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Sample records for ovary derived kk1

  1. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, Bentolhoda; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Heistermann, Michael; Dressel, Ralf; Lewerich, Lucia; Drummer, Charis; Behr, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    We use the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a preclinical nonhuman primate model to study reproductive and stem cell biology. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary contains numerous primitive premeiotic germ cells (oogonia) expressing pluripotent stem cell markers including OCT4A (POU5F1). This is a peculiarity compared to neonatal human and rodent ovaries. Here, we aimed at culturing marmoset oogonia from neonatal ovaries. We established a culture system being stable for more than 20 passages and 5 months. Importantly, comparative transcriptome analysis of the cultured cells with neonatal ovary, embryonic stem cells, and fibroblasts revealed a lack of germ cell and pluripotency genes indicating the complete loss of oogonia upon initiation of the culture. From passage 4 onwards, however, the cultured cells produced large spherical, free-floating cells resembling oocyte-like cells (OLCs). OLCs strongly expressed several germ cell genes and may derive from the ovarian surface epithelium. In summary, our novel primate ovarian cell culture initially lacked detectable germ cells but then produced OLCs over a long period of time. This culture system may allow a deeper analysis of early phases of female primate germ cell development and—after significant refinement—possibly also the production of monkey oocytes. PMID:26664406

  2. Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells help restore function to ovaries in a premature ovarian failure mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lai, Dongmei; Wang, Fangyuan; Dong, Zhangli; Zhang, Qiuwan

    2014-01-01

    Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. For this reason, they are considered a powerful tool for therapeutic cloning and offer new possibilities for tissue therapy. Recent studies showed that skin-derived stem cells can differentiate into cells expressing germ-cell specific markers in vitro and form oocytes in vivo. The idea that SMSCs may be suitable for the treatment of intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To determine the ability of SMSCs to reactivate injured ovaries, a mouse model with ovaries damaged by busulfan and cyclophosphamide was developed and is described here. Female skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-SMSCs) and male skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-SMSCs) from red fluorescence protein (RFP) transgenic adult mice were used to investigate the restorative effects of SMSCs on ovarian function. Significant increases in total body weight and the weight of reproductive organs were observed in the treated animals. Both F-SMSCs and M-SMSCs were shown to be capable of partially restoring fertility in chemotherapy-treated females. Immunostaining with RFP and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) antibodies demonstrated that the grafted SMSCs survived, migrated to the recipient ovaries. After SMSCs were administered to the treated mice, real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFNγ were significantly lower in the ovaries than in the untreated controls. Consistent with this observation, expression of oogenesis marker genes Nobox, Nanos3, and Lhx8 increased in ovaries of SMSCs-treated mice. These findings suggest that SMSCs may play a role within the ovarian follicle microenvironment in restoring the function of damaged ovaries and could be useful in reproductive health. PMID:24879098

  3. Zinc inhibits the reproductive toxicity of Zearalenone in immortalized murine ovarian granular KK-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yijia; He, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xuan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Liye; Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly injures the reproductive system of mammals. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which zinc inhibits ZEA-induced reproductive damage in KK-1 cells for the first time. The results shown that both zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate addition increased the intracellular zinc concentration and influenced the expression of zinc transporters (Slc30a1 and Slc39a1) in a time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of zinc with ZEA significantly reduced the ZEA-induced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde elevation by promoting the transcription of Mtf1 and Mt2. Meanwhile, two different zincs inhibited the ZEA-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation of late-stage apoptosis via activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by recovering the mRNA and protein expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Casp3, Casp9). Zinc also recovered cells from S-phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, both of them promoted the ZEA-induced estrogen production but regulated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1) in different way. All these results indicated that zinc could inhibit the reproductive toxicity of ZEA. PMID:26395757

  4. Zinc inhibits the reproductive toxicity of Zearalenone in immortalized murine ovarian granular KK-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijia; He, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xuan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Liye; Li, Yuzhe; Xu, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) mainly injures the reproductive system of mammals. In the present study, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which zinc inhibits ZEA-induced reproductive damage in KK-1 cells for the first time. The results shown that both zinc sulfate and zinc gluconate addition increased the intracellular zinc concentration and influenced the expression of zinc transporters (Slc30a1 and Slc39a1) in a time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of zinc with ZEA significantly reduced the ZEA-induced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde elevation by promoting the transcription of Mtf1 and Mt2. Meanwhile, two different zincs inhibited the ZEA-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation of late-stage apoptosis via activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by recovering the mRNA and protein expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, Casp3, Casp9). Zinc also recovered cells from S-phase cell cycle arrest. In addition, both of them promoted the ZEA-induced estrogen production but regulated the expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1) in different way. All these results indicated that zinc could inhibit the reproductive toxicity of ZEA. PMID:26395757

  5. The Bombyx ovary-derived cell line endogenously expresses PIWI/PIWI-interacting RNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Kawaoka, Shinpei; Hayashi, Nobumitsu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Abe, Hiroaki; Sugano, Sumio; Tomari, Yukihide; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu

    2009-07-01

    Genetic studies and large-scale sequencing experiments have revealed that the PIWI subfamily proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play an important role in germ line development and transposon control. Biochemical studies in vitro have greatly contributed to the understanding of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways. However, in vitro analyses of the piRNA pathway have been thus far quite challenging, because their expression is largely restricted to the germ line. Here we report that Bombyx mori ovary-derived cultured cell line, BmN4, endogenously expresses two PIWI subfamily proteins, silkworm Piwi (Siwi) and Ago3 (BmAgo3), and piRNAs associated with them. Siwi-bound piRNAs have a strong bias for uridine at their 5' end and BmAgo3-bound piRNAs are enriched for adenine at position 10. In addition, Siwi preferentially binds antisense piRNAs, whereas BmAgo3 binds sense piRNAs. Moreover, we identified many pairs in which Siwi-bound antisense and BmAgo3-bound sense piRNAs are overlapped by precisely 10 nt at their 5' ends. These signatures are known to be important for secondary piRNA biogenesis in other organisms. Taken together, BmN4 is a unique cell line in which both primary and secondary steps of piRNA biogenesis pathways are active. This cell line would provide useful tools for analysis of piRNA biogenesis and function. PMID:19460866

  6. Generation of juvenile rainbow trout derived from cryopreserved whole ovaries by intraperitoneal transplantation of ovarian germ cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungki; Katayama, Naoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2016-09-23

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm offers the practical applications in the selective breeding and biodiversity conservation. However, because of the lack of cryopreservation methods for fish eggs and embryos, maternally inherited cytoplasmic compartments cannot be successfully preserved. We previously developed an alternative method to derive functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testis by transplanting testicular cells into female and male recipients. However, if target fish had ovaries, the previous method employing male-derived germ cells would be ineffective. Here, we aimed to generate functional gametes from cryopreserved whole ovaries by transplanting ovarian germ cells into peritoneal cavity of sterile hatchlings. Cryopreservation conditions for rainbow trout ovaries (1.0 M DMSO, 0.1 M trehalose, and 10% egg yolk) were optimized by testing several different cryoprotective agents. Ovarian germ cells from thawed ovaries were intraperitoneally transplanted into allogeneic triploid hatchlings. Transplanted germ cells migrated toward and were incorporated into recipient gonads, where they underwent gametogenesis. Transplantation efficiency of ovarian germ cells remained stable after cryopreservation period up to 1185 days. Although all triploid recipients that did not undergo transplantation were functionally sterile, 5 of 25 female recipients and 7 of 25 male recipients reached sexual maturity at 2.5 years post-transplantation. Inseminating the resultant eggs and sperm generated viable offspring displaying the donor characteristics of orange body color, green fluorescence, and chromosome numbers. This method is thus a breakthrough tool for the conservation of endangered fish species that are crucial to cryopreserve the genetic resources of female fish. PMID:27581197

  7. Massive intra-abdominal undifferentiated carcinoma derived from an endometrioid adenocarcinoma in a "normal-sized" ovary.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Sohei; Aida, Shinsuke; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Takano, Masashi; Kudoh, Kazuya; Furuya, Kenichi; Tamai, Seiichi; Matsubara, Osamu

    2010-07-01

    We report a case of massive intra-abdominal undifferentiated carcinoma derived from a tiny well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, who presented with a large intra-abdominal mass, underwent cytoreductive surgery with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Macroscopically, the intra-abdominal mass was composed of fragile and solid tumor components with extensive necro-hemorrhagic areas, mimicking a primary peritoneal tumor. Both ovaries were apparently normal in size, but a cut section of the right ovary revealed a 2-cm solid and cystic tumor showing focal rupture to the peritoneal surface. The intra-abdominal tumor consisted of pleomorphic cells without specific differentiation, showing diffuse sheet-like proliferation. The right ovarian tumor was a histologically well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Both the intra-abdominal undifferentiated tumor and the ovarian adenocarcinoma cells were immunohistochemically positive for keratin AE1/3, Ber-EP4, and CD10. Epithelial membrane antigen was positive only in the ovarian adenocarcinoma component, and vimentin was diffusely positive only in the intra-abdominal undifferentiated tumor component. Calretinin was negative in both tumor components. Allelotype analysis using 24 polymorphic markers located on 12 chromosomal arms showed that the intra-abdominal undifferentiated carcinoma and ovarian adenocarcinoma components had a high concordance rate (88%) of allelic patterns including identical allelic loss patterns at 7 chromosomal loci, suggesting a common genetic lineage. These data suggest that ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma, even when small in size, can give rise to a massive undifferentiated carcinoma filling the peritoneal cavity. PMID:20567143

  8. Homing and restorative effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cisplatin injured ovaries in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiabin; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Yun; Li, Nan; Wen, Yuku; Cao, Fanglei; Ai, Hao; Xue, Xiaoou

    2014-12-31

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a long-term adverse effect of chemotherapy treatment. However, current available treatment regimens are not optimal. Emerging evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could restore the structure and function of injured tissues, but the homing and restorative effects of BMSCs on chemotherapy injured ovaries are still not clear. In this study, we found that granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis induced by cisplatin was reduced when BMSCs were migrated to granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Chemotherapy-induced POF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin in rats. BMSCs labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were injected into the rats via the tail vein to investigate the homing and distribution of BMSCs in vivo. The number of BMSCs in the ovarian hilum and medulla was greater than in the cortex, but no BMSCs were found in the follicles and corpus lutea. In addition, the BMSCs treatment group's antral follicle count and estradiol levels increased after 30 days, compared with the POF group. Hence, our study demonstrates that intravenously delivered BMSCs can home to the ovaries, and restore its structure and function in POF model rats. PMID:25410907

  9. In vitro developmental potential of macaque oocytes, derived from unstimulated ovaries, following maturation in the presence of glutathione ethyl ester

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, E.C.; Ryan, J.P.; Saunders, D.M.; Hayes, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The inadequacies of oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) systems for both non-human primates and humans are evidenced by reduced fertilization and poor embryonic development, and may be partly explained by significantly lower glutathione (GSH) contents compared with in vivo matured (IVO) oocytes. As this influence has not been fully explored, this study investigated the effect of the GSH donor, glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-OEt), on the IVM and development of macaque oocytes as a model of human oocyte IVM. METHODS Macaque oocytes derived from unstimulated ovaries were cultured in mCMRL-1066 alone or supplemented with 3 or 5 mM GSH-OEt. In vitro matured oocytes were subjected to the GSH assay, fixed for the assessment of spindle morphology or prepared ICSI. Embryo development of zygotes cultured in mHECM-9 was assessed up to Day 9 post-ICSI. RESULTS Supplementation of the maturation medium with GSH-OEt significantly increased oocyte maturation and normal fertilization rates compared with control oocytes, but only 5 mM GSH-OEt significantly increased the oocyte and cumulus cell GSH content. Confocal microscopy revealed significant differences in the spindle morphology between IVO and control in vitro matured metaphase II oocytes. Oocytes matured with 5 mM GSH-OEt exhibited spindle area and spindle pole width similar to that seen in the IVO oocyte. While no significant differences were observed in blastocyst rates, addition of 3 mM GSH-OEt during IVM significantly increased the proportion of embryos developing to the 5–8 cell stage while 5 mM GSH-OEt significantly increased the proportion of morula-stage embryos compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Supplementation of the IVM medium with GSH-OEt promotes better maturation and normal fertilization of macaque oocytes compared with non-supplemented medium. However, further improvement of the primate oocyte IVM culture system is required to support better blastocyst development of oocytes derived from unstimulated

  10. Dedifferentiated follicular granulosa cells derived from pig ovary can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Yoshinao; Ono, Hiromasa; Motohashi, Takeharu; Sugiura, Nobuki; Nobusue, Hiroyuki; Kano, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Transdifferentiation is the conversion of cells from one differentiated cell type into another. How functionally differentiated cells already committed to a specific cell lineage can transdifferentiate into other cell types is a key question in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In the present study we show that porcine ovarian follicular GCs (granulosa cells) can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Pure GCs isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 20% FBS (fetal bovine serum) proliferated and dedifferentiated into fibroblast-like cells. We referred to these cells as DFOG (dedifferentiated follicular granulosa) cells. Microarray analysis showed that DFOG cells lost expression of GC-specific marker genes, but gained the expression of osteogenic marker genes during dedifferentiation. After osteogenic induction, DFOG cells underwent terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro. Furthermore, when DFOG cells were transplanted subcutaneously into SCID mice, these cells formed ectopic osteoid tissue. These results indicate that DFOG cells derived from GCs can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that GCs provide a useful model for studying the mechanisms of transdifferentiation into other cell lineages in functionally differentiated cells. PMID:22839299

  11. Fertilizability of oocytes derived from Holstein cows having different antral follicle counts in ovaries.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Katsuhisa; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2015-12-01

    In this study, to clarify the relationship between ovarian reserve and oocyte quality, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected repeatedly by ovum pick-up (OPU) from cows with high and low antral follicle counts (AFCs) at short (3-4 days) and long (7 days) intervals, and COC morphologies and oocyte fertilizability were examined. The relationship between AFC and follicular growth after OPU was also investigated. Cows showing AFC of ≥30 in at least one OPU session were grouped into the high-AFC group. At a short interval, follicular sizes and COC morphologies were similar between the different AFC groups. However, the normal fertilization rate was higher in the high-AFC group than in the low one, although total penetration rates were similar. At a long interval, the percentage of COCs with poor morphology in the high-AFC group was higher and the normal fertilization rate was lower than in the low one. In the low-AFC group, normal fertilization rates at short and long intervals were similar, and mean follicular size became larger at a long than at a short interval. However, mean follicular sizes at short- and long-interval OPU were similar in the high-AFC group. In conclusion, it is suggested that oocytes derived from cows with high AFC had higher fertilizability than those from cows with low AFC when OPUs were performed at a short (3-4 days) interval. However, oocyte quality in high-AFC cows was impaired by long-interval (7 days) OPU, possibly due to the degradation of follicles. PMID:26588889

  12. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27256152

  13. Highly Efficient Transfer of Chromosomes to a Broad Range of Target Cells Using Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Murine Leukemia Virus-Derived Envelope Proteins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hara, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is an essential step for introducing chromosomes from donor cells to recipient cells. MMCT allows not only for genetic/epigenetic analysis of specific chromosomes, but also for utilization of human and mouse artificial chromosomes (HACs/MACs) as gene delivery vectors. Although the scientific demand for genome scale analyses is increasing, the poor transfer efficiency of the current method has hampered the application of chromosome engineering technology. Here, we developed a highly efficient chromosome transfer method, called retro-MMCT, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing envelope proteins derived from ecotropic or amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. Using this method, we transferred MACs to NIH3T3 cells with 26.5 times greater efficiency than that obtained using the conventional MMCT method. Retro-MMCT was applicable to a variety of recipient cells, including embryonic stem cells. Moreover, retro-MMCT enabled efficient transfer of MAC to recipient cells derived from humans, monkeys, mice, rats, and rabbits. These results demonstrate the utility of retro-MMCT for the efficient transfer of chromosomes to various types of target cell. PMID:27271046

  14. Highly Efficient Transfer of Chromosomes to a Broad Range of Target Cells Using Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Murine Leukemia Virus-Derived Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hara, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is an essential step for introducing chromosomes from donor cells to recipient cells. MMCT allows not only for genetic/epigenetic analysis of specific chromosomes, but also for utilization of human and mouse artificial chromosomes (HACs/MACs) as gene delivery vectors. Although the scientific demand for genome scale analyses is increasing, the poor transfer efficiency of the current method has hampered the application of chromosome engineering technology. Here, we developed a highly efficient chromosome transfer method, called retro-MMCT, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing envelope proteins derived from ecotropic or amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. Using this method, we transferred MACs to NIH3T3 cells with 26.5 times greater efficiency than that obtained using the conventional MMCT method. Retro-MMCT was applicable to a variety of recipient cells, including embryonic stem cells. Moreover, retro-MMCT enabled efficient transfer of MAC to recipient cells derived from humans, monkeys, mice, rats, and rabbits. These results demonstrate the utility of retro-MMCT for the efficient transfer of chromosomes to various types of target cell. PMID:27271046

  15. Intravenously Administered Recombinant Human Type VII Collagen Derived from Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Reverses the Disease Phenotype in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yingping; Guey, Lin T; Wu, Timothy; Gao, Robert; Cogan, Jon; Wang, Xinyi; Hong, Elizabeth; Ning, Weihuang Vivian; Keene, Douglas; Liu, Nan; Huang, Yan; Kaftan, Craig; Tangarone, Bruce; Quinones-Garcia, Igor; Uitto, Jouni; Francone, Omar L; Woodley, David T; Chen, Mei

    2015-12-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is an inherited disorder characterized by skin fragility, blistering, and multiple skin wounds with no currently approved or consistently effective treatment. It is due to mutations in the gene encoding type VII collagen (C7). Using recombinant human C7 (rhC7) purified from human dermal fibroblasts (FB-rhC7), we showed previously that intravenously injected rhC7 distributed to engrafted RDEB skin, incorporated into its dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), and reversed the RDEB disease phenotype. Human dermal fibroblasts, however, are not used for commercial production of therapeutic proteins. Therefore, we generated rhC7 from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The CHO-derived recombinant type VII collagen (CHO-rhC7), similar to FB-rhC7, was secreted as a correctly folded, disulfide-bonded, helical trimer resistant to protease degradation. CHO-rhC7 bound to fibronectin and promoted human keratinocyte migration in vitro. A single dose of CHO-rhC7, administered intravenously into new-born C7-null RDEB mice, incorporated into the DEJ of multiple skin sites, tongue and esophagus, restored anchoring fibrils, improved dermal-epidermal adherence, and increased the animals' life span. Furthermore, no circulating or tissue-bound anti-C7 antibodies were observed in the mice. These data demonstrate the efficacy of CHO-rhC7 in a preclinical murine model of RDEB. PMID:26203639

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ121 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) • What are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? • What causes PCOS? • What is insulin resistance? • ...

  17. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts ( ... who are obese are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome. Symptoms of PCOS include: Infertility Pelvic pain Excess ...

  18. Characterization of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex in granulosa cell tumors of the ovary and granulosa cell tumor-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Stacey; Fuller, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (GCT) are a distinct, hormonally active subset of ovarian cancers. Although it has recently been shown that ∼97 % of all adult GCT harbor a novel somatic missense mutation in the FOXL2 gene, given its almost universal presence, it does not explain differences in tumor stage and/or recurrence. The nuclear factor kappaB (NFκB) transcription factor is constitutively active in two human GCT-derived cell lines, COV434 and KGN, which are useful in vitro models to investigate juvenile and adult GCT, respectively. This study aimed to determine the molecular basis and pathogenetic significance of this aberrant NFκB activity. Selective chemical inhibitors were used to target candidate components of the pathway. The constitutive activity was blocked by two independent inhibitors of IκBα phosphorylation, suggesting that aberrant activation occurs upstream of this point. NFκB inhibition resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability and a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. Inhibitors of earlier components of the pathway were without effect. Two independent inhibitors of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK)β, a catalytic subunit of the NFκB activation complex, were unable to inhibit the constitutive activity, but surprisingly also ligand-induced activity. These findings suggest a central role for IKKβ; however, no mutations or altered expression of the IKKβ, IKKα, or IKKγ genes was observed in the cell lines or in a panel of human GCT samples. This study highlights unresolved issues in understanding the pathogenesis of GCT and in the use of the COV434 and KGN cells lines as model systems. PMID:23674259

  19. Polycystic ovary disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones. This may lead to changes in the menstrual cycle, cysts in the ovaries , trouble getting pregnant, and ... Symptoms Symptoms of PCOS include changes in the menstrual cycle, such as: Not getting a period after you ...

  20. Plasma visfatin levels and mRNA expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from normal weight females with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JING; ZHOU, LINGLING; TANG, LIULIN; XU, LIANGZHI

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease, however, an explicit etiology is not known. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be central to the pathogenesis of PCOS and inflammation may be significant in the pathogenesis of IR in PCOS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the plasma visfatin level and the gene expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMMs) from PCOS patients, in addition to investigating the association between PCOS and IR. A total of 21 PCOS patients and 21 control subjects were enrolled in the study; the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was considered to be a stratified method for establishing the subgroups. Fasting blood samples were collected and the levels of sex hormones, insulin, glucose, blood lipids and visfatin were measured. In addition, visfatin gene expression levels in PBMCs and PBMMs were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The plasma visfatin and gene expression levels of visfatin in PBMCs and PBMMs were not observed to increase in the normal weight PCOS and normal weight IR patients. Furthermore, plasma visfatin levels did not correlate with the normal weight PCOS patients or the normal weight IR patients per se. Further investigation into the role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of PCOS or IR should examine macrophages in the tissues, rather than macrophages in the peripheral blood. PMID:24940414

  1. Computer-Generated Ovaries to Assist Follicle Counting Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Skodras, Angelos; Marcelli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries), with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units. PMID:25812007

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azziz, Ricardo; Carmina, Enrico; Chen, ZiJiang; Dunaif, Andrea; Laven, Joop S E; Legro, Richard S; Lizneva, Daria; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara; Teede, Helena J; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of women of reproductive age worldwide. The condition is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) - with excessive androgen production by the ovaries being a key feature of PCOS. Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia is evident in the vast majority of affected individuals. PCOS increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other pregnancy-related complications, venous thromboembolism, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events and endometrial cancer. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, based primarily on the presence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and PCOM. Treatment should be tailored to the complaints and needs of the patient and involves targeting metabolic abnormalities through lifestyle changes, medication and potentially surgery for the prevention and management of excess weight, androgen suppression and/or blockade, endometrial protection, reproductive therapy and the detection and treatment of psychological features. This Primer summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms and pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and prevention, management and future investigational directions of the disorder. PMID:27510637

  3. Carcinoma of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, Leroy R.; Watkins, Sue A.

    1981-01-01

    The data for this paper are based on 50 patients discharged from the Queen of Angels Hospital with a diagnosis of carcinoma of the ovary from 1972 to 1978. Currently, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all pelvic malignancies. Peak incidence of ovarian cancer is found in women between 40 to 65 years of age. Symptomatology includes often vague abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, and other digestive disorders which may be present for several months prior to diagnosis. The workup for suspected ovarian cancer should include a careful history, physical examination, pelvic, and rectal examinations, Pap smear, CBC, urinalysis, SMA 12 (blood chemistries), chest x-ray, and intravenous pyelography as indicated. Sonography, lymphangiography are optional. Traditionally, operative treatment has been the keystone of management for ovarian carcinoma. In view of the unsatisfactory results with operation and radiotherapy in disseminated disease, chemotherapy has been used widely. Hope for the future lies in further development of immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:7310921

  4. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:24260388

  5. Tumours of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Misdorp, W.; McEntee, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Ovarian tumours are common in animals, the majority occurring in bitches and cows. The two most important germ cell tumours were dysgerminoma and teratoma; these morphologically resemble their counterparts in women, with the exception that teratomas in animals tend less to malignancy. The granulosa cell tumour is the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumour in all six species and it may contain luteinized areas or show differentiation towards a Sertoli cell pattern. The canine papillary adenoma and papillary adenocarcinoma, which are as common as granulosa tumours, have several features in common with their counterparts in women: they are of similar histological appearance, are frequently bilateral, and the adenocarcinomas have a great propensity for peritoneal implantation metastasis. Ovarian cysts are frequent in the bitch, sow, and cow and may originate from five different anatomical structures in the ovary. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 and 3Fig. 20-22Fig. 8-10Fig. 15 and 16Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 17-19Fig. 4 and 5Fig. 6 and 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 and 14 PMID:1086151

  6. [Polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vrbíková, Jana

    2015-10-01

    For diagnosing of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) it is currently recommended to follow the ESHRE criteria. For diagnosis according to them two of the following three symptoms are sufficient: 1. morphology of polycystic ovaria, 2. clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism or laboratory proof of hyperandrogenemia, and 3. oligo-anovulation. PCOS is a complex disorder in whose pathogenesis genetic and environmental effects interact. It is not a gynecological disorder alone, the syndrome is accompanied by insulin resistance which leads to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (4 times and twice, independently of BMI). Also gestational DM occurs more frequently. Dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, elevated CRP and homocysteine levels, endothelial dysfunction and greater intima-media thickness are also more frequent. It is not quite clear, however, whether women with PCOS suffer cardiovascular events more frequently as well. More often than is accidental PCOS is associated with depression, anxiety and eating disorders, further with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and with the sleep apnoea syndrome - especially in obese women. Therapeutic measures include non-pharmacological methods - lifestyle adjustments focused on weight reduction in obese individuals, cosmetic measures for dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism, in particular laser and pharmacotherapy (combined hormonal contraceptives and antiandrogens). Menstrual irregularities can be treated with contraceptives or cyclical administration of gestagens, also metformin can be used. PMID:26486483

  7. Cryopreservation of ovaries from neonatal marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Hideyuki H.; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The ovary of neonatal nonhuman primates contains the highest number of immature oocytes, but its cryopreservation has not yet been sufficiently investigated in all life stages. In the current study, we investigated cryodamage after vitrification/warming of neonatal ovaries from a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A Cryotop was used for cryopreservation of whole ovaries. The morphology of the vitrified/warmed ovaries was found to be equivalent to that of fresh ovaries. No significant difference in the number of oocytes retaining normal morphology per unit area in histological sections was found between the two groups. In an analysis of dispersed cells from the ovaries, however, the cell viability of the vitrified/warmed group tended to be decreased. The results of a comet assay showed no significant differences in DNA damage. These results show that cryopreservation of neonatal marmoset ovaries using vitrification may be useful as a storage system for whole ovaries. PMID:26876597

  8. Cryopreservation of ovaries from neonatal marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Hideyuki H; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-07-29

    The ovary of neonatal nonhuman primates contains the highest number of immature oocytes, but its cryopreservation has not yet been sufficiently investigated in all life stages. In the current study, we investigated cryodamage after vitrification/warming of neonatal ovaries from a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). A Cryotop was used for cryopreservation of whole ovaries. The morphology of the vitrified/warmed ovaries was found to be equivalent to that of fresh ovaries. No significant difference in the number of oocytes retaining normal morphology per unit area in histological sections was found between the two groups. In an analysis of dispersed cells from the ovaries, however, the cell viability of the vitrified/warmed group tended to be decreased. The results of a comet assay showed no significant differences in DNA damage. These results show that cryopreservation of neonatal marmoset ovaries using vitrification may be useful as a storage system for whole ovaries. PMID:26876597

  9. [Laparoscopic fenestration of the ovaries].

