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1

Microarray analysis of Foxl2 mediated gene regulation in the mouse ovary derived KK1 granulosa cell line: Over-expression of Foxl2 leads to activation of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Foxl2 transcription factor is required for ovarian function during follicular development. The mechanism of Foxl2 regulation of this process has not been elucidated. Our approach to begin to understand Foxl2 function is through the identification of Foxl2 regulated genes in the ovary. METHODS: Transiently transfected KK1 mouse granulosa cells were used to identify genes that are potentially regulated

Jean M Escudero; Jodi L Haller; Colin M Clay; Kenneth W Escudero

2010-01-01

2

Hydrostatic pressure improves in-vitro maturation of oocytes derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background: Cryopreservation has limited successes and in-vitro maturation is used to improve its results. Hydrostatic pressure (HP) plays an important role in follicular development. Objective: This study was designed to examine the effects of HP on in-vitro maturation of oocytes and cell death in cumulus cells derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries. Materials and Methods: Preovulatory follicles were harvested from non-vitrified and vitrified-warmed 6-8 week-old female NMRI mouse ovaries and randomly assigned to following groups: non-vitrified (control), non-vitrified with HP exposure (treatment I), vitrified-warmed (treatment II) and vitrified-warmed with HP exposure (treatment III). The follicles of treatments I and III were subjected to HP (20 mmHg) for 30 min and after that all groups were cultured for 24h and assessed for in-vitro maturation of oocytes. The viability and apoptosis of cumulus cells and oocytes were assessed using supravital nuclear staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. Results: Oocytes harvested follicles in both control and treatment II had a significantly lower percentage of metaphase II oocytes (MII) than the treatment I and III (23.5±3.1, 15.03±4.6 and 32.7±3.2, 25.5±4.6; respectively) (p<0.05). Viability of the cumulus cells reduced in treatment I, II and III (83.4, 83.3 and 77.7%) compared to control (86.9%), (p<0.05). The apoptotic index in cumulus and oocyte complexes in treatments I and III (10.7±0.8 and 15.3±0.8) was higher than in control and treatment II (6.7±0.5 and 9.7±0.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that HP had a mild effect on cell death incidence in cumulus cells without any effect on oocyte. However, it can be used as a mechanical force to improve in-vitro maturation of oocytes derived from vitrified-warmed mouse ovaries.

Rashidi, Zahra; Azadbakht, Mehri; Khazaei, Mozafar

2012-01-01

3

Cloned transgenic offspring resulting from somatic cell nuclear transfer in the goat: oocytes derived from both follicle-stimulating hormone-stimulated and nonstimulated abattoir-derived ovaries.  

PubMed

The use of nuclear transfer (NT) techniques to create transgenic offspring capable of producing valuable proteins may have a major impact on the pharmaceutical market. Our objective was to compare the in vivo developmental potential of NT embryos produced from the fusion of transgenic donor cells with cytoplasts prepared from either FSH-stimulated ovaries or nonstimulated abattoir-derived ovaries. Donor cells were prepared from a transgenic fetus carrying the gene for human antithrombin III as a marker and used within four to eight subpassages. Cells were serum deprived for 4 days prior to cytoplast transfer. Oocytes were enucleated by removing the metaphase plate using a DNA stain and epifluorescent illumination. Donor cells were fused to enucleated oocytes by electric pulse and then chemically activated. There was no difference in the number of transferable embryos produced from cytoplasts of FSH-stimulated ovaries or from the fusion of cytoplasts from abattoir ovaries, nor was there a difference in the number of pregnancies established per recipient with either treatment. All pregnancies from both groups culminated in the births of healthy female kids (five total). To our knowledge, this is the first report of cloned goats produced from NT using cytoplasts derived from abattoir ovaries. PMID:11673271

Reggio, B C; James, A N; Green, H L; Gavin, W G; Behboodi, E; Echelard, Y; Godke, R A

2001-11-01

4

Characterization of an oxygen-tolerant cell line derived from Chinese hamster ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To study the cellular defense mechanism against oxygen toxicity, an oxygen-tolerant cell line from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) was obtained by multistep adaptation to increased O2 levels. The hyperoxia-adapted (HA) cells were able to proliferate under an atmosphere of 99% O2\\/1% CO2, an O2 tension lethal to the parental (control) cells. When grown under normoxic conditions (20% O2\\/1% CO2\\/79%

P. van der Valk; J. J. P. Gille; A. B. Oostra; E. W. Roubos; T. Sminia; H. Joenje

1985-01-01

5

Effects of Upregulation of Hsp27 Expression on Oocyte Development and Maturation Derived from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a heat shock protein family member which can inhibit apoptosis. Our previous studies reported down-regulated Hsp27 in ovarian tissue derived from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) however, the exact effect of Hsp27 on oocyte maturation and developmental competence in PCOS is unclear. The effect of Hsp27 over-expression was studied in vitro using oocytes derived from PCOS patients. An artificial GFP-plasmid was injected into human oocyte to increase Hsp27 protein level. Oocyte maturation was evaluated by morphological observation. Mature oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryonic developmental competence was evaluated. Critical apoptotic factors and cytokines were measured at both the mRNA and protein level. Our results revealed that Overexpression of HSP27 lowered the maturation rate of oocytes derived from PCOS patients. Meanwhile, fertilization rate and high quality embryo rate were similar between the Hsp27 overexpressing group and controls; however, the blastocyst formation rate in this group was significantly higher than control. Expression analysis revealed that the oocyte-secreted factors, BMP15 and GDF9, and the apoptotic-related regulators, Caspase 3, 8 and 9, were all significantly decreased in Hsp27 overexpressing oocytes. In conclusion, upregulation of Hsp27 inhibits oocyte maturation from PCOS patients, but improves embryonic developmental potential. PMID:24391762

Liu, Shan; Liu, Jinjuan; Wang, Wei; Cui, Yugui; Ding, Wei; Mao, Yundong; Chen, Huiping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Zuomin; Liu, Jiayin

2013-01-01

6

5.3 The Pigeonhole Principle The basic form of the pigeonhole principle is that if pigeons are placed into kk + 1  

E-print Network

5.3 The Pigeonhole Principle The basic form of the pigeonhole principle is that if pigeons are placed into kk + 1 pigeonholes then at least one pigeonhole will contain at least two pigeons. Figure 5.3.1 Clearly, if all three of the pigeons of Figure 5.3.1 are placed into the two pigeonholes then one hole

DeMaio, Joe

7

Platelet-derived growth factor BB and DD and angiopoietin1 are altered in follicular fluid from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological pathology among women of reproductive age, and is characterized by abnormalities in ovarian angiogenesis, among other features. Consistent with this association, follicular fluid (FF) concentration and ovarian expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are increased in PCOS patients. In this study, we examined the protein levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB and DD (PDGFBB and PDGFDD), angiopoietin 1 and 2 (ANGPT1 and ANGPT2), and their soluble receptor sTIE2 in FF from PCOS and control patients undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. We also analyzed the effect of FF from PCOS and control patients on tight and adherens junction protein expression in an endothelial cell line. PDGFBB and PDGFDD were significantly lower whereas ANGPT1 concentration was significantly higher in FF from PCOS patients than from control patients. No changes were found in the concentration of ANGPT2 or sTIE2. Expression of claudin-5 was significantly increased in endothelial cells incubated for 24?hr in the presence of FF from PCOS versus from control patients, while vascular-endothelial cadherin, ?-catenin, and zonula occludens 1 expression were unchanged. The changes observed in the levels of PDGF isoforms and ANGPT1 may prevent VEGF-induced vascular permeability in the PCOS ovary by regulating endothelial-cell-junction protein levels. Restoring the levels of angiogenic factors may provide new insights into PCOS treatment and the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in affected women. PMID:24889290

Scotti, Leopoldina; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; De Zuñiga, Ignacio; Bisioli, Claudio; Pettorossi, Hernan; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

2014-08-01

8

Comparison of the developmental potential of 2-week-old preantral follicles derived from vitrified ovarian tissue slices, vitrified whole ovaries and vitrified/transplanted newborn mouse ovaries using the metal surface method  

PubMed Central

Background Cryopreservation of preantral follicles or ovarian tissues would enable the storage of large numbers of primordial follicles or preantral follicles and preserves the structural integrity of somatic and reproductive cells. In the present study, we compared the developmental potential of cryopreserved two-week-old mouse preantral follicles, ovarian tissue slices, two-week-old mouse ovaries and newborn mouse ovaries using a metal plate with a high cooling rate for cooling the droplet of vitrification solution. Methods Groups of 2 to 4 samples (including of 14-day old preantral follicles, ovarian tissue slices, whole ovaries, and whole newborn ovaries) were exposed to 4% ethylene glycol (EG) in DPBS + 10% FBS for 15 min and then rinsed in a vitrification solution composed of 6 M ethylene glycol and 0.4 M trehalose in DPBS + 10% FBS. Equilibration in room temperature was performed for 20–30 seconds for preantral follicle and 5 min equilibration was performed in an ice bath for ovaries. The samples were dropped onto the surface of metal plate around -180°C in the volume of 2 ?l and 6 ?l. After thawing, the ovarian tissue was mechanically isolated for collecting the preantral follicles. The thawed newborn ovaries were transplanted under the renal capsule of recipient male mice for 14 days. Preantral follicles collected from each groups were cultured individually in 20-?l droplets of ?-MEM culture medium in culture dish for 12 days. On the day 12 of culture, the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected for IVM and IVF. Fertilization and embryo cleavage were scored. Results After the vitrification of 14-day-old preantral follicles using 2 ?l or 6 ?l droplet onto surface of metal plate, the results indicated that no significant difference in survival rate, antral-like cavity formation, COCs collected, 2 cell embryo cleavage and blastocyst development was found in vitrification of the 2 ?l and 6 ?l droplet groups. As comparing 14-day old ovarian tissue (ovarian tissue slices and whole ovaries) and whole newborn ovaries vitrified in 6 ?l droplet, lower success rates of antral-like cavity formation and COCs collection were found in the whole ovaries group. Conclusion Our results suggest that the metal plate surface vitrification method is an appropriate and convenient method for cryopreservation of mouse ovaries and preantral follicles. The droplet volume of vitrification solution in 2 ?l and 6 ?l can be an option. PMID:18394156

Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng; Gong, Kun-Bing; Hsu, Kung-Hao; Hsu, Teng-Tsao

2008-01-01

9

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts ( ... who are obese are more likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome. Symptoms of PCOS include: Infertility Pelvic pain Excess ...

10

Circulating levels and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor in polycystic ovary syndrome and normal women: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been recognized as a metabolic disorder, manifested by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is a pleiotropic protein known for its antiangiogenic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties and has been shown to induce insulin resistance and play a role in glucose metabolism. Recent studies investigating circulating PEDF levels show elevated serum PEDF in association with insulin resistance in normal-weight women with PCOS, but not in obese PCOS patients. The aims of this study were 1) to assess PEDF gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) from women with PCOS and nonhirsute, ovulatory controls, and 2) to determine the circulating levels of PEDF in these groups. Methods Total RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsy samples and reverse-transcribed to cDNA. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine relative gene expression levels. Results The 22 women with PCOS and 14 non-PCOS controls included in the study had similar age, BMI, and fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Participants with PCOS exhibited higher 2 h oral glucose tolerance test levels (p?=?0.006), total (p?=?0.026) and LDL-cholesterol (p?=?0.036), Ferriman-Gallwey score (p?=?0.003) and total testosterone (p?=?0.001) as compared to controls. BMI-adjusted PEDF serum levels and scAT gene expression were similar in the PCOS and control groups (p?=?0.622 and p?=?0.509, respectively). Circulating PEDF levels were not associated with scAT PEDF gene expression. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, in women with PCOS, insulin contributed positively and significantly to serum PEDF (p = 0.027), independently of testosterone. Conclusion Serum PEDF levels and scAT gene expression were associated with metabolic risk factors, but did not differ between women with PCOS and age- and BMI-matched controls. Circulating levels and scAT gene expression of PEDF were not associated in the study subjects, suggesting additional sources for PEDF in addition to or instead of fat tissue. PMID:23941060

2013-01-01

11

“Secondary” Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularities are the most common endocrine symptoms in premenopausal women. The vast majority\\u000a of these women suffer from the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is defined as a state of “gonadotropin-dependent functional\\u000a hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation” in which no distinct autonomous source of androgen secretion is identified. PCOS is\\u000a a chronic disorder characterized by specific clinical, endocrine, and

Gregory Kaltsas; George Chrousos

12

Plasma visfatin levels and mRNA expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from normal weight females with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease, however, an explicit etiology is not known. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be central to the pathogenesis of PCOS and inflammation may be significant in the pathogenesis of IR in PCOS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the plasma visfatin level and the gene expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMMs) from PCOS patients, in addition to investigating the association between PCOS and IR. A total of 21 PCOS patients and 21 control subjects were enrolled in the study; the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was considered to be a stratified method for establishing the subgroups. Fasting blood samples were collected and the levels of sex hormones, insulin, glucose, blood lipids and visfatin were measured. In addition, visfatin gene expression levels in PBMCs and PBMMs were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The plasma visfatin and gene expression levels of visfatin in PBMCs and PBMMs were not observed to increase in the normal weight PCOS and normal weight IR patients. Furthermore, plasma visfatin levels did not correlate with the normal weight PCOS patients or the normal weight IR patients per se. Further investigation into the role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of PCOS or IR should examine macrophages in the tissues, rather than macrophages in the peripheral blood. PMID:24940414

ZHANG, JING; ZHOU, LINGLING; TANG, LIULIN; XU, LIANGZHI

2014-01-01

13

Adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can be identified in the adolescent years but is a process with genetic and epigenetic origins. Intrauterine growth retardation and premature adrenarche may precede the presentation of hyperandrogenism and oligo/anovulation. Other causes of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction must be ruled out before PCOS is diagnosed. Obesity and insulin resistance often are associated features and greatly increase a girl's risk of developing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oral contraceptives, metformin, antiandrogens, and lifestyle modifications can have roles in alleviating the symptoms of PCOS and are reviewed in this article. PMID:22764561

Connor, Ellen Lancon

2012-04-01

14

Lectin binding sites in normal rat ovary and ENU-induced Sertoli cell tumors of the ovaries.  

PubMed

A panel of seven fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled lectins were used to study the distribution of specific binding sites in histologic sections of rat ovaries and ENU-induced Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) of the ovaries. Ten SCT and 5 normal ovaries derived from Berlin Druckey IV (BD-IV) rats were examined by FITC lectins. The tissues examined were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin blocks. In normal ovaries, lectin binding sites were more uniform, ordered and consistent than in ovarian SCT where some lectin staining appeared disorderly inconsistent and varied with the degree of tumor differentiation. Two lectins, (from Triticum vulgaris [WGA] and Arachis hypogaea [PNA], uniformly stained the apices of the ovarian surface epithelium and subadjacent tunica vaginalis. The ovarian stroma, oocyte nucleus, follicular and granulosa-theca cells, stained uniformly strong with succinated Con A (from Con-canavalia ensiformis). Three lectins (from Triticum vulgaris, Ulex europeaus [UEA-1] and Arachis hypogeae) accentuated the basal lamina in the SCT and normal ovarian follicles. The zona pellucida was strongly labeled with lectin derived from Triticum vulgaris, Ricinus communis (RCA) and moderately with lectin derived from Arachis hypogeae. The oviduct ampulla exhibited an intracytoplasmic strong vesicular labeling with lectins derived from Triticum vulgare, Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycin max (Soybean-SBA) and Arachis hypogeae. The SCT cells showed an inconsistent, irregular labeling pattern with lectins derived from Ulex europaeus, Dolichos biflorus and Soybean mostly as a coarse granular cytoplasmic labeling. Neuraminidase digestion enhanced lectin staining with PNA in normal ovary and in SCT. This data provided at list of lectin markers for distinct components of the BD-IV rat ovary and ovarian SCT. PMID:2764514

Stoica, G; O'Leary, M

1989-01-01

15

APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711....

16

Circadian Clocks in the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Clock gene expression has been observed in tissues of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. While the contribution of hypothalamic oscillators to the timing of reproductive biology is well known, the role of peripheral oscillators like those in the ovary is less clear. Circadian clocks in the ovary may play a role in the timing of ovulation. Disruption of the clock in ovarian cells or desynchrony between ovarian clocks and circadian oscillators elsewhere in the body may contribute to the onset and progression of various reproductive pathologies. Here we review evidence for clock function in the ovary across multiple species and offer a novel perspective on the role of this clock in normal ovarian physiology and in diseases that negatively impact fertility. PMID:20599392

Sellix, Michael T.; Menaker, Michael

2010-01-01

17

Epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma\\/hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (LGMFS\\/HSCT) and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEFS) have come to be recognized as distinctive types of fibrosarcoma. Because their pathological features seem to sometimes overlap, it may be that these tumors belong to a similar entity. We report an aggressive sarcoma with unusual histology arising from the right ovary of a

Kazuo Watanabe; Toshimitsu Suzuki

2004-01-01

18

Molecular cloning and characterization of four scorpion K +-toxin-like peptides: A new subfamily of venom peptides (?-KTx14) and genomic analysis of a member * * * The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database under the accession numbers: AJ277726 (BmKK 1); AJ277727 (BmKK 2); AJ277728 (BmKK 3); AJ277729 (BmKK 4); and AJ277730 (genomic sequence of BmKK 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four full-length cDNAs encoding the precursors of four K+-toxin-like peptides (named BmKK1, BmKK2, BmKK3 and BmmKK4, respectively) were first isolated from a venom gland cDNA library of the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. The deduced precursors of BmKK1, BmKK2 and BmKK3 are all made of 54 amino acid residues including a signal peptide of 23 residues, and a mature toxin

Xian-Chun Zeng; Fang Peng; Feng Luo; Shun-Yi Zhu; Hui Liu; Wen-Xin Li

2001-01-01

19

Surgical transposition of the ovary: Radiologic appearance  

SciTech Connect

Therapeutic irradiation of the pelvis of a young female patient will result in loss of ovarian function. In a surgical technique termed ovarian transposition, the ovary is repositioned to the iliac fossa or paracolic gutter outside the radiation field. The computed tomographic (CT) scans and sonograms of five patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent this procedure were reviewed. The normal transposed ovary was of soft-tissue attenuation, often with one or more small cysts. Large cysts developed in the ovaries of three patients. One cyst was functional, another was due to a mesothelial inclusion cyst, and the third was most probably related to the transposition itself. Since the transposed ovary is difficult to palpate, CT or sonography can be used to demonstrate and follow up a cystic mass. Recognition of the appearance and location of the transposed ovary is important to avoid misinterpretation of a solid or cystic mass in patients who are at risk for tumor recurrence.

Bashist, B.; Friedman, W.N.; Killackey, M.A. (St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA))

1989-12-01

20

Derivate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

21

Pre-anthesis ovary development determines genotypic differences in potential kernel weight in sorghum.  

PubMed

Kernel weight is an important factor determining grain yield and nutritional quality in sorghum, yet the developmental processes underlying the genotypic differences in potential kernel weight remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the stage in development at which genetic effects on potential kernel weight were realized, and to investigate the developmental mechanisms by which potential kernel weight is controlled in sorghum. Kernel development was studied in two field experiments with five genotypes known to differ in kernel weight at maturity. Pre-fertilization floret and ovary development was examined and post-fertilization kernel-filling characteristics were analysed. Large kernels had a higher rate of kernel filling and contained more endosperm cells and starch granules than normal-sized kernels. Genotypic differences in kernel development appeared before stamen primordia initiation in the developing florets, with sessile spikelets of large-seeded genotypes having larger floret apical meristems than normal-seeded genotypes. At anthesis, the ovaries for large-sized kernels were larger in volume, with more cells per layer and more vascular bundles in the ovary wall. Across experiments and genotypes, there was a significant positive correlation between kernel dry weight at maturity and ovary volume at anthesis. Genotypic effects on meristem size, ovary volume, and kernel weight were all consistent with additive genetic control, suggesting that they were causally related. The pre-fertilization genetic control of kernel weight probably operated through the developing pericarp, which is derived from the ovary wall and potentially constrains kernel expansion. PMID:19228817

Yang, Zongjian; van Oosterom, Erik J; Jordan, David R; Hammer, Graeme L

2009-01-01

22

Ovary Removal Linked to Cognitive Problems, Dementia  

Cancer.gov

Women who had one or both ovaries removed before menopause for noncancer reasons faced an increased risk of developing cognitive problems or dementia later in life, according to the Sept. 11, 2007, issue of Neurology.

