Josef; Tykva, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-OH (5P), in ovaries of Neobellieria bullata (Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. During selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3HPro3]5P after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. The ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. A detection sensitivity of 60100 fmol of the labeled 5P was achieved using radio-high performance liquid chromatography. While the uptake of the applied radioactivity strongly depended on the stage of vitellogenesis, especially for the in vitro experiment, degradation of 5P was very quick and independent of whether the label was injected or incubated with the ovaries, regardless of the developmental stage of ovaries. No tracers of 5P were detected at 30 s after applying the labeled 5P in all tests. PMID:20572785

  13. Culture and Co-Culture of Mouse Ovaries and Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Stephanie; Campbell, Lisa; Allison, Vivian; Murray, Alison; Spears, Norah

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian ovary is composed of ovarian follicles, each follicle consisting of a single oocyte surrounded by somatic granulosa cells, enclosed together within a basement membrane. A finite pool of follicles is laid down during embryonic development, when oocytes in meiotic arrest form a close association with flattened granulosa cells, forming primordial follicles. By or shortly after birth, mammalian ovaries contain their lifetimes supply of primordial follicles, from which point onwards there is a steady release of follicles into the growing follicular pool. The ovary is particularly amenable to development in vitro, with follicles growing in a highly physiological manner in culture. This work describes the culture of whole neonatal ovaries containing primordial follicles, and the culture of individual ovarian follicles, a method which can support the development of follicles from an immature through to the preovulatory stage, after which their oocytes are able to undergo fertilization in vitro. The work outlined here uses culture systems to determine how the ovary is affected by exposure to external compounds. We also describe a co-culture system, which allows investigation of the interactions that occur between growing follicles and the non-growing pool of primordial follicles. PMID:25867892

  14. Comparative gene expression in sexual and apomictic ovaries of Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link.

    PubMed

    Vielle-Calzada, J P; Nuccio, M L; Budiman, M A; Thomas, T L; Burson, B L; Hussey, M A; Wing, R A

    1996-12-01

    Limited emphasis has been given to the molecular study of apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction where seeds are produced without fertilization. Most buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn = Cenchrus ciliaris L.) genotypes reproduce by obligate apomixis (apospory); however, rare sexual plants have been recovered. A modified differential display procedure was used to compare gene expression in unpollinated ovaries containing ovules with either sexual or apomictic female gametophytes. The modification incorporated end-labeled poly(A)+ anchored primers as the only isotopic source, and was a reliable and consistent approach for detecting differentially displayed transcripts. Using 20 different decamers and two anchor primers, 2268 cDNA fragments between 200 and 600 bp were displayed. From these, eight reproducible differentially displayed cDNAs were identified and cloned. Based on northern analysis, one cDNA was detected in only the sexual ovaries, two cDNAs in only apomictic ovaries and one cDNA was present in both types of ovaries. Three fragments could not be detected and one fragment was detected in ovaries, stems, and leaves. Comparison of gene expression during sexual and apomictic development in buffelgrass represents a new model system and a strategy for investigating female reproductive development in the angiosperms. PMID:9002607

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of Ovaries from Pigs with High And Low Litter Size.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Long; Wu, Tao; Feng, Yifang; Ding, Yueyun; Ye, Pengfei; Yin, Zongjun

    2015-01-01

    Litter size is one of the most important economic traits for pig production as it is directly related to the production efficiency. Litter size is affected by interactions between multiple genes and the environment. While recent studies have identified some genes associated with prolificacy in pigs, transcriptomic studies of specific genes affecting litter size in porcine ovaries are rare. In order to identify candidate genes associated with litter size in swine, we assessed gene expression differences between the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs with extremely high and low litter sizes using the RNA-Seq method. A total of 1 243 differentially expressed genes were identified: 897 genes were upregulated and 346 genes were downregulated in high litter size ovary samples compared with low litter size ovary samples. A large number of these genes related to steroid hormone regulation in animal ovaries, including 59 Gene Ontology terms and 27 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis and ovarian steroidogenesis. From these differentially expressed genes, we identified a total of 11 genes using a bioinformatics screen that may be associated with high litter size in Yorkshire pigs. These results provide a list of new candidate genes for porcine litter size and prolificacy to be further investigated. PMID:26426260

  16. The Essential Role of Vitellogenin Receptor in Ovary Development and Vitellogenin Uptake in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Lin; Yang, Wen-Jia; Jiang, Xuan-Zhao; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Shen, Guang-Mao; Ran, Chun; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) functions as an essential component in uptaking and transporting vitellogenin (Vg) in female adults, which is involved in ovary development and oviposition. This study aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics and function of VgR in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Here, we identified the full-length of BdVgR (GenBank Accession No. JX469118), encoding a 1925 residue (aa) protein with a 214.72 kDa molecular mass and several typical motifs of low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily (LDLR). Phylogenic analysis suggested that BdVgR was evolutionary conserved with other Dipteran VgRs. The expression of BdVgR was exclusively detected in the ovaries rather than head, thorax or other tissues. The developmental expression patterns showed that the signal of BdVgR was detectable in very beginning of adult stage, and positively correlated with the growth rate of ovaries and the expression levels of its ligands. In addition, we also demonstrated that the expression level of BdVgR, and ovary development were significantly suppressed after being injected with BdVgR-targeted dsRNA. Together, all of these results indicated that BdVgR was critical for yolk protein absorption and ovary maturation in B. dorsalis, playing a vital role in female reproduction. PMID:26262609

  17. In Vivo Delivery of Tinospora cordifolia Root Extract Preventing Radiation-Induced Dystrophies in Mice Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Riddhi

    2015-01-01

    Unconscious and unplanned radiation exposures are a severe threat to gonads particularly ovaries. The present study aims at finding radioprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers root extract (TCRE) in ovaries. Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 served as “normal” and is administered double distilled water and Group 2 is given TCRE with optimum dosage selected as 75 mg/mice. Group 3 serving the purpose of “irradiated control” were exposed to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Group 4 (experimental) were administered optimum dosage of TCRE with prior exposure to 2.5 Gy gamma radiation. Follicle cell counts were scored at autopsy intervals of 24 hrs, 3 days, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days after gamma irradiation. To understand the mechanism of radioprotection, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels were also measured in all groups. TCRE supplementation rendered significant protection to ovaries by restoring follicle counts; it also reduced LPO levels and increased GSH levels in ovaries. It implies that TCRE administration protects ovaries against radiation exposure. PMID:26357520

  18. Scanning electron and light microscopy study of the cervical mucus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Pilar; Corts, Manuel E; Ziga, Ana; Riquelme, Jessica; Ceric, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Two types of cervical mucus are recognized, oestrogenic and gestagenic. These are constituted by different subtypes, and their characteristics change depending on variations in the hormonal levels and on the existence of several pathologies. Our aim was to identify the ultrastructure and crystallization characteristics of the cervical mucus in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome, and to compare these characteristics with those of normal control women. Cervical mucus samples were taken from 10 women, 4 control group women (with normal ovulatory menstrual cycles) and 6 suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (2 with ovulatory and 4 with anovulatory cycles). This mucus was characterized according to its ultrastructure and crystallization. The type of mucus obtained was related to the levels of oestradiol and progesterone present when the samples were taken. As regards mucus ultrastructure, differences were found between the control women and those with polycystic ovary syndrome and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Such variations were evident in the type of mesh and the average diameter of the mucus pores. Mucus crystallization in control women showed the usual oestrogenic disposition: fern-like (L, P2), rectilinear (S) or a hexagonal structure (P6). On the other hand, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, indefinite mucus crystallizations were found, as well as crystallization patches resembling oestrogenic and gestagenic-like mucus. This study shows that the ultrastructure and crystallization characteristics of the cervical mucus in polycystic ovary syndrome women are different from those of control women. The latter would be dependent on their levels of oestradiol and progesterone. PMID:19141465

  19. Restoration of ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole adult sheep ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B.K.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.; Onions, V.; Pincott-Allen, C.; Aljaser, F.; Fisher, J.; McNeilly, A.S.; Webb, R.; Picton, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to restore ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole ovaries, complete with vascular pedicle, in adult females from a large monovulatory animal model species (i.e. sheep)? SUMMARY ANSWER Full (100%) restoration of acute ovarian function and high rates of natural fertility (pregnancy rate 64%; live birth rate 29%), with multiple live births, were obtained following whole ovary cryopreservation and autotransplantation (WOCP&TP) of adult sheep ovaries utilizing optimized cryopreservation and post-operative anti-coagulant regimes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertility preservation by WOCP&TP requires successful cryopreservation of both the ovary and its vascular supply. Previous work has indicated detrimental effects of WOCP&TP on the ovarian follicle population. Recent experiments suggest that these deleterious effects can be attributed to an acute loss of vascular patency due to clot formation induced by damage to ovarian arterial endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Study 1 (20102011; N = 16) examined the effect of post-thaw perfusion of survival factors (angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic; n = 78) and treatment with aspirin (pre-operative versus pre- and post-operative (n = 79)) on the restoration of ovarian function for 3 months after WOCP&TP. Study 2 (20112012; N = 16) examined the effect of cryoprotectant (CPA) perfusion time (10 versus 60 min; n = 16) and pre- and post-operative treatment with aspirin in combination with enoxaparine (Clexane; n = 8) or eptifibatide (Integrilin; n = 8) on ovarian function and fertility 1123 months after WOCP&TP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Both studies utilized mature, parous, Greyface ewes aged 36 years and weighing 5075 kg. Restoration of ovarian function was monitored by bi-weekly blood sampling and display of behavioural oestrus. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotrophins, progesterone, anti-Mllerian Hormone and inhibin A. Fertility restoration in Study 2 was quantified by pregnancy rate after a 3 month fertile mating period and was confirmed by ultrasound, hormonal monitoring and live birth. Ovarian function was assessed at sacrifice by ovarian appearance and vascular patency (Doppler ultrasound) and by follicular histology. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In Study 1, survival factors were found to have no benefit, but the inclusion of pre-operative aspirin resulted in four ewes showing acute restoration of ovarian function within 3 weeks and a further six ewes showing partial restoration. The addition of post-operative aspirin alone had no clear benefit. In Study 2, combination of aspirin with additional post-operative anti-coagulants resulted in total acute restoration of ovarian function in 14/14 ewes within 3 weeks of WOCP&TP, with 9/14 ewes becoming pregnant and 4/14 giving birth to a total of seven normal lambs. There was no difference between anti-coagulants in terms of restoration of reproductive function and fertility. In contrast, the duration of CPA perfusion was highly significant with a 60 min perfusion resulting in ovaries of normal appearance and function with high rates of primordial follicle survival (70%) and an abundant blood supply, whereas ovaries perfused for 10 min had either resorbed completely and were vestigial (7/14) or were markedly smaller (P < 0.01). It is concluded that both the degree of CPA penetration and the maintenance of post-operative vascular patency are critical determinants of the success of WOCP&TP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Before application of this technology to fertility preservation patients, it will be critical to optimize the CPA perfusion time for different sized human ovaries, determine the optimum period and level of anti-coagulant therapy, and confirm the normality of offspring derived from this procedure. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This technology holds promise for the preservation of fertility in women. It could also potentially be applied to the cryopreservation of other reproductive or even major organs (kidneys) where there are considerable difficulties in storing donated tissue. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Funding was received from the Medical Research Council, University of Nottingham. The authors confirm that they have no conflict of interest in relation to this work. PMID:24939954

  20. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight. PMID:25821074

  1. Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahiri, Ziba; Sharami, Seyedeh Hajar; Milani, Forozan; Mohammadi, Fereshteh; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Dalil Heirati, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been studied in different populations, but their results were so controversial regarding Iranian women. These controversial data indicated the need for more investigation of MetS characteristics in PCOS patients in our population. So this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics and metabolic features of patients with PCOS in Rasht. Materials and Methods This prospective cross sectional study was conducted on 215 PCOS women who lived in Rasht, north of Iran, from March 2010 to July 2012. The participants were then divided into two groups of women with MetS (n=62) and women without MetS (n=153). The diagnosis of PCOS and MetS were based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria and the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria, respectively. Demographic characteristics, fertility characteristics, family history and laboratory findings were assessed. Results The prevalence of MetS in women with PCOS was 28.8%. In PCOS women of both groups, the waist circumference (WC) exceeded 88cm in 72.6%, hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥130/85mm Hg] was prevalent in 9.3%, fasting blood sugar (FBS) level was ≥110 mg/dl in 6%, triglycerides (Tg) level were ≥150 mg/dl in 47%, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was <50 mg/dl in 86%. The values of WC, SBP, DBP, body mass index (BMI), ovarian size, Tg, cholesterol, FBS, 2-hour blood sugar, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly greater in PCOS women with MetS than women without MetS. Also HDL and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in women with MetS were significantly lower than women without MetS. Conclusion Prevalence of MetS in PCOS women was 28.8%, indicating that this value is higher than other studies conducted on PCOS women in Iran and other studies conducted on general population in Iran. PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for MetS. The special strategies are required to prevent MetS and its associated complications in PCOS women. PMID:26985336

  2. Fate of the grafted ovaries from female salamander Pleurodeles waltl embarked on the cosmos 2229 flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautz, A.; Houillon, Ch.; Aimar, C.; Mitashov, V.; Dournon, C.

    The flight procedure of ``Experience Triton'' on Cosmos 2229 made necessary to sacrifice the embarked females just after landing. In order to detect genetic abnormalities in the progeny of these adult females, we have performed a surgical procedure based on the transplantation of an ovarian piece on a recipient animal. One year later, as observed after laparotomy, the grafted ovaries exhibit oogonies and some growing oocytes. In present time, out of 10 castrated and grafted adult females only one is still alive bearing a large grafted ovary. Out of 5 castred and grafted juvenile males, three are still alive, two of them exhibit a developping grafted ovary. The grafted animals will be ready for mating within a few months. Therefore, it will soon be possible to study the progeny of animals that have been submitted to space conditions.

  3. The occurrence of spermatozoa in the ovary of the gynogenetic viviparous teleost Poecilia formosa (POECILIIDAE).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; De la Rosa-Cruz, Gabino; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-03-01

    The reproductive mode of the female viviparous teleost Poecilia formosa (Poeciliidae) represents the phenomenon known as gynogenesis; that is, parthenogenetic development is initiated by spermatozoa which are needed for physiological activation of the egg and the initiation of gestation, but spermatozoa are prevented from contributing to the genome of the embryo. For the reason that no previous histological analyses of the ovary of this species during the reproductive cycle has been published the present study has been conducted. This study examined the histology of the ovary of P. formosa during nongestation and gestation phases and identified the presence of spermatozoa inside the ovary. Spermatozoa were observed in folds of the ovarian epithelium of P. formosa during both the nongestation and gestation phases. Sperm storage as documented in this study is a very important trait for the gynogenetic viviparous fish P. formosa contributing to the understanding of this species reproduction. J. Morphol. 277:341-350, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26680644

  4. Pituitary-ovary axis and ovarian reserve in fertile women with multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maria; Ros, Cristina; Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Solà-Valls, Nuria; Hervàs, Mariona; Llufriu, Sara; La Puma, Delon; Casals, Elena; Blanco, Yolanda; Villoslada, Pablo; Graus, Francesc; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Saiz, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Since a decline in the ovary function might impact the reproductive potential in women with multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated the pituitary-ovary axis and ovarian reserve, including anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and ultrasound imaging of the ovaries, of 25 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Mean levels of pituitary-gonadal hormones and age-adjusted parameters of ovarian reserve markers were not significantly different between both groups. Patients with higher disease activity (annualized relapse rate >0.5; n=9) had significantly lower AMH levels, total antral follicle count and ovarian volume, than those with lower disease activity. The finding of poorer ovarian reserve associated with higher disease activity should be taken into consideration since it may negatively impact the reproductive prognosis. PMID:26362892

  5. Ultrastructure and function of follicle cell in the ovary ofBranchiostoma belcheri.

    PubMed

    Welsch, U; Fang, Y

    1997-02-01

    The ultrastructure of follicle cells in the ovary at different developmental stages ofBranchiostoma has been observed in detail with a transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that only one kind of follicle cell exists with structural features related to steroid hormone biosynthesis: (i) oval or round mitochondria with tubules; (ii) smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum; (iii) several large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm; (iv) a well developed Golgi complex and tubular rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, as can be found in mammalian theca interna cells. In addition, as steroid hormone synthesizing cells, they obviously play an important role in the phagocytosis of relict gametes and cellular debris and may have a nutritive function for the oocytes. They can produce abundant secretory granules in stages III-IV ovaries. In mature ovaries they transform into flat epithelial cells with numerous microfilaments which may play a role in ovulation. PMID:18726300

  6. Studies of ovulation in the perfused ovary of the fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Li, Z D; Ataka, Y

    1987-07-01

    A system was developed for the in-vitro perfusion of the fowl ovary. The ovaries were isolated 16-18 h before expected ovulation of the first follicle of a clutch sequence and perfused at 41 degrees C with Eagle's culture medium containing L-thyroxine and insulin. The efferent perfusion pressure was maintained at 30-40 mmHg. This model was used to investigate the mechanism of ovulation. Addition of LH (1 U) to the perfusate induced ovulation (46%) but LH (1 U) + FSH (1 U) was more effective (88%; P less than 0.05). Progesterone at 100 micrograms alone also induced ovulation (80%). Clomiphene prevented gonadotrophin-induced ovulation. These results suggest that progesterone may act directly on the ovary as a final hormone to induce ovulation in the domestic fowl. PMID:3116230

  7. Characterization and localization of dynein and myosins V and VI in the ovaries of queen bees.

    PubMed

    Patricio, Karina; Calbria, Luciana Karen; Peixoto, Pablo Marco; Espindola, Foued Salmen; Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2010-10-01

    The presence of myosin and dynein in the ovaries of both Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica was investigated in extracts and in histological sections. In the ovary extracts, motor proteins, myosins V, VI and dynein were detected by Western blot. In histological sections, they were detected by immunocytochemistry, using a mouse monoclonal antibody against the intermediary chain of dynein and a rabbit polyclonal antibody against the myosin V head domain. The myosin VI tail domain was recognized by a pig polyclonal antibody. The results show that these molecular motors are expressed in the ovaries of both bee species with few differences in location and intensity, in regions where movement of substances is expected during oogenesis. The fact that antibodies against vertebrate proteins recognize proteins of bee species indicates that the specific epitopes are evolutionarily well preserved. PMID:20486900

  8. The sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: physiological impact on ovaries development.

    PubMed

    Koama, Bayili; Namountougou, Moussa; Sanou, Roger; Ndo, Svrin; Ouattara, Abdoulaye; Dabir, Roch K; Malone, David; Diabat, Abdoulaye

    2015-01-01

    Adult females An. gambiae were exposed in 3 min cone test to treated nets with PPF before or after they were blood fed. The effects of PPF on ovaries development, females oviposition and eggs hatching were assessed. Both unfed and fed mosquitoes exposed to PPF exhibited nearly complete inhibition of fecundity (70-100%) and fertility (90-100%). After females have been exposed once to PPF, the sterilizing effect on their fecundity was observed over 3 consecutive blood meals suggesting that PPF might have an irreversible sterilizing effect. Observation of the ovaries of exposed females to PPF under microscope revealed that the ovaries failed to develop even after several blood meals. The combination of PPF to pyrethroids on bednets could provide better malaria control tool and prevent the further development and spread of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors. PMID:25880844

  9. A monogamous pipefish has the same type of ovary as observed in monogamous seahorses.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Koji; Ohashi, Mizuki; Watanabe, Aki; Takata, Hiromi; Murakami, Yasunori; Omori, Koji; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2008-08-23

    Syngnathid fish (pipefish and seahorses) are unique among teleost fish in that their ovary consists of a rolled sheet with germinal ridge(s) on the dorsal side running along the entire length of the sheet. A distinct difference is seen in the ovarian structure between polygamous Syngnathus pipefish and monogamous seahorses (Hippocampus spp.), the former having one germinal ridge and the latter with two ridges. This study examined the ovarian structure and the mode of egg production in a monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus. The ovary of C. haematopterus had two germinal ridges like that observed in monogamous seahorses. There were two distinct groups of follicles in the ovary, one being a cohort of extremely small follicles and the other a cohort of follicles developing and increasing in size with the passage of time. We suggest that the ovarian structure and the mode of egg production in this pipefish are adaptations to monogamy. PMID:18492646

  10. Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period

    PubMed Central

    Kanapadinchareveetil, Sreelekha; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Gopi, Jyothimol; Ranjan Lenka, Dibya; Vasu, Aswathi; KGopalan, Ajith Kumar; Nair, Suresh N.; Juliet, Sanis; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V) of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B.) microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium. PMID:25664337

  11. Histoarchitecture of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during pre- and postengorgement period.

    PubMed

    Kanapadinchareveetil, Sreelekha; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Gopi, Jyothimol; Lenka, Dibya Ranjan; Vasu, Aswathi; KGopalan, Ajith Kumar; Nair, Suresh N; Ravindran, Reghu; Juliet, Sanis; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V) of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B.) microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium. PMID:25664337

  12. Suppression of Notch signaling in the neonatal mouse ovary decreases primordial follicle formation.

    PubMed

    Trombly, Daniel J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2009-02-01

    Notch signaling directs cell fate during embryogenesis by influencing cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Notch genes are expressed in the adult mouse ovary, and roles for Notch in regulating folliculogenesis are beginning to emerge from mouse genetic models. We investigated how Notch signaling might influence the formation of primordial follicles. Follicle assembly takes place when germ cell syncytia within the ovary break down and germ cells are encapsulated by pregranulosa cells. In the mouse, this occurs during the first 4-5 d of postnatal life. The expression of Notch family genes in the neonatal mouse ovary was determined through RT-PCR measurements. Jagged1, Notch2, and Hes1 transcripts were the most abundantly expressed ligand, receptor, and target gene, respectively. Jagged1 and Hey2 mRNAs were up-regulated over the period of follicle formation. Localization studies demonstrated that JAGGED1 is expressed in germ cells prior to follicle assembly and in the oocytes of primordial follicles. Pregranulosa cells that surround germ cell nests express HES1. In addition, pregranulosa cells of primordial follicles expressed NOTCH2 and Hey2 mRNA. We used an ex vivo ovary culture system to assess the requirement for Notch signaling during early follicle development. Newborn ovaries cultured in the presence of gamma-secretase inhibitors, compounds that attenuate Notch signaling, had a marked reduction in primordial follicles compared with vehicle-treated ovaries, and there was a corresponding increase in germ cells that remained within nests. These data support a functional role for Notch signaling in regulating primordial follicle formation. PMID:18818300

  13. Suppression of Notch Signaling in the Neonatal Mouse Ovary Decreases Primordial Follicle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Trombly, Daniel J.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Mayo, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    Notch signaling directs cell fate during embryogenesis by influencing cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Notch genes are expressed in the adult mouse ovary, and roles for Notch in regulating folliculogenesis are beginning to emerge from mouse genetic models. We investigated how Notch signaling might influence the formation of primordial follicles. Follicle assembly takes place when germ cell syncytia within the ovary break down and germ cells are encapsulated by pregranulosa cells. In the mouse, this occurs during the first 45 d of postnatal life. The expression of Notch family genes in the neonatal mouse ovary was determined through RT-PCR measurements. Jagged1, Notch2, and Hes1 transcripts were the most abundantly expressed ligand, receptor, and target gene, respectively. Jagged1 and Hey2 mRNAs were up-regulated over the period of follicle formation. Localization studies demonstrated that JAGGED1 is expressed in germ cells prior to follicle assembly and in the oocytes of primordial follicles. Pregranulosa cells that surround germ cell nests express HES1. In addition, pregranulosa cells of primordial follicles expressed NOTCH2 and Hey2 mRNA. We used an ex vivo ovary culture system to assess the requirement for Notch signaling during early follicle development. Newborn ovaries cultured in the presence of ?-secretase inhibitors, compounds that attenuate Notch signaling, had a marked reduction in primordial follicles compared with vehicle-treated ovaries, and there was a corresponding increase in germ cells that remained within nests. These data support a functional role for Notch signaling in regulating primordial follicle formation. PMID:18818300

  14. Mercury and other metals in muscle and ovaries of goldeye (Hiodon alosoides).

    PubMed

    Donald, David B; Sardella, Gino D

    2010-02-01

    Concentrations of 24 trace metals were assessed in gravid ovaries and in muscle of female juvenile and adult female goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a fish with both low annual growth (16 g/year as adults) and a long life span (maximum longevity of 30 years). It was hypothesized that adult fish with these life-history characteristics would maintain stable concentrations of metals in their tissues with higher levels of essential elements compared with those that are potentially toxic. As hypothesized, the concentration of most metals in muscle of adult female goldeye was similar at all ages, suggesting that uptake and excretion of metals was equal. Mercury was a notable exception. Total Hg concentrations in muscle of adults increased throughout life from a mean of 206 ng/g wet weight at age 8 to 809 ng/g at age 28, or by 26.2 ng/g/year. Concentrations of Hg were low in ovaries (mean 21.1 ng/g wet wt) compared to the mean for muscle, only 7% of the concentration in muscle. This was the lowest percent of muscle concentration of all 24 metals. Concentrations of Al, Ba, La, V, and Mn were significantly greater in muscle of juveniles and in ovaries than in muscle of adults. Concentrations of 13 metals were higher in ovaries relative to muscle, seven were similar, and four were depleted. Silver was enriched by over 50-fold in ovaries. Overall, the present study suggests that low concentrations of some metals in muscle of adult female goldeye, relative to concentrations in female juveniles and ovaries, may be maintained in part by transfer of metals to the external environment in eggs at spawning. PMID:20821456

  15. Foxl2 functions in sex determination and histogenesis throughout mouse ovary development

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ortiz, Jos Elias; Pelosi, Emanuele; Omari, Shakib; Nedorezov, Timur; Piao, Yulan; Karmazin, Jesse; Uda, Manuela; Cao, Antonio; Cole, Steve W; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David; Ottolenghi, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background Partial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women. In animal models, Foxl2 is required for maintenance, and possibly induction, of female sex determination independently of other critical genes, e.g., Rspo1. Here we report expression profiling of mouse ovaries that lack Foxl2 alone or in combination with Wnt4 or Kit/c-Kit. Results Following Foxl2 loss, early testis genes (including Inhbb, Dhh, and Sox9) and several novel ovarian genes were consistently dysregulated during embryonic development. In the absence of Foxl2, expression changes affecting a large fraction of pathways were opposite those observed in Wnt4-null ovaries, reinforcing the notion that these genes have complementary actions in ovary development. Loss of one copy of Foxl2 revealed strong gene dosage sensitivity, with molecular anomalies that were milder but resembled ovaries lacking both Foxl2 alleles. Furthermore, a Foxl2 transgene disrupted embryonic testis differentiation and increased the levels of key female markers. Conclusion The results, including a comprehensive principal component analysis, 1) support the proposal of dose-dependent Foxl2 function and anti-testis action throughout ovary differentiation; and 2) identify candidate genes for roles in sex determination independent of FOXL2 (e.g., the transcription factors IRX3 and ZBTB7C) and in the generation of the ovarian reserve downstream of FOXL2 (e.g., the cadherin-domain protein CLSTN2 and the sphingomyelin synthase SGMS2). The gene inventory is a first step toward the identification of the full range of pathways with partly autonomous roles in ovary development, and thus provides a framework to analyze the genetic bases of female fertility. PMID:19538736

  16. Sarcoma-like mural nodule in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik; Bhowmik, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoma-like mural nodule (SLMN) is a very uncommon and misleading benign entity which may be associated with benign, borderline or malignant mucinous neoplasm of the ovary. It should be distinguished from other malignant mural nodules with sarcoma, carcinosarcoma or anaplastic carcinoma for proper management. We report a rare case of SLMN in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary in a 30-year-old lady. In spite of having confusing histopathological features the final diagnosis was made depending on the younger age of the patient, well circumscription of the nodule, absence of vascular invasion and immunohistochemical profile. PMID:25540570

  17. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is an ideal target for ovary tumors with elevated cyclin E1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Fang, Dongdong; Chen, Huijun; Lu, Yiyu; Dong, Zheng; Ding, Han-Fei; Jing, Qing; Su, Shi-Bing; Huang, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    CCNE1 gene amplification is present in 15-20% ovary tumor specimens. Here, we showed that Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) was overexpressed in 30% of established ovarian cancer cell lines. We also showed that CCNE1 was stained positive in over 40% of primary ovary tumor specimens regardless of their histological types while CCNE1 staining was either negative or low in normal ovary and benign ovary tumor tissues. However, the status of CCNE1 overexpression was not associated with the tumorigenic potential of ovarian cancer cell lines and also did not correlate with pathological grades of ovary tumor specimens. Subsequent experiments with CCNE1 siRNAs showed that knockdown of CCNE1 reduced cell growth only in cells with inherent CCNE1 overexpression, indicating that these cells may have developed an addiction to CCNE1 for growth/survival. As CCNE1 is a regulatory factor of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), we investigated the effect of Cdk2 inhibitor on ovary tumorigenecity. Ovarian cancer cells with elevated CCNE1 expression were 40 times more sensitive to Cdk2 inhibitorSNS-032 than those without inherent CCNE1 overexpression. Moreover, SNS-032 greatly prolonged the survival of mice bearing ovary tumors with inherent CCNE1 overexpression. This study suggests that ovary tumors with elevated CCNE1 expression may be staged for Cdk2-targeted therapy. PMID:26204491

  18. STEROIDOGENIC ASSESSMENT USING OVARY CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS: EFFECTS OF BIS(2-DIETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE ON OVARIAN STEROID PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro whole-ovary culture in rats was used to characterize ovarian steroidogenesis and to evaluate changes produced by In vivo exposure to bis (2-diethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Steroidogenic profiles [progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T)] from minced ovary ...