    PubMed

    Nalbanski, B; Pŭnevska, M; Veltova, L

    1997-01-01

    The authors have performed an ovary fenestration in 220 women with primary or secondary amenorrhea. This was made with the help of instrumentation for laparoscopy and a monopolar electrodiathermic coagulator with differently shaped endings. The power supply was provided from Martin Elektrotom 2000. A spontaneous recovers of the menstruation was achieved in 36.84% of the cases as a result of the endoscopic intervention. A follows up pregnancy was achieved in 12.4% of the women. Considering the obtained results, the authors recommend the use of a laparoscopic ovary fenestration when a women with ovarian cysts is treated. PMID:9471896

  10. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries
    Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  11. Multiple aster formation is frequently observed in bovine oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries.

    PubMed

    Hara, H; Tagiri, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2016-02-01

    We have recently reported that multiple aster formation after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was one of the factors that negatively affected the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed bovine matured oocytes, and that short-term culture of the post-warm oocytes with an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) suppressed the multiple aster formation and improved the blastocyst yield. The present study was conducted to investigate whether increased multiple aster formation following IVF was involved in impaired developmental competence of stored ovary-derived bovine oocytes. Oocytes retrieved from 1-day stored ovaries had lower developmental potential to day 8 blastocysts when compared with those from fresh ovaries (37 versus 63%). Immunostaining of α-tubulin 10 h post-IVF revealed that a higher incidence of multiple aster formation occurred in oocytes retrieved from stored ovaries than from fresh ovaries (31 versus 15%). Treatment of post-in vitro maturated (post-IVM) oocytes with ROCK inhibitor for 2 h significantly suppressed the incidence of multiple aster formation (10 versus 32% in the control group). However, the suppression effect of ROCK inhibitor on multiple aster formation in IVM/IVF oocytes did not improve blastocyst yield from stored ovary-derived oocytes (41 versus 37% in the control group). These results suggested that the higher incidence of multiple aster formation by bovine ovary storage was not responsible for the decreased developmental competence of IVF oocytes. PMID:25732862

  12. [Diagnostics of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lazúrová, Ivica; Figurová, Jana; Lazúrová, Zora

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age and the most frequent cause of menstruation cycle disorders. It is marked by a hyperandrogenic state (clinical and/or biochemical) and ovulatory dysfunction (anovulation and/or ultrasonographic finding of polycystic ovaries), which are also criteria for its diagnosis according to Androgen Excess and PCOS Society. The syndrome has multiple phenotypic expressions, among them besides the above characteristics also a metabolic syndrome, primarily obesity and insulin resistance. Diagnosing of PCOS may be rather exacting in clinical practice and it remains to be a diagnosis per exclusionem, following elimination of other causes of hyperandrogenic state and chronic oligo-anovulation. It requires a close cooperation between a gynecologist and endocrinologist and with regard to frequent metabolic complications also with an internist, diabetologist and possibly cardiologist. PMID:27124971

  13. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. PMID:26280343

  14. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Roumimper, Hailey; Oberfield, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a familial heterogeneous disorder affecting 6% to 10% of reproductive-age women. The use of criteria developed for adult women is problematic for the adolescent girl because the clinical features associated with PCOS are normal pubertal events. The recent consensus statement on PCOS in adolescents stated that hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea need to persist for at least 2 years to consider the diagnosis of PCOS. Although insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and obesity are often associated with PCOS, these features are not considered valid diagnostic criteria. Recent genomewide association studies implicate genetic loci involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:27241968

  15. Characterization of embryonic stem cell model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Yun-Shan; Xue, Feng-Xia

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to establish an embryonic stem (ES) cell model of polycystic ovary syndrome and to characterize this ES cell line. ES cells were isolated and cultured from 322 wasted fertilized embryos from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients in vitro. They were also characterized by development and differential markers. ES cells from PCOS subject present normal development profile with ES-specific markers such as OCT-4 and SSEA-4. These ES cells can also differentiate into three germ layer derivatives and form teratomas in vivo. ES cells from PCOS patients pose development and differentiation potentials as you would expect of cells from non-PCOS patients; therefore, they can be used as a cellular model to study the pathology of PCOS. PMID:27112161

  16. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naderpoor, N; Shorakae, S; Joham, A; Boyle, J; De Courten, B; Teede, H J

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is now a major international health concern. It is increasingly common in young women with reproductive, metabolic and psychological health impacts. Reproductive health impacts are often poorly appreciated and include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy complications. PCOS is the most common endocrine condition in women and is underpinned by hormonal disturbances including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity exacerbates hormonal and clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS appear at higher risk of obesity, with multiple underlying mechanisms linking the conditions. Lifestyle intervention is first line in management of PCOS to both prevent weight gain and induce weight loss; however improved engagement and sustainability remain challenges with the need for more research. Medications like metformin, orlistat, GLP1 agonists and bariatric surgery have been used with the need for large scale randomised clinical trials to define their roles. PMID:25411807

  17. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  18. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  19. Cardiometabolic Aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee K.; Weickert, Martin O.; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E.; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome. PMID:22829562

  20. Cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Martina; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The number of rat strains increased considerably in the last decade and will increase continuously during the next years. This requires enough space for maintaining vital strains and techniques for cryobanking, which can be applied not only in specialised rat resource centres but also in regular animal houses. Here we describe an easy and fast method for the cryopreservation and transplantation of frozen-thawed ovaries of the rat. With dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant rat ovaries can be stored at -196 degrees C for unlimited time. For revitalisation thawed ovaries have to be orthotopically transplanted into appropriate ovarectomised recipients. Reestablishment of the reproductive cycle in the recipients can be confirmed by vaginal cytology shortly after transplantation. The recipients are able to produce 2-3 litters after mating with males of an appropriate strain. Cyropreservation of ovaries thus can be considered a reliable method to preserve scientifically and economically important stocks and strains of rats that are currently not required. PMID:20013242

  1. Ovary cryopreservation and transplantation for fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Silber, S J

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the state-of-the-art of ovarian transplantation and cryopreservation. This field has progressed over the last half century from simple animal experiments to sophisticated application in humans. The initial poor results in humans began to improve when a series of nine monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for premature ovarian failure (POF) underwent ovary transplantation at one center. All of these fresh ovary transplants were successful, resulting in 11 healthy babies in 7 of the 9 recipients. The same surgical techniques were then applied to 3 frozen ovary tissue transplants, up to 14 years after the ovary had been frozen, resulting in 3 more healthy babies. Around the world, the number of healthy babies has now risen to 28. Even ovary allotransplantation is being attempted in the not so uncommon situation where a previous bone marrow donor is now willing to donate ovarian tissue to the same recipient. Recipients routinely reinitiated ovulatory menstrual cycles and normal Day 3 serum FSH levels by 4.5 months. Most conceived naturally (three of them twice or three times from the same graft). The duration of function of fresh ovarian grafts, contrary to initial expectations, indicated minimal oocyte loss from ischemia time. Grafts of just modest portions of ovarian tissue have lasted >7 years. In vitro studies suggest that vitrification of ovarian tissue may be an improvement over the 70% oocyte viability loss from slow freeze. PMID:22205727

  2. Linkage of regulators of TGF-β activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bayne, Rosemary A; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hummitzsch, Katja; Sabatier, Laetitia; Lee, Sam; Bonner, Wendy; Gibson, Mark A; Rainey, William E; Carr, Bruce R; Mason, Helen D; Reinhardt, Dieter P; Anderson, Richard A; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    Although not often discussed, the ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) show all the hallmarks of increased TGF-β activity, with increased amounts of fibrous tissue and collagen in the ovarian capsule or tunica albuginea and ovarian stroma. Recent studies suggest that PCOS could have fetal origins. Genetic studies of PCOS have also found linkage with a microsatellite located in intron 55 of the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 3. Fibrillins regulate TGF-β bioactivity in tissues by binding latent TGF-β binding proteins. We therefore examined expression of fibrillins 1-3, latent TGF-β binding proteins 1-4, and TGF-β 1-3 in bovine and human fetal ovaries at different stages of gestation and in adult ovaries. We also immunolocalized fibrillins 1 and 3. The results indicate that TGF-β pathways operate during ovarian fetal development, but most important, we show fibrillin 3 is present in the stromal compartments of fetal ovaries and is highly expressed at a critical stage early in developing human and bovine fetal ovaries when stroma is expanding and follicles are forming. These changes in expression of fibrillin 3 in the fetal ovary could lead to a predisposition to develop PCOS in later life. PMID:21411746

  3. Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tracy; Mortada, Rami; Porter, Samuel

    2016-07-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance is a key factor. Metabolic syndrome is twice as common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with the general population, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome are four times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patient presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to having multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Guidelines from the Endocrine Society recommend using the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosis, which mandate the presence of two of the following three findings- hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries-plus the exclusion of other diagnoses that could result in hyperandrogenism or ovulatory dysfunction. It is reasonable to delay evaluation for polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent patients until two years after menarche. For this age group, it is also recommended that all three Rotterdam criteria be met before the diagnosis is made. Patients who have marked virilization or rapid onset of symptoms require immediate evaluation for a potential androgen-secreting tumor. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome is individualized based on the patient's presentation and desire for pregnancy. For patients who are overweight, weight loss is recommended. Clomiphene and letrozole are first-line medications for infertility. Metformin is the first-line medication for metabolic manifestations, such as hyperglycemia. Hormonal contraceptives are first-line therapy for irregular menses and dermatologic manifestations. PMID:27419327

  4. Linkage of regulators of TGF-β activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bayne, Rosemary A.; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Sabatier, Laetitia; Lee, Sam; Bonner, Wendy; Gibson, Mark A.; Rainey, William E.; Carr, Bruce R.; Mason, Helen D.; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Anderson, Richard A.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Although not often discussed, the ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) show all the hallmarks of increased TGF-β activity, with increased amounts of fibrous tissue and collagen in the ovarian capsule or tunica albuginea and ovarian stroma. Recent studies suggest that PCOS could have fetal origins. Genetic studies of PCOS have also found linkage with a microsatellite located in intron 55 of the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 3. Fibrillins regulate TGF-β bioactivity in tissues by binding latent TGF-β binding proteins. We therefore examined expression of fibrillins 1–3, latent TGF-β binding proteins 1–4, and TGF-β 1–3 in bovine and human fetal ovaries at different stages of gestation and in adult ovaries. We also immunolocalized fibrillins 1 and 3. The results indicate that TGF-β pathways operate during ovarian fetal development, but most important, we show fibrillin 3 is present in the stromal compartments of fetal ovaries and is highly expressed at a critical stage early in developing human and bovine fetal ovaries when stroma is expanding and follicles are forming. These changes in expression of fibrillin 3 in the fetal ovary could lead to a predisposition to develop PCOS in later life.—Hatzirodos, N., Bayne, R. A., Irving-Rodgers, H. F., Hummitzsch, K., Sabatier, L., Lee, S., Bonner, W., Gibson, M. A., Rainey, W. E., Carr, B. R., Mason, H. D., Reinhardt, D. P., Anderson, R. A., Rodgers, R. J. Linkage of regulators of TGF-β activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:21411746

  5. Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy in increasing live births for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Letrozole could provide a less expensive, more effective treatment for women with this syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of female infertility. ...

  6. Abnormal gene expression profiles in human ovaries from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erik; Laven, Joop S E; Dommerholt, Henri B R; Polman, Jan; van Rijt, Cindy; van den Hurk, Caroline; Westland, Jolanda; Mosselman, Sietse; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2004-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. The current study is the first to describe consistent differences in gene expression profiles in human ovaries comparing PCOS patients vs. healthy normoovulatory individuals. The microarray analysis of PCOS vs. normal ovaries identifies dysregulated expression of genes encoding components of several biological pathways or systems such as Wnt signaling, extracellular matrix components, and immunological factors. Resulting data may provide novel clues for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Intriguingly, the gene expression profiles of ovaries from (long-term) androgen-treated female-to-male transsexuals (TSX) show considerable overlap with PCOS. This observation provides supportive evidence that androgens play a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Presented data may contribute to a better understanding of dysregulated pathways in PCOS, which might ultimately reveal novel leads for therapeutic intervention. PMID:15308691

  7. The Mammalian Ovary from Genesis to Revelation

    PubMed Central

    Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Two major functions of the mammalian ovary are the production of germ cells (oocytes), which allow continuation of the species, and the generation of bioactive molecules, primarily steroids (mainly estrogens and progestins) and peptide growth factors, which are critical for ovarian function, regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and development of secondary sex characteristics. The female germline is created during embryogenesis when the precursors of primordial germ cells differentiate from somatic lineages of the embryo and take a unique route to reach the urogenital ridge. This undifferentiated gonad will differentiate along a female pathway, and the newly formed oocytes will proliferate and subsequently enter meiosis. At this point, the oocyte has two alternative fates: die, a common destiny of millions of oocytes, or be fertilized, a fate of at most approximately 100 oocytes, depending on the species. At every step from germline development and ovary formation to oogenesis and ovarian development and differentiation, there are coordinated interactions of hundreds of proteins and small RNAs. These studies have helped reproductive biologists to understand not only the normal functioning of the ovary but also the pathophysiology and genetics of diseases such as infertility and ovarian cancer. Over the last two decades, parallel progress has been made in the assisted reproductive technology clinic including better hormonal preparations, prenatal genetic testing, and optimal oocyte and embryo analysis and cryopreservation. Clearly, we have learned much about the mammalian ovary and manipulating its most important cargo, the oocyte, since the birth of Louise Brown over 30 yr ago. PMID:19776209

  8. Management of Early Carcinoma of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents a formidable challenge to physicians. Early symptoms are nonspecific, and are usually attributed to disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Especially important is suspicion of this neoplasm in its early stage. This article discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, evaluation, and treatment of early carcinomas of the ovary. PMID:3071612

  9. Immunohistochemistry of Paraffin Sections from Mouse Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Tepekoy, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an efficient technique to detect cellular localizations of the proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues. It allows specific proteins to be visualized by the interaction of antibodies with an enzyme-substrate-chromogen system. Here, we describe indirect immunohistochemistry method for paraffin-embedded mouse ovaries fixed with Bouin's Fixative. PMID:27557588

  10. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting. PMID:27287621

  11. Re-torsion of the ovaries.

    PubMed

    Hyttel, Trine E W; Bak, Geske S; Larsen, Solveig B; Løkkegaard, Ellen C L

    2015-03-01

    The increasing use of de-torsion of the ovaries may result in re-torsion. This review addresses risk of re-torsion and describes preventive strategies to avoid re-torsion in pre-menarcheal girls, and fertile and pregnant women. We clinically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Trip and Cochrane databases. The main outcome measures were re-torsion and viability of ovary with fixation measures. A total of 38 publications including 71 girls, 363 fertile women, and 69 pregnant women were found to be relevant. All studies were case reports or case series, sometimes with non-randomized controls. The studies show considerable heterogeneity in design, population, management and outcome. Only four studies included more than 50 cases. In pregnancy the risk of re-torsion was as high as 19.5-37.5%; among fertile women it was 28.6%. Most articles concluded that fixation of the ovaries to the pelvic sidewall or plication of the ovarian ligament after torsion may prevent re-torsion. In one case a girl experienced re-torsion after ovariopexy. Based on observational studies it seems that de-torsion and fixation of the ovary is a safe procedure that usually ensures maintenance of ovarian function and reduces the risk of recurrence, especially when there are no ovarian cysts or adnexal masses. PMID:25412114

  12. A bovine model for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in the greatest single cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women (affecting 5-10%). Previously, research groups have created animal models utilizing non-human primates and sheep to better understand the mechanisms involved in PCOS. However, c...

  13. CXCR4/SDF1 interaction inhibits the primordial to primary follicle transition in the neonatal mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Holt, Janet E; Jackson, Andrew; Roman, Shaun D; Aitken, R John; Koopman, Peter; McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2006-05-15

    The molecular mechanisms behind the entry of the primordial follicle into the growing follicle pool remain poorly understood. To investigate this process further, a microarray-based comparison was undertaken between 2-day postpartum mouse ovaries consisting of primordial follicles/naked oocytes only and those with both primordial follicles and newly activated follicles (7-day postpartum). Gene candidates identified included the chemoattractive cytokine stromal derived factor-1 (SDF1) and its receptor CXCR4. SDF1 and CXCR4 have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes including the migration of embryonic germ cells to the gonads. SDF1-alpha expression increased with the developmental stage of the follicle. Embryonic expression was found to be dichotomous post-germ cell migration, with low expression in the female. Immunohistochemical studies nonetheless indicate that the autocrine pattern of expression ligand and receptor begins during embryonic life. Addition of recombinant SDF1-alpha to neonatal mouse ovaries in vitro resulted in significantly higher follicle densities than for control ovaries. TUNEL analysis indicated no detectable difference in populations of apoptotic cells of treated or control ovaries. Treated ovaries also contained a significantly lower percentage of activated follicles as determined by measurement of oocyte diameter and morphological analysis. Treatment of cultured ovaries with an inhibitor of SDF1-alpha, AMD3100, ablated the effect of SDF1-alpha. By retaining follicles in an unactivated state, SDF1/CXCR4 signaling may play an important role in maintaining the size and longevity of the primordial follicle pool. PMID:16545793

  14. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana M; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A; Vallés, María P

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25-46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26150821

  15. Concomitant loss of SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 expression in small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type.

    PubMed

    Jelinic, Petar; Schlappe, Brooke A; Conlon, Niamh; Tseng, Jill; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Mueller, Jennifer J; Hussein, Yaser; Soslow, Robert A; Levine, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type is an aggressive tumor generally affecting young women with limited treatment options. Mutations in SMARCA4, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, have recently been identified in nearly all small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type cases and represent a signature molecular feature for this disease. Additional biological dependencies associated with small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type have not been identified. SMARCA2, another catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex mutually exclusive with SMARCA4, is thought to be post-translationally silenced in various cancer types. We analyzed 10 archival small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type cases for SMARCA2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and found that SMARCA2 expression was lost in all but one case. None of the 50 other tumors that primarily or secondarily involved the ovary demonstrated concomitant loss of SMARCA2 and SMARCA4. Deep sequencing revealed that this loss of SMARCA2 expression is not the result of mutational inactivation. In addition, we established a small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type patient-derived xenograft and confirmed the loss of SMARCA2 in this in vitro model. This patient-derived xenograft model, established from a recurrent tumor, also had unexpected mutational features for this disease, including functional mutations in TP53 and POLE. Taken together, our data suggest that concomitant loss of SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 is another hallmark of small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type-a finding that offers new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:26564006

  16. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23370180

  17. The Effects of Phthalates on the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure

  18. The effects of phthalates on the ovary.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure

  19. Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, C. I.; Nori, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms and the beneficial effects of acupuncture, exercise and resveratrol on animal models and on humans affected by PCOS. PMID:24809037

  20. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary. PMID:26864198

  1. Autoimmunity to endometrium and ovary in endometriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, S; Peress, M R; Williamson, H O; Youmans, C D; Maney, S A; Garvin, A J; Rust, P F; Fudenberg, H H

    1982-01-01

    Antibody titres to whole ovary, theca cells, granulosa cells and endometrium were determined by passive haemagglutination and immunofluorescence assays in sera and in cervical and vaginal secretions from 13 patients with endometriosis. Antibody titres to endometrium (mean log2 +/- s.e.m., 7.08 +/- 0.80; P less than 0.0001), ovary (3.58 +/- 0.87; P = 0.0092), theca cells (4.42 +/- 0.73; P less than 0.0001) and granulosa cells (3.33 +/- 0.63; P = 0.0024) were significantly higher in the patients' sera than in sera from 15 normal non-pregnant females. Antibody titres to granulosa cells were elevated (7.97 +/- 1.46; P = 0.0424) in their cervical secretions. Antibody titres to all tissues tested were similar in vaginal secretions of patients and controls. Immunofluorescent antibody assay of biopsied endometrial tissue and sera from the patients revealed the antibodies to be primarily IgG and IgA. The results suggest that autoantibodies to endometrium and ovary are present in patients with endometriosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6759000

  2. Lymphangioma of the ovary: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Radhouane, Achour; Mayada, Saadaoui; Khaled, Neji

    2016-08-01

    Lymphangioma of the ovary is an extremely rare lesion. It was first described in 1908 [1] and there is only 19 cases reports in a 50-year literature survey [2]. Lymphangiomas are benign congenital malformations of lymphatic system. They are thought to happen due to obstruction of local lymph flow system and they can occur anywhere in the skin and the mucous membranes. Most common sites are the head and the neck and sometimes they can be found in the intestines, the pancreas and the mesentery. Lymphangioma of the ovary is a very rare tumor. Typically, lymphangiomas are slow-growing tumors that remain asymptomatic for a long time, with the tumor being identified incidentally during histopathological examination after excision. A 36-year-old women who consulted our department for infertility for 2 years. The systematic ultrasound examination reveals a right ovarian mass. The histologic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma of the right ovary. She was planned for total laparoscopic tumorectomy with removal of all ovarian mass. The evolution was good for one year within Clinical and ultrasound monitoring. We report through this case report a review of the literature. PMID:27401696

  3. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathi-one peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway. PMID:26545251

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome: symptomatology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Guzick, D

    1998-12-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome seek health care for 3 major reasons: infertility, menstrual irregularity, and androgen excess. The infertility is associated with anovulation. The menstrual irregularity is typically chronic, beginning with menarche. Although amenorrhea may sometimes occur, the more common presentation is irregular bleeding characteristic of anovulation. Androgen excess may be manifested by varying degrees of hirsutism. Patients may also report acne. The rapid development of virilizing signs, such as deepening of the voice, increased muscle mass, and temporal balding, should prompt a search for a tumor and lead one away from a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Typically treatment is directed at alleviating the symptoms: ovulation induction for infertility, oral contraceptives or a progestin for menstrual irregularity, and oral contraceptives or spironolactone for hirsutism. On the basis of recent epidemiologic data suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk among women with polycystic ovary syndrome, such treatment might be complemented by a long-term approach that addresses the underlying pathophysiology of insulin resistance. PMID:9855614

  5. Effects of trifluralin on the mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Sandra; Rossi, Gianna; Carta, Gaspare; Di Luigi, Gianluca; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Buccione, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Trifluralin, a herbicide used to protect many arable and horticultural crops, was evaluated for its potential toxicity on the mammalian ovary. To this end, adult female mice were fed or not (control) with a trifluralin-enriched diet (150 mg/kg body weight/day) during gestation and lactation. After weaning, 3-week-old female mice from either trifluralin-treated or control groups were used to evaluate whether the exposure to this herbicide in utero and during lactation could induce stress responses in the ovary. It was found that trifluralin exposure caused a significantly higher level of p53, but not of pRb, in the whole ovary, and in particular in granulosa cells. TUNEL staining showed that herbicide treatment did not increase the apoptotic index of the somatic compartment. Also oocyte fertilizability was unaffected, as metaphase II oocytes retrieved from treated mice were capable of forming male and female pronuclei after in vitro fertilization as control mice. However, trifluralin determined a slightly higher number of oocytes with cytoplasmic degeneration compared with control animals. In conclusion, our results suggest that exposure to a low trifluralin dose during pregnancy and lactation does not impair oocyte quality, but can induce a stress response in ovarian somatic cells. PMID:21544921

  6. Involvement of nitric oxide in inflammation of ovaries in gilts.

    PubMed

    Jana, Barbara; Andronowska, Aneta; Kucharski, Jan

    2002-03-01

    NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and an inducible type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were demonstrated in porcine ovaries after unilateral infusion of bacteria into the hilus of an ovary. In group I one ml of saline was infused into the hilus of each ovary from the 15th day to the 19th day of the estrous cycle. In group II one ml of bacterial suspension (10(9) colony forming units of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium pyogenes, in a proportion 1:1:1, respectively) in saline was infused into the hilus of one ovary on days corresponding to those of the control group (gr. I), whereas saline was infused into the contralateral ovary. The ovaries were collected on the 7th day of the next estrous cycle. In the bacteria-treated ovary, the activity of NADPH-d was higher in the endothelium of blood vessels, corpora lutea and follicular walls in comparison to that observed in the respective structures of the contralateral ovary. The highest activity of NADPH-d was found in the vascular endothelium in the bacteria-infused ovary. Vascular smooth muscle cells found in both ovaries of the bacteria-treated gilts were more intensely stained for NADPH-d than those in control animals. After bacteria administration, the intensity of NADPH-d reaction in all the structures of both ovaries in group II was higher than in control group. The strongest immunostaining for iNOS was observed in all structures of the bacteria-infused ovary. In the contralateral ovary, iNOS-immunoreactivity was weaker but still stronger than that in control group. The present results revealed that infusions of bacteria into the hilus of one ovary enhanced the activity of NADPH-d and immunoreactivity for iNOS in both porcine ovaries. However, the activity of both enzymes was higher in the bacteria-infused ovary than in the contralateral one. These data suggest that locally synthesized NO can mediate an inflammatory effect of bacteria in the porcine ovaries. PMID:14666163

  7. Estrogen and androgen receptor expression in surface epithelium and inclusion cyst in the ovary of premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of surface epithelium and epithelial inclusion cysts in the ovary arises from studies demonstrating that these structures are susceptible to epithelial ovarian cancer development. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), androgen receptor (AR), in epithelial cells of the ovary from premenopausal and postmenopausal women is interesting because sexual steroid hormones are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Methods The presence of ER alpha, AR, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in ovaries obtained from 79 pre and postmenopausal patients, undergoing histero-salpingo-oophorectomy for proliferative gynecological diseases. The proportion of patients that displayed positive reaction for estrogen and androgen receptors in epithelial cells of the ovary was evaluated according to menopausal status and associated pathology. Results The proportion of patients that displayed a positive receptor expression in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface and cortical inclusion cysts shows that ER alpha is present in 20 of 79 patients (0.25), AR in 33 of 79 (0.42) and GPR30 in 38 of 55 (0.69). There are no differences in ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 expression between pre and postmenopausal patients and considering the associated pathology, proportions for ER alpha and GPR30 are similar. The patients with cervical cancer show a higher proportion of AR expression in epithelial cells of the ovary, which is statistically significant (P < 0.01) compared with patients with other proliferative diseases. Conclusions The presence of ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 in the surface epithelial ovarian cells and its derivatives are observed with a proportion that is specific for each receptor. The proportion of expression for these receptors in the epithelial cells of the ovary does not change after menopause. The proportion of ovaries with AR positive epithelial cells in patients with cervical

  8. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. )

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  9. Oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Helvaci, N; Yildiz, B O

    2014-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age and combined oral contraceptives (OCs) are often the first-line treatment of the syndrome by improving hyperandrogenism and regulating menstrual cycles. Oral contraceptives have some cardiovascular and metabolic effects that varies among different formulations depending upon the dose and type of the both estrogen and progestin components. These cardiometabolic effects of OCs raise some concerns about their long-term use in PCOS, but available data suggest that the benefits outweigh the risks. More studies are needed to clarify the safety of long-term use of OCs in PCOS. PMID:25003228

  10. Analysis of Phagocytosis in the Drosophila Ovary.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Tracy L; Serizier, Sandy B; Kleinsorge, Sarah E; McCall, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for health and development. Generally, the last step of PCD is clearance, or engulfment, by phagocytes. Engulfment can be broken down into five basic steps: attraction of the phagocyte, recognition of the dying cell, internalization, phagosome maturation, and acidification of the engulfed material. The Drosophila melanogaster ovary serves as an excellent model to study diverse types of PCD and engulfment by epithelial cells. Here, we describe several methods to detect and analyze multiple steps of engulfment in the Drosophila ovary: recognition, vesicle uptake, phagosome maturation, and acidification. Annexin V detects phosphatidylserine, which is flipped to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of apoptotic cells, serving as an "eat me" signal. Several germline markers including tral-GFP, Orb, and cleaved Dcp-1 can all be used to label the germline and visualize its uptake into engulfing follicle cells. Drosophila strains expressing GFP and mCherry protein fusions can enable a detailed analysis of phagosome maturation. LysoTracker labels highly acidified compartments, marking phagolysosomes. Together these labels can be used to mark the progression of engulfment in Drosophila follicle cells. PMID:27557574

  11. Polycystic Ovaries Associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Hobkirk, R.; Hollenberg, C. H.; MacDonald, S. A.; Blahey, P.