23

Epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Recently, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma/hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (LGMFS/HSCT) and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEFS) have come to be recognized as distinctive types of fibrosarcoma. Because their pathological features seem to sometimes overlap, it may be that these tumors belong to a similar entity. We report an aggressive sarcoma with unusual histology arising from the right ovary of a 44-year-old woman. The tumor was 12 cm in size, and there were multiple distant metastases to lung, kidney, stomach and bones. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of broad sheets or variously sized nodules of polygonal epithelioid cells accompanied by hyalinous stroma, resembling SEFS. The hyalinous nodules surrounded by the palisading epithelioid cells, as seen in a rosette of HSCT, were scattered. Between these nodules, spindle cells arranged in fascicles or whorled bundles, mimicking LGMFS, proliferated. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses revealed fibroblastic differentiation of epithelioid cells and the myofibroblastic nature of the spindle tumor cells. We think the present tumor is a distinctive epithelioid fibrosarcoma with the combined features of SEFS and LGFMS/HSCT, suggesting their intimate relationship. PMID:15322876

Watanabe, Kazuo; Suzuki, Toshimitsu

2004-10-01

24

Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a relatively common disorder among adolescent women. The typical clinical features including menstrual irregularities and hirsutism are usually not apparent until middle to late adolescence. Yet studies suggest that PCOS may begin in early puberty. Young women with premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean Hispanic and African American ancestry, and/or obesity are more likely to develop PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS may have elevated total or free testosterone, androstenedione, and luteinizing hormone levels; insulin resistance; and hyperinsulinemia. The laboratory evaluation and management of the adolescent with suspected PCOS should be individualized on the basis of the clinical features and symptoms. The cornerstone of most treatment strategies includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin to decrease testosterone levels and regulate the menstrual cycle. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne and excess facial hair, and hair removal is dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. A healthy approach to eating, in some cases weight loss, and exercise is encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and often requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results. PMID:14593553

Driscoll, Deborah A

2003-08-01

25

Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among reproductive-age women, yet the diagnosis may be overlooked during adolescence. Although the clinical and metabolic features are similar to those found in adult women, it can be difficult to distinguish the young woman with PCOS from a normal adolescent. Irregular menses, anovulatory cycles, and acne are not uncommon in adolescent women. Adolescents with a history of premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean-Hispanic and African-American ancestry, and/or obesity are at risk for PCOS and deserve close surveillance. The laboratory evaluation of the adolescent with suspected PCOS or hyperandrogenism should be individualized based on the history, symptoms, and examination findings. The cornerstone of management of PCOS in adolescence includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne, and various treatments for hair removal are dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. Healthy eating, regular exercise, and for the overweight adolescent, weight reduction, are encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have shown that weight loss and exercise decrease androgen levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and lead to the resumption of ovulation. Although initial studies suggest that Metformin may be particularly useful for treating the PCOS adolescent with insulin resistance and obesity, additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy and long-term outcome. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results. PMID:14644809

Driscoll, Deborah A

2003-11-01

26

Ovary Cells Apoptosis in Opium-Addicted Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism of cell death and it can be triggered by a variety of internal and external stimuli. It has been indicated that some opium derivatives develop cell apoptosis. Objectives The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of opium addiction on ovary cell apoptosis in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on control, control-addicted, diabetic and diabetic-addicted rats. DNA fragmentation as a biomarker of apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL assay. Results The blood glucose concentration in diabetic-addicted and diabetic rats was increased when compared to control (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between weights of control, control-addicted (non-diabetic) and diabetic-addicted groups during this study. The results of this study indicated that apoptosis in addicted and diabetic-addicted ovary cells was significantly higher than in diabetic group, and also apoptosis in addicted group was significantly more than the control rats. In addition, we found that ovary cells apoptosis of diabetic rats were significantly less than in control group. Conclusions Overall, these findings suggest that opium-addiction could play an important role in ovary cell apoptosis and could be very harmful for the reproductive system. Also, ovary cells of non-diabetic rats are more susceptible to opium-induced apoptosis than those of diabetic. PMID:24971264

Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Asiabanha, Majid; Sirati Sabet, Majid

2013-01-01

27

Effects of talc on the rat ovary.  

PubMed Central

Exposure of rat ovaries to talc was accomplished by intrabursal injection. As early as 1 and up to 18 months after treatment, the ovaries and associated tissue were cystic in appearance; these changes were the result of bursal distention. Histologically the ovarian tissue was decreased in amount and spread as a remnant on the inner wall of the bursa. In four to 10 treated animals but in no controls, focal areas of papillary change were noted in the surface epithelium of the ovary. Polarized light and electron microscope microanalysis confirmed the presence of talc in the surface epithelium, ovarian cortex, and connective tissue matrix of the bursa. Although the changes in the ovarian surface may be related to direct effects of talc exposure, it is postulated that these changes might also be related to constant exposure to the high concentrations of steroid hormones which have undoubtedly accumulated in the intrabursal space. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6696826

Hamilton, T. C.; Fox, H.; Buckley, C. H.; Henderson, W. J.; Griffiths, K.

1984-01-01

28

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Guide for Teens  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome): General Information Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts PCOS is a ... out of 10 women has PCOS. What is PCOS? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormone imbalance ...

29

Obesity and the polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic oligo-anovulation. However, many features of the metabolic syndrome are inconsistently present in the majority of women with PCOS. Approximately 50% of PCOS women are overweight or obese and most of them have the abdominal phenotype. Obesity may play a pathogenetic role in the development of the syndrome

A Gambineri; C Pelusi; V Vicennati; U Pagotto; R Pasquali

2002-01-01

30

Polycystic ovary syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of up to 10%. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed, generally centered around the features of hyperandrogenism and\\/or hyperandrogenemia, oligo-ovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology. Insulin resistance is present in a majority of cases, with compensatory hyperinsulinemia contributing to hyperandrogenism via stimulation of ovarian

Mark O. Goodarzi; Daniel A. Dumesic; Gregorio Chazenbalk; Ricardo Azziz

2011-01-01

31

Ovaries of Tubificinae (Clitellata, Naididae) resemble ovary cords found in Hirudinea (Clitellata)  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructure of the ovaries and oogenesis was studied in three species of three genera of Tubificinae. The paired ovaries are small, conically shaped structures, connected to the intersegmental septum between segments X and XI by their narrow end. The ovaries are composed of syncytial cysts of germ cells interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges (ring canals) and surrounded by follicular cells. The architecture of the germ-line cysts is exactly the same as in all clitellate annelids studied to date, i.e. each cell in a cyst has only one ring canal connecting it to the central, anuclear cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. The ovaries found in all of the species studied seem to be meroistic, i.e. the ultimate fate of germ cells within a cyst is different, and the majority of cells withdraw from meiosis and become nurse cells; the rest continue meiosis, gather macromolecules, cell organelles and storage material, and become oocytes. The ovaries are polarized; their narrow end contains mitotically dividing oogonia and germ cells entering the meiosis prophase; whereas within the middle and basal parts, nurse cells, a prominent cytophore and growing oocytes occur. During late previtellogenesis/early vitellogenesis, the oocytes detach from the cytophore and float in the coelom; they are usually enveloped by the peritoneal epithelium and associated with blood vessels. Generally, the organization of ovaries in all of the Tubificinae species studied resembles the polarized ovary cords found within the ovisacs of some Euhirudinea. The organization of ovaries and the course of oogenesis between the genera studied and other clitellate annelids are compared. Finally, it is suggested that germ-line cysts formation and the meroistic mode of oogenesis may be a primary character for all Clitellata. PMID:21170399

Urbisz, Anna Z.; Krodkiewska, Mariola

2010-01-01

32

Genetics of the polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly complex endocrine disorder, characterized by hyperandrogenemia, menstrual irregularities and polycystic ovaries. A strong genetic component to the etiology of PCOS is evident. However, due to the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of PCOS and the lack of insufficiently large cohorts, studies to identify specific contributing genes to date have yielded only few conclusive results. In this review we discuss the current status of the genetic analysis of PCOS including the results of numerous association studies with candidate genes involved in TGF-? and insulin signaling, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity susceptibility. Furthermore, we address current challenges in genetic studies of PCOS, and the promise of new approaches, including genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing. PMID:23079471

Kosova, Gülüm; Urbanek, Margrit

2013-07-01

33

GENETICS OF THE POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly complex endocrine disorder, characterized by hyperandrogenemia, menstrual irregularities and polycystic ovaries. A strong genetic component to the etiology of PCOS is evident. However, due to the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of PCOS and the lack of insufficiently large cohorts, studies to identify specific contributing genes to date have yielded only few conclusive results. In this review we discuss the currnt status of the genetic analysis of PCOS including the results of numerous association studies with candidate genes involved in TGF-? and insulin signaling, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity susceptibility. Furthermore, we address current challenges in genetic studies of PCOS, and the promise of new approaches, including genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing. PMID:23079471

KOSOVA, Gulum; URBANEK, Margrit

2012-01-01

34

Polycystic ovary syndrome and its developmental origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in\\u000a women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS-like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH)\\u000a hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased\\u000a abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with

Daniel A. Dumesic; David H. Abbott; Vasantha Padmanabhan

2007-01-01

35

Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms and the beneficial effects of acupuncture, exercise and resveratrol on animal models and on humans affected by PCOS. PMID:24809037

Aquino, C. I.; Nori, S. L.

2014-01-01

36

Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing stromal tumor is a rare ovarian tumor, occurring in young adults in the second and third decade of life. We report clinical and histopathological features of three cases of sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary with a review of literature. The tumor has distinct histological features and is easily recognizable when a high index of suspicion is maintained in young patients presenting with an ovarian mass. These tumors are benign and can be treated successfully by enucleation or unilateral ovariotomy.

Atram, Manisha; Sharma, Satish; Gangane, Nitin

2014-01-01

37

Fetal Origins of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the origins of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in humans are still debated, animal models reliably implicate a fetal\\u000a origin. Androgen excess, one of the key diagnostic criteria for PCOS and one of its most reliably inherited traits, programs\\u000a reproductive, adrenal and metabolic organs and tissues during fetal development, producing adult pathology that closely mimics\\u000a PCOS. Differential gestational timing of

David H. Abbott; Cristin M. Bruns; Deborah K. Barnett; Alice F. Tarantal; Sarah M. Hoffmann; Rao Zhou; Jon E. Levine; Daniel A. Dumesic

38

Cystic teratoma of the ovary: CT detection.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 38 patients with 41 benign cystic teratomas of the ovary and two patients with malignant transformation. CT depicted all tumors. The presence of fat in 40 of 43 cases (93%), tooth or calcification in 24 of 43 (56%), Rokitansky protuberance in 35 of 43 (81%), tufts of hair in 28 of 43 (65%), and a fat-fluid level in five of 43 (12%) allowed a definite diagnosis of ovarian cystic teratoma in 42 of 43 cases (98%). In the two cases of malignancy, single large (greater than 10 cm) plugs (with uptake of contrast medium in one) with a cauliflower appearance and an irregular border forming an obtuse angle with the inner wall of the cyst suggested malignant transformation. In three cases of benign cystic teratoma, a mucinous tumor (one benign, one borderline, one malignant) arising in the same ovary was seen at pathologic examination but was only diagnosed with the help of CT in two of three cases. Thickening of the tube was noted in two cases of torsion of the adnexa. CT findings were compared with findings at radiography of the abdomen and hysterosalpingography in 30 cases, ultrasound in 31, and magnetic resonance imaging in three. This study demonstrated that CT was the best procedure for imaging cystic teratomas of the ovary. PMID:2717741

Buy, J N; Ghossain, M A; Moss, A A; Bazot, M; Doucet, M; Hugol, D; Truc, J B; Poitout, P; Ecoiffier, J

1989-06-01

39

Drug treatments for polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age. Diagnosis can be difficult because the signs and symptoms can be subtle and varied. These may include hirsutism, infertility, menstrual irregularities, and biochemical abnormalities, most notably insulin resistance. Treatment should target specific manifestations and individualized patient goals. When choosing a treatment regimen, physicians must take into account comorbidities and the patient's desire for pregnancy. Lifestyle modifications should be used in addition to medical treatments for optimal results. Few agents have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifically for use in polycystic ovary syndrome, and several agents are contraindicated in pregnancy. Insulin-sensitizing agents are indicated for most women with polycystic ovary syndrome because they have positive effects on insulin resistance, menstrual irregularities, anovulation, hirsutism, and obesity. Metformin has the most data supporting its effectiveness. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are also effective for ameliorating hirsutism and insulin resistance. Metformin and clomiphene, alone or in combination, are first-line agents for ovulation induction. Insulin-sensitizing agents, oral contraceptives, spironolactone, and topical eflornithine can be used in patients with hirsutism. PMID:19405411

Radosh, Lee

2009-04-15

40

Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed

Francesco Giallauria; Francesco Orio; Gaetano Lombardi; Annamaria Colao; Carlo Vigorito; Maria Tafuri; Stefano Palomba

2009-01-01

41

Estrogen and androgen receptor expression in surface epithelium and inclusion cyst in the ovary of premenopausal and postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of surface epithelium and epithelial inclusion cysts in the ovary arises from studies demonstrating that these structures are susceptible to epithelial ovarian cancer development. The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), androgen receptor (AR), in epithelial cells of the ovary from premenopausal and postmenopausal women is interesting because sexual steroid hormones are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Methods The presence of ER alpha, AR, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in ovaries obtained from 79 pre and postmenopausal patients, undergoing histero-salpingo-oophorectomy for proliferative gynecological diseases. The proportion of patients that displayed positive reaction for estrogen and androgen receptors in epithelial cells of the ovary was evaluated according to menopausal status and associated pathology. Results The proportion of patients that displayed a positive receptor expression in the epithelial cells of the ovarian surface and cortical inclusion cysts shows that ER alpha is present in 20 of 79 patients (0.25), AR in 33 of 79 (0.42) and GPR30 in 38 of 55 (0.69). There are no differences in ER alpha, AR, and GPR30 expression between pre and postmenopausal patients and considering the associated pathology, proportions for ER alpha and GPR30 are similar. The patients with cervical cancer show a higher proportion of AR expression in epithelial cells of the ovary, which is statistically significant (P?derivatives are observed with a proportion that is specific for each receptor. The proportion of expression for these receptors in the epithelial cells of the ovary does not change after menopause. The proportion of ovaries with AR positive epithelial cells in patients with cervical squamous carcinoma is higher compared with other gynecological pathologies. PMID:24279585

2013-01-01

42

Anatomicohistological characteristics of the ovary of the coypu (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Using histological, histochemical and macroscopic and microscopic measurement techniques, the macroscopic and microscopic structures of coypu ovaries were studied in sexually mature virgin females. The mature ovaries of the coypu were ovoid or elongated bodies, not encapsulated, covered by a single layer of epithelium. They had a parenchyma formed by follicles at different stages of evolution and true and accessory corpora lutea. The interstitial tissue was a prominent and permanent structure in the ovaries. Some ovaries contained a few rete ovarii in the hilus. PMID:10386002

Felipe, A; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

1999-05-01

43

Lipid and fatty acid composition of ovaries from wild fish and ovaries and eggs from captive fish of white sea bream ( Diplodus sargus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of ovaries from wild white sea bream and ovaries and eggs of captive white sea bream were investigated to estimate the fatty acid requirements of this species. The total lipid (TL) content in wild fish ovaries was similar to that found in ovaries and eggs from captive fish. The general pattern of the fatty acid distribution

Juana Rosa Cejas; Eduardo Almansa; Jose Enrique Villamandos; Pilar Bad??a; Ana Bolaños; Antonio Lorenzo

2003-01-01

44

Visualization of the Ovaries in Early Pregnancy by Transvaginal Sonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the frequency of visualization of the ovaries by transvaginal sonography (TVS) in a group of women in early pregnancy and to determine the onset of a decrease in sonographic visualization of the ovaries during this time. Methods: The study population included all patients with an intrauterine pregnancy confirmed by the presence of a yolk sac, embryo, or

Phyllis Glanc; Nicole Brofman; Anat Kornecki; Jason Abrams; Dan Farine; Shia Salem

45

Mucinous carcinoid of the ovary: report of a case with metastasis in the contralateral ovary after ten years  

PubMed Central

Monodermal teratomas of the ovary can take the form of carcinoid tumors of which there are several types, mucinous carcinoid being the least common. Very few cases of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary have been reported in the literature and the behavior of these tumors over the long term is unclear. We describe a case of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary in a 39-year-old woman treated with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, where a metastasis occurred in the contralateral ovary ten years later. This case demonstrates that mucinous carcinoid of the ovary can metastasize even after a long interval, and careful follow-up of patients, particularly those treated conservatively, is appropriate. PMID:21139955

Buis, Christien C.M; van Doorn, Helena C; Dinjens, Winand N.M; Ewing, Patricia C

2010-01-01

46

Pesticide clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Paraquat, alachlor, butachlor, phorate and monocrotophos, several of the most extensively used pesticides in Taiwan, were investigated for their clastogenicity using chromosome aberration (CAb) induction in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Significance levels of the binomial trend analysis and binomial mutagenicity data test were two criteria for the summary judgement of the pesticide clastogenicity. Except for phorate, all pesticides tested were clastogenic to CHO cells in the absence of in vitro metabolic activation by S9. 5 microliters/ml rat-liver extract, S9, were used as the source of in vitro metabolic activation. 3 different outcomes were found after the addition of S9. Paraquat: significant decrease in induced CAbs. Monocrotophos: concomitant occurrence of decreased cytotoxicity and increased clastogenicity. Alachlor, butachlor and phorate: increased cytotoxicities with no sign of enhancement in clastogenicity. PMID:3600690

Lin, M F; Wu, C L; Wang, T C

1987-07-01

47

Torsion of the ovary: a known but frequently missed diagnosis.  

PubMed

Torsion of the ovary or fallopian tube is a rare acute gynaecological disorder, seen by different medical specialists. The diverse clinical presentation is one of the main reasons this diagnosis is frequently missed at first presentation. For the preservation of ovarian function it is of utmost importance to diagnose an ovarian torsion at an early stage. We will describe the medical history of three patients with a torsion of one of the ovaries to illustrate the variety of clinical presentation. A medical history of pelvic operations or enlarged ovaries often predisposes to torsion of the ovary or fallopian tube. Treatment policy will differ depending on the stage of life. Ovariopexy can be considered to prevent the ovary from torsion and to maintain its function. Torsion of the ovary is an acute gynaecological disorder with an incidence of 3% in a series of acute gynaecological complaints. It is a disorder in which the ovary and the fallopian tube can be affected, combined as well as separated. Although every specialist is familiar with the disorder, the diagnosis in acute presentation is frequently missed. To bring this entity and its great variability in clinical presentation into focus once again, we will highlight three patients out of a series of 13. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible causes of the disorder and present a proposition for treatment. PMID:19262396

Becker, Jeroen Hubert; de Graaff, Jan; Vos, M Caroline; Vos, Caroline M

2009-06-01

48

Micro-bioreactor design for Chinese hamster ovary cells  

E-print Network

The research objective is to design a micro-bioreactor for the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. There is an increasing demand for upstream development in high-throughput micro-bioreactors specifically for the ...

Goh, Shireen

2013-01-01

49

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle...

50

Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to provide a stepwise approach to treating the infertility/subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Defining polycystic ovary syndrome in a patient requires first investigating other possible causes for polycystic ovary morphology, acne, hirsutism, obesity, and the metabolic derangements that often accompany polycystic ovary syndrome. Beginning with lifestyle modification and use of metformin, the progressive inclusion of more intensive therapies for induction of ovulation is described. Second-line treatments are discussed and the new findings from a large multicenter trial are discussed in the context of evidence-based treatment strategies for first-line agents. Finally, monofollicular development as a treatment goal and in vitro fertilization are discussed for those with recalcitrant disease. PMID:24966697

Berger, Joshua J; Bates, G Wright

2014-01-01

51

Factors influencing direct shoot regeneration from ovary explants of saffron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct adventitious shoot regeneration from ovary explants of Crocus sativus L. was influenced by media components, incubation conditions, and age of the explant. The best response towards caulogenesis\\u000a (28%) with highest shoot numbers per ovary was observed when full strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium was supplemented\\u000a with naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyladenine. Incubation in the dark at 20 °C was

N. Bhagyalakshmi

1999-01-01

52

Selective immunocytochemical localisation of calretinin in the human ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein which is primarily expressed by certain cells of the nervous system, both central\\u000a and peripheral. Its presence in non-excitable cells has been little studied. Using a polyclonal antibody and paraffin sections\\u000a we have analysed the presence of calretinin in the human ovary of different ages, and in polycystic ovaries. Our results revealed\\u000a the selective presence

Serge Bertschy; Claude Y. Genton; V. Gotzos

1997-01-01

53

Hybridization in Brassica juncea × Brassica campestris through ovary culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovary culture has been employed for the production of interspecific hybrids of a partially compatible cross of Brassica juncea (2n=36) × Brassica campestris (2n=20). Five to seven days old ovaries cultured on White's medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate (300 mg\\/l) and sucrose (5%) produced more seeds than any other media tried, but seed development was better on media fortified with

D. Mohapatral; Y. P. S. Bajaj

1988-01-01

54

Postnatal androgenization induces premature aging of rat ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we report that ovaries of adult rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP) on a critical postnatal Day 5 exhibit histologic and immunohistochemical findings which resemble those of the anovulatory ovaries in middle-aged female rats. The sterile rat model has been long known whereas ovarian failure seems to be a reason for anovulation with normal hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadotropin background.