  19. Night temperature and sourcesink effects on overall growth, cell number and cell size in bell pepper ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Rebecca L.; Cruz-Huerta, Nicacio; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Ovary swelling, and resultant fruit malformation, in bell pepper flowers is favoured by low night temperature or a high sourcesink ratio. However, the interaction between night temperature and sourcesink ratio on ovary swelling and the contribution of cell size and cell number to ovary swelling are unknown. The present research examined the interactive effects of night temperature and sourcesink ratio on ovary size, cell number and cell size at anthesis in bell pepper flowers. Methods Bell pepper plants were grown in growth chambers at night temperatures of either 20 C (HNT) or 12 C (LNT). Within each temperature treatment, plants bore either 0 (non-fruiting) or two developing fruits per plant. Ovary fresh weight, cell size and cell number were measured. Key Results Ovary fresh weights in non-fruiting plants grown at LNT were the largest, while fresh weights were smallest in plants grown at HNT with fruits. In general, mesocarp cell size in ovaries was largest in non-fruiting plants grown at either LNT or HNT and smallest in fruiting plants at HNT. Mesocarp cell number was greater in non-fruiting plants under LNT than in the rest of the night temperature/fruiting treatments. These responses were more marked in ovaries sampled after 18 d of treatment compared with those sampled after 40 d of treatment. Conclusions Ovary fresh weight of flowers at anthesis increased 65 % in non-fruiting plants grown under LNT compared with fruiting plants grown under HNT. This increase was due primarily to increases in mesocarp cell number and size. These results indicate that the combined effects of LNT and high sourcesink ratio on ovary swelling are additive. Furthermore, the combined effects of LNT and low sourcesink ratio or HNT and high sourcesink ratio can partially overcome the detrimental effects of LNT and high sourcesink ratio. PMID:22933415

  20. Heparin-releasable lipase activity of rat adrenals, ovaries and testes.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, H; De Greef, W J

    1981-01-01

    The presence of NaCl-resistant, neutral triacylglycerol hydrolase (lipase) activity in rat adrenal gland, ovary and testis was studied. Both adrenals and ovaries but not testes were found to contain such a lipase. The activity of the enzyme in the adrenal gland was lowered during cortisol treatment and hypothyroidism. An elevated adrenal lipase activity was found during hyperthyroidism. Pseudo-pregnant and lactating rats had higher ovarian lipase activities than cyclic rats. Ovarian lipase activity in lactating rats was positively correlated with the serum concentrations of progesterone and of 20 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and negatively correlated with the high-density-lipoprotein non-esterified cholesterol concentration. The lipase activity of adrenals and of ovaries was largely releasable from these organs by heparin and could be inhibited by an antibody against heparin-releasable liver lipase. This indicated that the lipase is extracellularly located and is similar to 'liver' lipase. A possible role of this lipase in adrenals and ovaries is discussed. PMID:7317012

  1. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES: EXCELLENT MORPHOLOGY, APOPTOSIS DETECTION, AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Ovaries consist of numerous follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in different stages of development. Many of these follicles will undergo an apoptotic process during the lifetime of the animal. By using proper tissue preparation methods, the events within the whole...

  2. Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose

    SciTech Connect

    Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R. )

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm[sup 3] dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimated doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Nesprin-2 epsilon: A novel nesprin isoform expressed in human ovary and Ntera-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Le Thanh; Boehm, Sabrina V.; Roberts, Roland G.; Morris, Glenn E.

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} A novel epsilon isoform of nesprin-2 has been discovered. {yields} This 120 kDa protein was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but has not previously been observed. {yields} It is the main isoform expressed in a teratocarcinoma cell line and is also found in ovary. {yields} Like other nesprins, it is located at the nuclear envelope. {yields} We suggest it may have a role in very early development or in some ovary-specific function. -- Abstract: The nuclear envelope-associated cytoskeletal protein, nesprin-2, is encoded by a large gene containing several internal promoters that produce shorter isoforms. In a study of Ntera-2 teratocarcinoma cells, a novel isoform, nesprin-2-epsilon, was found to be the major mRNA and protein product of the nesprin-2 gene. Its existence was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but this is the first direct demonstration of both the mRNA and the 120 kDa protein which is located at the nuclear envelope. In a panel of 21 adult and foetal human tissues, the nesprin-2-epsilon mRNA was strongly expressed in ovary but was a minor isoform elsewhere. The expression pattern suggests a possible link with very early development and a likely physiological role in ovary.

  4. In vitro maturation of oocytes via the pre-fabricated self-assembled artificial human ovary

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Jared C.; Ferruccio, Toni-Marie; Moore, Richard; Steinhoff, Margaret M.; Morgan, Jeffrey R.; Carson, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Create a 3-Dimensional artificial human ovary to mature human oocytes. Methods Theca and granulosa cells were isolated from antral follicles of reproductive-aged women, seeded into micro-molded gels and self-assembled into complex 3D microtissues. Immunohistochemistry and live-dead staining confirmed theca cell identity and cellular viability at one week respectively. Placement of granulosa cell spheroids or cumulus-oocyte complexes into theca cell honeycomb openings resulted in creation of an artificial human ovary. Oocytes from this construct were assessed for polar body extrusion. Results Theca and granulosa cells self-assembled into complex microtissues, remaining viable for one week. At 72h after artificial human ovary construction, theca cells completely surrounded the granulosa spheroids or COCs without stromal invasion or disruption. Polar body extrusion occurred in one of three COCs assessed. Conclusions An artifical human ovary can be created with self-assembled human theca and granulosa cell microtissues, and used for IVM and future oocyte toxicology studies. PMID:20737203

  5. What is new in polycystic ovary syndrome? Best articles from the past year.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Keith A

    2014-09-01

    This month, we focus on current research in polycystic ovary syndrome. Dr. Hansen discusses six recent publications, and each is concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts. PMID:25162266

  6. Successful boll development after ovary damage during emasculation of upland cotton flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypium hirsutum flowers are easily emasculated by splitting the staminal column with the fingernail and removing the corolla and androecium. However, any damage to the ovary is considered detrimental to successful boll formation and damaged flowers are typically discarded. This study evaluated ...

  7. The effect of cinnamon extract on insulin resistance parameters in polycystic ovary syncrome: a pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of oral cinnamon extract on insulin resistance parameters. Methods: 15 women with polycystic ovary syndrome were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model insu...

  8. A new in vitro ovulation model for medaka based on whole ovary culture.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Katsueki; Ikeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2010-09-01

    We sought to establish a new in vitro ovulation model using the whole ovaries of the medaka. Ovaries of the fish, which had been acclimated to the usual reproductive conditions (26 degrees C, 14 h light/10 h dark) and which had then been kept at least one day at 30 degrees C, were isolated 2 h before the expected in vivo ovulation time. When the ovaries were cultured in 90% medium 199 solution at 30 degrees C or 36 degrees C, oocytes were liberated with a gradual increase in the ovulation rate at 2 to 5 h of ovulation time. The maximum ovulation rate was approximately 45%. Ovulated oocytes were fertilized and subsequently developed into adults. In vitro ovulation of medaka ovaries was inhibited by the addition of metalloproteinase inhibitors to the culture. In this in vitro ovulation model, the holes formed on the follicle layer upon follicle rupture at ovulation were sealed, strongly suggesting the importance of the germinal epithelium in the process. The present study indicates that our new in vitro ovulation model is useful for investigating the role of germinal epithelial cells in the ovulate process of the medaka fish. PMID:20822405

  9. Age-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Rhesus Monkey Ovaries Detected by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hengxi; Liu, Xiangjie; Yuan, Jihong; Li, Li; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Xinzheng; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    The biological function of human ovaries declines with age. To identify the potential molecular changes in ovarian aging, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray of ovaries from young, middle-aged, and old rhesus monkeys. Microarray data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that a total of 503 (60 upregulated, 443 downregulated) and 84 (downregulated) genes were differentially expressed in old ovaries compared to young and middle-aged groups, respectively. No difference in gene expression was found between middle-aged and young groups. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell and organelle, cellular and physiological process, binding, and catalytic activity. These genes were primarily associated with KEGG pathways of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, oocyte meiosis and maturation, MAPK, TGF-beta, and p53 signaling pathway. Genes upregulated were involved in aging, defense response, oxidation reduction, and negative regulation of cellular process; genes downregulated have functions in reproduction, cell cycle, DNA and RNA process, macromolecular complex assembly, and positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. These findings show that monkey ovary undergoes substantial change in global transcription with age. Gene expression profiles are useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and age-associated infertility in primates. PMID:26421297

  10. Lead accumulation in the mouse ovary after treatment-induced follicular atresia.

    PubMed

    Taupeau, C; Poupon, J; Nom, F; Lefvre, B

    2001-01-01

    Although the main target of lead (Pb) toxicity is the red blood cell, Pb-associated changes in the nervous system, the kidney, and the reproductive system have also been described. The few Pb studies conducted on females revealed mostly miscarriages, premature delivery, and infant mortality in humans and animals. This study was done to correlate Pb accumulation in the ovary with damage to folliculogenesis. Pb burden was assayed by atomic absorption spectrometry in bone, liver, adrenal glands, ovary, and fetuses taken from mice exposed according to 2 protocols: intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Pb(NO(3))(2) 10 mg/kg/day for 15 days or 10 mg/kg/week for 15 weeks. Ovaries were examined histologically. Pb accumulation in the various soft tissues of acutely exposed mice was similar, and significantly higher than in the organs of chronically exposed mice. A low Pb concentration in the ovary caused dysfunction of folliculogenesis, with fewer primordial follicles and an increase in atretic antral follicles. PMID:11489594

  11. MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffery and Sally D. Perreault

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Prot...

  12. Distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille1806) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea pigs inoculated with R. rickettsii. Results The results showed a general distribution of R. rickettsii in the ovary cells, being found in oocytes in all stages of development (I, II, III, IV and V) most commonly in the periphery of the oocyte and also in the cytoplasm of pedicel cells. Conclusions The histological analysis of the ovaries of R. sanguineus infected females confirmed the presence of the bacterium, indicating that the infection can interfere negatively in the process of reproduction of the ticks, once alterations were detected both in the shape and cell structure of the oocytes which contained bacteria. PMID:22117572

  13. 77 FR 59625 - NIH Evidence-Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary; Syndrome

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    .... on December 5. The workshop will be open to the public. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common... with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant (i.e., are infertile) due to hormone imbalances that cause... PCOS include the pancreas, liver, muscle, blood vasculature, and fat. In addition to...

  14. Ontogeny of polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance in utero and early childhood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent hyperandrogenic infertility and cardiometabolic disorder that increases a woman's lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is heritable and intensely familial. Progress toward a cure has been delayed by absence of an etiology. Evidence is mounting...

  15. Metabolic evidence of diminished lipid oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are not limited to specific genes, pathogens, toxicoses, or identifiable environmental influences. PCOS still remains a diagnosis of exclusion despite being the most common female endocrinopathy and the leading cause of metabolic syndrome, ...

  16. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents ovary ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kart, A; Cigremis, Y; Ozen, H; Dogan, O

    2009-08-01

    Protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on ovary ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury was investigated in this study. Twenty four New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups as follows: group S served as sham. Group C was intraperitoneally injected with CAPE (8.5mg/kg). In groups E+IR and C+IR, 1% ethanol and CAPE was given intraperitoneally before torsion, respectively. Then, the ovaries were subjected to IR in both groups. Ovary reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in group E+IR were significantly reduced compared to that of group S. GSH level and GSH-Px activity was significantly increased in group C+I/R. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase (CAT) activity in group E+I/R was significantly higher than in group S. CAT activity was decreased to normal levels by CAPE treatment in group C+I/R, while TBARS in group C+IR was significantly reduced compared to that of E+IR. According to histopathological examination, severe congestion, hemorrhage, edema and leukocyte infiltration were observed in E+I/R group. CAPE prominently reduced degenerative effects of IR injury thus it alleviates free radical damage. In conclusion, CAPE which is able to prevent IR-induced injury in the ovaries may be of therapeutic value before the surgical correction. PMID:19457442

  17. Recurrent SMARCA4 mutations in small cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Jelinic, Petar; Mueller, Jennifer J; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Scott, Sasinya N; Shah, Ronak; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Gonen, Mithat; Soslow, Robert A; Berger, Michael F; Levine, Douglas A

    2014-05-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare, highly aggressive form of ovarian cancer primarily diagnosed in young women. We identified inactivating biallelic SMARCA4 mutations in 100% of the 12 SCCOHT tumors examined. Protein studies confirmed loss of SMARCA4 expression, suggesting a key role for the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex in SCCOHT. PMID:24658004

  18. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns provide insight into polycystic ovary syndrome development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu-Xia; Wei, Jing-Zan; Jiao, Jiao; Jiang, Shu-Yi; Yu, Da-Hai; Li, Da

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. However, the epigenetic mechanism involved in PCOS progression remains largely unknown. Here, combining the DNA methylation profiling together with transcriptome analysis, we showed that (i) there were 7929 differentially methylated CpG sites (β > 0.1, P < 0.05) and 650 differential transcripts (fold change > 1.5, P < 0.005) in PCOS compared to normal ovaries; (ii) 54 genes were identified with methylated levels that were correlated with gene transcription in PCOS; and (iii) there were less hypermethylated sites, but many more hypomethylated sites residing in CpG islands and N_Shore in PCOS. Among these genes, we identified that several significant pathways, including the type I diabetes mellitus pathway, p53 signaling pathway and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and some immune and inflammatory diseases may be highly involved in PCOS development. These results suggested that differences in genome-wide DNA methylation and expression patterns exist between PCOS ovaries and normal ovaries; epigenetic mechanisms may in part be responsible for the different gene expression and PCOS phenotype. All of this may improve our understanding of the basic molecular mechanism underlying the development of PCOS. PMID:25051372

  19. Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ovaries by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Irles, Paula; Bells, Xavier; Piulachs, M Dolors

    2009-01-01

    Background Insect ovarioles are classified into two categories: panoistic and meroistic, the later having apparently evolved from an ancestral panoistic type. Molecular data on oogenesis is practically restricted to meroistic ovaries. If we aim at studying the evolutionary transition from panoistic to meroistic, data on panoistic ovaries should be gathered. To this end, we planned the construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) library to identify genes involved in panoistic choriogenesis, using the cockroach Blattella germanica as model. Results We constructed a post-vitellogenic ovary library by SSH to isolate genes involved in choriogenesis in B. germanica. The tester library was prepared with an ovary pool from 6- to 7-day-old females, whereas the driver library was prepared with an ovary pool from 3- to 4-day-old females. From the SSH library, we obtained 258 high quality sequences which clustered into 34 unique sequences grouped in 19 contigs and 15 singlets. The sequences were compared against non-redundant NCBI databases using BLAST. We found that 44% of the unique sequences had homologous sequences in known genes of other organisms, whereas 56% had no significant similarity to any of the databases entries. A Gene Ontology analysis was carried out, classifying the 34 sequences into different functional categories. Seven of these gene sequences, representative of different categories and processes, were chosen to perform expression studies during the first gonadotrophic cycle by real-time PCR. Results showed that they were mainly expressed during post-vitellogenesis, which validates the SSH technique. In two of them corresponding to novel genes, we demonstrated that they are specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of follicular cells in basal oocytes at the time of choriogenesis. Conclusion The SSH approach has proven to be useful in identifying ovarian genes expressed after vitellogenesis in B. germanica. For most of the genes, functions related to choriogenesis are postulated. The relatively high percentage of novel genes obtained and the practical absence of chorion genes typical of meroistic ovaries suggest that mechanisms regulating chorion formation in panoistic ovaries are significantly different from those of meroistic ones. PMID:19405973

  20. Effects of tamoxifen on autosomal genes regulating ovary maintenance in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingxi; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jingyun; Qin, Junwen; Wang, Yongan; Wang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), known to bind to estrogen/androgen receptors and mimic native estrogens, have been implicated as a main source for increasing human reproductive and developmental deficiencies and diseases. Tamoxifen (TAM) is one of the most well-known antiestrogens with defined adverse effects on the female reproductive tract, but the mechanisms related to autosomal gene regulation governing ovary maintenance in mammals remain unclear. The expression pattern and levels of key genes and proteins involved in maintaining the ovarian phenotype in mice were analyzed. The results showed that TAM induced significant upregulation of Sox9, which is the testis-determining factor gene. The results showed that TAM induced significant upregulation of Sox9, the testis-determining factor gene, and the expression level of Sox9 mRNA in the ovaries of mice exposed to 75 or 225mg/kg bw TAM was 2- and 10-fold that in the control group, respectively (p?ovaries. Accordingly, expression of the ovary development marker, forkhead transcription factor (FOXL2), and WNT4/FST signaling, were depressed. The levels of protein expression changed consistently with the target genes. Moreover, the detection of platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) in TAM-treated ovaries suggested the formation of vascular endothelial cells, which is a further evidence for the differentiation of the ovaries to a testis-like phenotype. During this period, the level of 17?-estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone decreased, while that of testosterone increased by 3.3-fold (p?=?0.013). The activation of a testis-specific molecular signaling cascade was a potentially important mechanism contributing to the gender disorder induced by TAM, which resulted in the differentiation of the ovaries to a testis-like phenotype in adult mice. Limited with a relatively higher exposure, the present study provided preliminary molecular insights into the sexual disorder induced by antiestrogens and compounds that interrupted estrogen signaling by other modes of action. PMID:26304810

  1. Abnormally activated one-carbon metabolic pathway is associated with mtDNA hypermethylation and mitochondrial malfunction in the oocytes of polycystic gilt ovaries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Longfei; Li, Juan; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Niu, Yingjie; Wang, Chenfei; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and polycystic ovaries (PCO) usually produce oocytes of poor quality. However, the intracellular mechanism linking hyperhomocysteinemia and oocyte quality remains elusive. In this study, the quality of the oocytes isolated from healthy and polycystic gilt ovaries was evaluated in vitro in association with one-carbon metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation, and mitochondrial function. PCO oocytes demonstrated impaired polar body extrusion, and significantly decreased cleavage and blastocyst rates. The mitochondrial distribution was disrupted in PCO oocytes, together with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and deformed mitochondrial structure. The mtDNA copy number and the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes were significantly lower in PCO oocytes. Homocysteine concentration in follicular fluid was significantly higher in PCO group, which was associated with significantly up-regulated one-carbon metabolic enzymes betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Moreover, mtDNA sequences coding for 12S, 16S rRNA and ND4, as well as the D-loop region were significantly hypermethylated in PCO oocytes. These results indicate that an abnormal activation of one-carbon metabolism and hypermethylation of mtDNA may contribute, largely, to the mitochondrial malfunction and decreased quality of PCO-derived oocytes in gilts. PMID:26758245

  2. Abnormally activated one-carbon metabolic pathway is associated with mtDNA hypermethylation and mitochondrial malfunction in the oocytes of polycystic gilt ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Longfei; Li, Juan; He, Bin; Jia, Yimin; Niu, Yingjie; Wang, Chenfei; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and polycystic ovaries (PCO) usually produce oocytes of poor quality. However, the intracellular mechanism linking hyperhomocysteinemia and oocyte quality remains elusive. In this study, the quality of the oocytes isolated from healthy and polycystic gilt ovaries was evaluated in vitro in association with one-carbon metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation, and mitochondrial function. PCO oocytes demonstrated impaired polar body extrusion, and significantly decreased cleavage and blastocyst rates. The mitochondrial distribution was disrupted in PCO oocytes, together with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and deformed mitochondrial structure. The mtDNA copy number and the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes were significantly lower in PCO oocytes. Homocysteine concentration in follicular fluid was significantly higher in PCO group, which was associated with significantly up-regulated one-carbon metabolic enzymes betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Moreover, mtDNA sequences coding for 12S, 16S rRNA and ND4, as well as the D-loop region were significantly hypermethylated in PCO oocytes. These results indicate that an abnormal activation of one-carbon metabolism and hypermethylation of mtDNA may contribute, largely, to the mitochondrial malfunction and decreased quality of PCO-derived oocytes in gilts. PMID:26758245

  3. A Novel Functional Role for the Oocyte-Specific Transcription Factor Newborn Ovary Homeobox (NOBOX) during Early Embryonic Development in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Tripurani, Swamy K.; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Wang, Lei; Wee, Gabbine; Smith, George W.; Lee, Young S.; Latham, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Newborn ovary homeobox (NOBOX) is an oocyte-specific transcription factor essential for folliculogenesis and expression of many germ cell-specific genes in mice. Here we report the characterization of the bovine NOBOX gene and its role in early embryogenesis. The cloned cDNA for bovine NOBOX contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 500 amino acids with a conserved homeodomain. mRNA for NOBOX is preferentially expressed in ovaries and undetectable by RT-PCR in somatic tissues examined. NOBOX protein is present in oocytes throughout folliculogenesis. NOBOX is expressed in a stage-specific manner during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development and of maternal origin. Knockdown of NOBOX in early embryos using small interfering RNA demonstrated that NOBOX is required for embryonic development to the blastocyst stage. Depletion of NOBOX in early embryos caused significant down-regulation of genes associated with transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, and cell cycle regulation during embryonic genome activation. In addition, NOBOX depletion in early embryos reduced expression of pluripotency genes (POU5F1/OCT4 and NANOG) and number of inner cell mass cells in embryos that reached the blastocyst stage. This study demonstrates that NOBOX is an essential maternal-derived transcription factor during bovine early embryogenesis, which functions in regulation of embryonic genome activation, pluripotency gene expression, and blastocyst cell allocation. PMID:21193554

  4. Yolk proteins during ovary and egg development of mature female freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Vazquez-Boucard, Celia; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Vitellins from ovaries and eggs at different stages of development in freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were examined by chromatography, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. With these methods, two forms of vitellin (Vt1 and Vt2) were observed in ovaries and eggs (stages I and V). In ovaries in secondary vitellogenesis, native molecular mass was 470 (Vt1) and 440 (Vt2) kDa. The electrophoretic pattern of the eggs proved to be more complex. The protein molecular mass depend on the development stage of the egg: stage I, 650 kDa (Vt1) and 440 kDa (Vt2); stage V, 390 kDa (Vt1) and 340 kDa (Vt2). The identified vitellins appear to be lipo-glycocarotenoprotein. A similar vitellin polypeptide composition was observed in the two forms of vitellin from ovaries and eggs in stage V. In ovaries the SDS-PAGE analysis showed four subunits with molecular weights of approximately 180, 120, 95 and 80 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2). The polypeptide composition in the two forms of vitellins in stage I and stage III eggs were different at 195, 190, 130 and 110 kDa (Vt1) and 116 and 107 kDa (Vt2). On the other hand, in stage V eggs, 110, 95, 87 and 75 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2) were identified. Two antibodies (Ab1 and Ab2) were prepared against the purified proteins of stage V eggs and their specificity was demonstrated by radial immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting analysis. Two forms of vitellins were also found in stage V eggs after chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B column and hydroxylapatite and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:12507605

  5. Association of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms with clinical and metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Gustavo A. Rosa; Moreira, Ricardo P. P.; Bugano, Diogo D. G.; Hayashida, Sylvia A. Y.; Marcondes, José A. M.; Gomes, Larissa G.; Mendonça, Berenice B.; Bachega, Tânia A. S. S.; Baracat, Edmund C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with clinical and metabolic profiles in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex endocrine disease that affects 5-8% of women and may be associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cortisol action and dysregulation account for metabolic syndrome development in the general population. As glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) polymorphisms regulate cortisol sensitivity, we hypothesized that variants of this gene may be involved in the adverse metabolic profiles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. METHOD: Clinical, metabolic and hormonal profiles were evaluated in 97 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who were diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. The alleles of the glucocorticoid gene were genotyped. Association analyses were performed using the appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome were observed in 42.3% and 26.8% of patients, respectively. Body mass index was positively correlated with blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL-c, total cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels as well as HOMA-IR values and inversely correlated with HDL-c and SHBG levels. The BclI and A3669G variants were found in 24.7% and 13.4% of alleles, respectively. BclI carriers presented a lower frequency of insulin resistance compared with wild-type subjects. CONCLUSION: The BclI variant is associated with a lower frequency of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Glucocorticoid gene polymorphism screening during treatment of the syndrome may be useful for identifying subgroups of at-risk patients who would benefit the most from personalized treatment. PMID:24626943

  6. Ultrasound localization of the ovaries for radiation-induced ovarian ablation.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, C; Harnett, A N; Brunt, A M

