Sample records for ovary derived kk1

  1. Microarray analysis of Foxl2 mediated gene regulation in the mouse ovary derived KK1 granulosa cell line: Over-expression of Foxl2 leads to activation of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Foxl2 transcription factor is required for ovarian function during follicular development. The mechanism of Foxl2 regulation of this process has not been elucidated. Our approach to begin to understand Foxl2 function is through the identification of Foxl2 regulated genes in the ovary. Methods Transiently transfected KK1 mouse granulosa cells were used to identify genes that are potentially regulated by Foxl2. KK1 cells were transfected in three groups (mock, activated, and repressed) and twenty-four hours later RNA was isolated and submitted for Affymetrix microarray analysis. Genesifter software was used to carry out analysis of microarray data. One identified target, the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene, was chosen for further study and validation of Foxl2 responsiveness. Transient transfection analyses were carried out to study the effect of Foxl2 over-expression on GnRHR gene promoter-luciferase fusion activity. Data generated was analyzed with GraphPad Prism software. Results Microarray analysis identified 996 genes of known function that are potentially regulated by Foxl2 in mouse KK1 granulosa cells. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene that has been identified as Foxl2 responsive by others was identified in this study also, thereby supporting the effectiveness of our strategy. The GnRHR gene was chosen for further study because it is known to be expressed in the ovary and the results of previous work has indicated that Foxl2 may regulate GnRHR gene expression. Cellular levels of Foxl2 were increased via transient co-transfection of KK1 cells using a Foxl2 expression vector and a GnRHR promoter-luciferase fusion reporter vector. The results of these analyses indicate that over-expression of Foxl2 resulted in a significant increase in GnRHR promoter activity. Therefore, these transfection data validate the microarray data which suggest that Foxl2 regulates GnRHR and demonstrate that Foxl2 acts as an activator of the GnRHR gene. Conclusions Potential Foxl2 regulated ovarian genes have been identified through microarray analysis and comparison of these data to other microarray studies. The Foxl2 responsiveness of the GnRHR gene has been validated and provided evidence of Foxl2 transcriptional activation of the GnRHR gene promoter in the mouse ovary derived KK1 granulosa cell line. PMID:20167115

  2. Microarray analysis of Foxl2 mediated gene regulation in the mouse ovary derived KK1 granulosa cell line: Over-expression of Foxl2 leads to activation of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene promoter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean M Escudero; Jodi L Haller; Colin M Clay; Kenneth W Escudero

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Foxl2 transcription factor is required for ovarian function during follicular development. The mechanism of Foxl2 regulation of this process has not been elucidated. Our approach to begin to understand Foxl2 function is through the identification of Foxl2 regulated genes in the ovary. METHODS: Transiently transfected KK1 mouse granulosa cells were used to identify genes that are potentially regulated

  3. Maternal-Effect Gene Expression in Cultured Preantral Follicles Derived from Vitrified-Warmed Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Fatehi, Roya; Ebrahimi, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess survival of follicles, their oocyte maturation and fertilization potential as well as expression of early embryo developmental genes in in vitro cultured pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovary. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, ovaries of 12-day old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) female mice were placed into non-vitrified and vitrifiedwarmed groups. Isolated preantral follicles from experimental groups were cultured in vitro for 12 days. On the 12th day of culture, oocyte maturation was induced and then matured oocytes were in vitro fertilized. The rates of oocyte maturation and two-cell stage embryo formation were assessed. Relative expression of Mater and Zar1 was evaluated on days 1, 6, 10 and 12 of culture. Data analysis was performed by t test and two-way ANOVA (P<0.05). Results Our data showed no significant difference between the control and vitrification groups in the rate of follicular survival, oocyte maturation and two-cell stage embryo formation. The level of gene expression was higher on the 6thand 10thdays of culture for Mater and Zar1 in vitrified-warmed group compared with non-vitrified group, however, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion It seems that the applied vitrification method did not reveal any negative effect on maturation and developmental competence of oocytes surrounded in preantral follicles and therefore could preserve follicular reserves efficiently. PMID:26199912

  4. Comparative gene expression profiling of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells supports a distinct cellular identity

    PubMed Central

    Imudia, Anthony N.; Wang, Ning; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; White, Yvonne A.R.; Woods, Dori C.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Perform gene expression profiling of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells (OSCs). Design Experimental animal study. Setting Research laboratory. Animal(s) Adult C57BL/6 female mice. Intervention(s) None. Main outcome measure(s) Gene expression profiles were compared between freshly isolated and cultured OSCs, as well as between OSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), fetal primordial germ cells (PGCs) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs); OSC yield from ovaries versus meiotic gene activation during the estrous cycle was determined. Result(s) Freshly isolated OSCs, PGCs and SSCs exhibited distinct gene expression profiles. Cultured OSCs maintained their germline gene expression pattern, but gained expression of pluripotency markers found in PGCs and ESCs. Cultured OSCs also expressed the meiotic marker, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8). In vivo, OSC yield was higher from luteal versus follicular phase ovaries and this was inversely related to Stra8 expression. Conclusion(s) Freshly isolated OSCs exhibit a germline gene expression profile that overlaps with, but is distinct from, that of PGCs and SSCs. After in vitro expansion, OSCs activate expression of pluripotency genes found in freshly isolated PGCs. In vivo, OSC numbers in the ovaries fluctuate during the estrous cycle, with the highest numbers noted during the luteal phase. This is followed by activation of Stra8 expression during the follicular phase, which may signify a wave of neo-oogenesis to partially offset follicular loss through atresia and ovulation in the prior cycle. PMID:23876535

  5. Massive intra-abdominal undifferentiated carcinoma derived from an endometrioid adenocarcinoma in a "normal-sized" ovary.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Sohei; Aida, Shinsuke; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Takano, Masashi; Kudoh, Kazuya; Furuya, Kenichi; Tamai, Seiichi; Matsubara, Osamu

    2010-07-01

    We report a case of massive intra-abdominal undifferentiated carcinoma derived from a tiny well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, who presented with a large intra-abdominal mass, underwent cytoreductive surgery with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Macroscopically, the intra-abdominal mass was composed of fragile and solid tumor components with extensive necro-hemorrhagic areas, mimicking a primary peritoneal tumor. Both ovaries were apparently normal in size, but a cut section of the right ovary revealed a 2-cm solid and cystic tumor showing focal rupture to the peritoneal surface. The intra-abdominal tumor consisted of pleomorphic cells without specific differentiation, showing diffuse sheet-like proliferation. The right ovarian tumor was a histologically well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Both the intra-abdominal undifferentiated tumor and the ovarian adenocarcinoma cells were immunohistochemically positive for keratin AE1/3, Ber-EP4, and CD10. Epithelial membrane antigen was positive only in the ovarian adenocarcinoma component, and vimentin was diffusely positive only in the intra-abdominal undifferentiated tumor component. Calretinin was negative in both tumor components. Allelotype analysis using 24 polymorphic markers located on 12 chromosomal arms showed that the intra-abdominal undifferentiated carcinoma and ovarian adenocarcinoma components had a high concordance rate (88%) of allelic patterns including identical allelic loss patterns at 7 chromosomal loci, suggesting a common genetic lineage. These data suggest that ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma, even when small in size, can give rise to a massive undifferentiated carcinoma filling the peritoneal cavity. PMID:20567143

  6. Homing and Restorative Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Injured Ovaries in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiabin; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Yun; Li, Nan; Wen, Yuku; Cao, Fanglei; Ai, Hao; Xue, Xiaoou

    2014-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a long-term adverse effect of chemotherapy treatment. However, current available treatment regimens are not optimal. Emerging evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could restore the structure and function of injured tissues, but the homing and restorative effects of BMSCs on chemotherapy injured ovaries are still not clear. In this study, we found that granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis induced by cisplatin was reduced when BMSCs were migrated to granulosa cells (GCs) in vitro. Chemotherapy-induced POF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin in rats. BMSCs labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were injected into the rats via the tail vein to investigate the homing and distribution of BMSCs in vivo. The number of BMSCs in the ovarian hilum and medulla was greater than in the cortex, but no BMSCs were found in the follicles and corpus lutea. In addition, the BMSCs treatment group’s antral follicle count and estradiol levels increased after 30 days, compared with the POF group. Hence, our study demonstrates that intravenously delivered BMSCs can home to the ovaries, and restore its structure and function in POF model rats. PMID:25410907

  7. In vitro developmental potential of macaque oocytes, derived from unstimulated ovaries, following maturation in the presence of glutathione ethyl ester

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, E.C.; Ryan, J.P.; Saunders, D.M.; Hayes, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The inadequacies of oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) systems for both non-human primates and humans are evidenced by reduced fertilization and poor embryonic development, and may be partly explained by significantly lower glutathione (GSH) contents compared with in vivo matured (IVO) oocytes. As this influence has not been fully explored, this study investigated the effect of the GSH donor, glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-OEt), on the IVM and development of macaque oocytes as a model of human oocyte IVM. METHODS Macaque oocytes derived from unstimulated ovaries were cultured in mCMRL-1066 alone or supplemented with 3 or 5 mM GSH-OEt. In vitro matured oocytes were subjected to the GSH assay, fixed for the assessment of spindle morphology or prepared ICSI. Embryo development of zygotes cultured in mHECM-9 was assessed up to Day 9 post-ICSI. RESULTS Supplementation of the maturation medium with GSH-OEt significantly increased oocyte maturation and normal fertilization rates compared with control oocytes, but only 5 mM GSH-OEt significantly increased the oocyte and cumulus cell GSH content. Confocal microscopy revealed significant differences in the spindle morphology between IVO and control in vitro matured metaphase II oocytes. Oocytes matured with 5 mM GSH-OEt exhibited spindle area and spindle pole width similar to that seen in the IVO oocyte. While no significant differences were observed in blastocyst rates, addition of 3 mM GSH-OEt during IVM significantly increased the proportion of embryos developing to the 5–8 cell stage while 5 mM GSH-OEt significantly increased the proportion of morula-stage embryos compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Supplementation of the IVM medium with GSH-OEt promotes better maturation and normal fertilization of macaque oocytes compared with non-supplemented medium. However, further improvement of the primate oocyte IVM culture system is required to support better blastocyst development of oocytes derived from unstimulated ovaries. PMID:20729236

  8. Evaluation of carbazole degradation by Pseudomonas rhodesiae strain KK1 isolated from soil contaminated with coal tar.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byoung-Jun; Lee, Dong-Heon; Kang, Yoon-Suk; Oh, Duck-Chul; Kim, Seung-Il; Oh, Kye-Heon; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

    2002-01-01

    In this study, strain KK1 isolated from coal tar-contaminated soil was found to be able to mineralize carbazole as a sole source of carbon by radiorespirometric analysis. KK1 cells pregrown on phenanthrene were able to mineralize carbazole much more rapidly than cells pregrown on naphthalene, suggesting a possible close linkage between the pathways for carbazole and phenanthrene catabolism. Also, Rieske-type iron sulfur center sequence of dioxygenase from KK1 was analyzed to evaluate carbazole catabolism by KK1. A gene cloned out from KK1 using a universal dioxygenase primer set was found a dioxygenase for initial catabolism of carbazole based on deduced amino acid sequences. Northern hybridization using the putative carbazole dixoygenase gene fragment as a probe provided the information that catabolism of carbazole might be greatly activated in phenanthrene-grown cells. Analysis of PLFAs extracted from KK1 cells exposed to carbazole revealed that lipids 10:0 3OH, 17:0 cyclo, and 18:0 were representatives produced or significantly increased in response to carbazole. Strain KK1 was identified as Pseudomonas species with 94% confidence when BIOLOG system was applied, as Pseudomonas sp. with over 90% confidence by total cellular compositions of fatty acid, and as Pseudomonas rhodesiae with 99% confidence by 16S rRNA sequence. Accordingly, strain KK1 was identified as Pseudomonas rhodesiae based on combination of the data, and designated Pseudomonas rhodesiae KK1. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA suggested that strain KK1 was far away in the phylogenetic distance from the strains that can degrade carbazole. PMID:12442306

  9. Endocrine Ovaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Matias-Guiu

    \\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the pathologic and molecular features of the most significant endocrine lesions of the\\u000a ovary. The chapter reviews the histology of the normal ovary and provides a description of the main tumor-like lesions and\\u000a functional cysts, including those that occur during pregnancy. The endocrine syndromes associated with ovarian tumors are\\u000a also discussed, with special emphasis

  10. PAH utilization by Pseudomonas rhodesiae KK1 isolated from a former manufactured-gas plant site.

    PubMed

    Kahng, H-Y; Nam, K; Kukor, J J; Yoon, B-J; Lee, D-H; Oh, D-C; Kam, S-K; Oh, K-H

    2002-12-01

    Pseudomonas rhodesiae KK1 was isolated from a former manufactured-gas plant site, due to its ability to grow rapidly in a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Radiorespirometric analysis revealed that strain KK1 was found to be able to mineralize anthracene, naphthalene and phenanthrene. Notably, phenanthrene-grown cells were able to mineralize anthracene much more rapidly than naphthalene-grown cells. Comparative analysis of amino acid sequences from 17 randomly selected dioxygenases capable of hydroxylating unactivated aromatic nuclei indicated that the enzymes for catabolism of PAHs, such as naphthalene and phenanthrene, might exist redundantly in strain KK1. Northern hybridization for cells grown on naphthalene or phenanthrene, using the putative naphthalene or phenanthrene dioxygenase gene fragment as a probe, suggested that the enzyme for naphthalene catabolism might share some homology in deduced amino acid sequences with phenanthrene dioxygenases. Also, it was found that three lipids (17:0 cyclo, 18:1 omega7c, 19:0 cyclo) increased in response to both naphthalene and phenanthrene, while the shift of other lipids varied from substrate to substrate. PMID:12466890

  11. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts ( ... who are obese are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome. Symptoms of PCOS include: Infertility Pelvic pain Excess ...

  12. Androgens and the ovary 

    E-print Network

    Tyndall, Victoria

    2011-07-05

    Between 10-15% of women suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), making it the most common cause of female infertility. Clinical features of PCOS include high circulating levels of ovarian androgens (T and A4), ...

  13. Ovary Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Ovary C569 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 17 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical event

  14. “Secondary” Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Kaltsas; George Chrousos

    Hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularities are the most common endocrine symptoms in premenopausal women. The vast majority\\u000a of these women suffer from the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is defined as a state of “gonadotropin-dependent functional\\u000a hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation” in which no distinct autonomous source of androgen secretion is identified. PCOS is\\u000a a chronic disorder characterized by specific clinical, endocrine, and

  15. Computer-Generated Ovaries to Assist Follicle Counting Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Skodras, Angelos; Marcelli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries), with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units. PMID:25812007

  16. Computer-generated ovaries to assist follicle counting experiments.

    PubMed

    Skodras, Angelos; Marcelli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries), with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units. PMID:25812007

  17. The relationship between the levels of DNA-hydrocarbon adducts and the formation of sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Pal, K

    1984-12-01

    The frequencies of the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges and the levels of deoxyribonucleoside-hydrocarbon adducts formed in Chinese hamster ovary cells that had been treated with either dihydrodiols or a diol-epoxide derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. Up to 6-fold increases in the incidence of these exchanges were observed when the cells were treated either with the dihydrodiols, trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxy-7-methylbenz[alpha]anthracene, trans-7,8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo[alpha]pyrene or the diol-epoxide, (+/-)-r-7, t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[alpha]pyrene but when the cells were transferred to media free of these compounds, there were rapid reductions in the frequency of these exchanges. When the exchanges were induced by the diol-epoxide, the decreases in frequency were paralleled by decreases in the levels of deoxyribonucleoside-diol-epoxide adducts that were present in hydrolysates of DNA isolated from the cells. There thus appears to be a close relationship between the frequency of sister-chromatid exchanges and the levels of deoxyribonucleoside-diol-epoxide adduct formation. PMID:6513963

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Anindita; Chen, Zijian; Patel, Ronak; Poretsky, Leonid

    2014-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous and chronic condition, today affects about 5% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is strongly associated with states of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Risk factors include genetics, metabolic profiles, and the in utero environment. Long-term consequences of PCOS include metabolic complications such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Dysregulation of insulin action is closely linked to the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, whether insulin resistance is the causative factor in the development of PCOS remains to be ascertained. Moreover, the mechanism by which insulin resistance may lead to reproductive dysfunction requires further elucidation. PMID:24582095

  19. Towards whole sheep ovary cryopreservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Baudot; B. Courbiere; V. Odagescu; B. Salle; C. Mazoyer; J. Massardier; J. Lornage

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue aims to assist young women who require treatments that may lead to sterility or infertility. Cryopreservation procedures should therefore be as simple and efficient as possible. This study investigates rapid cooling outcomes for whole sheep ovaries. Ovaries were perfused with VS4 via the ovarian artery, and cooled by quenching in liquid nitrogen in less than a

  20. Polycystic ovaries and obesity.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Ioannis E; Messini, Christina I; Anifandis, George; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    Almost 50% of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are obese. Obesity in PCOS affects reproduction via various mechanisms. Hyperandrogenism, increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. Several substances produced by the adipose tissue including leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin may play a role in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Infertility in PCOS is related to anovulation. For induction of ovulation, clomiphene citrate and human gonadotrophins are first- and second-line treatments, respectively. Other treatment modalities include the use of insulin sensitizers, such as metformin as well as aromatase inhibitors and laparoscopic ovarian drilling, while in vitro fertilization is the last resort. Obesity can adversely affect infertility treatment in PCOS. Diet and lifestyle changes are recommended for the obese women before they attempt conception. The use of anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery in PCOS require further evaluation. PMID:25487256

  1. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:24260388

  2. Analysis of Individual and Combined Effects of Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 Cells with Mathematical Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuzhe; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Liang, Rui; Luo, Haoshu; Huang, Kunlun

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are widespread mycotoxins that contaminate foodstuffs simultaneously, but sufficient data regarding their mixed toxicities are lacking. This study aims to analyze the style of combined effects of OTA and ZEA on cells of their target organs. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 and KK-1 cells treated with single and combined forms of OTA and ZEA. Furthermore, we have analyzed the data using two mathematical models based on the concepts of concentration addition (CA) and independent addition (IA). By analyzing data with nonlinear regression, toxins applied singly showed classic sigmoid dose-response curves in HepG2 cells whereas in KK-1 cells hormetic responses were observed. Exposure to equieffective mixtures of OTA and ZEA showed additive effects, irrespective of different nonlinear regression models used. Our results demonstrate that IA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of OTA and ZEA. The results in ROS generation indicate a departure from additivity to antagonism or synergism at different concentrations, probably due to potential interaction during ROS production. This study shows that a risk assessment of mycotoxins should account for mixture effects, and prediction models are valuable tools for mixture assessment. PMID:24674935

  3. Seminiferous Tubules (human) Ovary (cat)

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    #12;Seminiferous Tubules (human) #12;#12;Ovary (cat) #12;Ovum (squirrel) #12;Primordial Follicle the ovum. Calcium ion stimlates the release of cortical granules to the perivitelline space, which widens

  4. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711....

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Thys-Jacobs

    In 1921, Achard and Thiers published their classic description of a bearded woman with diabetes, linking androgen excess and\\u000a insulin resistance (1). Subsequently, in 1935, Stein and Leventhal reported the association of enlarged polycystic ovaries with the clinical triad\\u000a of amenorrhea, hirsutism, and obesity (2). Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or SteinLeventhal syndrome has since been recognized to be one of

  6. Different Catalytic Properties and Inhibitor Responses of the Goldfish Brain and Ovary Aromatase Isozymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Zhao; Paul Mak; Anna Tchoudakova; Gloria Callard; Shiuan Chen

    2001-01-01

    The brain and ovarian aromatase isozymes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) are encoded by different CYP19 genes. This study measured aromatase activity in the goldfish brain tissues. For a direct comparison of the properties of the two aromatase isozymes, Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with brain- and ovary-derived cDNAs (respectively, P450aromB and -A) and the properties of the expressed

  7. In vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes from unstimulated normal ovaries, polycystic ovaries, and women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim J. Child; Ahmad Kamal Abdul-Jalil; Bulent Gulekli; Seang Lin Tan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in immature oocyte maturation, fertilization, and pregnancy rates among women with unstimulated normal ovaries, polycystic ovaries (PCOs), or PCOS.Design: Prospective observational study.Setting: University fertility clinic.Patient(s): One hundred forty-four women undergoing 180 in vitro oocyte maturation treatment cycles.Intervention(s): Transvaginal immature oocyte recovery from unstimulated ovaries 36 hours after hCG priming. In vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization. Fresh

  8. where Y = estimated fresh weight of ovaries, and X = weight of preserved ovaries.

    E-print Network

    can be used to determine not only if a fish The estimated weight loss due to preservation was as highNarES where Y = estimated fresh weight of ovaries, and X = weight of preserved ovaries. where GI = gonad index, W = fresh weight of both ovaries in grams, and L = post-orbital fork length in centime

  9. Derivate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-03-16

    In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  10. Pre-anthesis ovary development determines genotypic differences in potential kernel weight in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongjian; van Oosterom, Erik J; Jordan, David R; Hammer, Graeme L

    2009-01-01

    Kernel weight is an important factor determining grain yield and nutritional quality in sorghum, yet the developmental processes underlying the genotypic differences in potential kernel weight remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the stage in development at which genetic effects on potential kernel weight were realized, and to investigate the developmental mechanisms by which potential kernel weight is controlled in sorghum. Kernel development was studied in two field experiments with five genotypes known to differ in kernel weight at maturity. Pre-fertilization floret and ovary development was examined and post-fertilization kernel-filling characteristics were analysed. Large kernels had a higher rate of kernel filling and contained more endosperm cells and starch granules than normal-sized kernels. Genotypic differences in kernel development appeared before stamen primordia initiation in the developing florets, with sessile spikelets of large-seeded genotypes having larger floret apical meristems than normal-seeded genotypes. At anthesis, the ovaries for large-sized kernels were larger in volume, with more cells per layer and more vascular bundles in the ovary wall. Across experiments and genotypes, there was a significant positive correlation between kernel dry weight at maturity and ovary volume at anthesis. Genotypic effects on meristem size, ovary volume, and kernel weight were all consistent with additive genetic control, suggesting that they were causally related. The pre-fertilization genetic control of kernel weight probably operated through the developing pericarp, which is derived from the ovary wall and potentially constrains kernel expansion. PMID:19228817

  11. Linkage of regulators of TGF-? activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bayne, Rosemary A.; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Sabatier, Laetitia; Lee, Sam; Bonner, Wendy; Gibson, Mark A.; Rainey, William E.; Carr, Bruce R.; Mason, Helen D.; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Anderson, Richard A.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Although not often discussed, the ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) show all the hallmarks of increased TGF-? activity, with increased amounts of fibrous tissue and collagen in the ovarian capsule or tunica albuginea and ovarian stroma. Recent studies suggest that PCOS could have fetal origins. Genetic studies of PCOS have also found linkage with a microsatellite located in intron 55 of the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 3. Fibrillins regulate TGF-? bioactivity in tissues by binding latent TGF-? binding proteins. We therefore examined expression of fibrillins 1–3, latent TGF-? binding proteins 1–4, and TGF-? 1–3 in bovine and human fetal ovaries at different stages of gestation and in adult ovaries. We also immunolocalized fibrillins 1 and 3. The results indicate that TGF-? pathways operate during ovarian fetal development, but most important, we show fibrillin 3 is present in the stromal compartments of fetal ovaries and is highly expressed at a critical stage early in developing human and bovine fetal ovaries when stroma is expanding and follicles are forming. These changes in expression of fibrillin 3 in the fetal ovary could lead to a predisposition to develop PCOS in later life.—Hatzirodos, N., Bayne, R. A., Irving-Rodgers, H. F., Hummitzsch, K., Sabatier, L., Lee, S., Bonner, W., Gibson, M. A., Rainey, W. E., Carr, B. R., Mason, H. D., Reinhardt, D. P., Anderson, R. A., Rodgers, R. J. Linkage of regulators of TGF-? activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:21411746

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT AND MATURATION OF THE OVARY

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    into adult nude mice. 14 days later the tissue was removed for examination. In the part of the ovary is removed before the embryonal gonad is cultured under the skin of the nude mouse, follicles do not form

  13. Biochemical Features of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam H. Balen

    The polycystic ovary syndrome encompasses hyperandrogenism as the central biochemical disturbance, which has internal effects\\u000a on ovarian function and metabolism and external manifestations on the skin. Ovarian dysfunction is associated with erratic\\u000a menses and anovulation, and the ovaries have a characteristic morphological appearance. Hyperinsulinemia amplifies hyperandrogenism\\u000a and is associated with both increasing body weight and worsening ovarian function. Within the

  14. [Psychosocial approach in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kohlné Papp, Ildikó

    2014-11-23

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most frequent endocrine disease among women of reproductive age. It is associated with increased risks of various metabolic disorders and complications. most recent data suggest that women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome are most exposed to several psychological problems. It has been shown that polycystic ovary syndrome exerts a negative impact on female identity and it contributes to the deterioration of quality of life and, eventually, to development of psychiatric problems. The mental consequences of the disease can be as depressing as physiological symptoms. This draws attention on the importance of the disease from the aspect of therapy as well and, therefore, it may be justified to involve a psychologist or psychiatrist in the process for a more effective treatment. The aim of the paper is to summarize the most frequent psychological symptoms associated with the disease. PMID:25403280

  15. Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus

    E-print Network

    Lanzrein, Beatrice

    Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus inanitus. I. Ovary in the calyx cells of the ovary of some parasitic wasps. They have a segmented genome of circular double-stranded DNA and are injected along with the wasp's egg into the host, where they are essential for successful

  16. Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus

    E-print Network

    Lanzrein, Beatrice

    Ovary development and polydnavirus morphogenesis in the parasitic wasp Chelonus inanitus. II are unique symbiotic viruses that are formed only in calyx cells in the ovary of parasitic wasps with parasitic wasps and are formed only in a particular cell type of the wasp's ovary, the calyx cells

  17. Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    E-print Network

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    Apoptosis in Batch Cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells J. Goswami,1 A. J. Sinskey,2 H. Steller of the main problems in the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells continues to be the inability. Keywords: cell culture; Chinese Hamster Ovary; apopto- sis; caspase; bcl-2 INTRODUCTION Chinese Hamster

  18. Computer Assisted Detection of Polycystic Ovary Morphology in Ultrasound Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryruth J. Lawrence; Mark G. Eramian; Roger A. Pierson; Eric Neufeld

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine abnormality with multiple diagnostic criteria due to its heterogenic manifestations. One of the diagnostic criteria includes analysis of ultrasound images of ovaries for the detection of number, size, and distribution of follicles within the ovary. This involves manual tracing and counting of follicles on the ultrasound images to determine the presence of a

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark O. Goodarzi; Daniel A. Dumesic; Gregorio Chazenbalk; Ricardo Azziz

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of up to 10%. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed, generally centered around the features of hyperandrogenism and\\/or hyperandrogenemia, oligo-ovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology. Insulin resistance is present in a majority of cases, with compensatory hyperinsulinemia contributing to hyperandrogenism via stimulation of ovarian

  20. Obesity and the polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gambineri; C Pelusi; V Vicennati; U Pagotto; R Pasquali

    2002-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic oligo-anovulation. However, many features of the metabolic syndrome are inconsistently present in the majority of women with PCOS. Approximately 50% of PCOS women are overweight or obese and most of them have the abdominal phenotype. Obesity may play a pathogenetic role in the development of the syndrome

  1. A bovine model for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in the greatest single cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women (affecting 5-10%). Previously, research groups have created animal models utilizing non-human primates and sheep to better understand the mechanisms involved in PCOS. However, c...

  2. Foreign body granulomas in normal ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafa, S.A.; Bargeron, C.B.; Flower, R.W.; Rosenshein, N.B.; Parmley, T.H.; Woodruff, J.D.

    1985-11-01

    In 100 consecutive cases in which grossly normal ovaries were removed at the time of pelvic surgery, 9% were found to contain crystalline foreign particles. An additional 9% contained cortical granulomas. In four of six cases, computer-assisted x-ray analysis of the crystalline foreign particles was successful and revealed magnesium and silicon.

  3. BMP Signaling in the Human Fetal Ovary is Developmentally Regulated and Promotes Primordial Germ Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Andrew J; Kinnell, Hazel L; Collins, Craig S; Hogg, Kirsten; Bayne, Rosemary AL; Green, Samira J; McNeilly, Alan S; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of gametes in the adult organism, and their development, differentiation, and survival are regulated by a combination of growth factors collectively known as the germ cell niche. Although many candidate niche components have been identified through studies on mouse PGCs, the growth factor composition of the human PGC niche has not been studied extensively. Here we report a detailed analysis of the expression of components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling apparatus in the human fetal ovary, from postmigratory PGC proliferation to the onset of primordial follicle formation. We find developmentally regulated and reciprocal patterns of expression of BMP2 and BMP4 and identify germ cells to be the exclusive targets of ovarian BMP signaling. By establishing long-term cultures of human fetal ovaries in which PGCs are retained within their physiological niche, we find that BMP4 negatively regulates postmigratory PGC numbers in the human fetal ovary by promoting PGC apoptosis. Finally, we report expression of both muscle segment homeobox (MSX)1 and MSX2 in the human fetal ovary and reveal a selective upregulation of MSX2 expression in human fetal ovary in response to BMP4, suggesting this gene may act as a downstream effector of BMP-induced apoptosis in the ovary, as in other systems. These data reveal for the first time growth factor regulation of human PGC development in a physiologically relevant context and have significant implications for the development of cultures systems for the in vitro maturation of germ cells, and their derivation from pluripotent stem cells. PMID:20506112

  4. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Ana M.; Sánchez-Díaz, Rosa A.; Vallés, María P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By the use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25–46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage). The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre, and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26, and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signaling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26150821

  5. Stem cell aging in the Drosophila ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris Waskar; Yishi Li; John Tower

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that with time human stem cells may become defective or depleted, thereby contributing to aging\\u000a and aging-related diseases. Drosophila provides a convenient model system in which to study stem cell aging. The adult Drosophila ovary contains two types of stem cells: the germ-line stem cells give rise to the oocyte and its supporting nurse cells,\\u000a while the

  6. Statins, Oxidative Stress, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinar H. Kodaman; Antoni J. Duleba

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction, and altered ovarian\\u000a morphology. Typically, women with PCOS also have a broad range of metabolic changes including hyperinsulinemia, increased\\u000a oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and elevation of several growth factors and cytokines. Oxidative stress,\\u000a proinflammatory cytokines, and hyperinsulinemia may significantly contribute to excessive growth of the ovarian theca-interstitial\\u000a compartment

  7. Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, C. I.; Nori, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms and the beneficial effects of acupuncture, exercise and resveratrol on animal models and on humans affected by PCOS. PMID:24809037

  8. Metabolic Complications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy L. Setji; Ann J. Brown

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 4–7% of reproductive-aged women and is associated with serious metabolic complications\\u000a including type 2 diabetes. Forty percent of affected women have impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes by the age of\\u000a forty. Evaluation of women with PCOS includes metabolic risk assessment and counseling on the prevention of diabetes through\\u000a lifestyle therapies such as diet,

  9. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  10. Anatomicohistological characteristics of the ovary of the coypu (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Felipe, A; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

    1999-05-01

    Using histological, histochemical and macroscopic and microscopic measurement techniques, the macroscopic and microscopic structures of coypu ovaries were studied in sexually mature virgin females. The mature ovaries of the coypu were ovoid or elongated bodies, not encapsulated, covered by a single layer of epithelium. They had a parenchyma formed by follicles at different stages of evolution and true and accessory corpora lutea. The interstitial tissue was a prominent and permanent structure in the ovaries. Some ovaries contained a few rete ovarii in the hilus. PMID:10386002

  11. Lipid and fatty acid composition of ovaries from wild fish and ovaries and eggs from captive fish of white sea bream ( Diplodus sargus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juana Rosa Cejas; Eduardo Almansa; Jose Enrique Villamandos; Pilar Bad??a; Ana Bolaños; Antonio Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of ovaries from wild white sea bream and ovaries and eggs of captive white sea bream were investigated to estimate the fatty acid requirements of this species. The total lipid (TL) content in wild fish ovaries was similar to that found in ovaries and eggs from captive fish. The general pattern of the fatty acid distribution

  12. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Matthew T; Klufas, Michael; Kiss, Szilard

    2015-06-01

    The authors report a case series of five women with the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (n = 4) or a first-degree relative with PCOS (n = 1) who presented with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR). This report is the first to correlate PCOS and CSR on clinical presentation. Patients with PCOS often exhibit physical evidence of elevated androgens, such as testosterone, which recently has been linked to CSR. The authors suggest that women with CSR be investigated for PCOS if indicated clinically. In addition, further studies should investigate the relationship between the two disorders. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46:684-686.]. PMID:26114853

  13. Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet biophantoms

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet to the ultrasonic backscatter coefficient BSC estimate using Chinese hamster ovary CHO cells. Also introduced

  14. Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary treated with 2-incision total laparoscopic cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shigenori; Kanno, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Manabu; Ohara, Miki; Soeda, Shu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takafumi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Tsuyoshi; Fujimori, Keiya

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is an extremely rare benign tumor of the ovary that is derived from the sex cord stroma [1,2] and occurs in young women [3-11]. Preoperative diagnosis of the tumor is difficult as it often mimics a malignant tumor. Oophorectomy is usually performed in many cases of young women [3], and diagnosis of SST is made based on post-operative pathological examination. Laparoscopic surgery is seldom performed in SST cases. Here, we report a case of SST of the ovary in an 18-year-old girl who was diagnosed by preoperative imaging and underwent laparoscopic cystectomy. Accurate preoperative imaging helped to perform minimally invasive surgery for SST. PMID:25732615

  15. Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary treated with 2-incision total laparoscopic cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Shigenori; Kanno, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Manabu; Ohara, Miki; Soeda, Shu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takafumi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Honda, Tsuyoshi; Fujimori, Keiya

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is an extremely rare benign tumor of the ovary that is derived from the sex cord stroma [1,2] and occurs in young women [3–11]. Preoperative diagnosis of the tumor is difficult as it often mimics a malignant tumor. Oophorectomy is usually performed in many cases of young women [3], and diagnosis of SST is made based on post-operative pathological examination. Laparoscopic surgery is seldom performed in SST cases. Here, we report a case of SST of the ovary in an 18-year-old girl who was diagnosed by preoperative imaging and underwent laparoscopic cystectomy. Accurate preoperative imaging helped to perform minimally invasive surgery for SST. PMID:25732615

  16. Ovary Removal Reduces Breast Cancer Death in BRCA1 Carriers

    MedlinePLUS

    Ovary Removal Reduces Breast Cancer Death in BRCA1 Carriers: Study The sooner, the better, researchers found To use the sharing features on this page, ... study supports preventive ovary removal in women with breast cancer who also carry the BRCA1 mutation. Women can ...

  17. Fruit-set of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carbonell; José L. García-Martínez

    1980-01-01

    The influence of removing the apical shoot and different leaves above and below the flower on the fruit-set of unpollinated pea ovaries (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) has been studied. Unpollinated ovaries were induced to set and develop either by topping or by removing certain developing leaves of the shoot. Topping had a maximum effect when carried out before or

  18. Calcifications in Ovary and Endometrium and Their Neoplasms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elvio G. Silva; Michael T. Deavers; A. F. Parlow; David M. Gershenson; Anais Malpica

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of hormones in the pathogenesis of calcifications in ovary and in endometrium and their neoplasms of the gynecologic tract and assessed the anatomic location and incidence of these calcifications. The study consists of three parts designed to investigate the pathogenesis, the location, and the incidence of calcifications in ovary and endometrium and their

  19. Polycystic Ovaries Associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Hobkirk, R.; Hollenberg, C. H.; MacDonald, S. A.; Blahey, P.

    1966-01-01

    Polycystic ovaries were found in a 16-year-old female with congenital absence of vagina, male-like external genitalia, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Masculinization was sufficiently severe to cause the patient to be reared as a male. Biochemical studies of ovarian tissue revealed hyperactivity and an imbalance of enzyme systems concerned with steroid-hormone biosynthesis, which led to production of large amounts of androgens. The pathway towards estrogens was preserved but less efficient than normal. Urinary steroid metabolites before and after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed an absence of Porter-Silber chromogens and tetrahydrocortisone. Excretion of aldosterone was normal and that of corticosterone slightly higher than normal. The patterns of urinary 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanetriolone were similar to those commonly seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Urinary estrogens after panhysterectomy were low, being in the post-menopausal range. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries and their possible contribution to masculinization are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5901591

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a dermatologic approach.

    PubMed

    Moura, Heloisa Helena Gonçalves de; Costa, Dailana Louvain Marinho; Bagatin, Ediléia; Sodré, Celso Tavares; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (POS) is one of the most common endocrine abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. It is a cause of significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be a complex multigenic disorder, including abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, steroidogenesis, and insulin resistance. The main diagnostic findings of the syndrome are: hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology seen on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia and, in severe cases, signs of virilization. Treatment may improve the clinical manifestations of excess androgen production, normalize menses and ameliorate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. This article reviews the diagnosis, clinical manifestations, metabolic complications, and treatment of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and the consequent early treatment may prevent metabolic complications and emotional distress that negatively impact the patients' quality of life. PMID:21437531

  1. Interaction between prostaglandins and gonadotrophins in the rabbit ovary

    PubMed Central

    Bedwani, J. R.; Horton, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    1. It has been suggested that prostaglandins function as feedback modulators of hormonal actions which are mediated by adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cyclic AMP). This hypothesis has been tested on the rabbit ovary, whose steroidogenic response to luteinizing hormone (LH) is mediated by the cyclic nucleotide. 2. Prostaglandin E1 (1-100 ?g/ml) reduced the production of progesterone by rabbit ovaries incubated in the presence of a submaximal concentration of LH, but had no effect on the formation of this steroid when exogenous cyclic AMP was used as the stimulating agent. The prostaglandin was without effect on the formation of 20?-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one in the presence of either LH or cyclic AMP. 3. Prostaglandin E2 (1 ?g/ml) was without effect on ovarian steroidogenesis in the presence of LH. 4. There was no evidence that exogenous prostaglandin E1 was inactivated during incubation with rabbit ovaries in the presence of LH. 5. Prostaglandin E-like compounds were detected in homogenates of incubated rabbit ovaries. However, concentrations of LH sufficient to stimulate steroidogenesis did not stimulate the synthesis of these compounds by the ovary in vitro, nor their release from the ovary in vivo. 6. It is concluded that the prostaglandin-like compounds detected in the ovary are unlikely to play a role in the regulation of steroidogenesis. The results of this investigation do not support the hypothesis that prostaglandins function as general modulators of hormonal actions which are mediated by cyclic AMP. PMID:4339885

  2. Does ovary need D-chiro-inositol?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgroud Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial pathology that affects 10% of the women in reproductive age being the main cause of infertility due to menstrual dysfunction. Since 1980, it is known that PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR). The recognition of this association has prompted extensive investigation on the relationship between insulin and gonadal function, and has turned insulin sensitizer agent as the main therapeutic choice. In particular two different polyalcohol myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been shown to improve insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and to induce ovulation in PCOS women. In particular, while data on myo-inositol and restored ovulation were consistent, data on D-chiro-inositol were not . Recently, a comparative study, proposed a D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary of PCOS patients hypothesizing that only myo-inositol has a specific ovarian action. In the present study we aim to further study the role played by D-chiro-inositol at ovarian level. Methods A total of 54 women, aged <40 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study. Patients with insulin resistance and/or hyperglycaemia were excluded from the study. Patients were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10-12): a placebo group, and 4 groups (A-D) that received 300-600-1200-2400 mg of DCI daily respectively. All treatments were carried out for 8 weeks before follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) administration. Results Total r-FSH units increased significantly in the two groups that received the higher doses of DCI. The number of immature oocytes was significantly increased in the three groups that received the higher doses of DCI. Concurrently, the number of MII oocytes was significantly lower in the D group compared to placebo group. Noteworthy, the number of grade I embryos was significantly reduced by DCI supplementation. Conclusions Indeed, increasing DCI dosage progressively worsens oocyte quality and ovarian response. PMID:22587479

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of the Capra hircus Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhong Quan; Wang, Li Juan; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Zhao, Yong Ju; Na, Ri Su; Zhang, Jia Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background Capra hircus is an important economic livestock animal, and therefore, it is necessary to discover transcriptome information about their reproductive performance. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome dataset for the goat ovary using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The result will contribute to research on goat reproductive performance. Method and Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 38.8 million clean paired end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 80,069 unigenes (mean size = 619 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 64,824 (60.6%) genes were identified, among which 29,444 and 11,271 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG) showed that 27,766 (63.4%) unigenes were mapped to 258 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome differences of goat ovaries at two different ages using a tag-based digital gene expression system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 5.6 million and 5.8 million tags for the two ages and identified a large number of genes associated with reproductive hormones, ovulatory cycle and follicle. Moreover, many antisense transcripts and novel transcripts were found; clusters with similar differential expression patterns, enriched GO terms and metabolic pathways were revealed for the first time with regard to the differentially expressed genes. Conclusions The transcriptome provides invaluable new data for a functional genomic resource and future biological research in Capra hircus, and it is essential for the in-depth study of candidate genes in breeding programs. PMID:25822507

  4. Identification and characterization of putative stem cells in the adult pig ovary.

    PubMed

    Bui, Hong-Thuy; Van Thuan, Nguyen; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Han, Jae-Woong; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the concept of 'neo-oogenesis' has received increasing attention, since it was shown that adult mammals have a renewable source of eggs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the origin of these eggs and to confirm whether neo-oogenesis continues throughout life in the ovaries of the adult mammal. Adult female pigs were utilized to isolate, identify and characterize, including their proliferation and differentiation capabilities, putative stem cells (PSCs) from the ovary. PSCs were found to comprise a heterogeneous population based on c-kit expression and cell size, and also express stem and germ cell markers. Analysis of PSC molecular progression during establishment showed that these cells undergo cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of Oct4 in a manner reminiscent of gonadal primordial germ cells (PGCs). Hence, cells with the characteristics of early PGCs are present or are generated in the adult pig ovary. Furthermore, the in vitro establishment of porcine PSCs required the presence of ovarian cell-derived extracellular regulatory factors, which are also likely to direct stem cell niche interactions in vivo. In conclusion, the present work supports a crucial role for c-kit and kit ligand/stem cell factor in stimulating the growth, proliferation and nuclear reprogramming of porcine PSCs, and further suggests that porcine PSCs might be the culture equivalent of early PGCs. PMID:24866115

  5. Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Vendola, K A; Zhou, J; Adesanya, O O; Weil, S J; Bondy, C A

    1998-01-01

    The concept that androgens are atretogenic, derived from murine ovary studies, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that hyperandrogenic women have more developing follicles than normal-cycling women. To evaluate androgen's effects on primate follicular growth and survival, normal-cycling rhesus monkeys were treated with placebo-, testosterone-(T), or dihydrotestosterone-sustained release implants, and ovaries were taken for histological analysis after 3-10 d of treatment. Growing preantral and small antral follicles up to 1 mm in diameter were significantly and progressively increased in number and thecal layer thickness in T-treated monkeys from 3-10 d. Granulosa and thecal cell proliferation, as determined by immunodetection of the Ki67 antigen, were significantly increased in these follicles. Preovulatory follicles (> 1 mm), however, were not increased in number in androgen-treated animals. Follicular atresia was not increased and there were actually significantly fewer apoptotic granulosa cells in the T-treated groups. Dihydrotestosterone treatment had identical effects, indicating that these growth-promoting actions are mediated by the androgen receptor. These findings show that, over the short term at least, androgens are not atretogenic and actually enhance follicular growth and survival in the primate. These new data provide a plausible explanation for the pathogenesis of "polycystic" ovaries in hyperandrogenism. PMID:9637695

  6. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Kounis, Nicholas G

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute ?rst-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome taking oral contraceptive and suffering from recurrent coronary ischemic attacks with increased eosinophils, and troponin levels suggesting Kounis syndrome. PMID:25548619

  7. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most sophisticated adaptive mechanism created during the evolution of female reproduction. Our data indicate that the pool of primary follicles in adult human ovaries does not represent a static but a dynamic population of differentiating and regressing structures. An essential mission of such follicular turnover might be elimination of spontaneous or environmentally induced genetic alterations of oocytes in resting primary follicles. PMID:15115550

  8. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  9. Cyclin A1 Is Expressed in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hongquan; Li, Yuanhong; Zhao, Chen; Jiang, Xuejun; Chen, Hongduo; Lang, Ming-Fei; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin A1 belongs to the type-A cyclins and participates in cell cycle regulation. Since its discovery, cyclin A1 has been shown mostly in testis. It plays important roles in spermatogenesis. However, there were also reports on ovary expression of cyclin A1. Therefore, we intended to revisit the expression of cyclin A1 in mouse ovary. Our study showed that cyclin A1 was expressed at the mRNA level and the protein level in mouse ovary. Tissue staining revealed that cyclin A1 was expressed in maturating oocytes. With the recent data on the functions of cyclins in somatic and stem cells, we also discussed the possibilities of further studies of cyclin A1 in mouse oocytes and perhaps in the oogonial stem cells. Our findings not only add to the supportive evidence of cyclin A1 expression in oocytes, but also may promote more interest in exploring cyclin A1 functions in ovary. PMID:24904232

  10. Cyclin A1 is expressed in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongquan; Li, Yuanhong; Zhao, Chen; Jiang, Xuejun; Chen, Hongduo; Lang, Ming-Fei; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin A1 belongs to the type-A cyclins and participates in cell cycle regulation. Since its discovery, cyclin A1 has been shown mostly in testis. It plays important roles in spermatogenesis. However, there were also reports on ovary expression of cyclin A1. Therefore, we intended to revisit the expression of cyclin A1 in mouse ovary. Our study showed that cyclin A1 was expressed at the mRNA level and the protein level in mouse ovary. Tissue staining revealed that cyclin A1 was expressed in maturating oocytes. With the recent data on the functions of cyclins in somatic and stem cells, we also discussed the possibilities of further studies of cyclin A1 in mouse oocytes and perhaps in the oogonial stem cells. Our findings not only add to the supportive evidence of cyclin A1 expression in oocytes, but also may promote more interest in exploring cyclin A1 functions in ovary. PMID:24904232

  11. Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Joshua J; Bates, G Wright

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a stepwise approach to treating the infertility/subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Defining polycystic ovary syndrome in a patient requires first investigating other possible causes for polycystic ovary morphology, acne, hirsutism, obesity, and the metabolic derangements that often accompany polycystic ovary syndrome. Beginning with lifestyle modification and use of metformin, the progressive inclusion of more intensive therapies for induction of ovulation is described. Second-line treatments are discussed and the new findings from a large multicenter trial are discussed in the context of evidence-based treatment strategies for first-line agents. Finally, monofollicular development as a treatment goal and in vitro fertilization are discussed for those with recalcitrant disease. PMID:24966697

  12. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

  13. Complicated giant polycystic ovary mimicking tumor: MR imaging findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Îbrahim Öztoprak; Hulusi Eqilmez; Bilge Öztoprak; Cesur Gümüs

    2007-01-01

    A previously healthy 14-year-old girl presented with a 1-year history of abdominal pain that had worsened during the past\\u000a 4 days. She had a right lower abdominal mass that was initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. MR imaging revealed a unilaterally\\u000a enlarged and partially torted left polycystic ovary. Polycystic ovary is a common cause of increased ovarian volume in women\\u000a of

  14. Chemotherapy for Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumors of the Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita S. Y. Sit; Fredric V. Price; Joseph L. Kelley; John T. Comerci; Alan J. Kunschner; Amal Kanbour-Shakir; Robert P. Edwards