    1966-01-01

    Polycystic ovaries were found in a 16-year-old female with congenital absence of vagina, male-like external genitalia, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Masculinization was sufficiently severe to cause the patient to be reared as a male. Biochemical studies of ovarian tissue revealed hyperactivity and an imbalance of enzyme systems concerned with steroid-hormone biosynthesis, which led to production of large amounts of androgens. The pathway towards estrogens was preserved but less efficient than normal. Urinary steroid metabolites before and after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed an absence of Porter-Silber chromogens and tetrahydrocortisone. Excretion of aldosterone was normal and that of corticosterone slightly higher than normal. The patterns of urinary 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanetriolone were similar to those commonly seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Urinary estrogens after panhysterectomy were low, being in the post-menopausal range. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries and their possible contribution to masculinization are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5901591

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed. PMID:18089592

  13. Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tsikouras, P; Spyros, L; Manav, B; Zervoudis, S; Poiana, C; Nikolaos, T; Petros, P; Dimitraki, M; Koukouli, C; Galazios, G; von Tempelhoff, GF

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: To elucidate the prepubertal risk factors associated with the development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and determine the special clinical manifestations of the syndrome in this transitional time of a woman’s life. Objective: To propose therapeutic targets and regimens, not only to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, but also to improve the self-esteem of a young girl who matures into womanhood. Methods and Results: A systematic review of literature was performed through electronic database searches (Pubmed, Medline and Embase). Studies published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals from 1996 to 2013 were included. The selected studies focused on the risk factors, the unique features and treatment options of the PCOS in puberty. The pathogenesis of the PCOS was hypothesized to be based on interactions between genetic and certain environmental factors. The diagnosis was usually difficult in young girls. The syndrome was related to a greater risk of future infertility, type II diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Early treatment was crucial to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, especially infertility and cardiovascular disease. Discussion:The recognition of the early signs of PCOS during or even before adolescence is of great importance. It is essential to establish the correct diagnosis for PCOS and rule out other causes of androgen excess in young women with hyperandrogenism. The type of treatment applied should be considered on an individual basis. Abbreviations: PCOS = Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PMID:26351529

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome and prolactinoma association.

    PubMed

    Yavasoglu, Irfan; Kucuk, Mert; Coskun, Adil; Guney, Engin; Kadikoylu, Gurhan; Bolaman, Zahit

    2009-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is the most common pituitary hormone hypersecretion syndrome in both men and women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting 5%-10% of reproductive age women. Here, we present a patient with irregular menses, obesity, hirsutism and infertility, and hyperprolactinemia who was diagnosed as PCOS and prolactinoma and admitted to our clinic. Prolactinoma and PCOS association is a rare condition. This 33-year-old woman was admitted to the internal medicine outpatient clinic for irregular menses, obesity, hirsutism and infertility, and hyperprolactinemia. Her laboratory results were as follows: prolactin was 74 ng/mL (normal range:1.8-20.3 ng/mL). Pelvic ultrasonography was correlated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Pituitary MRI showed 6x8 mm microadenoma at left half. Bromocriptine was started with 1.25 mg/day and increased to 5 mg/day. After six months of bromocriptine treatment her prolactin level was normal and no adenoma was detected in pituitary MRI. PCOS and prolactinoma association should be taken into account in PCOS cases with mild hyperprolactinoma. PMID:19367058

  15. A comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of infant and adult mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Pan, Linlin; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaonuan; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2014-10-01

    Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD). We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development. PMID:25251848

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Obesity, and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Joham, Anju E; Palomba, Stefano; Hart, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting up to one in five reproductive-aged women. It is underpinned by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism and is associated with metabolic, reproductive, and psychological features. Women with PCOS have higher rates of obesity and central adiposity compared with women without PCOS, and weight strongly influences prevalence and clinical severity of PCOS. Women with PCOS may have subfertility and women should be aware of factors affecting fertility, in particular the impact of obesity and age. Once pregnant, women with PCOS have significantly increased risk of pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, premature delivery, and delivery by cesarean section. The offspring of women with PCOS may have increased risk of congenital abnormalities and hospitalization in childhood. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk and screen, prevent, and manage accordingly. PMID:26854709

  17. Psychological aspects of the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Judit; Rigó, Adrien; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-02-01

    An overwhelming majority of scientific literature on the polycystic ovary syndrome has utilized a medical approach to analyse the disorder and only few studies have investigated its predisposing psychological factors. This literature review sheds light on the fact that this gynaecological disorder of endocrine origin, which is becoming more frequent, can be associated with a great number of psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, body image dissatisfaction, eating and sexual disorders, and low life satisfaction). Thus, the syndrome is significant from a therapeutic point of view as well. Authors review the psychological correlates of specific symptoms, their relationships with other psychological syndromes and analyse the psychosocial background of the disorder as well as the possibilities of psychotherapy. PMID:24188448

  18. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner. PMID:15380144

  19. Estrogen-Dependent Gene Expression in the Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Seng H.; Sarraj, Mai A.; Drummond, Ann E.; Findlay, Jock K.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen (E) plays a pivotal role in regulating the female reproductive system, particularly the ovary. However, the number and type of ovarian genes influenced by estrogen remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we have utilized wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO; estrogen free) mouse ovaries as an in vivo model to profile estrogen dependent genes. RNA from each individual ovary (n = 3) was analyzed by a microarray-based screen using Illumina Sentrix Mouse WG-6 BeadChip (45,281 transcripts). Comparative analysis (GeneSpring) showed differential expression profiles of 450 genes influenced by E, with 291 genes up-regulated and 159 down-regulated by 2-fold or greater in the ArKO ovary compared to WT. Genes previously reported to be E regulated in ArKO ovaries were confirmed, in addition to novel genes not previously reported to be expressed or regulated by E in the ovary. Of genes involved in 5 diverse functional processes (hormonal processes, reproduction, sex differentiation and determination, apoptosis and cellular processes) 78 had estrogen-responsive elements (ERE). These analyses define the transcriptome regulated by E in the mouse ovary. Further analysis and investigation will increase our knowledge pertaining to how E influences follicular development and other ovarian functions. PMID:21347412

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome in the Indian Subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N; Merchant, Rubina

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, multifaceted, heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and chronic anovulation along with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia as frequent metabolic traits (metabolic syndrome) that culminate in serious long-term consequences such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, endometrial hyperplasia, and coronary artery disease. It is one of the most common causes of anovulatory infertility. However, the heterogeneous clinical features of PCOS may change throughout the life span, starting from adolescence to postmenopausal age, largely influenced by obesity and metabolic alterations, and the phenotype of women with PCOS is variable, depending on the ethnic background. The etiology of PCOS is yet to be elucidated; however, it is believed that in utero fetal programming may have a significant role in the development of PCOS phenotype in adult life. Though a woman may be genetically predisposed to developing PCOS, it is only the interaction of environmental factors (obesity) with the genetic factors that results in the characteristic metabolic and menstrual disturbances and the final expression of the PCOS phenotype. Irrespective of geographic locations, a rapidly increasing prevalence of polycystic ovarian insulin resistance syndrome, excess body fat, adverse body fat patterning, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity-related disease, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, have been reported in Asian Indians, suggesting that primary prevention strategies should be initiated early in this ethnic group. In lieu of the epidemic increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus in most industrialized countries including China and India owing to Westernization, urbanization, and mechanization, and evidence suggesting a pathogenetic role of obesity in the development of PCOS

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of the Capra hircus Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhong Quan; Wang, Li Juan; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Zhao, Yong Ju; Na, Ri Su; Zhang, Jia Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background Capra hircus is an important economic livestock animal, and therefore, it is necessary to discover transcriptome information about their reproductive performance. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome dataset for the goat ovary using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The result will contribute to research on goat reproductive performance. Method and Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 38.8 million clean paired end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 80,069 unigenes (mean size = 619 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 64,824 (60.6%) genes were identified, among which 29,444 and 11,271 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG) showed that 27,766 (63.4%) unigenes were mapped to 258 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome differences of goat ovaries at two different ages using a tag-based digital gene expression system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 5.6 million and 5.8 million tags for the two ages and identified a large number of genes associated with reproductive hormones, ovulatory cycle and follicle. Moreover, many antisense transcripts and novel transcripts were found; clusters with similar differential expression patterns, enriched GO terms and metabolic pathways were revealed for the first time with regard to the differentially expressed genes. Conclusions The transcriptome provides invaluable new data for a functional genomic resource and future biological research in Capra hircus, and it is essential for the in-depth study of candidate genes in breeding programs. PMID:25822507

  2. Does ovary need D-chiro-inositol?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgroud Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial pathology that affects 10% of the women in reproductive age being the main cause of infertility due to menstrual dysfunction. Since 1980, it is known that PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR). The recognition of this association has prompted extensive investigation on the relationship between insulin and gonadal function, and has turned insulin sensitizer agent as the main therapeutic choice. In particular two different polyalcohol myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been shown to improve insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and to induce ovulation in PCOS women. In particular, while data on myo-inositol and restored ovulation were consistent, data on D-chiro-inositol were not . Recently, a comparative study, proposed a D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary of PCOS patients hypothesizing that only myo-inositol has a specific ovarian action. In the present study we aim to further study the role played by D-chiro-inositol at ovarian level. Methods A total of 54 women, aged <40 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study. Patients with insulin resistance and/or hyperglycaemia were excluded from the study. Patients were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10-12): a placebo group, and 4 groups (A-D) that received 300-600-1200-2400 mg of DCI daily respectively. All treatments were carried out for 8 weeks before follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) administration. Results Total r-FSH units increased significantly in the two groups that received the higher doses of DCI. The number of immature oocytes was significantly increased in the three groups that received the higher doses of DCI. Concurrently, the number of MII oocytes was significantly lower in the D group compared to placebo group. Noteworthy, the number of grade I embryos was significantly reduced by DCI supplementation. Conclusions Indeed, increasing DCI dosage progressively worsens oocyte quality and ovarian response. PMID

  3. [The polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Kreze, A; Hrnciar, J; Dobáková, M; Pekarová, E

    1997-10-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appear to have some following coincidences: the existence of subclinical acanthosis nigricans in PCOS hyperinsulinemic women, correlation of insulin levels and free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I binding protein (IGFIBP), and sex-hormone binding globulin. Insulin and IGFI act synergically with luteinizing hormone increasing the activity of cytochrome P450c17 and its enzymatic activity in the adrenals. The decrease in IGFI level and IGFI receptors in the ovarian granulosa cells reduce the steroids aromatisation. The increased expression of IGFI receptors in the theca cells favours the androgens' synthesis. Long-term insulin therapy results in an increase in ovary volume and the blood androgens levels. The deterioration of insulin resistance in PSOC women progresses also by the reduction of type I of skeletal muscle fibres which are sensitive to insulin, and the increase of type II fibres which are resistant to insulin in hyperandrogenemia. Testosterone deteriorates the skeletal as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity by both its facilitating effect on lipolysis and the increase of free fatty acids. Abdominal obesity seen in PCOS and insulin resistance is composed by adipocytes with glucocorticoid receptors, which after cortisol stimulation activate the lipoprotein lipase and fat accumulation. Gynoid obesity with the preferential aromatisation of steroids is not evolved because of the low estrogens and progesterone levels in PCOS. Low progesterone levels (with anticortisol effect) support the development of abdominal obesity. Ultimately, the early peak of insulin secretion (4-8 min) in PCOS is higher. This fact should testify a certain diabetic disposition. (Ref. 37.) PMID:9490171

  4. Ultrastructural Analysis of Drosophila Ovaries by Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Thomas R.; Sanchez, Carlos G.; Teixeira, Felipe K.; Petzold, Chris; Dancel-Manning, Kristen; Wang, Ju-Yu S.; Lehmann, Ruth; Liang, Feng-Xia A.

    2016-01-01

    i. Summary The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful, genetically tractable system through which one can elucidate the principles underlying cellular function and organogenesis in vivo. In order to understand the intricate process of oogenesis at the subcellular level, microscopic analysis with the highest possible resolution is required. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of ovaries for ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. We discuss and provide protocols for chemical fixation of Drosophila ovaries that facilitate optimal imaging with particular attention paid to preserving and resolving mitochondrial membrane morphology and structure. PMID:26324436

  5. Bilateral Cystic Lymphangioma of Ovary Associated with Chylous Ascites

    PubMed Central

    Arakeri, Surekha Ulhas; Patil, Vijaya L.; Mulay, Himanshu Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Intraabdominal cystic lymphangiomas are rare and are located in retroperitoneum, mesentery, omentum and other visceral organs. Lymphangiomas of the ovary are rare and are usually unilateral. Cases with bilateral cystic lymphangiomas of the ovary are reported very rarely in literature. We report a rare case of bilateral cystic lymphangioma of ovary associated with chylous ascites in a 35-year-old lady who presented with complaints of severe dysmenorrhoea and oligomenorrhoea since 6 months with history of chyluria for the past 3 years. PMID:26435959

  6. Ultrastructural Analysis of Drosophila Ovaries by Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Thomas R; Sanchez, Carlos G; Teixeira, Felipe K; Petzold, Chris; Dancel-Manning, Kristen; Wang, Ju-Yu S; Lehmann, Ruth; Liang, Feng-Xia A

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful, genetically tractable system through which one can elucidate the principles underlying cellular function and organogenesis in vivo. In order to understand the intricate process of oogenesis at the subcellular level, microscopic analysis with the highest possible resolution is required. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of ovaries for ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. We discuss and provide protocols for chemical fixation of Drosophila ovaries that facilitate optimal imaging with particular attention paid to preserving and resolving mitochondrial membrane morphology and structure. PMID:26324436

  7. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  8. Is Ovary Removal Tied to Colon Cancer Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... latter group included women who'd had a hysterectomy, but no clear indication that the ovaries had ... Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Colorectal Cancer Hysterectomy Ovarian Disorders About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  9. Mucin-producing tumors of the ovary: MR imaging appearance.

    PubMed

    Laurent, P-E; Thomassin-Piana, J; Jalaguier-Coudray, A

    2015-11-01

    Mucin-producing tumors of the ovary can be either primary epithelial mucin-producing tumors or ovarian metastases from a remote adenocarcinoma usually originating from the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this pictorial review is to describe the main types of primary or secondary mucin-producing tumors of the ovary and to provide MR imaging diagnostic criteria in order to guide further therapy. PMID:25753545

  10. Differential morphology and transcriptome profile between the incompletely fused carpels ovary and its wild-type in maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongping; Wu, Yufeng; Zhao, Yali; Hu, Xiuli; Chang, Jianfeng; Wang, Qun; Dong, Pengfei; Zhang, Moubiao; Li, Chaohai

    2016-01-01

    We have isolated a new mutation in maize, incompletely fused carpels (ifc), which results in an open stylar canal on the ovary and an incomplete pericarp at the top of the kernel. The maize ovary derives from the fusion of three carpels; however, the molecular networks regulating maize carpel fusion remain largely unclear. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on wild-type (WT) and ifc ovaries that were collected after carpel fusion defects could be morphologically distinguished. In total, 877 differentially expressed genes were identified. Functional analysis revealed overexpression of genes related to "DNA binding", "transcription regulation", "hormones", and "stress responses". Among the 88 differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) genes, five showed a high degree of conservation (77.7-88.0% amino acid identity) of their conserved domains with genes associated with carpel fusion deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that these five genes might control carpel fusion in maize. In addition, 30 genes encoding components of hormone synthesis and signaling pathways were differentially expressed between ifc and WT ovaries, indicating complex hormonal regulation during carpel fusion. These results help elucidate the underlying mechanisms that regulate carpel fusion, supporting the functional analysis of genes involved in producing this phenotype. PMID:27587343

  11. Differential morphology and transcriptome profile between the incompletely fused carpels ovary and its wild-type in maize

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongping; Wu, Yufeng; Zhao, Yali; Hu, Xiuli; Chang, Jianfeng; Wang, Qun; Dong, Pengfei; Zhang, Moubiao; Li, Chaohai

    2016-01-01

    We have isolated a new mutation in maize, incompletely fused carpels (ifc), which results in an open stylar canal on the ovary and an incomplete pericarp at the top of the kernel. The maize ovary derives from the fusion of three carpels; however, the molecular networks regulating maize carpel fusion remain largely unclear. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on wild-type (WT) and ifc ovaries that were collected after carpel fusion defects could be morphologically distinguished. In total, 877 differentially expressed genes were identified. Functional analysis revealed overexpression of genes related to “DNA binding”, “transcription regulation”, “hormones”, and “stress responses”. Among the 88 differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) genes, five showed a high degree of conservation (77.7–88.0% amino acid identity) of their conserved domains with genes associated with carpel fusion deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that these five genes might control carpel fusion in maize. In addition, 30 genes encoding components of hormone synthesis and signaling pathways were differentially expressed between ifc and WT ovaries, indicating complex hormonal regulation during carpel fusion. These results help elucidate the underlying mechanisms that regulate carpel fusion, supporting the functional analysis of genes involved in producing this phenotype. PMID:27587343

  12. Induction of parthenocarpy in tomato via specific expression of the rolB gene in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Nir; Salts, Yehiam; Dedicova, Beata; Shabtai, Sara; Barg, Rivka

    2003-09-01

    The molecular signals for the development of the ovary into fruit following ovule fertilization are not clear. However, in many species, including tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), auxins and auxin transport inhibitors can substitute for fertilization as activators of fruit set, suggesting that this plant hormone plays a key role in this process. In agreement, transgenes for auxin biosynthesis expressed under ovary- or ovule-specific promoters were shown earlier to enable parthenocarpic (i.e. seedless) fruit development. In the present study, we tested an alternative approach for the induction of parthenocarpy that is based on ovary-specific expression of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes-derived gene rolB. This gene was chosen because rolB transgenic plants manifest several syndromes characteristic of auxin treatment. Tomato plants transformed with a chimeric construct containing the rolB gene fused to the ovary- and young-fruit-specific promoter TPRP-F1 developed parthenocarpic fruits. Fruit size and morphology, including jelly fill in the locules of the seedless fruits, were comparable to those of seeded fruits of the parental line. Although it is not known whether ROLB signals for the same cassette of genes involved in fertilization-dependent fruit development, it clearly activates a battery of genes that enable successful completion of seedless fruit development in tomato. PMID:12783228

  13. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. )

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  14. Pregnancy complications in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Katulski, Krzysztof; Czyzyk, Adam; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Genazzani, Andrea R; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-02-01

    Infertility is a widely disputed problem affecting patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). As a serious dysfunction, it frequently occurs in PCOS patients. It is, therefore, important to devote more attention to pregnancy in PCOS sufferers. According to various data, the risk of miscarriage in PCOS women is three times higher than the risk of miscarriage in healthy women. Unfortunately, the risk of most frequent pregnancy pathologies is also higher for PCOS patients, as gestational diabetes (GD), pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia, and small for gestational age (SGA) children. Impaired glucose tolerance and GD in pregnant PCOS patients occur more frequently than in healthy women. A quadruple increase in the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension linked to arterial wall stiffness has also been observed in PCOS patients. The risk of pre-eclampsia, the most severe of all complications, is also four times higher in those suffering from PCOS. Pre-eclampsia is also more frequent in patients presenting additional risk factors accompanying PCOS, such as obesity or GD. At that point, it should be mentioned that PCOS patients are under 2.5 higher risk of giving birth to SGA children than healthy women. It appears that SGA can be linked to insulin resistance and insulin-dependent growth dysfunction. Therefore, PCOS pregnant women are patients of special obstetrical care. PMID:25356655

  15. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinical phenotypes but different underlying pathophysiological processes. However, hyperandrogenism remains the syndrome's clinical hallmark. The clinical manifestations of PCOS often emerge during childhood or in the peripubertal years, suggesting that the syndrome is influenced by fetal programming and/or early postnatal events. However, given that the full clinical spectrum of PCOS does not typically appear until puberty, a “two-hit” hypothesis has been proposed: (1) a girl develops hyperandrogenism via one or more of many different potential mechanisms; (2) the preexisting hyperandrogenism subsequently disturbs the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, resulting in ovulatory dysfunction and sustained hyperandrogenism. No consensus guidelines exist regarding the diagnosis and management of PCOS in the pediatric population; however, because the syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, the clinical evaluation of girls suspected of having PCOS is aimed at excluding other causes of androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction. For the syndrome's management, emphasis is placed on lifestyle and symptom-directed treatment. PMID:20939704

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  17. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-07-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the "thrifty" phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  18. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the “thrifty” phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  19. Cognitive functioning in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barnard, L; Balen, A H; Ferriday, D; Tiplady, B; Dye, L

    2007-01-01

    To date there have been no published studies of cognitive functioning in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This large internet-based study compared neuropsychological functioning in right-handed women with (minimum n=135) and without PCOS (minimum n=322), stratified according to use of anti-androgen medication and level of depression. Women with PCOS are thought to have hyperandrogenism and hyperestrogenism which was hypothesized to differentially influence cognitive function across cognitive domains. Performance did not differ according to diagnosis on mental rotation and spatial location tasks. Hence, no evidence to support the view that women with PCOS display a more masculine cognitive profile due to hyperandrogenism. Despite presumed hyperestrogenism, women with PCOS demonstrated impaired performance in terms of speed and accuracy, on reaction time and word recognition tasks. These findings are intriguing given the well-documented roles of estrogen and testosterone in cognitive function. Overall, these findings suggest that PCOS is not associated with masculinized cognitive functioning, and, although associated with impaired performance on tasks considered to demonstrate female-advantage, such impairments are subtle and are unlikely to affect daily functioning. PMID:17659845

  20. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Ahmed; Elnashar, Abubaker

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise) and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms. PMID:21339935

  1. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  2. Is Change in Ovary Carbon Status a Cause or a Consequence of Maize Ovary Abortion in Water Deficit during Flowering?

    PubMed

    Oury, Vincent; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Prodhomme, Duyên; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, François; Turc, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabolism, together with the concentrations and amounts of sugars, and with the activities of major enzymes of carbon metabolism. Photosynthesis and indicators of sugar export, measured during water deprivation, suggested sugar export maintained by the leaf. The first molecular changes occurred in silks rather than in ovaries and involved genes affecting expansive growth rather than sugar metabolism. Changes in the concentrations and amounts of sugars and in the activities of enzymes of sugar metabolism occurred in apical ovaries that eventually aborted, but probably after the switch to abortion of these ovaries. Hence, we propose that, under moderate water deficits corresponding to most European drought scenarios, changes in carbon metabolism during flowering time are a consequence rather than a cause of the beginning of ovary abortion. A carbon-driven ovary abortion may occur later in the cycle in the case of carbon shortage or under very severe water deficits. These findings support the view that, until the end of silking, expansive growth of reproductive organs is the primary event leading to abortion, rather than a disruption of carbon metabolism. PMID:27208256

  3. TrkB receptors are required for follicular growth and oocyte survival in the mammalian ovary

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Alfonso; Romero, Carmen; Dissen, Gregory A.; DeChiara, Tom M.; Reichardt, Louis; Cornea, Anda; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Xu, Baoji

    2009-01-01

    Although it is well established that both follicular assembly and the initiation of follicle growth in the mammalian ovary occur independently of pituitary hormone support, the factors controlling these processes remain poorly understood. We now report that neurotrophins (NTs) signaling via TrkB receptors are required for the growth of newly formed follicles. Both neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the preferred TrkB ligands, are expressed in the infantile mouse ovary. Initially, they are present in oocytes, but this site of expression switches to granulosa cells after the newly assembled primordial follicles develop into growing primary follicles. Full-length kinase domain-containing TrkB receptors are expressed at low and seemingly unchanging levels in the oocytes and granulosa cells of both primordial and growing follicles. In contrast, a truncated TrkB isoform lacking the intracellular domain of the receptor is selectively expressed in oocytes, where it is targeted to the cell membrane as primary follicles initiate growth. Using gene-targeted mice lacking all TrkB isoforms, we show that the ovaries of these mice or those lacking both NT-4 and BDNF suffer a stage-selective deficiency in early follicular development that compromises the ability of follicles to grow beyond the primary stage. Proliferation of granulosa cells— required for this transition—and expression of FSH receptors (FSHR), which reflects the degree of biochemical differentiation of growing follicles, are reduced in trkB-null mice. Ovaries from these animals grafted under the kidney capsule of wild-type mice fail to sustain follicular growth and show a striking loss of follicular organization, preceded by massive oocyte death. These results indicate that TrkB receptors are required for the early growth of ovarian follicles and that they exert this function by primarily supporting oocyte development as well as providing granulosa cells with a proliferative

  4. Endogenous fluorescence emission of the ovary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzinger, Urs; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Brewer, Molly A.

    2005-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among the gynecologic cancers. Early detection would significantly improve survival and quality of life of women at increased risk to develop ovarian cancer. We have constructed a device to investigate endogenous signals of the ovarian tissue surface in the UV C to visible range and describe our initial investigation of the use of optical spectroscopy to characterize the condition of the ovary. We have acquired data from more than 33 patients. A table top spectroscopy system was used to collect endogenous fluorescence with a fiberoptic probe that is compatible with endoscopic techniques. Samples were broken into five groups: Normal-Low Risk (for developing ovarian cancer) Normal-High Risk, Benign, and Cancer. Rigorous statistical analysis was applied to the data using variance tests for direct intensity versus diagnostic group comparisons and principal component analysis (PCA) to study the variance of the whole data set. We conclude that the diagnostically most useful excitation wavelengths are located in the UV. Furthermore, our results indicate that UV B and C are most useful. A safety analysis indicates that UV-C imaging can be conducted at exposure levels below safety thresholds. We found that fluorescence excited in the UV-C and UV-B range increases from benign to normal to cancerous tissues. This is in contrast to the emission created with UV-A excitation which decreased in the same order. We hypothesize that an increase of protein production and a decrease of fluorescence contributions of the extracellular matrix could explain this behavior. Variance analysis also identified fluctuation of fluorescence at 320/380 which is associated with collagen cross link residues. Small differences were observed between the group at high risk and normal risk for ovarian cancer. High risk samples deviated towards the cancer group and low risk samples towards benign group.