Antonin Bukovskya; Maria E Ayala; Roberto Dominguez; Jeffrey A Keenan; Jay Wimalasena; Pamela P McKenzie; Michael R Caudle

2000-01-01

55

Clinical Characteristics of Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.Methods.Between 1986 and 1996, 45 patients with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary were identified by scanning the medical records department and the tumor registry at our institution.Results.Median age was 55 years (range 31–80 years). Tumors were 60% (27\\/45) stage I, 11% (5\\/45)

Kian Behbakht; Thomas C. Randall; Ivor Benjamin; Mark A. Morgan; Stephanie King; Stephen C. Rubin

1998-01-01

56

Estrogen deficiency in porcine cystic ovaries  

SciTech Connect

Estrone(E1) and estradiol-17..beta.. (E2) were measured in follicular cyst fluid obtained from swine ovaries by a simultaneous radioimmunoassay method. Follicular fluid from small (diameter, <3.9mm), medium (4-5.9mm) and large (6-10mm) normal follicles were similarly analyzed. The two hormones increased in concentration with increasing maturity of the normal follicles. Medium and large follicles, respectively, contained 2x and 8x the concentration of El as in small follicles. The concentration of E2 in medium and large follicles, respectively, was approximately 2x and 13x the concentration found in small follicles. The E2:E1 ratio also increased with size of the follicles. In contrast, cystic fluid contained virtually no estrogens. E2 was not detectable (assay sensitivity, 5.0 pg/tube for E2 and 10.0 pg/tube for E1) while E1 was present at 2-4ng/ml representing 1/25th of the E1 concentration found in large normal follicles.

Babalola, G.O.; Shapiro, B.H.

1986-03-01

57

Gastrointestinal hormones and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease of women in reproductive age. It is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Most often patients with PCOS have metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. It is not surprising that obesity is high prevalent in PCOS. Over 60 % of PCOS women are obese or overweight. Modulation of appetite and energy intake is essential to maintain energy balance and body weight. The gastrointestinal tract, where nutrients are digested and absorbed, plays a central role in energy homeostasis. The signals from the gastrointestinal tract arise from the stomach (ghrelin release), proximal small intestine (CCK release), and distal small intestine (GLP-1 and PYY) in response to food. These hormones are recognized as "appetite regulatory hormones." Weight loss is the key in the treatments of obese/overweight patients with PCOS. However, current non-pharmacologic management of body weight is hard to achieve. This review highlighted the gastrointestinal hormones, and discussed the potential strategies aimed at modifying hormones for treatment in PCOS. PMID:24791734

Ma, Jing; Lin, Tzu Chun; Liu, Wei

2014-12-01

58

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population  

PubMed Central

Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinical phenotypes but different underlying pathophysiological processes. However, hyperandrogenism remains the syndrome's clinical hallmark. The clinical manifestations of PCOS often emerge during childhood or in the peripubertal years, suggesting that the syndrome is influenced by fetal programming and/or early postnatal events. However, given that the full clinical spectrum of PCOS does not typically appear until puberty, a “two-hit” hypothesis has been proposed: (1) a girl develops hyperandrogenism via one or more of many different potential mechanisms; (2) the preexisting hyperandrogenism subsequently disturbs the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, resulting in ovulatory dysfunction and sustained hyperandrogenism. No consensus guidelines exist regarding the diagnosis and management of PCOS in the pediatric population; however, because the syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, the clinical evaluation of girls suspected of having PCOS is aimed at excluding other causes of androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction. For the syndrome's management, emphasis is placed on lifestyle and symptom-directed treatment. PMID:20939704

2010-01-01

59

Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

2012-11-01

60

The treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women in reproductive age. As for the treatment of this disease the lack of a clear etiology for PCOS has led to a symptom-orientated treatment. However, the overall aims of treatment are to induce ovulation for women desiring conception, to reduce androgen levels, to reduce body weight and to reduce long-term health risks of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is recommended as first line treatment for induction of ovulation in patients with PCOS by virtue of its efficacy, safety, and ease of administration. Alternatives for CC-resistant patients include gonadotrophin therapy (better with low-dose step-up protocol) and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy. Recently, recombinant FSH (rFSH) has been introduced in clinical practice and it seems more effective than urinary FSH as demonstrated by a significantly higher number of follicles recruited and embryos obtained with a shorter treatment period. The addition of GnRH-agonist to the stimulation protocol for women affected by PCOS could reduce premature luteinization and increase cycle fecundity. Other drugs under investigation are metformin and cabergoline. Hirsutism is the manifestation of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. The primary goal of the treatment of hirsutim is central or peripheral androgen suppression using 3 groups of drugs: inhibitors of androgen production (oral contraceptives, GnRH analogues), peripheral androgen blockers (cyproterone acetate, flutamide, finasteride and spironolactone), and insulin-sensitizing agents (metformin). Weight reduction and exercise could also improve not only menstrual disturbances and infertility, but also insulin resistance and its adverse metabolic con-sequences. PMID:14973407

Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Melis, G B

2004-02-01

61

Bmovo-1 Regulates Ovary Size in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

The regulation of antagonistic OVO isoforms is critical for germline formation and differentiation in Drosophila. However, little is known about genes related to ovary development. In this study, we cloned the Bombyx mori ovo gene and investigated its four alternatively spliced isoforms. BmOVO-1, BmOVO-2 and BmOVO-3 all had four C2H2 type zinc fingers, but differed at the N-terminal ends, while BmOVO-4 had a single zinc finger. Bmovo-1, Bmovo-2 and Bmovo-4 showed the highest levels of mRNA in ovaries, while Bmovo-3 was primarily expressed in testes. The mRNA expression pattern suggested that Bmovo expression was related to ovary development. RNAi and transgenic techniques were used to analyze the biological function of Bmovo. The results showed that when the Bmovo gene was downregulated, oviposition number decreased. Upregulation of Bmovo-1 in the gonads of transgenic silkworms increased oviposition number and elevated the trehalose contents of hemolymph and ovaries. We concluded that Bmovo-1 was involved in protein synthesis, contributing to the development of ovaries and oviposition number in silkworms. PMID:25119438

Cao, Guangli; Huang, Moli; Xue, Gaoxu; Qian, Ying; Song, Zuowei; Gong, Chengliang

2014-01-01

62

Building Pathways for Ovary Organogenesis in the Mouse Embryo  

PubMed Central

Despite its significant role in oocyte generation and hormone production in adulthood, the ovary, with regard to its formation, has received little attention compared to its male counterpart, the testis. With the exception of germ cells, which undergo a female-specific pattern of meiosis, morphological changes in the fetal ovary are subtle. Over the past 40 years, a number of hypotheses have been proposed for the organogenesis of the mammalian ovary. It was not until the turn of the millennium, thanks to the advancement of genetic and genomic approaches, that pathways for ovary organogenesis that consist of positive and negative regulators have started to emerge. Through the action of secreted factors (R-spondin1, WNT4, and follistatin) and transcription regulators (?-catenin and FOXL2), the developmental fate of the somatic cells is directed toward ovarian, while testicular components are suppressed. In this chapter, we review the history of studying ovary organogenesis in mammals and present the most recent discoveries using the mouse as the model organism. PMID:20691852

Liu, Chia-Feng; Liu, Chang; Yao, Humphrey H-C

2012-01-01

63

N4-Hexanoylspermidine, a New Polyamine-Related Compound That Accumulates during Ovary and Petal Senescence in Pea.  

PubMed Central

A previously unknown polyamine conjugate that accumulates in senescing ovaries of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was shown by mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and chemical synthesis to be N4-hexanoylspermidine (hexanoyl-spd) This structure was indicated by analysis of the dansylated polyamine using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, following purification by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, acid hydrolysis of the compound yielded spermidine and hexanoic acid. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that spermidine was substituted at N4 in the conjugate. Hexanoyl-spd was synthesized, and its didansyl derivative was shown to have an identical mass spectrum and high-performance liquid chromatography retention time as the derivatized natural compound. Further confirmation of its structure was obtained by comparison of the synthetic and natural polyamines as trifluoroacetyl derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This new polyamine conjugate is present in pea ovaries at low levels at anthesis and its concentration remains low in developing seeded fruit or in parthenocarpic fruit that have been induced by application of growth regulators to emasculated flowers or by topping the plant. Conjugate levels are also low in parthenocarpic fruit induced naturally in the slender (la crys) mutant. However, levels of hexanoyl-spd increase progressively in senescing petals and ovaries, beginning at anthesis or 2 d later, respectively. PMID:12226251

Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.; Navarro, J. L.; Moritz, T.; Beale, M. H.; Lewis, M. J.; Hedden, P.

1996-01-01

64

Primary fallopian tube carcinoma with metastasis in the contralateral ovary.  

PubMed

Primary malignant neoplasm of the fallopian tube is one of the rarest gynaecological malignancies and a pre-operative diagnosis is often missed due to its diagnostic confusion with the tubo-ovarian mass, hydrosalpinx, ectopic pregnancy and ovarian malignancy. Transcoelomic, lymphatic, transluminal and haematogenous spread may occur to the other abdominal and pelvic organs as well as to the distant sites. Though the body of the uterus, ovaries and the contralateral fallopian tube are frequently involved, in the present case the contralateral ovary was the only site of involvement which is very unusual. PMID:23520679

Aich, Ranen Kanti; Dasgupta, Subhankar; Chakraborty, Barunodaya; Karim, Rejaul; Bhattacharya, Jibak; Sen, Partha

2012-07-01

65

Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Taking Combined Oral Contraceptives Have Greater Risk of Blood Clots  

MedlinePLUS

... Newsroom Publication # 13-RA012 Go to Online Store Women with polycystic ovary syndrome taking combined oral contraceptives have greater risk of blood clots Women's Health Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects as many ...

66

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in Teens: A Guide for Parents and Guardians  

MedlinePLUS

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Guide for Parents Posted under Parents' Articles . Updated 13 March 2014. +Related Content Key Facts PCOS is a ... help you to support your daughter. What is PCOS? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormone imbalance ...

67

ALTERED STEROIDOGENESIS IN WHOLE-OVARY AND ADRENAL CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultures of minced, whole-ovary (whole-ovary culture) were used to determine if three selected chemicals altered steroidogenic profiles. irst, phenolaulfonthalein (PST), when used in culture medium, was tested for its influence on in vitro steroidogenesis. ext, aminoglutethimide ...

68

Apoptosis in batch cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems in the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells continues to be the inability to maintain the viability of the cultures over an extended period of time. The rapid decline in viability at the end of the culture is exacerbated by the absence of serum. In trying to reduce the extent of death in these

J. Goswami; A. J. Sinskey; H. Steller; G. N. Stephanopoulos; D. I. C. Wang

1999-01-01

69

Identification of Novel Markers of Mouse Fetal Ovary Development  

PubMed Central

In contrast to the developing testis, molecular pathways driving fetal ovarian development have been difficult to characterise. To date no single master regulator of ovarian development has been identified that would be considered the female equivalent of Sry. Using a genomic approach we identified a number of novel protein-coding as well as non-coding genes that were detectable at higher levels in the ovary compared to testis during early mouse gonad development. We were able to cluster these ovarian genes into different temporal expression categories. Of note, Lrrc34 and AK015184 were detected in XX but not XY germ cells before the onset of sex-specific germ cell differentiation marked by entry into meiosis in an ovary and mitotic arrest in a testis. We also defined distinct spatial expression domains of somatic cell genes in the developing ovary. Our data expands the set of markers of early mouse ovary differentiation and identifies a classification of early ovarian genes, thus providing additional avenues with which to dissect this process. PMID:22844512

Thiagarajan, Rathi D.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Chiu, Hansheng; Schulz, Alexandra; Spiller, Cassy; Grimmond, Sean M.; Little, Melissa H.; Koopman, Peter; Wilhelm, Dagmar

2012-01-01

70

Survival Estimates, by Race, Diagnosis Year, Stage and Age (Ovary)  

Cancer.gov

Ovary excludes borderline cases or histologies 8442, 8451, 8462, 8472, and 8473. a Based on End Results data from a series of hospital registries and one population-based registry. b SEER 9 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Seattle, Utah, Atlanta). Based on follow-up of patients into 2008.

71

Optimizing ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Recent developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome led to the introduction of new therapeutic approaches. It is apparent that a significant proportion of women with polycystic ovary syndrome have insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Growing evidence indicates that elevated serum insulin induces hyperandrogenism, which in turn leads to anovulation and infertility. Hyperinsulinemia also contributes to the increased risk for cardiovascular disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These concepts provide rationale for therapies focused on treatments of insulin resistance. In particular, weight loss and exercise have been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and improve ovulatory function. Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing agent, is particularly effective in women with polycystic ovary syndrome who have significant insulin resistance. Metformin use leads to a decrease in serum insulin and androgen levels as well as an improvement in ovulatory function. Moreover, it appears to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors. Other approaches to ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome include traditional therapies using clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins. In clomiphene-resistant subjects, one can consider laparoscopic ovarian drilling and other forms of partial ovarian resection or destruction. PMID:12032379

Seli, Emre; Duleba, Antoni J

2002-06-01

72

Role of changes in dietary habits in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous clinical condition. In most women, especially in the obese, all features of the metabolic syndrome, particularly insulin resistance and associated hyperinsulinaemia, are present. Insulin is a physiological hormone regulating ovarian function, specifically ovarian steroidogenesis and androgen blood transport and\\/or activity in the target tissues. Hyperinsulinaemia may therefore play a pivotal role in favouring

Renato Pasquali; Alessandra Gambineri

2004-01-01

73

Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

2012-01-01

74

Prevention of cancers of the breast, endometrium and ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central epidemiological feature of cancers of the breast, endometrium and ovary is the sharp slowing down in their rate of increase with age around the time of menopause. The incidence of these tumors by the age of 70 years would be between fourfold and eightfold increased if the rapid increase with age seen in young women continued into old

Malcolm C Pike; Celeste Leigh Pearce; Anna H Wu; MC Pike

2004-01-01

75

Selective Insulin Resistance in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperan- drogenemia that is amplified by insulin in the presence of resistance to insulin's action to stimulate glucose uptake in muscle and fat. To explore the mechanisms for this paradox, we examined the metabolic and mitogenic actions of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in cultured skin fibroblasts from PCOS (n 5

ANDREA DUNAIF

2010-01-01

76

Oxidative stability of lipids rich in EPA and DHA extracted from fermented scallop ovary.  

PubMed

A novel seafood paste was developed by the fermentation of scallop ovary using rice malt (koji) and yeast culture. Chemical analysis of the product showed the formation of high level of free amino acids and organic acids during the fermentation. The product color and flavor resembled to Japanese traditional soybean miso. The contents of total lipids (TLs) extracted from the fermented products were ranged from 9.18% to 11.59% or 11.38% to 13.57%/dry sample weight. Although the TL was rich in oxidatively unstable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), little decrease was found in these PUFAs during the fermentation, showing the high oxidative stability of the TL from the fermented scallop ovary. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the TL extracted from the fermented products increased with increasing the fermentation time. This would be mainly due to the formation of lipid soluble antioxidants such as tocopherols, which might be derived from yeast used for fermentation. PMID:23915081

Hamaoka, Naohiro; Shimajiri, Junki; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

2013-09-01

77

Arginine Decarboxylase and Putrescine Oxidase in Ovaries of Pisum sativum L. (Changes during Ovary Senescence and Early Stages of Fruit Development).  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic activities involved in putrescine metabolism in ovaries of Pisum sativum L. during ovary senescence and fruit set were investigated. Accumulation of putrescine was observed during incubation of extracts from gibberellic acid-treated unpollinated ovaries (young developing fruits) but not in extracts from untreated ovaries (senescent ovaries). Extracts from pea ovaries showed arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity, but ornithine decarboxylase and arginase activity were not detected. ADC activity decreased in presenescent ovaries and increased markedly after induction of fruit set with gibberellic acid. Increases in ADC activity were also observed with application of other plant growth substances (benzy-ladenine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), after pollination, and in the slender (la crys) pea mutant. By contrast, putrescine oxidase activity increased in presenescent ovaries but did not increase during early fruit development. All of these results suggest that ADC and putrescine oxidase are involved in the control of putrescine metabolism. Ovary senescence is characterized by the absence of putrescine biosynthesis enzymes and increased levels of putrescine oxidase and fruit development by an increase in ADC and a constant level of putrescine oxidase. PMID:12228409

Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.

1995-01-01

78

Chinese hamster ovary cells contain transcriptionally active full-length type C proviruses.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated a genomic locus from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that contains a full-length provirus. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that it is a defective member of the rodent type C retrovirus family with an env region that is similar to those of mouse amphotropic retrovirus and subgroup B feline leukemia virus. We were able to demonstrate that this provirus is a member of a closely related family of full-length proviruses in CHO cells and Chinese hamster liver. Hybridization probes generated from this genomic clone were used to characterize type C retrovirus RNA expression in CHO cells. Full-length genomic RNA and subgenomic envelope mRNA were detected in CHO cell lines but not in the human-derived 293 cell line. Interestingly, we discovered that the site of retrovirus integration lies within a G repeat sequence belonging to the short interspersed element family of retroposons. Images PMID:7966574

Lie, Y S; Penuel, E M; Low, M A; Nguyen, T P; Mangahas, J O; Anderson, K P; Petropoulos, C J

1994-01-01

79

Ascorbic acid in buffalo ovary in relation to oestrous cycle.  

PubMed

Concentration of ascorbic acid was determined in different parts of buffalo ovary at four different stages of oestrous cycle viz. early luteal, mid luteal, late luteal and follicular. The stages were decided from the physical and morphological examinations of corpora lutea. The ovary was dissected in three components viz. corpus luteum, follicular fluid and ovarian stromal tissue for ascorbic acid assay. Corpus luteum showed significant change in concentration of ascorbic acid with the advancement of oestrous cycle, value being highest in late- luteal stage. Follicular fluid and ovarian stromal tissue did not show significant changes in ascorbic acid at any stage of the oestrous cycle. Small follicles, irrespective of the stage of oestrous cycle had, however, significantly higher ascorbic acid content than large follicles. PMID:10549174

Meur, S K; Sanwal, P C; Yadav, M C

1999-04-01

80

Binding sites for gonadotropins in human postmenopausal ovaries  

SciTech Connect

The binding of human LH and human FSH to postmenopausal ovarian tissue from 21 patients with cervical carcinoma was analyzed. The binding sites for FSH and LH were demonstrated in postmenopausal ovarian tissue. The surface-binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the cells of cortical stroma of the postmenopausal ovary. In addition, diffuse cytoplasmic staining of endogenous estrogen and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity were detected immunohistochemically and histochemically in the cells of the cortical stroma. Electron microscopic study also suggested steroidogenic function in the cells of the cortical stroma. The results of the present study suggest that postmenopausal ovaries contain specific binding sites for pituitary gonadotropins and play a role in ovarian steroidogenesis.

Nakano, R.; Shima, K.; Yamoto, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Nishimori, K.; Hiraoka, J.