    2000-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to review the chemotherapy experience at Magee-Womens Hospital for malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary. Patients were treated with either paclitaxel\\/carboplatin (PC) outpatient chemotherapy or platinum\\/ifosfamide (PI) inpatient chemotherapy as first- or second-line therapy.Methods. Thirteen patients diagnosed with MMMT of the ovary after complete surgical staging from 1990 to 1999 were

  15. The D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Unfer, Vittorio; Roseff, Scott

    2011-06-30

    The D-chiro-inositol-to-myo-inositol ratio is regulated by an insulin-dependent epimerase. Enzyme activity varies among tissues, likely owing to the specific needs of the two different molecules. We hypothesize that in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome patients, epimerase activity is enhanced, leading to a local myo-inositol deficiency which in turn is responsible for the poor oocyte quality. PMID:21641593

  16. Cracking open cell death in the Drosophila ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy L. Pritchett; Elizabeth A. Tanner; Kimberly McCall

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful yet simple system with only a few cell types. Cell death in the ovary can be induced in response to multiple\\u000a developmental and environmental signals. These cell deaths occur at distinct stages of oogenesis and involve unique mechanisms\\u000a utilizing apoptotic, autophagic and perhaps necrotic processes. In this review, we summarize recent progress characterizing

  17. Selective immunocytochemical localisation of calretinin in the human ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Bertschy; Claude Y. Genton; V. Gotzos

    1997-01-01

    Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein which is primarily expressed by certain cells of the nervous system, both central\\u000a and peripheral. Its presence in non-excitable cells has been little studied. Using a polyclonal antibody and paraffin sections\\u000a we have analysed the presence of calretinin in the human ovary of different ages, and in polycystic ovaries. Our results revealed\\u000a the selective presence

  18. Cystosarcoma phyllodes metastatic to a brenner tumor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Hines, J R; Gordon, R T; Widger, C; Kolb, T

    1976-03-01

    A patient had cytosarcoma phyllodes that developed metastases to bone and to a Brenner tumor of the ovary. The original breast tumor was reported as benign, but the patient died of metastases four months following mastectomy. The rapid growth in the ovary may have been due to estrogenic stroma in the Brenner tumor. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of cystosarcoma phyllodes metastasizing to another tumor. PMID:176963

  19. Hybridization in Brassica juncea × Brassica campestris through ovary culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mohapatral; Y. P. S. Bajaj

    1988-01-01

    Ovary culture has been employed for the production of interspecific hybrids of a partially compatible cross of Brassica juncea (2n=36) × Brassica campestris (2n=20). Five to seven days old ovaries cultured on White's medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate (300 mg\\/l) and sucrose (5%) produced more seeds than any other media tried, but seed development was better on media fortified with

  20. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  1. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Ahmed; Elnashar, Abubaker

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise) and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms. PMID:21339935

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinical phenotypes but different underlying pathophysiological processes. However, hyperandrogenism remains the syndrome's clinical hallmark. The clinical manifestations of PCOS often emerge during childhood or in the peripubertal years, suggesting that the syndrome is influenced by fetal programming and/or early postnatal events. However, given that the full clinical spectrum of PCOS does not typically appear until puberty, a “two-hit” hypothesis has been proposed: (1) a girl develops hyperandrogenism via one or more of many different potential mechanisms; (2) the preexisting hyperandrogenism subsequently disturbs the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, resulting in ovulatory dysfunction and sustained hyperandrogenism. No consensus guidelines exist regarding the diagnosis and management of PCOS in the pediatric population; however, because the syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, the clinical evaluation of girls suspected of having PCOS is aimed at excluding other causes of androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction. For the syndrome's management, emphasis is placed on lifestyle and symptom-directed treatment. PMID:20939704

  3. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the “thrifty” phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  4. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-07-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the "thrifty" phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  5. Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

    2011-09-01

    During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

  6. Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

  7. Immunohistochemical localisation of a galectin from Bufo arenarum ovary.

    PubMed

    Elola, M T; Cabada, M O; Barisone, G A; Fink, N E

    1998-02-01

    Galectins are a group of soluble animal lectins that exhibit specificity for beta-galactosides and conserve sequence homology in the carbohydrate-recognition domain. The galectin from Bufo arenarum ovary showed a strong cross-reaction with the lectin of 14.5 kDa purified from embryos at early blastula stage. In this paper, we studied the immunohistochemical localisation of the galectin of 14.5 kDa from ovary of the toad B. arenarum in adult ovary sections. We also analysed the immunohistochemical localisation of the embryonic lectin during early development using the antiserum anti-ovary galectin. In the ovary, oocytes in the previtellogenic stage showed strong reactivity in the nucleus and the cortex but not in the cytoplasm. Oocytes in the stage of primary vitellogenesis exhibited a similar pattern in the nuclear and cortical areas but showed immunostaining in the cytoplasm. Intense nuclear staining was detected in oocytes in the stage of late vitellogenesis and in mature oocytes, which also presented strong reactions in the yolk platelets that completely covered the cytoplasm. In blastula embryos the staining was found in the blastomeres, the yolk platelets and the blastocoele. Each lectin localisation is discussed in relation to potential biological roles in the corresponding tissues. PMID:9652066

  8. Worker honeybee sterility: a proteomic analysis of suppressed ovary activation.

    PubMed

    Cardoen, Dries; Ernst, Ulrich R; Boerjan, Bart; Bogaerts, Annelies; Formesyn, Ellen; de Graaf, Dirk C; Wenseleers, Tom; Schoofs, Liliane; Verleyen, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Eusocial behavior is extensively studied in the honeybee, Apis mellifera, as it displays an extreme form of altruism. Honeybee workers are generally obligatory sterile in a bee colony headed by a queen, but the inhibition of ovary activation is lifted upon the absence of queen and larvae. Worker bees are then able to develop mature, viable eggs. The detailed repressive physiological mechanisms that are responsible for this remarkable phenomenon are as of yet largely unknown. Physiological studies today mainly focus on the transcriptome, while the proteome stays rather unexplored. Here, we present a quantitative 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis comparison between activated and inactivated worker ovaries and brains of reproductive and sterile worker bees, including a spot map of ovaries, containing 197 identified spots. Our findings suggest that suppression of ovary activation might involve a constant interplay between primordial oogenesis and subsequent degradation, which is probably mediated through steroid and neuropeptide hormone signaling. Additionally, the observation of higher viral protein loads in both the brains and ovaries of sterile workers is particularly noteworthy. This data set will be of great value for future research unraveling the physiological mechanisms underlying the altruistic sterility in honeybee workers. PMID:22483170

  9. Etiology of cancer of the human ovary: a review.

    PubMed

    Lingeman, C H

    1974-12-01

    A review of factors known or suspected of causing cancers of the human ovary revealed little specific information. The worldwide distribution of ovarian cancer, similar to that of other prevalent cancers, suggests associations with environmental carcinogens. However, few clues exist as to which suspected chemical or physical agents are actually involved. Those factors which point to a high risk for ovarian cancer have not yet been identified except for the greater risk which exists for nulliparous women, those women with breast carcinoma, and those members of the rare "ovary cancer families." Despite epidemiologic associations of cancers of the ovary and breast, a 1st pregnancy at a young age has not been shown to decrease the risk for cancer of the ovary as with cancer of the breast. Experiments testing effects of suspected ovarian carcinogens have been difficult to interpret because ovarian neoplasms induced in rodents by irradiation and chemical carcinogens are of histologic types that are either infrequent, do not occur in human ovaries, or do not metastasize. Only chickens develop significant numbers of ovarian adenocarcinomas similar in histologic appearance and behavior to the common human epithelial carcinomas, but these have not been adequately investigated. PMID:4612161

  10. N4-Hexanoylspermidine, a New Polyamine-Related Compound That Accumulates during Ovary and Petal Senescence in Pea.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.; Navarro, J. L.; Moritz, T.; Beale, M. H.; Lewis, M. J.; Hedden, P.

    1996-01-01

    A previously unknown polyamine conjugate that accumulates in senescing ovaries of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was shown by mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and chemical synthesis to be N4-hexanoylspermidine (hexanoyl-spd) This structure was indicated by analysis of the dansylated polyamine using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, following purification by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, acid hydrolysis of the compound yielded spermidine and hexanoic acid. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that spermidine was substituted at N4 in the conjugate. Hexanoyl-spd was synthesized, and its didansyl derivative was shown to have an identical mass spectrum and high-performance liquid chromatography retention time as the derivatized natural compound. Further confirmation of its structure was obtained by comparison of the synthetic and natural polyamines as trifluoroacetyl derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This new polyamine conjugate is present in pea ovaries at low levels at anthesis and its concentration remains low in developing seeded fruit or in parthenocarpic fruit that have been induced by application of growth regulators to emasculated flowers or by topping the plant. Conjugate levels are also low in parthenocarpic fruit induced naturally in the slender (la crys) mutant. However, levels of hexanoyl-spd increase progressively in senescing petals and ovaries, beginning at anthesis or 2 d later, respectively. PMID:12226251

  11. A case report of primary osteosarcoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Vyas, V; Rammah, A M A; Ashebu, S D; Sharaan, G M; El-Sayed, M; Jarslov, N; El-Khodary, A

    2006-01-01

    Primary osteosarcoma is one of the rare tumors affecting ovaries. This case is being reported for its rarity, along with a review of the literature. In this study, the patient, a 43-year-old woman, presented with an abdominopelvic mass. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, which revealed an extensive left ovarian mass infiltrating the uterus, small bowel, and urinary bladder. Subtotal hysterectomy and small bowel resection followed by end-to-end anastomosis and bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy were performed. Histopathology showed primary osteosarcoma of the ovary. Eighteen days after surgery, she started presenting with progressive abdominal distention and ultimately developed subacute intestinal obstruction. She was started on carboplatin and epirubicin combination but failed to respond and died of fast progressive disease. It is concluded that primary osteosarcoma of the ovary is a rare disease with poor prognosis. PMID:16515620

  12. A giant serous cystadenoma developing in an accessory ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhyittin Temiz; Ahmet Aslan; Arif Gungoren; Güvenç Diner; Sinem Karazincir

    2008-01-01

    Background  Accessory ovaries are rare anomalies and cysts arising from accessory ovaries are extremely rare. Their reported incidence\\u000a is 1\\/29,000–1\\/700,000. Establishing the diagnosis preoperatively is difficult. Radiologic methods are usually inadequate in\\u000a recognizing the origin of these tumors. Thus, they are usually confused with other intraabdominal tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  A 22-year-old nulliparous girl presented with abdominal pain and tumoral growth for 1.5 years. Abdominal

  13. Granulosa Cell Production of Anti-Mullerian Hormone Is Increased in Polycystic Ovaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Pellatt; Laurine Hanna; Mark Brincat; Ray Galea; Henrietta Brain; Saffron Whitehead; Helen Mason

    2010-01-01

    Context: There has been renewed interest in anti-Mullerian hor- mone (AMH) because of its role in the ovary. Data on its actions are sparse, but it appears to inhibit follicle growth. Interestingly, serum AMH is two to three times higher in women with polycystic ovary (PCO) syndrome than women with normal ovaries. Objective:WeexaminedtheproductionofAMHbycellsfromarange of follicle sizes from normal ovaries and

  14. Prevalence and Isotypic Complexity of the Anti-Chinese Hamster Ovary Host Cell Protein Antibodies in Normal Human Serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Xue; Rasheeda Johnson; Boris Gorovits

    2010-01-01

    Host cell-derived protein impurities may be present at low levels in biopharmaceutical products. Antibodies to host cell proteins\\u000a are present in individuals with no known exposure to these products. In this study, antibodies to drug process-specific Chinese\\u000a hamster ovary host cell-derived proteins (CHO-HCP) were measured in unexposed individuals using a validated enzyme-linked\\u000a immunosorbent assay. Samples that tested positive for anti-CHO-HCP

  15. Gonadotropin binding sites in eel ovary : Autoradiographic visualization and new data on specificity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gonadotropin binding sites in eel ovary : Autoradiographic visualization and new data. An autoradiographic study of cGTH binding sites in eel ovary indicates that they were mainly located in the follicular layers. Eel ovary membranes exhibited specific 1251 -hCG binding in vitro. In control fish we observed

  16. Variation within the Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Gene Calpain-10 and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Cox, Nancy J.

    Variation within the Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Gene Calpain-10 and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and genetic overlap between type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), CAPN10 represents a strong­2610, 2002) POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS) is a hetero- geneous endocrine disorder of premenopausal women

  17. Relationship of Calpain-10 Genotype to Phenotypic Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Cox, Nancy J.

    Relationship of Calpain-10 Genotype to Phenotypic Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome DAVID A) POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS) affects nearly 10% of reproductive age women (1, 2) making it one ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an in- creased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2

  18. Insulin Resistance Is Attenuated in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with the Pro12

    E-print Network

    Cox, Nancy J.

    Insulin Resistance Is Attenuated in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with the Pro12 Ala Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common in women of reproductive age and is associated with a high risk in Caucasian women with PCOS. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87: 772­775, 2002) POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS

  19. Insulin Resistance in the Sisters of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Association with

    E-print Network

    Wang, Steve C.

    Insulin Resistance in the Sisters of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Association This study was performed to determine whether the sisters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have Endocrinol Metab 87: 2128­2133, 2002) POLYCYSTIC OVARY syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of unknown etiology

  20. Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

  1. Determinants of emotional distress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigrid Elsenbruch; Sven Benson; Susanne Hahn; Susanne Tan; Klaus Mann; Katja Pleger; Rainer Kimmig; Onno E. Janssen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The goals were to analyse the incidence of mental distress in women with untreated polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using self-report measures, to characterize PCOS patients at risk for psychiatric disease with regard to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and to assess the impact of emotional distress on quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Complete metabolic, hormonal, clinical and self-report psychological

  2. Staging ovaries of Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus): implications for maturity indices

    E-print Network

    90 Staging ovaries of Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus): implications for maturity indices Service, NOAA. Abstract--We build on recent efforts to standardize maturation staging methods through the development of a field-proof macroscopic ovarian maturity index for Haddock (Me- lanogrammus aeglefinus

  3. Adenylylcyclase Supersensitization in -Opioid Receptor-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary

    E-print Network

    Vogel, Zvi

    Adenylylcyclase Supersensitization in -Opioid Receptor-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Following Chronic Opioid Treatment* (Received for publication, September 13, 1995) Tomer Avidor with rat -opioid receptor cDNA, we show that the -agonists morphine and [D-Ala2 , N-methyl-Phe4 ,Gly-ol5

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease: A Premature Association?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD S. LEGRO

    2003-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often as- sumed, a priori, to be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), given the high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome X among them. There is, however, no single defini- tion of PCOS, and for that reason a comparison of studies that have analyzed its association with CVD is compromised from the

  5. The role of lifestyle modification in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Norman; Michael J. Davies; Jonathan Lord; Lisa J. Moran

    2002-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition with reproductive and metabolic consequences, including anovulation, infertility and an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Obesity, central obesity and insulin resistance are strongly implicated in its etiology and reduction of these risk factors should be a central treatment focus. Short-term weight loss has been consistently successful in reducing insulin resistance and

  6. Ultrasound criteria in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William U Atiomo; Sally Pearson; Steve Shaw; Archibald Prentice; Paul Dubbins

    2000-01-01

    Not all women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on ultrasound (US) will have the syndrome, and clinical and biochemical features of PCOS may be present without US features. The sensitivity of US in detecting PCOS was, therefore, prospectively determined in 72 women (32 PCOS and 40 controls). The most sensitive features were the presence of 10 or more follicles

  7. Ultrasound assessment of the polycystic ovary: international consensus definitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam H. Balen; Joop S. E. Laven; Seang-Lin Tan; Didier Dewailly

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition, the pathophysiology of which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The definition of the syndrome has been much debated. Key features include menstrual cycle disturbance, hyperandrogenism and obesity. There are many extra-ovarian aspects to the pathophysiology of PCOS, yet ovarian dysfunction is central. At a recent joint ASRM\\/ESHRE consensus meeting,

  8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Migraine Headache, Is There Any Correlation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pourabolghasem; S. Najmi; M. A. Arami

    2009-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the role of some sex hormones in migraine headaches, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of headache, especially migraine, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) compared with women without this disease. Methods: One hundred and thirty-three women with PCO and 107 controls were interviewed by 2 neurologists experienced in headache

  9. Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

  10. miRNA-Dependent Translational Repression in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Reich, John; Snee, Mark J.; Macdonald, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary. PMID:19252745

  11. Fresh and cryopreserved ovary transplantation and resting follicle recruitment.

    PubMed

    Silber, Sherman; Pineda, Jorge; Lenahan, Kathleen; DeRosa, Michael; Melnick, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Ovary cryopreservation and transplantation has garnered increasing interest as a possible method to preserve fertility for cancer patients and to study ovarian resting follicle recruitment. Eleven consecutive women underwent fresh donor ovary transplantation, and 11 underwent cryopreserved ovary auto-transplantation in the same centre, with the same surgeon. Of the 11 fresh transplant recipients, who were all young but menopausal, nine women had normal ovarian cortex transplanted from an identical twin sister, and two had a fresh allograft from a non-identical sister. In the second group, 11 women with cancer had ovarian tissue cryopreserved before bone marrow transplant, and then after years of therapeutically induced menopause, underwent cryopreserved ovarian cortex autotransplantation. Recovery of ovarian function and follicle recruitment was assessed in all 22 recipients, and the potential for pregnancy was further investigated in 19 (11 fresh and 8 cryopreserved) with over 1-year follow-up. In all recipients, normal FSH levels and menstruation returned by about 150 days, and anti-Müllerian hormone reached much greater than normal concentrations by about 170 days. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels then fell below normal by about 240 days and remained at that lower level. Seventeen babies have been born to these 11 fresh and eight cryopreserved ovary transplant recipients. PMID:25892498

  12. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Winters; Richard Matthews; Nuran Ercal; Kalpana Krishnan

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine

  13. Chinese hamster ovary cells contain transcriptionally active full-length type C proviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Y S; Penuel, E M; Low, M A; Nguyen, T P; Mangahas, J O; Anderson, K P; Petropoulos, C J

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated a genomic locus from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that contains a full-length provirus. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that it is a defective member of the rodent type C retrovirus family with an env region that is similar to those of mouse amphotropic retrovirus and subgroup B feline leukemia virus. We were able to demonstrate that this provirus is a member of a closely related family of full-length proviruses in CHO cells and Chinese hamster liver. Hybridization probes generated from this genomic clone were used to characterize type C retrovirus RNA expression in CHO cells. Full-length genomic RNA and subgenomic envelope mRNA were detected in CHO cell lines but not in the human-derived 293 cell line. Interestingly, we discovered that the site of retrovirus integration lies within a G repeat sequence belonging to the short interspersed element family of retroposons. Images PMID:7966574

  14. [Difficulties and pitfalls in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel; Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Rocha, Michelle Patrocínio

    2011-02-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrinopathies, affecting approximately 7% of women of reproductive age. Although it was described in 1935, only in 1990 was published the first Consensus regarding it its diagnosis. Today, the syndrome is also considered a cardiovascular risk factor, with a high prevalence of metabolic disorders. Reflecting this new vision of the syndrome, several documents, including Consensus, Statement and Guidelines have been published, addressing different aspects of the syndrome. This review is an analysis of documents obtained through a survey in the PubMed database, using the keywords "polycystic ovary syndrome", "hyperandrogenism" and "hirsutism", separately, taking as limiting the term Type of Article (Practice Guideline, Consensus Development Conference, Guideline) without limitation of time, language and age, having been selected only those documents prepared under the sponsorship of Medical Entities and with more than one author. PMID:21468515

  15. Preliminary observations on whole-ovary xenotransplantation as an experimental model for fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Nichols-Burns, Stephanie M; Lotz, Laura; Schneider, Heike; Adamek, Edyta; Daniel, Christoph; Stief, Andrea; Grigo, Christina; Klump, Dorothee; Hoffmann, Inge; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian tissue preservation and retransplantation is a promising strategy to restore fertility in cancer survivors. Ischaemia accompanying ovarian tissue grafting, however, can lead to significant follicle loss. Transplantation of the whole ovary by vascular anastomosis has been considered as an alternative to prevent widespread ischaemic damage. In this study, the feasibility and function of transplanting whole ovary with intact vasculature were evaluated, with the goal of developing a xenograft model for studies using donated human ovaries. Whole-swine ovaries with vascular pedicles were perfused and transplanted as intact ovaries by anastomosis into irradiated ovariectomized nude rats (n = 10). The observation period was between 1 and 4 weeks. Fresh swine ovaries served as controls (n = 10). Ovarian stroma and follicle populations were assessed through histological examination in both transplanted and control ovaries. Most of the transplanted whole ovaries (n = 6) maintained stromal quality and all preantral follicle classes were represented, although follicle numbers decreased compared with fresh control. Four transplanted ovaries were fibrotic after 1-4 weeks within the nude rat. Our results demonstrate transplantation of whole-pig ovary into nude rats is possible and support development of this xenograft model system for human studies. PMID:25246124

  16. Wilms' tumor of the ovary: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baran Tokar

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of true extrarenal Wilms' tumor is extremely rare. The most frequently noted extrarenal sites are the retroperitoneal and inguinal regions. In the female genital tract, the occurrence of Wilms' tumor has been documented in the uterus, endocervix, and ovary in isolated case reports. In this article the authors describe a case of ovarian Wilms' tumor in a 3.5-year-old

  17. Insulin resistance, polycystic ovary syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Ovalle; Ricardo Azziz

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To review the definition and prevalence of two insulin resistance (IR)-associated phenotypes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as the risk and nature of their simultaneous presentation.Design: Review of published literature.Result(s): Insulin resistance affects between 10% and 25% of the general population. Two common disorders frequently associated with IR are PCOS, affecting 4% to

  18. Developmental origin of polycystic ovary syndrome - a hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D H Abbott; D A Dumesic; S Franks

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome,(PCOS) is a common,but complex,endocrine,disorder and,is a major cause of anovulation and consequent subfertility. It is also associated with a metabolic disturbance, characterized by hyper- insulinaemia and insulin resistance that carries an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. Despite its prevalence little is known about its aetiology, but there is increasing evidence for an

  19. Menstrual Cyclicity After Metformin Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsy Velázquez M; Arnaldo Acosta; Soaira G Mendoza

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of insulin-lowering treatment on menstrual cyclicity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Forty oligoamenorrheic women with PCOS were recruited in a prospective clinical study to receive metformin for a minimum period of 6 months. Twenty-two women completed the study. Serum LH, FSH, free testosterone, and glucose and insulin response to oral glucose load were measured both

  20. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Sleep Apnea, and Daytime Sleepiness and Fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandros N. Vgontzas; Susan Calhoun

    Although the study of sleep disorders in the general population as well as in specific groups (i.e., patients with hypothyroidism,\\u000a peptic, ulcer, hypertension, and others) can be traced to the first sleep disorder clinics in the 1960s [1–3], the interest\\u000a and published literature on sleep disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is very recent. It was only in 2001 that

  1. Salvage radiotherapy for carcinoma of the ovary following chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Y. C. Cheung

    1988-01-01

    Following single-agent or combination chemotherapy, 9 patients with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary had elective second-look laparotomy. Macroscopic intraperitoneal disease was resected in 4 patients. Therefore, after the laparotomy, all 9 patients had only biopsy-proven, microscopic residual disease, and they received whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Hematological tolerance was satisfactory, with only 2 patients developing asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Mild gastrointestinal reactions, while frequent

  2. Effective Regimens for Ovulation Induction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juha S. Tapanainen; Laure Morin-Papunen

    Several approaches have been used for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight reduction\\u000a should be recommended for obese women, because even 5% weight loss can be effective. Recent analyses still support the effectiveness\\u000a of clomiphene citrate (CC) as a first-line medical therapy. Of anovulatory women with PCOS, about 70% will ovulate in response\\u000a to CC, and

  3. AROMATASE EXCESS IN CANCERS OF BREAST, ENDOMETRIUM AND OVARY

    PubMed Central

    Bulun, Serdar E.; Chen, Dong; Lu, Meiling; Zhao, Hong; Cheng, Youhong; Demura, Masashi; Yilmaz, Bertan; Martin, Regina; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Thung, Steven; Su, Emily; Marsh, Erica; Hakim, Amy; Yin, Ping; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Amin, Sanober; Imir, Gonca; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Erkut; Reierstat, Scott; Innes, Joy; Lin, Zhihong

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis and growth of three common women’s cancers (breast, endometrium and ovary) are linked to estrogen. A single gene encodes the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis named aromatase, inhibition of which effectively eliminates estrogen production in the entire body. Aromatase inhibitors successfully treat breast cancer, whereas their roles in endometrial and ovarian cancers are less clear. Ovary, testis, adipose tissue, skin, hypothalamus and placenta express aromatase normally, whereas breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers overexpress aromatase and produce local estrogen exerting paracrine and intracrine effects. Tissue-specific promoters distributed over a 93-kilobase regulatory region upstream of a common coding region alternatively control aromatase expression. A distinct set of transcription factors regulates each promoter in a signaling pathway- and tissue-specific manner. In cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary, aromatase expression is primarly regulated by increased activity of the proximally located promoter I.3/II region. Promoters I.3 and II lie 215 bp from each other and are coordinately stimulated by PGE2 via a cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway. In breast adipose fibroblasts exposed to PGE2 secreted by malignant epithelial cells, activation of PKC potentiates cAMP-PKA-dependent induction of aromatase. Thus, inflammatory substances such as PGE2 may play important roles in inducing local production of estrogen that promotes tumor growth. PMID:17590327

  4. Follicle dynamics and global organization in the intact mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Faire, Mehlika; Skillern, Amanda; Arora, Ripla; Nguyen, Daniel H; Wang, Jason; Chamberlain, Chester; German, Michael S; Fung, Jennifer C; Laird, Diana J

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of tissues and organs can reveal large-scale patterning as well as the impact of perturbations and aging on biological architecture. Here we develop tools for imaging of single cells in intact organs and computational approaches to assess spatial relationships in 3D. In the mouse ovary, we use nuclear volume of the oocyte to read out quiescence or growth of oocyte-somatic cell units known as follicles. This in-ovary quantification of non-growing follicle dynamics from neonate to adult fits a mathematical function, which corroborates the model of fixed oocyte reserve. Mapping approaches show that radial organization of folliculogenesis established in the newborn ovary is preserved through adulthood. By contrast, inter-follicle clustering increases during aging with different dynamics depending on size. These broadly applicable tools can reveal high dimensional phenotypes and age-related architectural changes in other organs. In the adult mouse pancreas, we find stochastic radial organization of the islets of Langerhans but evidence for localized interactions among the smallest islets. PMID:25889274

  5. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size. PMID:24788203

  6. Regulation of behaviorally associated gene networks in worker honey bee ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Kocher, Sarah D.; Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Grozinger, Christina M.; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Several lines of evidence support genetic links between ovary size and division of labor in worker honey bees. However, it is largely unknown how ovaries influence behavior. To address this question, we first performed transcriptional profiling on worker ovaries from two genotypes that differ in social behavior and ovary size. Then, we contrasted the differentially expressed ovarian genes with six sets of available brain transcriptomes. Finally, we probed behavior-related candidate gene networks in wild-type ovaries of different sizes. We found differential expression in 2151 ovarian transcripts in these artificially selected honey bee strains, corresponding to approximately 20.3% of the predicted gene set of honey bees. Differences in gene expression overlapped significantly with changes in the brain transcriptomes. Differentially expressed genes were associated with neural signal transmission (tyramine receptor, TYR) and ecdysteroid signaling; two independently tested nuclear hormone receptors (HR46 and ftz-f1) were also significantly correlated with ovary size in wild-type bees. We suggest that the correspondence between ovary and brain transcriptomes identified here indicates systemic regulatory networks among hormones (juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids), pheromones (queen mandibular pheromone), reproductive organs and nervous tissues in worker honey bees. Furthermore, robust correlations between ovary size and neuraland endocrine response genes are consistent with the hypothesized roles of the ovaries in honey bee behavioral regulation. PMID:22162860

  7. [Comparative histological study of the reproductive system of the female llama (Lama guanicoe glama). I. Ovary].

    PubMed

    Arias, P; Feder, F H; Porcel, R; Cox, J

    1992-12-01

    In the present study a cytological, histological and morphometrical comparison between the ovaries of the llama, the cow and the sheep is presented, at two phases of the ovarian cycle. There were found differences in the amount of primordial and primary follicles, the size of secondary follicles and follicular cells, and type and distribution of the connective tissue inside the stroma of the ovary. It would be necessary to study the fine structure of the ovary and the so-called "embryological remnants", for its permanent appearance in most (50%) of the ovaries. PMID:1489107

  8. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the PMSG-primed immature rat ovary and its effect on ovulation in the isolated rat ovary perfused in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G; Jörgensen, J; Kannisto, P; Liedberg, F; Ottesen, B; Owman, C

    1990-11-01

    The immature rat ovary contains VIP immunoreactive nerve fibres sparsely distributed around blood vessels, in the interstitial gland and around follicles. The VIP concentration, measured radioimmunologically, decreased significantly after PMSG treatment (10 i.u.), probably due to ovarian enlargement and oedema, while the total VIP content (total of 0.12 pmol in both ovaries) did not change after PMSG priming. The ovulatory effect of VIP was studied using in-vitro perfused ovaries from immature 28-day-old rats primed with 10 i.u. PMSG. In all ovaries perfused, VIP (10(-7) M) induced ovulations with a rate of 2.33 +/- 0.56. The ovulation rate was significantly lower than that of ovaries stimulated by LH (0.1 microgram/ml) (5.20 +/- 0.86 ovulations per ovary). No synergistic effect on the ovulation rate was seen when LH and VIP were administered together (5.20 +/- 0.49 ovulations per ovary). The results suggest that the neuropeptide VIP may represent one of the local factors involved in the ovulation process. PMID:2250246

  9. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: Is there a role of histology-specific treatment?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0); however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1?cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1?cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC) was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease. PMID:22655678

  10. Nitric Oxide-Induced Polycystic Ovaries in The Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Fatemeh; 1, Ph.D. 1; Jalali Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) involves in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a cause of infertility in women during the reproductive age. The PCOS is now categorized as an inflammatory phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NO, a proinflammatory agent, in this syndrome at histological and biochemical levels. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, animals were female Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g) kept under standard conditions. L-Arginine (50-200 mg/kg), a precursor of NO, was injected intra-peritoneally (i.p.) through a period ranging from 9 to14 days/ once a day. The rats' estrous cycle was studied using Papanicolaou test; those showing phase of Diestrous were grouped into experimental and control groups. The control group solely received saline (1 ml/kg, i.p.) throughout all experiments. To evaluate the inflammatory effect of NO, the rats were treated an anti-inflammatory agent, naloxone hydrochloride (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), prior to L-arginine. At the end of the treatment period all animals’ ovaries were assessed for histopathological and histochemical investigations. Also, activation of NO synthase (NOS) in the experiments was studied using NADPH-diaphorase technique. Results The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics in contrast to those collected from control or naloxone pretreated groups, based on image analysis. A difference in enzyme activation was also shown in the sections that belonged to the groups that received L-arginine when compared with the pre-naloxone and control groups. Conclusion Based on these results, we believe that NO may play a major role in the pathophysiology of PCOS. PMID:25493168

  11. Quantitative mutagenesis and mutagen screening with Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, A.W.; San Sebastian, J.R.; Tan, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented on the development of a specific gene mutation assay, the Chinese hamster ovary cells/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system, and the utilization of this system to study structure-activity relationship affecting cytotoxicity and gene mutation by various carcinogens. Then, preliminary development and validation of a Multiplex CHO System for the simultaneous determination of chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange in addition to cytotoxicity and gene mutation is presented. The potential use of a CHO/human cell hybrid system for measuring chromosomal deletion and loss is discussed.

  12. Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of Ovary: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Menka; Khanna, Ashish; Manjari, Mridu

    2012-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is an extremely rare and distinctive sex cord stromal tumor which occurs predominantly in the second and third decades of life. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who developed a sclerosing stromal tumor of ovary and presented with irregular menstruation and pelvic pain. Her hormonal status was normal but CA-125 was raised. She was suspected to have a malignant tumor on computed tomography and underwent bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy. It is therefore necessary to keep in mind the possibility of sclerosing stromal tumor in a young woman. PMID:23097733

  13. Partial characterization of the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody to Ascaris suum ovary extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Inoue; M. Takashima; S. Murakami; T. Watanabe

    2007-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody produced against ovary extracts from the worm Ascaris suum showed immunoreactivity against granules in the rachis and oocytes, the inner layer of the eggshell and the middle layer of some egg, but not against either ovary wall or uterus wall. Furthermore, the same antigens were detected on the body surface of migrated larva in guinea pig lung,

  14. Synchronous occurrence of primary malignant mixed müllerian tumor in ovary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Yeon; Lee, Chulmin; Choi, Won Jun; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2013-07-01

    Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) arising from female internal genitalia is rare with the uterine corpus being the most prevalently affected site. It is even more rare when it occurs on both uterus and ovary at the same time. We describe a case of synchronized occurrence of MMMT on ovary and uterine adenosarcoma with review of literature. PMID:24328014

  15. Structural homology and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification in Lithophragma (Saxifragaceae).

    PubMed

    Kuzoff, R K; Hufford, L; Soltis, D E

    2001-02-01

    Lithophragma, comprising only ten species, encompasses a remarkable diversity of ovary positions, reported to range from inferior to superior. The structural homology of the gynoecium and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification are investigated for Lithophragma. Scanning electron and light microscopy indicate that all species of Lithophragma have epigynous flowers. Lithophragma campanulatum, L. glabrum, and L. heterophyllum have ovaries that externally appear nearly superior, but are actually shallowly inferior or "pseudosuperior." The inferior ovaries of Lithophragma species can be conceptually divided into superior and inferior regions that meet at the point of perianth and androecial insertion. Static and ontogenetic allometry reveal that across the species of Lithophragma the lengths of these two ovary regions are coordinated. Ovary regions in mature flowers display an approximately linear relationship that can be expressed through the allometric equation SL = -0.5314 IL + 2.0348 (where SL and IL are the lengths of the superior and inferior regions of the ovary, respectively; r = 0.7683, df = 35, P = 2.45 × 10). Mapping ontogenetic allometries onto a recent phylogeny for Lithophragma shows that ovary position evolution is bidirectional and has shifted toward greater superiority in some species and greater inferiority in others. PMID:11222242

  16. Very early and transient 17 ?-estradiol secretion by fetal sheep ovary. In vitro study.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and was supplemented by fetal calf serum, chick embryo extracts or pregnant ewe serum pretreated for 30 min with activeVery early and transient 17 ?-estradiol secretion by fetal sheep ovary. In vitro study. P Monnaie, France It is generally considered that in mammals, steroidogenesis occurs later in fetal ovary

  17. Thirty-Seven Candidate Genes for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Strongest Evidence for Linkage Is with Follistatin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margrit Urbanek; Richard S. Legro; Deborah A. Driscoll; Ricardo Azziz; David A. Ehrmann; Robert J. Norman; Jerome F. Strauss III; Richard S. Spielman; Andrea Dunaif

    1999-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder of women, characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. It is a leading cause of female infertility and is associated with polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and insulin resistance. We tested a carefully chosen collection of 37 candidate genes for linkage and association with PCOS or hyperandrogenemia in data from 150 families. The

  18. Mortality of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome at Long-term Follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pierpoint; P. M. McKeigue; A. J. Isaacs; S. H. Wild; H. S. Jacobs

    1998-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances associated with insulin resistance are present in most women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This has led to suggestions that women with polycystic ovary syndrome may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. We undertook a long-term follow-up study to test whether cardiovascular mortality is increased in these women. A total of 786 women diagnosed with

  19. Endophytic and pathogenic fungi of developing cranberry ovaries from flower to mature fruit: diversity and succession

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culturable fungal population diversity and succession were investigated in developing cranberry ovaries of fruit rot-resistant and rot-susceptible cranberry selections, from flower through mature fruit. Fungi were recovered in culture from 1185 of 1338 ovary tissues collected from June to September,...

  20. Gene Clustering Based on RNAi Phenotypes of Ovary-Enriched Genes in C. elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Piano; Aaron J. Schetter; Diane G. Morton; Kristin C. Gunsalus; Valerie Reinke; Stuart K. Kim; Kenneth J. Kemphues

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a set of 766 genes that are enriched in the ovary as compared to the soma was identified by microarray analysis [1]. Here, we report a functional analysis of 98% of these genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Over half the genes tested showed at least one detectable phenotype, most commonly embryonic lethality, consistent with the expectation that ovary transcripts

  1. Insulin and hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste, Catherine G.; Battista, Marie-Claude; Trottier, Andréanne; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, and/or polycystic ovaries. But most experts consider that hyperandrogenism is the main characteristic of PCOS. Several theories propose different mechanisms to explain PCOS manifestations: (1) a primary enzymatic default in the ovarian and/or adrenal steroidogenesis; (2) an impairment in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion that promotes luteal hormone (LH) secretion; or (3) alterations in insulin actions that lead to insulin resistance with compensatory hyperinsulinemia. However, in the past 20 years there has been growing evidence supporting that defects in insulin actions or in the insulin signalling pathways are central in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Indeed, most women with PCOS are metabolically insulin resistant, in part due to genetic predisposition and in part secondary to obesity. But some women with typical PCOS do not display insulin resistance, which supports the hypothesis of a genetic predisposition specific to PCOS that would be revealed by the development of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia in most, but not all, women with PCOS. However, these hypotheses are not yet appropriately confirmed, and more research is still needed to unravel the true pathogenesis underlying this syndrome. The present review thus aims at discussing new concepts and findings regarding insulin actions in PCOS women and how it is related to hyperandrogenemia. PMID:20036327

  2. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Carlos; Arriaga, Monica; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Moran, Segundo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese PCOS patients. Levels of sexual hormone binding globulin are decreased, and levels of free androgens are increased in obese PCOS patients. Weight loss treatment is important for overweight or obese PCOS patients, but not necessary for normal weight PCOS patients, who only need to avoid increasing their body weight. Obesity decreases or delays several infertility treatments. The differences in the hormonal and metabolic profile, as well as the different focus and response to treatment between obese and non obese PCOS patients suggest that obesity has to be considered as a characteristic for classification of PCOS phenotypes. PMID:22829818

  3. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

    2013-06-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

  4. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise; Salö, Sofia; Englund, Anne Lis Mikkelsen; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome. PMID:25158044

  5. Radiation-induced tumors in transplanted ovaries. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

    1982-04-01

    A comparison was made of tumor induction in the ovaries of whole-body-irradiation mice (250-kV X rays, doses of 0.25-4.00 Gy) or in ovaries irradiated in vivo and then transplanted intramuscularly into castrated syngeneic hosts. The form of the dose-induction relationships was similar in the two cases, showing a steeply rising branch at doses up to 0.75 Gy followed by a maximum and an elevated plateau up to 4.00 Gy. A higher incidence of tumors in transplanted organs was apparent for doses up to the maximum, which was attributed to castration-induced hormonal imbalance. Specific death rate analysis of mice dying with ovarian tumors showed that in this system radiation acts essentially by decreasing tumor latency. Ovarian tumors were classified in various histological types and their development in time was followed by serial sacrifice. Separate analysis of death rate of animals carrying different tumor classes allowed further resolution of the various components of the tumor induction phenomenon. It was thus possible to show that the overall death rate analysis masks a true effect of induction of granulosa cell tumors in whole-body-irradiation animals. The transplantation technique offers little advantage for the study of radiation induction of ovarian tumor.

  6. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

  7. RNA interference mediated pten knock-down inhibit the formation of polycystic ovary.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jie-Xiu; Luo, Tao; Sun, Hui-Yun; Huang, Jian; Tang, Dan-Feng; Wu, Lei; Zheng, Yue-Hui; Zheng, Li-Ping

    2013-08-01

    Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10), a kind of tumor suppressor gene, plays important roles in female reproductive system. But its expression and roles in the formation of polycystic ovaries are yet to be known. In this study, we constructed a rat model of PCOS using norethindrone and HCG injections and found the expressions of pten mRNA and PTEN protein increased significantly in the polycystic ovary tissue by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and western blot. Furthermore, the results showed that in vivo ovaries could be effectively transfected by lentiviral vectors through the ovarian microinjection method and indicated that pten shRNA may inhibit the formation of polycystic ovaries by pten down-regulation. Our study provides new information regarding the role of PTEN in female reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:23686705

  8. Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, Hippo Represses Notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic Ovaries, Triggering the Mitosis-Endocycle Switch in the Follicular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Irles, Paula; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2014-01-01

    During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only)-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries. PMID:25426635

  9. Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of ?-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or ?-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. ?-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of ?-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  10. Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. Alpha-difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA(3), whereas that of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA(3) but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  11. Ovary organization and oogenesis in two species of Lumbriculida (Annelida, Clitellata).

    PubMed

    Urbisz, Anna Z; ?wi?tek, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe the organization of the ovary and mode of oogenesis at the ultrastructural level in two representatives of Lumbriculida -Lumbriculus variegatus and Stylodrilus heringianus. In both species studied, the ovaries are small and conically shaped structures that are attached to the intersegmental septum via a thin ligament. The ovaries are composed of germline cysts formed by germ cells interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges. As a rule, the cyst center is occupied by a poorly developed anuclear cytoplasmic mass, termed a cytophore, whereas the germ cells are located at the periphery of the cyst. Germline cysts are enveloped by somatic cells. The ovaries of the species studied are polarized, i.e., along the long axis of the ovary there is an evident gradient of germ cell development. The data obtained suggest ovary meroism, i.e., two categories of germ cells were found: oocytes, which continue meiosis, gather nutrients, grow and protrude into the body cavity, and nurse cells, which do not grow and are supposed to supply oocytes with cell organelles and macromolecules via the cytophore. The ovary structure and mode of oogenesis in the species studied were compared with those of other clitellate annelids. As a rule, in all clitellates studied to date, the ovaries are composed of germline cysts equipped with a cytophore and associated with somatic cells; however, the ovary morphology differs between taxa regarding several quantitative and qualitative features. The ovary organization and mode of oogenesis in L. variegatus and S. heringianus strongly resemble those found in Tubificinae and Branchiobdellida studied to date. Our results also support a sister-group relationship between Lumbriculida and a clade comprising ectoparasitic clitellates (i.e., Branchiobdellida, Acanthobdellida and Hirudinida) with Branchiobdellida as a plesiomorphic sister group to Acanthobdellida and Hirudinida. PMID:23375544

  12. The induction of meiosis by ovaries of newborn hamsters and its relation to the action of the extra ovarian structures

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The induction of meiosis by ovaries of newborn hamsters and its relation to the action of the extra with the degeneration of practically all germ cells. In the hamster, if ovaries are explanted before 15 days post coitum in the mesovarium. In the hamster, the separation between the ovary and the structures #12;in the mesovarium is very

  13. Correlation of spermine levels with ovary senescence and with fruit set and development in Pisum sativum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Carbonell; José L. Navarro

    1989-01-01

    Separation and quantitation of polyamines from unpollinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) ovaries and young fruits induced by application of gibberellic acid to unpollinated ovaries showed, in both cases, a decrease in putrescine and spermidine levels between anthesis and 4 d later. By contrast, spermine levels increased prior to the onset of senescence of the unpollinated ovaries (3 d post anthesis)

  14. Osteoid differentiation in mesodermal (mullerian) adenosarcoma of ovary.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trupti; Gupta, Anuja; Trivedi, Priti; Shah, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and 10 cm mass per abdominal examination. Computerized tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis revealed a heterogeneously enhancing solid cystic mass right ovarian mass and mild ascites. Surgery was performed. Specimens were sent for examination. Microscopic examination revealed an admixture of benign but occasionally atypical appearing mullerian type glands with sarcomatous stroma. Solid area showed undifferentiated tumour cells. Atypical mitoses and necrosis were also seen. Areas with extensive benign osteoid surrounded by fibroblastic stroma were also present. Glandular component showed positivity for CK-7, AE-1 and EMA while sarcomatous areas showed positivity for vimentin only. Mullerian adenosarcoma of ovary with sarcomatous overgrowth (SO) having heterologous component was confirmed. Postoperative 3 cycles of chemotherapy was given and the patient was well till date (three months after surgery). PMID:24126001

  15. Plasma apelin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gören, K?v?lc?m; Sa?söz, Nevin; Noyan, Volkan; Yücel, Aykan; Ça?layan, Osman; Bostanc?, Mehmet Sühha

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate plasma apelin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy controls. Material and Methods Plasma apelin levels, serum lipid levels, serum hormone levels, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values of 32 patients with PCOS and 31 healthy women forming the control group were checked. Results Plasma apelin levels of the PCOS group (0.350±0.083 ng/ml) were significantly higher than those of the control group (0.246±0.045 ng/ml) (p<0.001). No significant correlation was detected between apelin levels and biochemical or clinical data in PCOS group. Conclusion Plasma apelin levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients. PMID:24627671

  16. Fibrous tumours of the ovary: aetiologies and MRI features.

    PubMed

    Montoriol, P-F; Mons, A; Da Ines, D; Bourdel, N; Tixier, L; Garcier, J M

    2013-12-01

    The ovaries can be affected by a vast variety of tumours, which may be benign or malignant, solid or cystic. Although ultrasonography is often the first examination performed in the evaluation of gynaecological conditions, magnetic resonance imaging is nowadays the most accurate imaging technique in the characterization of ovarian masses. Once the ovarian origin of a pelvic mass has been determined, the detection of any fibrous component within the lesion significantly reduces the spectrum of aetiologies that should be considered. Fibrotic tissue usually displays marked low-signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences at MRI, and enhancement is mostly moderate after intravenous administration of gadolinium chelates. This review aims to provide the main diagnoses to consider at MRI whenever an ovarian tumour, both purely solid or solid and cystic, contains a fibrous component, even if minimally abundant. The corresponding key imaging features are provided. PMID:23937826

  17. Dyspnoea and the ovaries: a rare presentation of Krukenberg tumour

    PubMed Central

    Rawasia, Wasiq Faraz; Chaddha, Udit; El-Kersh, Karim; Perez, Rafael L

    2013-01-01

    Krukenberg tumour is a metastatic signet-ring adenocarcinoma of the ovary, usually with a gastrointestinal primary detected metachronously or synchronously. We present here a case of a 48?year-old woman who presented with a prolonged history of dyspnoea on exertion. Workup had revealed a pelvic mass. Thoracocentesis of her pleural effusion, with cytology, and pathology reports from her total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed a carcinoma with signet-ring cells. Immunostains were positive for CDX2, CK7 and CK20, which was highly suggestive of a gastric primary. Colonoscopy was negative, and an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a few small crater ulcers, the biopsy of which was negative for cancer. A right-sided pleurodesis was performed for the unremitting malignant effusion, and a PleurX catheter was placed in her left pleural space. She was discharged home with a very poor prognosis. PMID:23378553

  18. Dyspnoea and the ovaries: a rare presentation of Krukenberg tumour.

    PubMed

    Rawasia, Wasiq Faraz; Chaddha, Udit; El-Kersh, Karim; Perez, Rafael L

    2013-01-01

    Krukenberg tumour is a metastatic signet-ring adenocarcinoma of the ovary, usually with a gastrointestinal primary detected metachronously or synchronously. We present here a case of a 48 year-old woman who presented with a prolonged history of dyspnoea on exertion. Workup had revealed a pelvic mass. Thoracocentesis of her pleural effusion, with cytology, and pathology reports from her total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed a carcinoma with signet-ring cells. Immunostains were positive for CDX2, CK7 and CK20, which was highly suggestive of a gastric primary. Colonoscopy was negative, and an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a few small crater ulcers, the biopsy of which was negative for cancer. A right-sided pleurodesis was performed for the unremitting malignant effusion, and a PleurX catheter was placed in her left pleural space. She was discharged home with a very poor prognosis. PMID:23378553

  19. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  20. Pollination Increases Gibberellin Levels in Developing Ovaries of Seeded Varieties of Citrus.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Cheikh, W.; Perez-Botella, J.; Tadeo, F. R.; Talon, M.; Primo-Millo, E.