  5. Transcriptome dynamics of transgene amplification in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Le, Huong; Jacob, Nitya M; Tsao, Yung-Shyeng; Ng, Sze-Wai; Loo, Bernard; Liu, Zhong; Kantardjieff, Anne; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2014-03-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) system is used to amplify the product gene to multiple copies in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for generating cell lines which produce the recombinant protein at high levels. The physiological changes accompanying the transformation of the non-protein secreting host cells to a high producing cell line is not well characterized. We performed transcriptome analysis on CHO cells undergoing the selection and amplification processes. A host CHO cell line was transfected with a vector containing genes encoding the mouse DHFR (mDHFR) and a recombinant human IgG (hIgG). Clones were isolated following selection and subcloned following amplification. Control cells were transfected with a control plasmid which did not have the hIgG genes. Although methotrexate (MTX) amplification increased the transcript level of the mDHFR gene significantly, its effect on both hIgG heavy and light chain genes was more modest. The subclones appeared to retain the transcriptome signatures of their parental clones, however, their productivity varied among those derived from the same clone. The transcript levels of hIgG transgenes of all subclones fall in a narrower range than the product titer, alluding to the role of many functional attributes, other than transgene transcript, on productivity. We cross examined functional class enrichment during selection and amplification as well as between high and low producers and discerned common features among them. We hypothesize that the role of amplification is not merely increasing transcript levels, but also enriching survivors which have developed the cellular machinery for secreting proteins, leading to an increased frequency of isolating high-producing clones. We put forward the possibility of assembling a hyper-productivity gene set through comparative transcriptome analysis of a wide range of samples. PMID:24108600

  6. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  7. Dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovaries and acyclicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, J F; Costoff, A; Mahesh, V B

    1975-08-01

    Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) to the immature female rat resulted in one precocious ovulation followed by ovulatory failure. The animals exhibited either "constant-estrus" or "constant-diestrus" vaginal smears, and the ovaries were either polycystic or contained corpus luteum-like structures. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels showed an ovulatory type surge on day 30, at the time of the precocious ovulation. Thereafter, serum FSH levels were comparable to those of control rats, whereas the LH levels were very low. Serum prolactin was elevated significantly in DHA-treated animals. The ovaries of DHA-treated animals were responsive to gonadotropins and the pituitary was responsive to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Withdrawal of androgen treatment resulted in restoration of cyclicity. This animal model demonstrates that an androgen insult can cause ovulatory failure and polycystic ovaries in spite of normal ovaries, adrenals, and hypothalamic-pituitary mechanisms. That such ovulatory failure is a result of the androgen administration is further substantiated by restoration of cyclicity after androgen withdrawal. This animal model in several ways is similar to the human polycystic ovary syndrome and has a potential application in the study of the mechanism of androgen-induced ovulatory failure. PMID:125663

  8. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation restores damaged ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shao-Fang; Hu, Hong-Bo; Xu, Hong-Yan; Fu, Xia-Fei; Peng, Dong-Xian; Su, Wei-Yan; He, Yuan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian injury because of chemotherapy can decrease the levels of sexual hormones and potentia generandi of patients, thereby greatly reducing quality of life. The goal of this study was to investigate which transplantation method for human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) can recover ovarian function that has been damaged by chemotherapy. A rat model of ovarian injury was established using an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide. Membrane-labelled HUMSCs were subsequently injected directly into ovary tissue or tail vein. The distribution of fluorescently labelled HUMSCs, estrous cycle, sexual hormone levels, and potentia generandi of treated and control rats were then examined. HUMSCs injected into the ovary only distributed to the ovary and uterus, while HUMSCs injected via tail vein were detected in the ovary, uterus, kidney, liver and lung. The estrous cycle, levels of sex hormones and potentia generandi of the treated rats were also recovered to a certain degree. Moreover, in some transplanted rats, fertility was restored and their offspring developed normally. While ovary injection could recover ovarian function faster, both methods produced similar results in the later stages of observation. Therefore, our results suggest that transplantation of HUMSCs by tail vein injection represents a minimally invasive and effective treatment method for ovarian injury. PMID:25922900

  9. Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

  10. Stem Cells, Progenitor Cells, and Lineage Decisions in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Russell, Darryl L.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic. PMID:25541635

  11. Sertoliform Endometrioid Tumor of Ovary Presenting as Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Prathiksha; Jadhav, Meena N; Patil, Rashmi K; Kittur, Shreekant K

    2016-01-01

    Sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary (SEC) is an uncommon variant that bears histologic similarity to sertoli and sertoli-leydig cell tumors. We report an interesting case of SEC in a 55-year-old female with a left ovarian mass with torsion. Histology revealed an SEC, featuring foci of typical endometrioid carcinoma, and areas composed of uniform, small, hollow tubules lined by columnar cells with apical cytoplasm. Tumor cells were strongly immunoreactive for EMA and cytokeratin but negative for inhibin; thus, confirming the diagnosis of SEC ovary. Recognition of this tumor is important as it is a well-differentiated, low-grade malignancy that displays good prognosis when confined to the ovary. PMID:27365921

  12. Sertoliform Endometrioid Tumor of Ovary Presenting as Torsion.

    PubMed

    Pai, Prathiksha; Jadhav, Meena N; Patil, Rashmi K; Kittur, Shreekant K

    2016-01-01

    Sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary (SEC) is an uncommon variant that bears histologic similarity to sertoli and sertoli-leydig cell tumors. We report an interesting case of SEC in a 55-year-old female with a left ovarian mass with torsion. Histology revealed an SEC, featuring foci of typical endometrioid carcinoma, and areas composed of uniform, small, hollow tubules lined by columnar cells with apical cytoplasm. Tumor cells were strongly immunoreactive for EMA and cytokeratin but negative for inhibin; thus, confirming the diagnosis of SEC ovary. Recognition of this tumor is important as it is a well-differentiated, low-grade malignancy that displays good prognosis when confined to the ovary. PMID:27365921

  13. [Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary with a small ganglioneuroma].

    PubMed

    Marucci, G; Collina, G

    2006-02-01

    A case of ganglioneuroma arising within a cystic mature teratoma of the ovary in a 34-year-old woman is reported. Patient underwent right adnexectomy. The ovary was completely replaced by a bilocular cystic lesion, measuring 8 cm in diameter and filled with adipose tissue and pilosebaceous material. Microscopically the cyst was composed by a mature cystic teratoma containing skin with dermal appendages, fatty tissue and bronchial epithelium. Furthermore a nodule (0.5 cm in size) composed of mature ganglion cells, axons and Schwann cells, was identified. Ganglion cells were positive for NSE and synaptophysin, while Schwann cells stained positively with S100 protein and GFAP. To the best of our knowledgment this is the first reported cases of ganglioneuroma arisen within a cystic mature teratoma of the ovary. PMID:16789685

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes in ovaries of chicken attaining sexual maturity at different ages.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Ningbo; Zang, Li; Wang, Meng; Cui, Xinxing; Jiang, Yunliang

    2012-03-01

    In poultry as well as in other birds, sexual maturity is one of the important factors influencing female reproduction and egg production. In this study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) differential display approach was used to identify genes related to sexual maturity. Using 54 EcoR I/Mse I selective primer combinations, totally 403 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated, 27 of which belong to 25 unigenes. By real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), the expression pattern of 13 genes was confirmed; among them, four genes including ZNF183 (P < 0.01), KIAA0700, CCT6A, and 23e 15 (P < 0.05) are significantly up-regulated and one gene (Loc418883) is significantly down-regulated (P < 0.01) in sexually mature ovaries compared to immature ones. The mRNA expression dynamics of ZNF183, CCT6A, 23e 15 and Loc418883 were further investigated in ovaries of 70-, 300- and 500-day-old commercial egg-laying hens: the expression level of CCT6A was the highest in 300-day-old hens (P < 0.05), while that of Loc418883 in 500-day-old hens was significantly higher than the other two stages (P < 0.01). The expression levels of ZNF183 and 23e 15 in ovary increase significantly from 70-day-old hens (P < 0.01) and 300-day-old (P < 0.05) to 500-day-old hens, respectively. The consistence of CCT6A expression and egg-laying performance suggests that CCT6A likely plays important role in sexual maturity in hens. PMID:21691707

  15. ALTERED STEROIDOGENESIS IN WHOLE-OVARY AND ADRENAL CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultures of minced, whole-ovary (whole-ovary culture) were used to determine if three selected chemicals altered steroidogenic profiles. irst, phenolaulfonthalein (PST), when used in culture medium, was tested for its influence on in vitro steroidogenesis. ext, aminoglutethimide ...

  16. Is polycystic ovary syndrome a sexual conflict? A review.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to explain the high overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome among women worldwide (about 4-10%) despite its link to subfertile phenotypes. For this reason, it is considered an evolutionary paradox. In this review, we show that several genetic loci associated with the disease differently modulate the reproductive parameters of men and women. This observation suggests that such genetic variants lead to opposite effects in the two sexes in reproductive success. Intralocus sexual conflict as a cause of the persistence polycystic ovary syndrome genotypes among humans is supported. PMID:26874987

  17. Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

  18. Identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md Munir; Ghanem, Nasser; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Phatsara, Chirawath; Tholen, Ernst; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are the major class of gene-regulating molecules playing diverse roles through sequence complementarity to target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. Tightly regulated expression and interaction of a multitude of genes for ovarian folliculogenesis could be regulated by these miRNAs. Identification of them is the first step towards understanding miRNA-guided gene regulation in different biological functions. Despite increasing efforts in miRNAs identification across various species and diverse tissue types, little is known about bovine ovarian miRNAs. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary through cloning, expression analysis and target prediction. Results The miRNA library (5'-independent ligation cloning method), which was constructed from bovine ovary in this study, revealed cloning of 50 known and 24 novel miRNAs. Among all identified miRNAs, 38 were found to be new for bovine and were derived from 43 distinct loci showing characteristic secondary structure. While 22 miRNAs precursor loci were found to be well conserved in more than one species, 16 were found to be bovine specific. Most of the miRNAs were cloned multiple times, in which let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-21, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-126 and miR-143 were cloned 10, 28, 13, 4, 11, 7, 6, 4 and 11 times, respectively. Expression analysis of all new and some annotated miRNAs in different intra-ovarian structures and in other multiple tissues showed that some were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed among different tissue types. Bta-miR-29a was localized in the follicular cells at different developmental stages in the cyclic ovary. Bio-informatics prediction, screening and Gene Ontology analysis of miRNAs targets identified several biological processes and pathways underlying the ovarian function. Conclusion Results of this study suggest the presence of miRNAs in the bovine ovary, thereby elucidate

  19. Phagocytosis genes nonautonomously promote developmental cell death in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Allison K; Mondragon, Albert A; Schenkel, Claire E; Yalonetskaya, Alla; Taylor, Jeffrey D; Moynihan, Katherine E; Etchegaray, Jon Iker; Meehan, Tracy L; McCall, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is usually considered a cell-autonomous suicide program, synonymous with apoptosis. Recent research has revealed that PCD is complex, with at least a dozen cell death modalities. Here, we demonstrate that the large-scale nonapoptotic developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary occurs by an alternative cell death program where the surrounding follicle cells nonautonomously promote death of the germ line. The phagocytic machinery of the follicle cells, including Draper, cell death abnormality (Ced)-12, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), is essential for the death and removal of germ-line-derived nurse cells during late oogenesis. Cell death events including acidification, nuclear envelope permeabilization, and DNA fragmentation of the nurse cells are impaired when phagocytosis is inhibited. Moreover, elimination of a small subset of follicle cells prevents nurse cell death and cytoplasmic dumping. Developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary is an intriguing example of nonapoptotic, nonautonomous PCD, providing insight on the diversity of cell death mechanisms. PMID:26884181

  20. Phagocytosis genes nonautonomously promote developmental cell death in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Allison K.; Mondragon, Albert A.; Schenkel, Claire E.; Yalonetskaya, Alla; Taylor, Jeffrey D.; Moynihan, Katherine E.; Etchegaray, Jon Iker; Meehan, Tracy L.; McCall, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is usually considered a cell-autonomous suicide program, synonymous with apoptosis. Recent research has revealed that PCD is complex, with at least a dozen cell death modalities. Here, we demonstrate that the large-scale nonapoptotic developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary occurs by an alternative cell death program where the surrounding follicle cells nonautonomously promote death of the germ line. The phagocytic machinery of the follicle cells, including Draper, cell death abnormality (Ced)-12, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), is essential for the death and removal of germ-line–derived nurse cells during late oogenesis. Cell death events including acidification, nuclear envelope permeabilization, and DNA fragmentation of the nurse cells are impaired when phagocytosis is inhibited. Moreover, elimination of a small subset of follicle cells prevents nurse cell death and cytoplasmic dumping. Developmental PCD in the Drosophila ovary is an intriguing example of nonapoptotic, nonautonomous PCD, providing insight on the diversity of cell death mechanisms. PMID:26884181

  1. Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

  2. Circulating hormone concentrations in hypothyroid rats with induced polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; Adams, W C; Bruot, B C

    1991-11-01

    The induction of polycystic ovaries in hypothyroid rats by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been studied for many years. A complete understanding of this phenomenon requires information regarding the circulating levels of the hormones of the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. In this study, serum prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay at intervals during the 40-day period in which large ovarian cysts were induced in hypothyroid rats by daily injections of hCG. After 20 injections, ovaries increased in weight 10-fold, and well-developed ovarian cysts were present, accompanied by lutein tissue; cyst development continued for the subsequent 20 days of hCG. Both PRL and LH rose during the first 5 days of treatment and were maintained at high levels from day 20 on. The pattern of change of gonadal steroids showed greater increases with hCG in hypothyroid than in euthyroid rats. Levels of estradiol in hypothyroid, hCG-injected rats increased in parallel to ovarian hypertrophy, whereas progesterone was high in initial stages and then declined. Testosterone increased in both euthyroid and hypothyroid animals, with no clear pattern coincident with cyst formation. The data suggest that the formation of polycystic ovaries in the hypothyroid rat is associated with high levels of PRL and LH followed by elevations of estradiol, which may serve to maintain continuous PRL, as well as LH, stimulation of the ovary. PMID:1924408

  3. Fresh and cryopreserved ovary transplantation and resting follicle recruitment.

    PubMed

    Silber, Sherman; Pineda, Jorge; Lenahan, Kathleen; DeRosa, Michael; Melnick, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Ovary cryopreservation and transplantation has garnered increasing interest as a possible method to preserve fertility for cancer patients and to study ovarian resting follicle recruitment. Eleven consecutive women underwent fresh donor ovary transplantation, and 11 underwent cryopreserved ovary auto-transplantation in the same centre, with the same surgeon. Of the 11 fresh transplant recipients, who were all young but menopausal, nine women had normal ovarian cortex transplanted from an identical twin sister, and two had a fresh allograft from a non-identical sister. In the second group, 11 women with cancer had ovarian tissue cryopreserved before bone marrow transplant, and then after years of therapeutically induced menopause, underwent cryopreserved ovarian cortex autotransplantation. Recovery of ovarian function and follicle recruitment was assessed in all 22 recipients, and the potential for pregnancy was further investigated in 19 (11 fresh and 8 cryopreserved) with over 1-year follow-up. In all recipients, normal FSH levels and menstruation returned by about 150 days, and anti-Müllerian hormone reached much greater than normal concentrations by about 170 days. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels then fell below normal by about 240 days and remained at that lower level. Seventeen babies have been born to these 11 fresh and eight cryopreserved ovary transplant recipients. PMID:25892498

  4. Contrast imaging ultrasound detects abnormalities in the marmoset ovary.

    PubMed

    Hastings, J M; Morris, K D; Allan, D; Wilson, H; Millar, R P; Fraser, H M; Moran, C M

    2012-12-01

    The development of a functional vascular tree within the primate ovary is critical for reproductive health. To determine the efficacy of contrast agents to image the microvascular environment within the primate ovary, contrast ultrasonography was performed in six reproductive-aged female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during the late luteal phase of the cycle, following injection of Sonovue™. Regions of interest (ROIs), representing the corpus luteum (CL) and noncorpus luteum ovarian tissue (NCLOT), were selected during gray-scale B-mode ultrasound imaging. The magnitude of backscatter intensity of CL and NCLOT ROIs were calculated in XnView, post hoc: subsequent gamma-variate modeling was implemented in Matlab to determine perfusion parameters. Histological analysis of these ovaries revealed a total of 11 CL, nine of which were identified during contrast ultrasonography. The median enhancement ratio was significantly increased in the CL (5.54AU; 95% CI -2.21-68.71) compared to the NCLOT (2.82AU; 95% CI 2.73-15.06; P < 0.05). There was no difference in time parameters between the CL and NCLOT. An additional avascular ROI was identified in the ovary of Animal 5, both histologically and by ultrasonography. This cystic ROI displayed a markedly lower enhancement ratio (0.79AU) and higher time parameters than mean CL and NCLOT, including time to peak and time to wash out. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of commercially available contrast agents, to differentiate structures within the nonhuman primate ovary. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has a promising future in reproductive medicine. PMID:22890799

  5. Downregulation of natriuretic peptide system and increased steroidogenesis in rat polycystic ovary.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Virginia M; Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Martins, Almir S; Reis, Fernando M; Reis, Adelina M

    2014-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is known to regulate ovarian functions, such as follicular growth and steroid hormone production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the natriuretic peptide system in a rat model of chronic anovulation, the rat polycystic ovary. Adult female Wistar rats received a single subcutaneous injection of 2mg estradiol valerate to induce polycystic ovaries, while the control group received vehicle injection. Two months later, their ovaries were quickly removed and analyzed. Polycystic ovaries exhibited marked elevation of testosterone and estradiol levels compared to control ovaries. The levels of ANP and the expression of ANP mRNA were highly reduced in the polycystic ovaries compared to controls. By immunohistochemistry, polycystic ovaries showed weaker ANP staining in stroma, theca cells and oocytes compared to controls. Polycystic ovaries also had increased activity of neutral endopeptidase, the main proteolytic enzyme that degrades natriuretic peptides. ANP receptor C mRNA was reduced and ANP binding to this receptor was absent in polycystic ovaries. Collectively, these results indicate a downregulation of the natriuretic peptide system in rat polycystic ovary, an established experimental model of anovulation with high ovarian testosterone and estradiol levels. Together with previous evidence demonstrating that ANP inhibits ovarian steroidogenesis, these findings suggest that low ovarian ANP levels may contribute to the abnormal steroid hormone balance in polycystic ovaries. PMID:25111374

  6. BMP signalling in human fetal ovary somatic cells is modulated in a gene-specific fashion by GREM1 and GREM2

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Rosemary A.; Donnachie, Douglas J.; Kinnell, Hazel L.; Childs, Andrew J.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do changes in the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2 and 4, and their antagonists Gremlin1 (GREM1) and Gremlin2 (GREM2) during human fetal ovarian development impact on BMP pathway activity and lead to changes in gene expression that may influence the fate and/or function of ovarian somatic cells? STUDY FINDING BMPs 2 and 4 differentially regulate gene expression in cultured human fetal ovarian somatic cells. Expression of some, but not all BMP target genes is antagonised by GREM1 and GREM2, indicating the existence of a mechanism to fine-tune BMP signal intensity in the ovary. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a marker of immature ovarian somatic cells, is identified as a novel transcriptional target of BMP4. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Extensive re-organisation of the germ and somatic cell populations in the feto-neonatal ovary culminates in the formation of primordial follicles, which provide the basis for a female's future fertility. BMP growth factors play important roles at many stages of ovarian development and function. GREM1, an extracellular antagonist of BMP signalling, regulates the timing of primordial follicle formation in the mouse ovary, and mRNA levels of BMP4 decrease while those of BMP2 increase prior to follicle formation in the human fetal ovary. STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLES/MATERIALS, METHODS Expression of genes encoding BMP pathway components, BMP antagonists and markers of ovarian somatic cells were determined by quantitative (q)RT-PCR in human fetal ovaries (from 8 to 21 weeks gestation) and fetal ovary-derived somatic cell cultures. Ovarian expression of GREM1 protein was confirmed by immunoblotting. Primary human fetal ovarian somatic cell cultures were derived from disaggregated ovaries by differential adhesion and cultured in the presence of recombinant human BMP2 or BMP4, with or without the addition of GREM1 or GREM2. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We demonstrate that the

  7. Chinese hamster ovary cells contain transcriptionally active full-length type C proviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Y S; Penuel, E M; Low, M A; Nguyen, T P; Mangahas, J O; Anderson, K P; Petropoulos, C J

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated a genomic locus from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that contains a full-length provirus. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that it is a defective member of the rodent type C retrovirus family with an env region that is similar to those of mouse amphotropic retrovirus and subgroup B feline leukemia virus. We were able to demonstrate that this provirus is a member of a closely related family of full-length proviruses in CHO cells and Chinese hamster liver. Hybridization probes generated from this genomic clone were used to characterize type C retrovirus RNA expression in CHO cells. Full-length genomic RNA and subgenomic envelope mRNA were detected in CHO cell lines but not in the human-derived 293 cell line. Interestingly, we discovered that the site of retrovirus integration lies within a G repeat sequence belonging to the short interspersed element family of retroposons. Images PMID:7966574

  8. Chinese hamster ovary cells contain transcriptionally active full-length type C proviruses.

    PubMed

    Lie, Y S; Penuel, E M; Low, M A; Nguyen, T P; Mangahas, J O; Anderson, K P; Petropoulos, C J

    1994-12-01

    We have isolated a genomic locus from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that contains a full-length provirus. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that it is a defective member of the rodent type C retrovirus family with an env region that is similar to those of mouse amphotropic retrovirus and subgroup B feline leukemia virus. We were able to demonstrate that this provirus is a member of a closely related family of full-length proviruses in CHO cells and Chinese hamster liver. Hybridization probes generated from this genomic clone were used to characterize type C retrovirus RNA expression in CHO cells. Full-length genomic RNA and subgenomic envelope mRNA were detected in CHO cell lines but not in the human-derived 293 cell line. Interestingly, we discovered that the site of retrovirus integration lies within a G repeat sequence belonging to the short interspersed element family of retroposons. PMID:7966574

  9. The fetal ovary exhibits temporal sensitivity to a ‘real-life’ mixture of environmental chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Richard G.; Amezaga, Maria R.; Loup, Benoit; Mandon-Pépin, Béatrice; Stefansdottir, Agnes; Filis, Panagiotis; Kyle, Carol; Zhang, Zulin; Allen, Ceri; Purdie, Laura; Jouneau, Luc; Cotinot, Corinne; Rhind, Stewart M.; Sinclair, Kevin D.; Fowler, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of fetal ovarian follicles is a critical determinant of adult female reproductive competence. Prolonged exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) can perturb this process with detrimental consequences for offspring. Here we report on the exposure of pregnant ewes to an environmental mixture of ECs derived from pastures fertilized with sewage sludge (biosolids): a common global agricultural practice. Exposure of pregnant ewes to ECs over 80 day periods during early, mid or late gestation reduced the proportion of healthy early stage fetal follicles comprising the ovarian reserve. Mid and late gestation EC exposures had the most marked effects, disturbing maternal and fetal liver chemical profiles, masculinising fetal anogenital distance and greatly increasing the number of altered fetal ovarian genes and proteins. In conclusion, differential temporal sensitivity of the fetus and its ovaries to EC mixtures has implications for adult ovarian function following adverse exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26931299

  10. The fetal ovary exhibits temporal sensitivity to a 'real-life' mixture of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lea, Richard G; Amezaga, Maria R; Loup, Benoit; Mandon-Pépin, Béatrice; Stefansdottir, Agnes; Filis, Panagiotis; Kyle, Carol; Zhang, Zulin; Allen, Ceri; Purdie, Laura; Jouneau, Luc; Cotinot, Corinne; Rhind, Stewart M; Sinclair, Kevin D; Fowler, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    The development of fetal ovarian follicles is a critical determinant of adult female reproductive competence. Prolonged exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) can perturb this process with detrimental consequences for offspring. Here we report on the exposure of pregnant ewes to an environmental mixture of ECs derived from pastures fertilized with sewage sludge (biosolids): a common global agricultural practice. Exposure of pregnant ewes to ECs over 80 day periods during early, mid or late gestation reduced the proportion of healthy early stage fetal follicles comprising the ovarian reserve. Mid and late gestation EC exposures had the most marked effects, disturbing maternal and fetal liver chemical profiles, masculinising fetal anogenital distance and greatly increasing the number of altered fetal ovarian genes and proteins. In conclusion, differential temporal sensitivity of the fetus and its ovaries to EC mixtures has implications for adult ovarian function following adverse exposures during pregnancy. PMID:26931299

  11. In vitro biosynthesis of diphthamide, studied with mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells resistant to diphtheria toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Moehring, T J; Danley, D E; Moehring, J M

    1984-01-01

    Diphthamide, a unique amino acid, is a post-translational derivative of histidine that exists in protein synthesis elongation factor 2 at the site of diphtheria toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of elongation factor 2. We investigated steps in the biosynthesis of diphthamide with mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells that were altered in different steps of this complex post-translational modification. Biochemical evidence indicates that this modification requires a minimum of three steps, two of which we accomplished in vitro. We identified a methyltransferase activity that transfers methyl groups from S-adenosyl methionine to an unmethylated form of diphthine (the deamidated form of diphthamide), and we tentatively identified an ATP-dependent synthetase activity involved in the biosynthesis of diphthamide from diphthine. Our results are in accord with the proposed structure of diphthamide (B. G. VanNess, et al., J. Biol. Chem. 255:10710-10716, 1980). Images PMID:6717439

  12. [Difficulties and pitfalls in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel; Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Rocha, Michelle Patrocínio

    2011-02-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrinopathies, affecting approximately 7% of women of reproductive age. Although it was described in 1935, only in 1990 was published the first Consensus regarding it its diagnosis. Today, the syndrome is also considered a cardiovascular risk factor, with a high prevalence of metabolic disorders. Reflecting this new vision of the syndrome, several documents, including Consensus, Statement and Guidelines have been published, addressing different aspects of the syndrome. This review is an analysis of documents obtained through a survey in the PubMed database, using the keywords "polycystic ovary syndrome", "hyperandrogenism" and "hirsutism", separately, taking as limiting the term Type of Article (Practice Guideline, Consensus Development Conference, Guideline) without limitation of time, language and age, having been selected only those documents prepared under the sponsorship of Medical Entities and with more than one author. PMID:21468515

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmess, Erin K.; Naz, Rajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

  14. Laparoscopic plication of partially twisted ovary with massive ovarian edema.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Huei; Tseng, Jeng-Yu; Suen, Jeng-Hung; Yang, Chih-Chun

    2006-05-01

    Massive ovarian edema (MOE) is a rare entity characterized by an accumulation of stromal edema fluid and occurs primarily in young women. The etiology is not clear, but is suspected to be the result of partial torsion of the ovary. After the establishment of a correct diagnosis, organ-sparing surgical treatment is the standard treatment. With the assistance of laparoscopy, we diagnosed and managed MOE in a 26-year-old woman who had a 4-year history of primary infertility and intermittent lower abdominal pain that had lasted for more than 6 months. With de-torsion, wedge resection, and plication of the ovary, the patient was successfully relieved of the abdominal pain and experienced no recurrence in the follow-up period. A later spontaneous pregnancy demonstrated the practicality of this conservative treatment. PMID:16835988

  15. Histoarchitecture of ovary of Haemaphysalis bispinosa during engorgement period.

    PubMed

    Sreelekha, K P; Chandrasekhar, L; Jyothimol, G; Lenka, D R; Aswathi, V; Adarshkrishna, T P; Ajithkumar, K G; Nair, S N; Ravindran, R; Juliet, S; Ghosh, S

    2015-09-01

    The ovary of Haemaphysalis bispinosa was of panoistic type with asynchronous development of oocytes. The wall of the ovary was composed of a layer of epithelial cells to which the oocytes were attached by means of pedicel cells with elongated nucleus. The oocytes were classified into stages I to V based on morphologic characteristics like size and shape, presence / absence of germ vesicle, cytoplasmic appearance, presence or absence of yolk granules and presence of chorion. Day wise changes were in the form of occurrence of oogonia from partially fed upto day zero of engorgement, presence of all stages of oocytes on day one and two after engorgement and onset of degenerative changes in oocytes from day three onwards. Degeneration was complete on day eight with the appearance of polymorphism, vacuolation, cytoplasmic blebbing and autophagic activity in oocytes. PMID:26695211

  16. Binding sites for gonadotropins in human postmenopausal ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, R.; Shima, K.; Yamoto, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Nishimori, K.; Hiraoka, J.