1989-02-01

81

Mechanisms and Treatment of Obesity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility because of anovulation, affects 4–7% of\\u000a women. Intriguingly, obesity has an important pathophysiological impact on PCOS, and obese PCOS women are characterized by\\u000a worsened endocrine and metabolic profiles and poorer fertility. Although it is believed that obesity simply emphasizes most\\u000a common alterations such as hyperandrogenism and the

Renato Pasquali; Alessandra Gambineri

82

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated With Endothelial Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We recently reported endothelial dysfunction as a novel cardiovascular risk factor associated with insulin resistance\\/obesity. Here, we tested whether hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who are at increased risk of macrovascular disease display impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and whether endothelial function in PCOS is associated with particular metabolic and\\/or hormonal characteristics. Methods and Results—We studied leg blood flow

Giancarlo Paradisi; Helmut O. Steinberg; Annette Hempfling; Jessica Cronin; Ginger Hook; Marguerite K. Shepard; Alain D. Baron

2001-01-01

83

Endocrine Features in Eutestosteronemic Women with Polycystic Ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempted to assess the association between hyperandrogenemia and inappropriate gonadotropin secretion in women with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Thirty-one patients diagnosed as PCO by ultrasonography were divided into two subgroups: 17 with high serum total testosterone (T) level ( > 0.5 ng\\/ml) and 14 with normal serum total T level ( < 0.5 ng\\/ml). Both subgroups presented for the complaints

Keisuke Wada; Atsushi Imai; Toshiya Itoh; Miki Nishigaki-Nakagawa; Ryo Misao; Teruhiko Tamaya

1994-01-01

84

Relative expression of proprotein convertases in rat ovaries during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Proprotein convertases are a family of serine proteinases that are related to bacterial subtilisin and yeast kexin. They are involved in posttranslational processing of the precursors of a vast number of cellular proteins. With the exception of PC1/3, the relative expression levels of the proprotein convertases in the ovary during pregnancy have not been reported. The purpose of this study is to determine by real-time PCR the relative expression levels of all nine proprotein convertases in rat ovaries during pregnancy and at 3 days postpartum. Methods RNA was extracted from ovaries at Day 0, 4, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, and 20 of pregnancy as well as 3 days postpartum. Relative expression levels of Pcsk1, Pcsk2, Furin, Pcsk4, Pcsk5, Pcsk6, Pcsk7, Mbtps1 and Pcsk9 were determined with real-time PCR. Results were reported as fold-change over the level at Day 0 of pregnancy. Results Results showed that Pcsk1 and Pcsk6 were upregulated as gestation advanced, in parallel with an observed increase in relaxin transcript. Pcsk2 showed downregulation as gestation advanced, while Pcsk5 showed relatively higher levels in early pregnancy and postpartum, but lower level in mid-pregnancy. On the other hand, Furin, Pcsk4, Pcsk7, Mbtps1 and Pcsk9 showed little change of expression throughout gestation. Conclusion PC1/3 (PCSK1) and PACE4 (PCSK6) may play an important role in proprotein processing in the ovary during late pregnancy. PMID:24330629

2013-01-01

85

Reproductive and Obstetrical Consequences of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder associated with infertility and subfecundity. There is evidence that both the\\u000a oocyte and the endometrium have abnormalities that contribute to these disorders. These reproductive abnormalities include\\u000a anovulation, increased early pregnancy wastage, and probable increased risk for a number of pregnancy complications including\\u000a gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia. Ovulation

Mary C. Johnson; Richard S. Legro

86

Menstrual Cyclicity After Metformin Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of insulin-lowering treatment on menstrual cyclicity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Forty oligoamenorrheic women with PCOS were recruited in a prospective clinical study to receive metformin for a minimum period of 6 months. Twenty-two women completed the study. Serum LH, FSH, free testosterone, and glucose and insulin response to oral glucose load were measured both

Elsy Velázquez M; Arnaldo Acosta; Soaira G Mendoza

1997-01-01

87

A Horse Ovary Palpation Simulator for Veterinary Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the concept of multimodal cues to aid training in a medical simulator. These cues aim to provide guidance\\u000a and performance feedback to the user in the form of haptic, graphic and auditory feedback presented during the simulator training.\\u000a The paper describes current implementations of the cues and their integration into the Horse Ovary Palpation Simulator (HOPS)\\u000a developed

Andrew Crossan; Stephen A. Brewster; Stuart Reid; Dominic Mellor

2000-01-01

88

Biosynthesis of 1-methyladenine by isolated segments of starfish ovaries  

SciTech Connect

Acid-soluble 1-methyladenine (1-MeA) and an insoluble fraction containing 1-MeA were formed when radioactive L-methionine or adenine (A) were incubated with starfish ovary segments. Attempts to prepare free ribonucleic acid (RNA) from ovaries failed since it was strongly bonded to protein as ribonucleoprotein (RN-P) which was therefore used in studies involving RNA. Incubation of ovary segments with (8-/sup 14/C)adenine-8 (A-8-/sup 14/C) yielded both soluble 1-Me-A-8-/sup 14/C and RN-P-8-/sup 14/C, and similar incubation with L-(methyl-/sup 14/C)methionine yielded soluble 1-MeA-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/ and RN-P-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/. Hydrolysis of RN-P-8-/sup 14/C with 1 N HCl at 100 degrees yielded 91% of the initial radioactivity in the purine fraction, and of this 90% was in A, 9% in 1-MeA, and 1% in 4(5)-amino-5(4)-imidazole carboxamidine (AIMCAD). With RN-P-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/ the corresponding figures were 20, 45, 27, and 28%. Degradation of 1-MeA-8-/sup 14/C or RN-P-8-/sup 14/C with 6 N HCl at 110 degrees yielded radioactive AIMCAD which, on heating at pH 12, gave radioactive 4(5)-amino-5(4)-imidazole carboxamide (AICA). When 1-MeA-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/ or RN-P-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/ were similarly degraded, radioactive AIMCAD was formed, but the AICA possessed little or no radioactivity due to the loss of the radioactive methyl group. Addition of radial nerve factor (GSS) increased the yield of 1-MeA up to 19 times when radioactive L-methionine was substrate, but was ineffective with radioactive A. S-(8-/sup 14/C)Adenosylmethionine was only about 3% as effective as L-(methyl-/sup 14/C)methionine in supporting formation of 1-MeA, and its slight activity was not enhanced by GSS. Immature ovary segments were much more active than those from mature ovaries in synthesizing 1-MeA. The results support the contention that formation of free 1-MeA in starfish ovarian tissues involves methylation of adenine residues in a polynucleotide followed by liberation of 1-MeA by enzymatic hydrolysis.

Tarr, H.L.

1985-11-01

89

Calcifications in ovary and endometrium and their neoplasms.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the role of hormones in the pathogenesis of calcifications in ovary and in endometrium and their neoplasms of the gynecologic tract and assessed the anatomic location and incidence of these calcifications. The study consists of three parts designed to investigate the pathogenesis, the location, and the incidence of calcifications in ovary and endometrium and their neoplasms. In the first part, 79 female guinea pigs were divided into 10 groups, and different hormones, given weekly for 12 months, were administered to the guinea pigs by group. A control group of 7 guinea pigs received sterile water. Calcifications developed in 5 of 7 guinea pigs treated with prolactin, 10 of 20 treated with human chorionic gonadotropin, 5 of 11 treated with estradiol, 3 of 7 treated with estrone, 1 of 6 treated with growth hormone, and 1 of 10 treated with testosterone; in 20 of the guinea pigs, the calcifications developed in the stroma of the endometrium, and in 5 guinea pigs, they developed in the ovary. The second part of the study consisted of an evaluation of the specific location of calcifications in 43 consecutive human surgical ovaries and endometria. Calcifications were seen only in the stroma in 100% of the ovarian serous adenofibroma specimens; in ovarian serous borderline neoplasms, the stroma contained 70 to 100% of the calcifications, and the epithelium had 0 to 30% of the calcifications. In ovarian serous carcinoma specimens, the calcifications were seen in the stroma in 50 to 60% of the cases, in the epithelium in 40% of the cases, and in areas of necrosis in 10% of the cases. The third part of the study was directed to determine the frequency of calcifications in ovarian lesions. We found that all cases of endosalpingiosis and ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma had calcifications, whereas 80% of the cases of serous borderline tumor had calcifications, and only 50% of the cases of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma contained calcifications. The results of this study indicate that the majority of the calcifications in the ovary and the endometrium and their neoplasms are present in the stroma. This is most probably secondary to metabolic changes, which could be related to hormones and not caused by degenerative changes in epithelial cells. PMID:12640101

Silva, Elvio G; Deavers, Michael T; Parlow, A F; Gershenson, David M; Malpica, Anais

2003-03-01

90

Lack of an Association between Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptor Gene Pro12Ala Polymorphism and Adiponectin Levels in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic diseases and is characterized by obesity in approximately 50% of those affected. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived protein that possesses an antiatheroscle- rotic action and improves insulin sensitivity. Peroxisome pro- liferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) regulates the tran- scription of several adipocyte-specific genes. The aim of this study was to investigate

FRANCESCO ORIO; STEFANO PALOMBA; TERESA CASCELLA; SEBASTIANO DI BIASE; DONATO LABELLA; TIZIANA RUSSO; SILVIA SAVASTANO; FULVIO ZULLO; ANNAMARIA COLAO; ROBERTO VETTOR; GAETANO LOMBARDI

91

Fractalkine is expressed in the human ovary and increases progesterone biosynthesis in human luteinised granulosa cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent evidence from rodent ovaries has demonstrated expression of fractalkine and the existence of fractalkine receptor,\\u000a and showed that there is a significant increase in steroidogenesis in response to fractalkine, yet the role of fractalkine\\u000a and CX3CR1 in the human ovary is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the expression levels of fractalkine and CX3CR1\\u000a in the human ovary

Shuo Huang; Ping Zhao; Liying Yang; Yuan Chen; Jie Yan; Enkui Duan; Jie Qiao

2011-01-01

92

Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary  

PubMed Central

The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size. PMID:24788203

Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

2014-01-01

93

Female reproductive aging is master-planned at the level of ovary.  

PubMed

The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size. PMID:24788203

Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N

2014-01-01

94

Cancer of the supernumerary ovary in Mayer-Rokitansty-Küster-Hauser Syndrome: A case report  

PubMed Central

Mayer-Rokitansty-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a Müllerian anomaly that presents with varying degrees of uterovaginal aplasia and is secondarily associated with cervicothoracic, auditory and skeletal anomalies. However, MRKH syndrome patients have normal and functional ovaries. A supernumerary ovary is an extremely rare form of an ectopic ovary and there are no reported cases of MRKH syndrome with cancer of the supernumerary ovary in the current literature. A 31-year-old female with a history of MRKH syndrome that was diagnosed 4 years previously presented with abdominal pain and a suspected malignant pelvic mass was identified. During the staging surgery, both ovaries were separated from the main mass, observed and removed. A third ovary was discovered in the pelvic mass and the diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer from the third ovary was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We report the first known case of cancer of the supernumerary ovary in a patient with MRKH syndrome. Although both ovaries were confirmed to be normal in the patient with MRKH syndrome, we propose that an ovarian neoplasm should be considered in the diagnosis of a pelvic mass. PMID:23420814

BAE, HYO SOOK; RYU, MIN JI; KIM, IN SUN; KIM, SUN HAENG; SONG, JAE YUN

2013-01-01

95

Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Bovine Follicular Cystic Ovaries  

PubMed Central

Follicular cystic ovary (FCO) is one of the most frequently diagnosed ovarian diseases and is a major cause of reproductive failure in mammalian species. However, the mechanism by which FCO is induced remains unclear. Genetic alterations which affect the functioning of many kinds of cells and/or tissues could be present in cystic ovaries. In this study, we performed a comparison analysis of gene expression in order to identify new molecules useful in discrimination of bovine FCO with follicular cystic follicles (FCFs). Normal follicles and FCFs were classified based on their sizes (5 to 10 mm and ?25 mm). These follicles had granulosa cell layer and theca interna and the hormone 17?-estradiol (E2)/ progesterone (P4) ratio in follicles was greater than one. Perifollicular regions including follicles were used for the preparation of RNA or protein. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) that showed greater than a 2-fold change in expression were screened by the annealing control primer (ACP)-based PCR method using GeneFishing™ DEG kits in bovine normal follicles and FCFs. We identified two DEGs in the FCFs: ribosomal protein L15 (RPL15) and microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) based on BLAST searches of the NCBI GenBank. Consistent with the ACP analysis, semi-quantitative PCR data and Western blot analyses revealed an up-regulation of RPL15 and a down-regulation of MAP1B in FCFs. These results suggest that RPL15 and MAP1B may be involved in the regulation of pathological processes in bovine FCOs and may help to establish a bovine gene data-base for the discrimination of FCOs from normal ovaries. PMID:21165323

Choe, Changyong; Cho, Young-Woo; Kim, Chang-Woon; Son, Dong-Soo; Han, Jaehee

2010-01-01

96

Frequent overexpression of p53 in dysgerminoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

The expression of p53 in 7 dysgerminomas of the ovary was investigated immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibodies DAKO-p53/Do-7 and Dianova-p53/Do-1. All the tumors exhibited overexpression of p53 protein. Immunoreactive tumor cell nuclei amounted to more than 50% in 2 tumors, 10-50% in 2 tumors, and less than 10% in 3 tumors. No relationship was found between tumor stage and the degree of p53 expression. Overexpression of p53 thus appears to be very common in dysgerminoma, as it is in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:8150371

Dietl, J; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E

1994-01-01

97

MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with infertility, insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased life time risk of type 2 diabetes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Altered miRNA levels have been associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on miRNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome. PMID:25158044

S?rensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise; Salo, Sofia; Englund, Anne Lis Mikkelsen; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

2014-01-01

98

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%-20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%-70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

2013-01-01

99

Structural homology and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification in Lithophragma (Saxifragaceae).  

PubMed

Lithophragma, comprising only ten species, encompasses a remarkable diversity of ovary positions, reported to range from inferior to superior. The structural homology of the gynoecium and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification are investigated for Lithophragma. Scanning electron and light microscopy indicate that all species of Lithophragma have epigynous flowers. Lithophragma campanulatum, L. glabrum, and L. heterophyllum have ovaries that externally appear nearly superior, but are actually shallowly inferior or "pseudosuperior." The inferior ovaries of Lithophragma species can be conceptually divided into superior and inferior regions that meet at the point of perianth and androecial insertion. Static and ontogenetic allometry reveal that across the species of Lithophragma the lengths of these two ovary regions are coordinated. Ovary regions in mature flowers display an approximately linear relationship that can be expressed through the allometric equation SL = -0.5314 IL + 2.0348 (where SL and IL are the lengths of the superior and inferior regions of the ovary, respectively; r = 0.7683, df = 35, P = 2.45 × 10). Mapping ontogenetic allometries onto a recent phylogeny for Lithophragma shows that ovary position evolution is bidirectional and has shifted toward greater superiority in some species and greater inferiority in others. PMID:11222242

Kuzoff, R K; Hufford, L; Soltis, D E

2001-02-01

100

Electro-Acupuncture Reverses Nerve Growth Factor Abundance in Experimental Polycystic Ovaries in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains one of the most common causes of anovulation in women of reproductive age. There is some evidence that nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Therefore, seeking the pathogenesis of PCOS is important for controlling fertility. In traditional Oriental Medicine, acupuncture has been used for the function of ovaries. The present

Young Hoon Bai; Sung Chul Lim; Chang Hun Song; Chun Sik Bae; Cheon Sik Jin; Bum Chae Choi; Chul Ho Jang; Seung Hoo Lee; Sok Cheon Pak

2004-01-01

101

Effects of Selenium on Maize Ovary Development at Pollination Stage Under Water Deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize ovary development is linked to kernel formation. Soil water deficit results in ovary abortion because of low water potential (?w) resulting in inhibition of photosynthesis from anthesis to silking stage. Thus, drought is a key factor causing yield losses in maize, especially near the time of pollination. Earlier studies have indicated that selenium (Se) maintains antioxidative defence systems and

SHEN Qiang-yun; Marja Turakainen; Mervi Seppänen; Pirjo Mäkelä

2008-01-01

102

Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had

C. J. Fowler; T. J. Christmas; C. R. Chapple; H. F. Parkhouse; R. S. Kirby; H. S. Jacobs

1988-01-01

103

Mortality of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome at Long-term Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic disturbances associated with insulin resistance are present in most women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This has led to suggestions that women with polycystic ovary syndrome may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. We undertook a long-term follow-up study to test whether cardiovascular mortality is increased in these women. A total of 786 women diagnosed with

T. Pierpoint; P. M. McKeigue; A. J. Isaacs; S. H. Wild; H. S. Jacobs

1998-01-01

104

Morphometrical and intracellular changes in rat ovaries following chronic administration of ghrelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our investigation was to examine the influence of chronic administration of ghrelin on the rat ovarian state. Morphometrical and intracellular changes in the ovary of 35-d female Wistar rats after sc injection of 1nmol of ghrelin for 10 consecutive days were studied. Control animals (n=10) were injected with normal saline using similar method. The ovaries were collected

A. Kheradmand; L. Roshangar; M. Taati; A. V. Sirotkin

2009-01-01

105

Glandular hairs of the ovary: a helpful character for Asteroideae (Asteraceae) taxonomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface microcharacters of the ovary of the Asteraceae were studied, especially biseriate glandular hairs. Of 34 species belonging to the Asteroideae, only Dittrichia viscosa, Pulicaria dysenterica, Bellis perennis, Tanacetum parthenium, Achillea mar- itima, Matricaria chamomilla, and Eupatorium cannabinum possess glandular hairs on the ovary. Additional characters considered are hair morphology and distribution, cell number, and presence of subcuticular chambers and

Daniela Ciccarelli; Fabio Garbari; Anna M. Pagni

106

Germline competency of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells from immature oocytes of adult mouse ovary.  

PubMed

Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have been generated in several mammalian species from parthenogenetic embryos that would otherwise die around mid-gestation. However, previous reports suggest that pESCs derived from in vivo ovulated (IVO) mature oocytes show limited pluripotency, as evidenced by low chimera production, high tissue preference and especially deficiency in germline competence, a critical test for genetic integrity and pluripotency of ESCs. Here, we report efficient generation of germline-competent pESC lines (named as IVM pESCs) from parthenogenetic embryos developed from immature oocytes of adult mouse ovaries following in vitro maturation (IVM) and artificial activation. In contrast, pESCs derived from IVO oocytes show defective germline competence, consistent with previous reports. Further, IVM pESCs resemble more ESCs from fertilized embryos (fESCs) than do IVO pESCs on genome-wide DNA methylation and global protein profiles. In addition, IVM pESCs express higher levels of Blimp1, Lin28 and Stella, relative to fESCs, and in their embryoid bodies following differentiation. This may indicate differences in differentiation potentially to the germline. The mechanisms for acquisition of pluripotency and germline competency of IVM pESCs from immature oocytes remain to be determined. PMID:21239471

Liu, Zhong; Hu, Zhe; Pan, Xinghua; Li, Minshu; Togun, Taiwo A; Tuck, David; Pelizzola, Mattia; Huang, Junjiu; Ye, Xiaoying; Yin, Yu; Liu, Mengyuan; Li, Chao; Chen, Zhisheng; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Lingjun; Chen, Lingyi; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

2011-04-01

107

Fat body, hemolymph and ovary routes for delivery of substances to ovary in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides: differences among castes through the use of electron-opaque tracers.  

PubMed

The yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vg), in bees is synthesized in the fat body trophocytes, delivered to the hemolymph and ultimately absorbed from there during the vitellogenic phase of oocytes in the active ovary. The routes tracing the material exchange that occurs between the trophocytes and the hemolymph, in addition to the transportation from the hemolymph to the ovarian follicles, were marked by alkaline phosphatase and lanthanum nitrate (LN). Active ovaries from nurse workers and physogastric queens, as well as inactive ovaries of virgin queens, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The LN permitted better visualization of the routes of exchanges between the organs and the hemolymph. Both methods demonstrate the apparent differences between the phases of the ovary and the bee caste. In inactive ovaries of the virgin queens, the routes from the follicular epithelium to the oocyte remain closed; conversely, they are open in active ovaries of the nurse workers and physogastric queens. The differences between the methods and classes of bees are discussed. PMID:23543774

da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Berger, Bruno

2013-08-01

108

The restorative effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on damaged ovarian function  

PubMed Central

The clinical application of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as treatment for intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To address the ability of reactivating injured ovaries, we prepared a rat model with damaged ovaries by using an anticancer agent, cyclophosphamide (CTX). We then investigated the restorative effects on ovarian function and the safety of adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). MSCs were shown to be capable of inducing angiogenesis and restoring the number of ovarian follicles and corpus lutea in ovaries. No deformities, tumor formation or deaths were observed in F1 and F2 rats, indicating that the local injection of MSCs into the ovary did not have any obvious side effects. In addition, the localization of the Y chromosome was investigated using the fluorescent in situ hybridization method by injecting male A-MSCs into the ovaries; as a result, the Y chromosomes were localized not in the follicles, but in the thecal layers. ELISA revealed that A-MSCs secreted higher levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than tail fibroblast cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that higher expression levels of VEGF, IGF-1 and HGF were observed in CTX-treated ovaries after A-MSC transplantation. These findings suggest that MSCs may have a role in restoring damaged ovarian function and could be useful for regenerative medicine. PMID:23212100

Takehara, Yuji; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Ezoe, Kenji; Kuroda, Tomoko; Yamadera, Rie; Sano, Chiaki; Murata, Nana; Aida, Takuya; Nakama, Ken; Aono, Fumihito; Aoyama, Naoki; Kato, Keiich; Kato, Osamu

2013-01-01

109

OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA AND METABOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underrecognized, yet significant factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic derangements in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Recent findings suggest that there may be two “subtypes” of PCOS, i.e. PCOS with or without OSA, and these two subtypes may be associated with distinct metabolic and endocrine alterations. PCOS women with OSA may be at much higher risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease than PCOS women without OSA and may benefit from therapeutic interventions targeted to decrease the severity of OSA. The present chapter will review what is currently known about the roles of sex steroids and adiposity in the pathogenesis of OSA, briefly review the metabolic consequences of OSA as well as the metabolic abnormalities associated with PCOS, review the prevalence of OSA in PCOS and finally present early findings regarding the impact of treatment of OSA on metabolic measures in PCOS. PMID:21112021

Nitsche, Katie; Ehrmann, David A.