    1997-01-01

    Reproductive and vegetative tissues of the seeded Pineapple cultivars of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) contained the following C-13 hydroxylated gibberellins (GAs): GA53, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA1, GA29, and GA8, as well as GA97, 3-epi-GA1, and several uncharacterized GAs. The inclusion of 3-epi-GA1 as an endogenous substance was based on measurements of the isomerization rates of previously added [2H2]GA1. Pollination enhanced amounts of GA19, GA20, GA29, and GA8 in developing ovaries. Levels of GA1 increased from 5.0 to 9.5 ng/g dry weight during anthesis and were reduced thereafter. The amount of GA in mature pollen was very low. Emasculation reduced GA levels and caused a rapid 100% ovary abscission. This effect was partially counteracted by either pollination or application of GA3. In pollinated ovaries, repeated paclobutrazol applications decreased the amount of GA and increased ovary abscission, although the pattern of continuous decline was different from the sudden abscission induced by emasculation. The above results indicate that, in citrus, pollination increases GA levels and reduces ovary abscission and that the presence of exogenous GA3 in unpollinated ovaries also suppresses abscission. Evidence is also presented that pollination and GAs do not, as is generally assumed, suppress ovary abscission through the reactivation of cell division. PMID:12223728

  1. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100?IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15?M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60?min with the rate of perfusion 50?mL/h (0.8?mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  2. Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  3. Effects of carbon dioxide narcosis on ovary activation and gene expression in worker honeybees, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Koywiwattrakul, Preeyada; Thompson, Graham J; Sitthipraneed, Sririporn; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to uncover genes associated with ovary activation in honey bee workers, the extent to which eight candidate genes co-varied in their expression with experimentally-induced changes in worker reproductive state was examined. Groups of caged, queenless workers narcotized with CO(2) on consecutive days early in adult life showed a significantly lower level of ovary activation than did groups of untreated workers. This same experimental treatment, by contrast, is known to accelerate ovary activation and induce egg laying in virgin honey bee queens--an observation that suggests that CO(2) narcosis has contrasting effects in queen versus worker ovary activation. Experimentally-induced changes to worker reproductive state were associated with changes in gene expression. Vitellogenin, an egg yolk precursor, and transferrin, an iron transporter, were two transcripts found to be significantly down-regulated as a function of the ovary-inhibiting treatment. CO(2) narcosis did not effect the expression of six other genes selected as putative markers for processes that may underlie ovary activation. The show that the expression of vitellogenin and transferrin is correlated with ovary activation in workers, and may therefore be part of the gene network involved in the regulatory control of functional sterility in honeybees. PMID:17119618

  4. Changes in Polyamine Biosynthesis Associated with Postfertilization Growth and Development in Tobacco Ovary Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Robert D.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyamine (PA) titers and the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17), enzymes which catalyze rate-limiting steps in PA biosynthesis, were monitored during tobacco ovary maturation. In the period between anthesis and fertilization, the protein content of ovary tissues rapidly increased by about 40% and was accompanied by approximately a 3-fold increase in ODC activity, while ADC activity remained nearly constant. PA titers also remained relatively unchanged until fertilization, at which time they increased dramatically and the DNA content of ovary tissues doubled. This increase in PA biosynthesis was correlated with a further 3-fold increase in ODC activity, reaching a maximum 3 to 4 days after fertilization. During this time, ADC activity increased only slightly and accounted for approximately 1% of the total decarboxylase activity when ODC activity peaked. The postfertilization burst of biosynthetic activities slightly preceded a period of rapid ovary enlargement, presumably due to new cell division. During later stages of ovary development, DNA levels fell precipitously, while PA titers and decarboxylase activities decreased to preanthesis levels more slowly. In this period, growth producing a 300% increase in ovary fresh weight appears to be the result of cell enlargement. Synchronous changes in PA titers and in the rates of PA biosynthesis, macromolecular synthesis, and growth in the tobacco ovary suggest that PAs may play a role in the regulation of postfertilization growth and development of this reproductive organ. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11540835

  5. Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y-C; Chen, C-A; Huang, C-Y; Hsieh, C-Y; Cheng, W-F

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of malignancy in the endometrium and ovary represents an uncommon event. The objective of the study was to clarify the possible factors that influenced on the survival. From 1977 to 2005, totally 27 patients fulfilled the criteria and were included in the study. The medical records and the pathologic reports were reviewed. The histologic determination was followed by the World Health Organization Committee classification, and cancer stage was based on the staging system of the FIGO. The Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were generated and compared by the log-rank test. The incidence of synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers was 3.3% in patients with endometrial cancer and 2.7% in patients with ovarian cancer. The mean survival in the group of similar histology (n= 15) was 63 months, and 48 months in the group of dissimilar histology (n= 12) (P= 0.63). The mean survival in the group of early stage (n= 21) was 68 months and 15 months in the group of advanced stage (n= 6) with statistic significance (P= 0.0003). However, the impact of adjuvant therapy on survival did not reach statistic significance (P= 0.15 for chemotherapy; P= 0.69 for radiotherapy). We conclude that the majority of the patients belonged to concordant endometrioid histology in endometrium and ovary, and it tends to be early stage and low grade with favorable prognosis. The stage had more significant influence on the survival than the histology. Adjuvant therapy should be given especially in patients with advanced stage although the optimal management remained to be determined. PMID:17506847

  6. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have successful embryo arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Baoli; Hao, Haoying; Wei, Duo; Song, Xiaobing; Xie, Juanke; Zhang, Cuilian

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we investigate the relationship between embryo arrest and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). In this study, 667 subjects were enrolled, including 330 patients with PCOS and 337 subjects without PCOS. The subjects underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) cycles at the Reproductive Medical Centre of Henan Provincial Hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Four protocols were used to stimulate the ovaries, including long protocol, super-long down-regulation protocol, short protocol and antagonist protocol. Oocytes were retrieved using transvaginal ultrasound guidance. Pronuclei were checked on the next morning after IVF/ICSI. Cleavage stage embryo was assessed after 62-66 hours. Women with PCOS had significantly elevated body mass index, basal luteinizing hormone, estradiol and testosterone compared with normal women. Basal Follicle stimulating hormone level in PCOS patients was lower compared with that in control group. After IVF-ET, PCOS patients had more available oocytes than subjects in control group. PCOS patients had slightly lower fertilization rate than the controls in IVF cycles, but in ICSI cycles, fertilization rate in PCOS patients was significantly higher than that in controls. For either IVF or ICSI, the embryo arrest rate was not changed by PCOS. Moreover, there was no significant difference in embryo arrest rate between both groups adopting different stimulation protocols. Interestingly, embryo arrest rate was not correlated with testosterone for patients in PCOS group. The data indicated that patients with PCOS had successful early embryo arrest during IVF-ET. PMID:26131233

  7. Struma ovarii with elevated ca-125 levels and ascites mimicking advanced ca ovary.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Navin Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

  8. The Genomic Sequence of the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) K1 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xun; Nagarajan, Harish; Lewis, Nathan E.; Pan, Shengkai; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Xin; Chen, Wenbin; Xie, Min; Wang, Wenliang; Hammond, Stephanie; Andersen, Mikael R.; Neff, Norma; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Fan, H. Christina; Wang, Jianbin; Gui, Yaoting; Lee, Kelvin H.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Famili, Iman; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins and antibodies represent a $125 billion annual market. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here, we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45Gb genomic sequence with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most scaffolds to 21 microfluidically-isolated chromosomes to identify chromosomal locations of genes. Furthermore, we investigate genes involved in glycosylation, which affects therapeutic protein quality, and viral susceptibility genes, which affect cell engineering and regulatory concerns. Specifically, homologs for most human glycosylation-associated genes are identified in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 are not expressed under exponential growth. In addition, many important viral entry genes are present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance property of CHO cell lines. We demonstrate how the availability of this genome sequence may facilitate genome-scale science for biopharmaceutical protein production. PMID:21804562

  9. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kaina, B.; Lohrer, H.; Karin, M.; Herrlich, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-04-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions.

  10. Detection of biosynthetic intermediates in proteoglycan-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, R.I.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants lacking xylosyltransferase or galactosyltransferase I do not synthesize mature proteoglycans. The authors predicted that the mutants would accumulate biosynthetic intermediates upstream from the block imposed by mutation. Using the fusogenic properties of vesicular stomatitis virus, the authors fused monolayers composed of galactosyltransferase I-deficient cells with virus-infected xylosyltransferase-deficient cells. Immediately following fusion the cells were pulse-labelled with /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ for one hour. Quantification of radioactive products showed that the mutants contained biosynthetically active intermediates that proceeded to mature glycosaminoglycans. The production of glycosaminoglycan was dependent on fusion, and fusion of each mutant to itself did not result in radioactive product. Analysis of the newly made glycosaminoglycans through HPLC anion-exchange chromatography showed that the fused cells synthesized heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in about the same proportion as wildtype cells. These findings suggest that the mutants accumulate precursors to both families of proteoglycans. They also found that progeny virus from infected CHO cells contain proteoglycans, presumably derived from the plasma membrane. This observation suggests that the virus can be used to isolate intermediates accumulating in the mutants.

  11. Steroidogenic relationships of gonadotrophin hormones in the ovary of the hen (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Robinson, F E; Etches, R J; Anderson-Langmuir, C E; Burke, W H; Cheng, K W; Cunningham, F J; Ishii, S; Sharp, P J; Talbot, R T

    1988-03-01

    The effects of chicken luteinizing hormone (cLH: IRC-2 and PRC AE1-1), turkey LH (B221B and HS-5-18), bovine follicle-stimulating hormone (bFSH: HS-2-17), chicken FSH (cFSH: PRC DC3(2) and AGCQSQ113445C), and turkey FSH (B150A and HS-1-153) on steroid output were evaluated by in vitro incubation of various ovarian tissues with the gonadotrophins. Output of androstenedione and estradiol was determined by 3-hr incubations of individual whole small follicles, classified by size and color as follows: small white (SWF, less than 1 mm), large white (LWF, 2-3 mm), and small yellow follicles (SYF, 5-10 mm). The effects of gonadotrophin preparations were also evaluated in large preovulatory follicles (F1-F5). Androstenedione and estradiol output was measured in incubation media from 100,000 theca cells and progesterone content was determined in the incubation media of 100,000 granulosa cells. All incubations were conducted in 1 ml of Medium 199 at 37 degrees. Steroid output was quantitated by radioimmunoassay of incubation media. Potency estimates were derived by calculation of a peak stimulation index. The standard reference preparation was bLH (NIAMDD-LH-B4). Steroidogenesis was stimulated by three avian LH preparations. preparations. PRC AE1-1 was the most potent, with IRC-2 and B150A showing approximately 50% of the biological activity of PRC AE1-1 in most tissues. Turkey LH HS-5-18 was generally not potent. The presence of multiple isohormones of LH was implied, as various LH preparations exhibited different potency estimates in different tissues. The effects of FSH on steroidogenesis were not significant in most cases. Although the addition of cFSH AGCQSQ113445C failed to significantly increase output of estradiol from small follicles, potency estimates of this preparation were 0.15, 0.20, and 0.13 relative to NIAMDD-LH-B4 follicles was more highly stimulated by LH than by FSH, and thus it would seem that FSH does not play a significant role in steroidogenesis in the hen's ovary. The results of this study suggest that steroid biosynthesis in the hen's ovary may be regulated by multiple forms of LH. PMID:3129332

  12. The structure of the ovary and oogenesis in the earthworm, Dendrobaena veneta (Annelida, Clitellata).

    PubMed

    Siekierska, E

    2003-08-01

    The structure of the ovary and the type of oogenesis were determined in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Oligochaeta, Haplotaxida, Lumbricidae) with histological, electron-microscopic and immunocytochemical methods. In this species the ovary is of the alimentary, nutrimentary type because it contains oocytes and the nurse cells (trophocytes). The ovarian stroma is built by somatic cells, the processes of which are connected to each other via numerous desmosomes. The somatic cells and their processes envelop the germ cells tightly and play a supportive role. Oogonia, oocytes and trophocytes are arranged in distinct zones in the ovary. Trophocytes form chains of cells, which are interconnected by intercellular bridges. Numerous microtubules are located within the latter. The oocytes are distally arranged in the ovary. Vitellogenesis involves both auto- and heterosyntheses. The results obtained were compared with the reports on oogenesis in other representatives of Annelida. PMID:12921708

  13. Wolbachia Infect Ovaries in the Course of Their Maturation: Last Minute Passengers and Priority Travellers?

    PubMed Central

    Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers). PMID:24722673

  14. Prevalence and predictors of dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S Legro; Allen R Kunselman; Andrea Dunaif

    2001-01-01

    PurposeWomen with polycystic ovary syndrome are hyperandrogenemic and insulin resistant, which are associated with alterations in circulating lipid and lipoprotein levels. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, lipid abnormalities in these women.

  15. Novel approaches to the development and assessment of an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome 

    E-print Network

    Hogg, Kirsten

    2011-11-25

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive, endocrine and metabolic disorder present in women of reproductive age. Despite the widespread prevalence and heritability of PCOS, the heterogeneous and polygenic ...

  16. Metformin and weight loss in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: comparison of doses 

    E-print Network

    Harborne, L. R.; Sattar, N.; Norman, J. E.; Fleming, R.

    CONTEXT: Metformin treatment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is widespread, as determined by studies with diverse patient populations. No comparative examination of weight changes or metabolite responses to different doses has been...

  17. Metformin or antiandrogen in the treatment of hirsutism in polycystic ovary syndrome 

    E-print Network

    Harborne, L.; Fleming, R.; Lyall, H.; Sattar, N.; Norman, J.

    Hirsutism is a common and distressing symptom frequently encountered in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), who also show relative insulin resistance. The aim of this trial, in which hirsutism was the primary end ...

  18. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

  19. Worker honey bee ovary development: seasonal variation and the influence of larval and adult nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley E. R. Hoover; Heather A. Higo; Mark L. Winston

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of larval and adult nutrition on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) ovary development. Workers were fed high or low-pollen diets as larvae, and high or low-protein diets as adults. Workers\\u000a fed low-protein diets at both life stages had the lowest levels of ovary development, followed by those fed high-protein diets\\u000a as larvae and low- quality

  20. Carotid atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Initial results from a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Guzick; Evelyn O. Talbott; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Holly C. Herzog; Lewis H. Kuller; Sidney K. Wolfson

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome have greater subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by carotid artery ultrasonography. STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen premenopausal women ?40 years old with a history of clinical polycystic ovary syndrome and a current total testosterone concentration ?2.0 nmol\\/L and 16 age-matched (±5 years) cycling women underwent carotid scanning. Intima-media thickness and plaque

  1. Effect of the Growth Retardant 3,5-Dioxo-4-butyryl-cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester, an Acylcyclohexanedione Compound, on Fruit Growth and Gibberellin Content of Pollinated and Unpollinated Ovaries in Pea.

    PubMed Central

    Santes, C. M.; Garcia-Martinez, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of pollinated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska, line V1) ovaries with 3,5-dioxo-4-butyryl-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester (LAB), an acylcyclohexanedione derivative that competitively inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent gibberellin (GA) dioxygenases, caused a reduction of pod elongation proportional to the amount of inhibitor applied. The effect of LAB was counteracted by GA1 and GA3, and partially by GA20. The inhibitor decreased the contents of GA1 and GA3 (the purported active GAs) and GA8, increased those of GA19 and GA20, and did not affect that of GA29 in both the pod and the developing seeds. These results provide evidence that GA1 and/or GA3 control pod development in pea and show that GA20 is not active per se. In contrast to its effect on pollinated ovaries, LAB promoted parthenocarpic development of unpollinated ovaries, which is associated with an increase of GA1 and GA8 content. The inhibitor enhanced the response of unpollinated ovaries to GA1 and GA20, but it did not alter the response to GA3. LAB is proposed to promote parthenocarpic development and enhance the response to exogenous GAs by blocking the 2[beta]-hydroxylation of GA1 more efficiently than 3[beta]-hydroxylation of GA20. PMID:12228489

  2. The application of three-dimensional internal structure microscopy in the observation of mare ovary.

    PubMed

    Kimur, J; Tsukise, A; Yokota, H; Nambo, Y; Higuchi, T

    2001-10-01

    The ovary of the mare has a unique structure which differs totally from that of other mammals. However, because of its relatively large size, conventional histological techniques were unsuitable for the observation of the internal structure of the whole ovary. Three-dimensional internal structure microscopy (3D-ISM) consists of a cryotome-CCD camera-laser disc recorder-PC-based control system coupled with a graphic workstation. The internal structure of the ovary is observed by processing over more than 1,000 stored images of serially sliced surfaces of each frozen equine ovary. The 3D reconstruction was done using the full-coloured, volume-rendering method. The relationship between the localization of medulla, cortex and ovulation fossa was clarified. The ovulation fossa is localized in the centre of the ovary and is surrounded by a broad ovarian cortex. A trace of ovulation was observed only at the ovulation fossa. Medulla are localized in narrow peripheral areas. The phenomenon of the competition to occupy the cortical area ahead of the ovulation fossa by developing secondary follicles was visualized. Spatial localization of various sized follicles was identified from 3D-reconstructed images. In this study, it has been clarified that application or this novel computerized technique can clarify the anatomical arrangements of the equine ovary and the complex mechanism of equine follicular development. PMID:11688742

  3. Influence of alkyltransferase activity and chromosomal locus on mutational hotspots in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Belouchi, A; Ouimet, M; Dion, P; Gaudreault, N; Bradley, W E

    1996-01-01

    High-density mutational spectra have been established for exon 3 of the gene encoding adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line derivative D422 and closely related and/or modified lines by using the mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The total number of selectable sites (GC-->AT transitions yielding a selectable APRT- phenotype) was estimated at 31 based on our own accumulated data base of 136 sequenced exon 3 mutations and on literature reports. D422 and two other APRT hemizygous lines each yielded very similar spectra and showed two populations of mutable sites: (i) 24 "baseline" sites that followed the Poisson distribution and therefore were equally susceptible to mutation and (ii) two hotspots, one comprising a cluster at nucleotides 1293-1309 and the other at nucleotide 1365. Collectively, the latter sites were about 10-fold more frequently mutated than the others. CHO cells are mer- as they lack the repair enzyme O6-methylguanidine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.63). In modified repair-proficient CHO cells, the distribution of mutations among all of the 31 sites was random, with only 3 of the 19 GC-->AT transitions in the above hotspots. To determine whether the distribution was locus-dependent, two independent lines carrying single copies of transfected APRT genes were generated from a derivative of D422 carrying a deletion in the endogenous APRT gene. Nucleotides 1293-1309 were again no longer preferentially mutated, but the site at nucleotide 1365 was still a hotspot. We conclude that mutational spectra in mer- cells are at least in part locus dependent and that some sequences are particularly susceptible to EMS mutagenesis and perhaps also to methyltransferase repair. PMID:8552587

  4. Diagnosis and Challenges of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Agapova, Sophia E.; Cameo, Tamara; Sopher, Aviva B.; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have become less stringent over the years, determination of the minimum diagnostic features in adolescents is still an area of controversy. Of particular concern is that many of the features considered to be diagnostic for PCOS may evolve over time and change during the first few years after menarche. Nonetheless, attempts to define young women who may be at risk for development of PCOS is pertinent since associated morbidity such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia may benefit from early intervention. The relative utility of diagnostic tools such as persistence of anovulatory cycles, hyperandrogenemia, hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, or alopecia), or ovarian findings on ultrasound is not established in adolescents. Some suggest that even using the strictest criteria, the diagnosis of PCOS may not valid in adolescents younger than 18 years. In addition, evidence does not necessarily support that lack of treatment of PCOS in younger adolescents will result in untoward outcomes since features consistent with PCOS often resolve with time. The presented data will help determine if it is possible to establish firm criteria which may be used to reliably diagnose PCOS in adolescents. PMID:24715514

  5. Pharmacotherapy of polycystic ovary syndrome--an update.

    PubMed

    Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Saha, Pradip Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a persisting challenge to clinical and basic research scientists as none of the presently available medications have been fully able to combat these consequences. The aim of the present review is to summarize the different lines of treatment available for the different symptomologies that women with PCOS presents. In this comprehensive review, search was made for various treatment options available for PCOS by using Cochrane library, Pubmed, Medline, in addition to the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. The search results revealed that oral contraceptives containing oestrogen and progesterone regularize the menstruation, antiandrogens like spironolactone and drosperinone have proven to be effective in hirsutism and acne, clomiphene is the gold standard for ovulation induction, but multiple pregnancies and clomiphene failure add to its limitation. Hence, aromatase inhibitors like letrozole, low-dose gondotropins, and ovarian drilling procedure have shown to be beneficial effect in clomiphene-resistant cases. Insulin sensitizers such as metformin, thiazolidinediones, and d-chiro-inositol increase insulin sensitivity and improve ovulation rate. Recently, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, acarbose, and statins have shown positive results in different symptomologies of PCOS. The results show that PCOS treatment constitutes varied line of treatment depending upon the clinical features with which a woman is presenting. Still, unfortunately, none of the treatments are fully able to combat the PCOS. PMID:21210850

  6. FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-02-01

    Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes. PMID:24049064

  7. Diagnostic features of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents (review).

    PubMed

    Beltadze, K; Barbakadze, L

    2015-01-01

    The problem of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is of a special importance due to its connection with not only medical but with psychosocial factors. PCOS is the most common endocrine cause of anovulatory infertility. It is a major factor for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Clinical symptoms of PCOS such as acne, hirsutism, obesity, alopecia represent psychological problem, especially for the adolescents. Many women who have PCOS have the onset of symptoms during adolescence. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS are important for preventing of the above mentioned long-term consequences associated with this condition. Adolescent patients often have diagnostic problems because the features of normal puberty are similar with symptoms of PCOS. This article reviews the diagnostic and differential diagnostic characteristics of PCOS in adolescents. In conclusion, consensus statement in adolescent patients is still awaiting. Our data suggest that it may be prudent to define adolescent PCOS according to the Carmina modified Rotterdam criteria. The increase rate of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS emphasize the importance of regular screening due to the high cardiometabolic disorders risk. PMID:25693210

  8. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects.

  9. Inositol: history of an effective therapy for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, M; Carlomagno, G

    2014-07-01

    Inositol is a physiological compound belonging to the sugar family. The two inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol and D-chiroinositol are the two main stereisomers present in our body. Myo-inositol is the precursor of inositol triphosphate, a second messenger regulating many hormones such as TSH, FSH and insulin. D-chiroinositol is synthetized by an insulin dependent epimerase that converts myo-inositol into D-chiro-inositol. Polycistic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and hormonal disorder and a common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinaemia contribute to hyperandrogenism development, typical marker of PCOS. In these patients myo and/or D-chiro-inositol administration improves insulin sensivity while only myo-inositol is a quality marker for oocytes evaluation. Myo-inositol produces second messengers for FSH and glucose uptake, while D-chiroinositol provides second messengers promoting glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The physiological ratio of these two isomers is 40:1 (MI/DCI) and seems to be an optimal approach for the treatment of PCOS disorders. PMID:25010620

  10. Genetic polymorphisms in Pakistani women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liaqat, Irfana; Jahan, Nusrat; Krikun, Graciela; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the major cause of anovulatory infertility. Although the genetic basis of PCOS is not well understood, it is a common metabolic and endocrine disorder. This study investigates the possible genomic variants associated with PCOS in Pakistani women from the Punjab region. DNA samples from 96 patients with genetically unrelated PCOS and 96 controls were analyzed by direct sequencing to determine the polymorphisms of different loci on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr), follicle-stimulating hormone ? (fshr?), luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin (lhcgr), luteinizing hormone ? (lh?), estrogen receptor ? (esr1), and estrogen receptor ? (esr2) genes. Significant associations were observed within the genotype frequencies, allele frequencies, and multi-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype analysis of most polymorphisms studied. This study identified new SNPs at positions 605+52 Del/T in lhcgr genes occurring in this particular subpopulation. The strong r (2) value suggests that polymorphisms in the fshr and esr1 genes were in linkage disequilibrium. Our study provides evidence of statistically significant associations between susceptibility to PCOS in Pakistani women and the gene polymorphisms mentioned earlier. This suggests that the susceptible loci for PCOS lie within or very close to the chromosomal regions spanning these genes. PMID:25100445

  11. Metformin use in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy characterised by increased resistance to insulin. Metformin is one of the longest established oral insulin sensitising agents. For decades its use was restricted to management of type 2 diabetes. However, in the past two decades, its properties as an insulin sensitising agent have been explored in relation to its applicability for women with PCOS. Metformin is an effective ovulation induction agent for non-obese women with PCOS and offers some advantages over other first line treatments for anovulatory infertility such as clomiphene. For clomiphene-resistant women, metformin alone or in combination with clomiphene is an effective next step. Women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilisation should be offered metformin to reduce their risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Limited evidence suggests that metformin may be a suitable alternative to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) for treating hyperandrogenic symptoms of PCOS including hirsutism and acne. More research is required to define whether metformin has a role in improving long term health outcomes for women with PCOS, including the prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and endometrial cancer. PMID:25333031

  12. Initiation of puberty in mice following decellularized ovary transplant.

    PubMed

    Laronda, Monica M; Jakus, Adam E; Whelan, Kelly A; Wertheim, Jason A; Shah, Ramille N; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2015-05-01

    Clinical interventions to preserve fertility and restore hormone levels in female patients with therapy-induced ovarian failure are insufficient, particularly for pediatric cancer patients. Laparoscopic isolation of cortical ovarian tissue followed by cryopreservation with subsequent autotransplantation has temporarily restored fertility in at least 27 women who survived cancer, and aided in pubertal transition for one pediatric patient. However, reintroducing cancer cells through ovarian transplantation has been a major concern. Decellularization is a process of removing cellular material, while maintaining the organ skeleton of extracellular matrices (ECM). The ECM that remains could be stripped of cancer cells and reseeded with healthy ovarian cells. We tested whether a decellularized ovarian scaffold could be created, recellularized and transplanted to initiate puberty in mice. Bovine and human ovaries were decellularized, and the ovarian skeleton microstructures were characterized. Primary ovarian cells seeded onto decellularized scaffolds produced estradiol in vitro. Moreover, the recellularized grafts initiated puberty in mice that had been ovariectomized, providing data that could be used to drive future human transplants and have broader implications on the bioengineering of other organs with endocrine function. PMID:25736492

  13. Presence of immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing hormone in normal and polycystic human ovaries.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, G; Scopa, C D; Vryonidou, A; Friedman, T C; Kattis, D; Phenekos, C; Merino, M J; Chrousos, G P

    1994-10-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive (Ir) CRH and its receptors in the rat ovary. To determine whether CRH is also present in human ovaries, we examined ovaries from normal women and patients with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Immunoreactive CRH in normal human ovaries had a similar distribution to that of rat ovarian IrCRH, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Thus, immunoreactivity was intense in the cytoplasm of thecal cells surrounding the ovarian follicles, in luteinized cells of the stroma, and in a subpopulation of cells within the corpora lutea. No IrCRH was present in oocytes of primordial follicles. Polycystic ovaries also had IrCRH in thecal cells; however, CRH immunostaining was less prominent or completely absent from the stroma or the sparsely present corpora lutea and was clearly detected in oocytes of primordial follicles. Using a specific RIA, the IrCRH content in extracts of normal ovaries was higher than that in polycystic ovaries (mean +/- SD, 0.075 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.038 +/- 0.009 pmol/g wet tissue, respectively; P < 0.05). Human follicular fluid samples collected from women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation for assisted reproduction had low, but detectable, levels of IrCRH (mean +/- SD, 4.975 +/- 1.179 pmol/L), whereas IrCRH was undetectable in concurrently drawn plasma samples. IrCRH detected in normal and polycystic ovaries and in follicular fluid had similar chromatographic mobility to that of rat/human CRH-(1-41) by reverse phase HPLC. We conclude that IrCRH is present in normal human ovaries and follicular fluid, suggesting that this neuropeptide may play a regulatory role in one or more of the various functions of this gonad, such as ovulation and/or luteolysis, through its proinflammatory properties and/or its auto/paracrine regulation of steroid biosynthesis, in analogy to its action on testosterone secretion by the Leydig cell. Its decreased concentration and localization in primary oocytes of polycystic ovaries may be related to the increased androgen biosynthesis by the theca and stroma and/or to the oocyte dysfunction observed in women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome, respectively. PMID:7525629

  14. Genetic characterization of small ovaries, a gene required in the soma for the development of the Drosophila ovary and the female germline

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, S.; Liggett, K.; Pettus, J.; Nagoshi, R.N. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The small ovary gene (sov) is required for the development of the Drosophila ovary. Six EMS-induced recessive alleles have been identified. Hypomorphic alleles are female sterile and have no effect on male fertility, whereas more severe mutations result in lethality. The female-sterile alleles produce a range of mutant phenotypes that affect the differentiation of both somatic and germline tissues. These mutations generally produce small ovaries that contain few egg cysts and disorganized ovarioles, and in the most extreme case no ovarian tissue is present. The mutant egg cysts that develop have aberrant morphology, including abnormal numbers of nurse cells and patches of necrotic cells. We demonstrate that sov gene expression is not required in the germline for the development of functional egg cysts. This indicates that the sov function is somatic dependent. We present evidence using loss-of-function and constitutive forms of the somatic sex regulatory genes that sov activity is essential for the development of the somatic ovary regardless of the chromosomal sex of the fly. In addition, the genetic mapping of the sov locus is presented, including the characterization of two lethal sov alleles and complementation mapping with existing rearrangements. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Galectin-1 accumulation in the ovary carcinoma peritumoral stroma is induced by ovary carcinoma cells and affects both cancer cell proliferation and adhesion to laminin-1 and fibronectin.

    PubMed

    van den Brûle, Frédéric; Califice, Stéphane; Garnier, Frédérique; Fernandez, Pedro L; Berchuck, Andrew; Castronovo, Vincent

    2003-03-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1) is a 14-kDa laminin-binding galectin involved in several biologic events including regulation of cancer cell proliferation and adhesion to the matrix. In this study, we examined gal-1 expression in 30 human epithelial ovary carcinoma samples by Western and Northern blotting and by immunohistochemistry. Gal-1 mRNA levels were increased in more than 95% of the examined ovary carcinoma samples, compared with a wedge resection of a normal ovary. Immunohistochemical analysis of the samples demonstrated gal-1 expression in cancer epithelial cells from 17 of 30 samples, with a cytoplasmic pattern. Gal-1 immunostaining was significantly increased in the stroma associated with carcinoma cells compared with the normal, noninvaded stroma (p = 0.003). This pattern of expression was confirmed by examination of 12 other frozen epithelial ovary carcinomas, using in situ hybridization. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimens demonstrated colocalization of gal-1, laminin-1, and fibronectin. In vitro experiments were conducted to elucidate the potential biologic role of gal-1 in ovarian cancer progression. Gal-1 protein expression and release was detected in AZ364, SK-OV-3, and AZ224, but not in OVCAR-3, AZ419, and AZ382, human ovary carcinoma cell lines. Incubation of 84BR fibroblasts with conditioned media harvested from the ovary carcinoma cell lines induced an increased expression of gal-1 in the cultured fibroblasts in all cases except AZ419 and SK-OV-3. High concentrations of gal-1 (100 micro g/ml) induced significantly decreased cell proliferation in all cell lines, as defined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Additionally, recombinant gal-1 induced a dose-dependent increase in in vitro adhesion of AZ224, SK-OV-3, and AZ382 cells to laminin-1; adhesion to fibronectin was increased by gal-1 in OVCAR-3, AZ224, and SK-OV-3. No effect was observed in the other cases. Our data contribute to define a role for gal-1 during the interactions between human ovary carcinoma cells and host fibroblasts. PMID:12649338

  16. The gene pat-2, which induces natural parthenocarpy, alters the gibberellin content in unpollinated tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, M; Nuez, F; García-Martínez, J L

    2000-02-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA(3) application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA(3). Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA(3). The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(1), GA(3), GA(8), GA(19), GA(20), GA(29), GA(44), GA(53), and, tentatively, GA(81)) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(9) and GA(34)) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA(20) content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA(19) content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA(20) is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA(20), the precursor of an active GA. PMID:10677440

  17. Tributyltin increases the expression of apoptosis- and adipogenesis-related genes in rat ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyojin; Lim, Sojeong; Yun, Sujin; Yoon, Ayoung; Park, Gayoung

    2012-01-01

    Objective Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine disrupting chemical, has been reported to decrease ovarian function by causing apoptosis in the ovary, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined whether TBT increases the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary and the increased expression of these genes is associated with apoptosis induction. Methods Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered TBT (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight) or sesame oil as a control for 7 days. The ovaries were obtained and weighed on day 8, and then they were fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) or frozen for RNA extraction. Using the total RNA of the ovaries, adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The ovarian weight was significantly decreased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT compared to that in control rats. As determined by the TUNEL assay, the number of apoptotic follicles in ovary was significantly increased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT. The real-time PCR results showed that the expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as PPAR?, aP2, CD36, and PEPCK was increased after TBT administration. In addition, apoptosis-related genes such as TNF? and TNFR1 were expressed more in the TBT-administered rats compared with the control rats. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that TBT induces the expression of adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the ovary leading to apoptosis in the ovarian follicles. These results suggest that the increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary by TBT exposure might induce apoptosis resulting in a loss of ovarian function. PMID:22563546

  18. Expression of HBsAg and HBcAg in the ovaries and ova of patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Feng; Yue, Ya-Fei; Li, Shu-Hong; Chen, Tian-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Ling; Bai, Gui-Qin; Liu, Min

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and distribution of HBV in the ovaries and ova. METHODS: The immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the HBsAg and HBcAg in the ovaries of patients with chronic hepatitis B. RESULTS: Expression of HBsAg in the ova, granular and interstitial cells of the ovaries was located in the cytomembrane and cytoplasm. Expression of HBcAg in the ova, granular, interstitial and endothelial cells of interstitial blood vessels of the ovaries was found in the cytomembrane, cytoplasm, and nuclei. CONCLUSION: HBV can infect the ova at different stages of development and replicate in it. PMID:16237773

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of uterine leiomyomata

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the risk of uterine leiomyomata (UL). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Participants from the Black Women’s Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of African-American women aged 21–69 years in 1995 residing in the United States. Participants completed mailed questionnaires about their health status every 2 years. Patient(s) Premenopausal women with no history of UL at the start of follow-up (N = 23,571). Intervention(s) No interventions were administered. Main Outcome Measure Incidence of UL among those with and without self-reported, physician-diagnosed PCOS over a 6-year period of follow-up (1997–2003). Medical-record validation in a random subset of UL cases confirmed 96% of diagnoses. Result(s) During 114,373 person-years of follow-up, 3,631 new cases of UL confirmed by ultrasound (N = 2,926) or hysterectomy (N = 705) were reported. After adjustment for potential confounders, the incidence of UL was 65% higher among women with PCOS than women without PCOS (incidence rate ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.21–2.24). The incidence rate ratios remained constant with increasing time after the diagnosis of PCOS. Results were similar when analyses were confined to women reporting a recent Papanicolaou smear, a proxy for a pelvic examination. Conclusion(s) The present study suggests a positive association between PCOS and UL in African-American women. PMID:17241625

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD. PMID:25024594

  1. Mechanisms in endocrinology: thyroid and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gaberš?ek, Simona; Zaletel, Katja; Schwetz, Verena; Pieber, Thomas; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disorders, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are closely associated, based on a number of studies showing a significantly higher prevalence of HT in women with PCOS than in controls. However, the mechanisms of this association are not as clear. Certainly, genetic susceptibility contributes an important part to the development of HT and PCOS. However, a common genetic background has not yet been established. Polymorphisms of the PCOS-related gene for fibrillin 3 (FBN3) could be involved in the pathogenesis of HT and PCOS. Fibrillins influence the activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF?). Multifunctional TGF? is also a key regulator of immune tolerance by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are known to inhibit excessive immune response. With lower TGF? and Treg levels, the autoimmune processes, well known in HT and assumed in PCOS, might develop. In fact, lower levels of TGF?1 were found in HT as well as in PCOS women carrying allele 8 of D19S884 in the FBN3 gene. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency was shown to decrease Tregs. Finally, high estrogen-to-progesterone ratio owing to anovulatory cycles in PCOS women could enhance the immune response. Harmful metabolic and reproductive effects were shown to be more pronounced in women with HT and PCOS when compared with women with HT alone or with controls. In conclusion, HT and PCOS are associated not only with respect to their prevalence, but also with regard to etiology and clinical consequences. However, a possible crosstalk of this association is yet to be elucidated. PMID:25422352

  2. Immunolocalization of CD18-positive cells in the bovine ovary.

    PubMed

    Spanel-Borowski, K; Rahner, P; Ricken, A M

    1997-11-01

    The life cycle of follicles and of corpora lutea may be finely tuned by resident leucocytes in control of the angiogenesis, dilatation and permeability of microvessels, remodelling of the extracellular matrix, and phagocytosis of degenerated cells. Since the overall leucocyte distribution has not been studied in the bovine ovary, we located the CD18 molecule in this organ using indirect immunohistochemistry. This molecule represents a subtype of beta 2 integrin and is expressed by all subsets of leucocytes. The microvessels were also identified with an antibody against factor VIIIr antigen. The outer layer of the interstitial cortex, where the primordial follicles were located, contained a few CD18-positive cells and a few microvessels. Intact follicles displayed the CD18-positive cells in the theca. They were aligned in the zone of the basal membrane of preovulatory follicles. This was associated with a dilated inner microvessel layer. CD18-positive cells and probably capillary sprouts were seen in the granulosa layer of freshly ovulated follicles. Regressing follicles exhibited CD18-positive cells in the hypertrophied theca and in the degenerating granulosa layer, together with the pattern of capillary sprouts. At the developmental stage, corpora lutea exhibited many CD18-positive cells in the septa. The microvascular bed was expanding. At the secretory stage, a regular and moderate appearance of CD18-positive cells corresponded to a well-developed microvascular bed. Abundant positive cells were seen at the regressive stage, together with the development of shunt-like arterioles. The semiquantitative evaluation of leucocyte subsets in corpora lutea revealed an increased in the CD18-positive cells between stages of development and regression, which was not observed in the corresponding interstitial cortex. Lymphocytes with the expression of CD2, CD3 or both molecules displayed a similar behaviour. In conclusion, the CD18-positive leucocytes represent a heterologous pool with a distribution that varies in accordance with morphological changes in the follicles and corpora lutea. PMID:9462286

  3. Referral Bias in Defining the Phenotype and Prevalence of Obesity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ezeh, Uche; Yildiz, Bulent O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The described phenotype of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been primarily based on findings in a referred (self or otherwise) population. It is possible that the phenotype of PCOS would be different if the disorder were to be detected and studied in its natural (unbiased) state. Objective: Our objective was to compare the phenotype of PCOS detected in an unselected population with that identified in a referral population. Participants: Participants included 292 PCOS patients identified at a tertiary care outpatient facility (referral PCOS) and 64 PCOS women (unselected PCOS) identified through the screening of a population of 668 seeking a pre-employment physical. Among the women undergoing a pre-employment physical, 563 did not demonstrate features of the disorder (unselected controls). All PCOS subjects met the National Institutes of Health 1990 criteria for the disorder. Main Outcome Measures: We estimated prevalence of obesity and severity of disease burden. Results: Referral PCOS subjects had greater mean body mass index and hirsutism score and higher degrees of hyperandrogenemia, were more likely to be non-Hispanic White (83.90%), and demonstrated a more severe PCOS subphenotype than unselected PCOS or unselected controls. The prevalence of obesity and severe obesity in referral PCOS was 2.3 and 2.5 times greater than estimates of the same in unselected PCOS and 2.2 and 3.8 times greater than estimates in unselected controls, respectively. Alternatively, unselected PCOS subjects had a prevalence of obesity and severe obesity and a mean body mass index similar to those of the general population from which they were derived. Conclusion: The phenotype of PCOS, including the racial/ethnic mix, severity of presentation, and rate of obesity, is affected significantly by whether the PCOS subject arises from a referral population or through unselected screening, likely reflecting the degree of patient concern and awareness and access to healthcare. PMID:23539721

  4. Study of oostatic peptide uptake and metabolism in developing ovaries of the flesh fly, Neobellieria bullata.

    PubMed

    Bennettová, Blanka; Slaninová, Jirina; Vlasáková, V?ra; Hlavácek, Jan; Holík, Josef; Tykva, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-OH (5P), in ovaries of Neobellieria bullata (Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. During selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3HPro(3)]5P after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. The ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. A detection sensitivity of 60-100 fmol of the labeled 5P was achieved using radio-high performance liquid chromatography. While the uptake of the applied radioactivity strongly depended on the stage of vitellogenesis, especially for the in vitro experiment, degradation of 5P was very quick and independent of whether the label was injected or incubated with the ovaries, regardless of the developmental stage of ovaries. No tracers of 5P were detected at 30 s after applying the labeled 5P in all tests. PMID:20572785

  5. Rice fruit development is associated with an increased IAA content in pollinated ovaries.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Takao; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    To analyze fruit set and early fruit (caryopsis) development in rice, we established an in vitro spikelet culture system. The ovary of cultured pollinated spikelets grew rapidly and developed into fruits with an embryo and endosperm. When unpollinated spikelets were cultured on a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, parthenocarpic fruits lacking an embryo and endosperm developed. The number and size of the cells in the pericarp of parthenocarpic fruits were almost identical to those of fruits induced by pollination, and degeneration of nucellus tissue was observed in both pollinated and parthenocarpic fruits. These results suggested that ovary growth was induced through increased auxin content in the spikelets. Quantitative measurement of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content in the spikelets indicated that the IAA level increased after pollination. Further analysis of IAA contents in the ovary and rachilla-pedicel of cultured spikelets suggested that fruit development is associated with IAA synthesis in the ovary following pollination/fertilization and subsequent transport of IAA from the ovary to the rachilla-pedicel. Partial or complete removal of the rachilla and/or pedicel prior to spikelet culture greatly inhibited fruit development. These results indicated that the rachilla and pedicel are essential for rice fruit development. AUX/IAA and ARF genes that might be involved in rice fruit development were identified through transcriptome analysis. PMID:20512651

  6. Cyclic AMP in oocytes controls meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Li, Ge; Mu, Xinyi; Wang, Zhengpin; Feng, Lizhao; Niu, Wanbao; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Xi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Xia, Guoliang

    2015-01-15

    In mammalian ovaries, a fixed population of primordial follicles forms during the perinatal stage and the oocytes contained within are arrested at the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I. In the current study, we provide evidence that the level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in oocytes regulates oocyte meiotic prophase I and primordial folliculogenesis in the perinatal mouse ovary. Our results show that the early meiotic development of oocytes is closely correlated with increased levels of intra-oocyte cAMP. Inhibiting cAMP synthesis in fetal ovaries delayed oocyte meiotic progression and inhibited the disassembly and degradation of synaptonemal complex protein 1. In addition, inhibiting cAMP synthesis in in vitro cultured fetal ovaries prevented primordial follicle formation. Finally, using an in situ oocyte chromosome analysis approach, we found that the dictyate arrest of oocytes is essential for primordial follicle formation under physiological conditions. Taken together, these results suggest a role for cAMP in early meiotic development and primordial follicle formation in the mouse ovary. PMID:25503411

  7. Primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries: a new experimental tool.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Silvia; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Sugni, Michela; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, primary cell cultures from ovaries of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were developed in order to provide a simple and versatile experimental tool for researches in echinoderm reproductive biology. Ovary cell phenotypes were identified and characterized by different microscopic techniques. Although cell cultures could be produced from ovaries at all stages of maturation, the cells appeared healthier and viable, displaying a higher survival rate, when ovaries at early stages of gametogenesis were used. In terms of culture medium, ovarian cells were successfully cultured in modified Leibovitz-15 medium, whereas poor results were obtained in minimum essential medium Eagle and medium 199. Different substrates were tested, but ovarian cells completely adhered only on poly-L-lysine. To improve in vitro conditions and stimulate cell proliferation, different serum-supplements were tested. Fetal calf serum and an originally developed pluteus extract were detrimental to cell survival, apparently accelerating processes of cell death. In contrast, cells cultured with sea urchin egg extract appeared larger and healthier, displaying an increased longevity that allowed maintaining them for up to 1 month. Overall, our study provides new experimental bases and procedures for producing successfully long-term primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries offering a good potential to study echinoid oogenesis in a controlled system and to investigate different aspects of echinoderm endocrinology and reproductive biology. PMID:24002666

  8. Expression of FSH receptor in the hamster ovary during perinatal development.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Prabuddha; Roy, Shyamal K

    2015-01-15

    FSH plays an important role in ovarian follicular development, and it functions via the G-protein coupled FSH receptor. The objectives of the present study were to determine if full-length FSHR mRNA and corresponding protein were expressed in fetal through postnatal hamster ovaries to explain the FSH-induced primordial follicle formation, and if FSH or estrogen (E) would affect the expression. A full-length and two alternately spliced FSHR transcripts were expressed from E14 through P20. The level of the full-length FSHR mRNA increased markedly through P7 before stabilizing at a lower level with the formation and activation of primordial follicles. A predicted 87?kDa FSHR protein band was detected in fetal through P4 ovaries, but additional bands appeared as ovary developed. FSHR immunosignal was present in undifferentiated somatic cells and oocytes in early postnatal ovaries, but was granulosa cells specific after follicles formed. Both eCG and E significantly up-regulated full-length FSHR mRNA levels. Therefore, FSHR is expressed in the hamster ovary from the fetal life to account for FSH-induced primordial follicle formation and cAMP production. Further, FSH or E regulates the receptor expression. PMID:25462586

  9. Restoration of ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole adult sheep ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B.K.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.; Onions, V.; Pincott-Allen, C.; Aljaser, F.; Fisher, J.; McNeilly, A.S.; Webb, R.; Picton, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to restore ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole ovaries, complete with vascular pedicle, in adult females from a large monovulatory animal model species (i.e. sheep)? SUMMARY ANSWER Full (100%) restoration of acute ovarian function and high rates of natural fertility (pregnancy rate 64%; live birth rate 29%), with multiple live births, were obtained following whole ovary cryopreservation and autotransplantation (WOCP&TP) of adult sheep ovaries utilizing optimized cryopreservation and post-operative anti-coagulant regimes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertility preservation by WOCP&TP requires successful cryopreservation of both the ovary and its vascular supply. Previous work has indicated detrimental effects of WOCP&TP on the ovarian follicle population. Recent experiments suggest that these deleterious effects can be attributed to an acute loss of vascular patency due to clot formation induced by damage to ovarian arterial endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Study 1 (2010–2011; N = 16) examined the effect of post-thaw perfusion of survival factors (angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic; n = 7–8) and treatment with aspirin (pre-operative versus pre- and post-operative (n = 7–9)) on the restoration of ovarian function for 3 months after WOCP&TP. Study 2 (2011–2012; N = 16) examined the effect of cryoprotectant (CPA) perfusion time (10 versus 60 min; n = 16) and pre- and post-operative treatment with aspirin in combination with enoxaparine (Clexane®; n = 8) or eptifibatide (Integrilin®; n = 8) on ovarian function and fertility 11–23 months after WOCP&TP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Both studies utilized mature, parous, Greyface ewes aged 3–6 years and weighing 50–75 kg. Restoration of ovarian function was monitored by bi-weekly blood sampling and display of behavioural oestrus. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotrophins, progesterone, anti-Müllerian Hormone and inhibin A. Fertility restoration in Study 2 was quantified by pregnancy rate after a 3 month fertile mating period and was confirmed by ultrasound, hormonal monitoring and live birth. Ovarian function was assessed at sacrifice by ovarian appearance and vascular patency (Doppler ultrasound) and by follicular histology. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In Study 1, survival factors were found to have no benefit, but the inclusion of pre-operative aspirin resulted in four ewes showing acute restoration of ovarian function within 3 weeks and a further six ewes showing partial restoration. The addition of post-operative aspirin alone had no clear benefit. In Study 2, combination of aspirin with additional post-operative anti-coagulants resulted in total acute restoration of ovarian function in 14/14 ewes within 3 weeks of WOCP&TP, with 9/14 ewes becoming pregnant and 4/14 giving birth to a total of seven normal lambs. There was no difference between anti-coagulants in terms of restoration of reproductive function and fertility. In contrast, the duration of CPA perfusion was highly significant with a 60 min perfusion resulting in ovaries of normal appearance and function with high rates of primordial follicle survival (70%) and an abundant blood supply, whereas ovaries perfused for 10 min had either resorbed completely and were vestigial (7/14) or were markedly smaller (P < 0.01). It is concluded that both the degree of CPA penetration and the maintenance of post-operative vascular patency are critical determinants of the success of WOCP&TP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Before application of this technology to fertility preservation patients, it will be critical to optimize the CPA perfusion time for different sized human ovaries, determine the optimum period and level of anti-coagulant therapy, and confirm the normality of offspring derived from this procedure. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This technology holds promise for the preservation of fertility in women. It could also

  10. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight. PMID:25821074

  11. Free amino acid content and metabolic activities of setting and aborting soybean ovaries. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiasi, H.; Paech, C.; Dybing, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    Fruits of soybean (glycine max (L.) Merr.) that are destined to abscise shortly after anthesis grow more slowly than fruits that will be retained. In this work, amino acid composition, protein metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism were studied in setting and abscising soybean ovaries from anthesis to 6 days after anthesis. Principal free amino acids were asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glutamine. Percent aspartate and glutamate declined as the ovaries grew, with aspartate declining more in abscising and glutamate more in setting ovaries. Percent glutamate was positively correlated to percent abscission throughout the period. Proline, serine, and leucine were positively correlated to abscission from 0 to 2 days after anthesis, whereas significant negative correlations were observed at these ages for ethanolamine and arginine. /sup 75/Se fed as selenate and /sup 14/C fed as sucrose, glycine, and alanine were readily incorporated into soluble and insoluble proteins in a 24-hour in vitro incubation. Radioactivity of total proteins, expressed on a per-ovary basis, was negatively correlated with percent abscission and positively correlated with ovary weight. (/sup 14/C)Glutamine and serine followed the opposite pattern, with greater protein labeling in abscising than in setting ovaries. When data were expressed as disintegrations per minute per milligram ovary fresh weight, protein labeling from alanine was seen to be significantly greater in abscising ovaries at anthesis and throughout the sampling period. Nucleic acid labeling from uridine was highly correlated to ovary weight; labeling from thymidine was greater in setting than abscising ovaries at anthesis and in abscising ovaries at later stages of development.