    1989-02-01

    The binding of human LH and human FSH to postmenopausal ovarian tissue from 21 patients with cervical carcinoma was analyzed. The binding sites for FSH and LH were demonstrated in postmenopausal ovarian tissue. The surface-binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the cells of cortical stroma of the postmenopausal ovary. In addition, diffuse cytoplasmic staining of endogenous estrogen and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity were detected immunohistochemically and histochemically in the cells of the cortical stroma. Electron microscopic study also suggested steroidogenic function in the cells of the cortical stroma. The results of the present study suggest that postmenopausal ovaries contain specific binding sites for pituitary gonadotropins and play a role in ovarian steroidogenesis.

  17. Anti-Müllerian hormone inhibits initiation of primordial follicle growth in the mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Durlinger, Alexandra L L; Gruijters, Maria J G; Kramer, Piet; Karels, Bas; Ingraham, Holly A; Nachtigal, Mark W; Uilenbroek, Jan Th J; Grootegoed, J Anton; Themmen, Axel P N

    2002-03-01

    Recruitment of primordial follicles is essential for female fertility; however, the exact mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown. Earlier studies using anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)-deficient mice suggested that AMH is involved in the regulation of primordial follicle recruitment. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal ovary culture system, in which ovaries from 2-d-old C57Bl/6J mice were cultured for 2 or 4 d in the absence or presence of AMH. Ovaries from 2-d-old mice contain multiple primordial follicles, some naked oocytes, and no follicles at later stages of development. We observed that in the cultured ovaries, either nontreated or AMH-treated, follicular development progressed to the same extent as in in vivo ovaries of comparable age, confirming the validity of our culture system. However, in the presence of AMH, cultured ovaries contained 40% fewer growing follicles compared with control ovaries. A similar reduction was found after 4 d of culture. Consistent with these findings, we noted lower inhibin alpha-subunit expression in AMH-treated ovaries compared with untreated ovaries. In contrast, expression of AMH ligand type II receptor and the expression of oocyte markers growth and differentiation factor 9 and zona pellucida protein 3 were not influenced by AMH. Based on the results, we suggest that AMH inhibits initiation of primordial follicle growth and therefore functions as an inhibitory growth factor in the ovary during these early stages of folliculogenesis. PMID:11861535

  18. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of silkwormBmovo-1 and wild type silkworm ovary

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Renyu; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Liyuan; Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Song, Zuowei; Lu, Jiayu; Chen, Xueying; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-01-01

    The detailed molecular mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovary size is unclear. To uncover the mechanism of Bmovo-1 regulation of ovarian development and oogenesis using RNA-Seq, we compared the transcriptomes of wild type (WT) and Bmovo-1-overexpressing silkworm (silkworm+Bmovo-1) ovaries. Using a pair-end Illumina Solexa sequencing strategy, 5,296,942 total reads were obtained from silkworm+Bmovo-1 ovaries and 6,306,078 from WT ovaries. The average read length was about 100 bp. Clean read ratios were 98.79% for silkworm+Bmovo-1 and 98.87% for WT silkworm ovaries. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed 123 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes in silkworm+Bmovo-1 ovaries. These differentially expressed genes were enriched in the extracellular and extracellular spaces and involved in metabolism, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, cellular processes and organismal systems. Bmovo-1 overexpression in silkworm ovaries might promote anabolism for ovarian development and oogenesis and oocyte proliferation and transport of nutrients to ovaries by altering nutrient partitioning, which would support ovary development. Excessive consumption of nutrients for ovary development alters nutrient partitioning and deters silk protein synthesis. PMID:26643037

  19. [Novel role of growth factors in ovary function].

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, Abraham

    2010-12-01

    The development of the DNA microarray technique facilitated systematic studies of the modulation of gene function. Considerable attention has been focused on members of the growth factor family to elucidate the main regulators of oocyte maturation and ovarian follicle rupture. Among these growth factors, it was found, both in rodents and in humans, that amphiregulin (Ar) and epiregulin (Ep) of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family were dramatically up-regulated by gonadotrophins in the intact ovary and in primary granulosa cells, respectively. Their role in cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation was established in rodents, and their synthesis under LH stimulation in granulosa cells was demonstrated in humans. To be activated, Ar and Ep must be cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) family. However, the precise processing of Ar and Ep by the cumulus cells is still obscure. Future investigations using DNA microarray technique may reveal the repertoire of genes activated in Ar- and Ep-stimulated cumulus cells and may help elucidate the molecular basis of ovulation. EFG-like factors are also involved in triggering ovarian cancer The author hypothesized that the normal ovary maintains cyclicity in the formation of these growth factors preventing the ovary from developing ovarian cancer In ovarian cancer these growth factors are continuously formed in an autocrine manner, leading to transformation and subsequently to ovarian cancer. These growth factors are essential for both normal and neoplastic transformation of the ovary. Taking into consideration these growth factors in the treatment of ovarian malfunction may be one way of curing ovarian cancer. PMID:21916103

  20. A comprehensive approach in diagnosing the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Renato; Gambineri, Alessandra

    2015-07-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome is the commonest hyperandrogenic and dysmetabolic disorder in women that, by definition, may present with different phenotypes, including the classic forms and those with a milder presentation. Its diagnosis is mainly based on careful clinical judgment, although it may require additional investigation by blood testing or imaging techniques in the differential diagnosis of androgen excess. This article summarizes the most important aspects of the diagnostic procedure and suggests how to apply them in clinical practice. PMID:25756387

  1. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  2. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  3. AROMATASE EXCESS IN CANCERS OF BREAST, ENDOMETRIUM AND OVARY

    PubMed Central

    Bulun, Serdar E.; Chen, Dong; Lu, Meiling; Zhao, Hong; Cheng, Youhong; Demura, Masashi; Yilmaz, Bertan; Martin, Regina; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Thung, Steven; Su, Emily; Marsh, Erica; Hakim, Amy; Yin, Ping; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Amin, Sanober; Imir, Gonca; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Erkut; Reierstat, Scott; Innes, Joy; Lin, Zhihong

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis and growth of three common women’s cancers (breast, endometrium and ovary) are linked to estrogen. A single gene encodes the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis named aromatase, inhibition of which effectively eliminates estrogen production in the entire body. Aromatase inhibitors successfully treat breast cancer, whereas their roles in endometrial and ovarian cancers are less clear. Ovary, testis, adipose tissue, skin, hypothalamus and placenta express aromatase normally, whereas breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers overexpress aromatase and produce local estrogen exerting paracrine and intracrine effects. Tissue-specific promoters distributed over a 93-kilobase regulatory region upstream of a common coding region alternatively control aromatase expression. A distinct set of transcription factors regulates each promoter in a signaling pathway- and tissue-specific manner. In cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary, aromatase expression is primarly regulated by increased activity of the proximally located promoter I.3/II region. Promoters I.3 and II lie 215 bp from each other and are coordinately stimulated by PGE2 via a cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway. In breast adipose fibroblasts exposed to PGE2 secreted by malignant epithelial cells, activation of PKC potentiates cAMP-PKA-dependent induction of aromatase. Thus, inflammatory substances such as PGE2 may play important roles in inducing local production of estrogen that promotes tumor growth. PMID:17590327

  4. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  5. Aromatase excess in cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Chen, Dong; Lu, Meiling; Zhao, Hong; Cheng, Youhong; Demura, Masashi; Yilmaz, Bertan; Martin, Regina; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Thung, Steven; Su, Emily; Marsh, Erica; Hakim, Amy; Yin, Ping; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Amin, Sanober; Imir, Gonca; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Erkut; Reierstad, Scott; Innes, Joy; Lin, Zhihong

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis and growth of three common women's cancers (breast, endometrium and ovary) are linked to estrogen. A single gene encodes the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis named aromatase, inhibition of which effectively eliminates estrogen production in the entire body. Aromatase inhibitors successfully treat breast cancer, whereas their roles in endometrial and ovarian cancers are less clear. Ovary, testis, adipose tissue, skin, hypothalamus and placenta express aromatase normally, whereas breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers overexpress aromatase and produce local estrogen exerting paracrine and intracrine effects. Tissue-specific promoters distributed over a 93-kb regulatory region upstream of a common coding region alternatively control aromatase expression. A distinct set of transcription factors regulates each promoter in a signaling pathway- and tissue-specific manner. In cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary, aromatase expression is primarly regulated by increased activity of the proximally located promoter I.3/II region. Promoters I.3 and II lie 215 bp from each other and are coordinately stimulated by PGE(2) via a cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway. In breast adipose fibroblasts exposed to PGE(2) secreted by malignant epithelial cells, PKC is also activated, and this potentiates cAMP-PKA-dependent induction of aromatase. Thus, inflammatory substances such as PGE(2) may play important roles in inducing local production of estrogen that promotes tumor growth. PMID:17590327

  6. Expression of SIRT1 in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome before and after therapeutic intervention with exenatide

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xin; Zhang, Xiao; Ge, Shu-Qi; Zhang, Er-Hong; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its alteration after exenatide treatment. Methods: PCOS rat model was established by dehydroepiandrosterone induction. The animals were randomly divided into exenatide treatment group (EX group, n = 10), metformin treatment group (MF group, n = 10), PCOS group (PCOS group, n = 9) and normal control group (NC group, n = 10). Histological changes of the ovarian tissues were examined by HE staining. SIRT1 expression in the ovarian tissue was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results: Rats in the PCOS group lost their estrous cycle. Histological observation of the ovary showed saccular dilatation of the follicle, decreased number of corpora lutea, fewer layers of granulosa cells aligned loosely, and thickened layer of theca cells. The changes in reproductive hormones and the development of insulin resistance suggested the successful establishment of the animal models. Immunohistochemistry and Q-PCR detected the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1 in the ovary tissues of rats in the normal control group. The SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in PCOS group than in control group (P < 0.05); after drug intervention, the SIRT1 expression significantly increased in EX and MF groups (compared with the PCOS group), whereas no significant difference was noted between the EX group and MF group. Conclusions: The SIRT1 expression in the ovary tissue decreases in PCOS rats (compare with the normal rats) but can be up-regulated after Ex or MF treatment. These drugs may affect the process and development of PCOS by regulating the SIRT1 expression. Exenatide may be therapeutic for PCOS by up-regulating the SITR1 expression. PMID:26339397

  7. The follicle-deplete mouse ovary produces androgen.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Loretta P; Devine, Patrick J; Dyer, Cheryl A; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2004-07-01

    The follicle-depleted postmenopausal ovary is enriched in interstitial cells that produce androgens. This study was designed to cause follicle depletion in mice using the industrial chemical, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), and characterize the steroidogenic capacity of cells in the residual ovarian tissue. From a dose-finding study, the optimal daily concentration of VCD was determined to be 160 mg/kg. Female B6C3F(1) immature mice were treated daily with vehicle control or VCD (160 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 15 days, i.p.). Ovaries were removed and processed for histological evaluation. On Day 15 following onset of treatment, primordial follicles were depleted and primary follicles were reduced to about 10% of controls. On Day 46, primary follicles were depleted and secondary and antral follicles were reduced to 0.7% and 2.6% of control, respectively. Seventy-five percent of treated mice displayed disruptions in estrous cyclicity. All treated mice were in persistent diestrus (acyclic) by Day 58. Plasma FSH levels were increased (P < 0.05) relative to controls on Day 37 and had plateaued by Day 100. Relative to age-matched cyclic controls, by Day 127, the significant differences in VCD-treated mice included reduced ovarian and uterine weights, elevated plasma LH and FSH, and reduced plasma progesterone and androstenedione. Furthermore, plasma 17beta-estradiol levels were nondetectable. Unlike controls, immunostaining for LH receptor, and the high density lipoprotein receptor (SR-BI), was diffuse in ovarian sections from VCD-treated animals. Ovaries from Day 120 control and VCD-treated animals were dissociated and dispersed cells were placed in culture. Cultured cells from ovaries of VCD-treated animals produced less LH-stimulated progesterone than control cells. Androstenedione production was nondetectable in cells from cyclic control animals. Conversely, cells from VCD-treated animals produced androstenedione that was doubled in the presence of insulin and LH (1 and

  8. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  9. Regulation of behaviorally associated gene networks in worker honey bee ovaries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kocher, Sarah D; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Grozinger, Christina M; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support genetic links between ovary size and division of labor in worker honey bees. However, it is largely unknown how ovaries influence behavior. To address this question, we first performed transcriptional profiling on worker ovaries from two genotypes that differ in social behavior and ovary size. Then, we contrasted the differentially expressed ovarian genes with six sets of available brain transcriptomes. Finally, we probed behavior-related candidate gene networks in wild-type ovaries of different sizes. We found differential expression in 2151 ovarian transcripts in these artificially selected honey bee strains, corresponding to approximately 20.3% of the predicted gene set of honey bees. Differences in gene expression overlapped significantly with changes in the brain transcriptomes. Differentially expressed genes were associated with neural signal transmission (tyramine receptor, TYR) and ecdysteroid signaling; two independently tested nuclear hormone receptors (HR46 and ftz-f1) were also significantly correlated with ovary size in wild-type bees. We suggest that the correspondence between ovary and brain transcriptomes identified here indicates systemic regulatory networks among hormones (juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids), pheromones (queen mandibular pheromone), reproductive organs and nervous tissues in worker honey bees. Furthermore, robust correlations between ovary size and neuraland endocrine response genes are consistent with the hypothesized roles of the ovaries in honey bee behavioral regulation. PMID:22162860

  10. Ovary Apical Abortion under Water Deficit Is Caused by Changes in Sequential Development of Ovaries and in Silk Growth Rate in Maize.

    PubMed

    Oury, Vincent; Tardieu, François; Turc, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Grain abortion allows the production of at least a few viable seeds under water deficit but causes major yield loss. It is maximum for water deficits occurring during flowering in maize (Zea mays). We have tested the hypothesis that abortion is linked to the differential development of ovary cohorts along the ear and to the timing of silk emergence. Ovary volume and silk growth were followed over 25 to 30 d under four levels of water deficit and in four hybrids in two experiments. A position-time model allowed characterizing the development of ovary cohorts and their silk emergence. Silk growth rate decreased in water deficit and stopped 2 to 3 d after first silk emergence, simultaneously for all ovary cohorts, versus 7 to 8 d in well-watered plants. Abortion rate in different treatments and positions on the ear was not associated with ovary growth rate. It was accounted for by the superposition of (1) the sequential emergence of silks originating from ovaries of different cohorts along the ear with (2) one event occurring on a single day, the simultaneous silk growth arrest. Abortion occurred in the youngest ovaries whose silks did not emerge 2 d before silk arrest. This mechanism accounted for more than 90% of drought-related abortion in our experiments. It resembles the control of abortion in a large range of species and inflorescence architectures. This finding has large consequences for breeding drought-tolerant maize and for modeling grain yields in water deficit. PMID:26598464

  11. Ovary Apical Abortion under Water Deficit Is Caused by Changes in Sequential Development of Ovaries and in Silk Growth Rate in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, François

    2016-01-01

    Grain abortion allows the production of at least a few viable seeds under water deficit but causes major yield loss. It is maximum for water deficits occurring during flowering in maize (Zea mays). We have tested the hypothesis that abortion is linked to the differential development of ovary cohorts along the ear and to the timing of silk emergence. Ovary volume and silk growth were followed over 25 to 30 d under four levels of water deficit and in four hybrids in two experiments. A position-time model allowed characterizing the development of ovary cohorts and their silk emergence. Silk growth rate decreased in water deficit and stopped 2 to 3 d after first silk emergence, simultaneously for all ovary cohorts, versus 7 to 8 d in well-watered plants. Abortion rate in different treatments and positions on the ear was not associated with ovary growth rate. It was accounted for by the superposition of (1) the sequential emergence of silks originating from ovaries of different cohorts along the ear with (2) one event occurring on a single day, the simultaneous silk growth arrest. Abortion occurred in the youngest ovaries whose silks did not emerge 2 d before silk arrest. This mechanism accounted for more than 90% of drought-related abortion in our experiments. It resembles the control of abortion in a large range of species and inflorescence architectures. This finding has large consequences for breeding drought-tolerant maize and for modeling grain yields in water deficit. PMID:26598464

  12. Trichloroethylene Metabolism in the Rat Ovary Reduces Oocyte Fertilizability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Katherine Lily; Berger, Trish

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE, an environmental toxicant) reduced oocyte fertilizability in the rat. In vivo, TCE may be metabolized by cytochrome P450 dependent oxidation or glutathione conjugation in the liver or kidneys, respectively. Cytochrome P450 dependent oxidation is the higher affinity pathway. The primary isoform of cytochrome P450 to metabolize TCE in the liver, cytochrome P450 2E1, is present in the rodent ovary. Ovarian metabolism of TCE by the oxidative pathway and the production of reactive oxygen species may occur given the presence of the metabolizing enzyme. The objectives of this study were to define the sensitive interval of oocyte growth to TCE exposure, and to determine if TCE exposure resulted in the formation of ovarian protein carbonyls, an indicator of oxidative damage. Rats were exposed to TCE in drinking water (0.45% TCE (v/v) in 3% Tween) or 3% Tween (vehicle-control) during three 4–5 day intervals of oocyte development preceding ovulation. Oocytes from TCE-exposed females were less fertilizable compared with vehicle-control oocytes. Immunohistochemical labeling of ovaries and Western blotting of ovarian proteins demonstrated TCE treatment induced a greater incidence of protein carbonyls compared with vehicle controls. Protein carbonyl formation in the ovary is consistent with TCE metabolism by the cytochrome P450 pathway. Oxidative damage following ovarian TCE metabolism or the presence of TCE metabolites may contribute to reduced oocyte fertilizability. In summary, these results indicate maturing oocytes are susceptible to very short in vivo exposures to TCE. PMID:17673192

  13. Malignant melanoma metastatic to the ovary: presentation and radiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moselhi, M; Spencer, J; Lane, G

    1998-05-01

    Cutaneous melanomas rarely metastasize to the ovary; however, we have recently encountered three cases which have proved a diagnostic dilemma. All presented with a pelvic mass and a past history of cutaneous melanoma but both ultrasound examination and CT scanning proved inconclusive and neither was able to accurately characterize the lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was able to demonstrate the presence of melanin in one of the ovarian lesions as peripheral high signal change on T1-weighted images. The two lesions without melanin failed to show this feature. MRI may therefore be useful in the diagnosis of ovarian melanoma but only if melanin is present. PMID:9600825

  14. Gibberellic acid stimulates acid invertase secretion in pea ovary protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Estruch, J J; Beltrán, J P

    1991-02-25

    Protoplasts purified from mesocarp of nonpollinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) ovaries released acid invertase to the incubation medium. The association of the acid invertase with microsomal fractions, and the sensitivity to energy-metabolism inhibitors and to tunicamycin, indicated the secretory nature of the release process. In the presence of GA3 (10 microM), the protoplasts increased their invertase secretion at about 60 min, this effect being counteracted by tunicamycin but not by cycloheximide. Subcellular fractionation of GA3-treated protoplasts showed that higher invertase secretion was the result of a promotion of invertase transfer from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus. PMID:2001743

  15. Characterization of ornithine decarboxylase of tobacco cells and tomato ovaries.

    PubMed Central

    Heimer, Y M; Mizrahi, Y

    1982-01-01

    Some characteristics of L-ornithine decarboxylase of tomato ovaries and tobacco cells are described. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 8.0. It requires pyridoxal phosphate and thiol reagent (dithiothreitol) for activity. It is specific for L-ornithine and has an apparent Km of 1.4 X 10-4 M. It has an apparent molecular weight of 107000. Putrescine inhibited the activity in vitro. Spermidine and spermine also inhibit the enzyme, but less effectively. It is concluded that the enzyme is similar to that of mammalian origin and likewise fulfils a function related to cell proliferation. PMID:7082296

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    PubMed

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence. PMID:25437978

  17. Quantitative mutagenesis and mutagen screening with Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, A.W.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Tan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented on the development of a specific gene mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cells/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system, and the utilization of this system to study structure-activity relationship affecting cytotoxicity and gene mutation by various carcinogens. Then, preliminary development and validation of a Multiplex CHO System for the simultaneous determination of chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange in addition to cytotoxicity and gene mutation is presented. The potential use of a CHO/human cell hybrid system for measuring chromosomal deletion and loss is discussed.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Over the past several years, the field of reproductive medicine has witnessed great advances in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), leading to identification of several promising genes involved in hormone action, type 2 diabetes, and cell proliferation. This review summarizes the key findings and discusses their potential implications with regard to genetic mechanisms of PCOS. Limitations of GWAS are evaluated, emphasizing the understanding of the reasons for variability in results between individual studies. Root causes of misinterpretations of GWASs are also addressed. Finally, the impact of GWAS on future directions of multi- and interdisciplinary studies is discussed. PMID:27513023

  19. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome – literature review

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Nebil; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-factorial disease. Its etiopathogenesis has not been elucidated in detail. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of child-bearing age. This disease entity is primarily characterized by disrupted ovulation and hyperandrogenism, but the clinical picture can be diversified and symptom intensity can vary. Currently, the sonographic assessment of ovaries is one of the obligatory criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus (2003) and Androgen Excess & PCOS Society (2006). This criterion is determined by the presence of ≥12 follicles within the ovary with a diameter of 2–9 mm and/or ovarian volume ≥10 cm3. Such an ultrasound image in one gonad only is sufficient to define polycystic ovaries. The coexistence of polycystic ovaries with polycystic ovary syndrome is confirmed in over 90% of cases irrespective of ethnic factors or race. However, because of the commonness of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries in healthy women, the inclusion of this sign to the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome is still questioned. The development of new technologies has an undoubted influence on the percentage of diagnosed polycystic ovaries. This process has caused an increase in the percentage of polycystic ovary diagnoses since the Rotterdam criteria were published. It is therefore needed to prepare new commonly accepted diagnostic norms concerning the number of ovarian follicles and the standardization of the technique in which they are counted. The assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone levels as an equivalent of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries is a promising method. However, analytic methods have to be standardized in order to establish commonly accepted diagnostic norms. PMID:26807298

  20. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome - literature review.

    PubMed

    Bachanek, Michał; Abdalla, Nebil; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sawicki, Włodzimierz

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-factorial disease. Its etiopathogenesis has not been elucidated in detail. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of child-bearing age. This disease entity is primarily characterized by disrupted ovulation and hyperandrogenism, but the clinical picture can be diversified and symptom intensity can vary. Currently, the sonographic assessment of ovaries is one of the obligatory criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus (2003) and Androgen Excess & PCOS Society (2006). This criterion is determined by the presence of ≥12 follicles within the ovary with a diameter of 2-9 mm and/or ovarian volume ≥10 cm(3). Such an ultrasound image in one gonad only is sufficient to define polycystic ovaries. The coexistence of polycystic ovaries with polycystic ovary syndrome is confirmed in over 90% of cases irrespective of ethnic factors or race. However, because of the commonness of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries in healthy women, the inclusion of this sign to the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome is still questioned. The development of new technologies has an undoubted influence on the percentage of diagnosed polycystic ovaries. This process has caused an increase in the percentage of polycystic ovary diagnoses since the Rotterdam criteria were published. It is therefore needed to prepare new commonly accepted diagnostic norms concerning the number of ovarian follicles and the standardization of the technique in which they are counted. The assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone levels as an equivalent of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries is a promising method. However, analytic methods have to be standardized in order to establish commonly accepted diagnostic norms. PMID:26807298

  1. Promising Loci and Genes for Yolk and Ovary Weight in Chickens Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW) at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW) and ovary weight (OW) at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL) and Dongxiang chickens (DX). For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (0.25–0.38), while the estimates for FW (0.16) and OW (0.20) were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points. PMID:26332579

  2. Endophytic and pathogenic fungi of developing cranberry ovaries from flower to mature fruit: diversity and succession

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culturable fungal population diversity and succession were investigated in developing cranberry ovaries of fruit rot-resistant and rot-susceptible cranberry selections, from flower through mature fruit. Fungi were recovered in culture from 1185 of 1338 ovary tissues collected from June to September,...