    1999-01-01

    The case notes and simulator films were reviewed from 70 sequential patients who received pelvic irradiation to induce an early menopause as part of their treatment for breast cancer at the Staffordshire Oncology Centre. These patients underwent ultrasound localization of the ovaries immediately prior to simulation. Altogether, 128 ovaries were plotted on a diagrammatic representation of a gynaecoid pelvis to represent their position in both craniocaudal and lateral dimensions in relation to the true bony pelvis. The craniocaudal ovarian position varied from 2.5 cm above the lower aspect of the sacroiliac joint to 2.0 cm above the symphysis pubis. Three (4.6%) right sided ovaries were within 1 cm medial to the right lateral side wall, with none lying lateral to the wall. Seventeen (26%) left sided ovaries were lying within 1 cm of the left pelvic side wall, with four of these lying outside. The limits of the pelvic fields used were from the top of the sacroiliac joint to the bottom of the symphysis pubis. Sixty-one (88%) upper borders were on or above the lower sacroiliac joint. Twenty-six (38%) and 49 (71%) fields were outside the right and left pelvic side walls respectively. This would suggest that field sizes were larger than standard; however, 87% were smaller than 150 cm(2) (assuming a 10x15-cm field as standard). Only one patient failed to respond to treatment. This was thought to be due to underdosing rather than a geographical miss. This patient was successfully retreated. The authors advocate the use of ultrasound localization prior to planning an irradiation menopause, to ensure that the ovaries are encompassed in the pelvic field, thus preventing a geographical miss and reducing field sizes. PMID:10663329

  7. Floral and Inflorescence Morphology and Ontogeny in Beta vulgaris, with Special Emphasis on the Ovary Position

    PubMed Central

    Olvera, Hilda Flores; Smets, Erik; Vrijdaghs, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In spite of recent phylogenetic analyses for the Chenopodiaceae–Amaranthaceae complex, some morphological characters are not unambiguously interpreted, which raises homology questions. Therefore, ontogenetic investigations, emphasizing on ‘bracteoles’ in Atripliceae and flowers in Chenopodioideae, were conducted. This first paper presents original ontogenetic observations in Beta vulgaris, which was chosen as a reference species for further comparative investigation because of its unclarified phylogenetic position and its flowers with a (semi-)inferior ovary, whereas all other Chenopodiaceae–Amaranthaceae have hypogynous flowers. Methods Inflorescences and flowers were examined using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Key Results Floral development starts from an inflorescence unit primordium subtended by a lateral bract. This primordium develops into a determinate axis on which two opposite lateral flowers originate, each subtended by a bracteole. On a flower primordium, first five tepal primordia appear, followed by five opposite stamen primordia. Simultaneously, a convex floral apex appears, which differentiates into an annular ovary primordium with three stigma primordia, surrounding a central, single ovule. A floral tube, which raises the outer floral whorls, envelops the ovary, resulting in a semi-inferior ovary at mature stage. Similarly, a stamen tube is formed, raising the insertion points of the stamens, and forming a staminal ring, which does not contain stomata. During floral development, the calyces of the terminal flower and of one of the lateral flowers often fuse, forming a compound fruit structure. Conclusions In Beta vulgaris, the inflorescence is compound, consisting of an indeterminate main axis with many elementary dichasia as inflorescence units, of which the terminal flower and one lateral flower fuse at a later stage. Floral parts develop starting from the outer whorl towards the gynoecium. Because of the formation of an epigynous hypanthium, the ovary becomes semi-inferior in the course of floral development. PMID:18694878

  8. Role of macrophage secretions on rat polycystic ovary: its effect on apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Florencia; Motta, Alicia; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabian; Oliveros, Liliana; Forneris, Myriam

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. Little is known about its etiology, although the evidence suggests an intrinsic ovarian abnormality in which endocrine, metabolic, neural and immune factors would be involved. In this work, the effects of macrophage (MO) secretion on ovarian apoptosis in a polycystic ovary syndrome rat model (PCO rat) induced by estradiol valerate are studied. Spleen MO secretions were used to stimulate ovaries and ovarian interstitial and granulosa cells from both PCO and control rats. Ovarian hormones and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by RIA; ovarian mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl2 and NFkB by RT-PCR; and ovarian inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by western blot. The number of apoptotic cells was evaluated by TUNEL. In the PCO ovary, the MO secretions from PCO rats increased the Bax and NFkB mRNA expressions and increased TUNEL staining in both granulosa and theca cells. In addition, the PCO MO secretions produced a decrease of nitric oxide release, iNOS protein level and PGE2 content in the PCO ovary, and it also induced an increase of androstenedione production by PCO interstitial cells, in comparison with control MO secretions. Considering these results and knowing that testosterone stimulates tumour necrosis factor-α production by PCO MO modifying ovarian response by increasing androstenedione, it is reasonable to suggest that the increase of androgens stimulated in ovarian cells by PCO MO secretions could in turn stimulate the cytokine production from MO, thus maintaining an apoptotic vicious cycle in the PCO ovary. PMID:26264225

  9. Lipopolysaccharide enhances apoptosis of corpus luteum in isolated perfused bovine ovaries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lttgenau, J; Mller, B; Kradolfer, D; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M; Miyamoto, A; Ulbrich, S E; Bollwein, H

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, has detrimental effects on the structure and function of bovine corpus luteum (CL) in vivo. The objective was to investigate whether these effects were mediated directly by LPS or via LPS-induced release of PGF2?. Bovine ovaries with a mid-cycle CL were collected immediately after slaughter and isolated perfused for 240 min. After 60 min of equilibration, LPS (0.5 ?g/ml) was added to the medium of five ovaries, whereas an additional six ovaries were not treated with LPS (control). After 210 min of perfusion, all ovaries were treated with 500 iu of hCG. In the effluent perfusate, concentrations of progesterone (P4) and PGF2? were measured every 10 and 30 min, respectively. Punch biopsies of the CL were collected every 60 min and used for RT-qPCR to evaluate mRNA expression of receptors for LPS (TLR2, -4) and LH (LHCGR); the cytokine TNFA; steroidogenic (STAR, HSD3B), angiogenic (VEGFA121, FGF2), and vasoactive (EDN1) factors; and factors of prostaglandin synthesis (PGES, PGFS, PTGFR) and apoptosis (CASP3, -8, -9). Treatment with LPS abolished the hCG-induced increase in P4 (P?0.05); however, there was a tendency (P=0.10) for increased release of PGF2? at 70 min after LPS challenge. Furthermore, mRNA abundance of TLR2, TNFA, CASP3, CASP8, PGES, PGFS, and VEGFA121 increased (P?0.05) after LPS treatment, whereas all other factors remained unchanged (P>0.05). In conclusion, reduced P4 responsiveness to hCG in LPS-treated ovaries in vitro was not due to reduced steroidogenesis, but was attributed to enhanced apoptosis. However, an impact of luteal PGF2? could not be excluded. PMID:26483517

  10. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.K.; Schuh, R.A.; Fiskum, G.; Flaws, J.A. . E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

    2006-11-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

  11. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Molecular characterization, quantification in plasma, liver and ovary, and maturational proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibáñez, A Jose; Köksoy, Sadi; Amano, Haruna; Sullivan, Craig V

    2016-01-01

    Three complete vitellogenin (Vtg) polypeptides of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an acanthomorph teleost spawning pelagic eggs in seawater, were deduced from cDNA and identified as VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC based on current Vtg nomenclature and phylogeny. Label free quantitative mass spectrometry verified the presence of the three sea bass Vtgs or their product yolk proteins (YPs) in liver, plasma and ovary of postvitellogenic females. As evidenced by normalized spectral counts, VtgAb-derived protein was 2- to 5-fold more abundant, depending on sample type, than for VtgAa, while VtgC-derived protein was less abundant, albeit only 3-fold lower than for VtgAb in the ovary. Western blotting with Vtg type-specific antisera raised against corresponding gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) lipovitellins (Lvs) detected all three types of sea bass Vtg in the blood plasma of gravid females and/or estrogenized males and showed that all three forms of sea bass Lv undergo limited partial degradation during oocyte maturation. The comparatively high levels of VtgC-derived YPs in fully-grown oocytes and the maturational proteolysis of all three types of Lv differ from what has been reported for other teleosts spawning pelagic eggs in seawater but are similar to recent findings for two species of North American Moronidae, the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana), which spawn pelagic and demersal eggs, respectively in fresh water. Together with the high Vtg sequence homologies and virtually identical structural features of each type of Vtg between species, these findings indicate that the moronid multiple Vtg systems do not substantially vary with reproductive environment. PMID:26643259

  12. Glucose-Stimulated Oxidative Stress in Mononuclear Cells Is Related to Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Kirwan, John P.; Sia, Chang Ling

    2014-01-01

    Context: Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the development of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Objective: We determined the relationship between mononuclear cell (MNC)-derived ROS generation and p47phox protein content in response to glucose ingestion and β-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: This study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Twenty-nine normoglycemic women with PCOS (13 lean, 16 obese) and 25 ovulatory controls (16 lean, 9 obese) underwent a 3-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Main Outcome Variables: Pancreatic β-cell function was calculated as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (insulin/glucose area under the curve0–30 min; GSIS) × Matsuda index-derived insulin sensitivity (ISOGTT). ROS generation was measured by chemiluminescence, and p47phox protein was quantified by Western blotting in MNC isolated from blood samples obtained at 0 and 2 hours of the OGTT. Results: Compared with controls, women with PCOS exhibited a higher percent change from baseline in ROS generation and p47phox protein in conjunction with greater GSIS and a tendency toward lower β-cell function. Lean women with PCOS exhibited a greater percent change from baseline in ROS generation and p47phox protein yet had similar GSIS responses compared with lean controls despite having lower ISOGTT. For the combined groups, β-cell function was inversely related to ROS generation and p47phox protein. GSIS was directly related to body mass index, central obesity, and circulating androgens. Conclusion: In normoglycemic women, obesity plays a role in exaggerating GSIS. However, MNC-derived oxidative stress is independent of obesity and may contribute to the decline in β-cell function in women with PCOS. PMID:24203060

  13. Differential expression analysis of Paralichthys olivaceus microRNAs in adult ovary and testis by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yifeng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaowu

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gonadal development and differentiation in fish. However, understanding of the mechanism of this process is hindered by our poor knowledge of miRNA expression patterns in fish gonads. In this study, miRNA libraries derived from adult gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus were generated by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to distinguish mature miRNA sequences from two classes of small RNAs represented in the sequencing data. A total of 141 mature miRNAs were identified, in which 21 miRNAs were found in P. olivaceus for the first time. Variance and preference of miRNAs expression were concluded from the deep sequencing reads. Some miRNAs, such as pol-miR-143, pol-miR-26a and pol-let-7a were found with quite high expression levels in both gonads, while some exhibited a clear sex-biased expression in different gonad. Approximate 20.0% and 13.1% of the isolated miRNAs were preferentially expressed in the testis (FC<0.5) or ovary (FC>2), respectively. The identification and the preliminary analysis of the sex-biased expression of miRNAs in P. olivaceus gonads in our work by using NGS will provide us a basic catalog of miRNAs to facilitate future improvement and exploitation of sexual regulatory mechanisms in P. olivaceus. PMID:24861804

  14. Three-dimensional culture of a mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: expression of in vivo characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Prewett, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.; Becker, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) is a novel in vitro cell culture system used to successfully culture a cell line derived from a heterologous mixed mullerian tumor cell of the ovary. Although the original tumor was comprised of both epithelial and mesodermal components, long-term culture in conventional flasks established a cell line from this tumor with homogeneous epitheliallike growth characteristics (1). Cells from Passage 36 were seeded into a Rotating-Wall Vessel containing Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads. Scanning electron micrographs of tumor cells cultured for 32 d in the RWV showed the presence of heterogeneous cell populations organized into three-dimensional tissuelike architecture. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed the cellular heterogeneity, as demonstrated by expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal antigens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification demonstrated the presence of mRNA for cellular oncogenes HER-2/neu, H-ras, K-ras, and tumor suppressor p53. Thus, there are two advantages to propagation of tissue in the RWV culture system:(a) tissue diversification representing populations present in the original tumor, and (b) the three-dimensional freedom to organize tissues morphologically akin to those observed in vivo. These data indicate that the RWV culture system is suitable for generating large quantities of ovarian tumor cells in vitro that are amenable to immunocytochemical, oncogenic, morphologic characteristics demonstrated in vivo.

  15. Biologically active constituents from Salix viminalis bio-oil and their protective activity against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Ilnicka, Anna; Roszek, Katarzyna; Olejniczak, Andrzej; Komoszynski, Michal; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P

    2014-11-01

    The protective antioxidative effect of the phenolic extract (PE) isolated from Salix viminalis pyrolysis derived bio-oil was shown in vitro on the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cells pretreated with 0.05 ?g/ml PE after exposure to different concentrations of H2O2 (300-900 ?M) showed up to 25 % higher viability than the unpretreated ones. The antioxidative effect of PE was also observed in a time-dependent manner. The results were confirmed by visual examination of the specimens using microscopy. Finally, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity modulation was shown by SOD assay, designed to determine the activity of enzymes removing free radicals. PMID:25172057

  16. The Stage- and Cell Type-Specific Localization of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Rat Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Tarumi, Wataru; Itoh, Masanori T; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2015-12-01

    Premutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are associated with increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency. Here we examined the localization of the Fmr1 gene protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), in rat ovaries at different stages, including fetus, neonate, and old age. In ovaries dissected from 19 days postcoitum embryos, the germ cells were divided into 2 types: one with decondensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP positive in the cytoplasm, but the other with strongly condensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP negative in the cytoplasm. The FMRP was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm of oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. Levels of FMRP in oocytes from elderly (9 or 14 months of age) ovaries were lower than in those from younger ovaries. These results suggest that FMRP is associated with the activation of oogenesis and oocyte function. Especially, FMRP is likely to be implicated in germline development during oogenesis. PMID:26037301

  17. Bisphenol A exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown by reducing apoptosis in cultured neonatal mouse ovaries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changqing; Wang, Wei; Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a known endocrine disrupting chemical and reproductive toxicant. Previous studies indicate that in utero BPA exposure increases the percentage of germ cells in nests and decreases the percentage of primordial follicles. However, the mechanism by which BPA affects germ cell nest breakdown is unknown. Thus, we hypothesized that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown by interfering with oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. To test our hypothesis, ovaries from newborn mice were collected and cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) or different doses of BPA (0.1, 1, 5, and 10?g/mL). Ovaries then were subjected to histological evaluation of germ cell nests and primordial follicles or to measurements of factors that regulate oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our results indicate that in vitro BPA exposure significantly inhibits germ cell nest breakdown by altering the expression of key ovarian apoptotic genes, but not by interfering with the oxidative stress pathway. PMID:26049153

  18. Hormonal changes associated with experimentally produced cystic ovaries in the cow.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nadaraja R; Hansel W

    1976-01-01

    Cystic ovaries were experimentally produced by i.m. injection of 5 mg oestradiol valerate on Day 16 of the oestrous cycle or by s.c. injection of 100 ml antiserum to bovine LH before the onset of oestrus. The length of the cycle after both treatments was altered. The cysts formed after oestradiol injection were relatively small (2-5-3 cm diameter) and thin-walled, and were accompanied by relatively low plasma oestrone and high oestradiol levels; those after LH antiserum treatment were large (5-0-6-0 cm) and firm and associated with relatively low oestradiol and high oestrone levels. The results of the hormone assays after treatment support the theory that cystic ovaries could result from premature LH release or an insufficiency of LH at the time of ovulation.

  19. Hormonal changes associated with experimentally produced cystic ovaries in the cow.

    PubMed

    Nadaraja, R; Hansel, W

    1976-07-01

    Cystic ovaries were experimentally produced by i.m. injection of 5 mg oestradiol valerate on Day 16 of the oestrous cycle or by s.c. injection of 100 ml antiserum to bovine LH before the onset of oestrus. The length of the cycle after both treatments was altered. The cysts formed after oestradiol injection were relatively small (2-5-3 cm diameter) and thin-walled, and were accompanied by relatively low plasma oestrone and high oestradiol levels; those after LH antiserum treatment were large (5-0-6-0 cm) and firm and associated with relatively low oestradiol and high oestrone levels. The results of the hormone assays after treatment support the theory that cystic ovaries could result from premature LH release or an insufficiency of LH at the time of ovulation. PMID:957319

  20. Estrogen receptor ? controls MMP-19 expression in mouse ovaries during ovulation.

    PubMed

    Nalvarte, Ivan; Thnen, Virpi; Lindeberg, Maria; Varshney, Mukesh; Gustafsson, Jan-ke; Inzunza, Jos

    2016-03-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER?/ESR2) has a central role in mouse ovaries, as ER? knockout (BERKO) mice are subfertile due to an increase in fibrosis around the maturing follicle and a decrease in blood supply. This has a consequence that these follicles rarely rupture to release the mature oocyte. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are modulators of the extracellular matrix, and the expression of one specific MMP, MMP-19, is normally increased in granulosa cells during their maturation until ovulation. In this study, we demonstrate that MMP-19 levels are downregulated in BERKO mouse ovaries. Using human MCF-7 cells that overexpress ER?, we could identify MMP-19 to be a transcriptional target of ligand-bound activated ER? acting on a specificity protein-1 binding site. These data provide a molecular explanation for the observed follicle rupture defect that contributes to the subfertility of female BERKO mice. PMID:26700939

  1. [The differential diagnosis of hairy virilism in polycystic ovaries from adrenal cortical hirsutism].

    PubMed

    Maleeva, A; Milkov, V; Visheva, N; Kekhaĭova, M

    1990-01-01

    The hormones on the axis hypophysis-ovary and hypophysis-suprarenal gland were examined in 60 women with polycystic ovaries and hairy virilism, 53 women with hirsutism and 45 healthy women, all of the same age. The results show that in hairy virilism from ovarian origin the luteinizing hormone level (LH) is increased 100% and the follicle stimulating hormone level (FSH) is decreased 200%. The index LH/FSH is increased more than 3 times. The testosterone and androstanedione levels are increased, too. In patients with suprarenal-cortex hirsutism the levels of ACTH, androstanedione, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, testosterone and cortisol are increased. A hirsutism from running with hyperprolactinemia is differentiated. The three hirsutism forms may appear as separate forms or in combination. PMID:2178292

  2. [Gonadogenesis and color characteristics of ovaries in Japanese mitten crab Eriocheir japonicus].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, M V; Vinnikova, N A; Semen'kova, E G

    2008-01-01

    The gonadogenesis was studied in adult and juvenile females of Japanese mitten crab Eriocheir japonicus (Crustacea: Decapoda, Grapsida) inhabiting the rivers of the Maritime Territory. The morphometric parameters of oocytes at different stages of maturity were determined using the methods of computer morphometry and color characteristics were evaluated using the Munsell Book of Color. As a result, a color table was compiled for the ovaries from the beginning of development to gonad maturity, which included light yellow (sandy), yellow, beige, light purple, light brown, dark purple, brown (chocolate), and dark brown (brown). The regular changes in the ovary color of E. japonicus proved to closely correlate with the gonadogenesis, namely, with the composition of cells at each stage of gonad maturity. PMID:18409381

  3. Atropine and testosterone propionate induced atretic changes in granulosa cells of house rat (Rattus rattus) ovary.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K; Guraya, S S

    1997-11-01

    Degenerative changes in membrana granulosa of ovaries in R. rattus have been studied using scanning electron microscopy. Ovaries from rats treated with atropine (300 mg/kg body weight) and testosterone propionate (10 IU) were used to study sequential course of atresia in granulosa cells. Granulosa cells undergoing atresia showed degenerative changes in following order i) loosening of intercellular matrix, ii) changed morphology and texture of secretory granules, iii) destabilization of granulosa cell membranes, iv) erosion of cell membrane, v) formation of specific degenerative belts, vi) pycnosis, vii) ghost cell formation and their subsequent mixing in hazzy follicular fluid of cyst. Phenomenon of atresia, its duration, course and underlying causes have been discussed. PMID:9567743

  4. Scientific Statement on the Diagnostic Criteria, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Molecular Genetics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Oberfield, Sharon E; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Marshall, John C; Laven, Joop S; Legro, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous and complex disorder that has both adverse reproductive and metabolic implications for affected women. However, there is generally poor understanding of its etiology. Varying expert-based diagnostic criteria utilize some combination of oligo-ovulation, hyperandrogenism, and the presence of polycystic ovaries. Criteria that require hyperandrogenism tend to identify a more severe reproductive and metabolic phenotype. The phenotype can vary by race and ethnicity, is difficult to define in the perimenarchal and perimenopausal period, and is exacerbated by obesity. The pathophysiology involves abnormal gonadotropin secretion from a reduced hypothalamic feedback response to circulating sex steroids, altered ovarian morphology and functional changes, and disordered insulin action in a variety of target tissues. PCOS clusters in families and both female and male relatives can show stigmata of the syndrome, including metabolic abnormalities. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of candidate regions, although their role in contributing to PCOS is still largely unknown. PMID:26426951

  5. Inguinal Hernia Containing Uterus, Fallopian Tube, and Ovary in a Premature Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz Cerit, K?v?lc?m; Ergelen, Rabia; Colak, Emel; Dagli, Tolga E.

    2015-01-01

    A female infant weighing 2,200?g was delivered at 34 weeks of gestation by vaginal delivery. She presented with an irreducible mass in the left inguinal region at 32 days of age. An ultrasonography (US) was performed and an incarcerated hernia containing uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary was diagnosed preoperatively. Surgery was performed through an inguinal approach; the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary were found in the hernia sac. High ligation and an additional repair of the internal inguinal ring were performed. Patent processus vaginalis was found during contralateral exploration and also closed. The postoperative course was uneventful. After one year of follow-up, there have been no signs of recurrence. PMID:26351609

  6. Expression characteristics of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in guinea pig ovaries during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Li, J R; Shen, T

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the expression characteristics of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the ovaries of normal adult guinea pigs during the estrous cycle. The estrous cycle was classified according to the appearance of the vaginal orifice and by vaginal exfoliated cell smears. Guinea pigs that had experienced at least two normal estrous cycles were selected. Ovaries were collected from guinea pigs at proestrus or metestrus (N = 6). The expression characteristics of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), MMP-2, and MMP-9 were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that MMP-2, MMP-9, and StAR were significantly expressed in the granulosa and thecal cells of the ovarian atretic follicles during proestrus, and were strongly expressed in the corpus luteum during metestrus. PMID:26782373

  7. Superoxide Mediates the Toxicity of Paraquat for Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, Ann C.; Krall, Judith; Lynch, Robert E.

    1986-05-01

    The roles of superoxide and H2O2 in the cytotoxicity of paraquat were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Neither catalase nor superoxide dismutase inhibited the loss of ability to form colonies when added to the medium. When introduced into the cells, superoxide dismutase but not catalase inhibited the toxicity of paraquat. That superoxide dismutase acted by its known catalytic action is shown by the loss of inhibition when the enzyme was inactivated by H2O2 before being introduced into the cells. The lack of inhibition by catalase, by dimethyl sulfoxide, and by desferoxamine suggests that the toxicity is not mediated by a reaction between H2O2 and superoxide to engender the hydroxyl radical. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to paraquat may be a suitable means to determine the effects of superoxide anion in cultured cells and the ways in which cells can resist this toxic action.

  8. Ovary transcriptome profiling of Coilia nasus during spawning migration stages by Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-Rong; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Xu, Dong-Po; Zhang, Min-Ying; Liu, Kai; Shi, Ying; Wei, Qi-Wei; Fang, Di-An

    2015-06-01

    Coilia nasus is an anadromous kind of small to moderate size fish species, and limited transcriptomics research has been performed. In the present study, we performed Illumina sequencing to produce a 22,996,612 clean reads representing with a total of 4,599,079,601 (4.5Gb) nucleotides comprehensive transcript dataset for ovary of C. nasus. Over 20 million total reads were assembled into 63,141 unigenes, and 27,027 annotated genes were predicted by Blastx and ESTScan, respectively. Applying Blast analysis and functional annotation (e.g., GO, COG, Swissprot and KEGG), we have sampled an extensive and diverse expressed gene catalog for C. nasus representing a large proportion of the genes expressed in the ovary development process. This approach will assist in the discovery and annotation of novel genes that play key roles in anadromous fish spawning migration process. PMID:25733195

  9. Delayed presentation of uterine perforation with ovary migration after dilatation and curettage

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shili; Tao, Guowei; Dong, Baihua; Shi, Linlin; Dong, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare but serious uterine perforation. A 31-year-old woman was referred to our department for hyperechogenic mass in uterus on ultrasonography after Dilation and curettage (D&C) for the adherent placenta and retained products of conception. Transvaginal ultrasound examination showed that a mass with several follicles measuring 3529 mm was seen emanating from the right posterior wall of the uterine cavity, and there was absence of the myometrial tissue. A hysteroscopy and laparoscopy showed a uterine perforation with ovary incarceration. The ovary was rehabilitated, and the uterine perforation site was incised. D&C can not be performed when delayed presentation of uterine perforation with migration of an extrauterine organ is suspected, particularly, some of them are asymptomatic after a difficult intrauterine operation. PMID:26131247

  10. [Agressive small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type, surgery and oncological treatment: case report].