  12. Derivatives Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Derivatives are financial securities whose value is derived from another "underlying" financial security. Options, futures, swaps, swaptions, and structured notes are all examples of derivative securities. Derivatives can be used in hedging, protecting against financial risk, or can be used to speculate on the movement of commodity or security prices, interest rates, or the levels of financial indices. The valuation of derivatives makes use of the statistical mathematics of uncertainty. With links to related articles. See also Derivatives Concepts A-Z, glossary of derivatives-related terminology designed to make the other articles in the Financial Pipeline's Derivatives section easier to understand.

  13. Experimental evidence showing that no mitotically active female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Wenjing; Shen, Yan; Adhikari, Deepak; Ueno, Hiroo; Liu, Kui

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26rbw/+;Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries. PMID:22778414

  14. Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period

    PubMed Central

    Kanapadinchareveetil, Sreelekha; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Gopi, Jyothimol; Ranjan Lenka, Dibya; Vasu, Aswathi; KGopalan, Ajith Kumar; Nair, Suresh N.; Juliet, Sanis; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V) of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B.) microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium. PMID:25664337

  15. Follistatin288 Regulates Germ Cell Cyst Breakdown and Primordial Follicle Assembly in the Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhengpin; Niu, Wanbao; Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Wen, Jia; Xia, Guoliang; Wang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the primordial follicle pool represents the entire reproductive potential of a female. The transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) family member activin (ACT) contributes to folliculogenesis, although the exact mechanism is not known. The role of FST288, the strongest ACT-neutralizing isoform of follistatin (FST), during cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in the fetal mice ovary was assessed using an in vitro culture system. FST was continuously expressed in the oocytes as well as the cuboidal granulosa cells of growing follicles in perinatal mouse ovaries. Treatment with FST288 delayed germ cell nest breakdown, particularly near the periphery of the ovary, and dramatically decreased the percentage of primordial follicles. In addition, there was a dramatic decrease in proliferation of granulosa cells and somatic cell expression of Notch signaling was impaired. In conclusion, FST288 impacts germ cell nest breakdown and primordial follicle assembly by inhibiting somatic cell proliferation. PMID:26076381

  16. Simultaneous dermoid cyst and endometriosis in the same ovary: a case report.

    PubMed

    Prorocic, M; Tasic, L; Vasiljevic, M; Jurisic, A; Smiljkovic, O D; Raznatovic, S; Saranovic, M

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 33-year-old infertile woman with coincidental dermoid cyst and ovarian endometriosis in the same ovary. She was admitted to the Clinic because of cystic tumor of the left adnexa. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) examination found a bilocular tumor of complex structure on the left ovary. Video-laparoscopy was also performed. On the left ovary, two adjacent cystic formations were found. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy was performed and a surgical specimen was sent for histopathologic analysis. The diagnosis was a dermoid cyst and ovarian endometriosis. Without complications, the patient was released from the hospital. The patient was treated with an analogue of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) for three months as a preparation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). PMID:24283190

  17. Fate of the grafted ovaries from female salamander Pleurodeles waltl embarked on the cosmos 2229 flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautz, A.; Houillon, Ch.; Aimar, C.; Mitashov, V.; Dournon, C.

    The flight procedure of ``Experience Triton'' on Cosmos 2229 made necessary to sacrifice the embarked females just after landing. In order to detect genetic abnormalities in the progeny of these adult females, we have performed a surgical procedure based on the transplantation of an ovarian piece on a recipient animal. One year later, as observed after laparotomy, the grafted ovaries exhibit oogonies and some growing oocytes. In present time, out of 10 castrated and grafted adult females only one is still alive bearing a large grafted ovary. Out of 5 castred and grafted juvenile males, three are still alive, two of them exhibit a developping grafted ovary. The grafted animals will be ready for mating within a few months. Therefore, it will soon be possible to study the progeny of animals that have been submitted to space conditions.

  18. Studies of ovulation in the perfused ovary of the fowl (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Li, Z D; Ataka, Y

    1987-07-01

    A system was developed for the in-vitro perfusion of the fowl ovary. The ovaries were isolated 16-18 h before expected ovulation of the first follicle of a clutch sequence and perfused at 41 degrees C with Eagle's culture medium containing L-thyroxine and insulin. The efferent perfusion pressure was maintained at 30-40 mmHg. This model was used to investigate the mechanism of ovulation. Addition of LH (1 U) to the perfusate induced ovulation (46%) but LH (1 U) + FSH (1 U) was more effective (88%; P less than 0.05). Progesterone at 100 micrograms alone also induced ovulation (80%). Clomiphene prevented gonadotrophin-induced ovulation. These results suggest that progesterone may act directly on the ovary as a final hormone to induce ovulation in the domestic fowl. PMID:3116230

  19. Expression pattern of RAGE and IGF-1 in the human fetal ovary and ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poljicanin, Ana; Filipovic, Natalija; Vukusic Pusic, Tanja; Soljic, Violeta; Caric, Ana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Vukojevic, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The expression pattern of RAGE and IGF-1 proteins in different ovarian cell lineages was histologically analyzed in six fetal, nine adult human ovaries, and nine serous ovarian carcinomas (OSC) using immunohistochemical methods. Mild expression of IGF-1 in ovarian surface epithelium (Ose) and oocytes in the 15-week human ovaries increased to moderate or strong in the stromal cells, oocytes and follicular cells in week 22. Occasional mild RAGE expression was observed in Ose during week 15, while strong expression characterized primordial follicles in week 22. In the reproductive human ovary, IGF-1 was mildly to moderately expressed in all ovarian cell lineages except in theca cells of the tertiary follicle where IGF-1 was negative. RAGE was strongly positive in the granulosa cells and some theca cells of the tertiary follicle, while negative to mildly positive in all cells of the secondary follicle. In the postmenopausal human ovary IGF-1 and RAGE were mildly expressed in Ose and stroma. In OSC, cells were strongly positive to IGF-1 and RAGE, except for some negative stromal cells. Different levels of IGF-1 and RAGE co-expression characterized fetal ovarian cells during development. In reproductive ovaries, IGF-1 and RAGE were co-localized in the granulosa and theca interna cells of tertiary follicles, while in postmenopausal ovaries and OSC, IGF-1 and RAGE were co-localized in Ose and OSC cells respectively. Our results indicate that intracellular levels of IGF-1 and RAGE protein might regulate the final destiny of the ovarian cell populations prior and during folliculogenesis, possibly controlling the metastatic potential of OSC as well. PMID:25724694

  20. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary: effect of cAMP in primordial follicles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-07-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of the intracellular cAMP concentration, which is a central second messenger that affects a multitude of intracellular functions. In the ovaries, cAMP exerts diverse functions, including regulation of ovulation and it has been suggested that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP did not increase AKT1 or FOXO3A phosphorylation associated with follicle activation or increase the expression of Kitlg known to be associated with follicle differentiation but did increase the Tmeff2, Mki67 and Inha expression in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study shows that both Pde7b and Pde8a are highly expressed in the rodent ovary and that PDE4 inhibition does not cause an increase in primordial follicle activation. PMID:25861799

  1. A comparative study of the development of the fetal testis and ovary in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A comparative study of the development of the fetal testis and ovary in the monkey (Macaca and 118 days on serial semi-thin and thin sections. The testis and the ovary began to differentiate at the same age (37 days) ; the definitive architecture of the testis was acquired at 43 days, while a cortex

  2. STEROIDOGENIC ASSESSMENT USING OVARY CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS: EFFECTS OF BIS(2-DIETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE ON OVARIAN STEROID PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro whole-ovary culture in rats was used to characterize ovarian steroidogenesis and to evaluate changes produced by In vivo exposure to bis (2-diethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Steroidogenic profiles [progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T)] from minced ovary ...

  3. Restoration of Reproductive Potential by Lifestyle Modification in Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role of Insulin Sensitivity and Luteinizing Hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-M. HUBER-BUCHHOLZ; D. G. P. CAREY; R. J. NORMAN

    2010-01-01

    Weight reduction and exercise have been shown to help with men- strual disturbance and infertility in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied the relationship between insulin sensi- tivity and ovulation patterns in 18 infertile anovulatory obese poly- cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women (NO) with normal glucose tol- erance, aged between 22-39 yr with a body mass index of

  4. Endometriosis coexisting with mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary and ectopic pregnancy of left fallopian tube: a rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Chae, Heesuk; Rheu, Chulhee

    2015-05-01

    A coexistence of endometriosis and mature cystic teratoma in the same ovary is a rare occurrence although such tumors of ovaries are said to be common in the reproductive age group. We report a case of fimbrial ectopic pregnancy combined with simultaneous ipsilateral ovarian presentation of endometriosis and mature teratoma. PMID:25984312

  5. Troglitazone Improves Defects in Insulin Action, Insulin Secretion, Ovarian Steroidogenesis, and Fibrinolysis in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. EHRMANN; DAVID J. SCHNEIDER; BURTON E. SOBEL; MELISSA K. CAVAGHAN; JACQUELINE IMPERIAL; ROBERT L. ROSENFIELD; KENNETH S. POLONSKY

    2010-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are characterized by defects in insulin action, insulin secretion, ovarian steroidogenesis, and fibrinolysis. We administered the insulin-sensitizing agent tro- glitazone to 13 obese women with PCOS and impaired glucose tol- erance to determine whether attenuation of hyperinsulinemia ame- liorates these defects. All subjects had oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, polycystic ovaries, and hyperandrogenemia. Before and after treat-

  6. Effects of Electro-Acupuncture on Nerve Growth Factor and Ovarian Morphology in Rats with Experimentally Induced Polycystic Ovaries1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Thomas Lundeberg; Urban Waldenström; Luigi Manni; Luigi Aloe; Stefan Gunnarsson; Per Olof Janson

    Despite extensive research on the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is still disagreement on the underlying mechanisms. The rat model for experimentally induced polycystic ovaries (PCO)--produced by a single injection of estradiol valerate--has similarities with human PCOS, and both are associated with hyperactivity in the sympathetic nervous system. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to serve as a

  7. Premature Response to Luteinizing Hormone of Granulosa Cells from Anovulatory Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Relevance to Mechanism of Anovulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBBIE S. WILLIS; HAZEL WATSON; HELEN D. MASON; RAY GALEA; MARK BRINCAT; STEPHEN FRANKS

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common cause of anovula- tory infertility. Anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome is charac- terized by the failure of selection of a dominant follicle with arrest of follicle development at the 5-10 mm stage. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of anovulation associated with this disorder we have investigated at what follicle size human

  8. Selective alterations in insulin receptor substrates-1, -2 and -4 in theca but not granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Yen; A. J. Jakimiuk; I. Munir; D. A. Magoffin

    2004-01-01

    The elevated insulin concentrations that occur in many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can contribute signifi- cantly to ovarian hyperandrogenism. The objective of the present study was to compare the content of proximal insulin signalling molecules in theca and granulosa cells between polycystic ovaries and regular cycling controls. Individual follicles ð 3-7 mmÞ were obtained from 11 women with

  9. [The role of inositol deficiency in the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome disorders].

    PubMed

    Jakimiuk, Artur J; Szamatowicz, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Inositol acts as a second messenger in insulin signaling pathway Literature data suggest inositol deficiency in insulin-resistant women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. Supplementation of myo-inisitol decreases insulin resistance as it works as an insulin sensitizing agent. The positive role of myo-inositol in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome has been of increased evidence recently The present review presents the effects of myo-inositol on the ovarian, hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. PMID:24505965

  10. Seeking the origin of female germline stem cells in the mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    De Felici, Massimo; Barrios, Florencia

    2013-10-01

    The function of female germline stem cells (FGSCs, also called oogonial stem cells) in the adult mammalian ovary is currently debated in the scientific community. As the evidence to support or discard the possible crucial role of this new class of germ cells in mammals has been extensively discussed, in this review, we wonder which could be their origin. We will assume that FGSCs are present in the post-natal ovaries and speculate as to what origin and characteristics such cells could have. We believe that the definition of these features might shed light on future experimental approaches that could clarify the ongoing debate. PMID:23801781

  11. Gonadotropin treatment augments postnatal oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly in adult mouse ovaries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) exerts action on both germline and somatic compartment in both ovary and testis although FSH receptors (FSHR) are localized only on the somatic cells namely granulosa cells of growing follicles and Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. High levels of FSH in females are associated with poor ovarian reserve, ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome etc. and at the same time FSH acts as a survival factor during in vitro organotypic culture of ovarian cortical strips. Thus a further understanding of FSH action on the ovary is essential. We have earlier reported presence of pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs express Oct-4A in addition to other pluripotent markers) and their immediate descendants ‘progenitors’ ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs express Oct-4B in addition to other germ cell markers) in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) in various mammalian species including mice, rabbit, monkey, sheep and human. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on adult mice ovaries with a focus on VSELs, OGSCs, postnatal oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. Methods Ovaries were collected from adult mice during different stages of estrus cycle and after 2 and 7 days of PMSG (5 IU) treatment to study histo-architecture and expression for FSHR, pluripotent stem cells , meiosis and germ cell specific markers. Results PMSG treatment resulted in increased FSHR and proliferation as indicated by increased FSHR and PCNA immunostaining in OSE and oocytes of primordial follicles (PF) besides the granulosa cells of large antral follicles. Small 1–2 regions of multilayered OSE invariably associated with a cohort of PF during estrus stage in control ovary were increased to 5–8 regions after PMSG treatment. This was associated with an increase in pluripotent transcripts (Oct-4A, Nanog), meiosis (Scp-3) and germ cells (Oct-4B, Mvh) specific markers. MVH showed positive immuno staining on germ cell nest-like clusters and at places primordial follicles appeared connected through oocytes. Conclusions The results of the present study show that gonadotropin (PMSG) treatment to adult mouse leads to increased pluripotent stem cell activity in the ovaries, associated with increased meiosis, appearance of several cohorts of PF and their assembly in close proximity of OSE. This was found associated with the presence of germ cell nests and cytoplasmic continuity of oocytes in PF. We have earlier reported that pluripotent ovarian stem cells in the adult mammalian ovary are the VSELs which give rise to slightly differentiated OGSCs. Thus we propose that gonadotropin through its action on pluripotent VSELs augments neo-oogenesis and PF assembly in adult mouse ovaries. PMID:23134576

  12. Sarcoma-like mural nodule in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik; Bhowmik, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoma-like mural nodule (SLMN) is a very uncommon and misleading benign entity which may be associated with benign, borderline or malignant mucinous neoplasm of the ovary. It should be distinguished from other malignant mural nodules with sarcoma, carcinosarcoma or anaplastic carcinoma for proper management. We report a rare case of SLMN in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary in a 30-year-old lady. In spite of having confusing histopathological features the final diagnosis was made depending on the younger age of the patient, well circumscription of the nodule, absence of vascular invasion and immunohistochemical profile. PMID:25540570

  13. How to Make a Gonad: Cellular Mechanisms Governing Formation of the Testes and Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Ungewitte, E.K.; Yao, H.H.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Sex determination of the gonad is an extraordinary process by which a single organ anlage is directed to form one of two different structures, a testis or an ovary. Morphogenesis of these two organs utilizes many common cellular events; differences in the timing and execution of these events must combine to generate sexually dimorphic structures. In this chapter, we review recent research on the cellular processes of gonad morphogenesis, focusing on data from mouse models. We highlight the shared cellular mechanisms in testis and ovary morphogenesis and examine the differences that enable formation of the two organs responsible for the perpetuation of all sexually reproducing species. PMID:22614391

  14. Association study of four key folliculogenesis genes in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sproul, K; Jones, M R; Mathur, R; Azziz, R; Goodarzi, M O

    2010-05-01

    Polycystic ovaries and impaired fertility are the result of abnormal folliculogenesis. Our objective was to determine the role of four candidate folliculogenesis genes in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with and without PCOS (335 cases; 198 controls) were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in GDF9, BMP15, AMH, and AMHR2. Variants in these genes were not associated with PCOS. Certain GDF9 variants were associated with hirsutism scores and parity in PCOS patients. GDF9 may thus serve as a modifier gene. These results suggest that inherited defects in folliculogenesis are not major factors in the genetic susceptibility to PCOS. PMID:20236105

  15. Hormonal effects on the development of the mouse ovary in vitro 

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Philip Allen

    1985-01-01

    the influence of some previously unexamined growth factors and hormones, alone and in combination, to determine the impact they have on the development of fetal mouse ovaries in vitro. Previous Studies The ovary in mice is first recognized as a swelling...) for I to 1. 5 hours with agitation. After several washes in 0. 1 N sodium cacody late buffer, tissues were postfixed in 14 osmium tetroxide in 0. 1 M cacodylate buffer for one hour. The samples were again washed in cacodylate buffer...

  16. Synchronous primary malignancies of the appendix and ovary causing carcinomatosis in one patient

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, Raquel Elisa; Giannotti, Giovanni; Thomas, Korathu; Ruiz, Ofelia S.

    2015-01-01

    Associated tumors of the ovary and the appendix are commonly found in cases of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PP); the origin of these tumors are a continually debated topic. Outside of the setting of PP, this finding is exceedingly rare and there are no documented reports of two primary processes causing carcinomatosis in the absence of PP. Here, we present a patient who underwent cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis presumptively secondary to ovarian carcinoma and who on pathological examination was found to have synchronous primary malignant processes of both the appendix and the ovary. This represents the first documented case of carcinomatosis resulting from two separate malignant processes in the absence of PP. PMID:25832462

  17. Genetic and gene expression analyses of the polycystic ovary syndrome candidate gene fibrillin-3 and other fibrillin family members in human ovaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Prodoehl; Nicholas Hatzirodos; Helen F. Irving-Rodgers; Zhen Z. Zhao; Jodie N. Painter; Theresa E. Hickey; Mark A. Gibson; William E. Rainey; Bruce R. Carr; Helen D. Mason; Robert J. Norman; Grant W. Montgomery; Raymond J. Rodgers

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the dinucleotide repeat microsatellite marker D19S884, which is located in intron 55 of the fibrillin-3 (FBN3) gene. Fibrillins, including FBN1 and 2, interact with latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-b-binding proteins (LTBP) and thereby control the bioactivity of TGFbs. TGFbs stimulate fibroblast repli- cation and collagen production. The PCOS

  18. Night temperature and source–sink effects on overall growth, cell number and cell size in bell pepper ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Rebecca L.; Cruz-Huerta, Nicacio; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Ovary swelling, and resultant fruit malformation, in bell pepper flowers is favoured by low night temperature or a high source–sink ratio. However, the interaction between night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary swelling and the contribution of cell size and cell number to ovary swelling are unknown. The present research examined the interactive effects of night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary size, cell number and cell size at anthesis in bell pepper flowers. Methods Bell pepper plants were grown in growth chambers at night temperatures of either 20 °C (HNT) or 12 °C (LNT). Within each temperature treatment, plants bore either 0 (non-fruiting) or two developing fruits per plant. Ovary fresh weight, cell size and cell number were measured. Key Results Ovary fresh weights in non-fruiting plants grown at LNT were the largest, while fresh weights were smallest in plants grown at HNT with fruits. In general, mesocarp cell size in ovaries was largest in non-fruiting plants grown at either LNT or HNT and smallest in fruiting plants at HNT. Mesocarp cell number was greater in non-fruiting plants under LNT than in the rest of the night temperature/fruiting treatments. These responses were more marked in ovaries sampled after 18 d of treatment compared with those sampled after 40 d of treatment. Conclusions Ovary fresh weight of flowers at anthesis increased 65 % in non-fruiting plants grown under LNT compared with fruiting plants grown under HNT. This increase was due primarily to increases in mesocarp cell number and size. These results indicate that the combined effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio on ovary swelling are additive. Furthermore, the combined effects of LNT and low source–sink ratio or HNT and high source–sink ratio can partially overcome the detrimental effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio. PMID:22933415

  19. [Uterovaginal agenesis and polycystic ovary syndrome: psychological disturbance in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients, age was negative correlated with attention problems and PCOS patients >18 reported significantly more somatic complaints compared with age-mate MRKHS patients and controls. PCO syndrome's clinical manifestations, including menstrual disorders, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility, may cause significant emotional distress. Nevertheless, they appear in great variety and our sample is characterized by mild features of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea. This may explain findings of milder psychological disturbance associated with PCOS in this sample in comparison to other studies. As far as MRKHS is concerned, diagnosis and loss of reproductive ability, especially in late adolescence, obstruct emotional stability, physical maturity and sexual identity development ending that are expected in this period of life. Undoubtedly, the management of MRKHS in adolescence constitutes a complex multidisciplinary issue and psychological support of patients is needed in order to prevent possible psychological consequences and to achieve a normal transition to adulthood. Among the limitations of this study is the small sample size, which limits the generalisability of the reported results, especially in "Youth Self Report" and in "Symptom Checklist-90-R" questionnaires, where the sample was divided according to the age. Nevertheless, the very low incidence of MRKHS (1/5000) emphasize the value of the present results, which support the need for further investigation. PMID:23073543

  20. Development of the ovary and ontongeny of mRNA and protein for P450 aromatase (arom) and estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta during early fetal life in cattle.

    PubMed

    Garverick, H A; Juengel, J L; Smith, P; Heath, D A; Burkhart, M N; Perry, G A; Smith, M F; McNatty, K P

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol-17beta is the predominant steroid produced during early stages of ovarian development in ruminants and steroid hormones have been hypothesized to regulate ovigerous cord formation, germ cell meiosis and ovarian vascular development. Therefore, the objective was to determine the presence and localization of mRNA and protein encoding cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom), and estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) during ovarian development in fetuses of cattle on days 35, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 after breeding (n=4/age) using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. No ovarian tissue was found in the day 35 fetuses, but was found in all later ages studied. There appeared to be little organization of specific structures in ovaries on days 45 and 60, although germ cells could be identified. Evidence of the beginning of ovigerous cord formation was found on day 60. By day 75 of gestation, the ovigerous cords were more extensive and mesonephric-derived cell streams were detectable. By day 90 (and still present at day 105), both ovigerous cords and cell streams/rete tubules were definitive structures of the developing ovaries. Ovaries appeared to develop in "lobular" segments around the periphery of the ovary. Some lobes appeared to be at slightly different developmental stages, as assessed by the extent or definition of ovigerous cord formation. The localization of mRNAs for P450arom, ERalpha and ERbeta were closely associated with protein content. At days 45 and 60, mRNA and protein of P450arom and ERbeta were located throughout ovaries with signal in medulla being denser than in the cortex. P450arom mRNA or protein was punctate, but not evident in germ cells. From day 75, P450arom was increasingly becoming localized to cell streams or clusters of cells (rete tubules) in the medulla, and by days 90 and 105 of gestation, was more definitively localized to cell streams and/or rete tubules. Similar to P450arom, ERbeta mRNA and protein were observed in cells in the medulla, and also in germ cells, pre-granulosa cells and some surface epithelial cells. ERalpha mRNA and protein were predominately in the surface epithelium in ovaries of all ages with fainter signal for ERalpha protein also being observed in pre-granulosa and stromal cells including the cell streams/rete tubules. ERalpha protein was also detected in a few germ cells at days 90 and 105 of gestation. Thus, in cattle, estradiol-17beta has the potential to regulate, in an autocrine/paracrine manner, a number of different cell types during ovarian development. PMID:19501990

  1. Successful boll development after ovary damage during emasculation of upland cotton flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gossypium hirsutum flowers are easily emasculated by splitting the staminal column with the fingernail and removing the corolla and androecium. However, any damage to the ovary is considered detrimental to successful boll formation and damaged flowers are typically discarded. This study evaluated ...

  2. Meiosis in fetal freemartin gonads and in rat fetal ovaries J. PRPIN B. VIGIER A. JOST

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Meiosis in fetal freemartin gonads and in rat fetal ovaries in vitro J. PRÉPIN B. VIGIER A. JOST of meiosis. If one takes as a criterion the more conventionally recognized figures (leptotene, zygotene), meiosis was seen in the three freemartin fetuses aged 77 to 88 days, but the percentage of meiotic cells

  3. In germ cells of mouse embryonic ovaries, the decision to enter meiosis precedes premeiotic DNA replication

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Anne E.

    In germ cells of mouse embryonic ovaries, the decision to enter meiosis precedes premeiotic DNA Carpenter2, Dirk G de Rooij3 & David C Page1,2 The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a defining juncture in the life cycle of sexually reproducing organisms. In yeast, the decision to enter meiosis is made before

  4. Malignant mixed germ cell tumour of ovary--an unusual combination and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Sharanjit; Kawatra, Kanwardeep

    2014-01-01

    Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary are malignant neoplasms of the ovary comprising of two or more types of germ cell components. Most of the malignant mixed germ cell tumours consists of dysgerminoma accompanied by endodermal sinus tumours, immature teratoma or choriocarcinoma. There are only few case reports of mixed germ cell tumours with different combinations of malignant components. We report a very rare case of mixed germ cell tumours consisted of malignant components of endodermal sinus tumour, emryonal carcinoma, and benign component of teratomatuos and trophoblastic differentiation. This is the first case report in the literature with both benign and malignant component of type described to best of our knowledge. Patient was an 18 year old girl, who presented with pain abdomen, abdominal mass and irregular bleeding. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a huge mass with solid and cystic component. Tumour markers i.e alpha feto- protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), lactate dehydrogenate (LDH) and Ca-125 were raised. We performed fertility sparing surgery by preserving one ovary, tube and uterus. Conclusion: Malingnant mixed germ cell tumours of ovary are highly aggressive neoplasm and early intervention and fertility sparing surgery is required for any adolescent girl presenting with rapidly enlarging pelvic mass. PMID:25366470

  5. Qualitative changes in medium and large antral follicles in the human ovary during the menstrual cycle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualitative changes in medium and large antral follicles in the human ovary during the menstrual Obstétrique, Hôpital Antoine Bécière, 92141 Clamart Cedex, France. Summary. To better understand human ovarian and the nuclear status of the oocyte, completed by other parameters of follicular involution. The mean mitotic

  6. One tissue, two fates: molecular genetic events that underlie testis versus ovary development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Brennan; Blanche Capel

    2004-01-01

    The pivotal point of vertebrate sex determination is the development of the gonad into a testis or ovary, which governs phenotypic sex through the production of hormones. The identification of Sry, the genetic switch that controls testis development in mammals, fuelled the race for the discovery of downstream pathways. Comparative analyses of XY versus XX gonadogenesis in both mouse and

  7. Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Johnson; Jacqueline Canning; Tomoko Kaneko; James K. Pru; Jonathan L. Tilly

    2004-01-01

    A basic doctrine of reproductive biology is that most mammalian females lose the capacity for germ-cell renewal during fetal life, such that a fixed reserve of germ cells (oocytes) enclosed within follicles is endowed at birth. Here we show that juvenile and adult mouse ovaries possess mitotically active germ cells that, based on rates of oocyte degeneration (atresia) and clearance,

  8. Reproduction-preserving technique for benign cystic teratoma of the ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Nirasawa; Yasuo Ito

    1995-01-01

    The accepted surgical treatment of unilateral large ovarian cystic teratoma has been oophorectomy, since there seems to be no apparent residual ovarian tissue to salvage or reconstruct. However, there is no guarantee that the other ovary will remain healthy. Therefore, we attempted to preserve the ovarian tissue and reproductive potential in a reproduction-preserving technique (cystectomy) performed in seven patients whose

  9. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An update on metabolic and hormonal mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, R; Mehedintu, C; Briceag, I; Purcarea, VL; Hudita, D

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) is a public health important disease, affecting one in five women at reproductive age. The clinical implications include reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. This article reviews the literature data related to the new metabolic and hormonal mechanisms in PCOs. Recognizing the real diagnostic of PCOs, using the right criteria, is a challenge in current practice. PMID:25866568

  10. Distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii in ovary cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille1806) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea pigs inoculated with R. rickettsii. Results The results showed a general distribution of R. rickettsii in the ovary cells, being found in oocytes in all stages of development (I, II, III, IV and V) most commonly in the periphery of the oocyte and also in the cytoplasm of pedicel cells. Conclusions The histological analysis of the ovaries of R. sanguineus infected females confirmed the presence of the bacterium, indicating that the infection can interfere negatively in the process of reproduction of the ticks, once alterations were detected both in the shape and cell structure of the oocytes which contained bacteria. PMID:22117572

  11. Expression of GLUT1 Glucose Transporter in Borderline and Malignant Epithelial Tumors of the Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guilherme Cantuaria; Albino Magalhaes; Manuel Penalver; Roberto Angioli; Paul Braunschweiger; Orlando Gomez-Marin; Rima Kanhoush; Carmen Gomez-Fernandez; Mehrdad Nadji

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Cancer cells have increased rates of glucose metabolism when compared to normal cells. One of the mechanisms proposed for the accelerated glucose use in malignant cells is the overexpression of glucose transporters. In this study we evaluated the expression of the GLUT-1 glucose transporter in borderline and malignant epithelial neoplasms of the ovary.Methods. Histologic sections of tumor tissues from

  12. Synthesis of Brassica carinata from Brassica nigra x Brassica oleracea hybrids obtained by ovary culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sarla; R. N. Raut

    1988-01-01

    Brassica carinata was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. nigra and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Up to 40 times more hybrids were obtained, using ovary culture than with conventional hand pollination. Two hybrids from the cross B. nigra x B. oleracea var ‘alboglabra’ were raised to maturity. High chromosome pairing was observed in both the

  13. OBSERVATIONSON THE OVARIES OF AN ISOLATED MINKE WHALE: EVIDENCE FOR SPONTANEOUS

    E-print Network

    Marsh, Helene

    OBSERVATIONSON THE OVARIES OF AN ISOLATED MINKE WHALE: EVIDENCE FOR SPONTANEOUS STERILE OVULATION "dll'arf' minke whalewho spentthe lastthree months of her Iife alonein a Great Barrier Reef.rcyin this species. INTRODUCTION Information from the reproductive organs of a minke whale*, Balaenoptern

  14. Paclitaxel and Platinum Chemotherapy for Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumors of the Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda R. Duska; Audrey Garrett; Gamal H. Eltabbakh; Esther Oliva; Richard Penson; Arlan F. Fuller

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is a rare tumor with a dismal prognosis. The most effective therapy is unknown. The current study was undertaken to characterize a group of patients treated as if they had aggressive epithelial ovarian tumors, with cytoreductive surgery and combination paclitaxel\\/platinum chemotherapy.Methods. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from tumor registry and hospital

  15. CHANGES IN SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS DURING THE CELL CYCLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEITH PORTER; DAVID PRESCOTT; JEARL FRYE

    1973-01-01

    Synchronized populations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in confluent culture have been examined by scanning electron microscopy and their surface changes noted as the cells progress through the cycle . During G, it is characteristic for cells to show large numbers of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles . Except for the ruffles, these tend to diminish in prominence during S

  16. Nesprin-2 epsilon: A novel nesprin isoform expressed in human ovary and Ntera-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Le Thanh [Wolfson Centre for Inherited Neuromuscular Disease, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry SY10 7AG (United Kingdom)] [Wolfson Centre for Inherited Neuromuscular Disease, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Boehm, Sabrina V.; Roberts, Roland G. [Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College London, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Morris, Glenn E., E-mail: glennmanc@hotmail.com [Wolfson Centre for Inherited Neuromuscular Disease, RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Keele ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} A novel epsilon isoform of nesprin-2 has been discovered. {yields} This 120 kDa protein was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but has not previously been observed. {yields} It is the main isoform expressed in a teratocarcinoma cell line and is also found in ovary. {yields} Like other nesprins, it is located at the nuclear envelope. {yields} We suggest it may have a role in very early development or in some ovary-specific function. -- Abstract: The nuclear envelope-associated cytoskeletal protein, nesprin-2, is encoded by a large gene containing several internal promoters that produce shorter isoforms. In a study of Ntera-2 teratocarcinoma cells, a novel isoform, nesprin-2-epsilon, was found to be the major mRNA and protein product of the nesprin-2 gene. Its existence was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but this is the first direct demonstration of both the mRNA and the 120 kDa protein which is located at the nuclear envelope. In a panel of 21 adult and foetal human tissues, the nesprin-2-epsilon mRNA was strongly expressed in ovary but was a minor isoform elsewhere. The expression pattern suggests a possible link with very early development and a likely physiological role in ovary.

  17. Lower insulin sensitivity differentiates hirsute from non-hirsute Sicilian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco C Amato; Aldo Galluzzo; Simona Merlino; Antonina Mattina; Pierina Richiusa; Angela Criscimanna; Carla Giordano

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It is well known that hyperandrogenism and insulin-resistance with or without compensatory hyperinsulinism are closely associated, but the Rotterdam Consensus has concluded that principally obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) should be evaluated for the metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to study insulin sensitivity in PCOS women with hirsutism regardless of obesity. Methods: Clinical characteristics, sex hormones and

  18. A Niche Maintaining Germ Line Stem Cells in the Drosophila Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting Xie; Allan C. Spradling

    2000-01-01

    Stromal cells are thought to generate specific regulatory microenviroments or ``niches'' that control stem cell behavior. Characterizing stem cell niches in vivo remains an important goal that has been difficult to achieve. The individual ovarioles of the Drosophila ovary each contain about two germ line stem cells that maintain oocyte production. Here we show that anterior ovariolar somatic cells comprising

  19. Therapeutic effects of metformin on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Chryssa Kouli; Thomais Tsianateli; Angeliki Bergiele

    1998-01-01

    Evidence suggests that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia are associated with ovarian hyper- androgenism and menstrual irregularities in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Sixteen obese women with PCOS on a weight-maintaining diet were studied before and after 6 months of therapy with the insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agent metformin at a dose of 1700 mg per day. Compared with baseline values, glucose utilization was

  20. Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M Lord; Ingrid H K Flight; Robert J Norman

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of metformin in improving clinical and biochemical features of polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effect of metformin compared with either placebo or no treatment, or compared with an ovulation induction agent. Selection of studies 13 trials were included for analysis, including 543 women with

  1. The role of color doppler imaging in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Battaglia; Paolo G. Artini; Gerardo D'Ambrogio; Alessandro D. Genazzani; Andrea R. Genazzani

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate whether intraovarian and uterine blood flow variations are associated with clinical, ultrasonographic, and endocrine polycystic ovary syndrome findings.Study DESIGN: Thirty-two hirsute, oligomenorrheic patients and 18 volunteer women underwent in the early follicular phase ultrasonographic evaluation of ovarian volume, echodensity, and follicle number; transvaginal color Doppler measurement of the uterine and intraovarian vessel variations; and

  2. Weight control and its beneficial effect on fertility in women with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pasquali; F. Casimirri; V. Vicennati

    1997-01-01

    Obesity may be an important pathogenetic factor involved in the development of hyper- androgenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Among several other mech- anisms, hyperinsulinaemia plays a fundamental role, due to its gonadotrophic function, which has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, not surprisingly, weight loss may be expected to have several beneficial effects upon

  3. Evidence for Association Between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Premature Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn O. Talbott; David S. Guzick; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Kathleen P. McHugh-Pemu; Jeanne V. Zborowski; Karen E. Remsberg; Lewis H. Kuller

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disorder characterized by obesity, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance. An adverse lipid profile has also been observed in PCOS-affected women, suggesting that these individuals may be at increased risk for coronary heart disease at a young age. The objective of the present study was to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis among women with PCOS

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teimuraz Apridonidze; Paulina A. Essah; Maria J. Iuorno; John E. Nestler

    2005-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance with compensatory hyperinsulinemia. In- sulin resistance also plays a role in the metabolic syndrome (MBS). We hypothesized that the MBS is prevalent in PCOS and that women with both conditions would present with more hyperandrogenism and menstrual cycle irregularity than women with PCOS only. We conducted a retrospective chart review

  5. Dietary Composition in Restoring Reproductive and Metabolic Physiology in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Moran; M. NOAKES; P. M. CLIFTON; L. TOMLINSON; R. J. NORMAN

    2003-01-01

    Overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were randomized to a high protein (HP; 40% carbohydrate and 30% protein; n 14) or a low protein (LP; 55% carbohydrate and 15% protein) diet (n 14). The intervention consisted of 12 wk of energy restriction (6000 kJ\\/d), followed by 4 wk of weight maintenance. Pregnancies (two HP and one LP); im- provements

  6. Effects of Metformin on Early Pregnancy Loss in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIELA J. JAKUBOWICZ; MARIA J. IUORNO; SALOMON JAKUBOWICZ; KATHERINE A. ROBERTS; JOHN E. NESTLER

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common form of female infertility in the United States. In addition to poor conception rates, pregnancy loss rates are high (30 -50%) during the first trimester. We hypothesized that hyperinsulinemic insulin re- sistance contributes to early pregnancy loss in the syndrome, and that decreasing hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance with metformin during pregnancy would reduce the

  7. TrkA and p75NTR in the ovary of adult cow and pig

    PubMed Central

    Levanti, M B; Germanà, A; Abbate, F; Montalbano, G; Vega, J A; Germanà, G

    2005-01-01

    Neurotrophins play a critical role in the development of the mammalian ovary, oogenesis and folliculogenesis. In this study we investigated the cell localization of the two main receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF), TrkA and p75NTR, in the cow and pig ovary, using immunohistochemistry. Specific immunoreactivity for TrkA and p75NTR was detected in the ovary of both species, but the pattern and intensity of immunostaining were marginally different between them. The follicular cells regularly expressed immunoreactivity for both receptors. Immunoreactivity was also detected in the oocytes, independently of the maturational stage of the follicles, with the exception of primordial and primary follicles of the pig which did not display p75NTR. Taken together, these results suggest a possible direct role of NGF on oocytes expressing TrkA and p75NTR, in addition to the well-known roles in other ovary functions. The practical relevance of these data remains to be clarified. PMID:16011548

  8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Daytime Sleepiness: Role of Insulin Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEXANDROS N. VGONTZAS; RICHARD S. LEGRO; EDWARD O. BIXLER; ALLISON GRAYEV; ANTHONY KALES; GEORGE P. CHROUSOS

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of premenopausal women, characterized by chronic hyperan- drogenism, oligoanovulation, and insulin resistance. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are strongly associated with insulin resistance and hypercytokinemia, independently of obesity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS are at risk for OSA and EDS. Fifty-three women with PCOS (age

  9. Prevalence and Predictors of Coronary Artery Calcification in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROSE C. CHRISTIAN; DANIEL A. DUMESIC; THOMAS BEHRENBECK; ANN L. OBERG; PATRICK F. SHEEDY; LORRAINE A. FITZPATRICK

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine dis- order of reproductive-aged women, is associated with multi- ple risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, visceral obesity, and hyper- tension. However, premature coronary atherosclerosis has not been demonstrated in PCOS women. Electron beam com- puted tomography (EBCT) noninvasively measures coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker for

  10. Determinants of Abnormal Gonadotropin Secretion in Clinically Defined Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN E. TAYLOR; BRIAN MCCOURT; KATHRYN A. MARTIN; ELLEN J. ANDERSON; JUDITH M. ADAMS; DAVID SCHOENFELD; JANET E. HALL

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of reproductive age women characterized in its broadest definition by the presence of oligoamenorrhea and hyperandrogenism and the ab- sence of other disorders. Defects of gonadotropin secretion, including an elevated LH level, elevated LH to FSH ratio, and an increased frequency and amplitude of LH pulsations have been described, but the prevalence

  11. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Arguably the Most Common Endocrinopathy Is Associated with Significant Morbidity in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ENRICO CARMINA; ROGERIO A. LOBO

    Women's health is about the prevention, screening, diag- nosis, and treatment of disorders that are unique to women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is extremely prevalent and probably constitutes the most frequently encountered endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Primary care providers do not commonly appreciate that the syndrome is associated with significant morbidity in terms of both re- productive and

  12. Altered Composition of High Density Lipoproteins in Women with the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rajkhowa; R. H. NEARY; P. KUMPATLA; P. W. JONES; M. S. OBHRAI; R. N. CLAYTON

    1997-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appear at in- creased cardiovascular risk due in part to a dyslipidemia character- ized by increased plasma triglyceride and reduced high density li- poprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. This is a detailed exploratory study of HDL composition in 35 obese (body mass index (BMI), .27) and 22 nonobese subjects with PCOS and in 14 healthy

  13. The polycystic ovary syndrome per se is not associated with increased chronic inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Mohlig; Joachim Spranger; Martin Osterhoff; Michael Ristow; Andreas F H Pfeiffer; Thilo Schill; Hans W Schlosser; Georg Brabant; Christof Schofl

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The syndrome of polycystic ovaries (PCOS) is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. It is not known, however, whether the increase in diabetes risk is related to endocrine abnormalities associated with PCOS such as hyperandrogenemia, or whether it is a consequence of the anthropometric or metabolic alterations frequently observed in PCOS women. Design: Since markers of inflammation

  14. Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: The Role of Insulin Resistance\\/ Hyperinsulinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. LAUGHLIN; A. J. MORALES; S. S. C. YEN

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR)\\/hyperinsu- linemia, and a high incidence of obesity. Thus, PCOS serves as a useful model to assess the role of IR and chronic endogenous insulin excess on leptin levels. Thirty-three PCOS and 32 normally cycling (NC) women of similar body mass index (BMI) were studied. Insulin sensitivity (SI)

  15. Histological examination of sublethal effects of diazinon on ovary of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiran M Dutta; Laura B Maxwell

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the insecticide, diazinon (an organophosphorous compound), on the ovaries of bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) were studied. Histological preparations of bluegill ovarian tissue was examined at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following exposure to sublethal doses of diazinon (60 ?g\\/l). The control contained primary follicles with an intact ovigerous lamellae and tunica

  16. Ontogeny of polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance in utero and early childhood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent hyperandrogenic infertility and cardiometabolic disorder that increases a woman's lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is heritable and intensely familial. Progress toward a cure has been delayed by absence of an etiology. Evidence is mounting...

  17. Study on Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Influential Factors of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyan Ruan; Yujie Dai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether or not there is an increased level of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), of peripheral white cell count and of associated factors in Chinese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects and Methods: Seventy-four patients with PCOS were recruited for the study. The control group consisted of 51 normal healthy women of a similar age and body

  18. Metabolic evidence of diminished lipid oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are not limited to specific genes, pathogens, toxicoses, or identifiable environmental influences. PCOS still remains a diagnosis of exclusion despite being the most common female endocrinopathy and the leading cause of metabolic syndrome, ...

  19. Maturative pattern of ovary and testis in eutardigrades of freshwater and terrestrial habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LORENA REBECCHI; ROBERTO BERTOLANI

    1994-01-01

    We studied the life history of tardigrades with a particular focus on the maturative patterns of the ovary and testis. Specimens collected in nature belonging to four species of one freshwater and two semiterrestrial genera of eutardigrades were examined. The females of all examined species are always iteroparous; they have several maturative cycles with synchronously developing oocytes. Four maturative stages

  20. New genes with roles in the C. elegans embryo revealed using RNAi of ovary-enriched

    E-print Network

    New genes with roles in the C. elegans embryo revealed using RNAi of ovary-enriched ORFeome clones (RNAi)-based functional genomic projects have been performed in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify genes essential for the first cell divisions. However, comparing RNAi results suggests that many genes involved

  1. Metformin versus oral contraceptive pill in polycystic ovary syndrome: a Cochrane review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Costello; Bhushan Shrestha; John Eden; Neil P. Johnson; Peter Sjoblom

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The object of this review was to compare metformin versus oral contraceptive pill (OCP) treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis employing the principles of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group was undertaken. RESULTS: Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (104 subjects) were included. Limited data demonstrated no evidence of a difference in effect between

  2. The Development of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Family History as a Risk Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Kahsar-Miller; Ricardo Azziz

    1998-01-01

    Three general genetic models for the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can be proposed, namely: (1) the “single-gene Mendelian” model, which considers the majority of defects present in PCOS to be unique; (2) the “multifactorial” model, which suggests that the defects present in PCOS are not unique, and simply represent the conglomeration of abnormalities already present separately, and

  3. Drug Insight: insulin-sensitizing drugs in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome—a reappraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Dunaif

    2008-01-01

    The recognition that insulin resistance has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) revolutionized our understanding of this complex disorder. PCOS causes major metabolic and reproductive morbidities, including substantially increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Insulin-sensitizing drugs (ISDs) ameliorate reproductive abnormalities, restore ovulation and regular menses, increase pregnancy rates and reduce

  4. CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES: EXCELLENT MORPHOLOGY, APOPTOSIS DETECTION, AND SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Ovaries consist of numerous follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in different stages of development. Many of these follicles will undergo an apoptotic process during the lifetime of the animal. By using proper tissue preparation methods, the events within the whole...

  5. The effect of cinnamon extract on insulin resistance parameters in polycystic ovary syncrome: a pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of oral cinnamon extract on insulin resistance parameters. Methods: 15 women with polycystic ovary syndrome were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model insu...