2010-01-01

110

Screening for and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in teenagers.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually arises during puberty and is marked by hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Adolescents with PCOS are at an increased risk of developing health problems later on in life such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and infertility. Furthermore, the physical signs of PCOS can be detrimental to a teenage girl's self-image. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS in adolescents are essential in ensuring adulthood health and restoring self-esteem. Treatments for an adolescent with PCOS include diet and exercise, metformin, and oral contraceptive pills. Each of these options has been shown to be effective in improving certain aspects of PCOS, and probably the best treatment plan involves some combination of them. PMID:15096648

Salmi, Darren J; Zisser, Howard C; Jovanovic, Lois

2004-05-01

111

Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of cerebellar degeneration which initiated a suspicion of underlying malignancy. The patient presented with progressive ataxia and dysarthria and after excluding primary cerebellar pathology, paraneoplastic syndrome was suspected and she was investigated for a malignancy. CT scan of the pelvis showed a left-sided ovarian mass later diagnosed as serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. She underwent surgery and histology of the mass showed poorly-differentiated serous adenocarcinoma. Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome encompasses several neurological disorders including paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) caused by an immune-mediated mechanism in patients with an underlying malignancy. PCD is a rare condition that occurs in less than 1% of patients with cancer and is associated with specific groups of cancer. It is important to identify PCD due to its association with certain cancers and also to limit the disabilities associated with the syndrome. PMID:25432905

Saeed, Duaa B; Gupta, Limci

2014-01-01

112

IMP3 Expression in Serous Tumors of the Ovary.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP3) is an oncofetal protein involved in embryogenesis, which is expressed in a variety of malignant neoplasms. It is rarely expressed in normal adult tissue and benign tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of IMP3 in benign and malignant serous tumors of the ovary. Seventy-nine ovarian tumors were examined for IMP3 expression by immunohistochemical analysis, comprising 16 benign serous tumors, 19 borderline serous tumors, and 44 serous carcinomas. Positive staining was defined as brown staining in the cytoplasm. Negative staining was defined as absent staining or staining of <5% of tumor cells. The intensity of staining (weak, moderate, and strong) and percentage (0% to 100%) of neoplastic cells staining positive for cytoplasmic IMP3 staining were recorded in each case. Moderate to strong cytoplasmic staining for IMP3 was observed in 30 of 44 (68%) serous carcinomas of the ovary; in contrast, <5% of the borderline and benign serous tumors expressed IMP3 ranging from weak to strong cytoplasmic staining. Statistically, the difference in IMP3 expression between these groups of tumors was highly significant (P<0.0001). Our findings demonstrate moderate to strong expression of IMP3 in the majority of ovarian serous carcinomas as compared with benign/borderline serous tumors, which demonstrated weak to strong expression in a small minority (<5%) of the tumors. Thus, IMP3 may be a useful adjunctive tool in the pathologic evaluation of ovarian serous tumors. PMID:25279713

Chisté, Marcela; Alexis, John; Recine, Monica

2014-10-01

113

Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100?IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15?M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60?min with the rate of perfusion 50?mL/h (0.8?mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

114

Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase, Ornithine Transcarbamylase, and Aspartate Transcarbamylase Activities in the Pea Ovary 1  

PubMed Central

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), and aspartate transcarbamylase (ATC) were assayed in extracts from unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. CPS and OTC activities were, per milligram protein, the highest reported in a plant tissue, representing an estimated 0.1% of the protein in the ovary. The OTC/CPS and ATC/CPS ratios were about 100 and 0.5, respectively, indicating that most of the carbamoyl phosphate is used for arginine synthesis. The weight, protein content, and CPS, OTC, and ATC activities per ovary were determined during the senescence of the ovary and also during fruit set induced by treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3). In the nontreated ovary the weight and the protein first increased and then decreased dramatically, but the decrease in protein took place much earlier. In the GA3-treated ovaries the increase in weight was considerably greater than the increase in the protein. Whether or not the ovaries were treated with GA3, CPS, OTC, and ATC activities closely followed the changes in protein, and thus their ratios and specific activities remained essentially constant. It appears that treatment with GA3 increases the amount of protein and enzymic activities by preventing a large increase in the rate of protein degradation. In addition, the effects of acetylglutamate, ornithine, and UMP on CPS activity were studied. The pea enzyme exhibits regulatory properties intermediate between those of Escherichia coli and the ureotelic liver enzymes. PMID:16666966

Garcia-Espana, Antonio; Carbonell, Juan; Rubio, Vicente

1989-01-01

115

The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia.  

PubMed

Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of 'lower' primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

2014-08-01

116

Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

117

Cellular and genomic toxicity produced by UV light in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

UVB and UVC toxicity was detected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines AA8, UV5 and XEM2 (a V79-derived cell line expressing rat P450 1A1). Unlike FICZ-HPLC assay that showed induction of CYP1A1 enzyme activity after 20 minutes and 2 hour UVC exposure, the EROD assay showed no difference in cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activity after exposure to different doses of UVB and UVC light. Different cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of photo lesions induced by UVC and UVB light was investigated with the DRAG and HPRT assays, comparing the wild type cell line AA8 and the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) deficient cell line UV5. DRAG assay showed a significant difference in UV induced cytotoxicity between UVC and UVB reflecting the larger energy and toxic effect of UVC along with significant difference in UV induced toxicity between AA8 and UV5 cell lines. This was further validated through the HPRT assay, which also showed a significant difference in UVC (5 J/m(2)) induced mutagenic effect between these cell lines. In addition, HPRT assay showed the mutagenic effect of photosensitizer, acetophenone. These results show that UVB and UVC generate serious damage through photo products on DNA, and might induce the metabolic activity of CYP1A1. PMID:24577918

Rahman, Inayatur; Karim, Abdul; Idrees, Muhammad; Khan, Mohammad Iqbal

2014-03-01

118

Detection of biosynthetic intermediates in proteoglycan-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants lacking xylosyltransferase or galactosyltransferase I do not synthesize mature proteoglycans. The authors predicted that the mutants would accumulate biosynthetic intermediates upstream from the block imposed by mutation. Using the fusogenic properties of vesicular stomatitis virus, the authors fused monolayers composed of galactosyltransferase I-deficient cells with virus-infected xylosyltransferase-deficient cells. Immediately following fusion the cells were pulse-labelled with /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ for one hour. Quantification of radioactive products showed that the mutants contained biosynthetically active intermediates that proceeded to mature glycosaminoglycans. The production of glycosaminoglycan was dependent on fusion, and fusion of each mutant to itself did not result in radioactive product. Analysis of the newly made glycosaminoglycans through HPLC anion-exchange chromatography showed that the fused cells synthesized heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in about the same proportion as wildtype cells. These findings suggest that the mutants accumulate precursors to both families of proteoglycans. They also found that progeny virus from infected CHO cells contain proteoglycans, presumably derived from the plasma membrane. This observation suggests that the virus can be used to isolate intermediates accumulating in the mutants.

Montgomery, R.I.; Esko, J.D.

1987-05-01

119

Wolbachia Infect Ovaries in the Course of Their Maturation: Last Minute Passengers and Priority Travellers?  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers). PMID:24722673

Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

2014-01-01

120

MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

MAMMALIAN APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE NEONATAL OVARIES USING CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffery and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Prot...

121

Suppression of Notch Signaling in the Neonatal Mouse Ovary Decreases Primordial Follicle Formation  

E-print Network

Suppression of Notch Signaling in the Neonatal Mouse Ovary Decreases Primordial Follicle Formation, and an external thecal cell layer. Select numbers of follicles mature in response to circulating gonadotropins

Mayo, Kelly E.

122

Chinese hamster ovary cells can produce galactose-?-1,3-galactose antigens on proteins  

E-print Network

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for the manufacture of biotherapeutics, in part because of their ability to produce proteins with desirable properties, including 'human-like' glycosylation profiles. For ...

Bosques, Carlos J

123

Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?  

MedlinePLUS

... Opportunities & Mechanisms Active Funding Opportunity Announcements, notices & mechanisms Peer Review Review of the scientific & technical merit of grant ... D. A. (2005). Polycystic ovary syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine , 352, ... Endocrinology , 7, 219–231. [top] American Diabetes Association. ( ...

124

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE AND RAT OVARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy of Apoptosis in Whole Mouse and Rat Ovaries. Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research ...

125

77 FR 59625 - NIH Evidence-Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary; Syndrome  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the public. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormone disorder that affects...women in the United States. Women with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant (i...Other organ systems that are affected by PCOS include the pancreas, liver,...

2012-09-28

126

Active Hypothermic Growth: A Novel Means For Increasing Total Interferon-? Production by Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

E-print Network

When grown under hypothermic conditions, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells become growth arrested in the G?/G? phase of the cell cycle and also often exhibit increased recombinant protein production. In this study, we ...

Stephen R., Fox

127

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces apoptosis in the trout ovary  

PubMed Central

Background In mammals it is well known that infections can lead to alterations in reproductive function. As part of the innate immune response, a number of cytokines and other immune factors is produced during bacterial infection or after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and acts on the reproductive system. In fish, LPS can also induce an innate immune response but little is known about the activation of the immune system by LPS on reproduction in fish. Therefore, we conducted studies to examine the in vivo and in vitro effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the reproductive function of sexually mature female trout. Methods In saline- and LPS -injected brook trout, we measured the concentration of plasma steroids as well as the in vitro steroidogenic response (testosterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone) of ovarian follicles to luteinizing hormone (LH), the ability of 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one to induce germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in vitro, and that of epinephrine to stimulate follicular contraction in vitro. We also examined the direct effects of LPS in vitro on steroid production, GVBD and contraction in brook trout ovarian follicles. The incidence of apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL analysis. Furthermore, we examined the gene expression pattern in the ovary of saline- and LPS-injected rainbow trout by microarray analysis. Results LPS treatment in vivo did not affect plasma testosterone concentration or the basal in vitro production of steroids, although a small but significant potentiation of the effects of LH on testosterone production in vitro was observed in ovarian follicles from LPS-treated fish. In addition, LPS increased the plasma concentration of cortisol. LPS treatment in vitro did not affect the basal or LH-stimulated steroid production in brook trout ovarian follicles. In addition, we did not observe any effects of LPS in vivo or in vitro on GVBD or follicular contraction. Therefore, LPS did not appear to impair ovarian steroid production, oocyte final maturation or follicular contraction under the present experimental conditions. Interestingly, LPS administration in vivo induced apoptosis in follicular cells, an observation that correlated with changes in the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, as evidenced by microarray analysis. Conclusion These results indicate that female trout are particularly resistant to an acute administration of LPS in terms of ovarian hormone responsiveness. However, LPS caused a marked increase in apoptosis in follicular cells, suggesting that the trout ovary could be sensitive to the pro-apoptotic effects of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines. PMID:16945135

MacKenzie, Simon; Montserrat, Nuria; Mas, Mario; Acerete, Laura; Tort, Lluis; Krasnov, Aleksei; Goetz, Frederick W; Planas, Josep V

2006-01-01

128

Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified of bilateral ovaries: A rare cause of post menopausal virilization  

PubMed Central

Steroid cell tumors of the ovaries are rare sex-hormone secreting tumors which are usually benign and unilateral. One previous study has estimated the tumors to be bilateral in 6% of patients. We report a case of post menopausal virilization where tumor histology revealed steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified with benign charactsristics. The presence of tumor in bilateral ovaries made this case unique. PMID:24251181

Cooray, Samanthi M. A.; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha D. S.; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Samarathunga, Praboda

2013-01-01

129

Polycystic ovaries in adolescents and the relationship with menstrual cycle patterns, luteinizing hormone, androgens, and insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To evaluate the possible role of inappropriate LH secretion, hyperandrogenism, and hyperinsulinemia in the development of polycystic ovaries (PCO) and the polycystic ovary syndrome.Design: Observational.Setting: General population samples.Participants: 58 adolescents with regular menstrual cycles, 50 with irregular menstrual cycles, and 29 with oligomenorrhea (age 16.7 ± 0.9 years).Interventions: Transabdominal pelvic ultrasonography and vena puncture.Main Outcome Measures: PCO; LH,

Marcel H. A van Hooff; Feja J Voorhorst; Margriet B. H Kaptein; Remy A Hirasing; Corrie Koppenaal; Joop Schoemaker

2000-01-01

130

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Metabolic Syndrome Long-Term Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous clinical entity defined as the association of hyperandrogenism with chronic\\u000a anovulation and the appearance of polycystic ovaries on sonography. Infertility is part of the syndrome but could be successfully\\u000a treated with modern reproductive techniques. Hirsutism can be managed with drugs that suppress ovarian function, increase\\u000a sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels and\\/or blocking androgen

Eva Dahlgren; Per Olof Janson

131

Glucose and lipopolysaccharide regulate proatherogenic cytokine release from mononuclear cells in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation, which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We examined the effect of glucose ingestion and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on markers of proatherogenic inflammation in the mononuclear cells (MNC) and plasma of women with PCOS. Sixteen women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 15 weight-matched controls (8 lean, 7 obese) underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) release from MNC cultured in the presence of LPS and plasma IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured from blood samples drawn while fasting and 2h after glucose ingestion. Truncal fat was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA). Lean women with PCOS and obese controls failed to suppress LPS-stimulated IL-6 and IL-1? release from MNC after glucose ingestion. In contrast, obese women with PCOS suppressed these MNC-derived cytokines under the same conditions. In response to glucose ingestion, plasma IL-6 and sVCAM-1 increased and CRP suppression was attenuated in both PCOS groups and obese controls compared with lean controls. Fasting plasma IL-6 and CRP correlated positively with percentage of truncal fat. The absolute change in plasma IL-6 correlated positively with testosterone. We conclude that glucose ingestion promotes proatherogenic inflammation in PCOS with a systemic response that is independent of obesity. Based on the suppressed MNC-derived cytokine responses suggestive of LPS tolerance, chronic low-grade inflammation may be more profound in obese women with PCOS. Excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may contribute to atherogenesis in PCOS. PMID:24576416

González, Frank; Kirwan, John P; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi; O'Leary, Valerie B

2014-06-01

132

Hormonal Control of Parthenocarpic Ovary Growth by the Apical Shoot in Pea1  

PubMed Central

The role of the apical shoot as a source of inhibitors preventing fruit growth in the absence of a stimulus (e.g. pollination or application of gibberellic acid) has been investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Plant decapitation stimulated parthenocarpic growth, even in derooted plants, and this effect was counteracted by the application of indole acetic acid (IAA) or abscisic acid (ABA) in agar blocks to the severed stump. The treatment of unpollinated ovaries with gibberellic acid blocked the effect of IAA or ABA applied to the stump. [3H]IAA and [3H]ABA applied to the stump were transported basipetally, and [3H]ABA but not [3H]IAA was also detected in unpollinated ovaries. The concentration of ABA in unpollinated ovaries increased significantly in the absence of a promotive stimulus. The application of IAA to the stump enhanced by 2- to 5-fold the concentration of ABA in the inhibited ovary, whereas the inhibition of IAA transport from the apical shoot by triiodobenzoic acid decreased the ovary content of ABA (to approximately one-half). Triiodobenzoic acid alone, however, was unable to stimulate ovary growth. Thus, in addition to removing IAA transport from the apical shoot, the accumulation of a promotive factor is also necessary to induce parthenocarpic growth in decapitated plants. PMID:9490755

Rodrigo, Maria J.; Garcia-Martinez, Jose L.

1998-01-01

133

Infertility in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians: the role of programmed cell death.  

PubMed

Ex-fissiparous planarians produce infertile cocoons or, in very rare cases, cocoons with very low fertility. Here, we describe the features of programmed cell death (PCD) occurring in the hyperplasic ovary of the ex-fissiparous freshwater planarian Dugesia arabica that may explain this infertility. Based on TEM results, we demonstrate a novel extensive co-clustering of cytoplasmic organelles, such as lysosomes and microtubules, and their fusion with autophagosomes during the early stage of oocyte cell death occurring through an autophagic pattern. During a later stage of cell death, the generation of apoptotic vesicles in the cytoplasm can be observed. The immunohistochemical labeling supports the ultrastructural results because it has been shown that the proapoptotic protein bax was more highly expressed in the hyperplasic ovary than in the normal one, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein bcl2 was slightly more highly expressed in the normal ovary compared to the hyperplasic one. TUNEL analysis of the hyperplasic ovary confirmed that the nuclei of the majority of differentiating oocytes were TUNEL-positive, whereas the nuclei of oogonia and young oocytes were TUNEL-negative; in the normal ovary, oocytes are TUNEL-negative. Considering all of these data, we suggest that the cell death mechanism of differentiating oocytes in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians is one of the most important factors that cause ex-fissiparous planarian infertility. We propose that autophagy precedes apoptosis during oogenesis, whereas apoptotic features can be observed later. PMID:25107610

Harrath, Abdel Halim; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Mansour, Lamjed; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Arfah, Maha; Al Anazi, Mohamed S; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Nyengaard, Jens R; Alwasel, Saleh

2014-11-01

134

Partial ovary development is widespread in honey bees and comparable to other eusocial bees and wasps  

PubMed Central

Honey bee workers have few opportunities for direct reproduction because their ovary development is chemically suppressed by queens and worker-laid eggs are destroyed by workers. While workers with fully developed ovaries are rare in honey bee colonies, we show that partial ovary development is common. Across nine studies, an average of 6% to 43% of workers had partially developed ovaries in queenright colonies with naturally mated queens. This shift by workers toward potential future reproduction is linked to lower productivity, which suggests that even small investments in reproductive physiology by selfish workers reduce cooperation below a theoretical maximum. Furthermore, comparisons across 26 species of bees and wasps revealed that the level of partial ovary development in honey bees is similar to that of other eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive conflict among colony members. Natural variation in the extent of partial ovary development in honey bee colonies calls for an exploration of the genetic and ecological factors that modulate shifts in cooperation within animal societies. PMID:24255737

Smith, Michael L.; Mattila, Heather R.; Reeve, H. Kern

2013-01-01

135

Effect of the Growth Retardant 3,5-Dioxo-4-butyryl-cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester, an Acylcyclohexanedione Compound, on Fruit Growth and Gibberellin Content of Pollinated and Unpollinated Ovaries in Pea.  

PubMed Central

Treatment of pollinated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska, line V1) ovaries with 3,5-dioxo-4-butyryl-cyclohexane carboxylic acid ethyl ester (LAB), an acylcyclohexanedione derivative that competitively inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent gibberellin (GA) dioxygenases, caused a reduction of pod elongation proportional to the amount of inhibitor applied. The effect of LAB was counteracted by GA1 and GA3, and partially by GA20. The inhibitor decreased the contents of GA1 and GA3 (the purported active GAs) and GA8, increased those of GA19 and GA20, and did not affect that of GA29 in both the pod and the developing seeds. These results provide evidence that GA1 and/or GA3 control pod development in pea and show that GA20 is not active per se. In contrast to its effect on pollinated ovaries, LAB promoted parthenocarpic development of unpollinated ovaries, which is associated with an increase of GA1 and GA8 content. The inhibitor enhanced the response of unpollinated ovaries to GA1 and GA20, but it did not alter the response to GA3. LAB is proposed to promote parthenocarpic development and enhance the response to exogenous GAs by blocking the 2[beta]-hydroxylation of GA1 more efficiently than 3[beta]-hydroxylation of GA20. PMID:12228489

Santes, C. M.; Garcia-Martinez, J. L.