    PubMed

    Kapoun, M; Bouda, J; Presl, J; Vlask, P; Slune?ko, R

    2015-06-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary (SCCOHT) is a rare tumor typically affecting young women. It is a highly malignant tumor accompanied with poor prognosis, early relapse and low survival rates. The most significant prognostic factor is stage of the disease. Due to above mentioned factors there are no guidelines for therapy of this rare tumor. We present a case of 22-years-old patient initially treated with antibiotics under diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease. Due to persistent mass at left adnexa, she was indicated for diagnostic laparoscopy, converted to laparotomy and left adnexectomy with frozen section revealing unspecified malignant tumor of left ovary. A conservative operation was performed and, after diagnosis of SCCOHT was established, the patient was indicated for adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26087218

  11. A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2 Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape. PMID:24519535

  12. Contribution of real-time elastography in diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ?rac?, Saliha; Tan, Sinan; zcan, Ay?enur ?irin; Aslan, Ahmet; Keskin, Hseyin Levent; Ate?, mer Faruk; Akay, Y?ld?z; Arslan, Halil

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of real-time elastography (RTE) for displaying the effects of morphological changes in the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS Forty-eight patients diagnosed with PCOS and 48 healthy women were enrolled in the study. Ultrasonography and RTE were performed on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle. Evaluations were performed independently by two radiologists. Ovarian volume, number of follicles, elasticity pattern, and strain ratio were measured. Elasticity patterns were assessed as hard (type 1; blue or blue-green), moderate (type 2; green or green-yellow) or soft (type 3; red or orange-red). RESULTS Both radiologists determined the elasticity pattern as mostly type 1 in the PCOS group and type 3 in the control group (P < 0.01). The mean strain ratios obtained by the first and second radiologist were 6.11.8 (2.710.1) and 6.01.5 (3.09.0) in PCOS and 3.31.2 (1.77.2) and 3.20.9 (1.76.8) in the control group, respectively (P < 0.001). Interobserver agreement was moderate for the elasticity pattern (?=0.48) and good for the strain ratio (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.77). A strain ratio of 3.8 was determined as the optimized cutoff point by receiver operating curve analysis. Strain ratio was correlated with the ovarian volume and the number of detected follicles (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Elasticity pattern and strain ratio can help identify morphological changes that make PCOS ovaries stiffer than normal ovaries. PMID:25616270

  13. Evidence-Based Management of Infertility in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Catherine M; Moore, Monica; Gundell, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a polygenic disorder with a variable phenotype that commonly affects women of reproductive age. It can significantly affect a woman's ability to conceive and her quality of life. Effective treatment includes a multidisciplinary team approach that addresses the physiological and psychosocial manifestations of the disorder. Nurses have an important role in promoting early detection, education, and identification of services and resources to improve a woman's fertility and lifelong health. PMID:26815805

  14. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone functions independently of the insulin receptor in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Dhara, Animesh; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Robertson, Anne; Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Vogel, Kevin J.; Clark, Kevin D.; Graf, Rolf; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Most mosquito species must feed on the blood of a vertebrate host to produce eggs. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, blood feeding triggers medial neurosecretory cells in the brain to release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH). Theses hormones thereafter directly induce the ovaries to produce ecdysteroid hormone (ECD), which activates the synthesis of yolk proteins in the fat body for uptake by oocytes. ILP3 stimulates ECD production by binding to the mosquito insulin receptor (MIR). In contrast, little is known about the mode of action of OEH, which is a member of a neuropeptide family called neuroparsin. Here we report that OEH is the only neuroparsin family member present in the Ae. aegypti genome and that other mosquitoes also encode only one neuroparsin gene. Immunoblotting experiments suggested that the full-length form of the peptide, which we call long OEH (lOEH), is processed into short OEH (sOEH). The importance of processing, however, remained unclear because a recombinant form of lOEH (rlOEH) and synthetic sOEH exhibited very similar biological activity. A series of experiments indicated that neither rlOEH nor sOEH bound to ILP3 or the MIR. Signaling studies further showed that ILP3 activated the MIR but rlOEH did not, yet both neuropeptides activated Akt, which is a marker for insulin pathway signaling. Our results also indicated that activation of TOR signaling in the ovaries required co-stimulation by amino acids and either ILP3 or rlOEH. Overall, we conclude that OEH activates the insulin signaling pathway independently of the MIR, and that insulin and TOR signaling in the ovaries is coupled. PMID:24076067

  15. Primary unilateral fibroleiomyoma of the ovary in a pregnant mare: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carstanjen, B; Schnert, S; Heblinski, N; Gruber, A D

    2009-12-01

    Fibroleiomyomas of the ovary are rare. This smooth muscle tumour may develop and increase in size during pregnancy. Diagnosis is based on histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Histologically, the ovarian fibroleiomyoma consists of non-invasive bundles of smooth muscle cells that synthesize collagen-like extracellular matrix. This case report describes an ovarian fibroleiomyoma in a pregnant multiparous broodmare with a history of intermittent signs of colic. PMID:18954381

  16. Unilateral or bilateral vagotomy induces ovulation in both ovaries of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development. Methods Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 9092days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear. Results In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats. Conclusions This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries. PMID:23866168

  17. Role of Ovarian Transposition Based on the Dosimetric Effects of Craniospinal Irradiation on the Ovaries: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, James D.; Hitchen, Christine; Vlachaki, Maria T.

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we present a case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function in an adult female patient treated with craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma. The prescribed dose to the craniospinal axis was 2340 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction and was delivered with 6-MV photons. Before ovarian transposition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained for localization of the ovaries and was registered with the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Surgical clips allowed for CT localization of the ovaries after transposition. As a result of ovarian transposition, mean and maximum radiation doses decreased from 983 to 68 cGy and 1624 to 84 cGy for the left ovary and from 166 to 87 cGy and 723 to 103 cGy for the right ovary, respectively. Review of the literature indicates that such radiation doses are below the threshold that causes ovarian dysfunction and infertility. We conclude that ovarian localization with an MRI of the pelvis can be offered to females undergoing craniospinal irradiation. Transposition of the ovaries provides an option to preserve ovarian function in cases where the ovaries would otherwise be included within the radiation field.

  18. Developmental competence of domestic cat oocytes from ovaries stored at various durations at 4 degrees C temperature.

    PubMed

    Evecen, Mithat; Cirit, Umt; Demir, Kamber; Karaman, Elif; Hamzao?lu, Asiye Izem; Bakirer, Gl

    2009-11-01

    Temporal storage of ovaries can provide opportunity to rescue oocytes from ovaries of endangered felids. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of different storage periods (2, 24 and 48h) of ovaries at 4 degrees C for maturation of cat oocytes in vitro. Ovaries were collected from 25 domestic cats at various stages of the estrous cycle by routine ovariohysterectomy following anesthesia at different local veterinary clinics, and maintained in physiological saline at 4 degrees C for 2, 24 or 48h until oocytes recovery. Selected COCs were maturated at 38 degrees C for 48h in four-well petri dishes, which included 500microL modified synthetic oviduct fluid (mSOF) medium under mineral oil in a humidified 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), and 90% N(2) atmosphere incubator. After the in vitro maturation period, there were no differences between the rate of oocytes matured at MII stages in 2 and 24h storage groups (50.7% and 48.2% respectively, p>0.05). However, the same result for the 48h group was significantly lower than the 2 and 24h groups (28.0%, p<0.001). Our results suggest that while 2 or 24h storage of ovaries at 4 degrees C does not affect the meiotic competence of oocytes in vitro, 48h storage of ovaries decrease the results dramatically. PMID:19231113

  19. Suppressive effect of perinatal testes on the differentiation of fetal ovaries transplanted into adult males in the rat

    PubMed Central

    NAMBA, YASUHIRO; YAMAMOTO, MASAKO; ATRISHIMA, KAZUYOSHI; EGUCHI, YASUNOBU

    1997-01-01

    A 14 d ovarian primordium was transplanted with a fetal testis (1318 d and 21 d of gestation) or a neonatal testis (15, 20, 30 and 45 d after birth) into the renal subcapsular position of an adult male rat. Two weeks after transplantation, transplants were examined as to the degree of ovarian and testicular differentiation. In the combination of a 14 d ovary and a 13 d testis, there were 3 types of result: either the ovary or the testis alone developed or both gonads developed well. Ovaries transplanted in union with 1518 d testes did not develop, although the testes developed normally. Some ovaries in union with 21 d testes developed normally. In combination with infantile testes, the incidence of developed ovaries increased as the age of testes advanced. These results suggest that the 13 d fetal testes begin to suppress the development of cotransplanted 14 d ovaries, that 1418 d fetal testes maintain such suppressive effects and that this effect gradually diminishes in infantile testes as they progress toward 45 d after birth. PMID:9279656

  20. Influence of oral contraceptive pills on phenotype expression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Annemarie G M; ten Kate-Booij, Marianne; Pal, Richard; De Kruif, Marjolijn; Nekrui, Lizka; Oostra, Ben A; Fauser, Bart C J M; Laven, Joop S E

    2005-12-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a heterogeneous phenotype including chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. The use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) alters features characteristic for the syndrome. In the present study, PCOS features were compared between women using or not using OCP at the time of the study. One hundred and one women diagnosed with normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility were included. A total of 81 (80%) women were diagnosed with PCOS (revised 2003 criteria). From these women, a total of 54 did not use OCP, whereas 27 women did. Corrected for age, women taking OCP had increased serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.001). Serum concentrations of testosterone (P = 0.04) and androstenedione (P = 0.01) were decreased. These differences resulted in a decreased free androgen index for women currently taking OCP compared with women without (P < 0.001). The mean ovarian volume/ovary and the mean follicle number/ovary were not different. Use of OCP influences phenotype expression (the observable trait) of individual women known to suffer from PCOS by reducing hyperandrogenism. Despite taking OCP, women still fulfilled the revised 2003 criteria for the syndrome, as PCO morphology was still present. Hence, OCP use does not appreciably affect the PCOS phenotype. PMID:16417732

  1. Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melton, C.M.; Zaunbrecher, G.M.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patio, R.; Whisnant, S.; Rendon, A.; Lee, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (< 1200 Da) cytosolic materials. These channels are a growing family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interspecific hybridization between Tigridia pavonia and T. augusta through ovary slice culture.

    PubMed

    Pia-Escutia, J-L; Vzquez-Garca, L-M; Arzate-Fernndez, A-M

    2013-01-01

    Tigridia pavonia is the most popular species in the Tigridia genus, and is currently marketed in Europe, Asia, and Australia as a landscape plant. Although it is native to Mexico, there are no breeding programs for it. In this study, we attempted to increase its flower color spectrum and growth habit by interspecific hybridization with T. augusta. Interspecific hybrids between T. pavonia and T. augusta were successfully obtained for the first time using the cut-style pollination and ovary slice culture techniques. On the contrary, no hybrids were obtained from a reciprocal cross. At three, four, and five days after pollination (DAP) ovaries were sliced and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators and ammonium nitrate, but were supplemented with 6% sucrose, 50 mg/L yeast extract, and 0.25% Gelrite. After 80 days of culture initiation, the germination of only 10 embryos was observed in ovary slices cultured at three DAP. After transfer to identical fresh medium, six hybrid embryos developed into seedlings. All obtained hybrid seedlings were transplanted successfully to soil, and grew normally. The progenies investigated were identified as true hybrids based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. PMID:23359019

  3. Characterization of vitellin from the ovaries of the banana shrimp Litopenaeus merguiensis.

    PubMed

    Auttarat, Jongruk; Phiriyangkul, Pharima; Utarabhand, Prapaporn

    2006-01-01

    Vitellin (Vt) was purified from ovary extracts of mature females of the banana shrimp Litopenaeus merguiensis using DEAE-Sephacel and Superdex 200 columns. Native Vt had an apparent molecular mass of 398 kDa as determined by native PAGE and by gel filtration chromatography. Under reducing and denaturing conditions (SDS-PAGE), Vt is composed of two major subunits of 87 and 78 kDa, although some faint bands were also detected. The N-terminal 10 amino acids sequence of the 78 kDa subunit is identical to that of Litopenaeus vannamei Vt and very similar to that of Litopenaeus japonicus vitellogenin (Vg) as well as Litopenaeus semisulcatus Vt, with an identity of 89%. Anti-Vt polyclonal antibody raised against purified Vt shows a high specificity with only ovarian Vt and hemolymph Vg of vitellogenic shrimps in double immunodiffusion and Western blot assays. Vg and Vt concentrations in hemolymph, hepatopancreas and ovaries were measured by ELISA. Vg concentrations increased in the hemolymph in the early stages of ovarian development and declined in the maturation stages. As there were undetectable concentrations of Vg in the hepatopancreas while an elevation of Vg levels occurred in the hemolymph, during the time that Vt was accumulating in the ovaries during oogenesis, this would suggest that the contribution of Vg synthesized by the hepatopancreas only might be not sufficient for adequate development of the oocytes in the banana shrimp L. merguiensis during vitellogenesis. PMID:16289995

  4. Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W. Hamish B. . E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B.; Saran, Frank; Kelsey, Tom W.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

  5. Chinese hamster ovary cell lysosomes retain pinocytized horseradish peroxidase and in situ-radioiodinated proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Storrie, B.; Sachdeva, M.; Viers, V.S.

    1984-02-01

    We used Chinese hamster ovary cells, a cell line of fibroblastic origin, to investigate whether lysosomes are an exocytic compartment. To label lysosomal contents, Chinese hamster ovary cells were incubated with the solute marker horseradish peroxidase. After an 18-h uptake period, horseradish peroxidase was found in lysosomes by cell fractionation in Percoll gradients and by electron microscope cytochemistry. Over a 24-h period, lysosomal horseradish peroxidase was quantitatively retained by Chinese hamster ovary cells and inactivated with a t 1/2 of 6 to 8 h. Lysosomes were radioiodinated in situ by soluble lactoperoxidase internalized over an 18-h uptake period. About 70% of the radioiodine incorporation was pelleted at 100,000 X g under conditions in which greater than 80% of the lysosomal marker enzyme beta-hexosaminidase was released into the supernatant. By one-dimensional electrophoresis, about 18 protein species were present in the lysosomal membrane fraction, with radioiodine incorporation being most pronounced into species of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons. After a 30-min or 2-h chase at 37 degrees C, radioiodine that was incorporated into lysosomal membranes and contents was retained in lysosomes. These observations indicate that lysosomes labeled by fluid-phase pinocytosis are a terminal component of endocytic pathways in fibroblasts.

  6. Biocompatible core-shell electrospun nanofibers as potential application for chemotherapy against ovary cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Eryun; Fan, Yingmei; Sun, Zhiyao; Gao, Jianwei; Hao, Xiaoyuan; Pei, Shichun; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Liguo; Zhang, Deqing

    2014-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) core-shell nanofibers are successfully fabricated by a simple coaxial electrospinning method, in which PVA forms the core layer and CS forms the shell layer. With the change of the feed ratio between PVA and CS, the surface morphology and the microstructures of the nanofibers are largely changed. The as-prepared core-shell fibers can be used as a carrier for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. FT-IR analysis demonstrates that hydrogen bond between CS and PVA chains forms. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity test indicate that the core-shell fibers are completely biocompatible and the free DOX shows higher cytotoxicity than the DOX loaded nanofibers. The standing PVA/CS core-shell fibers remarkably promote the attachment, proliferation and spreading of human ovary cancer cells (SKOV3). Via observing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the DOX released from the fibers can be delivered into SKOV3 cell nucleus, which is significant for the future tumor therapy. And, the as-prepared fibers exhibit controlled release for loaded DOX via adjusting the feed ratio between PVA and CS, and the DOX loaded nanofibers are quite effective in prohibiting the SKOV3 ovary cells attachment and proliferation, which are potential for chemotherapy of ovary cancer. PMID:24907754

  7. Advanced Mesodermal (Müllerian) Adenosarcoma of the Ovary: Metastases to the Lungs, Mouth, and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Daskalaki, A.; Xenaki, S.; Athanasakis, E.; Chrysos, E.; Chalkiadakis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) is a malignant neoplasm found in the uterus, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and other parts of the body that contains both carcinomatous (epithelial tissue) and sarcomatous (connective tissue) components. Outcome of MMMTs is determined primarily by depth of invasion and stage. The metastatic background of these lesions is controversial and unknown. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with anorexia, weakness, and persistent coughing. The imaging exams revealed a solid, promiscuous lesion of 16 × 14 cm in dimensions located into the small pelvis, surrounding the uterus and the ovaries. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy. The mass was removed and the histological examination of the specimen revealed an advanced mesodermal adenocarcinoma of the ovary (MMMT). Nine days after the operation the patient presented with metastatic lesions in the mouth as well as the lungs. Within a month after the discharge from the hospital metastatic lesions of the MMMT were also depicted in the CT brain scan. Conclusion. Despite the fact that sarcomas have a long-term metastatic potential, to our knowledge this is the first case of Müllerian adenosarcoma presenting with such extraperitoneal metastases. PMID:26844003

  8. Profiling the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of porcine ovaries using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Gao, Ning; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Liu, Jing; He, Jin-Long; Xu, Yuan; Lin, Wen-Mian; Chen, Zan-Mou; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jia-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence has shown that DNA methylation regulates the initiation of ovarian and sexual maturation. Here, we investigated the genome-wide profile of DNA methylation in porcine ovaries at single-base resolution using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. The biological variation was minimal among the three ovarian replicates. We found hypermethylation frequently occurred in regions with low gene abundance, while hypomethylation in regions with high gene abundance. The DNA methylation around transcriptional start sites was negatively correlated with their own CpG content. Additionally, the methylation level in the bodies of genes was higher than that in their 5′ and 3′ flanking regions. The DNA methylation pattern of the low CpG content promoter genes differed obviously from that of the high CpG content promoter genes. The DNA methylation level of the porcine ovary was higher than that of the porcine intestine. Analyses of the genome-wide DNA methylation in porcine ovaries would advance the knowledge and understanding of the porcine ovarian methylome. PMID:26912189

  9. Enhancer-Trap Flippase Lines for Clonal Analysis in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pamela; Sahai-Hernandez, Pankaj; Bohm, Rudolf A.; Welch, William P.; Zhang, Bing; Nystul, Todd

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster genetic tool box includes many stocks for generating genetically mosaic tissue in which a clone of cells, related by lineage, contain a common genetic alteration. These tools have made it possible to study the postembryonic function of essential genes and to better understand how individual cells interact within intact tissues. We have screened through 201 enhancer-trap flippase lines to identify lines that produce useful clone patterns in the adult ovary. We found that approximately 70% of the lines produced clones that were present in the adult ovary and that many ovarian cell types were represented among the different clone patterns produced by these lines. We have also identified and further characterized five particularly useful enhancer-trap flippase lines. These lines make it possible to generate clones specifically in germ cells, escort cells, prefollicle cells, or terminal filament cells. In addition, we have found that chickadee is specifically upregulated in the posterior escort cells, follicle stem cells, and prefollicle cells that comprise the follicle stem cell niche region. Collectively, these studies provide several new tools for genetic mosaic analysis in the Drosophila ovary. PMID:25024257

  10. Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 3550 m oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 12 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

  11. Enhancer-trap flippase lines for clonal analysis in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pamela; Sahai-Hernandez, Pankaj; Bohm, Rudolf A; Welch, William P; Zhang, Bing; Nystul, Todd

    2014-09-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster genetic tool box includes many stocks for generating genetically mosaic tissue in which a clone of cells, related by lineage, contain a common genetic alteration. These tools have made it possible to study the postembryonic function of essential genes and to better understand how individual cells interact within intact tissues. We have screened through 201 enhancer-trap flippase lines to identify lines that produce useful clone patterns in the adult ovary. We found that approximately 70% of the lines produced clones that were present in the adult ovary and that many ovarian cell types were represented among the different clone patterns produced by these lines. We have also identified and further characterized five particularly useful enhancer-trap flippase lines. These lines make it possible to generate clones specifically in germ cells, escort cells, prefollicle cells, or terminal filament cells. In addition, we have found that chickadee is specifically upregulated in the posterior escort cells, follicle stem cells, and prefollicle cells that comprise the follicle stem cell niche region. Collectively, these studies provide several new tools for genetic mosaic analysis in the Drosophila ovary. PMID:25024257

  12. Analysis of Muscle and Ovary Transcriptome of Sus scrofa: Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Qinghua; Fang, Meixia; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoning; He, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiquan

    2011-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa) is an important organism for both agricultural and medical purpose. This study aims to investigate the S. scrofa transcriptome by the use of Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained a total of 558 743 and 528 260 reads for the back-leg muscle and ovary tissue each. The overall 1 087 003 reads give rise to 421 767 341 bp total residues averaging 388 bp per read. The de novo assemblies yielded 11 057 contigs and 60 270 singletons for the back-leg muscle, 12 204 contigs and 70 192 singletons for the ovary and 18 938 contigs and 102 361 singletons for combined tissues. The overall GC content of S. scrofa transcriptome is 42.3% for assembled contigs. Alternative splicing was found within 4394 contigs, giving rise to 1267 isogroups or genes. A total of 56 589 transcripts are involved in molecular function (40 916), biological process (38 563), cellular component (35 787) by further gene ontology analyses. Comparison analyses showed that 336 and 553 genes had significant higher expression in the back-leg muscle and ovary each. In addition, we obtained a total of 24 214 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 11 928 simple sequence repeats. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetic makeup of S. scrofa transcriptome and provide useful information for functional genomic research in future. PMID:21729922

  13. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  14. In vivo inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and growth in tobacco ovary tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    Post fertilization growth of tobacco ovary tissues treated with inhibitors of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis was examined in relation to endogenous PA titers and the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17). DL-alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), specific, irreversible ("suicide") inhibitors of ODC and ADC in vitro, were used to modulate PA biosynthesis in excised flowers. ODC represented >99% of the total decarboxylase activity in tobacco ovaries. In vivo inhibition of ODC with DFMO resulted in a significant decrease in PA titers, ovary fresh weight and protein content. Simultaneous inhibition of both decarboxylases by DFMO and DFMA produced only a marginally greater depression in growth and PA titers, indicating that ODC activity is rate-limiting for PA biosynthesis in these tissues. Paradoxically, DFMA alone inhibited PA biosynthesis, not as a result of a specific inhibition of ADC, but primarily through the inactivation of ODC. In vivo inhibition of ODC by DFMA appears to result from arginase-mediated hydrolysis of this inhibitor to urea and DFMO, the suicide substrate for ODC. Putrescine conjugates in tobacco appear to function as a storage form of this amine which, upon hydrolysis, may contribute to Put homeostasis during growth.

  15. [Early diagnosis of malignant tumors of the the ovary using ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Todorovi?, G; Visnjevac, V; Pasi?, R

    1990-01-01

    On Gynecology-Obstetric Clinic in Sarajevo in 100 women, aged 22-80, was made the indication for laparotomy because of the changes on ovaries and it was done according to the palpatory, ultrasound and laparoscopic examination. After the operative treatment and pathologic verification from the 100 studied tumors were found 15 (15%) carcinous cystadenoma, 2 (2%) mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, 25 (25%) serous cystadenoma, 10 (10%) serous cystadenocarcinoma, 10 (10%) adenocarcinoma, 23 (23%) teratoma and 13 (13%) tumors of the other kind, 25 (25%) of tumors were malign and 75 (75%) was benign. The predicted value of the ultrasoundly proved malignity was 80% (20 from 25 patients) and for the benign tumors it was 96% (72 from 75 patients). Malignant tumor of ovary is the third most common malignant disease of genital organs of a woman and at the same time the most often cause of death of women suffering from gynecologic malignant diseases. From all kinds of gynecologic malignant tumors 25% are carcinoma of ovaries. It is the cause of death in 47% women with the malignant diseases of genital organs. The bad prognosis of this tumor is mostly caused by the late diagnosis. Patients most often do not feel any disturbances until the illness comes to the phase of methastase and the most of patients (60-70%) at the time of diagnosis is already in the III or IV stage of illness. PMID:2093774

  16. Diltiazem prevention of toxic effects of monosodium glutamate on ovaries in rats.

    PubMed

    Bojani?, Vladmila; Bojani?, Zoran; Najman, Stevo; Savi?, Todorka; Jakovljevi?, Vladimir; Najman, Stasa; Janci?, Snezana

    2009-01-01

    The female reproductive system is very sensitive to different harmful environmental factors. A great danger is hidden in an increased use of food additives like monosodium glutamate (MSG). Numerous studies have shown that application of high doses of MSG to different kinds of animals during the neonatal period may cause lesions of neural structures and the retina. Later in adulthood animals exhibit a series of neuroendocrine disorders: a stunted growth, obesity and infertility. The mechanism of MSG action is not well explained yet. We hypothesized that high concentration of MSG could alter permeability of neural membrane for calcium. We studied whether pretreatment with diltiazem prevented the effects of MSG on ovaries in rats. Female rat pups were treated with: 0.9% NaCl, MSG, diltiazem or diltiazem with MSG. MSG treatment resulted in a cystic degeneration of ovaries and irregular and prolonged estrus phase of estrus cycle. The other treated groups of rats had normal ovarian histology and estrus cycle. The pretreatment with diltiazem prevented development of morphological and functional disorders of ovaries. Our results suggest that calcium overloading play an important role in mechanisms of MSG toxicity. PMID:19893093

  17. Development of the germinal ridge and ovary in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, F J; Nthling, J O; Soley, J T; Allen, W R

    2012-11-01

    The follicular reserve and its ontogeny in the elephant are of interest because elephants have the longest reproductive life of all land-based mammals. They also have the longest recorded pregnancy, which allows a protracted view of the series of significant events involved in the development of the embryonic and fetal gonads. The large elephant population of Zimbabwe provided the opportunity to collect conceptuses from elephants culled for management reasons and hunted professionally. Five embryos aged 76-96 days and the ovaries of four fetuses aged 4.8-11.2 months were fixed in 4% buffered formalin and studied by conventional histological sectioning and a stereological protocol to calculate the follicle reserve of each fetus. These observations enabled the conclusion that the migration of primordial germ cells into the indifferent gonad terminates at around 76 days of gestation while entry of oogonia into meiosis along with first follicle formation starts at around 5 months. Peak numbers of follicles are present by mid-gestation towards the end of the 6-month mitotic-meiotic transition period. It appears that the cortex of the elephant fetal ovary at mid-gestation (11 months) has already reached a developmental stage exhibited by the ovaries of many other mammals at full term. PMID:22991581

  18. Profiling the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of porcine ovaries using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Gao, Ning; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Liu, Jing; He, Jin-Long; Xu, Yuan; Lin, Wen-Mian; Chen, Zan-Mou; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jia-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence has shown that DNA methylation regulates the initiation of ovarian and sexual maturation. Here, we investigated the genome-wide profile of DNA methylation in porcine ovaries at single-base resolution using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. The biological variation was minimal among the three ovarian replicates. We found hypermethylation frequently occurred in regions with low gene abundance, while hypomethylation in regions with high gene abundance. The DNA methylation around transcriptional start sites was negatively correlated with their own CpG content. Additionally, the methylation level in the bodies of genes was higher than that in their 5' and 3' flanking regions. The DNA methylation pattern of the low CpG content promoter genes differed obviously from that of the high CpG content promoter genes. The DNA methylation level of the porcine ovary was higher than that of the porcine intestine. Analyses of the genome-wide DNA methylation in porcine ovaries would advance the knowledge and understanding of the porcine ovarian methylome. PMID:26912189

  19. Genetic architecture of ovary size and asymmetry in European honeybee workers

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, O; Metheny, J D; Linksvayer, T; Fondrk, M K; Page, R E; Amdam, G V

    2011-01-01

    The molecular basis of complex traits is increasingly understood but a remaining challenge is to identify their co-regulation and inter-dependence. Pollen hoarding (pln) in honeybees is a complex trait associated with a well-characterized suite of linked behavioral and physiological traits. In European honeybee stocks bidirectionally selected for pln, worker (sterile helper) ovary size is pleiotropically affected by quantitative trait loci that were initially identified for their effect on foraging behavior. To gain a better understanding of the genetic architecture of worker ovary size in this model system, we analyzed a series of crosses between the selected strains. The crossing results were heterogeneous and suggested non-additive effects. Three significant and three suggestive quantitative trait loci of relatively large effect sizes were found in two reciprocal backcrosses. These loci are not located in genome regions of known effects on foraging behavior but contain several interesting candidate genes that may specifically affect worker-ovary size. Thus, the genetic architecture of this life history syndrome may be comprised of pleiotropic, central regulators that influence several linked traits and other genetic factors that may be downstream and trait specific. PMID:21048673

  20. Follicle Detection on the USG Images to Support Determination of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiwijaya; Purnama, B.; Hasyim, A.; Septiani, M. D.; Wisesty, U. N.; Astuti, W.

    2015-06-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorders affected to female in their reproductive cycle. This has gained the attention from married couple which affected by infertility. One of the diagnostic criteria considereded by the doctor is analysing manually the ovary USG image to detect the number and size of ovary's follicle. This analysis may affect low varibilites, reproducibility, and efficiency. To overcome this problems. automatic scheme is suggested to detect the follicle on USG image in supporting PCOS diagnosis. The first scheme is determining the initial homogeneous region which will be segmented into real follicle form The next scheme is selecting the appropriate regions to follicle criteria. then measuring the segmented region attribute as the follicle. The measurement remains the number and size that aimed at categorizing the image into the PCOS or non-PCOS. The method used is region growing which includes region-based and seed-based. To measure the follicle diameter. there will be the different method including stereology and euclidean distance. The most optimum system plan to detect PCO is by using region growing and by using euclidean distance on quantification of follicle.