  6. Floral and Inflorescence Morphology and Ontogeny in Beta vulgaris, with Special Emphasis on the Ovary Position

    PubMed Central

    Olvera, Hilda Flores; Smets, Erik; Vrijdaghs, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In spite of recent phylogenetic analyses for the Chenopodiaceae–Amaranthaceae complex, some morphological characters are not unambiguously interpreted, which raises homology questions. Therefore, ontogenetic investigations, emphasizing on ‘bracteoles’ in Atripliceae and flowers in Chenopodioideae, were conducted. This first paper presents original ontogenetic observations in Beta vulgaris, which was chosen as a reference species for further comparative investigation because of its unclarified phylogenetic position and its flowers with a (semi-)inferior ovary, whereas all other Chenopodiaceae–Amaranthaceae have hypogynous flowers. Methods Inflorescences and flowers were examined using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Key Results Floral development starts from an inflorescence unit primordium subtended by a lateral bract. This primordium develops into a determinate axis on which two opposite lateral flowers originate, each subtended by a bracteole. On a flower primordium, first five tepal primordia appear, followed by five opposite stamen primordia. Simultaneously, a convex floral apex appears, which differentiates into an annular ovary primordium with three stigma primordia, surrounding a central, single ovule. A floral tube, which raises the outer floral whorls, envelops the ovary, resulting in a semi-inferior ovary at mature stage. Similarly, a stamen tube is formed, raising the insertion points of the stamens, and forming a staminal ring, which does not contain stomata. During floral development, the calyces of the terminal flower and of one of the lateral flowers often fuse, forming a compound fruit structure. Conclusions In Beta vulgaris, the inflorescence is compound, consisting of an indeterminate main axis with many elementary dichasia as inflorescence units, of which the terminal flower and one lateral flower fuse at a later stage. Floral parts develop starting from the outer whorl towards the gynoecium. Because of the formation of an epigynous hypanthium, the ovary becomes semi-inferior in the course of floral development. PMID:18694878

  7. The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

  8. Bilateral synchronous high-grade serous carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma in right and left ovaries with immunohistochemical confirmation: an exceptional finding.

    PubMed

    Preeti, Agarwal; Arunachalam, Kumar Arun; Pradeep, Yashodhara; Mati, Goel Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Synchronous epithelial or mixed epithelial and germ cells tumors in the same ovary is a recognized event, however, having two different surface epithelial tumors in contra lateral ovaries is a rare occurrence; prognosis and pathogenesis of which is still not clear. We came across similar finding in a 60-year-old female with different types of surface epithelial neoplasm in right and left ovaries at the same time; both of which were malignant. Clinicoradiologically only the left ovary revealed tumor, right ovary was atrophic. To our surprise, left ovary revealed high grade serous carcinoma and the right ovary displayed clear cell carcinoma. We performed immunohistochemistry to rule out the possibility of clear cell variant of serous papillary carcinoma. On literature search, we found; only single case with synchronous presentation of two different surface epithelial ovarian tumors in the same patient, both of which were benign. PMID:25308023

  9. Glucose-Stimulated Oxidative Stress in Mononuclear Cells Is Related to Pancreatic ?-Cell Dysfunction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Kirwan, John P.; Sia, Chang Ling

    2014-01-01

    Context: Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the development of pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction. Objective: We determined the relationship between mononuclear cell (MNC)-derived ROS generation and p47phox protein content in response to glucose ingestion and ?-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: This study was conducted at an academic medical center. Participants: Twenty-nine normoglycemic women with PCOS (13 lean, 16 obese) and 25 ovulatory controls (16 lean, 9 obese) underwent a 3-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Main Outcome Variables: Pancreatic ?-cell function was calculated as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (insulin/glucose area under the curve0–30 min; GSIS) × Matsuda index-derived insulin sensitivity (ISOGTT). ROS generation was measured by chemiluminescence, and p47phox protein was quantified by Western blotting in MNC isolated from blood samples obtained at 0 and 2 hours of the OGTT. Results: Compared with controls, women with PCOS exhibited a higher percent change from baseline in ROS generation and p47phox protein in conjunction with greater GSIS and a tendency toward lower ?-cell function. Lean women with PCOS exhibited a greater percent change from baseline in ROS generation and p47phox protein yet had similar GSIS responses compared with lean controls despite having lower ISOGTT. For the combined groups, ?-cell function was inversely related to ROS generation and p47phox protein. GSIS was directly related to body mass index, central obesity, and circulating androgens. Conclusion: In normoglycemic women, obesity plays a role in exaggerating GSIS. However, MNC-derived oxidative stress is independent of obesity and may contribute to the decline in ?-cell function in women with PCOS. PMID:24203060

  10. Differential expression analysis of Paralichthys olivaceus microRNAs in adult ovary and testis by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yifeng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaowu

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gonadal development and differentiation in fish. However, understanding of the mechanism of this process is hindered by our poor knowledge of miRNA expression patterns in fish gonads. In this study, miRNA libraries derived from adult gonads of Paralichthys olivaceus were generated by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to distinguish mature miRNA sequences from two classes of small RNAs represented in the sequencing data. A total of 141 mature miRNAs were identified, in which 21 miRNAs were found in P. olivaceus for the first time. Variance and preference of miRNAs expression were concluded from the deep sequencing reads. Some miRNAs, such as pol-miR-143, pol-miR-26a and pol-let-7a were found with quite high expression levels in both gonads, while some exhibited a clear sex-biased expression in different gonad. Approximate 20.0% and 13.1% of the isolated miRNAs were preferentially expressed in the testis (FC<0.5) or ovary (FC>2), respectively. The identification and the preliminary analysis of the sex-biased expression of miRNAs in P. olivaceus gonads in our work by using NGS will provide us a basic catalog of miRNAs to facilitate future improvement and exploitation of sexual regulatory mechanisms in P. olivaceus. PMID:24861804

  11. Three-dimensional culture of a mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: expression of in vivo characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Prewett, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.; Becker, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) is a novel in vitro cell culture system used to successfully culture a cell line derived from a heterologous mixed mullerian tumor cell of the ovary. Although the original tumor was comprised of both epithelial and mesodermal components, long-term culture in conventional flasks established a cell line from this tumor with homogeneous epitheliallike growth characteristics (1). Cells from Passage 36 were seeded into a Rotating-Wall Vessel containing Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads. Scanning electron micrographs of tumor cells cultured for 32 d in the RWV showed the presence of heterogeneous cell populations organized into three-dimensional tissuelike architecture. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed the cellular heterogeneity, as demonstrated by expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal antigens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification demonstrated the presence of mRNA for cellular oncogenes HER-2/neu, H-ras, K-ras, and tumor suppressor p53. Thus, there are two advantages to propagation of tissue in the RWV culture system:(a) tissue diversification representing populations present in the original tumor, and (b) the three-dimensional freedom to organize tissues morphologically akin to those observed in vivo. These data indicate that the RWV culture system is suitable for generating large quantities of ovarian tumor cells in vitro that are amenable to immunocytochemical, oncogenic, morphologic characteristics demonstrated in vivo.

  12. ?-Ionone derived chalcones as potent antiproliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Chaudhary, Ashun; Arora, Saroj; Saxena, Ajit K; Ishar, Mohan Paul S

    2013-11-01

    A series of ?-ionone derived chalcones were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against various human cancer cell lines using SRB dye assay. All the compounds displayed moderate to high cytotoxic effect against almost all the cancer cell lines. The results also revealed the effect of substituents of the aromatic ring on their inhibitory potential. In general, compounds bearing electron withdrawing groups such as nitro, fluoro, chloro and bromo showed more inhibitory potential than those bearing electron donating groups. The nitro substituted compound (7h) showed comparatively more inhibitory potential than other derivatives, therefore, it was further investigated for observing its effect on cell morphology in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by using phase contrast imaging, cell cycle analysis and annexin-FITC apoptosis assay. The treated cells exhibited the characteristics of apoptosis i.e. cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation, and induced the inhibition of cell proliferation by arresting the cells at G0 phase. PMID:24056146

  13. 77 FR 70451 - Report of the Evidence-Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...prevention.nih.gov/workshops/2012/pcos/default.aspx. DATES: Comments on...INFORMATION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormone disorder that affects...women in the United States. Women with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant...

  14. A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2?Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape. PMID:24519535

  15. Comparative studies on fatty acid composition of the ovaries and hepatopancreas at different physiological stages of the Chinese mitten crab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue-Ping Ying; Wan-Xi Yang; Yong-Pu Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the ovary at different physiological stages (immature, mature, spawning, egg loss and abortion) of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was investigated with capillary gas chromatograph. A total of 18 types of fatty acids were found in the ovary of E. sinensis. Three of them were major fatty acids: oleic acid (C18:1) (31.96–37.31%), palmitic acid

  16. Identification and characteristics of a novel gene, EJO1 , in the Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir japonica sinensis ) ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ChangYan Ma; YuJie Guo; KaiYa Zhou

    2010-01-01

    EJO1, a novel gene presumably involved in the ovary development of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir japonica sinensis), was identified and characterized by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA macroarray analysis. EJO1 expression was 2.6-fold higher at stage III than at stage II during the ovary development of the mitten crab. EJO1 is 876 bp in length containing a 759 bp open reading

  17. The anti-breast cancer drug tamoxifen alters Ca 2+ movement in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Ren Jan; Chiang An-Jen; Hong-Tai Chang; Cherng-Jau Roan; Yih-Chau Lu; Bang-Ping Jiann; Chin-Man Ho; Jong-Khing Huang

    2003-01-01

    The anti-breast cancer drug tamoxifen has recently been shown to cause an increase in intracellular free-Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in renal tubular cells, breast cells and bladder cells. Because tamoxifen is known to alter ovary function in human patients and in rats, the present study was aimed at exploring whether tamoxifen could alter Ca2+ movement in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells.

  18. Ribulose1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and fruit set or degeneration of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Carbonell; J. L. García-Martínez

    1985-01-01

    The polypeptide patterns obtained by sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of undigested and autodigested extracts from pea (Pisum sativum L.) ovaries at the early stages of development or degeneration have been studied. Development of unpollinated ovaries was stimulated by application of different plant growth regulators (gibberellic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and N6-benzyladenine) or by plant topping. Polypeptide bands of similar mobility to

  19. Immunohistochemical evidence identifying the site of androgen production in the ovary of the protogynous grouper Epinephelus merra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ashraful Alam; Hiroki Komuro; Ramji Kumar Bhandari; Shigeo Nakamura; Kiyoshi Soyano; Masaru Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    Androgen plays an important role in the developing ovaries of female fish. However, little is known regarding either the sites of production of androgen or its functional roles. In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemically the localization of cholesterol-side-chain-cleavage (P450scc) and cytochrome P45011ß-hydroxylase (P45011ß) with antibodies P450scc and P45011ß in the ovary of the female honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra during

  20. Evolutionary and functional significance of two CYP19 genes differentially expressed in brain and ovary of goldfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria V. Callard; Anna Tchoudakova

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably high levels of cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) enzyme are expressed in the brains of teleost fish when compared to the ovaries of the same fish, or to the brain or ovaries of other vertebrates. Northern analysis using a full-length P450arom cDNA from a goldfish brain library indicates high accumulated levels of CYP19 mRNA in the brain but fails to

  1. Response of the amphibian tadpole Xenopus laevis to atrazine during sexual differentiation of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Tavera-Mendoza, Luz; Ruby, Sylvia; Brousseau, Pauline; Fournier, Michel; Cyr, Daniel; Marcogliese, David

    2002-06-01

    Xenopus laevis tadpoles (stage 56) were exposed to 21 microg/L atrazine under laboratory-controlled conditions in a static system. Following a 48-h exposure period at 21+/-0.5 degrees C during sexual differentiation, tadpoles were fixed, and the kidney-gonad complex was microdissected. Quantitative histological analysis revealed in atrazine-exposed ovaries a significant (p < 0.05) increase in frequency of secondary oogonia. Atresia, or oogonial resorption of both primary and secondary oogonia, also increased significantly (p < 0.05). The results suggest that these primary germ cells, which constitute the total number of germ cells in the ovary for the reproductive life of the organism, were reduced by 20% following a 48-h exposure period compared to 2% in controls. PMID:12069312

  2. Nesprin-2 epsilon: a novel nesprin isoform expressed in human ovary and Ntera-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, Le Thanh; Böhm, Sabrina V; Roberts, Roland G; Morris, Glenn E

    2011-08-26

    The nuclear envelope-associated cytoskeletal protein, nesprin-2, is encoded by a large gene containing several internal promoters that produce shorter isoforms. In a study of Ntera-2 teratocarcinoma cells, a novel isoform, nesprin-2-epsilon, was found to be the major mRNA and protein product of the nesprin-2 gene. Its existence was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, but this is the first direct demonstration of both the mRNA and the 120 kDa protein which is located at the nuclear envelope. In a panel of 21 adult and foetal human tissues, the nesprin-2-epsilon mRNA was strongly expressed in ovary but was a minor isoform elsewhere. The expression pattern suggests a possible link with very early development and a likely physiological role in ovary. PMID:21820406

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on Infertility Caused by Polycystic Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Hun; Park, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tak; Jeong, Moon Jin; Lim, Sung Chul; Nah, Seung Yeol; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun; Kang, Seong Soo; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim, Sung Ho; Bae, Chun Sik

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Nerve growth factor (NGF) may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. In this study, we investigated the effect of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) on the ovarian morphology and NGF expression in an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced rat model. Polycystic ovaries were induced by a single intramuscular injection of estadiol valerate (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. KRGE was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 60 consecutive days, beginning 60 days after the induction. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized and NGF was normalized in the EV+KRGE group. KRGE lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in the polycystic ovaries. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of KRGE in the treatment of PCOS. PMID:23717068

  4. TLRs, macrophages, and NK cells: our understandings of their functions in uterus and ovary.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyan; Kong, Beihua; Mosser, David M; Zhang, Xia

    2011-10-01

    Inflammation involves multiple changes in many aspects of immune system. Interactions between immune system and female reproductive system strongly impact fertility and reproductive health in general. Many normal events of female reproduction system including ovulation, menstruation, implantation and labor onset are considered as inflammatory process. Emerging evidence reveals that three components of immune system that are critical to initiate and resolve inflammation, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells, play important roles not only to provide protection against infections by exogenous pathogens but also to regulate essential functions of uterus and ovary. This review will briefly summarize our understanding of the functions of TLRs, macrophages and NK cells in uterus and ovary. PMID:21586343

  5. [Agressive small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type, surgery and oncological treatment: case report].

    PubMed

    Kapoun, M; Bouda, J; Presl, J; Vlasák, P; Slune?ko, R

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary (SCCOHT) is a rare tumor typically affecting young women. It is a highly malignant tumor accompanied with poor prognosis, early relapse and low survival rates. The most significant prognostic factor is stage of the disease. Due to above mentioned factors there are no guidelines for therapy of this rare tumor. We present a case of 22-years-old patient initially treated with antibiotics under diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease. Due to persistent mass at left adnexa, she was indicated for diagnostic laparoscopy, converted to laparotomy and left adnexectomy with frozen section revealing unspecified malignant tumor of left ovary. A conservative operation was performed and, after diagnosis of SCCOHT was established, the patient was indicated for adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26087218

  6. Morphological characterization of the ovary and vitellogenesis dynamics in the tick Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Saito, Kelly Cristina; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2004-11-10

    In this work we describe the internal morphology of the female reproductive system of the cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense. This system is represented by a panoistic ovary, which lacks nurse cells in the germarium. This ovary consists of a single tube, in which a large number of oocytes develop asynchronously, thus accompanying the processes of yolk deposition in the oocytes. The oocytes were classified into stages that varied from I to V, according to: cytoplasm appearance, presence of the germ vesicle, presence of yolk granules, and presence of chorion. The study of vitellogenesis dynamics suggest that the yolk elements are deposited in the oocyte following a preferencial sequence, in which the lipids are the first to appear, followed by proteins an finally by the carbohydrates. In this way the yolk of A. cajennense ticks have these three elements that may be free in the cytoplasm or chemically bounded forming glycoprotein or lipoprotein complexes. PMID:15482894

  7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Julia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view. PMID:24073009

  8. Delayed presentation of uterine perforation with ovary migration after dilatation and curettage

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shili; Tao, Guowei; Dong, Baihua; Shi, Linlin; Dong, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare but serious uterine perforation. A 31-year-old woman was referred to our department for hyperechogenic mass in uterus on ultrasonography after Dilation and curettage (D&C) for the adherent placenta and retained products of conception. Transvaginal ultrasound examination showed that a mass with several follicles measuring 35×29 mm was seen emanating from the right posterior wall of the uterine cavity, and there was absence of the myometrial tissue. A hysteroscopy and laparoscopy showed a uterine perforation with ovary incarceration. The ovary was rehabilitated, and the uterine perforation site was incised. D&C can not be performed when delayed presentation of uterine perforation with migration of an extrauterine organ is suspected, particularly, some of them are asymptomatic after a difficult intrauterine operation.

  9. The ovary is an alternative site of origin for high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Coffey, Donna M; Ma, Lang; Matzuk, Martin M

    2015-06-01

    Although named "ovarian cancer," it has been unclear whether the cancer actually arises from the ovary, especially for high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), also known as high-grade serous ovarian cancer, the most common and deadliest ovarian cancer. In addition, the tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HGSC. However, whether mutated p53 can cause HGSC remains unknown. In this study, we bred a p53 mutation, p53(R172H), into conditional Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model duplicating human HGSC, to generate triple-mutant (TKO) mice. Like DKO mice, these TKO mice develop metastatic HGSCs originating from the fallopian tube. Unlike DKO mice, however, even after fallopian tubes are removed in TKO mice, ovaries alone can develop metastatic HGSCs, indicating that a p53 mutation can drive HGSC arising from the ovary. To confirm this, we generated p53(R172H)-Pten double-mutant mice, one of the genetic control lines for TKO mice. As anticipated, these double-mutant mice also develop metastatic HGSCs from the ovary, verifying the HGSC-forming ability of ovaries with a p53 mutation. Our study therefore shows that ovaries harboring a p53 mutation, as well as fallopian tubes, can be a distinct tissue source of high-grade serous ovarian cancer in mice. PMID:25815421

  10. Role of Ovarian Transposition Based on the Dosimetric Effects of Craniospinal Irradiation on the Ovaries: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, James D.; Hitchen, Christine [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Vlachaki, Maria T. [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)], E-mail: mvlachaki@med.wayne.edu

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we present a case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function in an adult female patient treated with craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma. The prescribed dose to the craniospinal axis was 2340 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction and was delivered with 6-MV photons. Before ovarian transposition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained for localization of the ovaries and was registered with the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Surgical clips allowed for CT localization of the ovaries after transposition. As a result of ovarian transposition, mean and maximum radiation doses decreased from 983 to 68 cGy and 1624 to 84 cGy for the left ovary and from 166 to 87 cGy and 723 to 103 cGy for the right ovary, respectively. Review of the literature indicates that such radiation doses are below the threshold that causes ovarian dysfunction and infertility. We conclude that ovarian localization with an MRI of the pelvis can be offered to females undergoing craniospinal irradiation. Transposition of the ovaries provides an option to preserve ovarian function in cases where the ovaries would otherwise be included within the radiation field.

  11. Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Related Disorders in Mexican Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Moran; Gilberto Tena; Segundo Moran; Paola Ruiz; Rosario Reyna; Ximena Duque

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been found to affect 4–8% of women of reproductive age; however, in Mexican-Americans a prevalence of 12.8% has been reported. This study determines the prevalence of PCOS in a sample of Mexican women. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included 150 female Mexican volunteers aged 20–45 years. Menstrual cycles were recorded and hirsutism was graded.

  12. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Control of Germline Stem Cell Regulation in the Drosophila Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nian Zhang; Ting Xie

    \\u000a Germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila ovary represent one of the best studied adult stem cell types, while their regulatory microenvironment or niche is also one\\u000a of the best defined ones. Due to the availability of powerful genetic tools and a large number of mutants, much progress has\\u000a been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying intrinsic and extrinsic

  13. Twist Expression Predicts Poor Clinical Outcome of Patients with Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Kajiyama; Satoyo Hosono; Mikio Terauchi; Kiyosumi Shibata; Kazuhiko Ino; Eiko Yamamoto; Seiji Nomura; Akihiro Nawa; Fumitaka Kikkawa; M. Singh; S. Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Twist is a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates the expression of E-cadherin and promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is critical for tumor infiltration. We examined the distribution and expression of this molecule in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) to elucidate their clinical significance. Methods: Paraffin sections from CCC tissues (n = 27) were immunostained

  14. Growth-inhibitory effects of curcumin on ovary cancer cells and its mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Liduan; Tong Qiangsong; Wu Cuihuan

    2004-01-01

    Summary  To study the growth-inhibitory effects of curcumin on human ovary cancer A2780 cellsin vitro and its molecular mechanisms, the growth inhibition rates of A2780 cancer cells, after being treated with 10 ?mol\\/L–50 ?mol\\/L\\u000a curcumin for 6–24 h, were examined by MTT method. The morphological changes of cancer cells were observed under inversion\\u000a microscopy. Cellular apoptotic rates were determined by using

  15. Insights into the prostanoid pathway in the ovary development of the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

    2013-01-01

    The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

  16. Effects of maternal undernutrition during early pregnancy on apoptosis regulators in the ovine fetal ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R G Lea; L P Andrade; M T Rae; L T Hannah; J F Murray; S M Rhind; Escola Superior Agraria; Castelo Branco

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether reduced fetal ovary folliculogenesis in ewes undernourished during early\\/midpreg- nancy is associated with altered ovarian cell proliferation and\\/or the expression of apoptosis-regulating genes. Groups of ewes (n 5 11-19) were fed either 100% (high; H) or 50% (low; L) of metabolisable energy requirements for live-weight mainten- ance during selected windows of gestation. All animals

  17. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the ovary with two cases and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berna Bozkurt Duman; Ismail O?uz Kara; Meral Günaldi; Vehbi Ercolak

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It accounts <1% of all ovarian\\u000a carcinomas. It is characterized by the presence of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components and tends to occur in low\\u000a parity postmenopausal woman. These are mixed, mostly monoclonal tumors, and the predominance of the stromal component aggravates\\u000a the prognosis. The

  18. ?-Fetoprotein Production by a Malignant Mixed Müllerian Tumor of the Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Rebischung; Patricia Pautier; Philippe Morice; Catherine Lhomme; Pierre Duvillard

    2000-01-01

    Elevated levels of ?-fetoprotein (AFP), a fetal serum protein, usually signal the development of hepatoma or germ cell tumors, including endodermal sinus tumors. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with an ?-fetoprotein-producing malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary. Serum AFP was 5348 ng\\/ml at diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the carcinomatous component of this biphasic tumor was

  19. N Glycosylation profiling of recombinant mouse extracellular superoxide dismutase produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Korekane; Atsuko Korekane; Yoshiki Yamaguchi; Masaki Kato; Yasuhide Miyamoto; Akio Matsumoto; Tomoko Hasegawa; Keiichiro Suzuki; Naoyuki Taniguchi; Tomomi Ookawara

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), the major SOD isoenzyme in biological fluids, is known to be N-glycosylated and heterogeneous as was detected in most glycoproteins. However, only one N-glycan structure has been reported in recombinant human EC-SOD produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Thus, a precise\\u000a N-glycan profile of the recombinant EC-SOD is not available. In this study, we report

  20. RUNX2 transcription factor regulates gene expression in luteinizing granulosa cells of rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Sil; Lind, Anna-Karin; Dahm-Kähler, Pernilla; Brännström, Mats; Carletti, Martha Z; Christenson, Lane K; Curry, Thomas E; Jo, Misung

    2010-04-01

    The LH surge promotes terminal differentiation of follicular cells to become luteal cells. RUNX2 has been shown to play an important role in cell differentiation, but the regulation of Runx2 expression and its function in the ovary remain to be determined. The present study examined 1) the expression profile of Runx2 and its partner CBFbeta during the periovulatory period, 2) regulatory mechanisms of Runx2 expression, and 3) its potential function in the ovary. Runx2 expression was induced in periovulatory granulosa cells of human and rodent ovaries. RUNX2 and core binding factor-beta (CBFbeta) proteins in nuclear extracts and RUNX2 binding to a consensus binding sequence increased after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. This in vivo up-regulation of Runx2 expression was recapitulated in vitro in preovulatory granulosa cells by stimulation with hCG. The hCG-induced Runx2 expression was reduced by antiprogestin (RU486) and EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AG1478), indicating the involvement of EGF-signaling and progesterone-mediated pathways. We also found that in the C/EBPbeta knockout mouse ovary, Runx2 expression was reduced, indicating C/EBPbeta-mediated expression. Next, the function of RUNX2 was investigated by suppressing Runx2 expression by small interfering RNA in vitro. Runx2 knockdown resulted in reduced levels of mRNA for Rgc32, Ptgds, Fabp6, Mmp13, and Abcb1a genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the binding of RUNX2 in the promoter region of these genes, suggesting that these genes are direct downstream targets of RUNX2. Collectively, the present data indicate that the LH surge-induced RUNX2 is involved in various aspects of luteal function by directly regulating the expression of diverse luteal genes. PMID:20197312

  1. Fetal calf serum-free culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells employing fish serum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fujiwara; R. Tsukada; Y. Tsujinaga; M. Takagi

    2007-01-01

    The effects of fish serum on cell growth and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) production in\\u000a an adhesion culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells DR1000L4N were investigated and compared with those of fetal calf\\u000a serum (FCS). Although fish serum did not stimulate the initial adhesion of CHO cells to culture dishes, it prompted cell growth\\u000a after cell adhesion with

  2. Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

    2013-01-01

    The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

  3. An observational study of Yasmin® in the management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manisha Palep-Singh; Karen Mook; Julian Barth; Adam Balen

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disturbance affecting women in the reproductive age group and encompasses signs of hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disturbances and obesity. Some of the symptoms of PCOS may be ameliorated by the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP).MethodsA pilot observational study was carried out in a university teaching hospital setting to determine whether the clinical and

  4. decapentaplegic Is Essential for the Maintenance and Division of Germline Stem Cells in the Drosophila Ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting Xie; Allan C Spradling

    1998-01-01

    Stem cells are thought to occupy special local environments, or niches, established by neighboring cells that give them the capability for self-renewal. Each ovariole in the Drosophila ovary contains two germline stem cells surrounded by a group of differentiated somatic cells that express hedgehog and wingless. Here we show that the BMP2\\/4 homolog decapentaplegic (dpp) is specifically required to maintain

  5. Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy reduces the development of gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J Glueck; Ping Wang; Suichi Kobayashi; Harvey Phillips; Luann Sieve-Smith

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether metformin safely reduced development of gestational diabetes in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective and retrospective study.Setting: Outpatient clinical research center.Patient(s): The prospective study included 33 nondiabetic women with PCOS who conceived while taking metformin and had live births; of these, 28 were taking metformin through delivery. The retrospective study included 39 nondiabetic women

  6. Pregnancies following use of metformin for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J Heard; Anita Pierce; Sandra A Carson; John E Buster

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess pregnancy outcome in anovulatory infertility patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were treated with metformin.Design: Case series.Setting: Outpatient.Patient(s): Anovulatory patients (n = 48) with a diagnosis of PCOS based on clinical, diagnostic, and laboratory evaluations were enrolled in the study over a 15-month period.Intervention(s): Metformin was started at 500 mg b.i.d. for 6 weeks and

  7. Effects of metformin on gonadotropin-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo De Leo; Antonio la Marca; Antonino Ditto; Giuseppe Morgante; Antonio Cianci

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether pretreatment with metformin improves FSH-induced ovulation in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Randomized prospective trial.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Siena.Patient(s): Twenty women with clomiphene citrate–resistant PCOS.Intervention(s): The women were divided randomly into groups A and B (10 subjects each). Group B received 1,500 mg of metformin for at least a month

  8. Identification of Metabolites in the Normal Ovary and Their Transformation in Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda Y. Fong; Jonathan McDunn; Sham S. Kakar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the metabolome of the human ovary and identified metabolic alternations that coincide with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and metastatic tumors resulting from primary ovarian cancer (MOC) using three analytical platforms: gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC\\/MS\\/MS) using buffer systems and instrument settings to catalog positive or negative ions.

  9. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in first-degree relatives of patients with PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa D Kahsar-Miller; Christa Nixon; Larry R Boots; Rodney C Go; Ricardo Azziz

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of clinically evident polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among first-degree female relatives within families with a proband affected by PCOS.Design: Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the mothers and sisters of 93 patients with PCOS. The diagnosis of PCOS was established by: [1] a history of oligomenorrhea, [2] clinical evidence (i.e., hirsutism) or biochemical evidence (i.e., elevated

  10. Serum testosterone levels decrease in middle age in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J Winters; Evelyn Talbott; David S Guzick; Jeanne Zborowski; Kathleen P McHugh

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether testosterone levels change as women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) grow older.Design: A follow-up cross-sectional study of a cohort of women with PCOS identified up to 20–25 years ago.Setting: Women with PCOS were recruited primarily from practice records between 1970 and 1990. Voter registration tapes and household directories were used to identify age-, race-, and

  11. Comparative analysis of 82 expressed sequence tags from a cattle ovary cDNA library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Z. Ma; M. J. T. van Eijk; J. E. Beever; G. Guérin; C. L. Mummery; Harris A. Lewin

    1998-01-01

    .   In total, 82 ESTs were generated from 51 unique clones randomly selected from a cattle ovary cDNA library. Among these clones,\\u000a 22 (42.1%) had 5? and\\/or 3? ends that matched with known human or other mammalian coding sequences, 18 (35.3%) matched human\\u000a or other ESTs, and 11 (21.6%) represented novel transcripts with no significant match to any sequence in

  12. Decreased soluble leptin receptor levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Hahn; Uwe Haselhorst; Beate Quadbeck; Susanne Tan; Rainer Kimmig; Klaus Mann; Onno E Janssen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and a high incidence of obesity. Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is involved in the regulation of energy balance and obes- ity and circulates in both free and bound forms. The soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) is the most important leptin-binding protein, thus influencing the biologically active free leptin

  13. Contribution of real-time elastography in diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ç?rac?, Saliha; Tan, Sinan; Özcan, Ay?enur ?irin; Aslan, Ahmet; Keskin, Hüseyin Levent; Ate?, Ömer Faruk; Akçay, Y?ld?z; Arslan, Halil

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of real-time elastography (RTE) for displaying the effects of morphological changes in the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS Forty-eight patients diagnosed with PCOS and 48 healthy women were enrolled in the study. Ultrasonography and RTE were performed on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle. Evaluations were performed independently by two radiologists. Ovarian volume, number of follicles, elasticity pattern, and strain ratio were measured. Elasticity patterns were assessed as hard (type 1; blue or blue-green), moderate (type 2; green or green-yellow) or soft (type 3; red or orange-red). RESULTS Both radiologists determined the elasticity pattern as mostly type 1 in the PCOS group and type 3 in the control group (P < 0.01). The mean strain ratios obtained by the first and second radiologist were 6.1±1.8 (2.7–10.1) and 6.0±1.5 (3.0–9.0) in PCOS and 3.3±1.2 (1.7–7.2) and 3.2±0.9 (1.7–6.8) in the control group, respectively (P < 0.001). Interobserver agreement was moderate for the elasticity pattern (?=0.48) and good for the strain ratio (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.77). A strain ratio of 3.8 was determined as the optimized cutoff point by receiver operating curve analysis. Strain ratio was correlated with the ovarian volume and the number of detected follicles (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Elasticity pattern and strain ratio can help identify morphological changes that make PCOS ovaries stiffer than normal ovaries. PMID:25616270

  14. A meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Boomsma; M. J. C. Eijkemans; E. G. Hughes; G. H. A. Visser; B. C. J. M. Fauser; N. S. Macklon

    2006-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder associated with many characteristic features, including hyperandrogenaemia, insulin resistance and obesity which may have significant implications for pregnancy outcomes and long-term health of the woman. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the risk of pregnancy and neonatal complications in women with PCOS. Electronic databases were searched for the following MeSH headings:

  15. Strategies for Ovulation Induction in the Management of Anovulatory Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Frcog

    The management of anovulatory infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has traditionally involved the use of clomiphene\\u000a citrate (CC) and then gonadotropin therapy or laparoscopic ovarian surgery, in those who are clomiphene resistant. There is\\u000a no clear role for insulin sensitizing and insulin lowering drugs, and algorithms for their place in therapy are still to be\\u000a agreed upon. Newer

  16. Insulin Sensitizers Targeting Metabolic and Reproductive Consequences in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis

    The central importance of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been established\\u000a by pioneering and elegant studies. In addition to the known hormonal and reproductive abnormalities that characterize this\\u000a syndrome, metabolic disorders, as well as morbidities such as the enhanced risk for type 2 diabetes and increased risk for\\u000a cardiovascular disease, have also been demonstrated.

  17. Melatonin Receptor 1A Gene Polymorphism Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Li; Yuhua Shi; Li You; Laicheng Wang; Zi-Jiang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene is a regulator of circadian rhythms and reproductive processes. The MTNR1A gene is also a potential candidate gene of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the MTNR1A gene polymorphism is associated with a predisposition to PCOS. Methods: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2119882 in

  18. Development of the germinal ridge and ovary in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, F J; Nöthling, J O; Soley, J T; Allen, W R

    2012-11-01

    The follicular reserve and its ontogeny in the elephant are of interest because elephants have the longest reproductive life of all land-based mammals. They also have the longest recorded pregnancy, which allows a protracted view of the series of significant events involved in the development of the embryonic and fetal gonads. The large elephant population of Zimbabwe provided the opportunity to collect conceptuses from elephants culled for management reasons and hunted professionally. Five embryos aged 76-96 days and the ovaries of four fetuses aged 4.8-11.2 months were fixed in 4% buffered formalin and studied by conventional histological sectioning and a stereological protocol to calculate the follicle reserve of each fetus. These observations enabled the conclusion that the migration of primordial germ cells into the indifferent gonad terminates at around 76 days of gestation while entry of oogonia into meiosis along with first follicle formation starts at around 5 months. Peak numbers of follicles are present by mid-gestation towards the end of the 6-month mitotic-meiotic transition period. It appears that the cortex of the elephant fetal ovary at mid-gestation (11 months) has already reached a developmental stage exhibited by the ovaries of many other mammals at full term. PMID:22991581

  19. Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

  20. Normal human ovary and ovarian tumors express glycodelin, a glycoprotein with immunosuppressive and contraceptive properties.

    PubMed Central

    Kämäräinen, M.; Leivo, I.; Koistinen, R.; Julkunen, M.; Karvonen, U.; Rutanen, E. M.; Seppälä, M.

    1996-01-01

    Glycodelin is a glycoprotein with potent immunosuppressive and contraceptive activities. It reacts with antibodies against placental protein 14, or progesterone-associated endometrial protein, and has a unique carbohydrate structure. Previous nomenclature is misleading, because glycodelin is neither synthesized in the placenta nor is it endometrium specific. No ovarian synthesis of glycodelin has been demonstrated. We present evidence for glycodelin synthesis in the human ovary and ovarian tumors. In follicular phase, immunoperoxidase staining of microwave-treated tissue sections employing affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies localized glycodelin to areas of stromal cell condensation in ovarian cortex, theca interna, and the granulosa. In luteal phase, cortical stroma was negative or only weakly positive, whereas glycodelin was present in theca interna of the corpus luteum and luteinized granulosa cells and also in corpus albicans and Leydig cells of the ovarian hilus. In situ hybridization gave negative results for glycodelin mRNA in normal ovary, whereas in ovarian tumors strong expression of both the glycodelin mRNA and the protein were found in benign and malignant serous cystadenomas, mucinous ovarian tumors being negative. We conclude that glycodelin is synthesized in human ovarian tumors, and its occurrence in normal human ovary may represent either synthesis or a site of glycodelin action. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8623915

  1. Antiestrogen therapies affect tissue homeostasis of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) female prostate and ovaries.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda C A; Custodio, Ana M G; Campos, Silvana G P; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2008-10-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the response of the adult gerbil female prostate (paraurethral glands) and ovaries to short-term exposure to antiestrogenic agents, consisting of daily oral doses of letrozole (1 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or intradermal doses of tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) every other day for 21 days. The serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were monitored, and the prostates and ovaries collected for structural, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical analyses. The letrozole treatment resulted in increases of serum testosterone levels and secretory activity as well as in glandular hyperplasia and dysplastic growth, simulating the effects caused by the exogenous androgens. The effects caused by tamoxifen indicate that this endocrine agent acted as an estrogenic agonist on the prostate, causing glandular hypertrophy, secretory activity decrease, and the development of prostatic lesions. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the letrozole and tamoxifen therapies result in a series of complex effects that endanger the physiology of hormone-dependent organs, including the female prostate and ovaries. The hormonal imbalance caused by administration of these drugs resulted in considerable changes in prostatic morphology, in a manner very similar to what occurs during the development of prostatic lesions in aged postmenopausal women. Thus, these therapies must be chosen carefully since long-term treatments can result in female prostate dysplasic lesions. PMID:18495680

  2. Enhancer-Trap Flippase Lines for Clonal Analysis in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pamela; Sahai-Hernandez, Pankaj; Bohm, Rudolf A.; Welch, William P.; Zhang, Bing; Nystul, Todd

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster genetic tool box includes many stocks for generating genetically mosaic tissue in which a clone of cells, related by lineage, contain a common genetic alteration. These tools have made it possible to study the postembryonic function of essential genes and to better understand how individual cells interact within intact tissues. We have screened through 201 enhancer-trap flippase lines to identify lines that produce useful clone patterns in the adult ovary. We found that approximately 70% of the lines produced clones that were present in the adult ovary and that many ovarian cell types were represented among the different clone patterns produced by these lines. We have also identified and further characterized five particularly useful enhancer-trap flippase lines. These lines make it possible to generate clones specifically in germ cells, escort cells, prefollicle cells, or terminal filament cells. In addition, we have found that chickadee is specifically upregulated in the posterior escort cells, follicle stem cells, and prefollicle cells that comprise the follicle stem cell niche region. Collectively, these studies provide several new tools for genetic mosaic analysis in the Drosophila ovary. PMID:25024257

  3. A novel virus transmitted through pollination causes ring-spot disease on gentian (Gentiana triflora) ovaries.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Go; Tomita, Reiko; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Sekine, Ken-Taro

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we identified a novel virus from gentian (Gentiana triflora) that causes ring-spots on ovaries. Furthermore, the virus causes unusual symptoms, ring-spots that appear specifically on the outer surface of the ovarian wall after pollination. Pollen grains carrying the virus were used to infect host plants by hand-pollination. RNA extracted from purified virions indicated that the virus had two segments, RNA1 and RNA2. The full-length cDNA sequence indicated that RNA1 had two ORFs: ORF1 had methyltransferase and helicase motifs, and ORF2 had an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motif. RNA2 had five ORFs encoding a coat protein, triple gene block proteins 1-3 and a cysteine-rich protein. The length of RNA1 was 5519 bases and that of RNA2 was 3810 bases not including a polyU/polyA region between the first and second ORFs. Viral RNA does not have a polyA tail at the 3' end. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the virus is closely related to members of the genera Pecluvirus and Hordeivirus but distinct from them. These combined results suggest that the causal agent inducing ring-spot symptoms on gentian ovaries is a new virus belonging to the family Virgaviridae but not to any presently known genus. We tentatively name the virus gentian ovary ring-spot virus. PMID:25351517

  4. Sertoli-leydig cell tumour of ovary with menorrhagia: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kanade, Umesh Sidheshwar; Dantkale, Sunita Sanjay; Narkhede, Rahul Ravindra; Kurawar, Rupali Ramrao; Bansode, Shubhada Yadavrao

    2014-10-01

    Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCTs) are rare sex cord stromal neoplasms of ovary accounting for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumours. These are found in women of all age groups (2-75 y), but are most common in reproductive age group with an average age of 25 y. Mostly these are unilateral, confined to ovaries and usually stage I at the time of clinical diagnosis. The common presenting complaints in these patients are due to either mass occupying lesion (mostly pelviabdominal mass and/or pain) or hormonal production (mostly androgen and more rarely oestrogen). Androgenic manifestations, seen in 80% of patients with SLCT, are virilism, hirsutism, receding hairline, breast atrophy, clitoromegaly, acne, hoarseness of voice, etc. Estrogenic manifestations are precocious puberty, abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal vaginal bleeding, menstrual irregularities, generalised oedema, weight gain, breast hypertrophy, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps and endometrial carcinoma. Histologically these are classified (WHO) as well-differentiated, intermediately differentiated, poorly differentiated, with heterologous components and retiform type. Prognosis depends upon degree of tumour differentiation (grading) and tumour extent (staging). We herein report an unusual case of SLCT of ovary with oestrogenic manifestation of menorrhagia. PMID:25478358

  5. Ovary-dependent emphysema augmentation and osteopontin induction in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Yuichi; Ishii, Takashi; Hosoki, Keisuke; Nagase, Takahide; Yamashita, Naomi

    2015-06-12

    Biological differences between the sexes greatly impact the development and severity of pulmonary disorders such as emphysema. Recent studies have demonstrated crucial roles for osteopontin (OPN, also known as SPP1) in lung inflammation and alveolar destruction in human and experimental emphysema, but the impact of gender on OPN action remains unknown. Here, we report ovary-dependent induction of Opn mRNA with augmentation of experimental emphysema in adult female mice. Both male and female mice developed emphysematous lungs following intra-tracheal administration of porcine pancreatic elastase; however, compared with male mice, female mice developed more severe injury-related inflammation and pathologic alterations of the lungs. Notably, we observed female-specific induction of the Opn gene upon lung injury. Ovariectomy blocked this induction, with attenuation of lung inflammation and alveolar destruction, demonstrating the essential role of ovaries in injury-related Opn induction and augmentation of emphysema in adult female mice. Lastly, pre-treatment of adult female mice with pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, which blocks ATP-mediated wound response, suppressed Opn mRNA induction upon lung injury, resulting in attenuation of enhanced lung inflammation. Together, our findings define a novel, ovary-dependent mechanism underlying gender-specific augmentation of emphysema through transcriptional control of the Opn gene. PMID:25912141

  6. Diagnostic difficulty in polycystic ovary syndrome due to an LH-beta-subunit variant.

    PubMed

    Kurioka, H; Takahashi, K; Irikoma, M; Okada, M; Ozaki, T; Ueda, T; Miyazaki, K

    1999-03-01

    We initially failed to confirm a case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) because underestimation of LH concentrations due to a variant form of this hormone resulted in a misleadingly low LH/FSH ratio. A 26-year-old woman presented to our hospital with infertility. Given the presence of bilateral polycystic ovaries, oligomenorrhea and hirsutism. PCOS was suspected, but a normal LH/FSH ratio as measured by RIA led to diagnostic problems. When we remeasured LH and FSH using a chemical luminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), the ratio of the LH concentration measured by RIA to that measured by CLEIA was 0.29, and the ratio of LH to FSH measured by CLEIA was 3.3 compared with 0.81 measured by RIA. We then diagnosed PCOS. The point mutations Trp8 to Arg8 and Ile15 to Thr15 in the LH subunit were detected in the corresponding gene. The patient's LH status represented variant and wild-type LH equally. She was therefore diagnosed as heterozygous for the mutant LH-beta. Histologic assessment of ovarian tissue after laparoscopic biopsy was compatible with a polycystic ovary. PMID:10216519

  7. Localization of Smad4 in the ovary of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L.).

    PubMed

    Wen, Xuexue; He, Junping; Zhang, Xuejing; Zhao, Li; Du, Shaokai

    2011-05-01

    Ovarian follicular development, follicle selection, and the process of ovulation remain poorly understood in most species. Numerous endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors, including the ligands represented by the transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) superfamily, TGF?, activin, inhibin, bone morphometric protein (BMP), and growth differentiation factor (GDF) are present in the ovaries of many animals. In the present study, we investigated the immunolocalization of Smad4, a signaling molecule of the TGF? superfamily, during folliculogenesis in the ovary of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758). Immunolocalization studies revealed that Smad4 was widely seen in the ovary, mainly in the follicle, though its location and staining intensity varied with the different stages of the developing follicle. In the primordial follicles and early growing follicles, Smad4 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm of the oocyte with a half-moon staining pattern. In the pre-antral follicles, Smad4 protein was mainly located in the granulosa cells, theca cells and diffusely distributed in the interstitial cells surrounding the follicle. In the corpora lutea, the immunostaining for Smad4 was very intense. These results suggested that Smad signal transduction may play an important role in folliculogenesis and conceivably may participate in subsequent pregnancy. PMID:20071012

  8. Disorders of follicle development and steroidogenesis in ovaries of androgenised foetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Robinson, Jane; Franks, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The prenatally androgenised (PA) sheep is a well-recognised model for the study of developmental programming of adult polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Most of the studies to date have involved examination of the reproductive and metabolic effects in the offspring after puberty, but more recently, it has been reported that there is disruption of follicle formation and steroid gene expression in ovaries of foetal sheep after exposure of the mother to excess androgen. Our study examines evidence for precocious primordial follicle formation at day 90 of gestation in ovaries of foetal Poll Dorset sheep. Using a specific marker of germ cells (VASA homologue protein) in ovarian sections, we found that androgenised sheep had nearly double the proportion of germ cells enclosed in follicles compared with control animals. When analysed by follicle stage, there was no significant difference between groups in the proportion of primordial follicles and growing (transitional and primary) follicles. Differences between PA and control foetal sheep were found in both mRNA and in protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes and androgen receptor. Our results in Dorset ewes are complementary to previous reports, but suggest that the timing of follicle formation and steroidogenic activity may vary between different breeds as well as in response to androgen. These data show that granulosa cells constitute a specific target for programming by androgen in utero and raise key questions about the role of exposure to androgen in utero in developmental origins of PCOS. PMID:25792297

  9. Follicle Detection on the USG Images to Support Determination of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiwijaya; Purnama, B.; Hasyim, A.; Septiani, M. D.; Wisesty, U. N.; Astuti, W.

    2015-06-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorders affected to female in their reproductive cycle. This has gained the attention from married couple which affected by infertility. One of the diagnostic criteria considereded by the doctor is analysing manually the ovary USG image to detect the number and size of ovary's follicle. This analysis may affect low varibilites, reproducibility, and efficiency. To overcome this problems. automatic scheme is suggested to detect the follicle on USG image in supporting PCOS diagnosis. The first scheme is determining the initial homogeneous region which will be segmented into real follicle form The next scheme is selecting the appropriate regions to follicle criteria. then measuring the segmented region attribute as the follicle. The measurement remains the number and size that aimed at categorizing the image into the PCOS or non-PCOS. The method used is region growing which includes region-based and seed-based. To measure the follicle diameter. there will be the different method including stereology and euclidean distance. The most optimum system plan to detect PCO is by using region growing and by using euclidean distance on quantification of follicle.