  3. Orthotopic transplantation of LH receptor knockout and wild-type ovaries.

    PubMed

    Chudgar, Daksha; Lei, Zhenmin; Rao, Ch V

    2005-10-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor knockout animals have an ovarian failure due to an arrest in folliculogenesis at the antral stage. As a result, the animals have an infertility phenotype. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this phenotype could be reversed by orthotopic transplantation of wild-type ovaries. The results revealed that transplanting wild-type ovaries into null animals did not result in resumption of estrus cycles. Although the number of different types of follicles increased, none progressed to ovulation. The serum hormone profiles improved, reflecting the ovarian changes. The wild-type animals with null ovaries also failed to cycle and their ovaries and serum hormone levels were more like null animals with their own ovaries. Although the lack of rescue of null ovaries placed into wild-type animals was predicted, the failure of wild-type ovaries placed in null animals was not, which could be due to chronic exposure of transplanted tissue to high circulating LH levels and also possibly due to altered internal milieu in null animals. These findings may have implications for potential future considerations of grafting normal donor ovaries into women who have an ovarian failure resulting from inactivating LH receptor mutations. PMID:15964032

  4. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise; Salö, Sofia; Englund, Anne Lis Mikkelsen; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome. PMID:25158044

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the controversy of diagnosis by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Porter, Misty Blanchette

    2008-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder. The criteria used to establish the diagnosis remain controversial. The 1990 National Institutes of Health conference guidelines required a combination of both chronic anovulation and clinical/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism. These criteria were revised in 2003 at the Rotterdam European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society of Reproductive Medicine consensus workshop to include ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) as one of the two of three criteria necessary for establishing the diagnosis of PCOS. The inclusion of PCOM sparked a controversy as it broadens the population of women who meet the criteria for PCOS and allows for the creation of two phenotypically different patient populations who previously would have been excluded. The ultrasound findings, which are consistent with PCOM, include an assessment of follicle number and/or ovarian volume. As technology advances with two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound, our ability to discretely evaluate independent portions of the ovary may help to redefine the criteria of PCOM and thus standardize for clinical and research interests a more specific descriptor for PCOM. PMID:18504699

  6. Transcriptomic responses of marine medaka's ovary to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keng Po; Li, Jing Woei; Tse, Anna Chung Kwan; Cheung, Angela; Wang, Simon; Chan, Ting Fung; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia, an endocrine disruptor, is pressing global problem affecting marine organisms in over 400 "Dead Zones" worldwide. There is growing evident demonstrated the disruptive effect of hypoxia on reproductive systems of marine fish through the impairments of steroidogenic gene expression, leading to the alteration of sex hormone production in gonads. But the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the responses of female reproductive systems to hypoxic stress remains largely unknown. In the present report, we used marine medaka Oryzias melastigma as a model, together with high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, aiming to determine the changes in transcriptional signature in the ovary of marine fish under hypoxic stress. Our result discovered over two hundred differential expressed genes in ovary in response to hypoxia. The bioinformatics analysis together with quantitative RT-PCR validation on the deregulated genes highlighted the dysregulations of a number of female reproductive functions including interruptions of ovarian follicle development, gonad development and steroid metabolic process. Additionally, we revealed that these deregulations are through the modulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). The result of this work complements previous studies and provides additional insights into the underlying molecular mechanism of hypoxia-induced impairment of female reproductive system. PMID:27423118

  7. [Metastatic tumors in the ovary, difficulties of histologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Tamás, Judit; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Tóth, Erika

    2015-09-01

    The ovary is a common site of metastases. Secondary tumors account for 3-40% of all ovarian malignancies. Most ovarian metastases arise from the colon, although tumors of the breast, stomach and endometrium are also common places of origin. Clinical and histological features of metastatic tumors frequently mimic primary ovarian malignancies, causing serious diagnostic problems for the surgical pathologist. However, differentiation between primary ovarian cancer and ovarian metastasis is important in order to prevent inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment. The distinction between primary and secondary ovarian malignancies is especially difficult in cases when the metastasis is diagnosed before the primary tumor. Frozen section is widely used in the intra-operative assessment of patients with ovarian tumors but it can be very difficult to distinguish certain types of primary ovarian tumors and metastases from other sites. We examined 152 cases of secondary ovarian neoplasm diagnosed at the National Institute of Oncology, Hungary from 2000 to 2014. Colorectal cancer was the most common primary tumor (58 cases), followed by breast (33 cases), endometrium (30 cases) and stomach cancer (13 cases). The differential diagnosis proved the most difficult in cases when endometrioid and mucinous tumors were present in the ovaries. Metastases of colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas may simulate benign or borderline cystadenomas too. In these cases the knowledge of the patient's history and immunohistochemical stains were helpful. In our study we discuss the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing these secondary ovarian tumors from primary ovarian neoplasms and the limits of the intraoperative frozen sections. PMID:26339910

  8. Radiation-induced tumors in transplanted ovaries. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

    1982-04-01

    A comparison was made of tumor induction in the ovaries of whole-body-irradiation mice (250-kV X rays, doses of 0.25-4.00 Gy) or in ovaries irradiated in vivo and then transplanted intramuscularly into castrated syngeneic hosts. The form of the dose-induction relationships was similar in the two cases, showing a steeply rising branch at doses up to 0.75 Gy followed by a maximum and an elevated plateau up to 4.00 Gy. A higher incidence of tumors in transplanted organs was apparent for doses up to the maximum, which was attributed to castration-induced hormonal imbalance. Specific death rate analysis of mice dying with ovarian tumors showed that in this system radiation acts essentially by decreasing tumor latency. Ovarian tumors were classified in various histological types and their development in time was followed by serial sacrifice. Separate analysis of death rate of animals carrying different tumor classes allowed further resolution of the various components of the tumor induction phenomenon. It was thus possible to show that the overall death rate analysis masks a true effect of induction of granulosa cell tumors in whole-body-irradiation animals. The transplantation technique offers little advantage for the study of radiation induction of ovarian tumor.

  9. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%-20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%-70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

  10. Neurocytoma arising from a mature ovary teratoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juan-Han; Yang, Lian-He; Lin, Xu-Yong; Dai, Shun-Dong; Qiu, Xue-Shan; Wang, En-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Central neurocytoma/extraventricular neurocytoma is a central nervous system (CNS) tumor composed of uniform round cells with neuronal differentiation. The typical lesions of central neurocytoma/extraventricular neurocytoma are at the interventricular foramen of the lateral ventricles (central neurocytoma) or brain parenchyma (extraventricular neurocytoma). Mature teratoma is a benign germ cell tumor commonly found in young women. Herein, we report a 24-year-old female with neurocytoma in a mature teratoma of the right ovary. The histological examinations showed mature epidermis, skin appendages, adipose and bone tissues in the tumor; microscopic foci of immature cartilage tissues were also found in some parts. In addition, massive solid sheets and uniform round tumor cells were found in the neuroectodermal tissues, with the formation of neuropil-like islands. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that the tumor cells were synaptophysin- and NeuN-positive but GFAP-negative. Based on these findings, the woman was diagnosed with neurocytoma arising from mature ovary teratoma, with microscopic foci of immature cartilage tissues. This is the fourth case report of neurocytoma outside the CNS to date. PMID:26376790

  11. Treatment strategies for infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Wendy; Hoeger, Kathleen; Legro, Richard S

    2016-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder that can be diagnosed when two of the following three criteria are present: menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Factors such as the individual's body weight influence the severity of the phenotype and risk of metabolic comorbidities. While anovulatory infertility is a common issue among lean and obese reproductive-aged women with PCOS, obesity is associated with resistance to oral ovulation induction agents, lower pregnancy rates and a higher risk of pregnancy complications. Lifestyle modification is recommended as first line therapy among obese women with PCOS in order to optimize their outcomes. Among lean and obese women with PCOS, ovulation induction can be achieved with aromatase inhibitors, selective estrogen receptor modulators, insulin sensitizing agents, gonadotropins and ovarian drilling with varying rates of ovulation, live birth and multiple gestations. Assisted reproductive technologies are reserved for women who do not conceive despite restoration of ovulation or couples with additional factors contributing to their infertility. This review will outline treatment strategies for achieving a healthy pregnancy among lean and obese women with PCOS and infertility. PMID:26765152

  12. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

  13. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Musiał, K; Płachno, B J; Świątek, P; Marciniuk, J

    2013-06-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

  14. Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; Pascuali, Natalia; Bas, Diana; Bianchi, María Silvia; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent pathology that affects more than 5% of women of reproductive age. Among other heterogeneous symptoms, PCOS is characterized by abnormalities in angiogenesis. Metformin has been introduced in the treatment of PCOS to manage insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Besides its metabolic effects, metformin has been shown to improve ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in PCOS patients. In the present study, we used a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS rat model to analyze the effect of metformin administration on ovarian angiogenesis. We found that metformin was able to restore the increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin (ANGPT)1, and ANGPT1/ANGPT2 ratio and the decreased levels of platelet-derived growth factor B and platelet-derived growth factor D observed in the dehydroepiandrosterone-treated rats. These effects could take place, at least in part, through a decrease in the levels of serum insulin. We also found an improvement in follicular development, with a lower percentage of small follicles and cysts and a higher percentage of antral follicles and corpora lutea after metformin administration. The improvement in ovarian angiogenesis is likely to restore the accumulation of small follicles observed in PCOS rats and to reduce cyst formation, thus improving follicular development and the percentage of corpora lutea. These results open new insights into the study of metformin action not only in glucose metabolism but also in ovarian dysfunction in PCOS women. PMID:25590243

  15. Is Change in Ovary Carbon Status a Cause or a Consequence of Maize Ovary Abortion in Water Deficit during Flowering?1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Prodhomme, Duyên; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, François

    2016-01-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabolism, together with the concentrations and amounts of sugars, and with the activities of major enzymes of carbon metabolism. Photosynthesis and indicators of sugar export, measured during water deprivation, suggested sugar export maintained by the leaf. The first molecular changes occurred in silks rather than in ovaries and involved genes affecting expansive growth rather than sugar metabolism. Changes in the concentrations and amounts of sugars and in the activities of enzymes of sugar metabolism occurred in apical ovaries that eventually aborted, but probably after the switch to abortion of these ovaries. Hence, we propose that, under moderate water deficits corresponding to most European drought scenarios, changes in carbon metabolism during flowering time are a consequence rather than a cause of the beginning of ovary abortion. A carbon-driven ovary abortion may occur later in the cycle in the case of carbon shortage or under very severe water deficits. These findings support the view that, until the end of silking, expansive growth of reproductive organs is the primary event leading to abortion, rather than a disruption of carbon metabolism. PMID:27208256

  16. A snapshot of the lives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A photovoice investigation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophie; Sheffield, David; Knibb, Rebecca C

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6  percent of women. Symptoms include hirsutism, acne, and infertility. This research explores the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome on women's lives using photovoice. Nine participants photographed objects related to their quality of life and made diary entries explaining each photograph. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis of the diaries: control (of symptoms and polycystic ovary syndrome controlling their lives), perception (of self, others, and their situation), and support (from relationships, health care systems, and education). These findings illuminate positive aspects of living with polycystic ovary syndrome and the role pets and social networking sites play in providing support for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25205774

  17. A pure primary transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary: A rare case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chandanwale, Shirish S; Kamble, Tushar; Mishra, Neha; Kumar, Harsh; Jadhav, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a rare and recently recognized subtype of ovarian surface epithelial-stromal cancer. Pure forms of the TCC ovary account for only 1% of surface epithelial carcinomas. The clinical presentation is indistinguishable from other types of ovarian cancers. They have a favorable response to chemotherapy than other surface epithelial cancers. We report a case of 55-year-old woman who presented with a hard mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography-diagnosed it as a carcinoma of the ovary. Tumor was immunoreactive with Wilms’ tumor protein-1 and nonreactive with cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and CK20. Histopathology diagnosis of primary TCC of the ovary was made. These tumors are needed to be differentiated from metastatic TCC from other sites and undifferentiated carcinomas of ovaries. Clinical features and immunohistochemistry are helpful. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach followed by standardized chemotherapy. PMID:27127747

  18. A pure primary transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary: A rare case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Chandanwale, Shirish S; Kamble, Tushar; Mishra, Neha; Kumar, Harsh; Jadhav, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a rare and recently recognized subtype of ovarian surface epithelial-stromal cancer. Pure forms of the TCC ovary account for only 1% of surface epithelial carcinomas. The clinical presentation is indistinguishable from other types of ovarian cancers. They have a favorable response to chemotherapy than other surface epithelial cancers. We report a case of 55-year-old woman who presented with a hard mass in the abdomen. Computed tomography-diagnosed it as a carcinoma of the ovary. Tumor was immunoreactive with Wilms' tumor protein-1 and nonreactive with cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and CK20. Histopathology diagnosis of primary TCC of the ovary was made. These tumors are needed to be differentiated from metastatic TCC from other sites and undifferentiated carcinomas of ovaries. Clinical features and immunohistochemistry are helpful. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach followed by standardized chemotherapy. PMID:27127747

  19. Autophagy is a cell survival program for female germ cells in the murine ovary.

    PubMed

    Gawriluk, Thomas R; Hale, Amber N; Flaws, Jodi A; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R; Rucker, Edmund B

    2011-06-01

    It is estimated that infertility affects 15-20% of couples and can arise from female or male reproductive defects. Mouse models have ascribed roles to over 100 genes in the maintenance of female fertility. Although previous models have determined roles for apoptosis in male and female fertility, we find that compromised autophagy within the perinatal ovary, through the loss of Becn1 or Atg7, results in the premature loss of female germ cells. Becn1(+/-) ovaries have a 56% reduction of germ cells compared with control ovaries at post-natal day 1, whereas Atg7(-/-) ovaries lack discernable germ cells at this stage. Thus autophagy appears to be a cell survival mechanism to maintain the endowment of female germ cells prior to establishing primordial follicle pools in the ovary. PMID:21464117

  20. Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, Hippo Represses Notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic Ovaries, Triggering the Mitosis-Endocycle Switch in the Follicular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Irles, Paula; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2014-01-01

    During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only)-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries. PMID:25426635

  1. Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, hippo represses notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic ovaries, triggering the mitosis-endocycle switch in the follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Irles, Paula; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2014-01-01

    During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only)-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries. PMID:25426635

  2. Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of α-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or α-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. α-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of α-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  3. Differential Expression of microRNAs in the Ovaries from Letrozole-Induced Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Li, Chunjin; Xu, Ying; Xu, Duo; Li, Hongjiao; Gao, Liwei; Chen, Shuxiong; Fu, Lulu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yongzheng; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Jingshun; Ming, Hao; Zheng, Lianwen

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disorder. To understand the pathogenesis of PCOS, we established rat models of PCOS induced by letrozole and employed deep sequencing to screen the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in PCOS rats and control rats. We observed vaginal smear and detected ovarian pathological alteration and hormone level changes in PCOS rats. Deep sequencing showed that a total of 129 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the ovaries from letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control, including 49 miRNAs upregulated and 80 miRNAs downregulated. Furthermore, the differential expression of miR-201-5p, miR-34b-5p, miR-141-3p, and miR-200a-3p were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these four miRNAs were predicted to target a large set of genes with different functions. Pathway analysis supported that the miRNAs regulate oocyte meiosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling, Rap1 signaling, and Notch signaling. These data indicate that miRNAs are differentially expressed in rat PCOS model and the differentially expressed miRNA are involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of PCOS. Our findings will help identify miRNAs as novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for PCOS. PMID:26745201

  4. Criteria, prevalence, and phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lizneva, Daria; Suturina, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Brakta, Soumia; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent disorder effecting reproductive-aged women worldwide. This article addresses the evolution of the criteria used to diagnosis PCOS; reviews recent advances in the phenotypic approach, specifically in the context of the extended Rotterdam criteria; discusses limitations of the current criteria used to diagnosis, particularly when studying adolescents and women in the peri- and postmenopause; and describes significant strides made in understanding the epidemiology of PCOS. This review recognizes that although there is a high prevalence of PCOS, there is increased variability when using Rotterdam 2003 criteria, owing to limitations in population sampling and approaches used to define PCOS phenotypes. Last, we discuss the distribution of PCOS phenotypes, their morbidity, and the role that referral bias plays in the epidemiology of this syndrome. PMID:27233760

  5. A life course perspective on polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ninive

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major public health problem in the US. Worldwide, the public is largely unaware of the condition and health care providers do not seem to fully understand it. Research on PCOS has primarily focused on its etiology and clinical characteristics and less on the psychosocial aspects of human development associated with PCOS. This paper posits that a life course perspective provides a framework for further understanding the psychosocial experiences of women with PCOS and the contexts in which they live. The paper discusses how life course principles of human development, constraints on agency, interdependence of lives, time and place, and timing of events and experiences are relevant to the management of PCOS and prevention of its complications. PMID:24489477

  6. Clinical characteristics in Taiwanese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. It consists of a heterogeneous collection of signs and symptoms that together form a disorder spectrum. The diagnosis of PCOS is principally based on clinical and physical findings. The extent of metabolic abnormalities in women with PCOS varies with phenotype, body weight, age, and ethnicity. For general population, the prevalence of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea decreases with age, while complications such as insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances increase with age. Obese women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and lower luteinizing hormone (LH) to follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) ratios than non-obese women with PCOS. The LH to FSH ratio is a valuable diagnostic tool in evaluating Taiwanese women with PCOS, especially in the diagnosis of oligomenorrhea. Overweight/obesity is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in women of reproductive age. PMID:26473107

  7. Mood disorders and quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Luisi, Stefano; Regini, Cristina; Katulski, Krzysztof; Centini, Gabriele; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of the population of women. The exact etiology of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. The spectrum of its symptoms such as hirsutism, skin problems, obesity and finally infertility has a huge negative impact on the individuals' psychological and interpersonal functioning. PCOS symptoms can lead to significant deterioration in quality of life and be highly stressful negatively affecting psychological well-being and sexuality. Fear symptoms like palpitation, being out of breath and tension might be caused by many somatic diseases. Moreover, detection and continuous thinking about illness can lead to significant negative impact on individual functioning in society. PCOS may be a factor potentially favoring the occurrence of mood disorders and depression. Biological, social and psychological consequences of PCOS among women of reproductive age are opening a new perspective on management of women's health in these patients. PMID:26204044

  8. Organizing stem cell units in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Lilach

    2015-06-01

    Organogenesis utilizes processes fundamental to development: cell proliferation, cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Each of these processes is complex in itself; the challenge of studying organogenesis is to determine how all of them integrate to shape organs with recurring precision. This review focuses on the emerging understanding of how synchronized proliferation and differentiation of both somatic and germ cell lineages form 16-20 germ line stem cell (GSC) units in the ovary of Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work demonstrates that the Insulin, ecdysone, Epidermal Growth Factor, Decapentaplegic and Activin signaling pathways are used reiteratively for proliferation and differentiation in both somatic and germ cell lineages. This linkage underlies ovarian coordinated development and provides opportunity for correction mechanisms for stem cell unit numbers. PMID:25703842

  9. Alternative splicing of the androgen receptor in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangfang; Pan, Jiexue; Liu, Ye; Meng, Qing; Lv, Pingping; Qu, Fan; Ding, Guo-Lian; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yao, Weimiao; Zhou, Cai-Yun; Shi, Biwei; Zhang, Junyu; Sheng, Jianzhong; Huang, Hefeng

    2015-04-14

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female subfertility. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of PCOS remains to be illustrated. Here, we identify two alternative splice variants (ASVs) of the androgen receptor (AR), insertion and deletion isoforms, in granulosa cells (GCs) in ∼62% of patients with PCOS. AR ASVs are strongly associated with remarkable hyperandrogenism and abnormalities in folliculogenesis, and are absent from all control subjects without PCOS. Alternative splicing dramatically alters genome-wide AR recruitment and androgen-induced expression of genes related to androgen metabolism and folliculogenesis in human GCs. These findings establish alternative splicing of AR in GCs as the major pathogenic mechanism for hyperandrogenism and abnormal folliculogenesis in PCOS. PMID:25825716

  10. Polycystic ovary syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Setji, Tracy L; Brown, Ann J

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is now a well-recognized condition affecting 6%-25% of reproductive-aged women, depending on the definition. Over the past 3 decades, research has launched it from relative medical obscurity to a condition increasingly recognized as common in internal medicine practices. It affects multiple systems, and requires a comprehensive perspective on health care for effective treatment. Metabolic derangements and associated complications include insulin resistance and diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome, and sleep apnea. Reproductive complications include oligo-/amenorrhea, sub-fertility, endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer. Associated psychosocial concerns include depression and disordered eating. Additionally, cosmetic issues include hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, and acne. This review organizes this multi-system approach around the mnemonic "MY PCOS" and discusses evaluation and treatment options for the reproductive, cosmetic, and metabolic complications of this condition. PMID:24859638

  11. Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, P

    2010-05-01

    The treatment of infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associates lifestyle measures, and the use of drugs to induce ovulation. In this endeavour, clomifene citrate (CC) should be used as the first line of treatment, followed eventually by low dose gonadotrophin stimulation, as a second line. In rare cases, in case of failure of the CC treatment, ovarian drilling i.e. laparoscopic ovarian surgery (LOS), and finally assisted reproduction techniques can be used, if needed. Overall, ovulation induction (representing the CC-gonadotrophin paradigm) is highly effective with a cumulative singleton live birth rate of 72%. The use of insulin sensitizers i.e. metformin in PCOS should be restricted to women with glucose intolerance and/or insulin resistance. Based on recent data available, the routine use of this drug, alone, in ovulation induction is not recommended. PMID:20394912

  12. Pollination Increases Gibberellin Levels in Developing Ovaries of Seeded Varieties of Citrus.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Cheikh, W.; Perez-Botella, J.; Tadeo, F. R.; Talon, M.; Primo-Millo, E.

    1997-01-01

    Reproductive and vegetative tissues of the seeded Pineapple cultivars of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) contained the following C-13 hydroxylated gibberellins (GAs): GA53, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA1, GA29, and GA8, as well as GA97, 3-epi-GA1, and several uncharacterized GAs. The inclusion of 3-epi-GA1 as an endogenous substance was based on measurements of the isomerization rates of previously added [2H2]GA1. Pollination enhanced amounts of GA19, GA20, GA29, and GA8 in developing ovaries. Levels of GA1 increased from 5.0 to 9.5 ng/g dry weight during anthesis and were reduced thereafter. The amount of GA in mature pollen was very low. Emasculation reduced GA levels and caused a rapid 100% ovary abscission. This effect was partially counteracted by either pollination or application of GA3. In pollinated ovaries, repeated paclobutrazol applications decreased the amount of GA and increased ovary abscission, although the pattern of continuous decline was different from the sudden abscission induced by emasculation. The above results indicate that, in citrus, pollination increases GA levels and reduces ovary abscission and that the presence of exogenous GA3 in unpollinated ovaries also suppresses abscission. Evidence is also presented that pollination and GAs do not, as is generally assumed, suppress ovary abscission through the reactivation of cell division. PMID:12223728

  13. Worker honey bee ovary development: seasonal variation and the influence of larval and adult nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Shelley E R; Higo, Heather A; Winston, Mark L

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of larval and adult nutrition on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) ovary development. Workers were fed high or low-pollen diets as larvae, and high or low-protein diets as adults. Workers fed low-protein diets at both life stages had the lowest levels of ovary development, followed by those fed high-protein diets as larvae and low- quality diets as adults, and then those fed diets poor in protein as larvae but high as adults. Workers fed high-protein diets at both life stages had the highest levels of ovary development. The increases in ovary development due to improved dietary protein in the larval and adult life stages were additive. Adult diet also had an effect on body mass. The results demonstrate that both carry-over of larval reserves and nutrients acquired in the adult life stage are important to ovary development in worker honey bees. Carry-over from larval development, however, appears to be less important to adult fecundity than is adult nutrition. Seasonal trends in worker ovary development and mass were examined throughout the brood rearing season. Worker ovary development was lowest in spring, highest in mid-summer, and intermediate in fall. PMID:16228242

  14. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  15. Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  16. Dexrazoxane abrogates acute doxorubicin toxicity in marmoset ovary.

    PubMed

    Salih, Sana M; Ringelstetter, Ashley K; Elsarrag, Mazin Z; Abbott, David H; Roti, Elon C Roti

    2015-03-01

    Preservation of ovarian function following chemotherapy for nonovarian cancers is a formidable challenge. For prepubescent girls, the only option to prevent chemotherapy damage to the ovary is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, an experimental procedure requiring invasive surgeries to harvest and reimplant tissue, which carries the risk of cancer reintroduction. Drugs that block the primary mechanism of chemotherapy insult, such as dexrazoxane (Dexra) in the context of anthracycline chemotherapy, provide a novel approach for ovarian protection and have the potential to overcome current limitations to oncofertility treatment. Dexra is a catalytic topoisomerase 2 inhibitor that protects the mouse ovary from acute doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy toxicity in vitro by preventing DXR-induced DNA damage and subsequent gammaH2AX activation. To translate acute DXR ovarian insult and Dexra protection from mouse to nonhuman primate, freshly obtained marmoset ovarian tissue was cultured in vitro and treated with vehicle or 20 μM Dexra 1 h prior to 50 nM DXR. Cultured ovarian tissue was harvested at 2, 4, or 24 h post-DXR treatment. Dexra prevented DXR-induced DNA double-strand breaks as quantified by the neutral comet assay. DXR treatment for 24 h increased gammaH2AX phosphorylation, specifically increasing the number of foci-positive granulosa cells in antral follicles, while Dexra pretreatment inhibited DXR-induced gammaH2AX phosphorylation foci formation. Additionally, Dexra pretreatment trended toward attenuating DXR-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and caspase-9 activation as assayed by Western blots of ovarian tissue lysates. The combined findings suggest Dexra prevents primary DXR-induced DNA damage, the subsequent cellular response to DNA damage, and may diminish early apoptotic signaling in marmoset ovarian tissue. This study provides initial translation of Dexra protection against acute ovarian DXR toxicity from mice to marmoset monkey tissue. PMID:25609833

  17. The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S.M.; Telfer, E.E.; Anderson, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both

  18. Dexrazoxane Abrogates Acute Doxorubicin Toxicity in Marmoset Ovary1

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana M.; Ringelstetter, Ashley K.; Elsarrag, Mazin Z.; Abbott, David H.; Roti, Elon C. Roti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preservation of ovarian function following chemotherapy for nonovarian cancers is a formidable challenge. For prepubescent girls, the only option to prevent chemotherapy damage to the ovary is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, an experimental procedure requiring invasive surgeries to harvest and reimplant tissue, which carries the risk of cancer reintroduction. Drugs that block the primary mechanism of chemotherapy insult, such as dexrazoxane (Dexra) in the context of anthracycline chemotherapy, provide a novel approach for ovarian protection and have the potential to overcome current limitations to oncofertility treatment. Dexra is a catalytic topoisomerase 2 inhibitor that protects the mouse ovary from acute doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy toxicity in vitro by preventing DXR-induced DNA damage and subsequent gammaH2AX activation. To translate acute DXR ovarian insult and Dexra protection from mouse to nonhuman primate, freshly obtained marmoset ovarian tissue was cultured in vitro and treated with vehicle or 20 μM Dexra 1 h prior to 50 nM DXR. Cultured ovarian tissue was harvested at 2, 4, or 24 h post-DXR treatment. Dexra prevented DXR-induced DNA double-strand breaks as quantified by the neutral comet assay. DXR treatment for 24 h increased gammaH2AX phosphorylation, specifically increasing the number of foci-positive granulosa cells in antral follicles, while Dexra pretreatment inhibited DXR-induced gammaH2AX phosphorylation foci formation. Additionally, Dexra pretreatment trended toward attenuating DXR-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and caspase-9 activation as assayed by Western blots of ovarian tissue lysates. The combined findings suggest Dexra prevents primary DXR-induced DNA damage, the subsequent cellular response to DNA damage, and may diminish early apoptotic signaling in marmoset ovarian tissue. This study provides initial translation of Dexra protection against acute ovarian DXR toxicity from mice to marmoset monkey tissue. PMID:25609833

  19. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have successful embryo arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Baoli; Hao, Haoying; Wei, Duo; Song, Xiaobing; Xie, Juanke; Zhang, Cuilian

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we investigate the relationship between embryo arrest and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In this study, 667 subjects were enrolled, including 330 patients with PCOS and 337 subjects without PCOS. The subjects underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) cycles at the Reproductive Medical Centre of Henan Provincial Hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Four protocols were used to stimulate the ovaries, including long protocol, super-long down-regulation protocol, short protocol and antagonist protocol. Oocytes were retrieved using transvaginal ultrasound guidance. Pronuclei were checked on the next morning after IVF/ICSI. Cleavage stage embryo was assessed after 62-66 hours. Women with PCOS had significantly elevated body mass index, basal luteinizing hormone, estradiol and testosterone compared with normal women. Basal Follicle stimulating hormone level in PCOS patients was lower compared with that in control group. After IVF-ET, PCOS patients had more available oocytes than subjects in control group. PCOS patients had slightly lower fertilization rate than the controls in IVF cycles, but in ICSI cycles, fertilization rate in PCOS patients was significantly higher than that in controls. For either IVF or ICSI, the embryo arrest rate was not changed by PCOS. Moreover, there was no significant difference in embryo arrest rate between both groups adopting different stimulation protocols. Interestingly, embryo arrest rate was not correlated with testosterone for patients in PCOS group. The data indicated that patients with PCOS had successful early embryo arrest during IVF-ET. PMID:26131233