1995-01-01

136

Elevated circulating levels of tissue factor in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have coagulation disturbances and inflammation, which increases the risk of atherothrombosis. We evaluated the status of circulating tissue factor (TF), the receptor for coagulation factor VII involved in atherothrombosis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status and weight class on TF and other parameters. The TF levels were significantly higher in lean women with PCOS compared to lean controls. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in obese participants compared to lean participants after controlling for PCOS status. The TF levels directly correlated with percentage of truncal fat and plasma levels of PAI-1, testosterone, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate; and inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity index-OGTT(IS(OGTT)). Circulating TF is elevated in PCOS independent of obesity, but both PCOS and obesity contribute to a prothrombotic state. In PCOS, abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may exacerbate the risk of atherothrombosis. PMID:22327820

González, Frank; Kirwan, John P; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

2013-01-01

137

Insulin resistance and metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder with widespread systemic manifestations affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The accompanying insulin resistance and hypeinsulinemia mark this syndrome as a prediabetic state, with high incidence of impaired glucose tolerance, gestational diabetes, and overt diabetes. Other metabolic and biochemical changes, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Fertility may also be impaired due to anovulation, impaired implantation, and higher rates of spontaneous abortions. All of these effects may also be related to hyperinsulinemia. Metformin, as insulin-sensitizing drug, is being evaluated for its potential long-term disease-modifying effect, such as prevention of diabetes. Its use may also help restore spontaneous ovulation and improve menstrual cyclicity, improve the success rate of induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate and FSH, and decrease the high rate of ovarian hyperstimulation and early pregnancy loss. Nevertheless, these new exiting potential benefits of metformin should be evaluated in large randomized controlled studies, and clinicians must counsel women appropriately before the initiation of metformin therapy. PMID:15262344

Ben-Haroush, Avi; Yogev, Yariv; Fisch, Benjamin

2004-08-10

138

Sexual Functioning among Married Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain factors re- lated to sexual functioning in 300 PCOS patients attending to the private practice centers in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran, from May to October 2012. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to measure sexual functioning. Moreover, the socio-demo-graphic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity, hirsutism, acne, mestrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile were recorded for each patient. Results Overall the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was 16.6%. In particular patients indicated poorer sexual functioning for the desire (48.3%) and the arousal (44.7%) subscales. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested patients with lower educational level (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.46-5.92) and irregular menstrual status (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.93-11) were more likely to report sexual dysfunction. Conclusion The findings suggest that desire and arousal were the most prevalent sexual disorders reported in this patient population. In addition, findings suggested that women with limited or no formal education and a history of menstrual irregularities were the most likely to report female sexual dysfunction. Further investigations are needed to examine female sexual functioning among women with PCOS, to educate their health care providers, and to develop therapeutic interventions. PMID:25379156

Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

2014-01-01

139

Nesfatin-1 and other hormone alterations in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly characterised by obesity, insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia and hirsutism. Nesfatin-1 a recently discovered hormone, acts upon energy balance, glucose metabolism, obesity and probably gonadal functions. This study was to evaluate the circulating levels of nesfatin-1 in patients with PCOS (n = 30) and in age and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 30). PCOS patients had significantly lower levels of nesfatin-1 (0.88 ± 0.36 ng/mL) than healthy controls (2.22 ± 1.14 ng/mL). PCOS patients also had higher gonadotropin and androgen plasma concentrations, Ferriman-Gallwey scores, blood glucose levels and a homeostasis model of assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR) index than in healthy women. Correlation tests in PCOS subjects detected a negative correlation between nesfatin-1 levels and BMI, fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and a HOMA-IR index. Lower nesfatin-1 concentration may plays a very important role in the development of PCOS. PMID:22367584

Deniz, Rulin; Gurates, Bilgin; Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Husnu; Sahin, Ibrahim; Baykus, Yakup; Catak, Zekiye; Aksoy, Aziz; Citil, Cihan; Gungor, Sami

2012-12-01

140

Relationship between leptin receptor and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders, which is involved in the multi-system disease, and its etiology is still not clearly understood. It is currently considered that not only the genetic factors but also the environment factors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Obesity plays an important role through the insulin, leptin and endocannabinoid system in the pathological process of PCOS, leading to more severe clinical manifestations. The aim of our present study is to investigate whether there is association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Gln223Arg and Pro1019Pro in the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) and PCOS in a Korean population. Interestingly, a significant association was found between the Pro1019Pro in LEPR gene and PCOS, and a highly significant association was found between the Gln223Arg in LEPR gene and PCOS (P=0.033, OR=1.523, 95% confidence interval and P<0.0001, OR=0.446, 95% confidence interval). Moreover, genotype combination and haplotype analyses indicate that Gln223Arg and Pro1019Pro polymorphisms of LEPR are significantly associated with the risk of PCOS. PMID:23769971

Li, Lan; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Choi, Bum-Chae; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

2013-09-15

141

Inositol: history of an effective therapy for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.  

PubMed

Inositol is a physiological compound belonging to the sugar family. The two inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol and D-chiroinositol are the two main stereisomers present in our body. Myo-inositol is the precursor of inositol triphosphate, a second messenger regulating many hormones such as TSH, FSH and insulin. D-chiroinositol is synthetized by an insulin dependent epimerase that converts myo-inositol into D-chiro-inositol. Polycistic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and hormonal disorder and a common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinaemia contribute to hyperandrogenism development, typical marker of PCOS. In these patients myo and/or D-chiro-inositol administration improves insulin sensivity while only myo-inositol is a quality marker for oocytes evaluation. Myo-inositol produces second messengers for FSH and glucose uptake, while D-chiroinositol provides second messengers promoting glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The physiological ratio of these two isomers is 40:1 (MI/DCI) and seems to be an optimal approach for the treatment of PCOS disorders. PMID:25010620

Bizzarri, M; Carlomagno, G

2014-07-01

142

Salvage radiotherapy for carcinoma of the ovary following chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Following single-agent or combination chemotherapy, 9 patients with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary had elective second-look laparotomy. Macroscopic intraperitoneal disease was resected in 4 patients. Therefore, after the laparotomy, all 9 patients had only biopsy-proven, microscopic residual disease, and they received whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Hematological tolerance was satisfactory, with only 2 patients developing asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Mild gastrointestinal reactions, while frequent during radiotherapy, did not interrupt treatment in any patient. After follow-up ranging from 6 to 28 months (median 12 months), 2 patients died of cancer, 2 were alive with cancer, 3 were alive without clinical recurrence, and 2 were alive without biopsy-proven recurrence. Bowel complication occurred in 4 patients: 2 developed intestinal obstruction due to recurrent tumor, 1 developed subacute bowel obstruction which spontaneously resolved, and 1 patient required bowel resection because of a radiation complication. This study indicated that after single- or multiple-drug chemotherapy, most patients could complete the course of whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Gastrointestinal complications could be secondary to radiation damage or to recurrent tumor. While whole abdominopelvic irradiation was not an effective second-line treatment, some long-term survivors could still be expected.

Cheung, A.Y.

1988-05-01

143

Vitamin K metabolism in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Recent investigations suggest that vitamin K may have functions other than in blood coagulation and calcification. The present study was undertaken to investigate this hypothesis using cells in culture. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were chosen due to their active metabolism and growth and lack of similarity to liver and bone cells, in which vitamin K metabolism is well known. Cells were adapted to serum-free media, incubated in media containing the appropriate concentrations of vitamin K for specified times, scraped from plates, pelleted, extensively washed to remove adhering vitamin K, extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1, v/v) and analyzed on C18 HPLC columns. Uptake of vitamin K by CHO cells follows saturation kinetics at vitamin K concentrations up to 25 ..mu.. M and is transported into cells at the rate of 10 pmol/min. 10/sup 6/ cells. After 24 hours, /sup 3/H vitamin K is metabolized by CHO cells to several compounds, the major of which was isolated and identified as vitamin K epoxide. In 3 experiments, after 24 hours, the average cellular uptake of vitamin K was 8% with approximately half being metabolized to vitamin K epoxide. These results demonstrate that vitamin K is metabolized in cells with widely different functions and suggest a generalized function for vitamin K which has yet to be elucidated.

Hoffman, H.S.

1986-01-01

144

Metformin use in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy characterised by increased resistance to insulin. Metformin is one of the longest established oral insulin sensitising agents. For decades its use was restricted to management of type 2 diabetes. However, in the past two decades, its properties as an insulin sensitising agent have been explored in relation to its applicability for women with PCOS. Metformin is an effective ovulation induction agent for non-obese women with PCOS and offers some advantages over other first line treatments for anovulatory infertility such as clomiphene. For clomiphene-resistant women, metformin alone or in combination with clomiphene is an effective next step. Women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilisation should be offered metformin to reduce their risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Limited evidence suggests that metformin may be a suitable alternative to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) for treating hyperandrogenic symptoms of PCOS including hirsutism and acne. More research is required to define whether metformin has a role in improving long term health outcomes for women with PCOS, including the prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and endometrial cancer. PMID:25333031

2014-01-01

145

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects.

Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

1987-05-01

146

FOXL2: a central transcription factor of the ovary.  

PubMed

Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor preferentially expressed in the ovary, the eyelids and the pituitary gland. Its germline mutations are responsible for the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome, which includes eyelid and mild craniofacial defects associated with primary ovarian insufficiency. Recent studies have shown the involvement of FOXL2 in virtually all stages of ovarian development and function, as well as in granulosa cell (GC)-related pathologies. A central role of FOXL2 is the lifetime maintenance of GC identity through the repression of testis-specific genes. Recently, a highly recurrent somatic FOXL2 mutation leading to the p.C134W subtitution has been linked to the development of GC tumours in the adult, which account for up to 5% of ovarian malignancies. In this review, we summarise data on FOXL2 modulators, targets, partners and post-translational modifications. Despite the progresses made thus far, a better understanding of the impact of FOXL2 mutations and of the molecular aspects of its function is required to rationalise its implication in various pathophysiological processes. PMID:24049064

Georges, Adrien; Auguste, Aurelie; Bessière, Laurianne; Vanet, Anne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Veitia, Reiner A

2014-02-01

147

Differential expression of mRNAs encoding the putative inhibin co-receptor (betaglycan) and activin type-I and type-II receptors in preovulatory and prehierarchical follicles of the laying hen ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian follicle development is primarily regulated by an interplay between the pituitary gonadotrophins, LH and FSH, and ovary-derived steroids. Increasing evidence implicates regulatory roles of transforming growth factor- (TGF) superfamily members, including inhibins and activins. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of mRNAs encoding key receptors of the inhibin\\/activin system in ovarian follicles ranging from 4

T M Lovell; P G Knight; R T Gladwell

2006-01-01

148

Arginase, Arginine Decarboxylase, Ornithine Decarboxylase, and Polyamines in Tomato Ovaries (Changes in Unpollinated Ovaries and Parthenocarpic Fruits Induced by Auxin or Gibberellin).  

PubMed Central

Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) activity has been found in the ovaries and Young fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers).Changes in arginase, arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and ornithine decarboxylase activity (EC 4.1.1.17) and levels of free and conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were determined in unpollinated ovaries and in parthenocarpic fruits during the early stages of development induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or gibberellic acid (GA3). Levels of arginase, free spermine, and conjugates of the three polyamines were constant in unpollinated ovaries and characteristic of a presenescent step. A marked decrease in arginase activity, free spermine, and polyamine conjugates was associated with the initiation of fruit growth due to cell division, and when cell expansion was initiated, the absence of arginase indicated a redirection of nitrogen metabolism to the synthesis of arginine. A transient increase in arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase was also observed in 2,4-D-induced fruits. In general, 2,4-D treatments produced faster changes than GA3, and without treatment, unpollinated ovaries developed only slightly and senescence was hardly visible. Sensitivity to 2,4-D and GA3 treatment remained for at least 2 weeks postanthesis. PMID:12226441

Alabadi, D.; Aguero, M. S.; Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.

1996-01-01

149

Floral Ontogeny of the Afro-Madagascan Genus Mitrasacmopsis with Comments on the Development of Superior Ovaries in Rubiaceae  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Members of Rubiaceae are generally characterized by an inferior ovary. However, Mitrasacmopsis is cited in the literature as having a semi-inferior to superior ovary. It has previously been hypothesized that the gynoecial development of Rubiaceae with semi-inferior to superior ovaries takes place in the same way as in Gaertnera, one of the most commonly cited rubiaceous genera with a superior ovary. To test this hypothesis, a floral ontogenetic study of Mitrasacmopsis was carried out with special attention paid to the gynoecial development. Methods Floral ontogeny and anatomy of Mitrasacmopsis were examined using scanning electron and light microscopy. Key Results At an early developmental stage, a concavity becomes visible in the centre of the floral apex simultaneously with the perianth initiation. A ring primordium surrounding this concavity expands vertically forming the corolla tube (early sympetaly). Stamen primordia develop inside the corolla. From the bicarpellate gynoecium only two carpel tips are visible because the ovary is formed by a gynoecial hypanthium. In the basal part of each carpel, a placenta primordium is initiated. Two septa divide the ovary into two locules. In each locule, the placenta becomes mushroom shaped and distinctly stalked. Eventually, the inferior ovary of Mitrasacmopsis develops into a beaked capsule. Only very late in the fruiting stage, the continuously expanding ovary is raised above the insertion point of the persistent calyx, changing the ovary position of Mitrasacmopsis from basically inferior to secondarily semi-inferior. Conclusions Mitrasacmopsis follows an epigynous pattern of floral development. However, the presence of a prominent beak in the fruiting stage gives the whole ovary a semi-inferior appearance. This kind of secondarily semi-inferior ovary is shown to be different from the secondarily superior ovary observed in Gaertnera. PMID:17557833

Groeninckx, I.; Vrijdaghs, A.; Huysmans, S.; Smets, E.; Dessein, S.

2007-01-01

150

Assessment of symptoms of urinary incontinence in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The pelvic floor muscles are sensitive to androgens, and due to hyperandrogenism, women with polycystic ovary syndrome can have increased mass in these muscles compared to controls. The aim of this study is to compare reports of urine leakage and quality of life between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: One hundred thirteen 18- to 40-year-old nulliparous women with polycystic ovary syndrome or without the disease (controls) were recruited at the University Hospital of School Medicine of São Paulo University at Ribeirão Preto City, Brazil. The subjects were not taking any hormonal medication, had not undergone previous pelvic surgery and did not exercise their pelvic floor muscles. The women were divided into the following four groups: I- polycystic ovary syndrome with normal body mass index (n?=?18), II- polycystic ovary syndrome with body mass index ?25 (n?=?32), III- controls with normal body mass index (n?=?29), and IV- controls with Body Mass Index ?25 (n?=?34). Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire, and the subjects with urinary complaints also completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form to evaluate the severity of their urinary incontinence. RESULTS: The replies to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form revealed a significant difference in urinary function between groups, with 24% of the subjects in group IV reporting urinary incontinence. The mean scores for the SF-36 questionnaire revealed that group II had the lowest quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The control obese group (IV) reported a higher prevalence of urinary incontinence. There was no difference in the reported frequency of urine loss between the polycystic ovary syndrome and control groups with normal body mass index or between the polycystic ovary syndrome and control groups with body mass index ?25. PMID:22086521

Montezuma, Thais; Antônio, Flávia Ignácio; de Sá Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; de Sá, Marcos Felipe Silva; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

2011-01-01

151

Tributyltin increases the expression of apoptosis- and adipogenesis-related genes in rat ovaries  

PubMed Central

Objective Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine disrupting chemical, has been reported to decrease ovarian function by causing apoptosis in the ovary, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we examined whether TBT increases the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary and the increased expression of these genes is associated with apoptosis induction. Methods Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered TBT (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight) or sesame oil as a control for 7 days. The ovaries were obtained and weighed on day 8, and then they were fixed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) or frozen for RNA extraction. Using the total RNA of the ovaries, adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The ovarian weight was significantly decreased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT compared to that in control rats. As determined by the TUNEL assay, the number of apoptotic follicles in ovary was significantly increased in rats administered 10 mg/kg TBT. The real-time PCR results showed that the expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as PPAR?, aP2, CD36, and PEPCK was increased after TBT administration. In addition, apoptosis-related genes such as TNF? and TNFR1 were expressed more in the TBT-administered rats compared with the control rats. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that TBT induces the expression of adipogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the ovary leading to apoptosis in the ovarian follicles. These results suggest that the increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in the ovary by TBT exposure might induce apoptosis resulting in a loss of ovarian function. PMID:22563546

Lee, Hyojin; Lim, Sojeong; Yun, Sujin; Yoon, Ayoung; Park, Gayoung

2012-01-01

152

Psychological investigation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of mood disorders and examine a range of predictors for psychological well-being among Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the factors related to psychological distress in PCOS patients in Kashan, Iran. Psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In addition we assessed quality of life using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Socio-demographic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity (body mass index), excessive body hair (hirsutism score), acne, menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile also were recorded for each patient. Results In all 300 women with PCOS were entered into the study. Of these 32% (n =96) showed elevated HADS anxiety while depression was high in 5% (n =15). Quality of life was significantly impaired in women with anxiety (P <0.05), and depression (P <0.001) and in particular, in women with coexistence anxiety and depression (P <0.001) compared with unaffected participants. Compared with the non-depressed PCOS patients, the depressed women had significantly higher menstrual irregularities (P?=?0.008). Moreover, we found significant difference in FAI level between the depressed and non depressed (p?=?0.05), the anxious and non anxious patients (p?

2013-01-01

153

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in University Students: Occurrence and Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with body composition among students in University of Sharjah (UOS). Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included a total sample size of 50 female students registering in undergraduate programs at the University of Sharjah using convenience sampling technique. A pretested interview schedule was administered to elicit information pertaining to personal background and medical history related to PCOS. A diag- nostic ultrasound scan was performed for determining PCOS along with a body composition analysis using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) technology. Results Twenty percent (10 out of 50 participants) were diagnosed with PCOS, of whom only 4 individuals were previously diagnosed with PCOS and aware of their conditions, while the reports showed 16% with oligomenorrhea, 4% with polymenorrhea, and none with amen- orrhea. A positive family history was indicated as reported by 22% of the total participants. Significant difference between the body weights of participants having PCOS (66.7 kg) and those without it (58.8 kg) were noted (p=0.043, t=2.084). On the other hand, the body compo- sition related variables including waist-hip ratio (WHR), fat-free mass (FFM), percent body fat (PBF) and visceral fat area (VFA) were relatively higher in participants having PCOS than those without it. However, there was no statistical significance of differences. Comparatively, the participants with PCOS had lower bone mineral density (BMD) than those without it, whereas the difference was statistically non-significant. Conclusion The occurrence of PCOS in the present study is consistent with the global preva- lence. Comparatively, the body composition of PCOS females is different from the normal fe- males. Further studies are required in the Middle East region on larger sample sizes and broader aspects of health including lifestyle and dietary components to understand these differences. PMID:25379154

Attlee, Amita; Nusralla, Asma; Eqbal, Rashida; Said, Hanaa; Hashim, Mona; Obaid, Reyad Shaker

2014-01-01

154

Differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

According to the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society (AE&PCOS), the main feature of PCOS is clinical hyperandrogenism or laboratory hyperandrogenaemia. Therefore, in diagnosing PCOS one must always exclude other causes of androgen excess. In a woman with hyperandrogenism, the diagnosis of PCOS can usually be made according to the patient's history and careful clinical examination. Signs of mild hyperandrogenaemia usually start after the menarche and cycles continue to be anovulatory in adult life. Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) can be another cause of hyperandrogenism with oligomenorrhea. This can be diagnosed in a patient with elevated basal or ACTH stimulated serum 17OH-progesterone (17-OHP) levels or in a case of a significant decrease in serum testosterone (TST) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) in a two day dexamethasone suppression test. Cushing's disease (ACTH producing pituitary adenoma) is a rare cause of hyperandrogenaemia in women with recent onset of hyperandrogenism. However, it must always be taken into the consideration in a patient with accompanying signs of hypercortisolism. It can usually be excluded by performing an overnight dexamethasone suppression test or the measurement of 24 h urinary free cortisol levels. Severe signs of hyperandrogenism which lead to virilization should always lead to the exclusion of androgen secreting tumors of ovarian or adrenal origin. These are very rare but should be always taken into the account in a patient with recent onset of severe signs of androgen excess and very high serum androgen levels. Mild signs of hyperandrogenaemia in a woman with recent oligomenorrhea should always lead to the exclusion of hyperprolactinaemia. PMID:22421986

Racho?, D

2012-04-01

155

Prediction of metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify biochemical factors that serve as predictors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate the value of adipocytokines in the prediction of metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods A total of 91 pre-menopausal women with PCOS diagnosed according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria were recruited as study subjects. Waist circumference, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, serum lipids, insulin, FSH, LH, E2, total testosteron, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum leptin and adiponectin levels were evaluated for all patients. Results Of the 91 women with PCOS, 15 patients met the criteria for MetS. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL concentrations were significantly higher and HDL was significantly lower in women with PCOS+MetS compared with those with PCOS only. However, the level of LDL, FSH, LH, E2 and total testesterone was not significantly different between these two groups. Women with PCOS+MetS had significantly higher levels of leptin and HOMA-IR, and significantly lower levels of adiponectin compared to the women with PCOS only. In the multiple logistic regression model, the association between HOMA-IR and leptin, and MetS remained statistically significant (p=0.001 and 0.018), while the association between adiponectin and MetS was no longer statistically significant. Conclusion Aside from the biochemical markers such as glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride, adipose tissue factors and insulin resistance are valuable parameters in the prediction of MetS in patients with PCOS. PMID:24592034

Ersan, F?rat; Arslan, Esra; Esmer, Aytul Corbac?oglu; Ayd?n, Serdar; Gedikbas?, Asuman; Gedikbas?, Ali; Alk?s, Ismet; Ark, Cemal

2012-01-01

156

Predictors of Pregnancy in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. The selection of first-line therapies for ovulation induction is empiric. Objective: The aim of the study was to develop a clinically useful predictive model of live birth with varying ovulation induction methods. Design, Setting, and Participants: We built four prognostic models from a large multicenter randomized controlled infertility trial of 626 women with PCOS performed at academic health centers in the United States to predict success of ovulation, conception, pregnancy, and live birth, evaluating the influence of patients’ baseline characteristics. Interventions: Ovulation was induced with clomiphene, metformin, or the combination of both for up to six cycles or conception. Main Outcome Measure: The primary outcome of the trial was the rate of live births. Results: Baseline free androgen index, baseline proinsulin level, interaction of treatment arm with body mass index, and duration of attempting conception were significant predictors in all four models. History of a prior loss predicted ovulation and conception, but not pregnancy or live birth. A modified Ferriman Gallwey hirsutism score of less than 8 was predictive of conception, pregnancy, and live birth (although it did not predict ovulation success). Age was a divergent predictor based on outcome; age greater than 34 predicted ovulation, whereas age less than 35 was a predictive factor for a successful pregnancy and live birth. Smoking history had no predictive value. Conclusions: A live birth prediction chart developed from basic clinical parameters (body mass index, age, hirsutism score, and duration of attempting conception) may help physicians counsel and select infertility treatments for women with PCOS. PMID:19509098

Rausch, Mary E.; Legro, Richard S.; Barnhart, Huiman X.; Schlaff, William D.; Carr, Bruce R.; Diamond, Michael P.; Carson, Sandra A.; Steinkampf, Michael P.; McGovern, Peter G.; Cataldo, Nicholas A.; Gosman, Gabriella G.; Nestler, John E.; Giudice, Linda C.; Leppert, Phyllis C.; Myers, Evan R.; Coutifaris, Christos

2009-01-01

157

Polycystic ovary syndrome - Studies of metabolic and ovarian disturbances and effects of physical exercise and electro-acupuncture.  