  10. The influence of neuropeptide Y and norepinephrine on ovulation in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, J C; Kannisto, P; Liedberg, F; Ottesen, B; Owman, C; Schmidt, G

    1991-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was measured in tissue extracts from ovaries of rats treated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). The extracted NPY-immunoreactive material was identical to synthetic human NPY with regard to size and hydrophobicity as evaluated by gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography. The concentration of NPY was related to the estrous cycle and a maximum was observed in relation to the endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) peak. NPY immunoreactivity was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry to be localized within nerve fibers supplying blood vessels and follicles. The increase in the NPY content could not be related to accumulation around specific ovarian structures. Employing an in vitro set-up, NPY (10(-7) M) was unable to induce ovulation and did not increase the ovulation rate in LH-stimulated ovaries. The combination of NPY (10(-7) M) and NE (10(-7) M) did not significantly increase the number of ovulations compared to that induced by NE (10(-7) M) alone. In conclusion, NPY content in the ovary is related to the estrous cycle, but NPY does not seem to have any direct effect on the ovulatory process. PMID:1686937

  11. Is serotonin involved in the ovulatory process of the rat ovary perfused in vitro?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G; Kannisto, P; Owman, C; Sjöberg, N O

    1988-02-01

    The presence of 5-HT (serotonin) in ovarian tissue and its varying concentrations during the oestrous cycle suggests that it takes part in ovarian function and in the ovulatory process as one of several mediators of the inflammatory-type reaction preceding follicular rupture. With the aid of a recirculating perfusion model, in which the central stimulatory action of 5-HT was avoided, its direct ovarian effect on ovulation was studied using immature, pregnant, mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG)-treated rats. Four out of five ovaries ovulated after the addition of 5-HT to the perfusion medium, though the ovulation rate (0.8 per ovary) did not reach the order of magnitude seen after luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulation (5.4 per ovary). The selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin, did not significantly reduce the 5-HT induced ovulations, and moreover, reduced the LH-stimulated ovulations. The calcium entry blocker, nifedipine, had no effect on either 5-HT or LH induction ovulations. PMID:3227874

  12. Age of ovary determines remaining life expectancy in old ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, Shelley L.; Carey, James R.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Anderson, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Summary We investigated the capacity of young ovaries, transplanted into old ovariectomized CBA mice, to improve remaining life expectancy of the hosts. Donor females were sexually mature 2-month-olds; recipients were prepubertally ovariectomized at 3 weeks and received transplants at 5, 8 or 11 months of age. Relative to ovariectomized control females, life expectancy at 11 months was increased by 60% in 11-month recipient females and by 40% relative to intact control females. Only 20% of the 11-month transplant females died in the 300-day period following ovarian transplantation, whereas nearly 65% of the ovariectomized control females died during this same period. The 11-month-old recipient females resumed oestrus and continued to cycle up to several months beyond the age of control female reproductive senescence. Across the three recipient age groups, transplantation of young ovaries increased life expectancy in proportion to the relative youth of the ovary. Our results relate to recent findings on the gonadal input upon aging in Caenorhabditis elegans and may suggest how the mammalian gonad, including that of humans, could regulate aging and determine longevity. PMID:12882411

  13. Sequence and Expression Characteristics of Long Noncoding RNAs in Honey Bee Caste Development – Potential Novel Regulators for Transgressive Ovary Size

    PubMed Central

    Humann, Fernanda C.; Tiberio, Gustavo J.; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Division of labor in social insect colonies relies on a strong reproductive bias that favors queens. Although the ecological and evolutionary success attained through caste systems is well sketched out in terms of ultimate causes, the molecular and cellular underpinnings driving the development of caste phenotypes are still far from understood. Recent genomics approaches on honey bee developmental biology revealed a set of genes that are differentially expressed genes in larval ovaries and associated with transgressive ovary size in queens and massive cell death in workers. Amongst these, two contigs called special attention, both being over 200 bp in size and lacking apparent coding potential. Herein, we obtained their full cDNA sequences. These and their secondary structure characteristics placed in evidence that they are bona fide long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) differentially expressed in larval ovaries, thus named lncov1 and lncov2. Genomically, both map within a previously identified QTL on chromosome 11, associated with transgressive ovary size in honey bee workers. As lncov1 was over-expressed in worker ovaries we focused on this gene. Real-time qPCR analysis on larval worker ovaries evidenced an expression peak coinciding with the onset of autophagic cell death. Cellular localization analysis through fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed perinuclear spots resembling omega speckles known to regulate trafficking of RNA-binding proteins. With only four lncRNAs known so far in honey bees, two expressed in the ovaries, these findings open a novel perspective on regulatory factors acting in the fine tuning of developmental processes underlying phenotypic plasticity related to social life histories. PMID:24205350

  14. Polycystic ovaries and associated clinical and biochemical features among women with infertility in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pembe, A B; Abeid, M S

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) and associated clinical and biochemical features among women with infertility attending gynaecological outpatient department (GOPD) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All women with infertility attending the GOPD from 11th September 2006 to 15th February 2007 were recruited to the study. Information on socio-demographic, obstetric and menstrual characteristics was collected. Anthropometric measurement, clinical examination of acne and hirsutism, vaginal ultrasonography for PCO and biochemical analysis of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone were performed. All 102 women who attended the GOPD during the study period due to infertility were recruited. Two women were excluded after diagnosis of pregnancy made by hormonal assay and ultrasonography thus remaining with 100 women for analysis. Oligomenorrhoea and acne were significantly higher in a group of women with PCO than among women with normal ovaries. The mean hirsutism score though was not significant, was higher in women with PCO than in women with normal ovaries (5.1 +/- 2.7 vs. 4 +/- 2.4, P < 0.057). Using the Rotterdam criteria 32 (32%) women were diagnosed to have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Among these women 25 (78.1%) had PCO, 24 (75%) had signs of oligoanovulation, and 18 (56.3%) had hirsutism. Among 68 women with no PCOS, 7 (10.3%) had polycystic ovaries, 15 (22.1%) had signs of oligoanovulation and 6 (8.8%) had hirsutism. In conclusion, polycystic ovaries are common among women with infertility, however are not necessarily associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Doctors should investigate their clients for PCOS and offer appropriate treatment. PMID:20734696

  15. Effect of exposure duration of ovaries and oocytes at ambient temperature on parthenogenetic development of porcine follicular oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jong; Choi, Sun-Ho; Son, Dong-Soo; Cho, Sang-Rae; Choe, Chang-Yong; Kim, Young-Keun; Han, Man-Hye; Ryu, Il-Sun; Kim, In-Cheul; Kim, Il-Hwa; Im, Kyung-Soon; Nagai, Takashi

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exposing porcine ovaries to 30-33 C during transportation for 4 h and subsequently room temperature (25 C) for 6 h of storage on in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent parthenogenetic development of oocytes collected from the ovaries. After IVM, oocytes having a tight oopalsm membrane and no signs of degeneration were exposed to Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) with 7% ethanol (v/v) for 7 min to induce parthenogenetic activation. Moreover, we also determined whether exposure of the collected oocytes to room temperature for 1, 2 and 4 h in DPBS or porcine follicular fluid (pFF) affected parthenogenetic development. When porcine ovaries were stored after transportation, oocytes collected from the stored ovaries showed a significantly higher rate of degeneration after 65 h of IVM (58.4%) and a significantly lower rate of cleavage after parthenogenetic activation (40.1%) than oocytes collected from ovaries immediately after transportation (38.9% and 47.4%, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in developmental rates to the morula and blastocyst stages between these two groups (14.4% and 14.3%, respectively). The duration of preservation, 1, 2, and 4 h, of oocytes in DPBS did not affect parthenogenetic development. In contrast, when preserved for 4 h in pFF, the developmental rates of the oocytes were significantly decreased. This suggested that some factor(s) in follicular fluid affects the developmental rate of oocytes with the passage of time in ambient conditions. These results suggest that even after 6 h storage of ovaries, oocytes having normal morphology after IVM have the same rate of parthenogenetic development as oocytes collected from ovaries just after 4 h of transportation, except for a lower cleavage rate, and that exposure of oocytes to room temperature for 4 h in DPBS does not affect their parthenogenetic developmental competence. PMID:16807502

  16. The Gene pat-2, Which Induces Natural Parthenocarpy, Alters the Gibberellin Content in Unpollinated Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA3. Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA3. The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA3, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA53, and, tentatively, GA81) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA9 and GA34) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA20 content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA19 content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA20 is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA20, the precursor of an active GA. PMID:10677440

  17. Identification of galectin I and thioredoxin peroxidase II as two arsenic-binding proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kwang Ning; Lee, Te Chang; Tam, Ming F; Chen, Yi Chin; Lee, Li Wen; Lee, Shin Ying; Lin, Pei Jung; Huang, Rong Nan

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we report the identification of two arsenic-binding proteins from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The crude extract derived from CHO and SA7 (arsenic-resistant CHO cells) was applied to a phenylarsine oxide-agarose affinity column, and after extensive washing, the absorbed proteins were eluted with buffers containing 20 mM 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) or dithiothreitol (DTT). Three differentially expressed proteins, galectin 1 (Gal-1; in the 2-ME-eluted fraction from CHO cells), glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P) and thioredoxin peroxidase II (TPX-II), respectively in the 2-ME- and DTT-eluted fractions from SA7 cells, were identified by partial amino acid sequence analysis after separation by SDS/PAGE. The GST-P protein has been previously shown to facilitate the excretion of sodium arsenite [As(III)] from SA7 cells. TPX II was detected predominately in SA7 cells [routinely cultured in As(III)-containing medium], but not in CHO or SA7N (a revertant of SA7 cells cultured in regular medium) cells. In contrast, Gal-1 was specifically identified in CHO and SA7N cells, but not in SA7 cells. The preferential expression of Gal-1 in CHO cells and TPX-II in SA7 cells was further illustrated by quantitative PCR analysis. The binding of Gal-1 and TPX-II with As(III) was further verified by both co-immunoprecipitation and co-elution of Gal-1 and TPX-II with As(III). It is suggested that Gal-1 and TPX-II are two proteins that serve as high-affinity binding sites for As(III) and thus both may be involved in the biological action of As(III). PMID:12519079

  18. Identification of galectin I and thioredoxin peroxidase II as two arsenic-binding proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwang Ning; Lee, Te Chang; Tam, Ming F; Chen, Yi Chin; Lee, Li Wen; Lee, Shin Ying; Lin, Pei Jung; Huang, Rong Nan

    2003-04-15

    In this study, we report the identification of two arsenic-binding proteins from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The crude extract derived from CHO and SA7 (arsenic-resistant CHO cells) was applied to a phenylarsine oxide-agarose affinity column, and after extensive washing, the absorbed proteins were eluted with buffers containing 20 mM 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) or dithiothreitol (DTT). Three differentially expressed proteins, galectin 1 (Gal-1; in the 2-ME-eluted fraction from CHO cells), glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P) and thioredoxin peroxidase II (TPX-II), respectively in the 2-ME- and DTT-eluted fractions from SA7 cells, were identified by partial amino acid sequence analysis after separation by SDS/PAGE. The GST-P protein has been previously shown to facilitate the excretion of sodium arsenite [As(III)] from SA7 cells. TPX II was detected predominately in SA7 cells [routinely cultured in As(III)-containing medium], but not in CHO or SA7N (a revertant of SA7 cells cultured in regular medium) cells. In contrast, Gal-1 was specifically identified in CHO and SA7N cells, but not in SA7 cells. The preferential expression of Gal-1 in CHO cells and TPX-II in SA7 cells was further illustrated by quantitative PCR analysis. The binding of Gal-1 and TPX-II with As(III) was further verified by both co-immunoprecipitation and co-elution of Gal-1 and TPX-II with As(III). It is suggested that Gal-1 and TPX-II are two proteins that serve as high-affinity binding sites for As(III) and thus both may be involved in the biological action of As(III). PMID:12519079

  19. Wide-field spectral imaging of human ovary autofluorescence and oncologic diagnosis via previously collected probe data

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. With no sufficient screening test for ovarian cancer, a method to evaluate the ovarian disease state quickly and nondestructively is needed. The authors have applied a wide-field spectral imager to freshly resected ovaries of 30 human patients in a study believed to be the first of its magnitude. Endogenous fluorescence was excited with 365-nm light and imaged in eight emission bands collectively covering the 400- to 640-nm range. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify all image pixels and generate diagnostic maps of the ovaries. Training the classifier with previously collected single-point autofluorescence measurements of a spectroscopic probe enabled this novel classification. The process by which probe-collected spectra were transformed for comparison with imager spectra is described. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 51% were obtained in classifying normal and cancerous ovaries using autofluorescence data alone. Specificity increased to 69% when autofluorescence data were divided by green reflectance data to correct for spatial variation in tissue absorption properties. Benign neoplasm ovaries were also found to classify as nonmalignant using the same algorithm. Although applied ex vivo, the method described here appears useful for quick assessment of cancer presence in the human ovary. PMID:22502561

  20. The murine winged-helix transcription factor Foxl2 is required for granulosa cell differentiation and ovary maintenance.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Dirk; Ovitt, Catherine E; Anlag, Katrin; Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Gredsted, Lars; Treier, Anna-Corina; Treier, Mathias

    2004-02-01

    Human Blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) type I is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with premature ovarian failure (POF) caused by mutations in FOXL2, a winged-helix/forkhead domain transcription factor. Although it has been shown that FOXL2 is expressed in adult ovaries, its function during folliculogenesis is not known. Here, we show that the murine Foxl2 gene is essential for granulosa cell differentiation and ovary maintenance. In Foxl2(lacZ) homozygous mutant ovaries granulosa cells do not complete the squamous to cuboidal transition leading to the absence of secondary follicles and oocyte atresia. We further demonstrate that activin-betaA and anti-Mullerian inhibiting hormone expression is absent or strongly diminished in Foxl2(lacZ) homozygous mutant ovaries. Unexpectedly, two weeks after birth most if not all oocytes expressed Gdf9 in Foxl2(lacZ) homozygous mutant ovaries, indicating that nearly all primordial follicles have already initiated folliculogenesis at this stage. This activation, in the absence of functional granulosa cells, leads to oocyte atresia and progressive follicular depletion. In addition to providing a molecular mechanism for premature ovarian failure in BPES, these results suggest that granulosa cell function is not only crucial for oocyte growth but also to maintain follicular quiescence in vivo. PMID:14736745

  1. The expression patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors in human fetal and adult ovary.

    PubMed

    Poljicanin, Ana; Vukusic Pusic, Tanja; Vukojevic, Katarina; Caric, Ana; Vilovic, Katarina; Tomic, Snjezana; Soljic, Violeta; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2013-07-01

    The influence of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins on the cell death (caspase-3, TUNEL) of different ovarian cell lineages was immunohistochemically analyzed in six fetal and five adult human ovaries in order to disclose possible mechanisms of cell number control. Mild to moderate expression of Bcl-2 characterized ovarian surface epithelium, follicular cells and oocytes of 15 and 22 week human ovaries, while expression of Bax and caspase-3 gradually increased in all ovarian cell populations, except caspase-3 in the ovarian surface epithelium. Different levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins co-expression characterized fetal ovarian cells, while TUNEL and caspase-3 co-expression was found only in some of them. In adult ovaries, Bcl-2 was moderately and Bax strongly expressed in the surface ovarian epithelium and stroma. Bcl-2 and Bax expression in granulosa and theca interna cells varied depending on the stage of follicular atresia. Caspase-3 apoptotic cells characterized granulosa cells of adult atretic follicles. Our results indicate that intracellular levels of Bcl-2 and Bax protein might regulate the final destiny of developing germ cells. Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis seems to be the most important, but not the only cell death pathway in ovaries. In adult ovaries, caspase-dependent cell death characterized granulosa cells, but not the germ cells. PMID:23295106

  2. Upregulation of HO-1 Attenuates LPS-Stimulated Proinflammatory Responses Through Downregulation of p38 Signaling Pathways in Rat Ovary.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Tang, Juan; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jie; Yu, Pan; Wang, Genlin

    2015-06-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. However, the specific mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory role of HO-1 in the reproductive system is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the mechanism of HO-1 in the regulation of the inflammatory response stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat ovary. LPS-stimulated inflammatory models were established. Rats were pretreated with HO-1 activator (hemin) or inhibitor (ZnPP) before LPS stimulation, and we evaluated the expression of HO-1 by real-time PCR and Western blot. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and secretion of IL-1? and IL-6 in rat ovary were analyzed using real-time PCR and ELISA. In addition, we also analyzed the p38 and p-p38 protein expression in the ovary. Our results demonstrate that HO-1 is an anti-inflammatory factor in LPS-stimulated ovary, which regulates the inflammatory response through downregulation of p38 signaling pathways in rat ovary. PMID:25448262

  3. Wide-field spectral imaging of human ovary autofluorescence and oncologic diagnosis via previously collected probe data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renkoski, Timothy E.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-03-01

    With no sufficient screening test for ovarian cancer, a method to evaluate the ovarian disease state quickly and nondestructively is needed. The authors have applied a wide-field spectral imager to freshly resected ovaries of 30 human patients in a study believed to be the first of its magnitude. Endogenous fluorescence was excited with 365-nm light and imaged in eight emission bands collectively covering the 400- to 640-nm range. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify all image pixels and generate diagnostic maps of the ovaries. Training the classifier with previously collected single-point autofluorescence measurements of a spectroscopic probe enabled this novel classification. The process by which probe-collected spectra were transformed for comparison with imager spectra is described. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 51% were obtained in classifying normal and cancerous ovaries using autofluorescence data alone. Specificity increased to 69% when autofluorescence data were divided by green reflectance data to correct for spatial variation in tissue absorption properties. Benign neoplasm ovaries were also found to classify as nonmalignant using the same algorithm. Although applied ex vivo, the method described here appears useful for quick assessment of cancer presence in the human ovary.

  4. Complex derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  5. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome in Croatian population.

    PubMed

    Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Skrgati?, Lana; Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Zlopasa, Gordan; Ogui?, Sasa Kralik; Cani?, Tomislav; Piljek, Amanda Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition affecting women of reproductive age. There are many typical signs and symptoms that allow for the diagnosis of PCOS depending on the criteria used. Interestingly, ethnicity influences the extent of these signs and symptoms; therefore, the frequency of symptoms varies between different countries and ethnic groups. The prevalence of this syndrome in Croatia is unknown, and it's clinical and biochemical characteristics have not yet been reported. During this study, we used the Rotterdam criteria to evaluate 365 Croatian women with PCOS, and compared them to 304 age matched controls to assess the clinical and biochemical abnormalities that occur in PCOS patients. The mean age of PCOS patients at presentation was 26.1 +/- 5.9 years and of controls were 28.0 +/- 4.2 years. Women with PCOS has significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than the control group, although in both groups most patients had normal weight (76.2% vs. 87.8%). Abdominal distribution of fat tissue was similar in both groups. Menstrual cycle abnormalities were observed in 90.7% of PCOS patients, and ultrasonographic appearance of polycystic ovaries was reported in 97.3% of PCOS cases. Nearly 75% of patients with PCOS had hirsutism and 49.6% had acne. We recorded significantly higher serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (fT) and insulin, while the serum levels of sex hormone binding globuline (SHBG) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly lower than in the control group. Serum glucose values were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, chronic anovulation, hirsutism and ultrasound appearance of polycystic ovaries are the dominant features of PCOS in Croatian population. The majority of patients with PCOS had normal body weight. The incidence of insulin resistance in this group of patients is less than the previously described frequency in other populations of patients with PCOS and normal weight. PMID:23390843

  6. Evidence of a molecular clock in the ovine ovary and the influence of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B A; Blake, C M; Brown, J A; Martin, A-M; Forde, N; Sweeney, L M; Evans, A C O

    2015-07-15

    The influence of the central circadian clock on reproductive timing is well established. Much less is known about the role of peripheral oscillators such as those in the ovary. We investigated the influence of photoperiod and timing of the LH surge on expression of circadian clock genes and genes involved in steroidogenesis in ovine ovarian stroma. Seventy-two Suffolk cross ewes were divided into two groups, and their estrous cycles were synchronized. Progestagen sponge removal was staggered by 12 hours between the groups such that expected LH peak would occur midway through either the light or dark phase of the photoperiodic cycle. Four animals from each group were killed, and their ovaries were harvested beginning 36 hours after sponge removal, at 6-hour intervals for 48 hours. Blood was sampled every 3 hours for the period 24 to 48 hours after sponge removal to detect the LH surge. The interval to peak LH did not differ between the groups (36.2 ± 1.2 and 35.6 ± 1.1 hours, respectively). There was an interaction between group and the time of sponge removal on the expression of the core clock genes ARNTL, PER1, CRY1, CLOCK, and DBP (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively). As no significant interaction between group and time of day was detected, the datasets were combined. Statistically significant rhythmic oscillation was observed for ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY1 (P < 0.01, respectively), PTGS2, DBP, PTGER2, and CYP17A1 (P < 0.05, respectively), confirming the existence of a time-sensitive functionality within the ovary, which may influence steroidogenesis and is independent of the ovulatory cycle. PMID:25892340

  7. A singular observation of a giant benign Brenner tumor of the ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Ruggiero; Valter Ripetti; Antonella Bianchi; Vincenzo La Vaccara; Rossana Alloni; Roberto Coppola

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Brenner tumors are rare transitional cell tumors of the ovary. They are usually benign neoplasms, of solid or solid-cystic\\u000a structure and small size. We describe the case of a benign, predominantly cystic Brenner tumor measuring 39 cm in diameter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 62-year-old woman presented to the outpatient visit complaining about vague abdominal symptoms such as constipation and\\u000a meteorism. Ultrasonography and CT

  8. Neuromuscular organization and aminergic modulation of contractions in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, C Adam; Nongthomba, Upendra; Parry, Katherine; Sweeney, Sean T; Sparrow, John C; Elliott, Christopher JH

    2006-01-01

    Background The processes by which eggs develop in the insect ovary are well characterized. Despite a large number of Drosophila mutants that cannot lay eggs, the way that the egg is moved along the reproductive tract from ovary to uterus is less well understood. We remedy this with an integrative study on the reproductive tract muscles (anatomy, innervation, contractions, aminergic modulation) in female flies. Results Each ovary, consisting of 15–20 ovarioles, is surrounded by a contractile meshwork, the peritoneal sheath. Individual ovarioles are contained within a contractile epithelial sheath. Both sheaths contain striated muscle fibres. The oviduct and uterine walls contain a circular striated muscle layer. No longitudinal muscle fibres are seen. Neurons that innervate the peritoneal sheath and lateral oviduct have many varicosities and terminate in swellings just outside the muscles of the peritoneal sheath. They all express tyrosine decarboxylase (required for tyramine and octopamine synthesis) and Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT). No fibres innervate the ovarioles. The common oviduct and uterus are innervated by two classes of neurons, one with similar morphology to those of the peritoneal sheath and another with repeated branches and axon endings similar to type I neuromuscular junctions. In isolated genital tracts from 3- and 7-day old flies, each ovariole contracts irregularly (12.5 ± 6.4 contractions/minute; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Peritoneal sheath contractions (5.7 ± 1.6 contractions/minute) move over the ovary, from tip to base or vice versa, propagating down the oviduct. Rhythmical spermathecal rotations (1.5 ± 0.29 contractions/minute) also occur. Each genital tract organ exhibits its own endogenous myogenic rhythm. The amplitude of contractions of the peritoneal sheath increase in octopamine (100 nM, 81% P < 0.02) but 1 ?M tyramine has no effect. Neither affects the frequency of peritoneal sheath contractions. Conclusion The muscle fibres of the reproductive tract are circular and have complex bursting myogenic rhythms under octopaminergic neuromodulation. We propose a new model of tissue-specific actions of octopamine, in which strengthening of peritoneal sheath contractions, coupled with relaxation of the oviduct, eases ovulation. This model accounts for reduced ovulation in flies with mutations in the octopaminergic system. PMID:16768790

  9. Unusually High Levels of CA19-9 Associated with Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Madaan, Monika; Puri, Manju; Sharma, Ritu; Kaur, Harvinder; Trivedi, Shubha Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Mature cystic teratoma is the benign tumor of the ovary. CA19-9 levels, although a marker of pancreatic malignancy, have been found to be raised in large ovarian mature cystic teratomas. Case Report. We report a case of a young female who had unusually high levels of CA19-9 in the blood associated with large ovarian mature cystic teratoma. The levels returned to normal 12 weeks after cystectomy was performed. Conclusion. This case highlights the fact that although raised tumor marker may be associated with a benign pathology thorough evaluation to rule out malignancy still must be done. PMID:25276448

  10. Elimination of C-6-hydrogen during the formation of ecdysteroids from cholesterol in Locusta migratoria ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Kakinuma, K.; Ikekawa, N. (Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan))

    1989-03-01

    Being administered to Locusta migratoria adult females, (6-{sup 3}H, 4-{sup 14}C)cholesterol was incorporated into ecdysone and 2-deoxyecdysone. The ratio of {sup 3}H/{sup 14}C of the two ecdysteroids isolated from newly laid eggs revealed that C-6-hydrogen of cholesterol was eliminated during the conversion to ecdysteroids in the ovaries of the insects. Thus, a hypothetical mechanism involving migration of the C-6-hydrogen to the C-5 position in the formation of A/B cis junction turned out to be less likely.

  11. The pericentriolar material in Chinese hamster ovary cells nucleates microtubule formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Gould; G. G. Borisy

    1977-01-01

    ABSTRACT The,structure,and,function,of the,centrosomes,from,Chinese,hamster,ovary (CHO) cells were,investigated,by electron,microscopy,of negatively,stained whole- mount preparations of cell lysates. Ceils were trypsinized from culture dishes, lysed with Triton X-100, sedimented onto ionized, carbon-coated grids, and negatively,stained,with,phosphotungstate. The centrosomes,from,both,interphase and dividing cells consisted of pairs of centrioles, a fibrous pericentriolar material, and,a group,of virus-like particles which,were,characteristic,of the CHO cells and which,served,as markers,for the pericentriolar,material. Interphase,centrosomes anchored,up,to

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian autoimmunity--assessment of ovarian antibodies by EIA.

    PubMed

    Luborsky, J L; Shatavi, S; Adamczyk, P; Chiong, C; Llanes, B; Lafniztzegger, J; Soltes, B; McGovern, P; Santoro, N

    1999-01-01

    There are conflicting reports of an association of ovarian antibodies, detected by immunofluorescence, with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of ovarian autoimmunity with PCOS. A validated immunoassay for ovarian antibodies was used to assess serum from women with PCOS and with menopause and normal cycling women as controls. The frequency of ovarian antibodies was similar (25%) among the controls and PCOS. Thus, unlike the association of ovarian antibodies detected with this test in patients with unexplained infertility and premature menopause, the prevalence of ovarian antibody in patients with PCOS is not significantly different to controls. PMID:10098833

  13. Metformin therapy decreases hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beata Kolodziejczyk; Antoni J Duleba; Robert Z Spaczynski; Leszek Pawelczyk

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of metformin therapy on hormonal and clinical indices in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective study.Setting: University hospital.Patient(s): Thirty-nine women with PCOS and fasting hyperinsulinemia.Intervention(s): Twelve weeks of therapy with oral metformin (500 mg three times per day).Main Outcome Measure(s): Levels of insulin, T, DHEAS, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), gonadotropins, and sex hormone-binding

  14. Recent progress with the DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Salazar, E.P.; Brookman, K.W.; Collins, C.C.; Stewart, S.A.; Busch, D.B.; Weber, C.A.

    1986-04-02

    Repair deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are being used to identify human genes that correct the repair defects and to study mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis. Five independent tertiary DNA transformants were obtained from the EM9 mutant. In these clones a human DNA sequence was identified that correlated with the resistance of the cells to CldUrd. After Eco RI digestion, Southern transfer, and hybridization of transformant DNAs with the BLUR-8 Alu family sequence, a common fragment of 25 to 30 kb was present. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Enterobiasis of the Ovary in a Patient With Cervical Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Kevin; Nahn, Patricia A. K.; Sahin, Aysegul A.

    1995-01-01

    Background: Enterobiasis occurs throughout the female genital tract and may involve peritoneal surfaces. It is generally an incidental finding at surgery or at autopsy but occasionally is symptomatic. Most of the superficial lesions are composed of granulomas with variable fibrosis in which diagnostic eggs are found, often associated with degenerated adult worms. Multiple histologic sections may be required to establish the diagnosis in older lesions. Case: A case of enterobiasis of the ovary in a patient with squamous-cell carcinoma in situ of the cervix is presented. The features of enterobiasis are discussed. Conclusion: The importance of mistaking such lesions for ovarian cancer is discussed. PMID:18475399

  16. Micro structure analysis of the ovaries of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. inhabiting a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, Karabi

    2014-10-01

    The study uses microscopy to analyze damage caused to the ovaries of a fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio L., owing to its exposure to municipal wastes in a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India. Histological analysis of the ovary showed atretic oocytes, detached ovarian wall, detached follicular linings, and necrosis of nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed deformed oocytes with a rough and distorted surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed a poorly developed chorion, presence of relatively less electron-dense materials as compared with control, multinucleation in some cells surrounding the oocytes, and distorted and condensed mitochondria. The importance of microscopy in its different forms in analyzing histological, surface microstructural and fine structural damage to fish ovaries in response to environmental pollution owing to municipal wastes and city garbage is discussed with the help of available literature. PMID:25089745

  17. Lateral high abdominal ovariopexy: an original surgical technique for protection of the ovaries during curative radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gaetini, A.; De Simone, M.; Urgesi, A.; Levis, A.; Resegotti, A.; Ragona, R.; Anglesio, S.

    1988-09-01

    An original surgical method for gonadal protection in young women given pelvic radiation for Hodgkin's disease is presented. Lateral high ovarian transposition (LHAO) consists of the transposition of the ovaries into the paracolic gutter during staging laparotomy, after disconnecting the gonads from the fallopian tubes by dividing the tubo-ovarian vessels. The technique's effectiveness was assessed by a study using clinical investigation, radioimmunoassay (RIA) determination of sex hormones, and dosimetry; of 18 patients treated, 10 participated in the study. All but one have normal menses and hormone values, and one pregnancy occurred. We also calculated the doses absorbed by the ovaries and proved that, during inverted Y irradiation following LHAO, the ovaries are exposed to nearly one-half the dose they receive after traditional medial transposition. During subtotal nodal irradiation after LHAO, the irradiation dose is higher than after medialisation, but absolute values are minimal and castration is not induced.

  18. Responsiveness of adenylate cyclase to pituitary gonadotropins and evidence of a hormone-induced desensitization in the lizard ovary.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, L; De Stasio, R; Bovenzi, V; Parisi, E; Filosa, S

    1997-07-01

    Gonadotropins (FSH and LH) affect several mammalian gonadal functions. In particular, FSH stimulates oogonial proliferation and oocyte growth, while LH regulates ovulation and progesterone secretion. In lacertilian reptiles, gonadal function is also regulated by pituitary gonadotropins, but which hormone controls ovarian activities and the mechanisms of action are unknown. The present study aimed to clarify mechanisms of action of pituitary gonadotropins on the ovary of Podarcis sicula (Lacertilia). The data demonstrate that mammalian gonadotropins FSH and LH produce a threefold stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in follicular membranes, while hCG and TSH are less effective, causing a twofold increase in adenylate cyclase activity. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and catecholamines have no effect on enzyme activity. The action of mammalian FSH and LH on the ovary mimics the effect of homologous hormones: in lizard ovaries incubated in vitro in the presence of isolated homologous pituitary glands, the intracellular cAMP level increased by 50% with respect to control ovaries. Mammalian gonadotropins appear homologous to lizard gonadotropin(s): Southern blot analyses show that the lizard genome contains nucleotide sequences homologous to those encoding for mammalian beta FSH and beta LH. Both homologous and heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase activity occurs in the lizard ovary. In fact, responsiveness of adenylate cyclase to gonadotropin stimulation is abolished in animals 2 hr after in vivo treatment with FSH. Sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation is restored 2 weeks after the beginning of the in vivo treatment. Desensitization was also observed in ovaries incubated in vitro with mammalian FSH or with isolated pituitary glands. PMID:9208303

  19. Expression and regulation of scavenger receptor class B type 1 in the rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalei; Meng, Chenling; Wei, Quanwei; Shi, Fangxiong; Mao, Dagan

    2015-04-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) preferentially mediates the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ester and the delivery of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. Although multiple analyses have investigated the function of SR-B1 in the liver, adrenal and ovary, its expression in rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle is lacking. In the present study, real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate SR-B1 expression in the rat ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle. The results demonstrated that ovarian SR-B1 expression was in a stage-dependent manner, continuously increased from proestrus and kept elevated during metoestrus, while uterine SR-B1 expression decreased from proestrus to diestrus. To determine whether ovarian and uterine SR-B1 expression were affected by sex steroid hormones, immature rats were treated with 17 ?-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), or their antagonists from postnatal days 24-26. Results showed that the levels of SR-B1 mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated by E2 in both the ovary and uterus. IHC results showed that SR-B1 was primarily localized in the oocytes, theca internal cells (T-I) of follicles, interstitial cells (IC) as well as corpus luteum (CL), but not granulosa cells (GC) in the ovary during the estrous cycle. Uterine SR-B1 was highly expressed in the endometrial luminal epithelial cells (LEC) and glandular epithelial cells (GEC) as well as in the circular muscle (CM) cells, and weak staining in stromal cells (SC) through estrous cycle. Taken together, SR-B1 expression in the ovary and uterus across the estrous cycle demonstrate that SR-B1 may be involved in uterine function, follicular development as well as luteal function. PMID:25817199

  20. Effect of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo on induction of ovulation in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised double blind clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etelka Moll; Patrick M M Bossuyt; Johanna C Korevaar; Cornelis B Lambalk; Fulco van der Veen

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Randomised clinical trial. Setting Multicentre trial in 20 Dutch hospitals. Participants 228 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Interventions Clomifene citrate plus metformin or clomifene citrate plus placebo. Main outcome measure The primary outcome measure was ovulation.

  1. Insulin Stimulates Testosterone Biosynthesis by Human Thecal Cells from Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome by Activating Its Own Receptor and Using Inositolglycan Mediators as the Signal Transduction System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN E. NESTLER; DANIELA J. JAKUBOWICZ; AIDA FALCON DE VARGAS; CARLOS BRIK; NITZA QUINTERO; FRANCISCO MEDINA

    To determine whether insulin stimulates human ovarian testos- terone production in the polycystic ovary syndrome by activating its own receptor and using inositolglycan mediators as the signal trans- duction system, thecal cells from polycystic ovary syndrome women were isolated and cultured. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I stimulated thecal testosterone biosynthesis. Antibody blockade of the insulin receptor abolished insulin's stimulatory

  2. Effect of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC)- or Mouse Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Derived Vessel Formation on the Survival of Vitrified/Warmed Mouse Ovarian Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Soo Kyung; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Bo Yeun; Yoon, Sook-Young; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of improving angiogenesis at graft sites on the survival of follicles in transplanted ovarian tissue. Matrigel containing 5 × 105 of cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) or 200 ng of mouse vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was injected subcutaneously into BALB/c-Nu mice. After 1 week, vitrified/warmed ovaries from female B6D2F1 mice were subcutaneously transplanted into the injection sites. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks posttransplantation, the ovaries were recovered and subjected to histological analysis. Oocytes were collected from the transplanted ovaries, and their fertilization, embryonic development, and delivery were also observed. Vitrified/warmed ovaries transplanted into EPC- or VEGF-treated sites developed more blood vessels and showed better follicle survival than those transplanted into sham-injected sites. Normal embryonic development and consequent live births were obtained using oocytes recovered from cryopreserved/transplanted ovaries. Treatment with EPCs or VEGF could prevent the ischemic damage during the early revascularization stage of ovarian transplantation. PMID:24401473

  3. Differential insulin response to myo-inositol administration in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Prati, Alessia; Santagni, Susanna; Ricchieri, Federica; Chierchia, Elisa; Rattighieri, Erica; Campedelli, Annalisa; Simoncini, Tommaso; Artini, Paolo G

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, polycystic ovaries at ultrasound evaluation, and quite frequently by insulin resistance or compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Attention has been given to the role of inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) mediators of insulin action and growing evidences suggest that a deficiency of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) containing IPG might be at the basis of insulin resistance, frequent in PCOS patients. On such basis, we investigated the efficacy on insulin sensitivity and hormonal parameters of 8 weeks treatment with myo-inositol (MYO) (Inofert, ItalPharmaco, Milano, Italy) at the dosage of 2 g day in a group (n = 42) of obese PCOS patients,. After the treatment interval body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance decreased together with luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/FSH and insulin. When subdividing the patients according to their fasting insulin levels, Group A (n = 15) insulin below 12 µU/ml and Group B (n = 27) insulin above 12 µU/ml, MYO treatment induced similar changes in both groups but only patients of Group B showed the significant decrease of both fasting insulin plasma levels (from 20.3 ± 1.8 to 12.9 ± 1.8 µU/ml, p < 0.00001) and of area under the curve (AUC) of insulin under oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that MYO administration is more effective in obese patients with high fasting insulin plasma levels. PMID:22612517

  4. ESR studies of O2 uptake by Chinese hamster ovary cells during the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, C S; Hopwood, L E; Hyde, J S; Lukiewicz, S

    1982-01-01

    Magnetic interactions between dissolved oxygen and nitroxide radical spin probes lead to broadening of the ESR lines. We have used a closed-chamber method based on this property to determine the maximum rate of O2 uptake per cell (Vmax per cell) in cultured mammalian cells. A suitable spin probe and a cell suspension are mixed in an aerated medium, and the rate of disappearance of dissolved O2 is measured. The effects of temperature, pH, and microwave power on the determination of dissolved oxygen in solution were studied. For asynchronous Chinese hamster ovary cells, oxygen uptake is 3.8 X 10(7) oxygen molecules per cell per sec and appears to be enzymatically limited at oxygen concentrations greater than 10 microM. About 5-10 X 10(5) cells were used for each measurement, making it possible to study mitotically synchronized cells. Using this method, we have found that Vmax per unit cell volume changes during the cell cycle of Chinese hamster ovary cells from a minimum in mitosis to maxima in both G1 and late S phases. Advantages and limitations of spin probes for studying the O2 uptake of intact cells are discussed. PMID:6280170

  5. Structure of the ovary and "nurse cells" in a freshwater ostracod, Cyprinotus uenoi Brehm (Podocopida: Cypridoidea).

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Kyosuke; Maruo, Fumiaki; Tsutsumi, Tadaaki; Makioka, Toshiki

    2007-09-01

    The adult female of the freshwater ostracod Cyprinotus uenoi Brehm, 1936 (Podocopida: Cypridoidea) has a pair of long, sac-like ovaries separately lying in the posterior part of the left and the right carapace valves. Oogonia and very early previtellogenic oocytes are located in the terminal germarium of each ovary. In the germarium, the oogonia occur in the most terminal region, and the very early previtellogenic oocytes are located in the remainder, arranged in order of size, the larger ones nearer the ovarian lumen. Most of the growing oocytes, previtellogenic and vitellogenic, are found in the ovarian lumen, the larger ones farther from the germarium. In the germarium, a cytoplasmic bridge connects a pair of adjoining germ cells, resulting from an incomplete cytokinesis of oogonial division. Among the previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes in the ovarian lumen, "nurse cells" are found as small, spherical cells in mostly the same number as these oocytes. A cytoplasmic bridge connects each "nurse cell" to an adjoining oocyte. Based on the manner of connection and some morphological features, we consider that each "nurse cell" originates from one of each pair of adjoining germ cells connected by a cytoplasmic bridge in the germarium, as in the true nurse cells of several branchiopod crustaceans and insects with meroistic ovarioles. PMID:17960996

  6. Isolation of oogonia from ovaries of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Battulin, Nariman R; Serov, Oleg L; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2010-12-01

    The presence of oogonia in the ovaries of adult females is typical in species with a broadcast spawning reproductive strategy, including invertebrates and lower vertebrates. In sea urchins, difficulties in the study of oogonia arise from the small number of these cells and the lack of specific markers for their identification. Therefore, more reliable methods are needed for identifying and manipulating oogonial cells in quantities sufficient for experimentation. Homologs of the DEAD-box RNA helicase vasa expressed in germline cells have been proposed for use as markers to detect germline cells in diverse species. We have developed a method for the isolation of sea urchin oogonia by using immunocytochemistry with vasa antibodies, together with reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression of Sp-vasa and Sp-nanos2 homologs and a morphological approach to identify germline cells in sea urchin ovaries and cell fractions isolated from the ovarian germinal epithelium. This method has allowed us to obtain 15%-18% of small oogonia with 70%-75% purity from the total amount of isolated germ cells. Our findings represent the first methodological basis for obtaining cell populations containing sea urchin oogonia; this method might be useful as a tool for further investigations of the early stages of sea urchin oogenesis. PMID:21088856

  7. Good thermally conducting material supports follicle morphologies of porcine ovaries cryopreserved with ultrarapid vitrification.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shu; Suzuki, Nao; Amo, Ami; Yamochi, Takayuki; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Yoshiharu

    2013-10-01

    Effects of supporting materials during vitrification procedure on the morphologies of preantral follicles of pig ovaries were assessed. Ovarian cortical sections of prepubertal pigs were randomly allocated to 5 groups. The sections were vitrified ultrarapidly with 5 different vitrification devices. The sections were put on 4 fine needles (Cryosupport), on a thin copper plate, or on a carbon graphite sheet or were sandwiched between copper plates or between carbon graphite sheets before cooling. The cooling and warming rates with the graphite sheets were significantly higher than those with the copper plates (P<0.05). A total of 3,064 follicles were analyzed following HE staining after vitrification with 5 different devices. The morphologies follicles vitrified on the Cryosupport or on the graphite sheet were well preserved compared with those vitrified on the copper plate or between copper plates (P<0.01). The morphologies of follicles vitrified between copper plates were mostly damaged (P<0.05). Taken together, good thermally conducting material supports follicle morphologies of ovaries cryopreserved with ultrarapid vitrification. PMID:23774861

  8. Dose-dependent effects of endosulfan and malathion on adult Wistar albino rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Koç, N D; Kayhan, F E; Sesal, C; Mu?lu, M N

    2009-03-15

    In this study, histological effects and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were investigated by endosulfan and malathion in adult female rat ovaries. An increase of MDA level in rat ovarium tissues due to endosulfan and malathion may be an indicator of the free radicals occurred during the metabolism and their lipid peroxidative inducing damage. In this study in accordance with the biochemical findings, the study demonstrated that there are pronounced structural defects in histological examinations of ovarian tissues in rats which were administered endosulfan and malathion. It has been observed that the size of ovarian tissues of rats which were administered endosulfan and malathion in different doses was decreased in various levels. There was a significant decrease healthy follicles and a significant increase atretic follicles in low dose of endosulfan and malathion (11 mg kg(-1)) treated rats. The histologic observations of the ovary revealed the presence of less number of healthy follicles and more number of atretic follicles and corpus luteums in high dose of endosulfan and malathion (33 mg kg(-1)) treated rats. Finally, a peroxidative damage occurs inavitably due to endosulfan and malathion for ovarium tissues. The biochemical results (MDA levels) also showed such a damage, similar with the histological results. PMID:19579998

  9. Ulipristal blocks ovulation by inhibiting progesterone receptor-dependent pathways intrinsic to the ovary.

    PubMed

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Kim, Jaeyeon; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Bagchi, Milan; Bagchi, Indrani

    2013-04-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA), a progesterone receptor (PR) modulator, is used as an emergency contraceptive in women. Here, using a mouse model, we investigated the mechanism of action of UPA as an ovulation blocker. In mice, ovulation is induced ~12 hours following the treatment with exogenous gonadotropins, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH). When administered within 6 hours of hCG treatment, UPA is a potent blocker of ovulation. However, UPA's effectiveness declined significantly when it was given at 8 hours post hCG. Our study revealed that, when administered within 6 hours of hCG, UPA blocks ovulation by inhibiting PR-dependent pathways intrinsic to the ovary. At 8 hours post hCG, when the PR signaling has already occurred, UPA is unable to block ovulation efficiently. Collectively, these results indicated that UPA, when administered within a critical time window following the LH surge, blocks PR-dependent pathways in the ovary to function as an effective antiovulatory contraceptive. PMID:23012316

  10. A genetic defect in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis triggers apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Z; Houweling, M; Chen, M H; Record, M; Chap, H; Vance, D E; Tercé, F

    1996-06-21

    We have investigated the cell death of a Chinese hamster ovary mutant (MT-58) with a thermo-sensitive CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis (Esko, J. D., Wermuth, M. M., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 7388-7393). After MT-58 cells were shifted to the restrictive temperature of 40 degrees C, the cytidylyltransferase was inactivated immediately leading to a decrease in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and cell death. DNA content and number of cells in the S phase decreased significantly in the dying MT-58 cells according to flow cytometrical analyses. The fragmentation of genomic DNA was detected by DNA ladders in agarose gel and release of the prelabeled genomic DNA into cytosolic fractions 14 h after the temperature shift. The dying cells underwent a dramatic reduction of cellular volume while maintaining the membrane containment of cellular contents. These events indicated that the inactivation of cytidylyltransferase triggered apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. This is the first report that apoptosis was induced in cultured cells, not by an added agent, but by a mutation in phospholipid biosynthesis. PMID:8663247

  11. Ultrastructural analysis of the ovary and oogenesis in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata (Branchiopoda) and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; J?drzejowska, Izabela; Go?dyn, Bart?omiej; Bili?ski, Szczepan M

    2014-06-01

    Recent molecular studies have indicated a close relationship between Crustacea and Hexapoda and postulated their unification into the Pancrustacea/Tetraconata clade. Certain molecular analyses have also suggested that the crustacean lineage, which includes the Branchiopoda, might be the sister group of Hexapoda. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the structure of the ovary and the ultrastructural features of oogenesis in two branchiopod species, Cyzicus tetracerus and Lynceus brachyurus, representing two separate orders, Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata, respectively. The female gonads of these species have not been investigated before. Here, we demonstrate that in both studied species the ovarian follicles develop inside characteristic ovarian protrusions and comprise a germline cyst surrounded by a simple somatic (follicular) epithelium, supported by a thin basal lamina. Each germline cyst consists of one oocyte and three supporting nurse cells, and the oocyte differentiates relatively late during ovarian follicle development. The synthesis of oocyte reserve materials involves rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. The follicular cells are penetrated by a complex canal system and there is no external epithelial sheath covering the ovarian follicles. The structure of the ovary and the ultrastructural characteristics of oogenesis are not only remarkably similar in both Cyzicus and Lynceus, but also share morphological similarities with Notostraca as well as the basal hexapods Campodeina and Collembola. Possible phylogenetic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24657201

  12. Isolation and characterization of stem cells in the adult mammalian ovary.

    PubMed

    Parte, Seema; Patel, Hiren; Sriraman, Kalpana; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Female mammals are born with a fixed pool of germ cells, which does not replenish during adult life. However, this has been recently challenged and adult ovaries produce oocytes throughout adult life just like sperm in the testes. Evidence is accumulating on the presence of ovarian stem cells, but the need for robust protocols to isolate, identify, further characterize, and subject them to various functionality tests is essential. Knowledge about the function and potential of ovarian stem cells is well demonstrated by various groups, but their true identity remains elusive because of the variability in the approaches used to identify them by different groups. In order to address this we have made attempts to compile our protocols to isolate, identify, characterize, and culture the stem cells using different animal models including human. Two distinct populations of stem cells exist in adult mammalian ovary, including very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and the progenitors termed ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs). VSELs are relatively quiescent and undergo asymmetric cell division to give rise to OGSCs, which divide rapidly, occasionally form germ cell nests and undergo meiosis and differentiation into oocytes, which are surrounded by granulosa cells to assemble as primordial follicles. PMID:25388396

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, and Obesity: Navigating the Pathophysiologic Labyrinth

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez, Mervin; Olivar, Luis; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Mejías, José; Calvo, María; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine-metabolic disorder that implies various severe consequences to female health, including alarming rates of infertility. Although its exact etiology remains elusive, it is known to feature several hormonal disturbances, including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin appears to disrupt all components of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis, and ovarian tissue insulin resistance results in impaired metabolic signaling but intact mitogenic and steroidogenic activity, favoring hyperandrogenemia, which appears to be the main culprit of the clinical picture in PCOS. In turn, androgens may lead back to IR by increasing levels of free fatty acids and modifying muscle tissue composition and functionality, perpetuating this IR-hyperinsulinemia-hyperandrogenemia cycle. Nonobese women with PCOS showcase several differential features, with unique biochemical and hormonal profiles. Nevertheless, lean and obese patients have chronic inflammation mediating the long term cardiometabolic complications and comorbidities observed in women with PCOS, including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Given these severe implications, it is important to thoroughly understand the pathophysiologic interconnections underlying PCOS, in order to provide superior therapeutic strategies and warrant improved quality of life to women with this syndrome. PMID:25763405

  14. Superovulation Induced Changes of Lipid Metabolism in Ovaries and Embryos and Its Probable Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Ya; Wang, Ning; Le, Fang; Li, Lei; Lou, Hang-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Zheng, Ying-Ming; Qian, Ye-Qing; Chen, Yun-Long; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Huang, He-Feng; Jin, Fan

    2015-01-01

    This research was intended to investigate the fetal origins of changed birth weight of the offspring born through assisted reproductive technology (ART). The association between hormone and lipid metabolism or body weight has been generally accepted, and as the basic and specific treatment in ART procedure, gonadotropin stimulation might have potential effects on intrauterine lipid metabolism. In our studies, the mice were superovulated with two doses of gonadotropin. The cholesterol metabolism in ovaries and the triglyceride metabolism in embryos were analyzed. The results showed gonadotropin probably accelerated luteinization and induced a longer time follicle development and ovulation, which resulted in histological and morphological alteration of ovary, and increased the cholesterol content and the expressions of steroidogenesis-related genes. In embryos, gonadotropin increased lipid accumulation and decreased fatty acid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the changes of fatty acid composition were also shown in superovulation groups. Our studies firstly provided the evidence that the superovulation might affect the maternal and fetal lipid metabolism. These variations of lipid metabolism in our results may be associated with birth weight of ART infants. PMID:26167919

  15. Estrogen and progesterone receptor subtype expression in granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artimani, Tayebeh; Saidijam, Massoud; Aflatoonian, Reza; Amiri, Iraj; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Shabab, Nooshin; Mohammadpour, Nooshin; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated gene expression of estrogen and progesterone nuclear receptors in granulosa cells (GCs) of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women compared to women with normal cycling ovaries (control group) to achieve a better understanding of ovarian steroid status in patients with PCOS. In this prospective study, 40 patients with PCOS and 40 women with normal ovulatory function who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) for treatment of tubal and/or male infertility were recruited. Follicular fluid was collected from patients and GCs were isolated from follicular fluid and then were purified with Micro Beads conjugated to monoclonal anti-human CD45 antibodies. RNA was extracted and reverse transcription was performed. Gene expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors was determined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) expression was significantly higher than ER? expression in both groups (p?