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome in patients on antiepileptic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Lakshminarayanapuram G.; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy; Bhimani, Bipin C.; Reddy, Janardhan YC; Rama Murthy, Batchu S.; Subbakrishna, Doddaballapura K.; Sinha, Sanjib

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to discuss the prevalence of polycystic ovary (PCO) and Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women with epilepsy (WWE) on valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), or phenobarbitone (PB), drug naive WWE and women with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) on VPA. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 190 women aged 18–45 years, who had epilepsy or BPAD (on VPA), and consented for study. Patients were grouped as Group 1 (n = 40): WWE on VPA, Group 2 (n = 50): WWE on CBZ, Group 3 (n = 50): WWE on PB, Group 4 (n = 30): drug naïve WWE, and Group 5 (n = 20): women with BPAD on VPA. All women were interviewed for medical, menstrual, drug and treatment history, nature of epilepsy, and seizure control. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were done to compare results between the groups. Results: Fifty-two women (52/190; 27.4%) had menstrual disturbances, in which oligomenorrhea was the most common (55.8%). There was a significant difference in the occurrence of PCOS in patients on VPA versus normal population (P = 0.05) and patients on other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (P = 0.02). There was, however, no significant difference in the occurrence of PCO between patients on VPA and the untreated epileptic women. VPA group (Epilepsy + BPAD) had a significantly higher occurrence of obesity than other treatment groups (P = 0.043, OR = 2.11). Conclusions: The study observed significantly higher occurrence of PCO in patients on VPA compared to other AEDs and the normal population. The importance of proper clinical evaluation before initiating VPA is highlighted. PMID:27570385

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in muscle and ovaries of Gulf coast striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the Apalachicola River, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Brim, M S; Alam, S K; Jenkins, L G

    2001-01-01

    Eight female Gulf coast striped bass (Morone saxatilis) broodfish collected for induced spawning from the Apalachicola River below the Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and metals in muscle and ovarian tissues. Chemical analyses revealed that muscle and ovaries contained detectable amounts of OCs and metals. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, a derivative of the pesticide DDT, in muscle and ovary (0.54 and 0.65 microg/g, respectively) were significantly higher than alpha-chlordane, dieldrin, and p,p'-DDD. The presence of p,p'-DDE, an antiandrogenic compound, in females suggests that the compound also may be present in male striped bass. Concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mg, and Mn were higher in muscle than in ovarian tissues. Concentrations of Hg have almost doubled in muscle tissues (0.85 microg/g) and tripled in ovaries (0. 15 microg/g) in our samples, compared with the data from 1986 to 1989. Organochlorine pesticides and metal contaminants were present in muscle and ovarian tissues of adult females and may have been retarding development of eggs leading to low hatching rates. PMID:11281252

  2. Repeated ovarian stimulations induce oxidative damage and mitochondrial DNA mutations in mouse ovaries.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Lee, Shu-Yu; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liao, Tien-Ling; Wei, Yau-Huei; Kao, Shu-Huei

    2005-05-01

    Superovulation by injection of exogenous gonadotropin is the elementary method to produce in vivo-derived embryos for embryo transfer in women. Increased oocyte aneuploidy, embryo mortality, fetal growth retardation, and congenital abnormalities have been studied at higher-dose stimulations. Ovarian and oocyte biological aging possibly may have adverse implications for human oocyte competence with repeated hyperstimulation. In this study, we found that reduced competence for the human oocyte has been associated with degenerative embryo upsurge during embryo culture and failure to develop into the blastocyst stage in the three, four, five, and six stimulation cycles. On the other hand, the numbers of ovulated oocytes were decreased in the groups with more ovarian stimulation. More aggregated mitochondria were found in the cytoplasm of the repetitively stimulated embryos. Higher amounts of oxidative damage including 8-OH-dG, lipoperoxides, and carbonyl proteins were also revealed in the ovaries with more cycle numbers of ovarian stimulation. Higher proportions of mtDNA mutations were also found. The detected molecular size of the mutated band was approximately 675 bp. Increased amounts of carbonyl proteins were also revealed after repeated stimulation. An understanding of the relationship between oocyte competence and ovarian responses to stimulation in the mouse may provide insights into the origin of oocyte defects and the biology of ooplasmic aging that could be of clinical relevance in the diagnosis and treatment of human infertility. PMID:15965057

  3. Ovary and embryo proteogenomic dataset revealing diversity of vitellogenins in the crustacean Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Judith; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Pible, Olivier; Armengaud, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Ovaries and embryos from sexually mature Gammarus fossarum were sampled at different stages of the reproductive cycle. The soluble proteome was extracted for five biological replicates and samples were subjected to trypsin digestion. The resulting peptides were analyzed by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry with a LTQ-Orbitrap XL instrument. The MS/MS spectra were assigned with a previously described RNAseq-derived G. fossarum database. The proteins highlighted by proteogenomics were monitored and their abundance kinetics over the different stages revealed a large panel of vitellogenins. Criteria were i) accumulation during oogenesis, ii) decrease during embryogenesis, iii) classified as female-specific, and iv) sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis. The data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis ("High-throughput proteome dynamics for discovery of key proteins in sentinel species: unsuspected vitellogenins diversity in the crustacean Gammarus fossarum" by Trapp et al. [1]) have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange via the PRIDE repository with identifiers PRIDE: PXD001002. PMID:27547807

  4. New models of hematogenous ovarian cancer metastasis demonstrate preferential spread to the ovary and a requirement for the ovary for abdominal dissemination.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Lan G; Burgos-Ojeda, Daniela; Wu, Rong; Cho, Kathleen; Bai, Shoumei; Buckanovich, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggest that many high-grade serous "ovarian" cancers (HGSOC) start in the fallopian tube. Cancer cells are then recruited to the ovary and then spread diffusely through the abdomen. The mechanism of ovarian cancer spread was thought to be largely due to direct shedding of tumor cells into the peritoneal cavity with vascular spread being of limited importance. Recent work challenges this dogma, suggesting hematogenous spread of ovarian cancer may play a larger role in ovarian cancer cell metastasis than previously thought. One reason the role of vascular spread of ovarian cancer has not been fully elucidated is the lack of easily accessible models of vascular ovarian cancer metastasis. Here, we present 3 metastatic models of ovarian cancer which confirm the ability of ovarian cancer to hematogenously spread. Strikingly, we observe a high rate of metastasis to the ovary with the development of ascites in these models. Interestingly, oophorectomy resulted in a complete loss of peritoneal metastases and ascites. Taken together, our data indicate that hematogenously disseminated HGSOC cells have a unique tropism for the ovary and that hematogenous spread in ovarian cancer may be more common than appreciated. Furthermore, our studies support a critical role for the ovary in promoting HGSOC cell metastasis to the abdomen. The models developed here represent important new tools to evaluate both the mechanism of cancer cell recruitment to the ovary and understand and target key steps in ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:27083386

  5. Comparison of cellular distribution of LH receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in the porcine ovary.

    PubMed

    Meduri, G; Vu Hai, M T; Jolivet, A; Takemori, S; Kominami, S; Driancourt, M A; Milgrom, E

    1996-03-01

    Previous studies have shown a heterogeneous expression of LH receptors in various structures of the porcine ovary. Specially striking was the existence in the preovulatory follicle of inner layers of theca interna cells devoid of LH receptor and the confinement in the corpus luteum of the LH receptor to the external cellular layers. In the present study, we have compared the steroidogenic capabilities of LH receptor-positive and -negative cells using immunocytochemistry for side-chain cleavage P450, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase P450 and aromatase P450. We have also examined, using the same methods, the evolution of the various cell types after ovulation and during the development of the corpus luteum. In preovulatory follicles the inner layers of theca cells which were not labelled with anti-LH receptor antibodies appeared to express the steroidogenic enzymes in a way similar to that of the outer LH receptor-positive cell layers. Ovulation per se did not change the distribution of LH receptors (present in the outer luteal cells and in the granulosa) or of steroidogenic enzymes. However, 48 h after follicular rupture there as a marked decrease in overall labelling with anti-LH receptor antibody, and especially a disappearance of immunostaining in the luteal cells of granulosa origin. In the mid-luteal phase (6 days after ovulation), the receptor content seemed to increase in the peripheral luteal cells derived from the theca but the receptor did not reappear in the granulosa-derived luteal cells. Thus the down-regulation of LH receptor appeared to be reversible in the external thecal layers but irreversible in the granulosa cells. Furthermore, the distribution of the various steroidogenic enzymes in the corpora lutea delineated granulosa-derived from theca-derived cells and showed that only the external layers of the latter expressed the LH receptor. These results showed the existence in the preovulatory follicle of two theca interna

  6. Wolbachia infect ovaries in the course of their maturation: last minute passengers and priority travellers?

    PubMed

    Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers). PMID:24722673

  7. Wolbachia Infect Ovaries in the Course of Their Maturation: Last Minute Passengers and Priority Travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers). PMID:24722673

  8. Fruit-set of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. : Influence of vegetative parts.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, J; García-Martínez, J L

    1980-02-01

    The influence of removing the apical shoot and different leaves above and below the flower on the fruit-set of unpollinated pea ovaries (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) has been studied. Unpollinated ovaries were induced to set and develop either by topping or by removing certain developing leaves of the shoot. Topping had a maximum effect when carried out before or on the day of anthesis, and up to four consecutive ovaries were induced to set in the same plant. The inhibition of fruit-set was due to the developing leaves and not to the apex. The third leaf above the first flower, which had a simultaneous development to the ovary, had the stronger inhibitory effect on parthenocarpic fruit-set. The application of different plant-growth regulators (indoleacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, gibberellic acid, benzyladenine and abscisic acid) did not mimic the negative effect of the shoot. PMID:24311167

  9. Chromium picolinate improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lydic, Michael L; McNurlan, Margaret; Bembo, Shirley; Mitchell, Lina; Komaroff, Eugene; Gelato, Marie

    2006-07-01

    Trivalent chromium (1000 microg), as chromium picolinate, given without change in diet or activity level, caused a 38% mean improvement in glucose disposal rate in five obese subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome who were tested with a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. This suggests that chromium picolinate, an over-the-counter dietary product, may be useful as an insulin sensitizer in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:16730719

  10. [The conflict between obturator nerve and ovary: a cadaveric and radioanatomic study].

    PubMed

    Jendrzejewski, F; Peltier, J; Havet, E; Page, C; Foulon, P; Gondry, J; Le Gars, D

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relationships between the ovary and the obturator nerve in its intrapelvic portion. Seven embalmed cadavers were dissected; 20 MRIs were then analyzed. The main distance between the lateral pole of the ovary and the obturator nerve was 29 mm. The authors describe various etiologies responsible for obturator neuralgia. An underdiagnosed cause is gonadal hypertrophy. PMID:23796698

  11. Evidence of mononuclear cell preactivation in the fasting state in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ, Frank; KIRWAN, John P.; ROTE, Neal S.; MINIUM, Judi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated mononuclear cell (MNC) preactivation in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) by examining the effect of in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on cytokine release in the fasting state. STUDY DESIGN Twenty women with PCOS (10 lean, 10 obese) and 20 weight-matched controls (10 lean, 10 obese) volunteered for study participation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release was measured from mononuclear cell isolated from fasting blood samples and cultured in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide. Plasma IL-6 was measured from the same fasting blood samples. Insulin sensitivity was derived from an oral glucose tolerance test using the Matsuda index and truncal fat was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS The percent change from baseline in TNFα and IL-6 release from mononuclear cell following lipopolysaccharide exposure was increased (pitalic>0.04) in lean and obese women with PCOS and obese controls compared with lean controls. Plasma IL-6 was increased (pbold>0.02) in obese women with PCOS compared with lean women with PCOS, which in turn was increased (p<0.02) compared with lean controls. The mononuclear cell -derived TNFα and IL-6 responses from mononuclear cell were negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (p<0.03) and positively correlated with testosterone (p<0.03) and androstenedione (p<0.006) for the combined groups. Plasma IL-6 was positively correlated with percent truncal fat (p<0.008). CONCLUSIONS In PCOS, increased cytokine release from mononuclear cell following lipopolysaccharide exposure in the fasting state reveals the presence of mononuclear cell preactivation. Importantly, this phenomenon is independent of obesity and may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in PCOS. In contrast, the source of plasma IL-6 elevations in PCOS may be excess adiposity. PMID:24956549

  12. Metabolomics profiling of extracellular metabolites in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Chong, William P K; Goh, Lin Tang; Reddy, Satty G; Yusufi, Faraaz N K; Lee, Dong Yup; Wong, Niki S C; Heng, Chew Kiat; Yap, Miranda G S; Ho, Ying Swan

    2009-12-01

    A metabolomics-based approach was used to time profile extracellular metabolites in duplicate fed-batch bioreactor cultures of recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells producing monoclonal IgG antibody. Culture medium was collected and analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system in tandem with an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. An in-house software was developed to pre-process the LC/MS data in terms of filtering and peak detection. This was followed by principal component analysis (PCA) to assess variance amongst the samples, and hierarchical clustering to categorize mass peaks by their time profiles. Finally, LC/MS2 experiments using the LTQ-Orbitrap (where standard was available) and SYNAPT HDMS (where standard was unavailable) were performed to confirm the identities of the metabolites. Two groups of identified metabolites were of particular interest; the first consisted of metabolites that began to accumulate when the culture entered stationary phase. The majority of them were amino acid derivatives and they were likely to be derived from the amino acids in the feed media. Examples included acetylphenylalanine and dimethylarginine which are known to be detrimental to cell growth. The second group of metabolites showed a downward trend as the culture progressed. Two of them were medium components--tryptophan and choline, and these became depleted midway into the culture despite the addition of feed media. The findings demonstrated the potential of utilizing metabolomics to guide medium design for fed-batch culture to potentially improve cell growth and product titer. PMID:19902412

  13. Metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene in the Chinese hamster ovary cell mutation assay

    SciTech Connect

    Heflich, R.H.; Djuric, Z.; Zhuo, Z.; Fullerton, N.F.; Casciano, D.A.; Beland, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), and several of their N-oxidized metabolites in order to study the mechanisms by which arylamides and arylamines produce mutations in mammalian cells. The number of mutations induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus by each compound was estimated to be: N-acetoxy-2-AAF, 310; N-hydroxy-2-AF, 3; N-hydroxy-2-AAF, 0.7; 2-AAF, 0.1; and 2-AF, 0.09. With each compound, DNA adducts were also identified and quantified, and in all cases the major adduct was N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-AF. The relationship between mutation induction and adduct formation for each of the derivatives was similar to that previously reported for N-hydroxy-2-AF. Inclusion of the deacetylase inhibitor, paraoxon, reduced the mutagenicity of 2-AFF, N-hydroxy-2-AAF and N-acetoxy-2-AAF, and the DNA adducts produced by N-acetoxy-2-AAF to background levels. Taken together, these data indicate that CHO cells metabolized N-acetoxy-2-AAF to a reactive derivative by N-deacetylation to N-acetoxy-2-AF, while N-hydroxy-2-AF reacted directly with DNA. The major pathway of N-hydroxy-2-AAF activation appeared to be an initial O-acetylation to N-acetoxy-2-AAF and this occurred to only a limited extent in the CHO cells. The initial step in the activation of 2-AAF and 2-AF was an N-oxidation to N-hydroxy-2-AAF and N-hydroxy-2-AF, respectively. The limited O-acetylase activity in CHO cells appeared to contribute to the low sensitivity of these cells toward mutation induction by arylamines and arylamides.

  14. Novel expression and functional role of ghrelin in chicken ovary.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, A V; Grossmann, R; María-Peon, M T; Roa, J; Tena-Sempere, M; Klein, S

    2006-09-26

    Ghrelin has recently emerged as pleiotropic regulator of a wide array of endocrine and non-endocrine functions. The former likely includes the control of gonadal function, as expression of ghrelin and its putative receptor, the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), has been described in mammalian gonads, and direct effects of ghrelin in the control of testicular secretion and cell proliferation have been reported. Yet, the expression and/or functional role of ghrelin in gonads from non-mammalian species remain to be analyzed. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R genes in the chicken ovary, and to assess the potential involvement of ghrelin in the direct control of chick ovarian function. To this end, RT-PCR assays for ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNAs were performed in ovarian tissue, and cultures of chicken ovarian cells were conducted in the presence of increasing doses (1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) of the ghrelin analog, ghrelin 1-18. Our results demonstrate that both ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNAs are expressed in chick ovarian tissue. Moreover, challenge of ovarian granulosa cells with ghrelin 1-18 was able to induce markers of proliferation (i.e. expression of both PCNA and cyclin), and to modulate markers of apoptosis (i.e. decreased expression of caspase-3, bax, bcl-2 and TUNEL-positive cells). Moreover, ghrelin 1-18 increased the expression of PCNA, cyclin, bax and p53 in cultures of ovarian follicular fragments, where it also stimulated the release of progesterone, estradiol, arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and IGF-I, but not of testosterone. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for the gonadal expression of the genes encoding ghrelin and its cognate receptor in a non-mammalian species, i.e. the chicken ovary, and unravels the potential involvement of this newly discovered molecule in the control of key gonadal functions in the chick, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone release. PMID:16891055

  15. Pathogenesis of teratoid tumors of the ovary and testis.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, R M

    1975-01-01

    three germ layers, neoplastic sex cells, and neoplastic trophoblastic cells. The cells of these tumors and the tissues they form resemble very nearly the tissues of the human embryo with nonaxial formation of alimentary and respiratory structures in many instances. The notable frequency of variably differentiated neural elements in the teratoids tumors of the ovary is in sharp contrast to their uncommon occurrence in like tumors of the testis. Dysgenesis of the ovaries and the testes of testicular feminization syndrome should be regarded as likely soil for the development of teratoid tumors. PMID:1101172

  16. Toward Understanding the Genetic Basis of Yak Ovary Reproduction: A Characterization and Comparative Analyses of Estrus Ovary Transcriptiome in Yak and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cai; Mipam, Tserang Donko; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background Yaks (Bos grunniens) are endemic species that can adapt well to thin air, cold temperatures, and high altitude. These species can survive in harsh plateau environments and are major source of animal production for local residents, being an important breed in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. However, compared with ordinary cattle that live in the plains, yaks generally have lower fertility. Investigating the basic physiological molecular features of yak ovary and identifying the biological events underlying the differences between the ovaries of yak and plain cattle is necessary to understand the specificity of yak reproduction. Therefore, RNA-seq technology was applied to analyze transcriptome data comparatively between the yak and plain cattle estrous ovaries. Results After deep sequencing, 3,653,032 clean reads with a total of 4,828,772,880 base pairs were obtained from yak ovary library. Alignment analysis showed that 16992 yak genes mapped to the yak genome, among which, 12,731 and 14,631 genes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Furthermore, comparison of yak and cattle ovary transcriptome data revealed that 1307 genes were significantly and differentially expressed between the two libraries, wherein 661 genes were upregulated and 646 genes were downregulated in yak ovary. Functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were involved in various Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. GO annotations indicated that the genes related to “cell adhesion,” “hormonal” biological processes, and “calcium ion binding,” “cation transmembrane transport” molecular events were significantly active. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the “complement and coagulation cascade” pathway was the most enriched in yak ovary transcriptome data, followed by the “cytochrome P450” related and

  17. Regulation of neuroendocrine cells and neuron factors in the ovary by zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Hao, Ya-Nan; Song, Ran; Li, Lan; Feng, Yan-Ni; Hao, Zhi-Hui; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Yang, Hong-Di; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    The pubertal period is an important window during the development of the female reproductive system. Development of the pubertal ovary, which supplies the oocytes intended for fertilization, requires growth factors, hormones, and neuronal factors. It has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) cause cytotoxicity of neuron cells. However, there have been no reports of the effects of ZnO NPs on neuronal factors and neuroendocrine cells in the ovary (in vivo). For the first time, this in vivo study investigated the effects of ZnO NPs on gene and protein expression of neuronal factors and the population of neuroendocrine cells in ovaries. Intact NPs were detected in ovarian tissue and although ZnO NPs did not alter body weight, they reduced the ovary organ index. Compared to the control or ZnSO4 treatments, ZnO NPs treatments differentially regulated neuronal factor protein and gene expression, and the population of neuroendocrine cells. ZnO NPs changed the contents of essential elements in the ovary; however, they did not alter levels of the steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone. These data together suggest that intact ZnO NPs might pose a toxic effect on neuron development in the ovary and eventually negatively affect ovarian developmental at puberty. PMID:27215404

  18. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction.

    PubMed

    Cossío-Bayúgar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernández-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narváez Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick. PMID:26456007

  19. Adrenergic ligands that block oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus affect ovary contraction

    PubMed Central

    Cossío-Bayúgar, Raquel; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Fernández-Rubalcaba, Manuel; Narváez Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The tyraminergic/octopaminergic system is central for the control of arthropod oviposition. Previous works demonstrated that the pharmacological perturbation of this system inhibits oviposition in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. In this work, we describe a physiologically active whole-mount preparation of the contractile tick ovary that allows the quantitative videometrical analysis of ovary contraction in response to different compounds. Eight adrenergic ligands known to inhibit oviposition, including octopamine and tyramine were tested. These compounds exhibited antagonistic effects; octopamine relaxes the ovary preparation while tyramine induces a very strong contraction. The other adrenergic compounds tested were classified as able to contract or relax ovary muscle tissue. Isoprotenerol has a stronger relaxative effect than octopamine. Tyramine induces the biggest contraction observed of all the compounds tested, followed, in descending amount of contraction, by salbutamol, prazosin, epinastine, clonidine and the acaricide amitraz. The effect of these adrenergic ligands on the ovary preparation, explains why these molecules inhibit tick oviposition and suggest a regulatory mechanism for ovary contraction and relaxation during oviposition. Our results also provide a physiological explanation of the egg-laying inhibition effect of amitraz when used on the cattle tick. PMID:26456007

  20. Histological evaluation of rat larynx in experimental polycystic ovary syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Deveci, Hande Senem; Deveci, Ildem; Habesoglu, Mehmet; Sürmeli, Mehmet; Kınıs, Vefa; Eriman, Murat; Gunes, Pembegul; Yekrek, Murat; Egeli, Erol

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at studying the histopathological effects of hyperandrogenemia and estrogen deficiency on larynx mucosa in experimentally designed polycystic ovary syndrome of female rats. Two groups of experimental polycystic ovary syndrome model were composed in healthy female rats by per oral letrozole administration of for 21 and 42 days. Also a control group which only took vehicle (saline) for 42 days was designed. Laryngeal mucosa and ovaries of all animals were examined histopathologically by light microscopy and the serum hormone levels were analyzed using a solid-phase, two-site chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay. Statistically significant edema, vascular engorgement, inflammation, cilia loss and differentiation of goblet cell distribution were observed when the control group and study groups were compared (p < 0.01). In serum hormonal analysis there was a significant increase in levels of androgens and decrease in levels of estrogens. In addition, polycystic appearance of ovaries in letrozole-administered groups and normal appearance of ovaries in control group have been proven histopathologically. Polycystic ovary syndrome which causes estrogen deficiency and hyperandrogenemia in fertile ages resulted in histopathological changes in laryngeal mucosa. PMID:22407189

  1. Partial ovary development is widespread in honey bees and comparable to other eusocial bees and wasps

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Mattila, Heather R.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee workers have few opportunities for direct reproduction because their ovary development is chemically suppressed by queens and worker-laid eggs are destroyed by workers. While workers with fully developed ovaries are rare in honey bee colonies, we show that partial ovary development is common. Across nine studies, an average of 6% to 43% of workers had partially developed ovaries in queenright colonies with naturally mated queens. This shift by workers toward potential future reproduction is linked to lower productivity, which suggests that even small investments in reproductive physiology by selfish workers reduce cooperation below a theoretical maximum. Furthermore, comparisons across 26 species of bees and wasps revealed that the level of partial ovary development in honey bees is similar to that of other eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive conflict among colony members. Natural variation in the extent of partial ovary development in honey bee colonies calls for an exploration of the genetic and ecological factors that modulate shifts in cooperation within animal societies. PMID:24255737

  2. Hormonal Control of Parthenocarpic Ovary Growth by the Apical Shoot in Pea

    PubMed

    Rodrigo; García-Martínez

    1998-02-01

    The role of the apical shoot as a source of inhibitors preventing fruit growth in the absence of a stimulus (e.g. pollination or application of gibberellic acid) has been investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plant decapitation stimulated parthenocarpic growth, even in derooted plants, and this effect was counteracted by the application of indole acetic acid (IAA) or abscisic acid (ABA) in agar blocks to the severed stump. The treatment of unpollinated ovaries with gibberellic acid blocked the effect of IAA or ABA applied to the stump. [3H]IAA and [3H]ABA applied to the stump were transported basipetally, and [3H]ABA but not [3H]IAA was also detected in unpollinated ovaries. The concentration of ABA in unpollinated ovaries increased significantly in the absence of a promotive stimulus. The application of IAA to the stump enhanced by 2- to 5-fold the concentration of ABA in the inhibited ovary, whereas the inhibition of IAA transport from the apical shoot by triiodobenzoic acid decreased the ovary content of ABA (to approximately one-half). Triiodobenzoic acid alone, however, was unable to stimulate ovary growth. Thus, in addition to removing IAA transport from the apical shoot, the accumulation of a promotive factor is also necessary to induce parthenocarpic growth in decapitated plants. PMID:9490755

  3. Hormonal Control of Parthenocarpic Ovary Growth by the Apical Shoot in Pea1

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; García-Martínez, José L.