E-print Network

??Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian (PCO)… (more)

Mannerås Holm, Louise

2010-01-01

158

The presence of antibodies to oxidative modified proteins in serum from polycystic ovary syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age. Free radicals, as a product of oxidative stress, impair cells and tissue properties related to human fertility. These free radicals, together with the oxidized molecules, may have a cytotoxic or deleterious effects on sperm and oocytes, on early embryo development or on the endometrium. Aldehyde-modified proteins are highly immunogenic and circulating autoantibodies to new epitopes, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), may affect the reproductive system. Autoantibodies or elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in serum are often associated with inflammatory response. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether PCOS women show increased levels of oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) and anti-endometrial antibodies (AEA) in their sera, compared with control patients, and to determine whether AEA specificity is related to oxidized protein derivatives. Sera from 31 women [10 patients with PCOS (PCOS group) and 21 women with male factor of infertility (control group)] were chosen from patients attending for infertility. Anti-endometrial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an endometrial cell line (RL-95). Antibodies against MDA modified human serum albumin (HSA–MDA) were also determined by ELISA. Oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) in serum were determined by a colorimetric assay. Patients with PCOS have significantly higher levels of AEA and anti-HSA–MDA, as well as oxidized proteins (protein–MDA) in serum than control patients. For the first time, we describe an autoimmune response in PCOS patients, in terms of AEA. The evidence of protein–MDA in the serum of these patients, together with the increased antibody reactivity to MDA-modified proteins (HSA–MDA) in vitro, supports the conclusion that oxidative stress may be one of the important causes for abnormal endometrial environment with poor embryo receptivity in PCOS patients. PMID:16634794

Palacio, J R; Iborra, A; Ulcova-Gallova, Z; Badia, R; Martinez, P

2006-01-01

159

Detailed understanding of enhanced specific productivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells at low culture temperature.  

PubMed

The specific productivity of tumor necrosis factor receptor-immunoglobulin G1 Fc fusion (TNFR-Fc) (q(TNFR-Fc)) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells at 30°C was approximately 5-fold higher than that at 37°C. To investigate reasons for increased q(TNFR-Fc) at low culture temperature, TNFR-Fc mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. It was found that like q(TNFR-Fc), the relative TNFR-Fc mRNA level was increased by lowering culture temperature, and more importantly, the kinetics of the increase in TNFR-Fc mRNA levels were in accordance with the changes in q(TNFR-Fc). The results demonstrated that the increased transcriptional level of TNFR-Fc was responsible for the increased q(TNFR-Fc) at low culture temperature. Enhanced levels of mRNA could derive from increased gene copy number, improved mRNA stability, or enhanced transcriptional rate. There was not a big change of gene copy number by lowering culture temperature. The transcriptional rate of TNFR-Fc was slightly decreased at 30°C, compared to 37°C. However, mRNA stability of TNFR-Fc was significantly improved by lowering culture temperature. The half-life of TNFR-Fc mRNA was 5.55 h at 30°C, whereas that was 3.69h at 37°C. Taken together, the reasons for the increased q(TNFR-Fc) in CHO cells at low culture temperature were mainly the enhanced TNFR-Fc mRNA levels, which resulted from the improved mRNA stability, rather than the changes in the gene copy number or the transcriptional rate. PMID:21169054

Kou, Tian-Ci; Fan, Li; Zhou, Yan; Ye, Zhao-Yang; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Tan, Wen-Song

2011-03-01

160

Derivatives Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Derivatives are financial securities whose value is derived from another "underlying" financial security. Options, futures, swaps, swaptions, and structured notes are all examples of derivative securities. Derivatives can be used in hedging, protecting against financial risk, or can be used to speculate on the movement of commodity or security prices, interest rates, or the levels of financial indices. The valuation of derivatives makes use of the statistical mathematics of uncertainty. With links to related articles. See also Derivatives Concepts A-Z, glossary of derivatives-related terminology designed to make the other articles in the Financial Pipeline's Derivatives section easier to understand.

2007-03-22

161

Study of Oostatic Peptide Uptake and Metabolism in Developing Ovaries of the Flesh Fly, Neobellieria bullata  

PubMed Central

The uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-OH (5P), in ovaries of Neobellieria bullata (Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. During selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3HPro3]5P after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. The ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. A detection sensitivity of 60–100 fmol of the labeled 5P was achieved using radio-high performance liquid chromatography. While the uptake of the applied radioactivity strongly depended on the stage of vitellogenesis, especially for the in vitro experiment, degradation of 5P was very quick and independent of whether the label was injected or incubated with the ovaries, regardless of the developmental stage of ovaries. No tracers of 5P were detected at 30 s after applying the labeled 5P in all tests. PMID:20572785

Bennettova, Blanka; Slaninova, Jirina; Vlasakova, Vera; Hlavacek, Jan; Holik, Josef; Tykva, Richard

2010-01-01

162

Arginine vasopressin secretion in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Arginine vasopressin responses to osmotic (0.1 ml.kg-1.min-1 NaCl), orthostatic (standing upright and maintenance of orthostatic position for 20 min), and hypoglycemic (0.15 IU/kg insulin) stimuli were evaluated in women with polycystic ovaries and in normal subjects. Blood dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, testosterone, cortisol, and endogenous insulin levels were significantly higher in women with polycystic ovaries than in controls, whereas estrone, estradiol-17 beta, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone concentrations were normal in all subjects. Arginine vasopressin basal levels (mean +/- SEM of 3 test days; women with polycystic ovaries: 2.8 +/- 0.2 pmol/l; controls: 2.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/l) and secretory responses to orthostatic (mean peaks 100% higher than baseline values) and to hypertonic (130% increments) stimuli were similar in the two groups. Arginine vasopressin responses to hypoglycemia were lower in women with polycystic ovaries (50% increment) than in controls (150% increment), although comparable blood glucose decrements and GH or cortisol increments were found in the two groups. Arginine vasopressin peak responses to hypoglycemia were negatively correlated to testosterone, androstenedione, and endogenous insulin levels, but did not correlate with basal and hypoglycemia-induced peak cortisol concentrations or with circulating levels of other steroids. These data indicate a hypothalamic posterior pituitary disorder affecting arginine vasopressin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in women with polycystic ovaries syndrome associated with elevated blood androgen and insulin concentrations. PMID:2692374

Coiro, V; Volpi, R; Capretti, L; Bacchi-Modena, A; Cigarini, C; Bianconi, L; Rossi, G; Gramellini, D; Chiodera, P

1989-12-01

163

Transcriptome comparison between inactivated and activated ovaries of the honey bee Apis mellifera L.  

PubMed

Ovarian activity not only influences fertility, but is also involved with the regulation of division of labour between reproductive and behavioural castes of female honey bees. In order to identify candidate genes associated with ovarian activity, we compared the gene expression patterns between inactivated and activated ovaries of queens and workers by means of high-throughput RNA-sequencing technology. A total of 1615 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was detected between ovaries of virgin and mated queens, and more than 5300 DEGs were detected between inactivated and activated worker ovaries. Intersection analysis of DEGs amongst five libraries revealed that a similar set of genes (824) participated in the ovary activation of both queens and workers. A large number of these DEGs were predominantly related to cellular, cell and cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic processes. In addition, over 1000 DEGs were linked to more than 230 components of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, including 25 signalling pathways. The reliability of the RNA-sequencing results was confirmed by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in ovary activation and reproductive division of labour. PMID:25039886

Niu, D; Zheng, H; Corona, M; Lu, Y; Chen, X; Cao, L; Sohr, A; Hu, F

2014-10-01

164

Restoration of ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole adult sheep ovaries  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to restore ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole ovaries, complete with vascular pedicle, in adult females from a large monovulatory animal model species (i.e. sheep)? SUMMARY ANSWER Full (100%) restoration of acute ovarian function and high rates of natural fertility (pregnancy rate 64%; live birth rate 29%), with multiple live births, were obtained following whole ovary cryopreservation and autotransplantation (WOCP&TP) of adult sheep ovaries utilizing optimized cryopreservation and post-operative anti-coagulant regimes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertility preservation by WOCP&TP requires successful cryopreservation of both the ovary and its vascular supply. Previous work has indicated detrimental effects of WOCP&TP on the ovarian follicle population. Recent experiments suggest that these deleterious effects can be attributed to an acute loss of vascular patency due to clot formation induced by damage to ovarian arterial endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Study 1 (2010–2011; N = 16) examined the effect of post-thaw perfusion of survival factors (angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic; n = 7–8) and treatment with aspirin (pre-operative versus pre- and post-operative (n = 7–9)) on the restoration of ovarian function for 3 months after WOCP&TP. Study 2 (2011–2012; N = 16) examined the effect of cryoprotectant (CPA) perfusion time (10 versus 60 min; n = 16) and pre- and post-operative treatment with aspirin in combination with enoxaparine (Clexane®; n = 8) or eptifibatide (Integrilin®; n = 8) on ovarian function and fertility 11–23 months after WOCP&TP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Both studies utilized mature, parous, Greyface ewes aged 3–6 years and weighing 50–75 kg. Restoration of ovarian function was monitored by bi-weekly blood sampling and display of behavioural oestrus. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotrophins, progesterone, anti-Müllerian Hormone and inhibin A. Fertility restoration in Study 2 was quantified by pregnancy rate after a 3 month fertile mating period and was confirmed by ultrasound, hormonal monitoring and live birth. Ovarian function was assessed at sacrifice by ovarian appearance and vascular patency (Doppler ultrasound) and by follicular histology. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In Study 1, survival factors were found to have no benefit, but the inclusion of pre-operative aspirin resulted in four ewes showing acute restoration of ovarian function within 3 weeks and a further six ewes showing partial restoration. The addition of post-operative aspirin alone had no clear benefit. In Study 2, combination of aspirin with additional post-operative anti-coagulants resulted in total acute restoration of ovarian function in 14/14 ewes within 3 weeks of WOCP&TP, with 9/14 ewes becoming pregnant and 4/14 giving birth to a total of seven normal lambs. There was no difference between anti-coagulants in terms of restoration of reproductive function and fertility. In contrast, the duration of CPA perfusion was highly significant with a 60 min perfusion resulting in ovaries of normal appearance and function with high rates of primordial follicle survival (70%) and an abundant blood supply, whereas ovaries perfused for 10 min had either resorbed completely and were vestigial (7/14) or were markedly smaller (P < 0.01). It is concluded that both the degree of CPA penetration and the maintenance of post-operative vascular patency are critical determinants of the success of WOCP&TP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Before application of this technology to fertility preservation patients, it will be critical to optimize the CPA perfusion time for different sized human ovaries, determine the optimum period and level of anti-coagulant therapy, and confirm the normality of offspring derived from this procedure. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This technology holds promise for the preservation of fertility in women. It could also

Campbell, B.K.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.; Onions, V.; Pincott-Allen, C.; Aljaser, F.; Fisher, J.; McNeilly, A.S.; Webb, R.; Picton, H.M.

2014-01-01

165

Steroid-induced polycystic ovaries in rats: effect of electro-acupuncture on concentrations of endothelin-1 and nerve growth factor (NGF), and expression of NGF mRNA in the ovaries, the adrenal glands, and the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on the effect of repeated electro-acupuncture (EA) treatments in rats with steriod-induced polycystic ovaries (PCO), EA has been shown to modulate nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration in the ovaries as well as corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the median eminence (ME). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that repeated EA treatments modulates sympathetic nerve activity in

Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Thomas Lundeberg; Stefan Cajander; Luigi Aloe; Luigi Manni; Urban Waldenström; Per Olof Janson

2003-01-01

166

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in the internalization of ricin.  

PubMed Central

Chinese hamster ovary mutants simultaneously resistant to ricin and Pseudomonas toxin have been isolated. Two mutant cell lines (4-10 and 11-2) were found to retain normal levels of binding of both ricin and Pseudomonas toxin. They were defective in the internalization of [125I]ricin into the mutant cells, as measured by both a biochemical assay for ricin internalization and electron microscopic autoradiographic studies. Although pretreatment of Chinese hamster ovary cells with a Na+/K+ ionophore, nigericin, resulted in an enhancement of the cytotoxicities of ricin and Pseudomonas toxin in the wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells, preculture of the mutant cells did not alter the susceptibility of the mutant cells to either toxin. These results provide further evidence that there is a common step in the internalization process for ricin and Pseudomonas toxin. PMID:6810098

Ray, B; Wu, H C

1982-01-01

167

Elevated expression of Piwi and piRNAs in ovaries of triploid crucian carp.  

PubMed

Increasing piRNAs provide RNA-interference pathways to regulate transposons and gene expression in germline cells. We demonstrate that Piwi transcripts are exclusively expressed in adult testes and ovaries in teleosts, with triploids showing the highest Piwi expression in the ovaries. Studies in vivo and in vitro showed that hCG and E2 treatment suppressed Piwi expression. We further cloned 200 small RNAs in the three kinds of fish. Seven piRNAs were obtained from all the three different ploidy fishes. During ovulation, five piRNAs showed significantly higher expression in the ovaries of sterile triploids than fertile diploids and tetraploids. Furthermore, E2 suppressed the expression of the six piRNAs at different levels in vivo and in vitro. The present study bridges the gap between the HPG axis and Piwi-piRNA pathway by suggesting that a dysfunctional HPG axis abrogated the piRNA suppression in triploid fish. PMID:24316377

Zhou, Yi; Zhong, Huan; Liu, Shaojun; Yu, Fan; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

2014-03-01

168

Improving inter-observer variability in the evaluation of ultrasonographic features of polycystic ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background We recently reported poor inter-observer agreement in identifying and quantifying individual ultrasonographic features of polycystic ovaries. Our objective was to determine the effect of a training workshop on reducing inter-observer variation in the ultrasonographic evaluation of polycystic ovaries. Methods Transvaginal ultrasound recordings from thirty women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were evaluated by three radiologists and three reproductive endocrinologists both before and after an ultrasound workshop. The following endpoints were assessed: 1) follicle number per ovary (FNPO), 2) follicle number per single cross-section (FNPS), 3) largest follicle diameter, 4) ovarian volume, 5) follicle distribution pattern and 6) presence of a corpus luteum (CL). Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (rho) and kappa statistics for multiple raters (kappa) were used to assess level of inter-observer agreement (>0.80 good, 0.60 – 0.80 moderate/fair, <0.60 poor). Results Following the workshop, inter-observer agreement improved for the evaluation of FNPS (rho = 0.70, delta rho = +0.11), largest follicle diameter (rho = 0.77, delta rho = +0.10), ovarian volume (rho = 0.84, delta rho = +0.12), follicle distribution pattern (kappa = 0.80, delta kappa = +0.21) and presence of a CL (kappa = 0.87, delta kappa = +0.05). No improvement was evident for FNPO (rho = 0.54, delta rho = -0.01). Both radiologists and reproductive endocrinologists demonstrated improvement in scores (p < 0.001). Conclusion Reliability in evaluating ultrasonographic features of polycystic ovaries can be significantly improved following participation in a training workshop. If ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries is to be used as an objective measure in the diagnosis of PCOS, then standardized training modules should be implemented to unify the approach to evaluating polycystic ovarian morphology. PMID:18638401

Lujan, Marla E; Chizen, Donna R; Peppin, Andrew K; Kriegler, Stefan; Leswick, David A; Bloski, Terri G; Pierson, Roger A

2008-01-01

169

Mercury and other metals in muscle and ovaries of goldeye (Hiodon alosoides).  

PubMed

Concentrations of 24 trace metals were assessed in gravid ovaries and in muscle of female juvenile and adult female goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a fish with both low annual growth (16 g/year as adults) and a long life span (maximum longevity of 30 years). It was hypothesized that adult fish with these life-history characteristics would maintain stable concentrations of metals in their tissues with higher levels of essential elements compared with those that are potentially toxic. As hypothesized, the concentration of most metals in muscle of adult female goldeye was similar at all ages, suggesting that uptake and excretion of metals was equal. Mercury was a notable exception. Total Hg concentrations in muscle of adults increased throughout life from a mean of 206 ng/g wet weight at age 8 to 809 ng/g at age 28, or by 26.2 ng/g/year. Concentrations of Hg were low in ovaries (mean 21.1 ng/g wet wt) compared to the mean for muscle, only 7% of the concentration in muscle. This was the lowest percent of muscle concentration of all 24 metals. Concentrations of Al, Ba, La, V, and Mn were significantly greater in muscle of juveniles and in ovaries than in muscle of adults. Concentrations of 13 metals were higher in ovaries relative to muscle, seven were similar, and four were depleted. Silver was enriched by over 50-fold in ovaries. Overall, the present study suggests that low concentrations of some metals in muscle of adult female goldeye, relative to concentrations in female juveniles and ovaries, may be maintained in part by transfer of metals to the external environment in eggs at spawning. PMID:20821456

Donald, David B; Sardella, Gino D

2010-02-01

170

Conservative management of bilateral massive edema of the ovary. A case report.  