  16. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure. PMID:25816425

  17. Comparison of ultrastructure, pollen tube growth pattern and starch content in developing and abortive ovaries during the progamic phase in hazel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Huidi; Cheng, Yunqing; Wang, Ju; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting

    2014-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS In an abortive ovary of hazel, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed.In an abortive ovary of hazel, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded.Ovary abortion in the four hybrid cultivars was indicated to be associated with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla was at least partly determined by pollen availability. In Northeast China, a high frequency of ovary abortion contributes to serious losses in yield of hazelnut. The development of pistillate inflorescences and fruit clusters of four large-fruited hybrid hazel cultivars and the small-fruited Corylus heterophylla were used to study ovary abortion and its possible causes during the progamic phase in hazel. The average number of pistillate (ANP) flowers per inflorescence and average number of fruit (ANF) per cluster of four hybrid hazel cultivars were 7.6–8.5 and 2.4–3.0 respectively; in C. heterophylla, its ANP and ANF was 5.8–6.2 and 3.5, respectively. The total drop varied from 50 to 67%. Ovary abortion in hazel initiated from about 30 days after blooming. The percentage of abortive ovaries (PAO) in the four hybrid hazel cultivars ranged from 63 to 72%, and was significantly higher than that of C. heterophylla (29–42%). Only the abortive ovary ratio of C. heterophylla was significantly reduced after artificial pollination. Fruit number per cluster was positively and negatively correlated with yield and nut mass, respectively. In abortive ovaries, the diameter remained less than 2 mm during the entire fruit development, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed. In addition, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded. Compared with abortive ovary, starch content in developing ovary of four hybrid hazel cultivars and C. heterophylla were significantly higher. This study suggests that abortive ovary was incapable to finish fertilization process due to the absence of mature embryo sac and arrested pollen tubes, and this is likely associate with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers in four hybrid hazel cultivars, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla is at least partly determined by pollen availability. PMID:25339969

  18. Grafts of ovaries in males and females of Pleurodeles waltl (urodele amphibia): evidence of a long-term tolerance of allografts; application following a space biology experiment.

    PubMed

    Dournon, C; Aimar, C; Bautz, A; Ropars, A; Houillon, C

    1997-01-01

    Ovary grafts were investigated in the salamander Pleurodeles using juveniles and adults as donors and hosts. Ovaries were provided by standard or histo-compatible strains and by standard females which had been submitted to a space flight. Laparotomy of the hosts was used to control viability of grafts. Entire juvenile ovaries transplanted into castrated juvenile females or males were tolerated and developed. Ovarian parts of adult females, which contained a majority of oogonies, could also be tolerated by juvenile animals. In addition, ovarian parts supported a better recovery and differentiation than parts that mainly included mature oocytes. About 24 months after the ovary grafts, some hosts (genetical females or males and standard or spatialized females) crossed with standard males provided progenies originating from oocytes of the grafted ovaries. The protocols applied offer a new range of potentialities, adapted to various experimental purposes such as life science research in space or sex differentiation studies. PMID:9477433

  19. No association of the insulin gene VNTR polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome in a Han Chinese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuping Xu; Zhaolian Wei; Zhiguo Zhang; Qiong Xing; Pin Hu; Xiaohui Zhang; Guihua Gao; Yong Wang; Qian Gao; Long Yi; Yunxia Cao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes mellitus. The results of previous research about the association of the VNTR polymorphism in 5-prime flanking region of the insulin (INS) gene with PCOS have been inconsistent. The present study was to investigate the association of the INS-VNTR polymorphism with PCOS

  20. Difference in body weight between American and Italian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: influence of the diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Carmina; Richard S. Legro; Kelly Stamets; Jennifer Lowell; Rogerio A. Lobo

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study aim was to determine differences in body mass in two populations of women (USA and Italy) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to assess the effect of diet on body mass and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Pools of women with PCOS from the USA (n = 343) and Italy (n = 301), seen between 1993 and 2001,

  1. Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor of the Ovary Growing into an Inguinal Hernia Sac: Report of a Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Takeuchi; Yasushi Tsuzuki; Tetsu Ando; Masao Sekihara; Takashi Hara; Takayuki Kori; Takeshi Kawakami; Yoshihiro Ohno; Hiroyuki Kuwano

    2003-01-01

    Malignant tumors presenting as an inguinal hernia are rare. We present the case of a malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary growing into an inguinal hernia sac. In this case, magnetic resonance imaging was useful in making a diagnosis of an ovarian neoplasm growing into the inguinal canal, and to the best of our knowledge, this is only

  2. The ovary retains male potential after the thermosensitive period for sex determination in the turtle Emys orbicularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mireille Dorizzi; Noëlle Richard-Mercier; Claude Pieau

    1996-01-01

    Emys orbicularis is a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. The thermosensitive period (TSP) lies between embryonic stages 16 and 22. Gonadal differentiation begins during this period involving oestrogens. Treatment with oestrogens during TSP results in the differentiation of ovaries at a male-producing temperature (25° C), whereas treatment with an antioestrogen (tamoxifen) or with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors results in gonadal masculinization

  3. CELLULAR TOXICITY IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL CULTURES. 1. ANALYSIS OF CYTOTOXICITY ENDPOINTS FOR TWENTY-NINE PRIORITY POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to 29 toxic chemical substances which were representative of several classes of compounds listed by the Natural Resources Defense Council Consent Decree as priority toxic pollutants. After cell cultures were exposed to the test substance, ...

  4. Aligned, isotropic and patterned carbon nanotube substrates that control the growth and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah; Piyapong Asanithi; Eric W. Brunner; Izabela Jurewicz; Chiara Bo; Chihye Lewis Azad; Raquel Ovalle-Robles; Shaoli Fang; Marcio D. Lima; Xavier Lepro; Steve Collins; Ray H. Baughman; Richard P. Sear; Alan B. Dalton

    2011-01-01

    Here we culture Chinese hamster ovary cells on isotropic, aligned and patterned substrates based on multiwall carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide the substrate with nanoscale topography. The cells adhere to and grow on all substrates, and on the aligned substrate, the cells align strongly with the axis of the bundles of the multiwall nanotubes. This control over cell alignment is

  5. MULTIPLE-ENDPOINT MUTAGENESIS WITH CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY (CHO) CELLS: EVALUATION WITH EIGHT CARCINOGENIC AND NON-CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in culture, the authors have defined an assay, CHO/HGPRT, to quantify mutagen-induced cytotoxicity and mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hgprt) locus. This assay permits elucidation of the structure-activity r...

  6. A Fasting Glucose to Insulin Ratio Is a Useful Measure of Insulin Sensitivity in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD S. LEGRO; DIANE FINEGOOD; ANDREA DUNAIF

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are profoundly insulin resistant, and the resultant hyperinsulinemia exacerbates the reproductive abnormalities of the syndrome. Agents that ameliorate insulin resistance and reduce circulating insulin levels could provide a new therapeutic modality for PCOS. Identifying the subset of PCOS women who are most insulin resistant may therefore be useful for selecting women who will respond

  7. A Survey of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Greek Island of Lesbos: Hormonal and Metabolic Profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVANTHIA DIAMANTI-KANDARAKIS; CHRYSSA R. KOULI; ANGELIKI T. BERGIELE; FANNY A. FILANDRA; THOMAIS C. TSIANATELI; GIOVANNA G. SPINA; EVANGELIA D. ZAPANTI; MICHAEL I. BARTZIS

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperan- drogenism, chronic anovulation, and oligomenorrhea (O\\/M). PCOS has variable clinical phenotypes, biochemical features, and metabolic abnormalities. To determine the prevalence of PCOS in the Greek population as well as the metabolic parameters, we performed a cross-sectional study of 192 women of reproductive age (17- 45 yr), living on the Greek island of

  8. Effects of Metformin on Insulin Secretion, Insulin Action, and Ovarian Steroidogenesis in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. EHRMANN; MELISSA K. CAVAGHAN; JACQUELINE IMPERIAL; JEPPE STURIS; ROBERT L. ROSENFIELD; KENNETH S. POLONSKY

    2010-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia contributes to the ovarian androgen overpro- duction and glucose intolerance of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We sought to determine whether metformin would reduce insulin levels in obese, nondiabetic women with PCOS during a period of weight maintenance and thus attenuate the ovarian steroidogenic response to the GnRH agonist leuprolide. All subjects (n 5 14) had an oral glucose tolerance

  9. Prevalence of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Unselected Black and White Women of the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. KNOCHENHAUER; T. J. KEY; M. KAHSAR-MILLER; W. WAGGONER; L. R. BOOTS; R. AZZIZ

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in the general population have ranged from 2-20%. The vast majority of these reports have studied White populations in Europe, used limited definitions of the disorder, and\\/or used bias populations, such as those seeking medical care. To estimate the prevalence of this disorder in the United States and address these

  10. Strategies for the use of insulin-sensitizing drugs to treat infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Nestler; Dale Stovall; Nausheen Akhter; Maria J. Iuorno; Daniela J. Jakubowicz

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key pathogenic role in the infertility of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Numerous studies indicate that insulin-sensitizing drugs can be used to enhance spontaneous ovulation and the induction of ovulation in the syndrome. The aim of this review is to summarize the studies in which insulin-sensitizing drugs were used to increase ovulation

  11. Effect of rosiglitazone on spontaneous and clomiphene citrate–induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghina Ghazeeri; William H Kutteh; Michael Bryer-Ash; Derek Haas; Raymond W Ke

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveIn women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), correction of hyperinsulinemia results enhances spontaneous ovulation or alternatively, the responsiveness to ovulation induction agents such as clomiphene citrate (CC). We investigated the effect of rosiglitazone maleate on ovulation induction in overweight and obese, CC-resistant women with PCOS.

  12. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Unselected Caucasian Women from Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIRYAM ASUNCION; ROSA M. CALVO; SERGIO AVILA; HECTOR F. ESCOBAR-MORREALE

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively estimated the prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as defined by the NIH\\/NICHHD 1990 endocrine criteria, in a population of 154 Caucasian women of reproductive age reporting spontaneously for blood donation. Anthropometric data; the presence of hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia; and the men- strual history were recorded by a single investigator. In 145 women, blood samples

  13. Influence Of Serum Luteinising Hormone Concentrations On Ovulation, Conception, And Early Pregnancy Loss In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Homburg; N. A. Armar; A. Eshel; J. Adams; H. S. Jacobs

    1988-01-01

    Women with the polycystic ovary syndrome do not respond well to treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone. To determine whether this might be due to an underlying endocrine disturbance basal concentrations of luteinising hormone were measured in 54 infertile women treated with pulsatile luteinising hormone releasing hormone and concentrations at the time of maximum follicular growth were measured in 23

  14. Differential protein expression in ovaries of uninfected and Babesia-infected southern cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to investigate differences in protein expression in ovarian tissues from Babesia bovis-infected and uninfected southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Soluble and membrane proteins were extracted from ovaries of adult female ticks,...

  15. Elevated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Gonzalez; Kuldip Thusu; Ehad Abdel-Rahman; Anu Prabhala; Madonna Tomani; Paresh Dandona

    1999-01-01

    Since an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) expression has been associated with insulin resistance, this study was undertaken to determine the status of circulating TNF? and the relationship of TNF? with insulin levels, body weight, or both in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Fasting serum samples were analyzed in 34 subjects with PCOS, of whom 22 were

  16. Development of a Health-Related Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (PCOSQ) for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. CRONIN; G. GUYATT; L. GRIFFITH; E. WONG; R. AZZIZ; W. FUTTERWEIT; D. COOK; A. DUNAIF

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a self-administered questionnaire for mea- suring health-related quality of life (HRQL) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: We identified a pool of 182 items potentially relevant to women with PCOS through semistructured interviews with PCOS patients, a survey of health professionals who worked closely with PCOS women, and a literature review. One hundred women with

  17. Ghrelin and Measures of Satiety Are Altered in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome But Not Differentially Affected by Diet Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Moran; M. NOAKES; P. M. CLIFTON; G. A. WITTERT; L. TOMLINSON; C. GALLETLY

    2004-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition in women of reproductive age associated with obe- sity. It may involve dysregulation of ghrelin, a hormone im- plicated in appetite regulation. The effect of diet composition on ghrelin is unclear. Overweight women with and without PCOS were randomized to a high-protein (40% carbohydrate, 30% protein; 10 PCOS, six non-PCOS) or

  18. Gene expression profile analysis of testis and ovary of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, reveals candidate reproduction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Qiao, H; Xiong, Y W; Jiang, S F; Fu, H T; Sun, S M; Jin, S B; Gong, Y S; Zhang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized high-throughput RNA sequencing technology to identify reproduction- and development-related genes of Macrobrachium nipponense by analyzing gene expression profiles of testis and ovary. More than 20 million 1 x 51-bp reads were obtained by Illumina sequencing, generating more than 7.7 and 11.7 million clean reads in the testis and ovary library, respectively. As a result, 10,018 unitags were supposed to be differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ovary and testis. Compared to the ovary library, 4563 (45.5%) of these DEGs exhibited at least 6-fold upregulated expression, while 5455 (54.5%) DEGs exhibited at least 2-fold downregulated expression in the testis. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that 113 GO terms had potential molecular functions in reproduction. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes results revealed that the most important pathways may be relevant to reproduction and included 7 pathways. Forty-two genes were identified as reproduction-, development-, and sex-related genes based on GO classification and sequence comparison with other publications, including male reproductive-related LIM protein, spermatogenesis-associated protein, gametocyte-specific factor 1, VASA-like protein, vitellogenin, sex-determining protein fem-1, and other potential candidates. These results will advance research in the field of molecular genetics in M. nipponense and offer a valuable resource for further research related to reproduction in crustaceans. PMID:25867350

  19. Quantitative changes in yolk protein and other components in the ovary and testis of the sea urchin Pseudocentrotus depressus.

    PubMed

    Unuma, T; Yamamoto, T; Akiyama, T; Shiraishi, M; Ohta, H

    2003-01-01

    Both male and female sea urchins accumulate the major yolk protein (MYP; the most abundant yolk granule protein in sea urchin eggs) in the nutritive phagocytes of immature gonads before gametogenesis. In this study, quantitative changes in MYP as well as in other biochemical components in the ovary and testis were examined in the course of gametogenesis in Pseudocentrotus depressus. Before gametogenesis, both the ovary and testis contained large quantities of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides. MYP reached about 80% of total protein in both sexes. In the testis, MYP decreased rapidly as spermatogenesis proceeded, and the fully mature testis contained little MYP; the levels of lipids and polysaccharides also decreased. In contrast, the levels of nucleic acids and proteins other than MYP increased markedly. In the ovary, MYP decreased gradually as oogenesis proceeded, and the fully mature ovary contained less than half of the initial amount of MYP. Polysaccharides also decreased, whereas proteins other than MYP increased. These results, taken together with those from other studies, suggest that MYP serves as a protein reserve that accumulates before gametogenesis and is used as material for synthesizing new substances constituting gametes in both male and female sea urchins. PMID:12477906

  20. In polycystic ovary syndrome, adrenal steroids are regulated differently in the morning versus in response to nutrient intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate adrenal steroid regulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). A 5-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a 3-h frequently sampled-intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) were administered to 30 patients with PCOS. Anthropometric parameters (hei...

  1. Effects of Metformin on Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Women with Clomiphene Resistant Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahnaz Ashrafi; Fatemeh Zafarani; Ahmad Reza Baghestani

    Background: To evaluate the effect of metformin on ovulation and pregnancy rate in clomiphene citrate resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Material & Methods: In this clinical trial each patient, regarding her previous resistance to Clomiphene, served as her own control. A total of 35 clomiphene citrate resistant PCOS patients, referring to Royan institute were studied. Clomiphene citrate resistance

  2. Troglitazone Improves Ovulation and Hirsutism in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Multicenter, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICARDO AZZIZ; DAVID EHRMANN; RICHARD S. LEGRO; RANDALL W. WHITCOMB

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that the administration of troglitazone, an insu- lin-sensitizing agent of the thiazolidinedione class, would improve the ovulatory dysfunction, hirsutism, hyperandrogenemia, and hyperin- sulinemia of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Four hun- dred and ten premenopausal women with PCOS in a multicenter, double blind trial were randomly assigned to 44 weeks of treatment with placebo (PBO) or troglitazone (150

  3. The importance of rock crab ( Cancer irroratus) for growth, condition and ovary development of adult American lobster ( Homarus americanus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Gendron; Pierre Fradette; Guillaume Godbout

    2001-01-01

    The rock crab (Cancer irroratus) fishery is a growing industry in eastern Canada. Considering that American lobster (Homarus americanus) is highly dependent on the rock crab as a food source, questions have arisen as to the impacts such a fishery would have. This study examines how different rations of rock crab can affect somatic growth, condition and ovary development of

  4. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Inaoka, Yoshihiko; Yazawa, Takashi; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Kokame, Koichi; Kangawa, Kenji; Uesaka, Miki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2008-01-01

    Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E) POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E), such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild-type POR proteins. Knockdown of endogenous POR protein in KGN human granulosa cells led to reduced estrone production, indicating that endogenous POR affected aromatase activity. Conclusion We demonstrated that the expression of POR, together with that of aromatase, was regulated by gonadotropins, and that its induction could up-regulate aromatase activity in the ovary, resulting in a coordinated increase in estrogen production. PMID:19077323

  5. Ketoconazole Inhibits Ovulation as a Result of Arrest of Follicular Steroidogenesis in the Rat Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ketoconazole (KCZ) is a known inhibitor of steroidogenic P450 enzymes in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. Previous studies examined the potential clinical use of KCZ for attenuation of ovarian response to gonadotropin treatments. This study aimed to use the superovuating rat model to explore the effect of KCZ on ovarian steroidogenesis, follicular function, and development toward ovulation. METHODS Prepubertal rats were treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)/human CG (hCG) resulting in multiple follicular development and ovulation. The effect of KCZ on this model was examined by administration of KCZ-gel formula and subsequent analyses of ovarian steroidogenesis, rate of ovulation, morphometric assessments of follicular parameters, and cell-specific steroidogenic maturation of the treated ovaries. RESULTS When applied shortly before gonadotropin stimulation, KCZ markedly reduced ovarian progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol levels down to 18.7, 36.5, and 19.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). A single KCZ-gel administration of 6, 12, and 24 mg/rat resulted in reduction of ovulated ova/ovary down to 8.6 ± 4.9, 5.1 ± 4.3, and 2.4 ± 3.2, respectively, as compared to 13.6 ± 4.4 ova found in the oviduct of control-gel-injected animals (P < 0.001). An alternative protocol made use of small KCZ doses injected in non-gel formula (5 mg/dose/8 hours), commenced with the eCG administration and terminated 24 hours later; this treatment readily inhibited the ovulation rates to 6.6 ± 6.6 as compared to 16.5 ± 4.1 ova/ovary in the control group (P < 0.01). By contrast, KCZ failed to inhibit ovulation if administered 24 hours after eCG injection. Anovulation by KCZ resulted from arrest of follicular development at the stage of 800–840 ?m Graafian follicles as compared to 920 ?m of peri-ovulatory follicles (OFs) observed in the control group, P = 0.029. In addition, absence of CYP11A1 expression was evident in the granulosa cell layers of the growth-arrested follicles, which also lacked mucified mature cumulus cell complexes. CONCLUSION These results suggest that KCZ-mediated inhibition of follicular maturation probably results from impaired steroidogenesis at early phase of follicular development toward ovulation. Hence, attenuation of folliculogenesis by KCZ may be harnessed to modulate gonadotropin-ovarian stimulation in fertility treatments. PMID:24987273

  6. Expression of gap junctional connexin proteins in ovine fetal ovaries: Effects of maternal diet

    PubMed Central

    Grazul-Bilska, A.T.; Vonnahme, K.A.; Bilski, J.J.; Borowczyk, E.; Soni, D.; Mikkelson, B.; Johnson, M.L.; Reynolds, L.P.; Redmer, D.A.; Caton, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Gap junctions have been implicated in the regulation of cellular metabolism and the coordination of cellular functions during growth and differentiation of organs and tissues, and gap junctions play a major role in direct cell-cell communication. Gap junctional channels and connexin (Cx) proteins have been detected in adult ovaries in several species. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that several environmental factors including maternal diet may affect fetal organ growth and function. To determine if maternal diet impacts expression of connexin (Cx) 26, 32, 37 and 43 in fetal ovaries, sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with adequate (A) selenium (Se) or high (H) Se levels from 21 days before breeding to day 132 of pregnancy. From day 50 to 132 of pregnancy (tissue collection day), a portion of the ewes from ASe and HSe groups was fed restricted (R; 60% of M) diet. Sections of fetal ovaries were immunostained for the presence of connexins followed by image analysis. All four connexins were detected, but the distribution pattern differed. Cx26 was immunolocalized in the oocytes from primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles, in granulosa and theca layers of secondary and antral follicles, stroma and blood vessels; Cx32 was in oocytes, granulosa and theca cells in a portion of antral follicles; Cx37 was on the borders between oocyte and granulosa/cumulus cells of primordial to antral follicles, and in endothelium; and Cx43 was on cellular borders in granulosa and theca layers, and between oocyte and granulosa/cumulus cells of primordial to antral follicles. Maternal diet affected Cx26 and Cx43 expression; Cx26 in granulosa layer of antral follicles was decreased (P<0.01) by HSe in M and R diets, and Cx43 in granulosa layer of primary and granulosa and theca of antral follicles was increased (P<0.05) by M diet with HSe. Thus, connexins may be differentially involved in regulation of fetal ovarian function in sheep. These data emphasize the importance of maternal diet in fetal growth and development. PMID:21820266

  7. Expression and activity of Rac1 is negatively affected in the dehydroepiandrosterone induced polycystic ovary of mouse

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the presence of multiple follicular cysts, giving rise to infertility due to anovulation. This syndrome affects about 10% of women, worldwide. The exact molecular mechanism leading to PCOS remains obscure. RhoGTPase has been associated with oogenesis, but its role in PCOS remains unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the Vav-Rac1 signaling in PCOS mice model. Methods We generated a PCOS mice model by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for a period of 20 days. The expression levels of Rac1, pRac1, Vav, pVav and Caveolin1 were analyzed by employing immuno-blotting and densitometry. The association between Vav and Rac1 proteins were studied by immuno-precipitation. Furthermore, we analyzed the activity of Rac1 and levels of inhibin B and 17?-estradiol in ovary using biochemical assays. Results The presence of multiple follicular cysts in ovary were confirmed by histology. The activity of Rac1 (GTP bound state) was significantly reduced in the PCOS ovary. Similarly, the expression levels of Rac1 and its phosphorylated form (pRac1) were decreased in PCOS in comparison to the sham ovary. The expression level and activity (phosphorylated form) of guanine nucleotide exchanger of Rac1, Vav, was moderately down-regulated. We observed comparatively increased expressions of Caveolin1, 17?-estradiol, and inhibin B in the polycystic ovary. Conclusion We conclude that hyperandrogenization (PCOS) by DHEA diminishes ovarian Rac1 and Vav expression and activity along with an increase in expression of Caveolin1. This is accompanied by an increase in the intra-ovarian level of '17 ?-estradiol and inhibin B. PMID:24628852

  8. The metabolic effects of drugs used for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karaköse, Melia; Çakal, Erman; Ertan, Kubilay; Deliba??, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. It is characterized by menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical) and ultrasonographic features. It is well known that PCOS has unfavourable effects on carbohydrate metabolism, the parameters of cardiovascular disease and lipid profile. Mode of treatment is mainly guided by the main complaint of the patient. A lot of medicines have been used for many years to treat these women. For that reason the recognition the effects of these drugs on the metabolic risk profile is important. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of these drugs on metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. PMID:24592098

  9. [Surgical treatment of patients with borderline serous tumors of the ovary].

    PubMed

    Gubina, O V; Kozachenko, V P; Karseladze, A I; Kuznetsov, V V; Bliumenberg, A G; Davydova, I Iu

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the data on treatment of 63 patients with serous borderline tumors of the ovary (SBTO). Mean age was 40.2 years. The study included 30 patients (47.6%) with stage IA tumor, 15 (23.8%)--IB, 4 (6.3%)--II and 14 (22.2%)--stage III. Relapse frequency was 14.3%, irrespective of stage and method of therapy. Surgery was given to 18 patients (28.6%), combined therapy--by 45 (71.4%). Recurrent tumor was recorded after surgery in 2 (3.2%) and in 7 (14.8%) after combined therapy. Generally, surgery is the main treatment received by patients with SBTO. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not followed by decrease in relapse rates. PMID:9884726

  10. Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary presenting as precocious puberty: a rare neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Afroz, Nishat; Maheshwari, Veena; Naim, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old Indian girl presented with symptoms of excessive development of breasts, early menarche, growth of pubic hairs, accelerated growth and abdominal distension. On clinical examination, a large right abdominopelvic mass was palpable. MRI revealed a large, heterogeneous, solid and cystic tumour in the right adnexal region, suggestive of an ovarian neoplasm. The hormonal profile showed markedly elevated oestradiol and low follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Clinical diagnosis of precocious puberty with right ovarian mass was concluded. Right-sided salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathology showed features consistent with sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary. Postoperatively, signs and symptoms of precocity gradually regressed and her serum oestradiol level came down to normal. This is the first reported case from India. PMID:24686794

  11. Experimental evidence that ovary and oviducal gland extracts influence male agonistic behavior in squids.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Boal, Jean G; Nagle, Gregg T; Knowles, Jamie; Nobuhara, Robert; Sweeney, Kate; Hanlon, Roger T

    2004-02-01

    Recent investigations of sensory and behavioral cues that initiate sexual selection processes in the squid Loligo pealeii have determined that egg capsules deposited on the substrate provide a strong visual and chemotactile stimulus to males, even in the absence of females (1, 2, 3). The visual stimulus of egg capsules attracts males to the eggs, and when the males touch the eggs, they encounter a chemical stimulus that leads to highly aggressive fighting behavior. We have recently demonstrated that egg capsule extracts implanted in artificial egg capsules elicit this aggressive behavior (4). In this communication, we present evidence that the salient chemical factor originates in the ovary and perhaps the oviducal gland of the female reproductive tract. PMID:14977724

  12. Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices During the First Trimester of Pregnancy in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yu; Sun, Ying; Jiang, Wen; Pang, Baosen; An, Zhiyuan; Du, Xin; Wang, Wei; Huang, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the levels of coagulation and fibrinolytic markers during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and determine the effects of PCOS and obesity on the levels of these hemostatic markers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing, China, on women with PCOS (n = 50), healthy women (n = 50), pregnant women with PCOS (n = 50), and healthy pregnant women (n = 50) at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters were measured. Results: The interaction between PCOS and pregnancy appears to exert effects on the activities of coagulation factors VIII and X. The interaction between PCOS and obesity also seems to affect the level of von Willebrand factor. Conclusions: Pregnant women with PCOS, especially women who are obese, are observed to be in a more prohemostatic state during the first trimester. PMID:23585337

  13. Current trends in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with desire for children.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Margalida E; Prat, Maria O; Checa, Miguel Angel; Carreras, Ramon C

    2009-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most frequent endocrine diseases, affects approximately 5%-10% of women of childbearing age and constitutes the most common cause of female sterility regardless of the need or not for treatment, a change in lifestyle is essential for the treatment to work and ovulation to be restored. Obesity is the principal reason for modifying lifestyle since its reduction improves ovulation and the capacity for pregnancy and lowers the risk of miscarriage and later complications that may occur during pregnancy (gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, etc). When lifestyle modification is not sufficient, the first step in ovulation induction is clomiphene citrate. The second-step recommendation is either exogenous gonadotrophins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery. Recommended third-line treatment is in vitro fertilization. Metformin use in PCOS should be restricted to women with glucose intolerance. PMID:19536311

  14. Use of ethinylestradiol/drospirenone combination in patients with the polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ruchi; Levin, Olga; Azziz, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine/metabolic disorders found in women, affecting approximately 105 million women worldwide. It is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, often presenting as oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea and either clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism. Combined oral contraceptive (COC) therapy has long been a cornerstone of care for women with PCOS. COC therapy often provides clinical improvement in the areas of excessive hair growth, unpredictable menses, acne, and weight gain. One of the main issues in COC therapy is choosing the most appropriate progestin component to provide the greatest anti androgenic effects. Drospirenone, a relatively new progestin, has shown benefit in the PCOS population when used in conjunction with ethinyl estradiol. We now review the role of COCs in PCOS, focusing specifically on drospirenone. Controversy over metabolic effects of COCs in PCOS is also discussed. PMID:18728832

  15. [The role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome disorders].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Maria; Karowicz-Bili?ska, Agata

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency connected with insufficient production in the skin and limited alimentation delivery disrupts the function of all systems of the body and increases the risk of chronic diseases. Many studies have reported associations between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and symptoms of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - insulin resistance, hirsutism, and infertility associated with both, ovulatory disorders and abnormal endometrial receptivity. The beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance, ovarian follicles maturation, ovulation and menstrual regularity were confirmed. Due to limited evidence, the additional randomized trials are required to establish the correct dose of vitamin D and confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D treatment in PCOS disorders. However; it seems evident that correct supplementation of vitamin D is beneficial in the management of women with PCOS and low 25(OH)D serum levels, and that it could be helpful in improving the effects of PCOS treatment. PMID:24032264

  16. Overproduction of dihydrofolate reductase and gene amplification in methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flintoff, W.F.; Weber, M.K.; Nagainis, C.R.; Essani, A.K.; Robertson, D.; Salser, W.

    1982-03-01

    Stable isolates of Chinese hamster ovary cells that are highly resistant to methotrexate have been selected in a multistep selection process. Quantitative immunoprecipitations have indicated that these isolates synthesize dihydrofolate reductase at an elevated rate over its synthesis in sensitive cells. Restriction enzyme and Southern blot analyses with a murine reductase cDNA probe indicate that the highly resistant isolates contain amplifications of the dihydrofolate reductase gene number. Depending upon the parental line used to select these resistant cells, they overproduce either a wild-type enzyme or a structurally altered enzyme. Karyotype analysis shows that some of these isolates contain chromosomes with homogeneously staining regions whereas others do not contain such chromosomes.

  17. Mucinous Tumors of the Ovary: Current Thoughts on Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous tumors of the ovary represent a spectrum of neoplastic disorders, including benign mucinous cystadenoma, pseudomyxoma peritonei, mucinous tumors of low malignant potential (borderline), and invasive mucinous ovarian carcinoma. These tumors are related closely to each other and are distinct from other histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian neoplasms from a clinical, histologic, and molecular standpoint. A continuum appears to be present from benign to borderline to malignant, which is different from other types of epithelial ovarian cancer. Mutational profiles are also distinct, as KRAS mutations are common, but p53 and BRCA mutations are infrequent. These characteristics lead to specific biologic behavior and guide both clinical management and research efforts in patients with mucinous ovarian tumors. PMID:24777667

  18. The Emerging Role of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Pathophysiology of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shorakae, Soulmaz; Teede, Helena; de Courten, Barbora; Lambert, Gavin; Boyle, Jacqueline; Moran, Lisa J

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has become increasingly common over recent years and is associated with reproductive features as well as cardiometabolic risk factors, including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose homeostasis, and potentially cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence suggests that these long-term metabolic effects are linked to a low-grade chronic inflammatory state with the triad of hyperinsulinemia, hyperandrogenism, and low-grade inflammation acting together in a vicious cycle in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system may also act as an important component, potentially creating a tetrad in the pathophysiology of PCOS. The aim of this review is to examine the role of chronic inflammation and the sympathetic nervous system in the development of obesity and PCOS and review potential therapeutic options to alleviate low-grade inflammation in this setting. PMID:26132930

  19. Differential Contributions of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Manifestations to Psychological Symptoms.

    PubMed

    McCook, Judy G; Bailey, Beth A; Williams, Stacey L; Anand, Sheeba; Reame, Nancy E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of previously identified Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) manifestations (infertility, hirsutism, obesity, menstrual problems) to multiple psychological symptoms. Participants were 126 female endocrinology patient volunteers diagnosed with PCOS who completed a cross-sectional study of PCOS manifestations and psychological symptoms. Participants had significantly elevated scores on nine subscales of psychological symptoms. Menstrual problems were significantly associated with all symptom subscales as well as the global indicator, while hirsutism and obesity were significantly related to five or more subscales. After controlling for demographic factors, menstrual problems were the strongest predictor of psychological symptoms. Findings suggest features of excess body hair, obesity, and menstrual abnormalities carry unique risks for adverse psychologic symptoms, but menstrual problems may be the most salient of these features and deserve particular attention as a marker for psychological risk among women with PCOS. PMID:24390359

  20. Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary: A case report and the review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Özhan; Sar?, Mustafa Erkan; ?en, Ertu?rul; Kurt, Asl?han; ?leri, Ay?e Burce; Atalay, Cemal Re?at

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumours are rare benign ovarian neoplasms of the sex cord stromal that occur predominantly in the second and third decades of life. To date, 208 cases have been recorded in the literature. Most patients have menstrual irregularities and pelvic pain. Infertility and virilisation have also been described. In this article, histopathological features and differential diagnosis of the benign sclerosing stromal tumour were described together with the literature data. It is imperative to consider the differential diagnosis of a sclerozing stromal tumour of the ovary in a young woman with an ovarian tumour. A combination of morphological, immunohistochemical, radiological and clinical findings is needed in differentiating the tumour from thecoma, fibroma/fibrosarcoma, lipoid tumours and Krukenberg tumour. PMID:25298611

  1. Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary: A case report and the review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozhan; Sar?, Mustafa Erkan; Sen, Ertu?rul; Kurt, Asl?han; Ileri, Ay?e Burce; Atalay, Cemal Re?at

    2014-09-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumours are rare benign ovarian neoplasms of the sex cord stromal that occur predominantly in the second and third decades of life. To date, 208 cases have been recorded in the literature. Most patients have menstrual irregularities and pelvic pain. Infertility and virilisation have also been described. In this article, histopathological features and differential diagnosis of the benign sclerosing stromal tumour were described together with the literature data. It is imperative to consider the differential diagnosis of a sclerozing stromal tumour of the ovary in a young woman with an ovarian tumour. A combination of morphological, immunohistochemical, radiological and clinical findings is needed in differentiating the tumour from thecoma, fibroma/fibrosarcoma, lipoid tumours and Krukenberg tumour. PMID:25298611

  2. Off-label drug use in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vitek, Wendy; Alur, Snigdha; Hoeger, Kathleen M

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex lifelong disorder with an etiology and pathophysiology that is not yet entirely understood. Women with PCOS have clinical presentations that may vary from adolescence to menopause, including menstrual irregularity/anovulation and symptoms of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Over a lifetime, treatment needs and requirements can change. Unfortunately, there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications that are approved solely for the purpose of PCOS, but the symptoms and presentation of PCOS are often amenable to several approved agents, such as oral contraceptives for the indication of acne and clomiphene citrate for the indication of induction of ovulation. However, to meet the needs of women with PCOS, off-label use of medications has flourished. This review explores the data for those agents that do not carry an indication for PCOS but have been used for treating the signs and symptoms of PCOS. PMID:25726702

  3. Amplification and loss of dihydrofolate reductase genes in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, R.J.; Schimke, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    During stepwise increases in the methotrexate concentration in culture medium, the authors selected Chinese hamster ovary cells that contained elevated dihydrofolate reductase levels which were proportional to the number of dihydrofolate reductase gene copies (i.e., gene amplification). The authors studied the dihydrofolate reductase levels in individual cells that underwent the initial steps of methotrexate resistance by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter technique. Such cells constituted a heterogeneous population with differing dihydrofolate reductase levels, and they characteristically lost the elevated enzyme levels when they were grown in the absence of methotrexate. The progeny of individual cells with high enzyme levels behaved differently and could lose all or variable numbers of the amplified genes.

  4. Biallelic somatic SMARCA4 mutations in small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Shivani; Murray, Matthew J; Witkowski, Leora; Hook, Elizabeth; Hasselblatt, Martin; Crawford, Robin; Foulkes, William D; Tischkowitz, Marc; Nicholson, James C

    2015-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare, aggressive tumor that primarily affects young women. SCCOHT has recently been identified as a monogenic disorder caused by germline and/or somatic SMARCA4 mutations. We describe a 15-year-old Caucasian female with a SCCOHT harboring a previously unreported somatic mutation in the SMARCA4 gene (c.1757delA; p.K586.fs) with loss of heterozygosity. No germline mutation was identified. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining confirmed loss of SMARCA4 protein. These molecular findings will aid with SCCOHT diagnosis through immunohistochemical staining for SMARCA4 and in the future may have implications for the management of this disease. PMID:25307865

  5. Ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of mice ovaries following experimentally induced copper poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, H; Roshangar, L; Sakhaee, E; Abshenas, J; Kheirandish, R; Dehghani, R

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element involved in normal reproduction but its overexposure may produce some detrimental effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of copper sulfate poisoning on morphometery of mice ovarian structures and probable intracellular changes. Methods Thirty mature female mice were randomly allocated to control and two treatment groups. In treatment groups, two different doses of copper sulfate including 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg in 0.2 cc were applied once a day for 35 consecutive days by gavage. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar method. Animals from each experimental group were sacrificed 14 and 35 days after the beginning of drug administration and the left ovaries were removed for stereological evaluations by light microscopy and right ovaries were obtained for preparing electron microscopic sections. Results The morphometrical results showed that only the number of antral follicles was decreased by 100 mg/kg copper sulfate on day 14 compared to the control group (P=0.043). Hence, higher copper dose or longer consumption period significantly reduced different classes of follicles and corpora lutea. With 100 mg/kg copper sulfate some mild ultrastructural cell damages such as decrease of zona pellucida thickness, limited vacuolated areas and nuclear envelop dilation were seen on day 14. Higher or longer Cu administration produced more detrimental effects including more vacuolated areas, presence of secondary lysosomes, irregularity in cell shape and segmented nuclei with condensed and marginated chromatin and more enlarged and damaged mitochondria. Conclusion New evidences of early as well as late intracellular damages of copper has been presented by accurate stereological and ultrastructural methods. Antral follicles was the most susceptible cells with the lower and shorter copper consumption and long term or higher dose of copper affected the whole of ovarian structures. PMID:23115718

  6. Identification and gene expression analyses of natriuretic peptide system in the ovary of goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Xin, Hai-Yun; Han, Peng; Zhao, Hai-Bo; Bai, Long; An, Xiao-Peng; Cao, Bin-Yun

    2013-07-25

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are involved in maintaining cardiovascular and fluid homeostasis, regulating reproductive processes and bone growth, and other numerous functions. To better understand the role of NPs in goat (Capra hircus), in the present study, full-length cDNAs of goat Nppa (natriuretic peptide precursor A), Nppb (natriuretic peptide precursor B) and Nppc (natriuretic peptide precursor C), respectively encoding ANP, BNP and CNP, were cloned from adult goat heart and ovary. The putative prepropeptide ANP (prepro-ANP) and prepro-CNP share a high amino acid sequence identity with other species. Real-time PCR showed that Nppa, Nppb and Nppc were widely expressed in adult goat tissues. The mRNA expression of Nppa and Nppb in the heart was extremely higher compared with other tissues. Nppc mRNA expression in the lung and uterus was also higher than in other tissues. The expression of Nppa, Nppb and Nppc genes was examined at different ovarian follicle stages using RT-PCR. The mRNAs of Nppa and Nppb were detected in secondary follicles as well as in COCs (cumulus-oocyte-complexes) and granulosa cells of antral follicles. However, the mRNA expression of Nppc was observed throughout ovarian follicle development, and it was especially higher in granulosa cells of antral follicles. In vitro, stimulating goat granulosa cells with FSH led to an increase in the expression of Nppc by dose- and time-dependent manners and a rapid decline was induced by LH stimulation, but the expression of Nppa and Nppb did not change after FSH or LH treatment. These results suggest that Nppc is a gonadotropin-induced gene in granulosa cells of goat ovary and CNP may be involved in the regulation of ovarian follicle development and oocyte maturation. PMID:23644022

  7. Selective Inhibition of Steroidogenic Enzymes by Ketoconazole in Rat Ovary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ketoconazole (KCZ) is an anti-fungal agent extensively used for clinical applications related to its inhibitory effects on adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis. Much less information is available on the effects of KCZ on synthesis of steroid hormones in the ovary. The present study aimed to characterize the in situ effects of KCZ on steroidogenic enzymes in primary rat ovary cells. METHODS Following the induction of folliculogenesis in gonadotropin treated rats, freshly prepared ovarian cells were incubated in suspension for up to four hours while radiolabeled steroid substrates were added and time dependent generation of their metabolic products was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). RESULTS KCZ inhibits the P450 steroidogenic enzymes in a selective and dose dependent manner, including cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1/P450scc), the 17?-hydroxylase activity of CYP17A1/P450c17, and CYP19A1/P450arom, with IC50 values of 0.3, 1.8, and 0.3 ?g/mL (0.56, 3.36, and 0.56 ?M), respectively. Unaffected by KCZ, at 10 ?g/mL, were the 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1, as well as five non-cytochrome steroidogenic enzymes including 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-?5–4 isomerase type 1 (3?HSD1), 5?-reductase, 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD), and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17HSD1). CONCLUSION These findings map the effects of KCZ on the ovarian pathways of progestin, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Hence, the drug may have a potential use as an acute and reversible modulator of ovarian steroidogenesis in pathological circumstances. PMID:24812532

  8. GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2009-03-01

    We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes. PMID:18692104

  9. Clinical features, investigations and management of adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Orsino, Angela; Van Eyk, Nancy; Hamilton, Jill

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined as chronic anovulation with evidence of hyperandrogenism, after the exclusion of secondary causes. It is commonly linked to obesity and the presence of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVES To review the clinical features and medical assessment of adolescents referred for PCOS to gynecology or endocrinology services at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario). METHODS A chart review was conducted of all adolescents with PCOS referred during a one-year period. Measures included clinical findings, investigations and management. RESULTS Forty-one adolescent girls, with a mean age ± SD of 14.7±1.5 years, were reviewed. Common presenting complaints were menstrual irregularities in 35 of 41 girls (85%) and hirsutism in 28 of 41 girls (68%), with 32 of 41 adolescents (78%) having more than one complaint. The majority (31 of 38 [82%]) were overweight or obese. Features associated with the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity) were identified in some adolescents, but were not consistently assessed. Blood pressure was assessed in 38 adolescents, fasting plasma glucose in 27, triglycerides in 22 and cholesterol in 21. Only four of 28 adolescents (15%) who underwent pelvic ultrasound demonstrated ovarian cysts. Investigations and management differed somewhat between endocrinologists and gynecologists. Most adolescents (34 of 41 [83%]) received pharmacological treatment: oral contraceptive pill (21 of 34 [62%]); intermittent medroxyprogesterone acetate to induce withdrawal bleeding (nine of 34 [26%]); metformin (two of 34 [6%]); or oral contraceptive pill and antiandrogen (two of 34 [6%]). CONCLUSIONS Adolescents with PCOS are at risk of developing metabolic abnormalities. Polycystic ovaries were not a consistent finding. The most commonly prescribed treatment was the oral contraceptive pill. Greater attention should be placed on screening adolescents with PCOS for diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, allowing for earlier identification and management of potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:19668673

  10. Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing human acyl- coenzyme A/cholesterol acyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported the isolation of Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants deficient in acylcoenzyme A/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity (Cadigan, K. M., J. G. Heider, and T. Y. Chang. 1988, J. Biol. Chem. 263:274-282). We now describe a procedure for isolating cells from these mutants that have regained the ability to synthesize cholesterol esters. The protocol uses the fluorescent stain Nile red, which is specific for neutral lipids such as cholesterol ester. After ACAT mutant populations were subjected to chemical mutagenesis or transfected with human fibroblast whole genomic DNA, two revertants and one primary transformant were isolated by virtue of their higher fluorescent intensities using flow cytofluorimetry. Both the revertants and transformant have regained large amounts of intracellular cholesterol ester and ACAT activity. However, heat inactivation experiments revealed that the enzyme activity of the transformant had heat stability properties identical to that of human fibroblasts, while the ACAT activities of the revertants were similar to that of other Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. These results suggest that the molecular lesion in the ACAT mutants resides in the structural gene for the enzyme, and the transformant has corrected this defect by acquiring and stably expressing a human gene encoding the ACAT polypeptide. Secondary transformants were isolated by transfection of ACAT mutant cells with primary transformant genomic DNA. Genomic Southern analysis of the secondary transformants using a probe specific for human DNA revealed several distinct restriction fragments common to all the transformants which most likely comprise part or all of the human ACAT gene. The cell lines described here should facilitate the cloning of the gene encoding the human ACAT enzyme. PMID:2738092

  11. Juvenile ovary to testis transition in zebrafish involves inhibition of ptges.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Ajay; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2014-08-01

    The sex differentiation mechanisms in zebrafish (Danio rerio) remains elusive, partly because of the absence of sex chromosomes but also because the process appears to depend on the synchrony of multiple genes and possibly environmental factors. Zebrafish gonadal development is initiated through the development of immature oocytes. Depending on multiple signaling cues, in about half of the individuals, the juvenile ovaries degenerate or undergo apoptosis to initiate testes development while the other half maintains the oogenic pathway. We have previously shown that activation of NF?B and prostaglandin synthase 2 (ptgs2) results in female-biased sex ratios. Prostaglandin synthase and prostaglandins are involved in multiple physiological functions, including cell survival and apoptosis. In the present study, we show that inhibition of ptgs2 by meloxicam results in male-biased sex ratios. On further evaluation, we observed that exposure with the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) analogue BW-245C induced SRY-box containing gene 9a (sox9a) and resulted in male-biased sex ratios. On the other hand, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment resulted in female-biased sex ratios and involved activation of NF?B and the ?-catenin pathway as well as inhibition of sox9. Exposure to the ?-catenin inhibitor PNU-74654 resulted in up-regulation of ptgds and male-biased sex ratios, further confirming the involvement of ?-catenin in the female differentiation pathway. In this study, we show that PGD2 and PGE2 can program the gonads to either the testis or the ovary differentiation pathways, indicating that prostaglandins are involved in the regulation of zebrafish gonadal differentiation. PMID:24920039

  12. Overexpression of a DENND1A isoform produces a polycystic ovary syndrome theca phenotype

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Jan M.; Modi, Bhavi; Miller, Bruce A.; Biegler, Jessica; Bruggeman, Richard; Legro, Richard S.; Strauss, Jerome F.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by increased ovarian androgen biosynthesis, anovulation, and infertility, affects 5–7% of reproductive-age women. Genome-wide association studies identified PCOS candidate loci that were replicated in subsequent reports, including DENND1A, which encodes a protein associated with clathrin-coated pits where cell-surface receptors reside. However, these studies provided no information about functional roles for DENND1A in the pathogenesis of PCOS. DENND1A protein was located in the cytoplasm as well as nuclei of theca cells, suggesting a possible role in gene regulation. DENND1A immunostaining was more intense in the theca of PCOS ovaries. Using theca cells isolated and propagated from normal cycling and PCOS women, we found that DENND1A variant 2 (DENND1A.V2) protein and mRNA levels are increased in PCOS theca cells. Exosomal DENND1A.V2 RNA was significantly elevated in urine from PCOS women compared with normal cycling women. Forced overexpression of DENND1A.V2 in normal theca cells resulted in a PCOS phenotype of augmented CYP17A1 and CYP11A1 gene transcription, mRNA abundance, and androgen biosynthesis. Knock-down of DENND1A.V2 in PCOS theca cells reduced androgen biosynthesis and CYP17A1 and CYP11A1 gene transcription. An IgG specific to DENND1A.V2 also reduced androgen biosynthesis and CYP17 and CYP11A1 mRNA when added to the medium of cultured PCOS theca cells. We conclude that the PCOS candidate gene, DENND1A, plays a key role in the hyperandrogenemia associated with PCOS. These observations have both diagnostic and therapeutic implications for this common disorder. PMID:24706793

  13. Overexpression of a DENND1A isoform produces a polycystic ovary syndrome theca phenotype.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Jan M; Modi, Bhavi; Miller, Bruce A; Biegler, Jessica; Bruggeman, Richard; Legro, Richard S; Strauss, Jerome F

    2014-04-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by increased ovarian androgen biosynthesis, anovulation, and infertility, affects 5-7% of reproductive-age women. Genome-wide association studies identified PCOS candidate loci that were replicated in subsequent reports, including DENND1A, which encodes a protein associated with clathrin-coated pits where cell-surface receptors reside. However, these studies provided no information about functional roles for DENND1A in the pathogenesis of PCOS. DENND1A protein was located in the cytoplasm as well as nuclei of theca cells, suggesting a possible role in gene regulation. DENND1A immunostaining was more intense in the theca of PCOS ovaries. Using theca cells isolated and propagated from normal cycling and PCOS women, we found that DENND1A variant 2 (DENND1A.V2) protein and mRNA levels are increased in PCOS theca cells. Exosomal DENND1A.V2 RNA was significantly elevated in urine from PCOS women compared with normal cycling women. Forced overexpression of DENND1A.V2 in normal theca cells resulted in a PCOS phenotype of augmented CYP17A1 and CYP11A1 gene transcription, mRNA abundance, and androgen biosynthesis. Knock-down of DENND1A.V2 in PCOS theca cells reduced androgen biosynthesis and CYP17A1 and CYP11A1 gene transcription. An IgG specific to DENND1A.V2 also reduced androgen biosynthesis and CYP17 and CYP11A1 mRNA when added to the medium of cultured PCOS theca cells. We conclude that the PCOS candidate gene, DENND1A, plays a key role in the hyperandrogenemia associated with PCOS. These observations have both diagnostic and therapeutic implications for this common disorder. PMID:24706793

  14. Stem cell isolation by a morphology-based selection method in postnatal mouse ovary

    PubMed Central

    Parvari, Soraya; Abbasi, Niloufar; Malek, Valliollah Gerayeli; Amidi, Fardin; Aval, Fereydoon Sargolzaei; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Izadyar, Fariburz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An increasing body of evidence has emerged regarding the existence and function of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs); however, their female counterparts are the subject of extensive debate. Theoretically, ovarian germ stem cells (GSCs) have to reside in the murine ovary to support and replenish the follicle pool during the reproductive life span. Recently, various methods have been recruited to isolate and describe aspects of ovarian GSCs, but newer and more convenient strategies in isolation are still growing. Herein, a morphology-based method was used to isolate GSCs. Material and methods A cell suspension of mouse neonatal ovaries was cultured. Colonies of GSCs were harvested mechanically and cultivated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Alkaline phosphatase activity was assessed to verify stemness features of cells in colonies. Expression of germ and stem cell specific genes (Oct-4, Nanog, Fragilis, C-kit, Dazl, and Mvh) was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunofluorescence of Oct4, Dazl, Mvh, and SSEA-1 was also performed. Results Small colonies without a clear border appeared during the first 4 days of culture, and the size of colonies increased rapidly. Cells in colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that Oct-4, Fragilis, C-kit, Nanog, Mvh, and Dazl were expressed in colony-forming cells. Immunofluorescence revealed a positive signal for Oct4, Dazl, Mvh, and SSEA-1 in colonies as well. Conclusions The applicability of morphological selection for isolation of GSCs was verified. This method is easier and more economical than other techniques. The availability of ovarian stem cells can motivate further studies in development of oocyte and cell-based therapies. PMID:26170863

  15. Genetic and gene expression analyses of the polycystic ovary syndrome candidate gene fibrillin-3 and other fibrillin family members in human ovaries.