    1998-01-01

    The role of the apical shoot as a source of inhibitors preventing fruit growth in the absence of a stimulus (e.g. pollination or application of gibberellic acid) has been investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plant decapitation stimulated parthenocarpic growth, even in derooted plants, and this effect was counteracted by the application of indole acetic acid (IAA) or abscisic acid (ABA) in agar blocks to the severed stump. The treatment of unpollinated ovaries with gibberellic acid blocked the effect of IAA or ABA applied to the stump. [3H]IAA and [3H]ABA applied to the stump were transported basipetally, and [3H]ABA but not [3H]IAA was also detected in unpollinated ovaries. The concentration of ABA in unpollinated ovaries increased significantly in the absence of a promotive stimulus. The application of IAA to the stump enhanced by 2- to 5-fold the concentration of ABA in the inhibited ovary, whereas the inhibition of IAA transport from the apical shoot by triiodobenzoic acid decreased the ovary content of ABA (to approximately one-half). Triiodobenzoic acid alone, however, was unable to stimulate ovary growth. Thus, in addition to removing IAA transport from the apical shoot, the accumulation of a promotive factor is also necessary to induce parthenocarpic growth in decapitated plants. PMID:9490755

  4. Hyberbaric oxygen increases atresia in normal & steroid induced PCO rat ovaries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the morphology of estradiol valerate (EV) induced polycystic ovary (PCO) to find a new treatment modality for improvement of PCO. Methods The rats were divided into four groups. Group1, control; group 2, PCO group; group 3, PCO with HBOT group and group 4, normal ovary with HBOT. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg EV in adult cycling rats. Other rats with normal ovaries had oil injection as placebo. HBOT was applied to third and fourth groups for six weeks. Histopathologic evaluation of ovaries of all groups were performed & compared. Results Six weeks of HBOT was resulted in increase in follicular atresia, decrease in the number of primary, secondary, tertiary follicles and decrease in the number of fresh corpus luteum in normal rat ovary. HBOT on polycystic rat ovary, resulted in significant increase in atretic follicles which were already present. Conclusions HBOT of six weeks itself, changed ovarian morphology in favor of atresia both in PCO group and control group. This result of aggravated follicular atresia after HBOT on EV induced PCO may be due to long-term exposure in our protocol which with this state seems to be inapplicable in the improvement of PCO morphology. PMID:22309835

  5. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%–12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic. PMID:26770659

  6. Introduction: Determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as one of the most common endocrine abnormalities of humans, with global prevalences so far generally 5%-15%. Overall, the disorder appears to be an ancient complex genetic trait, perhaps dating at least 50,000 years ago. The phenotype of PCOS can be subdivided into four different types. Phenotype A and B (hyperandrogenism + ovulatory dysfunction, with [A] and without [B] polycystic ovarian morphology [PCOM], respectively) can be considered to represent the "classic" form of the disorder. Phenotype C is the so-called "ovulatory" PCOS (hyperandrogenism + PCOM only). And phenotype D is often referred to as "nonhyperandrogenic" PCOS (ovulatory dysfunction + PCOM only). The different phenotypes vary in the degree to which they are associated with an increased risk for metabolic dysfunction and reproductive complications. There are a number of determinants of the epidemiology (prevalence) and presentation (phenotype) of PCOS, including environmental (e.g., socioeconomic, geographic, toxicologic, life-style, and dietary) and genetic (e.g., gene variants, epigenetic, and race/ethnicity) factors. Finally a better understanding of the evolutionary determinants of PCOS has the potential for providing additional insight into those factors determining the etiology, prevalence, and persistence of a disorder that appears to be, superficially at least, an evolutionary paradox. PMID:27238627

  7. Environmental determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merkin, Sharon Stein; Phy, Jennifer L; Sites, Cynthia K; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we summarize existing research on a variety of environmental factors potentially involved in the etiology, prevalence, and modulation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and we suggest avenues for future research. The main environmental factors we consider include environmental toxins, diet and nutrition, socioeconomic status, and geography. There is some evidence that environmental toxins play a role in disrupting reproductive health, but there is limited research as to how these toxins may affect the development of PCOS. Although research has also shown that PCOS symptoms are reduced with certain dietary supplements and with weight loss among obese women, additional research is needed to compare various approaches to weight loss, as well as nutritional factors that may play a role in preventing or mitigating the development of PCOS. Limited studies indicate some association of low socioeconomic status with certain PCOS phenotypes, and future research should consider socioeconomic conditions during childhood or adolescence that may be more relevant to the developmental onset of PCOS. Finally, the limited scope of comparable international studies on PCOS needs to be addressed, because global patterns of PCOS are potentially valuable indicators of cultural, environmental, and genetic factors that may contribute to excess risk in certain regions of the world. PMID:27240194

  8. Initiation of puberty in mice following decellularized ovary transplant

    PubMed Central

    Laronda, Monica M.; Jakus, Adam E.; Whelan, Kelly A.; Wertheim, Jason A.; Shah, Ramille N.; Woodruff, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical interventions to preserve fertility and restore hormone levels in female patients with therapy-induced ovarian failure are insufficient, particularly for pediatric cancer patients. Laproscopic isolation of cortical ovarian tissue followed by cryopreservation with subsequent autotransplantation has temporarily restored fertility in at least 27 women who survived cancer, and aided in pubertal transition for one pediatric patient. However, reintroducing cancer cells through ovarian transplantation has been a major concern. Decellularization is a process of removing cellular material, while maintaining the organ skeleton of extracellular matrices (ECM). The ECM that remains could be stripped of cancer cells and reseeded with healthy ovarian cells. We tested whether a decellularized ovarian scaffold could be created, recellularized and transplanted to initiate puberty in mice. Bovine and human ovaries were decellularized, and the ovarian skeleton microstructures were characterized. Primary ovarian cells seeded onto decellularized scaffolds produced estradiol in vitro. Moreover, the recellularized grafts initiated puberty in mice that had been ovariectomized, providing data that could be used to drive future human transplants and have broader implications on the bioengineering of other organs with endocrine function. PMID:25736492

  9. Hyperprolactinemia and Hirsutism in Patients Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tirgar-Tabari, Soudabeh; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Manafi-Afkham, Sara; Montazeri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hirsutism is one of the most important diseases that lead women to refer to dermatology clinic. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the causes of hirsutism. The aim of this study was to determine prolactin (PRL) levels in hirsute women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, hirsute patients were evaluated. For all of the patients, 2 or 3 days after mense starting, hormone level tests were performed, and 200 patients that had not polycystic ovary syndrome enrolled to the study. A questionnaire of history and physical examination were performed. Data have been analyzed with SPSS version 21. Results: Hyperprolactinemia were seen in 25 patients (12.5%). There was no significant relation between marital statuses, galactorrhoea, positive family history, and infertility with hyperprolactinemia. But significant relation was seen between irregular mense and hyperprolactinemia. Conclusion: Although hyperprolactinemia is the rare cause of hirsutism, the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia was high in our study. Thus, PRL level in hirsute patients should be evaluate. PMID:27625565

  10. Low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary or peritoneum.

    PubMed

    Gershenson, D M

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, the strategy for clinical trial design in making progress against epithelial cancers of the ovary/peritoneum/fallopian tube has changed dramatically. The NRG (GOG) Rare Tumor Committee has been a leader in this transformation. No longer does 'one size fit all'. Rather, separate clinical trials for rare subtypes have been developed and, in some cases, completed. An enhanced understanding of their pathologic diagnosis, molecular biology, and clinical behavior has galvanized this change. Low-grade serous carcinoma may occur de novo or following an initial diagnosis of serous tumor of low malignant potential. It is characterized by young age at diagnosis, relative chemoresistance, and prolonged survival compared with high-grade serous carcinoma. Historically, conventional chemotherapy has demonstrated very limited activity in this subtype. Hormonal therapy may provide benefit in this subtype. Preclinical studies have identified and elucidated genes and pathways-MAP kinase pathway, IGF1-R, the angiogenesis pathway, and possibly, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in low-grade serous carcinoma. To date, clinical evidence supports the activity of MEK and BRAF inhibitors and bevacizumab. Further pursuit of targeted therapy trials is clearly warranted. PMID:27141071

  11. Optimal management of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hecht Baldauff, Natalie; Arslanian, Silva

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of reproduction and metabolism, which emerges at puberty, and is characterised by a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms of hyperandrogenism, anovulation, hyperinsulinaemia and associated comorbidities. Unlike adult PCOS, there are no agreed-upon diagnostic criteria for adolescent PCOS, but hyperandrogenaemia remains the sine qua non for its diagnosis. Many adolescent girls with PCOS are overweight/obese, and have a heightened risk for comorbidities such as dysglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, fatty liver disease, sleep apnoea and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential for implementation of appropriate treatment and management. Available treatments include lifestyle modifications, hormonal contraceptives and insulin sensitisers. However, there are limited data on the best treatment modalities in adolescents. The objective of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of PCOS in adolescents and the appropriate diagnostic work-up. The optimal treatment modalities based on a review of the available adult and adolescent literature will be discussed. PMID:26101431

  12. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%-12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic. PMID:26770659

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome: do endocrine disrupting chemicals play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Sobolewski, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by multiple endocrine disturbances and its underlying causes, although uncertain, are likely to be both genetic and environmental. Recently, there has been interest in whether endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may contribute to the disorder. In animal models, exposure to BPA during the perinatal period, dramatically disrupts ovarian and reproductive function in females, often at doses similar to typical levels of human exposure. BPA also appears to have obesogenic properties, disrupting normal metabolic activity and making the body prone to overweight. In humans, cross-sectional data suggests that BPA concentrations are higher in women with PCOS than in reproductively healthy women, but the direction of causality has not been established. As this research is in its infancy, additional work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which EDCs may contribute to PCOS as well as the critical periods of exposure, which may even be transgenerational. Future research should also focus on translating the promising work in animal models into longitudinal human studies and determining whether additional EDCs, beyond BPA, may be important to consider. PMID:24715511

  14. The management of infertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Homburg, Roy

    2003-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] is the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility. Treatment modes available are numerous mainly relying on ovarian stimulation with FSH, a reduction in insulin concentrations and a decrease in LH levels as the basis of the therapeutic principles. Clomiphene citrate is still the first line treatment and if unsuccessful is usually followed by direct FSH stimulation. This should be given in a low dose protocol, essential to avoid the otherwise prevalent complications of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. The addition of a GnRH agonists, while very useful during IVF/ET, adds little to ovulation induction success whereas the position of GnRH antagonists is not yet clear. Hyperinsulinemia is the commonest contributor to the state of anovulation and its reduction, by weight loss or insulin sensitizing agents such as metformin, will alone often restore ovulation or will improve results when used in combination with other agents. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling is proving equally as successful as FSH for the induction of ovulation, particularly in thin patients with high LH concentrations. Aromatase inhibitors are presently being examined and may replace clomiphene in the future. When all else has failed, IVF/ET produces excellent results. In conclusion, there are very few women suffering from anovulatory infertility associated with PCOS who cannot be successfully treated today. PMID:14617367

  15. Autonomic dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Zainab Hasan; Hamdan, Farqad Bader; Al-Salihi, Anam Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central obesity and hyperinsulinaemia of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with chronic sympathetic over activity. Objective: To evaluate the autonomic functions and to indicate the superiority, if any, for those functions in the diagnosis of sympathetic over activity in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four PCOS patients and 40 women served as the control group were studied. The two groups were subdivided according to the body mass index (BMI) into two obese and non-obese groups. Waist:hip ratio (WHR), plasma epinephrine level was estimated, sympathetic skin response (SSR); postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, heart rate variability (HRV), and valsalva ratio were measured in both groups. Results: Compared to the control group, obese PCOS patients demonstrated higher BMI and WHR, reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, altered HRV, higher plasma epinephrine level, and rapid pulse rate. Moreover, non-obese patients show reduced palmar SSR latency and higher amplitude, higher plasma epinephrine level, and higher pulse rate. BMI and WHR of the patients were positively correlated with plasma epinephrine level; while the HRV was negatively correlated WHR. Conclusion: Women with PCOS exhibits altered autonomic function and sympathoexcitation is more pronounced in obese than non-obese patients; therefor the SSR could be useful auxiliary electrophysiological test to predict autonomic dysfunction in those patients. Receiver operating characteristics curve demonstrate the pulse rate in standing position as the autonomic function test that is superior to others in predicting sympathetic over activity in those patients. PMID:25653673

  16. Cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Orio, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo

    2008-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disease affecting about 5-10% of reproductive-age female population, which is predominantly characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. PCOS women represent an intriguing biological model illustrating the relationship between hormonal pattern and cardiovascular risk profile, presenting a cluster of cardiovascular features, such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, impaired cardiopulmonary functional capacity, autonomic dysfunction and low-grade chronic inflammation. Metabolic syndrome should be also considered in the clinical evaluation and management of PCOS. The treatment of PCOS and its complications should not be based solely on pharmacological therapies trying to improve hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Although mounting evidence recognizes the beneficial effects of lifestyle modifications, the clinical management of PCOS is not sufficiently focused on long-term maintenance of both exercise and dietary interventions and on further aspects of this syndrome (i.e. psychological status). Taking into consideration the patients' young age and the devastating effects of PCOS on hormonal and metabolic pattern, this complex and multifaceted disease requires a comprehensive approach in order to achieve concrete beneficial effects for PCOS patients. Multidisciplinary programs, including dietary and educational counseling, exercise training, stress management and psychosocial support, might represent the gold standard for adequate reduction of cardiovascular risk in young women with PCOS. PMID:18799960

  17. Pharmacotherapy of polycystic ovary syndrome--an update.

    PubMed

    Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Saha, Pradip Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a persisting challenge to clinical and basic research scientists as none of the presently available medications have been fully able to combat these consequences. The aim of the present review is to summarize the different lines of treatment available for the different symptomologies that women with PCOS presents. In this comprehensive review, search was made for various treatment options available for PCOS by using Cochrane library, Pubmed, Medline, in addition to the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. The search results revealed that oral contraceptives containing oestrogen and progesterone regularize the menstruation, antiandrogens like spironolactone and drosperinone have proven to be effective in hirsutism and acne, clomiphene is the gold standard for ovulation induction, but multiple pregnancies and clomiphene failure add to its limitation. Hence, aromatase inhibitors like letrozole, low-dose gondotropins, and ovarian drilling procedure have shown to be beneficial effect in clomiphene-resistant cases. Insulin sensitizers such as metformin, thiazolidinediones, and d-chiro-inositol increase insulin sensitivity and improve ovulation rate. Recently, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, acarbose, and statins have shown positive results in different symptomologies of PCOS. The results show that PCOS treatment constitutes varied line of treatment depending upon the clinical features with which a woman is presenting. Still, unfortunately, none of the treatments are fully able to combat the PCOS. PMID:21210850

  18. Nesfatin-1 levels and metabolic markers in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alp, Esra; Görmüş, Uzay; Güdücü, Nilgün; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-07-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a novel hormone synthesized in hypothalamus and several other specific organs to regulate eating habits, appetite and is thought to be related to ovarian functions. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the nesfatin-1 levels with other metabolic parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that is known to be related to both ovarian functions and obesity. Study subjects were chosen from the women attended to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Istanbul Bilim University, Avrupa Florence Nightingale Hospital. Thirty-five healthy control subjects and 55 PCOS patients were included. Blood samples were obtained on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured; homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value was calculated. The nesfatin-1 levels were measured by competitive inhibition ELISA method. Due to our results, PCOS patients were having lower nesfatin-1 levels compared to the control group and this was not seemed to be related to body mass index (BMI) levels. This is an important result to be investigated in larger study groups and is related to other metabolic markers. PMID:26062107

  19. A new perspective in diagnosing polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ertorer, Melek Eda; Anaforoglu, Inan; Bozkirli, Emre; Bakiner, Okan; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascil; Demirag, Nilgun Guvener

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the term of "possible" polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been used for defining cases in which biochemical evaluations are incomplete but clinical phenotypes are suggestive of PCOS. The aim of this study was, by using Rotterdam 2003 criteria, to detect possible PCOS cases and compare their characteristics and insulin sensitivity status with confirmed PCOS subjects. One-hundred-eighteen women who admitted with complaints and symptoms suggesting PCOS were included. Insulin sensitivity status of the cases was calculated with Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Cases fulfilling Rotterdam 2003 criteria were defined as confirmed PCOS, whereas indeterminate subjects as possible PCOS. Confirmed PCOS was detected in 70 (59.3%) and possible PCOS in 48 (40.7%) cases. Confirmed PCOS was most prevalent among subjects with hirsutism and menstrual dysfunction; 32 (80.0%) vs. 8 (20%), (p=0.000). Body mass index and HOMA-IR values did not differ between groups: confirmed PCOS versus possible PCOS; 25.46+/-5.55 kg/m(2) vs. 26.75+/-7.55 kg/m(2), 3.37+/-4.12 vs. 3.21+/-2.50, (p>0.05). Family history of type-2 diabetes mellifus was similar within both groups (p>0.05). Many PCOS patients seem to be undiagnosed due to inadherence to diagnostic work-up and/or to not fulfill Rotterdam 2003 criteria. These criteria may not be sufficient to cover the entire spectrum of PCOS. PMID:17366951

  20. Evolutionary determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome: part 1.

    PubMed

    Ünlütürk, Uğur; Sezgin, Efe; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex genetic disorder that develops under varying degrees of hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions that cause phenotypic variability ranging from mild hirsutism to anovulation and infertility. In addition to increased risk of reproductive disability, PCOS is associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar prevalence rates and shared genetic susceptibility of PCOS among different populations suggest that genetic risk factors were already present in the ancestors of humans. Contemporary human genetic studies inform us that the origin of human ancestors is from Africa. Sharing common susceptibility loci between Chinese and European ancestry suggests that PCOS may have persisted for more than 50,000 years, before the migration of humans out of Africa. Although PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, its high prevalence is still a paradox. From an evolutionary perspective, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PCOS might be candidate factors for survival advantage of the human being. Former compensatory advantageous factors may become pathogenic mechanisms underlying complex metabolic disease with prolonged life expectancy and transition to sedentary lifestyle. PMID:27238626

  1. Heart Rate Changes in Electroacupuncture Treated Polycystic Ovary in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramadoss, Mukilan; Subbiah, Angelie Jessica; Natrajan, Chidambaranathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder, it affects both humans and animals. It may induce coronary heart disease, obesity and hyperandrogenism. Previous studies show that Low frequency Electroacupuncture (EA) have an effect on PCOS, however the exact pathway is unclear. Aim To find the effect of EA on autonomic activity of the heart in Estradiol Valerate (EV) induced PCOS rats. Materials and Methods Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed in 3 groups: 1) Control; 2) PCOS rats; and 3) PCOS rats after EA treatment (n=8 in each group). From the time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis (linear measures) HRV analysis was done. EA stimulation was given at low frequency of 2Hz for 15 min on alternate days for 4-5 weeks. Collected data were statistically analysed using One-Way Analysis of Variance with the application of multiple comparisons of Tukey test. Results EA treatment group shows significant reduction in Heart Rate (HR) and low frequency, high frequency ratio (LF/HF); and increase in RR interval, Total Power (TP) when compared to PCOS group. Conclusion The study concludes that EA treatment has a significant effect on reducing sympathetic tone and decreasing HR in PCOS. PMID:27134868

  2. Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanjie; Qi, Yane; Yang, Xuefei; Zhao, Lihui; Wen, Shu; Liu, Yinhui; Tang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. It is difficult to treat PCOS because of its complex etiology and pathogenesis. Here, we characterized the roles of gut microbiota on the pathogenesis and treatments in letrozole (a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor) induced PCOS rat model. Changes in estrous cycles, hormonal levels, ovarian morphology and gut microbiota by PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR were determined. The results showed that PCOS rats displayed abnormal estrous cycles with increasing androgen biosynthesis and exhibited multiple large cysts with diminished granulosa layers in ovarian tissues. Meanwhile, the composition of gut microbiota in letrozole-treated rats was different from that in the controls. Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus and Clostridium were lower while Prevotella was higher in PCOS rats when compared with control rats. After treating PCOS rats with Lactobacillus and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy rats, it was found that the estrous cycles were improved in all 8 rats in FMT group, and in 6 of the 8 rats in Lactobacillus transplantation group with decreasing androgen biosynthesis. Their ovarian morphologies normalized. The composition of gut microbiota restored in both FMT and Lactobacillus treated groups with increasing of Lactobacillus and Clostridium, and decreasing of Prevotella. These results indicated that dysbiosis of gut microbiota was associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. Microbiota interventions through FMT and Lactobacillus transplantation were beneficial for the treatments of PCOS rats. PMID:27093642

  3. Pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome: the role of hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Dewailly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The cardinal features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are hyperandrogenism and oligoanovulation. The increase in ovarian androgen production is a fundamental characteristic of PCOS and, although enigmatic, it is at the heart of one of the major issues about the pathophysiology of PCOS, i.e. whether it has developmental origins or not. Intraovarian androgens are designated as primarily responsible for the follicle excess. The defective selection of a dominant follicle in anovulatory patients results from both an insufficient secretion of FSH and a local inhibition of FSH action. Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) seems to be involved in the latter by repressing the FSH-dependent aromatase activity. AMH level is increased in PCOS because of the follicle excess and increased production per follicle. Therefore, in anovulatory patients, serum FSH, although at low to normal plasma concentrations, would not be able to induce a decrease in AMH sufficient to allow the expression of aromatase. In conclusion, the fundamental anomaly of PCOS is still unknown, but it can be hypothesized that any genetic, epigenetic or environmental factor leading to intraovarian hyperandrogenism can result in PCOS. PMID:24002402

  4. Salvage radiotherapy for carcinoma of the ovary following chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, A.Y.

    1988-05-01

    Following single-agent or combination chemotherapy, 9 patients with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary had elective second-look laparotomy. Macroscopic intraperitoneal disease was resected in 4 patients. Therefore, after the laparotomy, all 9 patients had only biopsy-proven, microscopic residual disease, and they received whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Hematological tolerance was satisfactory, with only 2 patients developing asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Mild gastrointestinal reactions, while frequent during radiotherapy, did not interrupt treatment in any patient. After follow-up ranging from 6 to 28 months (median 12 months), 2 patients died of cancer, 2 were alive with cancer, 3 were alive without clinical recurrence, and 2 were alive without biopsy-proven recurrence. Bowel complication occurred in 4 patients: 2 developed intestinal obstruction due to recurrent tumor, 1 developed subacute bowel obstruction which spontaneously resolved, and 1 patient required bowel resection because of a radiation complication. This study indicated that after single- or multiple-drug chemotherapy, most patients could complete the course of whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Gastrointestinal complications could be secondary to radiation damage or to recurrent tumor. While whole abdominopelvic irradiation was not an effective second-line treatment, some long-term survivors could still be expected.

  5. The management of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Channa N; Franks, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The syndrome is typified by its heterogeneous presentation, which includes hirsutism (a function of hypersecretion of ovarian androgens), menstrual irregularity and infertility (that is due to infrequent or absent ovulation). Furthermore, PCOS predisposes patients to metabolic dysfunction and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aetiology of the syndrome has a major genetic component. Obesity exacerbates the insulin resistance that is a feature of PCOS in many women and amplifies the clinical and biochemical abnormalities. In clinical practice, the choice of investigations to be done depends mainly on the presenting symptoms. The approach to management is likewise dependent on the presenting complaint. Symptoms of androgen excess (hirsutism, acne and alopecia) require cosmetic measures, suppression of ovarian androgen function and anti-androgen therapy, alone or in combination. Ovulation rate is improved by diet and lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals but induction of ovulation by, in the first instance, anti-estrogens is usually required. Monitoring of glucose is important in overweight women and/or those with a family history of T2DM. Metformin is indicated for women with impaired glucose tolerance but whether this drug is otherwise useful in women with PCOS remains debatable. PMID:25022814

  6. Complications and challenges associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, Stefano; Santagni, Susanna; Falbo, Angela; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common endocrine dysfunction in fertile women and it is considered a heterogeneous and multifaceted disorder, with multiple reproductive and metabolic phenotypes which differently affect the early- and long-term syndrome’s risks. Women with PCOS present an adverse reproductive profile, including a high risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Patients with PCOS present not only a higher prevalence of classic cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, but also of nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors, including mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Moreover, at the moment, clinical data on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women with PCOS are controversial. Finally, women with PCOS show an increased risk of endometrial cancer compared to non-PCOS healthy women, particularly during premenopausal period. Currently, we are unable to clarify if the increased PCOS early- and long-term risks are totally due to PCOS per se or mostly due to obesity, in particular visceral obesity, that characterized the majority of PCOS patients. In any case, the main endocrine and gynecological scientific societies agree to consider women with PCOS at increased risk of obstetric, cardiometabolic, oncology, and psychological complications throughout life, and it is recommended that these women be accurately assessed with periodic follow-up. PMID:26261426

  7. FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-02-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes. PMID:24049064

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in Pakistani women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liaqat, Irfana; Jahan, Nusrat; Krikun, Graciela; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the major cause of anovulatory infertility. Although the genetic basis of PCOS is not well understood, it is a common metabolic and endocrine disorder. This study investigates the possible genomic variants associated with PCOS in Pakistani women from the Punjab region. DNA samples from 96 patients with genetically unrelated PCOS and 96 controls were analyzed by direct sequencing to determine the polymorphisms of different loci on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr), follicle-stimulating hormone β (fshrβ), luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin (lhcgr), luteinizing hormone β (lhβ), estrogen receptor α (esr1), and estrogen receptor β (esr2) genes. Significant associations were observed within the genotype frequencies, allele frequencies, and multi-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype analysis of most polymorphisms studied. This study identified new SNPs at positions 605+52 Del/T in lhcgr genes occurring in this particular subpopulation. The strong r (2) value suggests that polymorphisms in the fshr and esr1 genes were in linkage disequilibrium. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant associations between susceptibility to PCOS in Pakistani women and the gene polymorphisms mentioned earlier. This suggests that the susceptible loci for PCOS lie within or very close to the chromosomal regions spanning these genes. PMID:25100445

  9. Initiation of puberty in mice following decellularized ovary transplant.

    PubMed

    Laronda, Monica M; Jakus, Adam E; Whelan, Kelly A; Wertheim, Jason A; Shah, Ramille N; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2015-05-01

    Clinical interventions to preserve fertility and restore hormone levels in female patients with therapy-induced ovarian failure are insufficient, particularly for pediatric cancer patients. Laparoscopic isolation of cortical ovarian tissue followed by cryopreservation with subsequent autotransplantation has temporarily restored fertility in at least 27 women who survived cancer, and aided in pubertal transition for one pediatric patient. However, reintroducing cancer cells through ovarian transplantation has been a major concern. Decellularization is a process of removing cellular material, while maintaining the organ skeleton of extracellular matrices (ECM). The ECM that remains could be stripped of cancer cells and reseeded with healthy ovarian cells. We tested whether a decellularized ovarian scaffold could be created, recellularized and transplanted to initiate puberty in mice. Bovine and human ovaries were decellularized, and the ovarian skeleton microstructures were characterized. Primary ovarian cells seeded onto decellularized scaffolds produced estradiol in vitro. Moreover, the recellularized grafts initiated puberty in mice that had been ovariectomized, providing data that could be used to drive future human transplants and have broader implications on the bioengineering of other organs with endocrine function. PMID:25736492

  10. Evolutionary determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome: part 2.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Natterson-Horowitz, Barbara; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prehistoric complex genetic trait, perhaps dating back at least 50,000 years. The disorder also represents an evolutionary paradox, demonstrating clear reproductive disadvantages (i.e., lack of evolutionary fitness), albeit persisting tens of thousands of years. Here we examine possible explanations for this paradox. We evaluate a variety of possible benefits accruing to women in ancestral populations who possessed this trait, including considerations of whether dramatic changes in environment and lifestyle from the ancestral past to the contemporary present have altered the selection dynamics operating on the trait. Putative benefits include metabolic functioning, immune system dynamics, patterns of child-rearing and mothering, reproductive longevity, in utero or childhood survival, and musculoskeletal advantages. However, there is limited evidence that the persistence and relative homogeneity in the prevalence of PCOS can be accounted for by direct positive selection. Rather, PCOS evolution has likely been driven by nonadaptive evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift due to a serial founder effect and population balance due to sexually antagonistic selection. Ultimately, insights into the evolutionary origins of PCOS will emerge through the study not only of unique characteristics of affected individuals and their environments butalso through a broad consideration of the potential adaptive and beneficial aspects of vulnerability to the disorder, importantly including examination of populations whose fertility, disease load, and diet resemble those of ancestral humans. PMID:27243467