  1. Expression and Preliminary Functional Profiling of the let-7 Family during Porcine Ovary Follicle Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Wu, Wang Jun; Zhou, Xiao Long; Xiao, Peng; Wang, Yi; Liu, Hong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Most follicles in the mammalian ovary undergo atresia. Granulosa cell apoptosis is a hallmark of follicle atresia. Our previous study using a microRNA (miRNA) microarray showed that the let-7 microRNA family was differentially expressed during follicular atresia. However, whether the let-7 miRNA family members are related to porcine (Sus scrofa) ovary follicular apoptosis is unclear. In the current study, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression levels of let-7 family members in follicles and granulosa cells were similar to our microarray data, in which miRNAs let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, and let-7i were significantly decreased in early atretic and progressively atretic porcine ovary follicles compared with healthy follicles, while let-7g was highly expressed during follicle atresia. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis and Hoechst33342 staining demonstrated that let-7g increased the apoptotic rate of cultured granulosa cells. In addition, let-7 target genes were predicted and annotated by TargetScan, PicTar, gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathways. Our data provide new insight into the association between the let-7 miRNA family in granulosa cell programmed death. PMID:25824548

  2. Oocyte numbers are reduced in developing mouse ovaries cultured in testis-conditioned medium.

    PubMed Central

    Tavendale, S J; Mackay, S; Smith, R A

    1992-01-01

    Reduced numbers of oocytes were present in fetal ovaries of 13 d post coitum (dpc) mice, cultured for 4 d in medium conditioned (-CM) for 2 d by 13 dpc testes, compared with ovaries maintained in standard unconditioned medium. This effect was abolished by heat-inactivation of the testis-CM. Electrophoretic analysis of conditioned media revealed differences between testis-CM and ovary-CM. Ovarian differentiation was otherwise unaffected by the testis-CM and gonadal volume was not significantly reduced. Organisation of ovigerous cords proceeded, even though the full complement of oocytes was absent, and connective tissue septa developed normally between the small cords. The reduction in oocyte numbers occurred without any inhibition of mllerian duct development. Since others, using transgenic mice, have shown, that higher concentrations of antimllerian hormone are required to decrease oocyte numbers than are necessary for duct regression, our results suggest that an additional factor is involved in producing this modified effect. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1506283

  3. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome: lessons from ovarian stimulation studies.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R B

    1998-10-01

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) the ovary produces markedly increased amounts of both androgens and estrogens in response to gonadotropin stimulation. Distinctive responses of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione to ovarian stimulation testing suggest that ovarian hyperandrogenism is a result of dysregulation of theca cell androgen production which is intrinsic to the ovary. The occurrence of hyperestrogenism together with hyperandrogenism in PCOS suggests that whatever the abnormality of local regulatory factors of steroidogenesis, it affects granulosa as well as theca cells. Dysregulation is often associated with an increase in the number of follicles which evade atresia and reach the 2-8 mm stage of development. Autocrine/paracrine factors, especially those which are FSH-dependent, likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of the ovarian abnormality. Both LH and insulin hypersecretion probably play a secondary role in PCOS by amplifying the preexisting ovarian dysregulation. Because FSH secretion is under tight long-loop negative-feedback control and LH is not, hyperandrogenism is the primary clinical manifestation of dysregulation of steroid production in PCOS. However, anovulation in PCOS is most likely a result of excessive estrogen and inhibin production by multiple, small follicles which inhibit FSH secretory dynamics sufficiently to prevent selection of a dominant follicle. PMID:9856411

  4. Characterization of a progestogen receptor in the ovary of the spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus.

    PubMed

    Pinter, J; Thomas, P

    1995-03-01

    A nuclear progestogen receptor was identified in the ovary of the spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus. A single class of high-affinity, low-capacity cytoplasmic binding sites for 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17 alpha,20 beta-P) was characterized by saturation and Scatchard analyses (KD = 1.89 +/- 0.61 nM, Bmax = 1.80 +/- 0.63 pmol/g ovary, n = 4), as well as by one-point assay (Bmax = 1.41 +/- 0.26 pmol/g ovary, n = 12). Analysis of the binding kinetics indicated a fairly rapid association rate (T1/2 = 72 +/- 10.2 min) and a slightly slower dissociation rate (T1/2 = 99 +/- 9.4 min). Competition studies revealed that several steroids exhibited the same range of affinity (17 alpha, 20 beta-P > 17 alpha,20 beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20 beta-S) > 11-deoxycorticosterone > progesterone) while others displayed an order of magnitude less affinity (17 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one > pregnenolone > 11-deoxycortisol > testosterone). No displacement was found with 1000-fold excess estradiol-17 beta or cortisol. Binding activity was also present within the testis, but not in the brain, gill, muscle, or plasma. Nuclear binding was detected by DNA-cellulose column chromatography and was inhibited by the addition of molybdate, a characteristic of nuclear steroid receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7756460

  5. Normal human ovary and ovarian tumors express glycodelin, a glycoprotein with immunosuppressive and contraceptive properties.

    PubMed Central

    Kmrinen, M.; Leivo, I.; Koistinen, R.; Julkunen, M.; Karvonen, U.; Rutanen, E. M.; Seppl, M.

    1996-01-01

    Glycodelin is a glycoprotein with potent immunosuppressive and contraceptive activities. It reacts with antibodies against placental protein 14, or progesterone-associated endometrial protein, and has a unique carbohydrate structure. Previous nomenclature is misleading, because glycodelin is neither synthesized in the placenta nor is it endometrium specific. No ovarian synthesis of glycodelin has been demonstrated. We present evidence for glycodelin synthesis in the human ovary and ovarian tumors. In follicular phase, immunoperoxidase staining of microwave-treated tissue sections employing affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies localized glycodelin to areas of stromal cell condensation in ovarian cortex, theca interna, and the granulosa. In luteal phase, cortical stroma was negative or only weakly positive, whereas glycodelin was present in theca interna of the corpus luteum and luteinized granulosa cells and also in corpus albicans and Leydig cells of the ovarian hilus. In situ hybridization gave negative results for glycodelin mRNA in normal ovary, whereas in ovarian tumors strong expression of both the glycodelin mRNA and the protein were found in benign and malignant serous cystadenomas, mucinous ovarian tumors being negative. We conclude that glycodelin is synthesized in human ovarian tumors, and its occurrence in normal human ovary may represent either synthesis or a site of glycodelin action. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8623915

  6. Localization of Smad4 in the ovary of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L.).

    PubMed

    Wen, Xuexue; He, Junping; Zhang, Xuejing; Zhao, Li; Du, Shaokai

    2011-05-01

    Ovarian follicular development, follicle selection, and the process of ovulation remain poorly understood in most species. Numerous endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors, including the ligands represented by the transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) superfamily, TGF?, activin, inhibin, bone morphometric protein (BMP), and growth differentiation factor (GDF) are present in the ovaries of many animals. In the present study, we investigated the immunolocalization of Smad4, a signaling molecule of the TGF? superfamily, during folliculogenesis in the ovary of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758). Immunolocalization studies revealed that Smad4 was widely seen in the ovary, mainly in the follicle, though its location and staining intensity varied with the different stages of the developing follicle. In the primordial follicles and early growing follicles, Smad4 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of the oocyte with a half-moon staining pattern. In the pre-antral follicles, Smad4 protein was mainly located in the granulosa cells, theca cells and diffusely distributed in the interstitial cells surrounding the follicle. In the corpora lutea, the immunostaining for Smad4 was very intense. These results suggested that Smad signal transduction may play an important role in folliculogenesis and conceivably may participate in subsequent pregnancy. PMID:20071012

  7. Molecular Characterization of a Patient's Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary of the Hypercalcemic Type.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Bret; Anthony, Stephen P; Han, Haiyong; Kiefer, Jeffery; Hostetter, Galen; Barrett, Michael; Von Hoff, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a very rare tumor type that mainly affects young women. We report a 21-year old woman with SCCOHT. The patient initially presented with stage T3AN1MX disease and treated with surgery. The patient then received 8 cycles of multi-agent chemotherapy including cisplatin, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. Upon relapse, the patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, followed by chemotherapy with gemcitabine. The patient subsequently received radiation therapy and chemotherapy with bevacizumab, irinotecan and docetaxel. She passed away approximately 5 months after the second surgery and with her prior permission an immediate autopsy was performed. We examined the gene expression and copy number profiles of the tumor tissue samples obtained from the autopsy and compared them to normal ovary tissues. Our results indicated that although this tumor did not harbor chromosomal abnormalities nor gene copy number changes, there were significant gene expression changes in a number of genes/pathways. More than 5,000 genes showed significant differential expression in the tumor when compared to normal ovary tissue. Pathway enrichment analysis further identified several pathways/processes including the Vitamin D receptor signaling and the hedgehog signaling pathways to be significantly dysregulated. The gene expression profiling also suggests a number of agents such as pazopanib, bortezomib, 5-azacytidine, and PARP inhibitors as treatment options to possibly explore in future trials against this disease. PMID:22315651

  8. Molecular Characterization of a Patient's Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary of the Hypercalcemic Type

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bret; Anthony, Stephen P.; Han, Haiyong; Kiefer, Jeffery; Hostetter, Galen; Barrett, Michael; Von Hoff, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a very rare tumor type that mainly affects young women. We report a 21-year old woman with SCCOHT. The patient initially presented with stage T3AN1MX disease and treated with surgery. The patient then received 8 cycles of multi-agent chemotherapy including cisplatin, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. Upon relapse, the patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, followed by chemotherapy with gemcitabine. The patient subsequently received radiation therapy and chemotherapy with bevacizumab, irinotecan and docetaxel. She passed away approximately 5 months after the second surgery and with her prior permission an immediate autopsy was performed. We examined the gene expression and copy number profiles of the tumor tissue samples obtained from the autopsy and compared them to normal ovary tissues. Our results indicated that although this tumor did not harbor chromosomal abnormalities nor gene copy number changes, there were significant gene expression changes in a number of genes/pathways. More than 5,000 genes showed significant differential expression in the tumor when compared to normal ovary tissue. Pathway enrichment analysis further identified several pathways/processes including the Vitamin D receptor signaling and the hedgehog signaling pathways to be significantly dysregulated. The gene expression profiling also suggests a number of agents such as pazopanib, bortezomib, 5-azacytidine, and PARP inhibitors as treatment options to possibly explore in future trials against this disease. PMID:22315651

  9. The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil in ovaries of laying hens target prostaglandin pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An effective way to control cancer is by prevention. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Progress in the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer has been hampered due to the lack of an appropriate animal model and absence of effective chemo-prevention strategies. The domestic hens spontaneously develop ovarian adenocarcinomas that share similar histological appearance and symptoms such as ascites and metastasis with humans. There is a link between chronic inflammation and cancer. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most pro-inflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. PGE2 exerts its effects on target cells by coupling to four subtypes of receptors which have been classified as EP1-4. Fish oil is a source of omega-3 fatty acids (OM-3FAs) which may be effective in prevention of ovarian cancer. Our objective was to assess the potential impact of fish oil on expression of COX enzymes, PGE2 concentration, apoptosis and proliferation in ovaries of laying hens. Methods 48 white Leghorn hens were fed 50, 100, 175, 375 and 700 mg/kg fish oil for 21 days. The OM3-FAs and omega-6 fatty acids contents of egg yolks were determined by Gas Chromatography. Proliferation, apoptosis, COX-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin receptor subtype 4 (EP4) protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 concentration in ovaries were measured by PCNA, TUNEL, Western blot, quantitative real-time qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Results Consumption of fish oil increased the incorporation of OM-3FAs into yolks and decreased both COX-1 and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression. In correlation with COXs down-regulation, fish oil significantly reduced the concentrations of PGE2 in ovaries. EP4 protein and mRNA expression in ovaries of hens was not affected by fish oil treatment. A lower dose of fish oil increased the egg laying frequency. 175 and 700 mg/kg fish oil reduced proliferation and 700 mg/kg increased apoptosis in hen ovaries. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the lower doses of fish oil reduce inflammatory PG and may be an effective approach in preventing ovarian carcinogenesis. These findings may provide the basis for clinical trials utilizing fish oil as a dietary intervention targeting prostaglandin biosynthesis for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24156238

  11. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 15.1 cGy, 9.15 3.89 cGy, 0.47 0.3 cGy and 0.53 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  12. Analysis of cadmium mutageness in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.; Tian, S.F.; An, J.; Porter, R.; Hsie, A.W.

    1994-12-31

    We have shown earlier that physical and chemical agents which are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more mutagenic to the autosomal heterozygous gpt gene in CHO cell derivative, AS52 than to the X-linked hemizygous hprt locus in CHO cell clone K1-BH4. These ROS generating agents primarily induced deletions in both assays as analyzed at the cellular level. We have reported previously that cadmium (Cd) is mutagenic at both the gpt gene in AS52 cells and the hprt locus in K1-BH4 cells but more mutagenic to the gpt gene in AS52 cells. The molecular nature of Cd-induced mutants is being studied using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-directed deletion screening and DNA sequencing method. 75 independent Cd-induced mutants is being studied using polymerase chain reaction (PRC)-directed deletion screening and DNA sequencing method. 75 independent Cd-induced HPRT{sup -} mutants were analyzed by the multiplex in vitro DNA amplification. Of these mutants 30 (40%) were found to have large deletions. The deletions included single and multiple exons. Total hprt gene deletions were found in 13 mutants. We have also been investigating the modulative role of glutathione by L-buthionein-SR-sulfoximine(BSO) and metallionein by zinc on Cd mutagenesis. The effect of zinc pretreatment on the cytotoxicity of Cd showed that treatment of AS52 cells with 0.5x10{sup -4} M zinc acetate for 7 h prior to Cd exposure produced lower toxicity. The effect of zinc-pretreatment on the mutagenicity of Cd showed that there were lower mutagenic responses in AS52 cells pretreated with 0.5x10{sup -4} M zinc. Experiments with pretreatment of BSO are in progress.

  13. Derivative chameleons

    SciTech Connect

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  14. Preferential Replication of Vaccinia Virus in the Ovaries is Independent of Immune Regulation Through IL-10 and TGF-?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Adams, Yan Fei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vaccinia virus (VACV) exhibits a strong tropism for ovarian tissue and can cause ovary pathology and sterility. Why VACV preferentially accumulates in this organ is not known. Here we show that multiple immune cell populations infiltrated the ovaries following VACV infection, including virus-specific CD8 T cells making both IFN-? and TNF. This was also accompanied by the induction of interleukin (IL)-10 and TGF-?, suggesting that VACV may exploit the ovarian environment for immune evasion via induction of these suppressive cytokines. To test this we used several strategies, including neutralizing these cytokines, and exogenous targeting of the T-cell response, to determine if this inhibited virus replication in the ovaries. We found that the VACV-specific CD8 T-cell immunity and the clearance of virus were not enhanced in the ovaries of infected mice in which IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) was blocked with antagonist antibody. VACV replication was also only moderately affected in the ovaries of infected IL-10 knockout mice. Similarly, blockade of TGF-? with antagonist antibody demonstrated no effect on CD8 T-cell immunity or VACV replication. Lastly, an agonist antibody targeting the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member OX40 (TNFRSF4) enhanced the number of VACV-specific CD8 T cells producing IFN-? in lymphoid tissue, but had no effect on CD8 T-cell infiltration of the ovaries or on the viral load. Collectively, the results indicate that preferential replication of VACV in the ovaries may not be dependent on immune suppressive mechanisms in this tissue. PMID:21958373

  15. Identification and profiling of microRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats during estrus.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaopeng; Song, Yuxuan; Hou, Jinxing; Li, Guang; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Jiangang; Cao, Binyun

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in almost all ovarian biological processes, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteal development, and regression. The study identified known and novel miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats by combining Solexa sequencing with bioinformatics. In total, 862 known and 53 novel miRNAs were identified in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats. A total of 771 miRNAs were co-expressed in both libraries. One hundred twenty miRNAs in the ovaries of polytocous goats and 24 miRNAs in the ovaries of monotocous goats were specifically expressed. In addition, 445 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the ovaries of polytocous and monotocous goats, of which 348 were upregulated, and 97 were downregulated in the ovaries of polytocous goats compared with the ovaries of monotocous goats (P values < 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)|> 1). The expression levels of 12 randomly selected miRNAs were analyzed by stem-loop real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the results demonstrated that the expression patterns were consistent with Solexa sequencing results. KEGG analysis showed that GnRH, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, oocyte meiosis and ovarian steroidogenesis participated in follicular development and ovulation. On the basis of miRNA-mRNA network analysis and luciferase reporter assays, the ggo-miR-4488-p3_1ss10CG, bta-miR-2892-p5_1ss8CG and hsa-miR-4532_L+1R-3 were closely related with prolific traits. The results will help to further understand the role of miRNAs in kidding rate regulation. PMID:26542138

  16. Structure of the ovaries of the Nimba otter shrew, Micropotamogale lamottei, and the Madagascar hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M; Knzle, H; Vogel, P

    2005-01-01

    The otter shrews are members of the subfamily Potamogalinae within the family Tenrecidae. No description of the ovaries of any member of this subfamily has been published previously. The lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, is a member of the subfamily Tenrecinae of the same family and, although its ovaries have not been described, other members of this subfamily have been shown to have ovaries with non-antral follicles. Examination of these two species illustrated that non-antral follicles were characteristic of the ovaries of both species, as was clefting and lobulation of the ovaries. Juvenile otter shrews range from those with only small follicles in the cortex to those with 300- to 400-microm follicles similar to those seen in non-pregnant and pregnant adults. As in other species, most of the growth of the oocyte occurred when follicles had one to two layers of granulosa cells. When larger follicles became atretic in the Nimba otter shrew, hypertrophy of the theca interna produced nodules of glandular interstitial tissue. In the tenrec, the hypertrophying theca interna cells in most large follicles appeared to undergo degeneration. Both species had some follicular fluid in the intercellular spaces between the more peripheral granulosa cells. It is suggested that this fluid could aid in separation of the cumulus from the remaining granulosa at ovulation. The protruding follicles in lobules and absence of a tunica albuginea might also facilitate ovulation of non-antral follicles. Ovaries with a thin-absent tunica albuginea and follicles with small-absent antra are widespread within both the Eulipotyphla and in the Afrosoricida, suggesting that such features may represent a primitive condition in ovarian development. Lobulated and deeply crypted ovaries are found in both groups but are not as common in the Eulipotyphla making inclusion of this feature as primitive more speculative. PMID:16046864

  17. C-type natriuretic peptide and the guanylyl cyclase receptors in the rat ovary are modulated by the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, M; Reis, A M; Mukaddam-Daher, S; Dam, T V; Farookhi, R; Gutkowska, J

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that rat ovaries synthesize atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and express the cognate guanylyl cyclase (GC-A and GC-B) receptors for ANP. Since another natriuretic peptide, termed the C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), can also interact with these receptors, we have investigated whether rat ovaries express CNP and if so, whether the concentration of this natriuretic peptide and the guanylyl-cyclase receptors are influenced by the estrous cycle. CNP mRNA was detected in rat ovaries using a reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy. RIA of ovarian extracts, obtained at the individual days of the estrous cycle, revealed the presence of immunoreactive CNP. The highest levels of CNP were detected at proestrus and were approximately 4-fold higher than the levels seen at any other stage of the cycle. GC-A and GC-B receptors were detected using quantitative autoradiography after application of either [125I]ANP or [125I]-tyr0CNP to sections of frozen ovaries. The highest specific binding of each radiolabeled ligand was seen in ovaries from proestrous animals. The GC-B receptors were localized to the membrana granulosa of developing ovarian follicles. Using quantitative PCR, we determined that levels of GC-A and GC-B mRNAs were highest in the ovaries of proestrous animals and were approximately 2- to 3-fold higher than the levels seen at diestrus. These findings demonstrate that a natriuretic peptide system, consisting of ligands and receptors, is present in the rat ovary. Since CNP and the GC receptors show coordinate estrous cycle-dependent variation with maximal expression at proestrus, we speculate that the natriuretic peptides may play an important role in either the development of ovulatory follicles or in the ovulatory process. PMID:9002633

  18. Hyperandrogenemia in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Exploration of the Role of Free Testosterone and Androstenedione in Metabolic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Rabe, Thomas; Giuliani, Albrecht; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods We analyzed the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic parameters in a cross-sectional study including 706 polycystic ovary syndrome and 140 BMI-matched healthy women. Polycystic ovary syndrome women were categorized into 4 groups: normal androstenedione and normal free testosterone (NA/NFT), elevated androstenedione and normal free testosterone (HA/NFT), normal androstenedione and elevated free testosterone (NA/HFT), elevated androstenedione and free testosterone (HA/HFT). Results Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels (HA/HFT and NA/HFT) have an adverse metabolic profile including 2 h glucose, HbA1c, fasting and 2 h insulin, area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda), triglycerides, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to NA/NFT (p<0.05 for all age- and BMI-adjusted analyses). In binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, odds ratio for insulin resistance was 2.78 (1.345.75, p?=?0.006) for polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/HFT compared to NA/NFT. We found no significantly increased risk of metabolic disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/NFT. In multiple linear regression analyses (age- and BMI-adjusted), we found a significant negative association between androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio and area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol-ratio and a positive association with Matsuda-index, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05 for all). Conclusions Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels but not with isolated androstenedione elevation have an adverse metabolic phenotype. Further, a higher androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio was independently associated with a beneficial metabolic profile. PMID:25310562

  19. The Gene pat-2, Which Induces Natural Parthenocarpy, Alters the Gibberellin Content in Unpollinated Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Nuez, Fernando; Garca-Martnez, Jos L.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA3. Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA3. The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA3, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA53, and, tentatively, GA81) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA9 and GA34) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA20 content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA19 content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA20 is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA20, the precursor of an active GA. PMID:10677440

  20. Follicular Viability and Histological Alterations after Auto-transplantation of Dog Ovaries by Experimentally Inducing Blood Sinus on Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Khoram, Hazhir; Najafpour, Alireza; Razi, Mazdak

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are considered most effective methods for cancer treatment, however these strategies often result in fertility problems. A favorable alternative to prevent fertility loss in cancer patients is the cryopreservation and transplantation of sexual tissues (ovaries and/or testes). There is a low rate of fertilization following cryopreservation of ovaries prior to implantation. Therefore, in our opinion, this low rate is caused by instable blood flow during organ transplantation. Thus, this study researches a canine ovarian model that focuses on direct exposure of ovaries with blood in an experimentally induced sinus-like cavity. We implanted this tissue on the muscular layer of the stomach, which is its most vascularized region. Materials and Methods Ovarian transplantation was conducted on T1 animals (n=5), bilateral ovariectomy was performed on T2 animals (n=5), unilateral ovariectomy was conducted on T3 cases and animals in the control-sham group (n=5) did not undergo ovariectomy or transplantation. Results All isotransplanted ovaries survived. Ovaries resumed follicular growth and revascularization. Transplanted ovaries contained 75%-76% of survived small follicles (pre antral) after 60 days. The ovarian granulosa cells showed considerable resistance against ischemia. After day 30 no statistically significant differences in the level of estradiol and progesterone were observed between T1 animals and the T3 group. T1 animals showed considerably high levels of progesterone and estradiol in comparison to T2 cases. Conclusion This study showed that using blood sinus method for ovarian isotransplantation helps ovarian tissue to survive from post implantation ischemia which confirms with normal follicles presentation and intact endocrine function of the implanted ovaries. PMID:24917921

  1. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of usnic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Marc-Antoine; Le Lamer, Anne-Ccile; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Rouaud, Isabelle; Uriac, Philippe; Boustie, Jol; Corbel, Jean-Charles; Tomasi, Sophie

    2008-07-15

    Nine usnic acid-amine conjugates were evaluated on murine and human cancer cell lines. The polyamine derivatives showed significant cytotoxicity in L1210 cells. Their activities appeared to be independent of the polyamine transport system (PTS). Indeed, their activities were similar in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and in the PTS deficient CHO-MG cells. In addition, alpha-difluoromethylornithine, an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor known to indirectly enhance the activity of the PTS and consequently increase the cytotoxicity of cytotoxic drugs entering cells via the PTS, had no effect on the activity of the polyamine derivatives. The more active derivative (1,8-diaminooctane derivative) displayed similar activities on all cancer cell lines studied and induced apoptosis. PMID:18558490

  2. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  3. A simple method for selection of cumulus-oocyte complexes from bovine ovaries by sedimentation with percoll.