    PubMed

    Prodoehl, Mark J; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Zhao, Zhen Z; Painter, Jodie N; Hickey, Theresa E; Gibson, Mark A; Rainey, William E; Carr, Bruce R; Mason, Helen D; Norman, Robert J; Montgomery, Grant W; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the dinucleotide repeat microsatellite marker D19S884, which is located in intron 55 of the fibrillin-3 (FBN3) gene. Fibrillins, including FBN1 and 2, interact with latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-binding proteins (LTBP) and thereby control the bioactivity of TGFbetas. TGFbetas stimulate fibroblast replication and collagen production. The PCOS ovarian phenotype includes increased stromal collagen and expansion of the ovarian cortex, features feasibly influenced by abnormal fibrillin expression. To examine a possible role of fibrillins in PCOS, particularly FBN3, we undertook tagging and functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis (32 SNPs including 10 that generate non-synonymous amino acid changes) using DNA from 173 PCOS patients and 194 controls. No SNP showed a significant association with PCOS and alleles of most SNPs showed almost identical population frequencies between PCOS and control subjects. No significant differences were observed for microsatellite D19S884. In human PCO stroma/cortex (n = 4) and non-PCO ovarian stroma (n = 9), follicles (n = 3) and corpora lutea (n = 3) and in human ovarian cancer cell lines (KGN, SKOV-3, OVCAR-3, OVCAR-5), FBN1 mRNA levels were approximately 100 times greater than FBN2 and 200-1000-fold greater than FBN3. Expression of LTBP-1 mRNA was 3-fold greater than LTBP-2. We conclude that FBN3 appears to have little involvement in PCOS but cannot rule out that other markers in the region of chromosome 19p13.2 are associated with PCOS or that FBN3 expression occurs in other organs and that this may be influencing the PCOS phenotype. PMID:19692420

  16. A randomized trial of the effects of two types of short-term hypocaloric diets on weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Stamets; Denise S Taylor; Allen Kunselman; Laurence M Demers; Christine L Pelkman; Richard S Legro

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveWe performed this study as a pilot experiment to investigate the short term effects of two diets of varying composition on weight loss as the primary outcome in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) seeking fertility.

  17. Diagnostic and treatment characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: descriptive measurements of patient perception and awareness from 657 confidential self-reports

    E-print Network

    Sills, E. Scott

    Background This investigation was undertaken to describe patient perception and awareness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulation/oligoovulation among women of reproductive age. Methods ...

  18. Growth and development of the ovary and small follicle pool from mid fetal life to pre-puberty in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Follicle numbers and developing ovarian morphology, particularly with reference to the presence of interstitial tissue, are intimately linked within the ovary of the African elephant during the period spanning mid-gestation to puberty. These have not been previously quantified in any studies. The collection of 7 sets of elephant fetal ovaries between 11.2 and 20.2?months of gestation, and 29 pairs of prepubertal calf ovaries between 2?months and 9?years of age during routine management off-takes of complete family groups in private conservancies in Zimbabwe provided an opportunity for a detailed study of this period. Results The changing morphology of the ovary is described as the presumptive cortex and medulla components of the fetal ovary settled into their adult form. Interstitial tissue dominated the ovary in late fetal life and these cells stained strongly for 3?–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This staining continued postnatally through to 4.5?years of age suggesting continued secretion of progestagens by the ovary during this period. The considerable growth of antral follicles peaked at 28% of ovarian volume at around 16.7?months of fetal age. The numbers of small follicles (primordial, early primary and true primary), counted in the cortex using stereological protocols, revealed fewer small follicles in the ovaries of animals aged 0 to 4.5?years of age than during either late fetal life or prepubertal life. Conclusions The small follicle populations of the late-fetal and prepubertal ovaries of the African elephant were described along with the changing morphology of these organs. The changes noted represent a series of events that have been recorded only in the elephant and the giraffe species to date. The expansion of the interstitial tissue of the fetal ovary and its continued presence in early post natal life may well contribute to the control of follicle development in these early years. Further research is required to determine the reasons behind the variation of numbers of small follicles in the ovaries of prepubertal calves. PMID:22824067

  19. Androgen levels, insulin sensitivity, and early insulin response in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hudecova, Miriam; Holte, Jan; Moby, Lena; Olovsson, Matts; Stridsberg, Mats; Larsson, Anders; Berglund, Lars; Berne, Christian; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2011-03-01

    Thirty-four women with polycystic ovary syndrome who previously had participated in studies with intravenous glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp between 1987 and 1995 underwent anthropometric, endocrine (T and sex-hormone binding globulin serum concentration), and metabolic (intravenous glucose tolerance test, hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp, and androgens) measurements. Free androgen levels and ?-cell function decreased over time in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, but insulin sensitivity remained unaltered. PMID:21036351

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide enhanced aromatase activity in the neonatal rat ovary before development of primary follicles or responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    George, F.W.; Ojeda, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The authors have investigated the factors that regulate aromatase activity in fetal-neonatal rat ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity (assessed by measuring the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed from (1..beta..-/sup 3/H)testosterone) is low prior to birth and increases to values greater than 30 pmol/hr per mg of protein between days 8 and 12 after birth. The appearance of ovarian aromatase coincides with the development of primordial follicles. Fetal-neonatal ovaries maintained in serum-free organ culture do not develop aromatase activity at the expected time. Ovine follicle-stimulating hormone, ovine luteinizing hormone, or their combination failed to induce the enzyme activity in cultured fetal ovaries, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone is effective in preventing the decline in aromatase activity when postnatal day 8 ovaries are placed in culture. In contrast to follicle-stimulating hormone, dibutyryl-cAMP markedly enhances ovarian aromatase in cultured fetal ovaries. Likewise, enhancement of endogenouse cAMP formation with forskolin or cholera toxin caused an increase in enzyme activity within 24 hr. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a peptide known to occur in ovarian nerves, caused a dose-dependent increase in aromatase activity in fetal ovaries prior to folliculogenesis. Of related peptides tested, only the peptide having N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine amide was capable of inducing aromatase activity in fetal ovaries. The fact that VIP can induce aromatase activity in fetal rat ovaries prior to follicle formation and prior to responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone suggests that this neuropeptide may play a critical role in ovarian differentiation.

  1. Prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: results of ultrasonography and MR imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nike M. M. L. Stikkelbroeck; Ad R. M. M. Hermus; Diana Schouten; Harold M. Suliman; Gerrit J. Jager; Didi D. M. Braat; Barto J. Otten

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Thirteen female CAH patients (median age 19.8 years, range 14.8–23.5 years) underwent transvaginal ( n=6) or transabdominal ( n=7) ultrasonography by a gynaecologist and MR imaging ( n=13) of the ovaries (pre and post

  2. Specific MALDI Imaging and Profiling for Biomarker Hunting and Validation: Fragment of the 11S Proteasome Activator Complex, Reg Alpha Fragment, Is a New Potent Ovary Cancer Biomarker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remi Lemaire; Sonia Ait Menguellet; Jonathan Stauber; Valerie Marchaudon; Jean-Philippe Lucot; Pierre Collinet; Marie-Odile Farine; Denis Vinatier; Robert Day; Patrick Ducoroy; O Michel Salzet; Isabelle Fournier

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry represents a new analytical tool to directly provide the spatial distribution and relative abundance of proteins in tissue. Twenty-five ovary carcinomas (stages III and IV) and 23 benign ovaries were directly analyzed using MALDI-TOF-MS. The biomarker with the major prevalence (80%) has been fully identified using MALDI-MS and nanoESI-MS and MS\\/MS after separation by RP-HPLC and

  3. Establishment of a new cell line (TAYA) of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary and its radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Saga, Yasushi; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Machida, Shizuo; Ohwada, Michitaka; Sato, Ikuo

    2002-01-01

    A new cell line (TAYA) was established from ascites of a patient with clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary, and the sensitivity of the cell line to various anticancer drugs and radiation was investigated. The 50% growth inhibitory concentrations (IC50) (nM) of various anticancer drugs were: cisplatin >10,000, paclitaxel 80, SN-38 (irinotecan metabolite) 460, and gemcitabine >10,000, showing that the cells had a low sensitivity to these anticancer drugs. In contrast, the 50% growth inhibitory dose (ID50) of radiation was 1.8 Gy, showing that the cells were highly sensitive to radiation. Thus, radiotherapy may be effective for treatment of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary. PMID:11914605

  4. A 57-year-old Brazilian woman with a giant mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Giant cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary are rarely described conditions. Case presentation The authors describe a 57-year-old Brazilian woman who presented with an increase in abdominal girth in February 2003. Imaging studies showed a giant abdominal pelvic mass with probable origin in the right ovary. Cancer antigen-125 was elevated, while carcinoembrionic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were normal. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy and omentectomy were done. The mass weighed 40Kg, and the histopathology study revealed a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. She underwent chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin with no side effects. Under follow-up for more than 10 years, she is asymptomatic and with normal imaging and laboratory parameters, including the cancer antigen-125 marker. Conclusion This huge tumor evolved for a long time unsuspected and without metastases in a patient from a developing region. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this unexpected and unusual presentation of an ovarian cystadenocarcinoma are discussed. PMID:24594205

  5. Weight reduction and pioglitazone ameliorate polycystic ovary syndrome after removal of a Sertoli-stromal cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Keiko; Shimizu, Ayumi; Morishita, Miyuki; Kuno, Yoshika; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Kiya, Tamotsu; Ishioka, Shin-ichi; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an unusual case of Sertoli-stromal cell tumor and polycystic ovary syndrome successfully treated with weight reduction and an insulin-sensitizing agent. A 22-year-old woman, gravida 0, para 0, visited our hospital for the first time with a 12-year history of secondary amenorrhea and hypertrichosis. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed a solid tumor in the right ovary. Right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and pathological examination confirmed a Sertoli-stromal cell tumor. The patient’s serum androgen levels declined postoperatively, but remained above normal. Pioglitazone treatment for 6 months also significantly reduced serum androgen levels, but they still remained above normal. However, after losing 12 kg of body weight, the patient’s serum androgen levels declined to normal, and spontaneous menstruation became regular. Weight reduction with pioglitazone is an effective means of treating hyperandrogenism. PMID:23226075

  6. Insights into female germ cell biology: from in vivo development to in vitro derivations

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dajung; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of human germ cell biology is important for developing infertility treatments. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate human gametogenesis due to the difficulties in collecting samples, especially germ cells during fetal development. In contrast to the mitotic arrest of spermatogonia stem cells in the fetal testis, female germ cells proceed into meiosis and began folliculogenesis in fetal ovaries. Regulations of these developmental events, including the initiation of meiosis and the endowment of primordial follicles, remain an enigma. Studying the molecular mechanisms of female germ cell biology in the human ovary has been mostly limited to spatiotemporal characterizations of genes or proteins. Recent efforts in utilizing in vitro differentiation system of stem cells to derive germ cells have allowed researchers to begin studying molecular mechanisms during human germ cell development. Meanwhile, the possibility of isolating female germline stem cells in adult ovaries also excites researchers and generates many debates. This review will mainly focus on presenting and discussing recent in vivo and in vitro studies on female germ cell biology in human. The topics will highlight the progress made in understanding the three main stages of germ cell developments: namely, primordial germ cell formation, meiotic initiation, and folliculogenesis. PMID:25652637

  7. First step in developing a 3D biodegradable fibrin scaffold for an artificial ovary

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue is a promising approach to restore fertility in cancer patients, it is not advisable for women at risk of ovarian involvement due to the threat of reintroducing malignant cells. The aim of this study was therefore to find an alternative for these patients by development of an artificial ovary. Methods For construction of the artificial ovary matrix, we used a central composite design to investigate nine combinations of fibrinogen (mg/ml) and thrombin (IU/mL) (F/T): F1/T4, F12.5/T1, F12.5/T20, F25/T0.1, F25/T4, F25/T500, F50/T1, F50/T20 and F100/T4. From the first qualitative analyses (handling and matrix size), five combinations (F12.5/T1, F25/T4, F50/T20, F50/T1 and F100/T4) yielded positive results. They were further evaluated in order to assess fibrin matrix degradation and homogeneous cell encapsulation (density), survival and proliferation (Ki67), and atresia (TUNEL) before and after 7 days of in vitro culture. To determine the best compromise between maximizing the dynamic density (Y1) and minimizing the apoptosis rate (Y2), we used the desirability function approach. Results Two combinations (F12.5/T1 and F25/T4) showed greater distribution of cells before in vitro culture, reproducible degradation of the fibrin network and adequate support for isolated human ovarian stromal cells, with a high proportion of Ki67-positive cells. SEM analysis revealed a network of fibers with regular pores and healthy stromal cells after in vitro culture with both F/T combinations. Conclusion This study reports two optimal F/T combinations that allow survival and proliferation of isolated human ovarian cells. Further studies are required to determine if such a scaffold will also be a suitable environment for isolated ovarian follicles. PMID:24274108

  8. Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/intermedin (IMD) in rat ovary: changes in estrous cycle and pregnancy and its role in ovulation and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Blesson, Chellakkan S; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-02-01

    Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) is reported to facilitate embryo implantation and placental development. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to identify if ADM2 has a functional role in ovary to facilitate its reproductive actions. This study shows that the expression of ADM2 is differentially regulated in rat estrous cycle and that ADM2 increases the synthesis and secretion of 17beta-estradiol accompanied with an increase in the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), estrogen receptor Esr1, and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-treated rat ovaries. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ADM2 function in eCG-treated immature rats caused impaired ovulation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Adm2 and receptor activity modifying protein 3 is higher in the ovary on Day 18 compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats on Day 22. ADM2-like immunoreactivity is localized in granulosa cells, blood vessels, oocytes, cumulous oophorus, and corpus luteum of pregnant ovaries, suggesting a potential role for ADM2 in the ovary. This is supported by the presence of ADM2-like immunoreactivity in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and a decline in aromatase immunoreactivity in corpus luteum on Day 9 of gestation in rats infused with ADM2 antagonist during implantation and decidualization phase. Taken together, this study suggests a potential involvement of ADM2 in the rat ovary in regulating synthesis of estradiol to support ovulation and facilitate efficient implantation and placental development for a successful pregnancy. PMID:25395681

  9. Prolonged Treatment with Ligands Affects Ligand Binding to the Human Serotonin 1A Receptor in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Pucadyil; Amitabha Chattopadhyay

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY  1. The serotonin1A receptors are members of a superfamily of seven transmembrane domain receptors that couple to G-proteins, and appear to be involved in several behavioral and cognitive functions.2. We monitored the effect of prolonged treatment of the human serotonin1A receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with pharmacologically well-characterized ligands on its binding to the agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-N-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT)

  10. Purification of vitellin from the ovary of Chinese mitten-handed crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) and development of an antivitellin ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liqiao Chen; Hongbo Jiang; Zhongliang Zhou; Kang Li; Kai Li; Glenn Y Deng; Zhanjiang Liu

    2004-01-01

    Vitellin was purified from ovaries of mature female Chinese mitten-handed crab (Eriocheir sinensis) using gel filtration chromatography. Analysis by native PAGE showed the vitellin had a native molecular mass of 520 kDa, while denaturing SDS-PAGE revealed two subunits of 97 and 74 kDa. Purified vitellin was used to raise polyclonal antisera, with which an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed.

  11. A histological description of shortspine thornyhead, Sebastolobus alascanus , ovaries: structures associated with the production of gelatinous egg masses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Erickson; Ellen K. Pikitch

    1993-01-01

    The ovarian structure of the shortspine thornyhead,Sebastolobus alascanus (Scorpaeniformes), which is similar to the ovarian structure previously described only for the pigmy lion fish,Dendrochirus brachypterus (Scorpaeniformes), is specialized for the production and expulsion of pelagic gelatinous egg masses. The germinative tissue and oocytes ofS. alascanus encircle a mass of spongy stroma that is located within the center of the ovary.

  12. Assessment of steroid disruption using cultures of whole ovary and\\/or placenta in rat and in human placental tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Piasek; John W. Laskey; Krista Kostial; Maja Blanuša

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. The paper presents results of collaborative research on cadmium as an endocrine disruptor. To detect steroidogenic alterations in cycling and pregnant rats following cadmium exposures in vivo (at 3 or 5 mg\\/kg as a single s.c. dose) and in vitro (from 0 through 2,000 µM Cd2+) whole-ovary culture was used. To evaluate steroid productions in rats fed low iron

  13. Clomiphene citrate resistance in relation to follicle-stimulating hormone receptor Ser680Ser-polymorphism in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Overbeek; E. A. M. Kuijper; M. L. Hendriks; M. A. Blankenstein; I. J. G. Ketel; J. W. R. Twisk; P. G. A. Hompes; R. R. Homburg; C. B. Lambalk

    2009-01-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) response in anovulatory women is difficult to predict and patient-tailored treatment would benefit patient care and time-management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) Ser680Ser-polymorphism as a predictor for CC response. In this retrospective study, 193 patients, diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to Rotterdam criteria and

  14. Antizyme, a protein induced by polyamines, accelerates the degradation of ornithine decarboxylase in Chinese-hamster ovary-cell extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Tanaka, K; Matsufuji, S; Miyazaki, Y; Hayashi, S

    1992-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key regulatory enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis, is known to have a short intracellular half-life, and antizyme, an ODC-binding protein induced by polyamines, has been suggested to be involved in the process of ODC degradation. In the present study we demonstrated that antizyme markedly accelerated ATP-dependent degradation of ODC in vitro in an extract from ODC-overproducing Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1590755

  15. Toxicities of p -nitrotoluenes and their effects on blood corpuscles and ovaries in Crusian carps ( Carassius auratus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaoping Kuag; Feng Song

    2006-01-01

    p-nitrotoluene is an important organic intermediate widely used in pesticide, foamed plastics, dyestuff and medicine industries.\\u000a In this paper, Crusian carps (Carassius auratus) were exposed to dilute p-nitrotoluene solutions with different concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 80, 120, 160, 240 and 320 ?g\\/L; the subsequent physiological\\u000a responses to the chemical were observed, and the variation characteristics of blood corpuscles, ovaries

  16. Metformin-induced resumption of normal menses in 39 of 43 (91%) previously amenorrheic women with the polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Glueck; Ping Wang; Robert Fontaine; Trent Tracy; Luann Sieve-Smith

    1999-01-01

    In 43 amenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 31 (74%) with fasting hyperinsulinemia (? 20 ?U\\/mL), our aim was to determine whether Metformin (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ), which reduces hyperinsulinemia, would reverse the endocrinopathy of PCOS, allowing resumption of regular normal menses. A second aim was to assess the effects of weight loss versus other Metformin-induced effects on ovarian

  17. Effect of troglitazone on endocrine and ovulatory performance in women with insulin resistance–related polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isao Hasegawa; Haruo Murakawa; Mina Suzuki; Yasuaki Yamamoto; Takumi Kurabayashi; Kenichi Tanaka

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of troglitazone, a new antidiabetic agent that improves insulin resistance, on endocrine, metabolic, and ovulatory performance in women with insulin resistance–related polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective clinical study.Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, Niigata University Hospital, Niigata, Japan.Patient(s): Thirteen women with PCOS and insulin resistance.Intervention(s): Troglitazone (400 mg\\/d) was administered for 12 weeks.Main Outcome Measure(s): Insulin and

  18. Metformin therapy improves ovulatory rates, cervical scores, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Müberra Kocak; Eray Caliskan; Coskun Simsir; Ali Haberal

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of metformin therapy on hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, cervical scores, ovulation, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Setting: Infertility clinic of a tertiary referral center.Patient(s): Fifty-six women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS.Intervention(s): Two cycles of oral metformin therapy (850 mg, twice daily) in group I and placebo

  19. Transcript variability and physiological correlates in the fathead minnow ovary: Implications for sample size, and experimental power.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Andrew M; Wood, Richard K; Chishti, Yasmin; Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental studies characterizing transcript variability in teleost tissues are needed if molecular endpoints are to be useful for regulatory ecotoxicology. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure transcript variability of steroidogenic enzymes and steroid receptors in the fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) ovary to better determine normal variability and the sample sizes needed to detect specific effect sizes and to (2) determine how expression patterns related to higher level endpoints used in some regulatory ecotoxicology programs (e.g. relative gonad size). Estrogen receptor 2b (esr2b) and 5?-reductase a3 (srd5a3) showed high variability in the ovary (CV>1.0) while progesterone receptor (pgr), androgen receptor (ar), and esr2a showed comparatively low variability (CV=~0.5--0.7). Using these estimates, a power analysis revealed that sample sizes for real-time PCR experiments would need to be>20 to detect a 2-fold change for 7 of the transcripts examined; thus many molecular studies conducted in the fish ovary may have insufficient power to detect smaller effects. Two transcripts were correlated to steroid production in the ovary; cyp19a1 levels were positively correlated to in vitro E2 production, while ar levels were negatively correlated to in vitro T production. Thus, these transcripts may be informative molecular surrogates for ovarian steroid production. No transcript investigated showed any correlation to GSI, condition, or body weight/length. Molecular approaches in fish are increasingly used to assess biological impacts of chemical stressors; however additional studies are required that determine how molecular variability relates to higher level biological endpoints. PMID:25956319

  20. Insulin, androgens, and obesity in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome: a heterogeneous group of disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Acién; Francisco Quereda; Pilar Matall??n; Encarnación Villarroya; Jose A López-Fernández; Maribel Acién; Monserrat Mauri; Roc??o Alfayate

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the correlations among insulin, androgens, body mass index (BMI), and other related metabolic anomalies in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Retrospective study of normal and obese women with and without PCOS.Setting: Gynecologic endocrinology units of Elche, San Juan, and Alicante Hospitals and Hormone Laboratory at Alicante University Hospital (“Miguel Hernández” University).Patient(s): A total of

  1. Association of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Genomic Variants Related to Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTA CORTON; GEMMA VILLUENDAS; BELEN PERAL; HECTOR F. ESCOBAR-MORREALE; Consejo Superior

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated the possible association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with 15 genomic variants previously de- scribed to influence insulin resistance, obesity, and\\/or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seventy-two PCOS patients and 42 healthy controls were genotyped for 15 variants in the genes encoding for paraoxo- nase (three variants), plasma cell differentiation antigen glycoprotein, human sorbin and SH3 domain containing

  2. Comparative Expression Analysis of Gametogenesis-Associated Genes in Foetal and Adult Bubaline (Bubalus bubalis) Ovaries and Testes.

    PubMed

    Shah, S M; Saini, N; Ashraf, S; Zandi, M; Singh, M K; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify and analyse the expression of gametogenesis-associated genes and proteins in foetal and adult buffalo gonads of both the sexes. Relative quantification of the genes was determined by qPCR and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also performed for various gametogenesis-associated proteins in foetal and adult gonads of both the sexes. We observed significantly (p < 0.05) increased expression of primordial germ cell-specific, meiotic as well as genes associated with oocyte maturation and development in foetal ovaries as compared to the adult ones. However, significantly (p < 0.05) increased expression of proteins associated with oocyte maturation like GDF9 and ZP4 was found in adult ovaries, indicating temporal regulation of mRNA translation during oogenesis. Meiotic genes showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased expression in adult testes as compared to foetal testes and ovaries, indicating onset of meiosis at a later stage in spermatogenesis. In general, the expression of primordial germ cell-associated as well as meiotic genes was higher in adult testes, indicating the increased biological activity in the organ. Immunohistochemistry revealed localized expression of gametogenesis-associated proteins in ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules of testes, while the surrounding somatic tissues were devoid of these proteins. The study gives an understanding of the sequential and temporal events of gene expression as well as mRNA translation during male and female gametogenesis. It could also be concluded that follicles and seminiferous tubules are the functional units of the female and male gonads, respectively, and their function could be enhanced by appropriate chemical and genetic intervention of the somatic tissue immediately surrounding them. This assumes importance in the context that buffalo attains sexual maturity at an older age of 2-3 years and have smaller ovaries with lesser number of primordial follicles in comparison with cattle, which is suggested to be the main reason of their poor breeding performance. PMID:25703697

  3. Isolation of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines temperature conditional for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Hearing; Eric Hunter; Linda Rodgers; Mary-Jane Gething; Joe Sambrookll

    1989-01-01

    A procedure is described to select mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells that are conditionally defective for the cell-surface expression of integral membrane glycoproteins, including the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. Using a combination of cell sorting and biochemical screening, seven cell lines were obtained that express more cell-surface HA at 32°C than at 39°C. The production of infectious vesic-

  4. Ku80 Deficiency Does Not Affect Particulate Chromate-Induced Chromosome Damage and Cytotoxicity in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Camyre; Sandra S. Wise; Peter Milligan; Nancy Gordon; Britton Goodale; Megan Stackpole; Natalie Patzlaff; A.-M. Aboueissa; J. P. Wise

    2007-01-01

    Particulate hexavalent chromium ((Cr(VI)) compounds are human lung carcinogens. These compounds induce DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, and concentration-dependent cell death in human and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The relation- ship between Cr(VI)-induced DNA damage and chromosome aberrations is poorly understood. Accordingly, this study focused on examining the role of Ku80, a gene involved in nonhomologous end-joining repair, in particulate

  5. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl (Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often co-varies with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively. PMID:19575175

  6. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl ( Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often covaries with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

  7. Beneficial effects of pioglitazone and metformin in murine model of polycystic ovaries via improvement of chemerin gene up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) is recognized as the most common endocrinopathy in female. Chemerin is a novel adipocytokine that is expressed in ovary and upregulated in adipose tissue of obese, PCO patients. To date there is no report about the regulation of ovarian chemerin gene expression after PCO induction and treatment by insulin sensitizing drugs including pioglitazone and metformin. Thirty female rats were divided into six experimental groups with five rats in each group including control group, PCO group (i.m injection of 4 mg estradiol benzoate for 40 days), metformin treated (200 mg/kg/day for 21 days), pioglitazone treated (20 mg/kg/day, for 21 days), PCO?+?metformin and PCO?+?pioglitazone. PCO was detected by microscopic observation of vaginal smear and treatment by metformin and pioglitazone was initiated one week after that. Ovarian chemerin expression was analyzed by real time PCR and western blotting. Results Our results demonstrated that PCO induction resulted in elevation of chemerin mRNA and protein levels in ovary in concomitant with incidence of insulin resistance and increasing androgen and progesterone production. We observed that metformin and pioglitazone attenuated ovarian chemerin expression and improved insulin resistance and abnormal steroid production in PCO rats. Conclusion Based on data presented here we concluded that alteration of ovarian chemerin expression may has important role in PCO development and manipulation of chemerin expression or signaling by pioglitazone or metformin can be a novel therapeutic mechanism in the treatment of PCO patients by these drugs. PMID:24762064

  8. Immunoexpression of aromatase cytochrome P450 and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in women’s ovaries after menopause

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Menopause results in a lack of regular menstrual cycles, leading to the reduction of estrogen production. On the other hand, ovarian androgen synthesis is still present at reduced levels and requires expression of several steroidogenic enzymes. Methods This study was performed on 104 postmenopausal women hospitalized due to uterine leiomyomas, endometriosis, and/or a prolapsed uterus. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the time from menopause. Group A patients experienced menopause 1–5 years before enrollment in the study (42 women). Group B included women who had their last menstruation 5–10 years before the study (40 women). Group C consisted of 22 women who were more than 10 years past menopause. Hysterectomy or removal of the uterine corpus with adnexa was performed during laparotomy. We evaluated the expression of aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP 19) and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17? HSD) by employing immunohistochemistry. Results Activity of 17?-HSD and CYP19 was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of stromal cells of postmenopausal ovaries, epithelium cells coating the ovaries, vascular endothelial cells, and epithelial inclusion cysts. However, overall expression of both 17?-HSD and CYP 19 decreased with time after menopause. Conclusion Demonstration of the activity of the key enzymes of ovarian steroidogenesis, CYP 19 and 17?-HSD, confirms steroidogenic activity in the ovaries of postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, ovarian steroidogenic activity decreases with time, and its significant decrease occurs 10 years after menopause. PMID:24855493

  9. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone requires a receptor tyrosine kinase to activate egg formation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Kevin J; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2015-04-21

    Mosquitoes are major disease vectors because most species must feed on blood from a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Blood feeding by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti triggers the release of two neurohormones, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs), which activate multiple processes required for egg formation. ILPs function by binding to the insulin receptor, which activates downstream components in the canonical insulin signaling pathway. OEH in contrast belongs to a neuropeptide family called neuroparsins, whose receptor is unknown. Here we demonstrate that a previously orphanized receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) from A. aegypti encoded by the gene AAEL001915 is an OEH receptor. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the protein encoded by this gene, designated AAEL001915, belongs to a clade of RTKs related to the insulin receptor, which are distinguished by an extracellular Venus flytrap module. Knockdown of AAEL001915 by RNAi disabled OEH-mediated egg formation in A. aegypti. AAEL001915 was primarily detected in the mosquito ovary in association with follicular epithelial cells. Both monomeric and dimeric AAEL001915 were detected in mosquito ovaries and transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Functional assays further indicated that OEH bound to dimeric AAEL001915, which resulted in downstream phosphorylation of Ak strain transforming factor (Akt). We hypothesize that orthologs of AAEL001915 in other insects are neuroparsin receptors. PMID:25848040

  10. [A case of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary responding to a paclitaxel-carboplatin combination chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Maehata, K; Kohno, I; Yoden, E; Imajo, Y; Mikami, Y

    2000-12-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary is believed to be chemoresistant; therefore, choosing anticancer agents is often difficult. In this report we present a case of ovarian clear cell carcinoma that showed a significant response to a combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin. The patient is a 51-year-old Japanese female with a history of Gn-RH treatment for endometriosis that was terminated three years before the presentation of this disease. She was referred to our hospital because of a huge abdominal mass. The initial surgery revealed the tumor was a clear cell carcinoma of the left ovary, showing a predominantly solid growth pattern as well as papillary and tubular patterns. Both architectural and nuclear grades were interpreted as 3, and mitotic count was up to 5/10 high-power fields. Therefore, the tumor was considered to be grade 2. A huge para-aortic lymph node metastasis was not resectable. Combination chemotherapy using paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 in 3 hr intravenous infusion followed by intraperitoneal infusion of carboplatin at AUC of 7.5 as a bolus was administered. The regression rate of the para-aortic lymph node metastasis was 85%, lasting more than 5 months. We believe that the combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin is one treatment choice for clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. PMID:11142173

  11. Clinical management of borderline tumours of the ovary: results of a multicentre survey of 323 clinics in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Coumbos, A; Sehouli, J; Chekerov, R; Schaedel, D; Oskay-Oezcelik, G; Lichtenegger, W; Kuehn, W

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to analyse the standard of care in diagnostic, surgery, chemotherapy and aftercare management for patients with borderline tumours of the ovary (BOTs) in Germany. A structured questionnaire comprising different dimensions was sent to all 1114 gynaecological departments. The questionnaire could be returned anonymously. The overall response rate was 29.0% (323 departments). Most departments were on secondary care (71.8%), tertiary care (23.2%) or university hospital (5.0%) level. Most clinicians performed not more than five BOT operations (89.2%) per year. Most departments (93.2%) used in addition to classical bimanual examination and vaginal ultrasound, tumour marker CA-125 detection, CT scan, MRI or PET-CT techniques. Departments in university and tertiary care hospitals performed more often a fresh frozen section (87 vs 64%). In young women, clinicians performed much seldom unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (92%) and only in 53% biopsies of the contralateral ovary. Generally, biopsies of the contralateral ovary were performed in 4–53% of the patients. Chemotherapy was mostly favoured in ‘high-risk' patients with tumour residual, microinvasion or invasive implants. Thus, a high grade of insecurity in diagnostic and therapy of BOT exists in some gynaecological departments and underlines the need for more educational and study activities. PMID:19436295

  12. Effects of spirulina on cyclophosphamide-induced ovarian toxicity in rats: biochemical and histomorphometric evaluation of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Yener, Nese Arzu; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Ilter, Erdin; Celik, Aygen; Sezgin, Gulbuz; Midi, Ahmet; Deveci, Ugur; Aksungar, Fehime

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cyc) is known to cause ovotoxicity and infertility in women. Our aim is to investigate the possible ovotoxic effects of Cyc and possible antioxidant and protective effects of blue-green algae, Spirulina (Sp), in rat ovaries. Eighteen rats were given: group I (n = 6, control); group II (n = 6, CP), a single dose Cyc; group III (n = 6, Sp+Cyc), 7 days Sp+single dose Cyc. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities are assessed biochemically. Normal and atretic primordial and primary follicle counts for all sections obtained for each ovary are calculated. Mean number of follicle counts for each group are compared. In Sp+Cyc group, tissue MDA levels were significantly lower than those in the CP and higher than those in the C group (CP > Sp+Cyc > C). Tissue SOD activity was significantly higher in Sp+Cyc group than that in the CP group and lower than that in the C group (C > Sp+Cyc > C). No statistically significant difference was found between the ovarian CAT activities in any group. Histomorphometrically, there was also no significant difference between the mean numbers of normal and atretic small follicle counts. Our results suggest that single dose Cyc has adverse effects on oxidant status of the ovaries and Sp has protective effects in Cyc-induced ovotoxicity. PMID:23762559

  13. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding as an early sign of polycystic ovary syndrome during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Deligeoroglou, E K; Creatsas, G K

    2015-08-01

    Excessive uterine bleeding during the early years after menarche can be worrisome to the girl and her parents. The most prevalent diagnosis set is Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), after thorough examination and exclusion of other causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. The aim of this article was to review our knowledge and share our experience as tertiary reference center of pediatric-adolescent gynecology in Greece. We conducted a review of current literature using Pubmed and MedLine as our primary databases, as well as providing commentary considering work up, treatment and follow-up of our DUB patients. Insufficient progesterone production and subsequent abnormal shedding of the endometrium appears to orchestrate the pathophysiology of DUB in adolescence. Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis immaturity right after menarche, is usually the most plausible cause. Nevertheless, it is necessary to exclude other, possibly even life-threatening causes. Complete work up including physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies (complete blood count, b-HCG, hormonal levels and ultrasonography) is needed, and appropriate treatment with combined oral contraceptives is administered accordingly. Although menstrual disorders are very common in early adolescence, a severe episode of DUB should always be thoroughly attended by any physician. Follow-up should be offered in all young patients due to high incidence of recurrence or subsequent development of endocrine disorders such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). PMID:26054370

  14. Isolation, characterization and propagation of mitotically active germ cells from adult mouse and human ovaries.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-05-01

    Accruing evidence indicates that production of new oocytes (oogenesis) and their enclosure by somatic cells (folliculogenesis) are processes not limited to the perinatal period in mammals. Endpoints ranging from oocyte counts to genetic lineage tracing and transplantation experiments support a paradigm shift in reproductive biology involving active renewal of oocyte-containing follicles during postnatal life. The recent purification of mitotically active oocyte progenitor cells, termed female germline stem cells (fGSCs) or oogonial stem cells (OSCs), from mouse and human ovaries opens up new avenues for research into the biology and clinical utility of these cells. Here we detail methods for the isolation of mouse and human OSCs from adult ovarian tissue, cultivation of the cells after purification, and characterization of the cells before and after ex vivo expansion. The latter methods include analysis of germ cell-specific markers and in vitro oogenesis, as well as the use of intraovarian transplantation to test the oocyte-forming potential of OSCs in vivo. PMID:23598447

  15. The evaluation of endometrial sulfate glycosaminoglycans in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Mario Vicente; Giordano, Luiz Augusto; Gomes, Regina Célia Teixeira; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Giordano, Mario Gáspare; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the endometria of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Of the 18 patients recruited for this study, 10 patients with PCOS comprised the PCOS group (PCOSG), and eight patients with regular and ovulatory menstrual cycles comprised the control group (CG). The clinical, biochemical, morphological and endometrial data from both groups were analyzed. Biopsies were performed during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle for the CG and during the persistent proliferative phase for the PCOSG (all women were amenorrheic). In the PCOSG, there was a significant increase in the endometrial concentration levels of heparan sulfate (p?=?0.03), but no difference in the concentrations of chondroitin sulfate was determined between the two groups (p?=?0.77). Period of time without menstruation (p?=?0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (p?=?0.04) correlated directly and positively with heparan sulfate concentration. There was no association between heparan sulfate levels and basal insulin values (p?=?0.08). High levels of endometrial heparan sulfate in women with PCOS indicate an interference with maternal-fetal recognition, which contributes to infertility; thus, endometrial heparan sulfate may be a predictive marker of future neoplasia risk. PMID:25434369

  16. The Hippo pathway regulates homeostatic growth of stem cell niche precursors in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Didem P; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2015-02-01

    The Hippo pathway regulates organ size, stem cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in adult organs. Whether the Hippo pathway influences establishment of stem cell niche size to accommodate changes in organ size, however, has received little attention. Here, we ask whether Hippo signaling influences the number of stem cell niches that are established during development of the Drosophila larval ovary, and whether it interacts with the same or different effector signaling pathways in different cell types. We demonstrate that canonical Hippo signaling regulates autonomous proliferation of the soma, while a novel hippo-independent activity of Yorkie regulates autonomous proliferation of the germ line. Moreover, we demonstrate that Hippo signaling mediates non-autonomous proliferation signals between germ cells and somatic cells, and contributes to maintaining the correct proportion of these niche precursors. Finally, we show that the Hippo pathway interacts with different growth pathways in distinct somatic cell types, and interacts with EGFR and JAK/STAT pathways to regulate non-autonomous proliferation of germ cells. We thus provide evidence for novel roles of the Hippo pathway in establishing the precise balance of soma and germ line, the appropriate number of stem cell niches, and ultimately regulating adult female reproductive capacity. PMID:25643260

  17. Parents' Readiness to Change Affects BMI Reduction Outcomes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Karen P.; Black, Jessica J.; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Hannon, Tamara S.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Rofey, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence supports the importance of parental involvement for youth's ability to manage weight. This study utilized the stages of change (SOC) model to assess readiness to change weight control behaviors as well as the predictive value of SOC in determining BMI outcomes in forty adolescent-parent dyads (mean adolescent age = 15 ± 1.84 (13–20), BMI = 37 ± 8.60; 70% white) participating in a weight management intervention for adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adolescents and parents completed a questionnaire assessing their SOC for the following four weight control domains: increasing dietary portion control, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, decreasing dietary fat, and increasing usual physical activity. Linear regression analyses indicated that adolescent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was not predictive of adolescent change in BMI from baseline to treatment completion. However, parent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was predictive of adolescent change in BMI, (t(24) = 2.15, p = 0.043). Findings support future research which carefully assesses adolescent and parent SOC and potentially develops interventions targeting adolescent and parental readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle goals. PMID:22970350

  18. 31P NMR analysis of membrane phospholipid organization in viable, reversibly electropermeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Rols, M P; Teissie, J

    1988-02-23

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were reversibly permeabilized by submitting them to short, high-intensity, square wave pulses (1.8 kV/cm, 100 microseconds). The cells remained in a permeable state without loss of viability for several hours at 4 degrees C. A new anisotropic peak with respect to control cells was observed on 31 P NMR spectroscopic analysis of the phospholipid components. This peak is only present when the cells are permeable, and normal anisotropy is recovered after resealing. Taking into account the fusogenicity of electropermeabilized cells, comparative studies were performed on 5% poly(ethylene glycol) treated cells. The 31P NMR spectra of the phospholipids displayed the same anisotropic peak as in the case of the electropermeabilized cells. In the two cases, this anisotropic peak was located downfield from the main peak associated to the phospholipids when organized in bilayers. The localization of this anisotropic peak is very different from the one of a hexagonal phase. We proposed a reorganization of the polar head group region leading to a weakening of the hydration layer to account for these observations. This was also thought to explain the electric field induced fusogenicity of these cells. PMID:3365382

  19. Optimization of chemically defined feed media for monoclonal antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Kishishita, Shohei; Katayama, Satoshi; Kodaira, Kunihiko; Takagi, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Hiroki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takuma, Shinya; Hirashima, Chikashi; Aoyagi, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used mammalian host for large-scale commercial production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Chemically defined media are currently used for CHO cell-based mAb production. An adequate supply of nutrients, especially specific amino acids, is required for cell growth and mAb production, and chemically defined fed-batch processes that support rapid cell growth, high cell density, and high levels of mAb production is still challenging. Many studies have highlighted the benefits of various media designs, supplements, and feed addition strategies in cell cultures. In the present study, we used a strategy involving optimization of a chemically defined feed medium to improve mAb production. Amino acids that were consumed in substantial amounts during a control culture were added to the feed medium as supplements. Supplementation was controlled to minimize accumulation of waste products such as lactate and ammonia. In addition, we evaluated supplementation with tyrosine, which has poor solubility, in the form of a dipeptide or tripeptide to improve its solubility. Supplementation with serine, cysteine, and tyrosine enhanced mAb production, cell viability, and metabolic profiles. A cysteine-tyrosine-serine tripeptide showed high solubility and produced beneficial effects similar to those observed with the free amino acids and with a dipeptide in improving mAb titers and metabolic profiles. PMID:25678240

  20. Non-classical mechanisms of steroid sensing in the ovary: lessons from the bovine oxytocin model.

    PubMed

    Ivell, Richard; Dai, Yanzhenzi; Mann, Navdeep; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2014-01-25

    Steroidogenic tissues such as the ovary, testes or adrenal glands are paradoxical in that they often indicate actions of steroid hormones within a dynamic range of ligand concentration in a high nanomolar or even micromolar level, i.e. at the natural concentrations existing within those organs. Yet ligand-activated nuclear steroid receptors act classically by direct interaction with DNA in the picomolar or low nanomolar range. Moreover, global genomic studies suggest that less than 40% of steroid-regulated genes involve classical responsive elements in gene promoter regions. The bovine oxytocin gene is a key element in the maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants and is regulated via an SF1 site in its proximal promoter. This gene is also regulated by steroids acting in a non-classical manner, involving nuclear receptors which do not interact directly with DNA. Dose-response relationships for these actions are in the high nanomolar range. Similar 'steroid sensing' mechanisms may prevail for other SF1-regulated genes and predict alternative pathways by which environmental endocrine disruptors might influence the functioning of steroid-producing organs and hence indirectly the steroid-dependent control of physiology and development. PMID:23632104