    PubMed

    Yotsushima, Kenji; Shimizu, Masayo; Kon, Hiroaki; Izaike, Yoshiaki

    2007-08-01

    Selection of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) for in vitro embryo production (IVP) is generally based on the morphological characteristics of the cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes and the ooplasm under microscopic observation. The purpose of this study was to examine a simple method for selection of COCs by sedimentation with Percoll solutions. COCs were aspirated from ovaries derived from a local slaughterhouse, and the COCs were classified by the morphology of their cumulus cell layers, as follows: Class A, compact and thick; Class B, compact but thin; Class C, partially denuded and thin; and Class D, denuded. Percoll solutions were prepared by diluting Percoll to 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30% solutions, respectively. COCs were placed on the surface of the Percoll solution for 3 min, and the precipitated COCs were transferred to stepwise high density solution. The percentage of Percoll solution just before buoyancy was considered to the specific sedimentary value of the COC and oocyte. The mean sedimentary value of Class A COCs was higher than those of the other classes (P<0.01). The mean sedimentary values of denuded oocytes from Classes A and B were higher than those from Classes C and D (P<0.01). Our results show that sedimentation of COCs and denuded oocytes was generally related to the morphological quality of the COCs, although the sedimentary values ranged widely for one class of COCs and oocytes. The Percoll method can be used for simple selection of COCs. PMID:17519521

  4. Mutation at autosomal loci of Chinese hamster ovary cells: involvement of a high-frequency event silencing two linked alleles.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, W E

    1983-01-01

    Two classes of cell lines heterozygous at the galactokinase (glk) locus have been isolated from Chinese hamster ovary cells. Class I, selected by plating nonmutagenized wild-type cells at low density in medium containing 2-deoxygalactose at a partially selective concentration, underwent subsequent mutation to the glk-/- genotype at a low frequency (approximately 10(-6) per cell), which was increased by mutagenesis. Class II heterozygotes, isolated by sib selection from mutagenized wild-type cells, had a higher spontaneous frequency of mutation to the homozygous state (approximately 10(-4) per cell), which was not affected by mutagenesis. About half of the glk-/- mutants derived from a class II heterozygote, but not the heterozygote itself, were functionally hemizygous at the syntenic thymidine kinase (tk) locus. Similarly, a tk+/- heterozygote with characteristics analogous to the class II glk+/- cell lines underwent high-frequency mutation to tk-/-, and most of these mutants, but not the tk+/- heterozygote, were functionally hemizygous at the glk locus. A model is proposed, similar to that for the mutational events at the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (W. E. C. Bradley and D. Letovanec, Somatic Cell Genet. 8:51-66, 1982), of two different events, high and low frequency, being responsible for mutation at either of the linked loci tk and glk. The low-frequency event may be a point mutation, but the high-frequency event, in many instances, involves coordinated inactivation of a portion of a chromosome carrying the two linked alleles. Class II heterozygotes would be generated as a result of a low-frequency event at one allele, and class I heterozygotes would be generated by a high-frequency event. Supporting this model was the demonstration that all class I glk+/- lines examined were functionally hemizygous at tk. PMID:6193413

  5. Biochemical characterization of the O-glycans on recombinant glycophorin A expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Phlsson, P; Blackall, D P; Ugorski, M; Czerwinski, M; Spitalnik, S L

    1994-02-01

    Alterations in N- and O-linked glycosylation affect cell surface expression and antigenicity of recombinant glycophorin A expressed in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To understand these effects further, glycophorin A was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from transfected wild type and glycosylation deficient CHO cells. The O-glycans were characterized both biochemically, using gel filtration and high performance anion exchange chromatography, and immunologically, using carbohydrate specific monoclonal antibodies to probe Western blots. The O-glycans of human erythrocyte glycophorin A consist mainly of short oligosaccharides with one, two, or three sialic acid residues linked to a common disaccharide core, Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha 1-Ser/Thr, with the disialylated structure being the most abundant. With the exception of the trisialylated derivative, the same structures were found on recombinant glycophorin A expressed by wild type CHO cells. However, in contrast to human erythrocyte glycophorin A, the monosialylated oligosaccharide was the most abundant structure on the recombinant protein. Furthermore, recombinant glycophorin A was shown to express a small amount of the Tn antigen (GalNAc alpha 1-Ser/Thr). Recombinant glycophorin A had the same O-glycan composition, whether purified from clones expressing high or moderate levels of the recombinant glycoprotein. This indicates that the level of expression of the transfected glycoprotein did not affect its O-glycan composition. Deletion of the N-linked glycosylation site at Asn26, by introducing the Mi.I mutation (Thr28-->Met) by site-directed mutagenesis, did not markedly affect the O-glycan composition of the resulting recombinant glycoprotein expressed in wild type CHO cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8193553

  6. Identification and comparison of gonadal transcripts of testis and ovary of adult common carp Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jun; Xia, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Li-Fang; Jia, Yong-Fang; Nan, Ping; Li, Li; Chang, Zhong-Jie

    2015-06-01

    The limited number of gonad-specific and gonad-related genes that have been identified in fish represents a major obstacle in the study of fish gonad development and sex differentiation. In common carp Cyprinus carpio from China's Yellow River, the ovary and testis differ in volume and weight in adult fish of the same age. Comparing sperm, egg, and somatic cell transcripts in this carp may provide insight into the mechanisms of its gonad development and sex differentiation. In the present work, gene expression patterns in the carp ovary and testis were compared using suppression subtractive hybridization. Two bidirectional subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were analyzed in parallel using testis or ovary as testers. Eighteen nonredundant clones were identified in the male library, including 15 known cDNAs. The expression patterns of selected genes in testis and ovary were analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Tektin-1, GAPDS, FGFIBP, IGFBP-5, and an unknown gene from the Ccmg4 clone were observed to be expressed only in testis. GSDF, BMI1b, Wt1a, and an unknown gene from the Ccme2 clone were expressed at higher levels in testis than in ovary at sexual maturity. Thirty functional expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in 43 sequenced clones in the female library, including 28 known cDNAs, one uncharacterized cDNA (EST clone), and one novel sequence. Eight identified ESTs showed significant differences in expression between the testis and the ovary. ZP3C and Psmb2 were expressed exclusively in ovary, whereas the expression levels of IFIPGL-1, Setd6, ATP-6, CDC45, AIF-1, and an unknown gene from the Ccfh2 clone were more strongly expressed in ovary than in testis. In addition, the expression of ZP3C, Wt1a, and Setd6 was analyzed in male and female gonads, heart, liver, kidney, and brain. ZP3C was expressed only in ovary. Setd6 expression was significantly stronger in female tissues than that in the male, except in the liver, and Wt1a expression showed sexual dimorphism in the kidney and liver. Results suggest that these genes could play key roles during carp growth, both in the gonad and other tissues. The results provide a resource for further investigation of molecular mechanisms responsible for gonad development and sex differentiation in Yellow River common carp. PMID:25772851

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Che, Long; Wang, Dingyue; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2015-01-01

    Time-dependent expression of functional proteins in fetal ovaries is important to understand the developmental process of the ovary. This study was carried out to enhance our understanding of the developmental process of porcine fetal ovaries and to better address the differences in fetal ovary development of local and foreign pigs. The objective of the present study is to test the expression of key proteins that regulate the growth and development of fetal ovaries in Meishan and Yorkshire porcine breeds by using proteomics technology. Six Meishan and 6 Yorkshire pregnant gilts were used in this experiment. Fetal ovaries were obtained from Yorkshire and Meishan gilts on days 55 and 90 of the gestation period. Using 2D-DIGE (two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis) analysis, the results showed that there are about 1551 and 1400 proteins in gilt fetal ovaries on days 55 and 90, respectively of the gestation. Using MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis, 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the fetal ovaries of the 2 breeds on day 55 of gestation, and a total of 18 proteins were identified on day 90 of gestation. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of biological processes (cell death, stress response, cytoskeletal proteins) and molecular functions (enzyme regulator activity). We also found that alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin, vimentin, and PP2A proteins promote the formation of primordial follicles in the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs on day 55 of gestation while low expression heat shock proteins and high expression alpha-fetoproteins (AFP) may promote Meishan fetal ovarian follicular development on day 90 of gestation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how reduced expression of heat shock proteins and increased expression of AFP can significantly reduce the risk of reproductive disease in obese Meishan sows. Our study also shows how these proteins can increase the ovulation rate and may be responsible for the low reproductive efficiency reported in other obese breeds. The ovarian developmental potential was found to be greater in Meishan pigs than in Yorkshire pigs. PMID:26305539

  8. Ribosomal protein L24 is differentially expressed in ovary and testis of the marine shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziping; Wang, Yilei; Jiang, Yonghua; Lin, Peng; Jia, Xiwei; Zou, Zhihua

    2007-07-01

    In order to identify genes involved in oogenesis in shrimp, an ovarian cDNA library of Marsupenaeus japonicus was screened using a suppression-subtraction hybridization (SSH)-enriched probe. More than 20 genes were identified as differentially expressed genes between the ovary and the testis. Unexpectedly, one of these genes is a ribosomal protein that is normally considered a housekeeping gene. Northern blot shows that the shrimp ribosomal protein L24 gene (srpl24) is 0.6 kb in length. The expression level of srpl24 in the ovary is much higher than in the testis. Bioinformatics analyses show that srpl24 encodes a protein of 164 aa with a predicted molecular mass of 18.2 kDa, which is a cytoplasmic ribosomal protein. Real time PCR analyses demonstrated that the relative abundance of srpl24 mRNA in the different organs is: ovary > testis, hepatopancreas, muscle and eye. The highest expression level of srpl24 in the ovary suggests that srpl24 has an important role in oogenesis. It is the first reported rpl24 in crustaceans and is the first reported rpl24 that is differentially expressed between the ovary and the testis in animals. PMID:17462931

  9. Changes in ultrastructure and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in ovaries of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Armiliato, Neide; Ammar, Dib; Nezzi, Luciane; Straliotto, Marcos; Muller, Yara M R; Nazari, Evelise M

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum organophosphate (OP) herbicide, highly soluble in water, and when applied in terrestrial systems it penetrates into soil, eventually reaching the aquatic community and affecting nontarget organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate on ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ovaries (n = 18 per triplicate) were exposed to 65 μg/L of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] for 15 d. This concentration was determined according to Resolution 357/2005/CONAMA/Brazil, which establishes the permissible concentration of glyphosate in Brazilian inland waters. Nonexposed ovaries (n = 18 per triplicate) were used as control. Subsequently, morphology and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) of exposed and nonexposed ovaries was determined. No apparent changes were noted in general morphology of exposed and nonexposed ovaries. However, a significant increase in diameter of oocytes was observed after exposure to glyphosate. When ovarian ultrastructure was examined the presence of concentric membranes, appearing as myelin-like structures, associated with the external membranes of mitochondria and with yolk granules was found. After glyphosate exposure, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting revealed greater expression of SF-1 in the oocytes, which suggests a relationship between oocyte growth and SF-1 expression. These subtle adverse effects of glyphosate on oocytes raised a potential concern for fish reproduction. These results contribute to understanding glyphosate-induced toxicity to nontarget organisms, showing subcellular and molecular impairments that may affect reproduction in +female fish. PMID:24617544

  10. The chemosensitivity of labellar sugar receptor in female Phormia regina is paralleled with ovary maturation: Effects of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Solari, Paolo; Stoffolano, John G; De Rose, Francescaelena; Barbarossa, Iole Tomassini; Liscia, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Oogenesis in most adult insects is a nutrient-dependent process involving ingestion of both proteins and carbohydrates that ultimately depends on peripheral input from chemoreceptors. The main goal of this study was to characterize, in the female blowfly Phormia regina, the responsive changes of the labellar chemoreceptors to carbohydrates and proteins in relation to four different stages along the ovarian cycle: (1) immature ovaries, (2) mid-mature ovaries, (3) mature ovaries and ready for egg-laying and (4) post egg-laying ovaries. Then, the possible effects exerted by exogenous serotonin on the chemoreceptor sensitivity profiles were investigated. Our results show that ovary length, width and contraction rate progressively increase from stage 1 to 3, when all these parameters reach their maximum values, before declining in the next stage 4. The sensitivity of the labellar "sugar" chemoreceptors to both sucrose and proteins varies during the ovarian maturation stages, reaching a minimum for sucrose in stage 3, while that to proteins begins. Exogenous 5-HT supply specifically increases the chemoreceptor sensitivity to sugar at the stages 3 and 4, while it does not affect that to proteins. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that in female blowflies the cyclic variations in the sensitivity of the labellar chemosensilla to sugars and proteins are time-related to ovarian development and that during the stages 3 and 4 the responsiveness of the sugar cell to sucrose is under serotonergic control. PMID:26319532

  11. Glucose/lactate metabolism of cryopreserved intact bovine ovaries as a novel quantitative marker to assess tissue cryodamage.

    PubMed

    Gerritse, R; Beerendonk, C C M; Westphal, J R; Bastings, L; Braat, D D M; Peek, R

    2011-12-01

    For some patients, the autotransplantation of a cryopreserved-thawed intact ovary might be the best option to preserve their reproductive potential after fertility-threatening treatment. The best procedure to successfully cryopreserve a human ovary without inflicting a devastating level of cryodamage is to date unknown. To optimize this procedure, this study developed an assay to monitor the extent of cryodamage inflicted on bovine ovarian tissue by different cryopreservation protocols. The assay measures glucose and lactate metabolism of ovarian tissue fragments in vitro and determines the extent of cryodamage in cryopreserved ovaries. This study tested the cryoprotective effect of two different routes of administration of the cryoprotectant dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). The cryoprotective effect was assessed in different tissue layers of the ovary, namely the cortex, the subcortex and the medulla. Submersion of intact ovaries in DMSO prior to freezing-thawing resulted in the complete protection of the glucose/lactate metabolism of the cortex, but not of the inner ovarian mass. Perfusion without simultaneous submersion, resulted in partial protection of cortex, subcortex and medulla, while the combination of submersion and perfusion conveyed the highest level of protection for all three ovarian tissue layers. PMID:22036190

  12. Meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from the ovaries of Indian big cats at postmortem.

    PubMed

    Rao, Brahmasani Sambasiva; Mahesh, Yelisetti Uma; Suman, Komjeti; Charan, Katari Venu; Nath, Rhisita; Rao, K Ramachander

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the available sources of genetic material for endangered members of the great cat family, this study was designed to assess the meiotic competence of oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the Indian leopard, tiger and lion. The average number of oocytes that were recovered per ovary was 11.0??5.0, 11.0??3.5 and 21.3??8.8 for tiger, lion and leopard, respectively. The proportion of culture grade oocytes for tiger, lion and leopard were 72.7, 78.8 and 71.9%, respectively. The culture grade oocytes were matured in tissue culture medium 199 modified with sodium bicarbonate supplemented with 0.3% BSA (fatty acid-free) (w/v), 10 ?g/ml FSH, 6 IU/ml LH, 1 ?g/ml 17?-estradiol, 0.36 mM pyruvate, 2.2 mM calcium lactate, 2.0 mM L-glutamine, 100 IU/ml penicillin and 0.1 mg/ml streptomycin in an incubator with 5% CO2 under humidified air at 38.5C for 36 h. After in vitro maturation, 56.3, 53.8 and 58.7% of the tiger, lion and leopard oocytes, respectively, were matured. The proportion of oocytes that extruded first polar body was significantly higher when the oocytes were collected from the animals of less than 15 yr of age compared to above 15 yr. These findings suggest that the oocytes recovered from ovaries of tiger, lion and leopard immediately postmortem can be successfully matured to MII stage. PMID:25124872

  13. Comparative analysis of temporal gene expression patterns in the developing ovary of the embryonic chicken

    PubMed Central

    YU, Minli; XU, Yali; YU, Defu; YU, Debing; DU, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Many genes participate in the process of ovarian germ cell development, while the combined action mechanisms of these molecular regulators still need clarification. The present study was focused on determination of differentially expressed genes and gene functions at four critical time points in chicken ovarian development. Comparative transcriptional profiling of ovaries from embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5), E12.5, E15.5 and E18.5 was performed using an Affymetrix GeneChip chicken genome microarray. Differential expression patterns for genes specifically depleted and enriched in each stage were identified. The results showed that most of the up- and downregulated genes were involved in the metabolism of retinoic acid (RA) and synthesis of hormones. Among them, a higher number of up- and downregulated genes in the E15.5 ovary were identified as being involved in steroid biosynthesis and retinol metabolism, respectively. To validate gene changes, expressions of twelve candidate genes related to germ cell development were examined by real-time PCR and found to be consistent with the of GeneChip data. Moreover, the immunostaining results suggested that ovarian development during different stages was regulated by different genes. Furthermore, a Raldh2 knockdown chicken model was produced to investigate the fundamental role of Raldh2 in meiosis initiation. It was found that meiosis occurred abnormally in Raldh2 knockdown ovaries, but the inhibitory effect on meiosis was reversed by the addition of exogenous RA. This study offers insights into the profile of gene expression and mechanisms regulating ovarian development, especially the notable role of Raldh2 in meiosis initiation in the chicken. PMID:25736178

  14. Localisation and Function of the Endocannabinoid System in the Human Ovary

    PubMed Central

    El-Talatini, Mona R.; Taylor, Anthony H.; Elson, Janine C.; Brown, Laurence; Davidson, Allan C.; Konje, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although anandamide (AEA) had been measured in human follicular fluid and is suggested to play a role in ovarian follicle and oocyte maturity, its exact source and role in the human ovary remains unclear. Methods and Findings Immunohistochemical examination of normal human ovaries indicated that the endocannabinoid system was present and widely expressed in the ovarian medulla and cortex with more intense cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) than CB1 immunoreactivity in the granulosa cells of primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary follicles, corpus luteum and corpus albicans. The enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acyclphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), were only found in growing secondary and tertiary follicles and corpora lutea and albicantes. The follicular fluid (FF) AEA concentrations of 260 FF samples, taken from 37 infertile women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with embryo transfer, were correlated with ovarian follicle size (P?=?0.03). Significantly higher FF AEA concentrations were also observed in mature follicles (1.430.04 nM; meanSEM) compared to immature follicles (1.260.06 nM), P?=?0.0142 and from follicles containing morphologically assessed mature oocytes (1.560.11 nM) compared to that containing immature oocytes (0.990.09 nM), P?=?0.0011. ROC analysis indicated that a FF AEA level of 1.09 nM could discriminate between mature and immature oocytes with 72.2% sensitivity and 77.14% specificity, whilst plasma AEA levels and FF AEA levels on oocyte retrieval day were not significantly different (P?=?0.23). Conclusions These data suggest that AEA is produced in the ovary, is under hormonal control and plays a role in folliculogenesis, preovulatory follicle maturation, oocyte maturity and ovulation. PMID:19238202

  15. Cloning and expression profiling of small RNAs expressed in the mouse ovary

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Seungil; Song, Rui; Park, Chanjae; Zheng, Huili; Sanders, Kenton M.; Yan, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of gene expression across all species from plants to humans. To identify small RNAs expressed by the ovary, we generated mouse ovarian small RNA complementary DNA (srcDNA) libraries and sequenced 800 srcDNA clones. We identified 236 small RNAs including 122 microRNAs (miRNAs), 79 piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and 35 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). Among these small RNAs, 15 miRNAs, 74 piRNAs, and 21 snoRNAs are novel. Approximately 70% of the ovarian piRNAs are encoded by multicopy genes located within the repetitive regions, resembling previously identified repeat-associated small interference RNAs (rasiRNAs), whereas the remaining ∼30% of piRNA genes are located in nonrepetitive regions of the genome with characteristics similar to the majority of piRNAs originally cloned from the testis. Since these two types of piRNAs display different structural features, we categorized them into two classes: repeat-associated piRNAs (rapiRNAs, equivalent of the rasiRNAs) and non-repeat-associated piRNAs (napiRNAs). Expression profiling analyses revealed that ovarian miRNAs were either ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues or preferentially expressed in a few tissues including the ovary. Ovaries appear to express more rapiRNAs than napiRNAs, and sequence analyses support that both may be generated through the “ping-pong” mechanism. Unique expression and structural features of these ovarian small noncoding RNAs suggest that they may play important roles in the control of folliculogenesis and female fertility. PMID:17951331

  16. Transcriptional signature of progesterone-induced germinal vesicle breakdown in the fathead minnow ovary (Pimephales promelas)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Reyero, Natlia; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Escalon, B Lynn; Spade, Daniel J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have examined transcriptional responses to sex steroids along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in teleost fishes. However, data are lacking on the molecular cascades that underlie progesterone signaling. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptional response in the ovary of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in response to progesterone (P4) using transcriptomics. Fathead minnow ovaries were exposed in vitro to 500 ng P4/L. Germinal vesicle migration and breakdown (GVBD) was observed and microarrays were used to identify gene cascades affected by P4. Microarray analysis identified 1,702 differentially expressed transcripts after P4 treatment. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that transcripts involved in the molecular functions of protein serine/threonine kinase activity, ATP binding, and activity of calcium channels were increased after P4 treatment. There was an overwhelming decrease in levels of transcripts of genes that are structural constituents of ribosomes with P4 treatment. There was also evidence for gene expression changes in steroid and maturation-related transcripts. Pathway analyses identified cell cycle regulation, insulin action, hedgehog, and B cell activation as pathways containing an over-representation of highly regulated transcripts. Significant regulatory sub-networks of P4-mediated transcripts included genes regulated by tumor protein p53 and E2F transcription factor 1, suggesting that downstream expression targets of these two proteins may be preferentially involved in P4-mediated GVBD. These data provide novel insight into the molecular signaling cascades that underlie P4-signaling in the ovary and identify genes and processes that may indicate premature GVBD due to environmental pollutants that mimic progestins. PMID:23796460

  17. Ovary Peltate Trichomes of Zeyheria montana (Bignoniaceae): Developmental Ultrastructure and Secretion in Relation to Function

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, SILVIA RODRIGUES; GREGÓRIO, ELISA A.; GUIMARÃES, ELZA

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Nectar production in the Bignoniaceae species lacking a nectariferous functional disc is ascribed to trichomatic glands around the ovary base and/or on the inner corolla wall. Nevertheless, knowledge about the secretion and function of these glands is very incomplete. The purpose of this paper is to study, from a developmental viewpoint, the ultrastructure, histochemistry and secretory process of the peltate trichomes on the ovary of Zeyheria montana, a species in the Bignoniaceae which has a rudimentary disc. • Methods Samples of the gynoecium at various developmental stages were fixed and processed for light and electron microscopy. Histochemistry and cytochemistry tests were performed to examine the chemical composition of exudates. Thin layer chromatography was used to determine the presence of alkaloids and terpenes in gynoecium and fruit extracts, and in fresh nectar stored in the nectar chamber. • Key Results Peltate trichomes at different developmental stages appear side by side from floral budding up to pre-dispersal fruit. Large plastids with an extensive internal membrane system consisting of tubules filled with lipophilic material, abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, few Golgi bodies, lipophilic deposits in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and scattered cytoplasmic oil droplets are the main characteristics of mature head cells. The secretion which accumulates in the subcuticular space stains positively for hydrophilic and lipophilic substances, with lipids prevailing for fully peltate trichomes. Histochemistry and thin layer chromatography detected terpenes and alkaloids. Fehling's test to detect of sugars in the secretion was negative. • Conclusions The continuous presence and activity of peltate trichomes on the ovary of Z. montana from early budding through to flowering and fruiting set, and its main chemical components, alkaloids and terpenes, suggest that they serve a protective function and are not related to the floral nectar source or to improving nectar quality. PMID:16371445

  18. Atrazine exposure decreases cell proliferation in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cell line.

    PubMed

    Kmetic, I; Gaurina Srcek, V; Slivac, I; Simi?, B; Kniewald, Z; Kniewald, J

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of atrazine at the ovarian cellular level. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cell line was used to evaluate the degree of in vitro atrazine cytotoxicity and the morphological changes were followed during the cell death. Application of four bioassays confirmed that atrazine decreases ovarian cell proliferation and IC(50) were determined with each assay after 72 h of exposure. The level of apoptosis in atrazine treated cells was low. PMID:18465069

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and metabolic issues: new perspectives and a unifying hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nader, S; Diamanti-Kandarakis, E

    2007-02-01

    In the chronic treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are commonly used to induce regular menses, protect the endometrium and ameliorate androgenic symptoms. However, the long-term safety of OCP use in PCOS has not been established, and the literature reveals conflicting data concerning the metabolic effects of OCPs in this patient population, with outcomes ranging from improvement of glucose tolerance to the development of frank diabetes. This article presents new perspectives and a unifying hypothesis concerning the effects of OCPs on carbohydrate metabolism in PCOS and attempts to explain the divergent findings in published reports. PMID:17099212

  20. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An alternative but not the ultimate in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subarna; Nayak, Prasanta Kumar; Agrawal, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1984, laparoscopic ovarian drilling has evolved into a safe and effective surgical treatment for anovulatory, infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), unresponsive to clomiphene citrate. It is as effective as gonadotropins in terms of pregnancy and live birth rates, but without the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. It improves ovarian responsiveness to successive ovulation induction agents. Its favorable reproductive and endocrinal effects are sustained long. Despite its advantages, its use in unselected cases of PCOS or for non-fertility indications is not prudent owing to the potential risks of iatrogenic adhesions and ovarian insufficiency. PMID:25810633

  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part I. Diagnosis and manifestations.

    PubMed

    Housman, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder among women who are of reproductive age. The pathogenesis involves several associated hormonal pathways that culminate in metabolic, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects. The hallmark features of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia have systemic long-term implications. Dermatologists frequently evaluate and manage the cutaneous manifestations of PCOS (ie, acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, acne, and alopecia), and therefore play a key role in its diagnosis and management. In part I of this continuing medical education article, we review the definition, etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of PCOS. PMID:25437977

  2. E- and N-cadherin expression and distribution during luteinization in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Machell, N H; Farookhi, R

    2003-06-01

    Cadherins, a family of Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecules, play an important role in ovarian tissue remodelling processes. The aim of this study was to examine the expression pattern of E- and N-cadherin in rat preovulatory follicles, luteinizing follicles and corpora lutea. Immature female rats were treated with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) to promote preovulatory follicle development. At 48 h after eCG treatment, the rats were injected with an ovulatory dose of hCG. Ovaries were analysed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence for E- and N-cadherin expression at 48 h after eCG injection, and at 24 and 72 h after hCG injection. Ovaries of cyclic adult rats were examined to assess whether the changes in the expression pattern of cadherin were in agreement with those of the gonadotrophin-treated rats. Finally, expression of E-cadherin in luteinizing granulosa cells in vitro was assessed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence results indicate that E-cadherin is expressed in the theca-interstial cells surrounding preovulatory follicles. N-cadherin expression is prominent in the membrana granulosa of these follicles. The initiation of luteinization with hCG leads to a decreased expression of N-cadherin in the membrana granulosa, whereas expression of E-cadherin starts within the luteinizing follicle. Both cadherins are prominently expressed in the fully formed corpus luteum at 72 h after hCG treatment. Immunofluorescence results revealed that the patterns of E- and N-cadherin expression in the gonadotrophin-treated rats were similar to those of the cyclic adult rats. Western blot analysis reflected similar changes for N-cadherin in the ovaries of both the cyclic adults and gonadotrophin-treated rats; however, they were different in E-cadherin expression. The expression of E-cadherin mRNA and protein was induced in vitro in luteinized granulosa cells. These results support the hypothesis that modulation of cadherin expression is an integral component of remodelling processes, including corpus luteum formation, in the ovary. The results also indicate that expression of E- and N-cadherin in granulosa-lutein cells appear to be under hormonal control. PMID:12773101

  3. Recent progress with the DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Salazar, E.P.; Brookman, K.W.; Collins, C.C.; Stewart, S.A.; Busch, D.B.; Weber, C.A.

    1986-04-02

    Repair deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are being used to identify human genes that correct the repair defects and to study mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis. Five independent tertiary DNA transformants were obtained from the EM9 mutant. In these clones a human DNA sequence was identified that correlated with the resistance of the cells to CldUrd. After Eco RI digestion, Southern transfer, and hybridization of transformant DNAs with the BLUR-8 Alu family sequence, a common fragment of 25 to 30 kb was present. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. [Metabolic and inflammatory profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome associated to weight excess].

    PubMed

    Chaabouni, Khansa; Lahyani, Amina; Turki, Mouna; Messedi, Mariem; Louati, Doulira; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ayedi, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and weight excess exhibited metabolic abnormalities and elevated cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to assess metabolic and inflammatory profiles in women with PCOS associated to weight excess; 85 women were enrolled. Four groups were then identified with and without PCOS and/or weight excess. Hyperlipidemia was significantly more observed in the two groups with weight excess. In whom insulinresistance and high sensitive C reactive protein were also elevated. Abnormalities observed when PCOS and weight excess are associated would mimic these observed in isolated weight excess with some particularities. PMID:25119811

  5. Elimination of C-6-hydrogen during the formation of ecdysteroids from cholesterol in Locusta migratoria ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Kakinuma, K.; Ikekawa, N. )

    1989-03-01

    Being administered to Locusta migratoria adult females, (6-{sup 3}H, 4-{sup 14}C)cholesterol was incorporated into ecdysone and 2-deoxyecdysone. The ratio of {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C of the two ecdysteroids isolated from newly laid eggs revealed that C-6-hydrogen of cholesterol was eliminated during the conversion to ecdysteroids in the ovaries of the insects. Thus, a hypothetical mechanism involving migration of the C-6-hydrogen to the C-5 position in the formation of A/B cis junction turned out to be less likely.

  6. Identification of Metabolites in the Normal Ovary and Their Transformation in Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Miranda Y.; McDunn, Jonathan; Kakar, Sham S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the metabolome of the human ovary and identified metabolic alternations that coincide with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and metastatic tumors resulting from primary ovarian cancer (MOC) using three analytical platforms: gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) using buffer systems and instrument settings to catalog positive or negative ions. The human ovarian metabolome was found to contain 364 biochemicals and upon transformation of the ovary caused changes in energy utilization, altering metabolites associated with glycolysis and β-oxidation of fatty acids—such as carnitine (1.79 fold in EOC, p<0.001; 1.88 fold in MOC, p<0.001), acetylcarnitine (1.75 fold in EOC, p<0.001; 2.39 fold in MOC, p<0.001), and butyrylcarnitine (3.62 fold, p<0.0094 in EOC; 7.88 fold, p<0.001 in MOC). There were also significant changes in phenylalanine catabolism marked by increases in phenylpyruvate (4.21 fold; p = 0.0098) and phenyllactate (195.45 fold; p<0.0023) in EOC. Ovarian cancer also displayed an enhanced oxidative stress response as indicated by increases in 2-aminobutyrate in EOC (1.46 fold, p = 0.0316) and in MOC (2.25 fold, p<0.001) and several isoforms of tocopherols. We have also identified novel metabolites in the ovary, specifically N-acetylasparate and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate, whose role in ovarian physiology has yet to be determined. These data enhance our understanding of the diverse biochemistry of the human ovary and demonstrate metabolic alterations upon transformation. Furthermore, metabolites with significant changes between groups provide insight into biochemical consequences of transformation and are candidate biomarkers of ovarian oncogenesis. Validation studies are warranted to determine whether these compounds have clinical utility in the diagnosis or clinical management of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:21625518

  7. Alterations in pituitary gland volume in polycystic ovary syndrome: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Ebru; Unlu, Bekir Serdar; Turamanlar, Ozan; Acay, Mehtap Beker; Kacar, Emre; Y?ld?z, Yunus; Verim, Ozgur; Okur, Nazan; Balcik, Cinar; Tasgetiren, Suleyman; Yucel, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this prospectively designed cross-sectional observational study was to evaluate the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on pituitary gland volume (PGV) under the hypothesis that endocrinologic changes may lead to morphologic changes of the pituitary gland. Twenty-six PCOS patients and 31 control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. PGV was significantly larger in PCOS patients than in control subjects. Luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio was the only predictor of PGV. The association between pituitary gland enlargement and PCOS should be kept in mind when pituitary hypertrophy is detected on MRI. PMID:25457522

  8. Anti-anxiety effect of ovary lipid extracted from Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ookawa, Katumasa; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Shida, Eiji; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ooba, Tomoko; Matumoto, Toru; Hokari, Yoshinori; Hashidume, Masayuki; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2007-06-01

    Using an elevated plus-maze test, we evaluated anxiety level in rats given ovary lipid extracted from Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis; OLS). The percentage of open time was significantly higher in rats given OLS than in rats in the control group, but lower than in rats given diazepam (1.0 mg/kg body weight). Based on this fact and findings about other indicators, this study showed that OLS does not have as fast-acting and strong an anti-anxiety effect as diazepam but that continuous ingestion of OLS causes an anti-anxiety effect in animals. PMID:17611360

  9. Clear cell carcinoma of ovary with associated mucinous cystadenoma and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Zeeshan; Yaqoob, Nausheen; Kayani, Naila; Hasan, Sheema H

    2007-07-01

    A 45 year old woman presented with right sided ovarian mass with multiple omental deposits and liver metastases. The right ovary was enlarged and showed a partly cystic partly solid cut surface. Histological picture showed clear cell carcinoma with areas of mucinous cystadenoma and endometriosis. Clear cell carcinoma is known to be associated with endometriosis. To the best of author's knowledge, it's association with mucinous cystadenoma has been described only once in the literature, where clear cell carcinoma was shown to be associated with mucinous cystadenoma without any evidence of endometriosis. PMID:17867264

  10. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mucinous cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, N; Berney, D

    2000-01-01

    A 57 year old woman presented complaining of increasing abdominal swelling of six months duration. A mixed solid cystic left ovarian tumour measuring 24 cm in diameter was excised. Histology showed numerous cysts lined by benign mucinous epithelium blending imperceptibly into borderline clear cell and mucinous areas that in turn merged with an invasive clear cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of clear cell carcinoma arising in a mucinous cystadenoma. The implications for the previously postulated pathogenesis of these tumours are discussed. Key Words: ovary clear cell carcinoma mucinous cystadenoma PMID:11265180

  11. Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT)--case report.

    PubMed

    Lubin, J; Pawa?owska, M; Markowska, A; Bielas, A

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a very rare malignant disease, seen mostly in young women, with a very poor prognosis. There is no standard treatment for patients with this disease and most literature is limited to short series or case reports. This report describes the case of a 34-year-old woman with aggressive course of SCCOHT and poor outcome. What proved difficult was the process of establishing the diagnosis due to non-specific first symptoms of disease and consequently the combined treatment of surgery and chemotherapy with concurrent side effects. PMID:25872342

  12. Breed influences on in vitro development of abattoir-derived bovine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a discrepancy in the reproductive performance between different cattle breeds. Using abattoir-derived ovaries and data base information we studied the effects of breed on in vitro fertilization and early embryo development. Methods The in vitro developmental competence of oocytes from cattle (n?=?202) of Swedish Red (SR), Swedish Holstein (SH) and mixed beef breeds was compared, retrospectively tracing donors of abattoir-derived ovaries using a combination of the national animal databases and abattoir information. Age was significantly lower and carcass conformation score was higher in the beef breeds than in the dairy breeds. Cumulus oocyte complexes (n?=?1351) were aspirated from abattoir-derived ovaries from animals of known breed (visual inspection confirmed through databases), age (databases), and abattoir information. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (frozen semen from two dairy bulls) and cultured according to conventional protocols. On day 8, blastocysts were graded and the number of nuclei determined. Results Cleavage rate was not different between the breeds but was significantly different between bulls. The percentage of blastocysts on day 8 was significantly higher when the oocyte donors breed was beef or SR than SH. There was no significant difference in blastocyst grades or stages between the breeds, but the number of nuclei in day 8 blastocysts was significantly lower in SH compared to the beef. Conclusions The use of abattoir-derived ovaries from animals whose background is traceable can be a valuable tool for research. Using this approach in the present study, oocyte donor breed was seen to affect early embryo development during in vitro embryo production, which may be a contributing factor to the declining fertility in some dairy breeds seen today. PMID:22682104

  13. Purification of vitellin from the ovary of Chinese mitten-handed crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and development of an antivitellin ELISA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqiao; Jiang, Hongbo; Zhou, Zhongliang; Li, Kang; Li, Kai; Deng, Glenn Y; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2004-07-01

    Vitellin was purified from ovaries of mature female Chinese mitten-handed crab (Eriocheir sinensis) using gel filtration chromatography. Analysis by native PAGE showed the vitellin had a native molecular mass of 520 kDa, while denaturing SDS-PAGE revealed two subunits of 97 and 74 kDa. Purified vitellin was used to raise polyclonal antisera, with which an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The ELISA was sensitive and could effectively detect vitellin in the range of 7.8-500 ng. Furthermore, vitellin levels in various developmental stages of oogenesis were measured with the ELISA assay. The results indicated that levels of vitellin increased significantly from 0.22 mg/ovary at Stage II to 360.31 mg/ovary at Stage IV. PMID:15253879

  14. Metabolism alteration in follicular niche: The nexus among intermediary metabolism, mitochondrial function, and classic polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongcui; Zhao, Yue; Li, Tianjie; Li, Min; Li, Junsheng; Li, Rong; Liu, Ping; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Classic polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a high-risk phenotype accompanied by increased risks of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities; however, the local metabolism characteristics of the ovaries and their effects on germ cell development are unclear. The present study used targeted metabolomics to detect alterations in the intermediate metabolites of follicular fluid from classic PCOS patients, and the results indicated that hyperandrogenism but not obesity induced the changed intermediate metabolites in classic PCOS patients. Regarding the direct contact, we identified mitochondrial function, redox potential, and oxidative stress in cumulus cells which were necessary to support oocyte growth before fertilization, and suggested dysfunction of mitochondria, imbalanced redox potential, and increased oxidative stress in cumulus cells of classic PCOS patients. Follicular fluid intermediary metabolic profiles provide signatures of classic PCOS ovary local metabolism and establish a close link with mitochondria dysfunction of cumulus cells, highlighting the role of metabolic signal and mitochondrial cross talk involved in the pathogenesis of classic PCOS. PMID:26057937

  15. Lateral high abdominal ovariopexy: an original surgical technique for protection of the ovaries during curative radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gaetini, A.; De Simone, M.; Urgesi, A.; Levis, A.; Resegotti, A.; Ragona, R.; Anglesio, S.

    1988-09-01

    An original surgical method for gonadal protection in young women given pelvic radiation for Hodgkin's disease is presented. Lateral high ovarian transposition (LHAO) consists of the transposition of the ovaries into the paracolic gutter during staging laparotomy, after disconnecting the gonads from the fallopian tubes by dividing the tubo-ovarian vessels. The technique's effectiveness was assessed by a study using clinical investigation, radioimmunoassay (RIA) determination of sex hormones, and dosimetry; of 18 patients treated, 10 participated in the study. All but one have normal menses and hormone values, and one pregnancy occurred. We also calculated the doses absorbed by the ovaries and proved that, during inverted Y irradiation following LHAO, the ovaries are exposed to nearly one-half the dose they receive after traditional medial transposition. During subtotal nodal irradiation after LHAO, the irradiation dose is higher than after medialisation, but absolute values are minimal and castration is not induced.

  16. A rare case of the coexistence of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, mucinous cystadenoma, and endometriosis in the same ovary.

    PubMed

    Shang, H S; Chao, T K; Wu, G Z; Yu, C P

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas are associated with endometriosis. The association of clear cell carcinomas with mucinous lesions has only been reported infrequently, and with mucinous cystadenoma has been rarely reported. This is the second reported case of the coexistence of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, mucinous cystadenoma, and endometriosis in the same ovary. A 57-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain for three weeks. Ultrasonography revealed a 16 x 14 x 10 cm mass in the left ovary with solid and cystic components. Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Histopathological examination of the left ovary revealed the presence of clear cell carcinoma, mucinous cystadenoma, and endometriosis. Continuity between the areas of mucinous epithelium and clear cell carcinoma were noted; this may suggest that clear cell carcinoma may arise from endometriosis or mucinous cystic tumors. PMID:22335035

  17. The Influence of LepR Tyrosine Site Mutations on Mouse Ovary Development and Related Gene Expression Changes

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiaoyu; Kuang, Zhichao; Gong, Xia; Shi, Yan; Yu, Lin; Shi, Huijuan; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    Leptin exerts many biological functions, such as in metabolism and reproduction, through binding to and activating the leptin receptor, LepRb, which is expressed in many regions of the brain. To better understand the roles of LepR downstream signaling pathways, Y123F mice, which expressed mutant leptin receptors with phenylalanine (F) substituted for three tyrosines (Y) (Tyr985, Tyr1077 and Tyr1138), were generated. The body weight and abdominal fat deposits of Y123F homozygous mice (HOM) were higher than those of wild-type mice (WT). HOM ovaries were atrophic and the follicles developed abnormally; however, the HOM ovaries did not exhibit polycystic phenotypes. Moreover, Y123F HOM adults had no estrous cycle and the blood estrogen concentration remained stable at a low level below detection limit of 5 pg/ml. LepR expression in HOM ovaries was higher than in WT ovaries. Using cDNA Microarrays, the mRNA expressions of 41 genes were increased, and 100 were decreased in HOM vs. WT ovaries, and many signaling pathways were evaluated to be involved significantly. The expressions of 19 genes were validated by real-time quantitative PCR, most of which were consistent with the microarray results. Thus, Y123F HOM mice were suggested as a new animal model of PCOS for research that mainly emphasizes metabolic disorders and anovulation, but not the polycystic phenotype. Meanwhile, using the model, we found that JAK-STAT and hormone biosynthesis pathways were involved in the follicular development and ovulation disorders caused by LepR deficiency in ovaries, although we could not exclude indirect actions from the brain. PMID:26529315

  18. 17?-estradiol prevents experimentally-induced oxidative damage to membrane lipids and nuclear DNA in porcine ovary.

    PubMed

    Stepniak, Jan; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata

    2016-02-01

    Estrogens, with their principle representative 17?-estradiol, contribute to the redox state of cells showing both pro- and antioxidative properties. In the ovary, being the main source of estrogens, maintaining balance between the production and detoxification of ROS is crucial. Whereas ovary estrogen concentration is difficult to estimate, its circulating concentration in women may reach the nanomolar level. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of 17?-estradiol on oxidative damage to membrane lipids (lipid peroxidation, LPO) and to nuclear DNA in the porcine ovary under basal conditions and in the presence of Fenton reaction (Fe(2+)+H2O2?Fe(3+)+()OH?+?OH(-)) substrates. Ovary homogenates and DNA were incubated in the presence of 17?-estradiol (1?mM-1?pM), without/with FeSO4 (30??M)?+?H2O2 (0.5?mM). Malondialdehyde?+?4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA?+?4-HDA) concentration (LPO index) was measured spectrophotometrically. The concentration of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) (DNA damage index) was measured by HPLC. We observed that 17?-estradiol did not alter the basal level of oxidative damage, but reduced Fe(2+)+H2O2-induced oxidative damage to membrane lipids when ?10?nM and to DNA at concentrations ?1?nM. In the ovary at near physiological concentration, 17?-estradiol prevents experimentally induced oxidative damage. This suggests that under physiological conditions this hormone may contribute to protecting the ovary against oxidative damage. PMID:26677908

  19. A national population-based study provides insight in the origin of malignancies metastatic to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Bruls, Jolien; Simons, Michiel; Overbeek, Lucy I; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F; Nagtegaal, Iris D

    2015-07-01

    A significant proportion of ovarian malignancies consists of metastatic tumors, with a wide variety in site of origin. Differentiating between a primary and metastatic malignancy of the ovaries can be difficult and misdiagnosis might have considerable impact on both treatment and prognosis. To further examine the origin of malignancies metastatic to the ovary, we performed a large-scale, nationwide search for ovarian metastases in the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA). All pathology reports concerning malignancies metastatic to the ovary and associated primary tumors in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2010 were collected. Age, year of diagnosis, tumor type, location of the primary tumor, and side of the ovarian tumor were extracted from the database. We identified 2312 patients fulfilling our selection criteria. The most common primary malignancy sites were colon (33.2%), endometrium (17.1%), breast (14.3%), appendix (7.3%), and stomach (4.5%). The metastases were most frequently bilateral (46.3%) followed by unilateral metastases in the right (26.7%) and left ovary (19.8%), while side was unknown in 7.2% of cases. Of colorectal carcinomas, only 40.2% metastasized bilaterally, compared to 63.9% of breast, 62.9% of gastric, and 58.9% of appendix carcinomas. Left-sided colorectal carcinomas most often metastasized to the left ovary (p < 0.0001). We found colon carcinomas to be most frequently responsible for metastases to the ovaries, followed by endometrial and breast carcinomas. Metastases from breast, stomach, and appendix carcinomas were mostly bilateral, whereas metastases from colorectal carcinomas were mostly unilateral. The mechanisms underlying preferred sites for metastasis or side remain unclear. PMID:25894432

  20. Impact of Treatment with Metformin on Adipocytokines in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wen; Niu, Xun; Zeng, Tianshu; Lu, Meixia; Chen, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Background Metformin is effective for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, but conflicting results regarding its effect on adipocytokine levels (adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, and leptin) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome receiving metformin treatment have been reported. To provide high-quality evidence about the effect of metformin treatment on adipocytokines in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, relevant studies that assessed the levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, and leptin) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome receiving treatment with metformin administration were reviewed and analyzed. Methods A literature search was conducted in the SCI, PUBMED, EMBASE, and Elsevier databases, and personal contact was made with the authors. Standard mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and combined appropriately. To ensure synthesis of the best available evidence, sensitivity analyses were performed. Results A total of 34 data sets were included in 4 different outcomes, involving 744 women with polycystic ovary syndrome and adipocytokine levels measured both before and after metformin administration. Metformin treatment was associated with significantly elevated serum adiponectin concentrations (standard mean differences [95% confidence interval], ?0.43 [?0.75 to ?0.11]) and decreased serum leptin concentrations (0.65 [0.26 to 1.04]), whereas no significant difference in resistin level (?0.01 [?0.49 to 0.45]) or visfatin level (?0.04 [?1.55 to 1.46]) was found. Conclusions Metformin administration was associated with increased serum adiponectin concentrations and decreased serum leptin levels. Further study is needed to elucidate whether this apparent effect decreases the incidence of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome later in life. PMID:26473366

  1. The HEX 110 Hexamerin Is a Cytoplasmic and Nucleolar Protein in the Ovaries of Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2016-01-01

    Hexamerins are insect storage proteins abundantly secreted by the larval fat body into the haemolymph. The canonical role of hexamerins consists of serving as an amino acid reserve for development toward the adult stage. However, in Apis mellifera, immunofluorescence assays coupled to confocal laser-scanning microscopy, and high-throughput sequencing, have recently shown the presence of hexamerins in other organs than the fat body. These findings have led us to study these proteins with the expectation of uncovering additional functions in insect development. We show here that a honeybee hexamerin, HEX 110, localizes in the cytoplasm and nucleus of ovarian cells. In the nucleus of somatic and germline cells, HEX 110 colocalized with a nucleolar protein, fibrillarin, suggesting a structural or even regulatory function in the nucleolus. RNase A provoked the loss of HEX 110 signals in the ovarioles, indicating that the subcellular localization depends on RNA. This was reinforced by incubating ovaries with pyronin Y, a RNA-specific dye. Together, the colocalization with fibrillarin and pyronin Y, and the sensitivity to RNase, highlight unprecedented roles for HEX110 in the nucleolus, the nuclear structure harbouring the gene cluster involved in ribosomal RNA production. However, the similar patterns of HEX 110 foci distribution in the active and inactive ovaries of queens and workers preclude its association with the functional status of these organs. PMID:26954256

  2. Incorporating patient preference into the management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okoroafor, Ugochi C; Jungheim, Emily S

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Because of the heterogeneous nature of PCOS, women affected by the condition often require a customized approach for ovulation induction when trying to conceive. Treating symptoms of PCOS in overweight and obese women should always incorporate lifestyle changes with the goal of weight-loss, as many women with PCOS will ovulate after losing 5%10% of their body weight. On the other hand, other factors must be considered including the womans age, age-related decline in fertility, and previous treatments she may have already tried. Fortunately, multiple options for ovulation induction exist for women with PCOS. This paper reviews specific ovulation induction options available for women with PCOS, the benefits and efficacy of these options, and the related side effects and risks women can anticipate with the various options that may affect treatment adherence. The paper also reviews the recommended evidence-based strategies for treating PCOS-related infertility that allow for incorporation of the patients preference. Finally, it briefly reviews emerging data and ongoing studies regarding newer agents that have shown great promise as first-line agents for the treatment of infertility in women with PCOS. PMID:22723725

  3. Superovulation Induced Changes of Lipid Metabolism in Ovaries and Embryos and Its Probable Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ya; Wang, Ning; Le, Fang; Li, Lei; Lou, Hang-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Zheng, Ying-Ming; Qian, Ye-Qing; Chen, Yun-Long; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Huang, He-Feng; Jin, Fan

    2015-01-01

    This research was intended to investigate the fetal origins of changed birth weight of the offspring born through assisted reproductive technology (ART). The association between hormone and lipid metabolism or body weight has been generally accepted, and as the basic and specific treatment in ART procedure, gonadotropin stimulation might have potential effects on intrauterine lipid metabolism. In our studies, the mice were superovulated with two doses of gonadotropin. The cholesterol metabolism in ovaries and the triglyceride metabolism in embryos were analyzed. The results showed gonadotropin probably accelerated luteinization and induced a longer time follicle development and ovulation, which resulted in histological and morphological alteration of ovary, and increased the cholesterol content and the expressions of steroidogenesis-related genes. In embryos, gonadotropin increased lipid accumulation and decreased fatty acid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the changes of fatty acid composition were also shown in superovulation groups. Our studies firstly provided the evidence that the superovulation might affect the maternal and fetal lipid metabolism. These variations of lipid metabolism in our results may be associated with birth weight of ART infants. PMID:26167919

  4. Triazophos-induced oxidative stress and histomorphological changes in ovary of female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dharmender; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur; Khera, Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Triazophos (TZ), a non-systemic broad spectrum organophosphate (OP), is being extensively used against a wide range of pests in agricultural practices. The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of triazophos (TZ) in female Wistar rats. Three sub-chronic dose levels of TZ corresponding to 1/10th, 1/20th and 1/40th of LD50 were given for 30 days to adult female Wistar rats through oral intubation. During the treatment period estrous cycle was significantly altered. Activity levels of different oxidative stress (OS) parameters viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were differentially altered in the ovary of treated rats. Estradiol levels were significantly high while progesterone levels were significantly reduced in plasma of 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ-treated rats. Histomorphological studies of ovary revealed increased follicular atresia and increased ovarian surface epithelial height in 1/10th and 1/20th of LD50 TZ-treated rats. Enhanced apoptosis and necrosis were also observed in ovarian granulosa cells at dose-dependent manner. Results infer that TZ exposure may lead to the number of pathophysiological conditions in female rats and severity increases at high doses. PMID:25619906

  5. Tamoxifen prevents apoptosis and follicle loss from cyclophosphamide in cultured rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Piasecka-Srader, Joanna; Blanco, Fernando F; Delman, Devora H; Dixon, Dan A; Geiser, James L; Ciereszko, Renata E; Petroff, Brian K

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies documented that the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen prevents follicle loss and promotes fertility following in vivo exposure of rodents to irradiation or ovotoxic cancer drugs, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. In an effort to characterize the ovarian-sparing mechanisms of tamoxifen in preantral follicle classes, cultured neonatal rat ovaries (Day 4, Sprague Dawley) were treated for 1-7 days with active metabolites of cyclophosphamide (i.e., 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide; CTX) (0, 1, and 10 ?M) and tamoxifen (i.e., 4-hydroxytamoxifen; TAM) (0 and 10 ?M) in vitro, and both apoptosis and follicle numbers were measured. CTX caused marked follicular apoptosis and follicular loss. TAM treatment decreased follicular loss and apoptosis from CTX in vitro. TAM alone had no effect on these parameters. IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor were assessed in ovarian tissue showing no impact of TAM or CTX on these endpoints. Targeted mRNA analysis during follicular rescue by TAM revealed decreased expression of multiple genes related to inflammation, including mediators of lipoxygenase and prostaglandin production and signaling (Alox5, Pla2g1b, Ptgfr), cytokine binding (Il1r1, Il2rg ), apoptosis (Tnfrsf1a), second messenger signaling (Mapk1, Mapk14, Plcg1), as well as tissue remodeling and vasodilation (Bdkrb2, Klk15). The results suggest that TAM protects the ovary from CTX-mediated toxicity through direct ovarian actions that oppose follicular loss. PMID:25833159

  6. Identification of androgen receptor phosphorylation in the primate ovary in vivo.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Iain J; McGuinness, Dagmara; Hay, Colin W; Millar, Robert P; Saunders, Philippa T K; Fraser, Hamish M

    2010-07-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and is important for both male and female reproductive health. The receptor is a target for a number of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, which has been intensively studied in vitro. However, little is known about the phosphorylation status of the receptor in target tissues in vivo. The common marmoset is a useful model for studying human reproductive functions, and comparison of the AR primary sequence from this primate shows high conservation of serines known to be phosphorylated in the human receptor and corresponding flanking amino acids. We have used a panel of phosphospecific antibodies to study AR phosphorylation in the marmoset ovary throughout the follicular phase and after treatment with GNRH antagonist or testosterone propionate. In normal follicular phase ovaries, total AR (both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms) immunopositive staining was observed in several cell types including granulosa cells of developing follicles, theca cells and endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Receptor phosphorylation at serines 81, 308, and 650 was detected primarily in the granulosa cells of developing follicles, surface epithelium, and vessel endothelial cells. Testosterone treatment lead to a modest increase in AR staining in all stages of follicle studied, while GNRH antagonist had no effect. Neither treatment significantly altered the pattern of phosphorylation compared to the control group. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation of the AR occurs, at a subset of serine residues, in a reproductive target tissue in vivo, which appears refractory to hormonal manipulations. PMID:20406952

  7. Expression and localization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Ningling; Lin, Xianhua; Jin, Li; Xu, Hong; Li, Rong; Huang, Hefeng

    2016-02-26

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), an evolutionarily conserved protein, is involved in several important cellular processes that are relevant to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer development. However, details of hnRNP K expression during mammalian oogenesis and preimplantation embryo development are lacking. The present study investigates the expression and cellular localization of K protein in the mouse ovaries and preimplantation embryos using immunostaining. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hnRNP K is abundantly expressed in the nuclei of mouse oocytes in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In germ vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes, hnRNP K accumulates in the germinal vesicle in a spot distribution manner. After germinal vesicle breakdown, speckled hnRNP K is diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm. However, after fertilization, the K protein relocates into the female and male pronucleus and persists in the blastomere nuclei. Localization of K protein in the human ovary and ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) was also investigated. Overall, this study provides important morphological evidence to better understand the possible roles of hnRNP K in mammalian oogenesis and early embryo development. PMID:26850853

  8. Differential insulin response to myo-inositol administration in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Prati, Alessia; Santagni, Susanna; Ricchieri, Federica; Chierchia, Elisa; Rattighieri, Erica; Campedelli, Annalisa; Simoncini, Tommaso; Artini, Paolo G

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries at ultrasound evaluation, and quite frequently by insulin resistance or compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Attention has been given to the role of inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) mediators of insulin action and growing evidences suggest that a deficiency of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) containing IPG might be at the basis of insulin resistance, frequent in PCOS patients. On such basis, we investigated the efficacy on insulin sensitivity and hormonal parameters of 8 weeks treatment with myo-inositol (MYO) (Inofert, ItalPharmaco, Milano, Italy) at the dosage of 2 g day in a group (n = 42) of obese PCOS patients,. After the treatment interval body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance decreased together with luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/FSH and insulin. When subdividing the patients according to their fasting insulin levels, Group A (n = 15) insulin below 12 U/ml and Group B (n = 27) insulin above 12 U/ml, MYO treatment induced similar changes in both groups but only patients of Group B showed the significant decrease of both fasting insulin plasma levels (from 20.3 1.8 to 12.9 1.8 U/ml, p < 0.00001) and of area under the curve (AUC) of insulin under oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that MYO administration is more effective in obese patients with high fasting insulin plasma levels. PMID:22612517

  9. Glycosylation analysis of an aggregated antibody produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells in bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kawaguchi, Akira; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    N-Glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies contributes not only to their biological function, but also to their stability and tendency to aggregate. Here, we investigated the impact of the glycosylation status of an aggregated antibody that accumulated during the bioreactor culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that there was no apparent difference in the glycosylation patterns of monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregated forms of the antibody. In contrast, lectin binding assays, which enable the total amounts of specific sugar residues to be detected, showed that both galactose and fucose residues in dimers and large aggregates were reduced to 70-80% of the amount in monomers. These results strongly suggest that the lack of N-linked oligosaccharides, a result of deglycosylation or aglycosylation, occurred in a proportion of the dimeric and large aggregated components. The present study demonstrates that glycosylation heterogeneities are a potential cause of antibody aggregation in cell culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells, and that the lack of N-glycosylation promotes the formation of dimers and finally results in large aggregates. PMID:24326352

  10. Antioxidants and management of polycystic ovary syndrome in Iran: A systematic review of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Leila; Tehranian, Najmeh; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Ziaee, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently there is a focus on the antioxidants as adjuvant treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most endocrinopathy in reproductive age women. Objective: The aim of this review is answer to the question whether antioxidants are effective for managing of hormonal and metabolic problems in women with PCOS based on first degree evidences from Iran. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of clinical trials was done in Persian and international databases including PubMed, Scientific Information Database, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, and Magiran up to 2013. Keywords were including polycystic ovary syndrome, Iran, vitamin, antioxidant. From 440 potential studies found electronically, 11 studies; including 444 women in intervention and 390 women in control groups. Intervention in three studies was Calcium-vitamin D or calcitriol; in three studies was ?-3 fatty acids; in two studies was N-acetyl cysteine; in one study was folic acid; in one study was Zinc; and in one study was Soy. Results: Finally, 11 studies that were relevant and met the inclusion criteria reviewed. There were 7 studies in English and 4 studies in Persian. We couldnt include all studies because all full texts were not accessible. Conclusion: The results showed that antioxidants and vitamins have positive effects on management of PCOS women. Although it seems more studies is necessary in this field. PMID:25653669

  11. Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Anderson Sanches; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome represents 80% of anovulatory infertility cases. Treatment initially includes preconception guidelines, such as lifestyle changes (weight loss), folic acid therapy to prevent the risk of fetal neural tube defects and halting the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. The first-line pharmacological treatment for inducing ovulation consists of a clomiphene citrate treatment for timed intercourse. The second-line pharmacological treatment includes the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery (ovarian drilling). Ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins is effective with cumulative live birth rates of approximately 70%. Ovarian drilling should be performed when laparoscopy is indicated; this procedure is typically effective in approximately 50% of cases. Finally, a high-complexity reproduction treatment (in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is the third-line treatment and is recommended when the previous interventions fail. This option is also the first choice in cases of bilateral tubal occlusion or semen alterations that impair the occurrence of natural pregnancy. Evidence for the routine use of metformin in infertility treatment of anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome is not available. Aromatase inhibitors are promising and longer term studies are necessary to prove their safety. PMID:26602525

  12. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  13. Effect of prenatal and neonatal exposure to lead on gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenesis in rat ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, J.P.; Barr, K.J.; Buckingham, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lead chloride (20 or 200 ppm) or sodium chloride (controls) in their drinking water, either prior to pregnancy or during pregnancy and lactation, and female offspring were examined at weaning (21 d) or at 150 d. Other female rats were treated from d 21 to 35. Tissue (blood, kidney, bone) lead levels, body, ovary, and uterus weights, ovarian steroidogenesis, and gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) levels, and gonadotropin-receptor binding were determined. Prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to lead at these levels (20 and 200 ppm) did not affect tissue weights but did cause a significant decrease in gonadotropin-receptor binding in the prepubertal, pubertal and adult females. Conversion of progesterone to androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone was significantly decreased in 21-d-old rats; in 150-d-old females, the prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased conversion to the 5-alpha-reduced steroid, normally high during puberty. The results demonstrate that lead exposure prior to mating may affect gonadotropin-receptor binding in the offspring and that lead exposure (in utero, via mother's milk, or post weaning) may significantly alter steroid production and gonadotropin binding in ovaries of the prepubertal, pubertal, and adult female.

  14. Analysis of Pigeon (Columba) Ovary Transcriptomes to Identify Genes Involved in Blue Light Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Ding, Jia-tong; Yang, Hai-ming; Yan, Zheng-jie; Cao, Wei; Li, Yang-bai

    2015-01-01

    Monochromatic light is widely applied to promote poultry reproductive performance, yet little is currently known regarding the mechanism by which light wavelengths affect pigeon reproduction. Recently, high-throughput sequencing technologies have been used to provide genomic information for solving this problem. In this study, we employed Illumina Hiseq 2000 to identify differentially expressed genes in ovary tissue from pigeons under blue and white light conditions and de novo transcriptome assembly to construct a comprehensive sequence database containing information on the mechanisms of follicle development. A total of 157,774 unigenes (mean length: 790 bp) were obtained by the Trinity program, and 35.83% of these unigenes were matched to genes in a non-redundant protein database. Gene description, gene ontology, and the clustering of orthologous group terms were performed to annotate the transcriptome assembly. Differentially expressed genes between blue and white light conditions included those related to oocyte maturation, hormone biosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, 17,574 SSRs and 533,887 potential SNPs were identified in this transcriptome assembly. This work is the first transcriptome analysis of the Columba ovary using Illumina technology, and the resulting transcriptome and differentially expressed gene data can facilitate further investigations into the molecular mechanism of the effect of blue light on follicle development and reproduction in pigeons and other bird species. PMID:26599806

  15. Steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Gisele Negro; Maganhin, Carla Cristina; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Baracat, Maria Cândida Pinheiro; da Silva Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues; Fuchs, Luiz Fernando Portugal; de Jesus Simões, Manuel; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Júnior, José Maria Soares

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze steroidogenesis-related gene expression in the rat ovary exposed to melatonin supplementation. METHODS: Thirty-two virgin adult female rats were randomized to two groups as follows: the control group GI received vehicle and the experimental group GII received melatonin supplementation (10 µg/night per animal) for 60 consecutive days. After the treatment, animals were anesthetized and the collected ovaries were immediately placed in liquid nitrogen for complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray analyses. A GeneChip® Kit Rat Genome 230 2.0 Affymetrix Array was used for gene analysis and the experiment was repeated three times for each group. The results were normalized with the GeneChip® Operating Software program and confirmed through analysis with the secondary deoxyribonucleic acid-Chip Analyzer (dChip) software. The data were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Genes related to ovarian function were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found the upregulation of the type 9 adenylate cyclase and inhibin beta B genes and the downregulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element modulator and cytochrome P450 family 17a1 genes in the ovarian tissue of GII compared to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that melatonin supplementation decreases gene expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which changes ovarian steroidogenesis. PMID:25789524

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 promotes primordial follicle formation in the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Prabuddha; Roy, Shyamal K.

    2015-01-01

    Primordial follicles (PF) are formed when somatic cells differentiate into flattened pregranulosa cells, invaginate into the oocyte nests and encircle individual oocytes. We hypothesize that BMP2 regulates PF formation by promoting the transition of germ cells into oocytes and somatic cells into pregranulosa cells. E15 hamster ovaries were cultured for 8 days corresponding to postnatal day 8 (P8) in vivo, with or without BMP2, and the formation of PF was examined. BMP2 was expressed in the oocytes as well as ovarian somatic cells during development. BMP2 exposure for the first two days or the last two days or the entire 8 days of culture led to increase in PF formation suggesting that BMP2 affected both germ cell transition and somatic cell differentiation. Whereas an ALK2/3 inhibitor completely blocked BMP2-induced PF formation, an ALK2-specific inhibitor was partially effective, suggesting that BMP2 affected PF formation via both ALK2 and ALK3. BMP2 also reduced apoptosis in vitro. Further, more meiotic oocytes were present in BMP2 exposed ovaries. In summary, the results provide the first evidence that BMP2 regulates primordial follicle formation by promoting germ cell to oocyte transition and somatic cell to pre-granulosa cells formation and it acts via both ALK2 and ALK3. PMID:26219655

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Navigating the Pathophysiologic Labyrinth

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez, Mervin; Olivar, Luis; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Mejías, José; Calvo, María; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic disorder that implies various severe consequences to female health, including alarming rates of infertility. Although its exact etiology remains elusive, it is known to feature several hormonal disturbances, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin appears to disrupt all components of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis, and ovarian tissue insulin resistance results in impaired metabolic signaling but intact mitogenic and steroidogenic activity, favoring hyperandrogenemia, which appears to be the main culprit of the clinical picture in PCOS. In turn, androgens may lead back to IR by increasing levels of free fatty acids and modifying muscle tissue composition and functionality, perpetuating this IR-hyperinsulinemia-hyperandrogenemia cycle. Nonobese women with PCOS showcase several differential features, with unique biochemical and hormonal profiles. Nevertheless, lean and obese patients have chronic inflammation mediating the long term cardiometabolic complications and comorbidities observed in women with PCOS, including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Given these severe implications, it is important to thoroughly understand the pathophysiologic interconnections underlying PCOS, in order to provide superior therapeutic strategies and warrant improved quality of life to women with this syndrome. PMID:25763405

  18. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary: A pathologic entity in search of clinical identity.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-05-10

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the ovary is a rare diagnosis and only a few dozen cases have been reported in the literature. It is characterized by large pleiomorphic cells with large round or oval nuclei, presence of mitoses and staining for neuroendocrine (NE) markers such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase. This editorial gives a brief overview of this histologic type of ovarian carcinomas. LCNEC of the ovary is a pathologic entity that may not be diagnosed purely on clinical grounds due to the similarity of its clinical features with those of the more common epithelial ovarian cancers. Nevertheless the diagnosis is worth-making from a practical point of view in order to consider treatments tailored towards the NE component if it is dominant or it becomes dominant during the natural evolution of the disease. Establishment of an international tumor registry with an accompanying tumor tissue bank of ovarian LCNEC could be a means of obtaining further knowledge on clinical characteristics and advance research on this rare entity. This will further inform on treatment strategies and could identify future molecular treatment targets. PMID:24829849

  19. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary: A pathologic entity in search of clinical identity

    PubMed Central

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-01-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the ovary is a rare diagnosis and only a few dozen cases have been reported in the literature. It is characterized by large pleiomorphic cells with large round or oval nuclei, presence of mitoses and staining for neuroendocrine (NE) markers such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase. This editorial gives a brief overview of this histologic type of ovarian carcinomas. LCNEC of the ovary is a pathologic entity that may not be diagnosed purely on clinical grounds due to the similarity of its clinical features with those of the more common epithelial ovarian cancers. Nevertheless the diagnosis is worth-making from a practical point of view in order to consider treatments tailored towards the NE component if it is dominant or it becomes dominant during the natural evolution of the disease. Establishment of an international tumor registry with an accompanying tumor tissue bank of ovarian LCNEC could be a means of obtaining further knowledge on clinical characteristics and advance research on this rare entity. This will further inform on treatment strategies and could identify future molecular treatment targets. PMID:24829849

  20. The HEX 110 Hexamerin Is a Cytoplasmic and Nucleolar Protein in the Ovaries of Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2016-01-01

    Hexamerins are insect storage proteins abundantly secreted by the larval fat body into the haemolymph. The canonical role of hexamerins consists of serving as an amino acid reserve for development toward the adult stage. However, in Apis mellifera, immunofluorescence assays coupled to confocal laser-scanning microscopy, and high-throughput sequencing, have recently shown the presence of hexamerins in other organs than the fat body. These findings have led us to study these proteins with the expectation of uncovering additional functions in insect development. We show here that a honeybee hexamerin, HEX 110, localizes in the cytoplasm and nucleus of ovarian cells. In the nucleus of somatic and germline cells, HEX 110 colocalized with a nucleolar protein, fibrillarin, suggesting a structural or even regulatory function in the nucleolus. RNase A provoked the loss of HEX 110 signals in the ovarioles, indicating that the subcellular localization depends on RNA. This was reinforced by incubating ovaries with pyronin Y, a RNA-specific dye. Together, the colocalization with fibrillarin and pyronin Y, and the sensitivity to RNase, highlight unprecedented roles for HEX110 in the nucleolus, the nuclear structure harbouring the gene cluster involved in ribosomal RNA production. However, the similar patterns of HEX 110 foci distribution in the active and inactive ovaries of queens and workers preclude its association with the functional status of these organs. PMID:26954256

  1. Making a Difference: Distinguishing Two Primaries From Metastasis in Synchronous Tumors of the Ovary and Uterus.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Don S; Birrer, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    For women with early-stage ovarian or endometrial cancers, prognosis is very good, with overall survival for both sites between 80% and 90%. This stands in stark contrast to metastatic disease (advanced stage), where the overall survival is less than 15%. We have long recognized that subtypes of disease also inform these statistics, with high-grade serous carcinomas conferring a far worse prognosis compared with others, including low-grade serous or endometrioid tumors. Yet even with our present understanding, a not uncommon finding is the diagnosis of women with carcinoma at both the ovary and the uterus (a situation that occurs in up to 10% of patients), raising the question of synchronous primaries or of metastatic disease. The implications of these clinical senarios are very relevant: If a conclusion of synchronous primaries is made, then prognosis should be excellent and hence no further treatment beyond surgery is required for cure. However, the finding of metastatic disease (from the ovary to the uterus or vice versa) will substantially change the prognostic implications, with these patients having a higher risk of recurrence and death from metastatic disease. In addition, this differential diagnosis can change therapeutic recommendations, with metastatic disease requiring more aggressive adjuvant therapy. Thus, the issue is both a biologic and clinical one. PMID:26832772

  2. Thirty-seven candidate genes for polycystic ovary syndrome: strongest evidence for linkage is with follistatin.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, M; Legro, R S; Driscoll, D A; Azziz, R; Ehrmann, D A; Norman, R J; Strauss, J F; Spielman, R S; Dunaif, A

    1999-07-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of women, characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. It is a leading cause of female infertility and is associated with polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and insulin resistance. We tested a carefully chosen collection of 37 candidate genes for linkage and association with PCOS or hyperandrogenemia in data from 150 families. The strongest evidence for linkage was with the follistatin gene, for which affected sisters showed increased identity by descent (72%; chi(2) = 12.97; nominal P = 3.2 x 10(-4)). After correction for multiple testing (33 tests), the follistatin findings were still highly significant (P(c) = 0.01). Although the linkage results for CYP11A were also nominally significant (P = 0.02), they were no longer significant after correction. In 11 candidate gene regions, at least one allele showed nominally significant evidence for population association with PCOS in the transmission/disequilibrium test (chi(2) >/= 3.84; nominal P < 0.05). The strongest effect in the transmission/disequilibrium test was observed in the INSR region (D19S884; allele 5; chi(2) = 8.53) but was not significant after correction. Our study shows how a systematic screen of candidate genes can provide strong evidence for genetic linkage in complex diseases and can identify those genes that should have high (or low) priority for further study. PMID:10411917

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome is not associated with genetic variants that mark risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R; Welt, C K

    2013-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of irregular menses, hyperandrogenism and/or polycystic ovary morphology. A large proportion of women with PCOS also exhibit insulin resistance, ?-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D). We therefore hypothesized that genetic variants that predispose to risk of T2D also result in risk of PCOS. Variants robustly associated with T2D in candidate gene or genome-wide association studies (GWAS; n = 56 SNPs from 33 loci) were genotyped in women of European ancestry with PCOS (n = 525) and controls (n = 472), aged 18-45 years. Metabolic, reproductive and anthropomorphic data were examined as a function of the T2D variants. All genetic association analyses were adjusted for age, BMI and ancestry and were reported after correction for multiple testing. There was a nominal association between variants in KCNJ11 and risk of PCOS. However, a risk score of 33 independent T2D-associated variants from GWAS was not significantly associated with PCOS. T2D variants were associated with PCOS phenotype parameters including those in THADA and WFS1 with testosterone levels, ENPP/PC1 with triglyceride levels, FTO with glucose levels and KCNJ11 with FSH levels. Diabetes risk variants are not important risk variants for PCOS. PMID:22389004

  4. Different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome in Turkish women: clinical and endocrine characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ates, Seda; Sevket, Osman; Sudolmus, Sinem; Dane, Banu; Ozkal, Fulya; Uysal, Omer; Dansuk, Ramazan

    2013-10-01

    This study presents the differences in clinical, endocrine and metabolic parameters among different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes in Turkish women. Four hundred and ten women with PCOS were evaluated, while 97 healthy women served as controls. PCOS were defined by oligo-anovulation (OA), hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound (PCO). Patients were subdivided into four phenotypes: OA?+?HA?+?PCO (phenotype 1), OA?+?HA (phenotype 2), HA?+?PCO (phenotype 3), OA?+?PCO (phenotype 4). Phenotypes 1-4 were present in 47.1%, 13.2%, 21.2% and 18.5% of patients, respectively. They were also divided into three groups according to the BMI (<25?kg/m(2); 25? and ?30?kg/m(2); and >30?kg/m(2)). ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc HSD tests were used. The LH levels and LH/FSH ratio were higher in phenotype 1 and 2 than phenotype 3. The LDL-C levels were higher in women with phenotype 1 and 4 than in women with phenotype 2. Women with BMI <25?kg/m(2) had higher levels of LH, LH/FSH ratio, and the HDL-C than other two groups. The levels of TG, LDL, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR increased with increasing BMI in four phenotypes. Results suggest that obesity seems to be the primary cause of metabolic disturbances in PCOS women. PMID:23998514

  5. Mouse models to study polycystic ovary syndrome: a possible link between metabolism and ovarian function?

    PubMed

    van Houten, E Leonie A F; Visser, Jenny A

    2014-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of female infertility affecting 6-8% of women worldwide. PCOS is characterized by two of the following three criteria: clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism, oligo- or amenorrhea, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). In addition, women with PCOS are often obese and insulin resistant, and are at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of PCOS remains unknown. Therefore, several animal models for PCOS have been generated to gain insight into the etiology and development of the PCOS-associated phenotypes. Androgens are considered the main culprit of PCOS, and therefore, androgenization of animals is the most frequently used approach to induce symptoms that resemble PCOS. Prenatal or prepubertal androgen treatment results in many characteristics of human PCOS, including anovulation, cyst-like follicles, elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, increased adiposity, and insulin insensitivity. However, PCOS has a heterogeneous presentation, and therefore it is difficult to generate a model that exactly reproduces the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes observed in women with PCOS. In this review, we discuss several mouse models for PCOS, and compare the reproductive and/or metabolic phenotypes observed in several androgen-induced models as well as in several genetic models. PMID:24607253

  6. Vitellogenin of Fujian oyster, Crassostrea angulata: Synthesized in the ovary and controlled by estradiol-17β.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhen; Kong, Dezheng; Hou, Lin; Huang, Heqing; Ke, Caihuan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding vitellogenin (Vg) in the Fujian oyster Crassostrea angulata. The complete Vg cDNA consists of 5160 nucleotides with a long open reading frame encoding 1641 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shared high similarity with the Vgs of other mollusc, fish, nematode and arthropod species, particularly in the N-terminal region. We analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of caVg transcripts by Real-time Quantitative PCR. In common with other mollusc Vgs, the caVg gene was expressed primarily in the ovary, and the levels were 348 and 177 times higher in maturation and ripeness stages (P<0.01), respectively, than in the partially spent stage. There was negligible expression in male oysters. In situ hybridization analysis further localized caVg mRNA to the follicle cells (also named auxiliary cells) surrounding the oocytes in the ovary. Moreover, in vivo waterborne exposure experiments in early gametogenesis oysters showed that estradiol-17β (E2) administration resulted in a significant increase in caVg mRNA expression. We conclude that caVg is synthesized in the follicle cell surrounding the vitellogenic oocyte in C. angulata, and directly passed to oocytes through the extracellular space without mediation through hemolymph. Also, we hypothesize that this process is mediated by E2 in a dose dependent. PMID:24709360

  7. Tumor markers in the human ovary and its neoplasms. A comparative immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Nouwen, E. J.; Hendrix, P. G.; Dauwe, S.; Eerdekens, M. W.; De Broe, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    The incidence and histologic characteristics of the expression of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in ovarian tumors was compared with that of five other tumor antigens. Three monoclonal antibodies were used for the specific localization of PLAP. PLAP was present in some sex cord cells of the 13-16-week fetal ovary, probably germ cells. In normal ovaries, all antigens except carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were frequently found in inclusion cysts; the germinal epithelium was positive only for cancer antigen 125 (CA 125). The frequency and extent of PLAP expression in nonmucinous carcinomas was higher than observed for CA 19-9 and CEA, but was lower than for CA 125 and human milk fat globule antigen. Serous tumors had the highest PLAP expression, followed by endometrioid and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, and some other tumors. PLAP was predominantly membranous; its histologic distribution was in general heterogeneous. Different antibodies to PLAP gave different staining intensities in some tumors, but the staining patterns were always qualitatively identical. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 p237-a Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:3548400

  8. Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Melo, Anderson Sanches; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome represents 80% of anovulatory infertility cases. Treatment initially includes preconception guidelines, such as lifestyle changes (weight loss), folic acid therapy to prevent the risk of fetal neural tube defects and halting the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. The first-line pharmacological treatment for inducing ovulation consists of a clomiphene citrate treatment for timed intercourse. The second-line pharmacological treatment includes the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery (ovarian drilling). Ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins is effective with cumulative live birth rates of approximately 70%. Ovarian drilling should be performed when laparoscopy is indicated; this procedure is typically effective in approximately 50% of cases. Finally, a high-complexity reproduction treatment (in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is the third-line treatment and is recommended when the previous interventions fail. This option is also the first choice in cases of bilateral tubal occlusion or semen alterations that impair the occurrence of natural pregnancy. Evidence for the routine use of metformin in infertility treatment of anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome is not available. Aromatase inhibitors are promising and longer term studies are necessary to prove their safety. PMID:26602525

  9. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure. PMID:25816425

  10. Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcemic type: a case report.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J Matt; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Pierce, Heather H; Iocono, Joseph A; Desimone, Christopher P; Bayliff, Sherry L; Ueland, Frederick R

    2012-03-01

    The authors report a case of small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), in a mother and daughter and discuss the possibility of a heritable risk. Both mother and daughter were treated at the same institution for SCCOHT. A 23-year-old woman presented with hypercalcemia 4months after giving birth to her daughter. She was diagnosed as having SCCOHT. Despite surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, she died of the disease 11 months after diagnosis. Eleven years later, her daughter presented with a histologically and immunophenotypically identical SCCOHT tumor. She received postoperative chemotherapy and radiation but, eventually, relapsed and died of the disease at 27 months after the initial diagnosis. Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type, is an uncommon and aggressive malignancy that occurs in young women, which is associated with a solid ovarian tumor and hypercalcemia. Despite aggressive multimodality treatment, most patients die within 2 years of diagnosis. Genetic counseling, sonographic ovarian surveillance and serum calcium monitoring at early age, and even prophylactic oophorectomy should be considered for surviving at-risk family members. PMID:22424359

  11. Identification of miRNAs associated with sexual maturity in chicken ovary by Illumina small RNA deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in various biological processes. To investigate the function of miRNAs in chicken ovarian development and folliculogenesis, two small RNA libraries constructed from sexually mature (162-day old) and immature (42-day old) ovary tissues of Single Comb White Leghorn chicken were sequenced using Illumina small RNA deep sequencing. Results In the present study, 14,545,100 and 14,774,864 clean reads were obtained from sexually mature (162-d) and sexually immature (42-d) ovaries, respectively. In total, 202 known miRNAs were identified, and 93 of them were found to be significantly differentially expressed: 42 miRNAs were up-regulated and 51 miRNAs were down-regulated in the mature ovary compared to the immature ovary. Among the up-regulated miRNAs, gga-miR-1a has the largest fold-change (6.405-fold), while gga-miR-375 has the largest fold-change (11.345-fold) among the down-regulated miRNAs. The three most abundant miRNAs in the chicken ovary are gga-miR-10a, gga-let-7 and gga-miR-21. Five differentially expressed miRNAs (gga-miR-1a, 21, 26a, 137 and 375) were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the expression patterns of the five miRNAs were analyzed in different developmental stages of chicken ovary and follicles of various sizes. Conclusion The present study provides the first miRNA profile in sexually immature and mature chicken ovaries. Some miRNAs such as gga-miR-1a and gga-miR-21are expressed differentially in immature and mature chicken ovaries as well as among different sized follicles, suggesting an important role in the follicular growth or ovulation mechanism in the chicken. PMID:23705682

  12. Peptide YY producing strumal carcinoid of the ovary as the cause of severe constipation with contralateral epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Kouichiro; Ushijima, Kimio; Fujimoto, Takefumi; Komai, Kan; Kamura, Toshiharu

    2007-06-01

    Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors are rare. It has been reported that constipation was a presenting symptom in some patients with ovarian carcinoid. A case of strumal carcinoid of the ovary with contralateral clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary discovered with a complaint of constipation is described. Constipation was dramatically improved by resectioning the tumor. The tumor cells were positive for peptide YY (PYY) in the carcinoid component, but not in any other components. The present case could provide evidence of the correlation between constipation and PYY that has been reported elsewhere. Interestingly, the constipation caused by PYY also helped in discovering epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17578375

  13. Fibroma with minor sex cord elements an incidental finding in a normal sized ovary A case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shramana; Mahajan, Dipti; Roy, Somak; Singh, Meeta; Khurana, Nita

    2007-01-01

    Ovarian fibroma with minor sex cord element is a rare neoplasm. Microscopically it is composed of predominantly fibromatous or a thecomatous tumor containing scattered minor sex cord elements in less than 10% of the tumor area. A case of fibroma with minor sex cord elements discovered incidentally in a normal sized ovary in a patient who presented with dysfunctional uterine bleeding is being presented. This is the first case report describing this entity in a normal sized ovary as an incidental finding. PMID:18053193

  14. GENOMIC COMPARISON OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS ON FATHEAD MINNOW ( PIMEPHALES PROMELAS ) OVARIES REVEALS COMPENSATORY MECHANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates compensatory mechanisms and feedback control within Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) by comparing genomic and biochemical responses of ovary tissue exposed in vitro to those of ovaries from intact fish after exposure to two model steroidogenesis...

  15. Effect of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC)- or Mouse Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Derived Vessel Formation on the Survival of Vitrified/Warmed Mouse Ovarian Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Soo Kyung; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Bo Yeun; Yoon, Sook-Young; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of improving angiogenesis at graft sites on the survival of follicles in transplanted ovarian tissue. Matrigel containing 5 105 of cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) or 200 ng of mouse vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was injected subcutaneously into BALB/c-Nu mice. After 1 week, vitrified/warmed ovaries from female B6D2F1 mice were subcutaneously transplanted into the injection sites. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks posttransplantation, the ovaries were recovered and subjected to histological analysis. Oocytes were collected from the transplanted ovaries, and their fertilization, embryonic development, and delivery were also observed. Vitrified/warmed ovaries transplanted into EPC- or VEGF-treated sites developed more blood vessels and showed better follicle survival than those transplanted into sham-injected sites. Normal embryonic development and consequent live births were obtained using oocytes recovered from cryopreserved/transplanted ovaries. Treatment with EPCs or VEGF could prevent the ischemic damage during the early revascularization stage of ovarian transplantation. PMID:24401473

  16. Noradrenaline modulates the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovary. The importance of its interrelation on the ovarian steroidogenesis and apoptosis on dioestrus II in rat.

    PubMed

    Bronzi, Cynthia D; Orozco, Adriana S Vega; Rodriguez, Diego; Rastrilla, Ana Mara; Sosa, Zulema Y; Casais, Marilina