PubMed

A case of bilateral massive ovarian edema with unilateral ovarian torsion is reported. Following surgical removal of the adnexa with the torsion, the edema of the opposite ovary resolved with oral contraceptive therapy. This has not been previously reported. This case is instructive because the nodular appearance and yellow color of the ovaries and the presence of yellow ascitic fluid could lead to an erroneous diagnosis of malignancy, resulting in performance of a more radical surgical procedure than is necessary. A review of the literature and the unusual nature of this lesion indicates the need for caution in diagnosis and management. PMID:8441135

Hubbell, G P; Punch, M R; Elkins, T E; Abrams, G D

1993-01-01

171

The Inguinal Herniation of the Ovary in the Newborn: Ultrasound and Color Doppler Ultrasound Findings  

PubMed Central

Inguinal hernias in the newborn age group are seldom encountered. In the affected female patient, the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the intestines may settle in the hernia sac. The early diagnosis of torsion in cases in which the ovary is herniated into the inguinal canal is of utmost importance in order to give surgery the chance of reduction and correction. In this paper, a case of an ovarian herniation into the inguinal canal without the presence of torsion is being presented, and the place of US and CDUS in the differential diagnosis of the situation is being discussed. PMID:24795829

Kaya, Omer; Esen, Kaan; Gulek, Bozkurt; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Soker, Gokhan; Onem, Onder

2014-01-01

172

Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary: Case Series and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a recently recognized, subtype of ovarian surface epithelial cancer; the pure form accounting for only 1% of surface epithelial tumors. It has been described as a primary ovarian carcinoma with definite urothelial features but no benign, metaplastic and/or proliferating Brenner tumor (BT) identified. Recognition of such tumours is important because of its rarity, favorable response to chemotherapy and an improved patient survival. A case series of primary TCC of the ovary (3 cases) with brief review of literature is being presented. PMID:25302204

Andola, Sainath K.; Zubair, Ashraf Ahmed

2014-01-01

173

Developmental Programming of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role of Prenatal Androgen Excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine\\/metabolic disorder in women, characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic\\u000a anovulation, and\\/or polycystic ovaries in association with android fat distribution and insulin resistance\\/hyperinsulinism.\\u000a The etiology of PCOS remains elusive but there is increasing evidence that the phenotypic traits of the syndrome may be programmed\\u000a in utero by androgen excess.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Thus, female primates, exposed to androgen

Agathocles Tsatsoulis

174

Anti-Mullerian hormone inhibits initiation of primordial follicle growth in the mouse ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment of primordial follicles is essential for female fertility;\\u000a however, the exact mechanisms regulating this process are largely unknown.\\u000a Earlier studies using anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)-deficient mice\\u000a suggested that AMH is involved in the regulation of primordial follicle\\u000a recruitment. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal ovary culture system,\\u000a in which ovaries from 2-d-old C57Bl\\/6J mice were cultured for 2 or

A. L. L. Durlinger; M. J. G. Gruijters; P. Kramer; B. Karels; H. A. Ingraham; M. W. Nachtigal; J. Th. J. Uilenbroek; J. A. Grootegoed; A. P. N. Themmen

2002-01-01

175

Isolated granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary: histologic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings.  

PubMed

An isolated granulocytic sarcoma (myelosarcoma) of the right ovary occurred in the absence of leukemia in a 49-year-old woman. The diagnosis of this tumor, which occurs extremely rarely in the ovary, was established by light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic investigations. The major cell population consisted of immature myeloid cells; scattered megakaryocytes were also seen. The tumor exhibited a prominent cellular stroma with scattered follicle-like collections of B-lymphocytes and many fibroblasts, giving the initial impression that the tumor could be of mesenchymal origin. Twelve months after operation, the patient still exhibits no evidence of leukemia. PMID:1563910

Pressler, H; Horny, H P; Wolf, A; Kaiserling, E

1992-01-01

176

The pathway to femaleness: current knowledge on embryonic development of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that organogenesis of the ovary is not a passive process arising by default in the absence of the testis pathway. A coordinated interaction is actually in force between somatic cells and female germ cells in embryonic ovaries, thus creating a unique microenvironment that facilitates the formation of follicles. Identification of the functional roles of several novel regulatory elements such as Fig?, Foxl2, follistatin, and Wnt4 reveals the complexity of early ovarian organization. Challenges await us to establish the molecular connections of these molecules as well as to discover new candidates in the pathway of early ovarian development. PMID:15664455

Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

2014-01-01

177

Effects of Electro-Acupuncture on Nerve Growth Factor and Ovarian Morphology in Rats with Experimentally Induced Polycystic Ovaries1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research on the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), there is still disagreement on the underlying mechanisms. The rat model for experimentally induced polycystic ovaries (PCO)--produced by a single injection of estradiol valerate--has similarities with human PCOS, and both are associated with hyperactivity in the sympathetic nervous system. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is known to serve as a

Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Thomas Lundeberg; Urban Waldenström; Luigi Manni; Luigi Aloe; Stefan Gunnarsson; Per Olof Janson

178

Effects of electro-acupuncture on corticotropin-releasing factor in rats with experimentally-induced polycystic ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to investigate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations in the brain, the adrenal glands, and the ovaries in rats with estradiol valerate (EV) induced polycystic ovaries (PCO). The effect of 12 electro-acupuncture (EA) treatments on CRF concentrations was also investigated. The CRF concentrations in the median eminence (ME) were significantly increased in rats with PCO

E. Stener-Victorin; T. Lundeberg; U. Waldenström; I. Bileviciute-Ljungar; P. O. Janson

2001-01-01

179

Restoration of Reproductive Potential by Lifestyle Modification in Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role of Insulin Sensitivity and Luteinizing Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight reduction and exercise have been shown to help with men- strual disturbance and infertility in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied the relationship between insulin sensi- tivity and ovulation patterns in 18 infertile anovulatory obese poly- cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women (NO) with normal glucose tol- erance, aged between 22-39 yr with a body mass index of

M.-M. HUBER-BUCHHOLZ; D. G. P. CAREY; R. J. NORMAN

2010-01-01

180

Genetic and gene expression analyses of the polycystic ovary syndrome candidate gene fibrillin-3 and other fibrillin family members in human ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the dinucleotide repeat microsatellite marker D19S884, which is located in intron 55 of the fibrillin-3 (FBN3) gene. Fibrillins, including FBN1 and 2, interact with latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-b-binding proteins (LTBP) and thereby control the bioactivity of TGFbs. TGFbs stimulate fibroblast repli- cation and collagen production. The PCOS

Mark J. Prodoehl; Nicholas Hatzirodos; Helen F. Irving-Rodgers; Zhen Z. Zhao; Jodie N. Painter; Theresa E. Hickey; Mark A. Gibson; William E. Rainey; Bruce R. Carr; Helen D. Mason; Robert J. Norman; Grant W. Montgomery; Raymond J. Rodgers

2009-01-01

181

Glucose Localization in Maize Ovaries When Kernel Number Decreases at Low Water Potential and Sucrose is Fed to the Stems  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Around the time of anthesis, young ovary development in maize (Zea mays) is vulnerable to 2 or 3 d of water deficits that inhibit photosynthesis. Abortion can result, and fewer kernels are produced. A breakdown of stored ovary starch is associated with the abortion and was investigated in the present study by localizing the breakdown product glucose in the ovaries. • Methods Ovary glucose was localized with fluorescent Resorufin. Insoluble invertase was localized in vivo and soluble invertase in situ. Sucrose was infused into the stems to vary the sugar flux to the ovaries. • Key Results At high water potential (high ?w), photosynthesis was rapid in the parent. The upper pedicel of the ovaries had a high activity of insoluble acid invertase and a large amount of glucose and starch. Because the invertase was wall?bound, sucrose hydrolysis appeared to occur in the pedicel apoplast. Soluble invertase was undetected inside the pedicel cells but was present in the nucellus cells where low concentrations of glucose occurred. This created a glucose gradient between pedicel and nucellus that favoured glucose uptake by the developing ovary. At low ?w, photosynthesis was inhibited, pedicel glucose and starch were depleted, the glucose gradient became negligible, and abortion occurred. When sucrose was fed, glucose, starch and the glucose gradient were maintained somewhat and were normally distributed in the ovaries. Abortion was diminished. • Conclusions The apoplast hydrolysis of sucrose unloaded from phloem is similar to that described by others during later development when embryo and endosperm are present and separated from the parent by an apoplast. The disappearance of the glucose gradient at low ?w may have inhibited glucose movement into the ovary. The low glucose in the ovaries may have a role in the abortion response. PMID:15159218

MCLAUGHLIN, JOHN E.; BOYER, JOHN S.

2004-01-01

182

[Uterovaginal agenesis and polycystic ovary syndrome: psychological disturbance in adolescence].  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients, age was negative correlated with attention problems and PCOS patients >18 reported significantly more somatic complaints compared with age-mate MRKHS patients and controls. PCO syndrome's clinical manifestations, including menstrual disorders, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility, may cause significant emotional distress. Nevertheless, they appear in great variety and our sample is characterized by mild features of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea. This may explain findings of milder psychological disturbance associated with PCOS in this sample in comparison to other studies. As far as MRKHS is concerned, diagnosis and loss of reproductive ability, especially in late adolescence, obstruct emotional stability, physical maturity and sexual identity development ending that are expected in this period of life. Undoubtedly, the management of MRKHS in adolescence constitutes a complex multidisciplinary issue and psychological support of patients is needed in order to prevent possible psychological consequences and to achieve a normal transition to adulthood. Among the limitations of this study is the small sample size, which limits the generalisability of the reported results, especially in "Youth Self Report" and in "Symptom Checklist-90-R" questionnaires, where the sample was divided according to the age. Nevertheless, the very low incidence of MRKHS (1/5000) emphasize the value of the present results, which support the need for further investigation. PMID:23073543

Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

2012-01-01

183

An Effect of Luteinizing Hormone on the Fractional Perfusion of the Rat Ovary  

E-print Network

and givenmultiple intravenous injections with No. 25 needles into the tail veins. To measure the effect of LH to the ovaries; the maximum increase obtainable, about 75 %, is present about 20 min after the injection saline solution and injected rapidly in a total volume of 0.2 ml. At various intervals later (from 6 sec

Wurtman, Richard

184

Aortic function is compromised in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Arterial mechanical parameters are modified in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), before and during pregnancy. This study tested the hypothesis that aortic mechanics and endothelial function are modified in the mifepristone-treated rat model of PCOS. METHODS: Female rats injected daily with mifepristone or vehicle for 7-9 days were assessed by ultrasound to allow estimation of aortic stiffness index

Kalpana Lakhani; Wenxuan Yang; Audrey Dooley; Essam El-Mahdi; Maryse Sundaresan; Susan McLellan; Richard Bruckdorfer; Andrew Leonard; Alexander Seifalian

2006-01-01

185

Pattern and rate of ovary differentiation with reference to somatic development in anuran amphibians.  

PubMed

The rate of somatic development of anuran amphibians is only roughly correlated with the rate of gonad differentiation and varies among species. The somatic stage of a tadpole often does not reflect its age, which seems to be crucial for gonad differentiation rate. We compared the morphology and differentiation of developing ovaries at the light and electron microscopy level, with reference to somatic growth and age of a female. Our observations were performed on 12 species of six families (Rana lessonae, R. ridibunda, R. temporaria, R. arvalis, R. pipiens, R. catesbeiana, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo. B. viridis, Xenopus laevis, Pelobates fuscus) and compared with the results obtained by other authors. This allowed us to describe the unified pattern of anuran female gonad differentiation. Ovary differentiation was divided into 10 stages: I-III, undifferentiated gonad; IV, sexual differentiation; V, first nests of meiocytes; VI, first diplotene oocytes; VII-IX, increasing number of diplotene oocytes and decreasing number of oogonia and nests; X, fully developed ovary composed of diplotene oocytes with rudimental patches of oogonia. We distinguished three types of ovary differentiation rate: basic (most species), retarded (genus Bufo), and accelerated (green frogs of the subgenus Pelophylax genus Rana). PMID:14666524

Ogielska, Maria; Kotusz, Agnieszka

2004-01-01

186

Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and metabolic issues: new perspectives and a unifying hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the chronic treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are commonly used to induce regular menses, protect the endometrium and ameliorate androgenic symptoms. However, the long-term safety of OCP use in PCOS has not been established, and the literature reveals conflicting data concerning the meta- bolic effects of OCPs in this patient population, with outcomes ranging

S. Nader; E. Diamanti-Kandarakis

2006-01-01

187

Altered autonomic neural control of the cardiovascular system in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently accompanied by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been recognized that there is a significant relationship between the autonomic nervous system and adverse cardiac events. Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is a marker of parasympathetic activity and attenuation of this parameter has been shown to be associated with increased cardiac

Göknur Tekin; Abdullah Tekin; Esra B. K?l?çarslan; Bülent Haydardedeo?lu; Tuna Kat?rc?ba??; Tolga Koçum; Tansel Erol; Yücel Çölkesen; Alpay T. Sezgin; Haldun Müderriso?lu

2008-01-01

188

Troglitazone Therapy Improves Endothelial Function to Near Normal Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit impaired endothelial function, which is strongly and directly correlated with both testosterone levels and insulin resis- tance. Endothelial dysfunction is considered a potent risk factor for macrovascular disease. Because troglitazone (Tgz) improves both hormonal profiles and insulin sensitivity, we tested whether Tgz treatment ameliorates endothelial func- tion in these patients. We studied

GIANCARLO PARADISI; HELMUT O. STEINBERG; MARGUERITE K. SHEPARD; GINGER HOOK; ALAIN D. BARON

2010-01-01

189

Ovary histology and quantification of hemolymph proteins of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus treated with Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze ovary histology and quantify total protein in the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females treated with hexane extracts from green fruits of Melia azedarach. Eight engorged females were immersed in the extract at 0.25% concentration, and eight in water containing 5% acetone (control). The females were dissected 72 hours after treatment, and the ovaries were weighed and subjected to standard histological techniques. The total protein concentration was measured in the hemolymph of 200 females, of which 100 were treated as described above and 100 served as a control. In the treated group, ovary weight reduction and predominance of immature oocytes were observed. In addition, there were decreases in the diameters of the cytoplasm and germ vesicle of the oocytes in the treated group, compared with the controls. The protein concentration in the hemolymph was higher in the treated group than in the controls. The morphological changes observed in the treated ovaries included: presence of vacuolization; alteration of oocyte morphology, which changed from rounded to elongated; deformation of the chorion; and disorganization of the yolk granules. These results demonstrate the action of M. azedarach fruit extracts on R. (B.) microplus oogenesis. PMID:24142163

de Sousa, Lorena Alessandra Dias; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

2013-01-01

190

Diagnostic and molecular genetic pathology of serous borderline tumours of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serous borderline tumours of the ovary (SBOTs) are distinct tumour entities which have to be distinguished from benign serous adenomas and frankly malignant serous carcinomas. Morphological examination has to include a careful analysis of associated extraovarian lesions, which may present as Müllerian inclusion cysts, endosalpingiosis, non-invasive or invasive implants. The type and extent of extraovarian disease manifestation is the most

J Diebold; G Amann; F Seemüller; D Mayr

2004-01-01

191

Predicting ongoing pregnancy following ovulation induction with recombinant FSH in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ovulation induction with recombinant FSH (rFSH) is common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) not responding to clomiphene citrate treatment, despite the associated risk of multiple pregnan- cies. We analysed clinical, ultrasonographic and endocrine parameters during initial screening of women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS as predictors of ongoing pregnancy within 12 months of treatment following ovulation induction with

Madelon van Wely; Neriman Bayram; Fulco van der Veen; Patrick M. M. Bossuyt

2005-01-01

192

The Ovary as a Source of alpha -ecdysone in an Adult Mosquito  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovaries of the mosquito Aedes aegypti cultured in vitro secrete material that behaves like ecdysone in a radioimmunoassay. The material was identified as alpha -ecdysone by high-resolution liquid and gas-liquid chromatography. Secretion reached a maximum 16 hr after a blood meal as shown by bioassay and direct determination. Ovariectomy reduced the concentration of ecdysone in the adult after a

H. H. Hagedorn; J. D. O'Connor; Morton S. Fuchs; Becky Sage; Dorothy A. Schlaeger; M. K. Bohm

1975-01-01

193

Virilizing Cystic Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour of the Ovary: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of virilizing cystic juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary diagnosed by histopathological examination in a 17-year-old female presented with mass abdomen for two months, growing of the hairs on the face and abdomen and deepening of voice for one year. PMID:24959454

Singh, Reecha; Bharathi, K.V.; Himabindu

2014-01-01

194

Recurrent SMARCA4 mutations in small cell carcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare, highly aggressive form of ovarian cancer primarily diagnosed in young women. We identified inactivating biallelic SMARCA4 mutations in 100% of the 12 SCCOHT tumors examined. Protein studies confirmed loss of SMARCA4 expression, suggesting a key role for the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex in SCCOHT. PMID:24658004

Jelinic, Petar; Mueller, Jennifer J; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Scott, Sasinya N; Shah, Ronak; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Gonen, Mithat; Soslow, Robert A; Berger, Michael F; Levine, Douglas A

2014-05-01

195

Homocysteine levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with metformin versus rosiglitazone: a randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) have been implicated as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although long-term treatment with metformin can increase Hcy levels in patients with type II diabetes mellitus or coronary heart disease, it is becoming an increasingly accepted and widespread medi- cation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In the literature, only one study has

Esra Bulgan Kilicdag; Tayfun Bagis; Hulusi B. Zeyneloglu; Ebru Tarim; Erdogan Aslan; Bulent Haydardedeoglu; Serkan Erkanli

2005-01-01

196

Ovarian stimulation in polycystic ovary syndrome patients: the role of body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to examine whether body mass index (BMI) may influence IVF outcome in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing ovarian stimulation with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-agonist (agonist group) or antagonist (antagonist group), 100 IVF cycles were studied: 35 in the agonist and 65 in the antagonist groups. In both agonist and antagonist groups, patients with BMI ? 25

Raoul Orvieto; Ravit Nahum; Simion Meltcer; Roy Homburg; Jacob Rabinson; Eyal Y Anteby; Jacob Ashkenazi

2009-01-01

197

Gonadoblastoma in the ovaries of a lesser galago (Galago senegalensis braccatus).  

PubMed

An enlarged right ovary was removed from a 14-year-old lesser galago (Galago senegalensis braccatus). Cytological preparations consisted of a heterogeneous population of neoplastic cells admixed with extracellular hyaline structures and cell-free nuclei. Microscopically, the ovary was replaced with gonadoblastoma and was composed of nests of germinal cells, including large oocyte-like cells, and sex cord-stromal cells arranged in palisading patterns around the germinal cells, the periphery of the nests and around extracellular hyaline material. The animal died 2 years after initial diagnosis. Necropsy examination revealed gonadoblastoma in the left ovary. The germinal cells of the tumour in the right and left ovaries were immunoreactive for calretinin, OCT3/4, PGP 9.5, Ki67 and/or faintly for cytokeratins. Sex cord-stromal cells were immunoreactive for calretinin, OCT3/4, GATA-4, E-cadherin and vimentin. Luteinized sex cord-stromal cells were immunoreactive for inhibin-alpha. The extracellular hyaline material was immunoreactive for laminin. This is the first case of gonadoblastoma in a non-human primate. PMID:22520808

Irizarry Rovira, A R; Lynch, S; David, M; Ramos Vara, J A

2012-01-01

198

Adipocyte Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Evidence of Adipocyte  

E-print Network

and other immune cells [15], [16], [17]. It is likely that the development of adipose inflammation evaluated for estrous cyclicity, ovarian and adipose tissue morphology, and body composition by QMR and CT in macrophage accumulation and inflammatory cytokine production in perigonadal adipose tissue, liver, and ovary

Toledo, University of

199

Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the effectiveness of metformin in improving clinical and biochemical features of polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effect of metformin compared with either placebo or no treatment, or compared with an ovulation induction agent. Selection of studies 13 trials were included for analysis, including 543 women with

Jonathan M Lord; Ingrid H K Flight; Robert J Norman

2003-01-01

200

Therapeutic effects of metformin on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia are associated with ovarian hyper- androgenism and menstrual irregularities in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Sixteen obese women with PCOS on a weight-maintaining diet were studied before and after 6 months of therapy with the insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agent metformin at a dose of 1700 mg per day. Compared with baseline values, glucose utilization was

Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Chryssa Kouli; Thomais Tsianateli; Angeliki Bergiele

1998-01-01

201

Metformin Treatment for Improving Outcomes Related to Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) A Bayesian Analysis  

E-print Network

Metformin Treatment for Improving Outcomes Related to Infertility in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) ­ A Bayesian Analysis Prasadini N. Perera, BS Pharmacy, Daniel C. Malone, PhD Metformin TreatmentD AbstractAbstract OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the usefulness of metformin therapy

Arizona, University of

202

Recognition of follicles in ultrasound images of ovaries using geometric features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the status of the female reproductive system is important for fertility problems and age related family planning. The volume of these fertility requests in our emancipated society is steadily increasing. Transvaginal ultrasound imaging of the follicles in the ovary gives important information about the ovarian aging, i.e., number of follicles, size, position and response to hormonal stimulation. Manual

P. S. Hiremath; Jyothi R. Tegnoor

2009-01-01

203

Some factors affecting callus induction in ovary culture of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop in Lithuania for the production of both oil and fibre, but no Lithuanian flax cultivar has been developed. The haploid technique is a fast and efficient tool for developing new varieties in a comparatively short time. Many research groups successfully created new flax genotypes through anther culture; however application of ovary culture

N. Burbulis

204

Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression patterns provide insight into polycystic ovary syndrome development  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. However, the epigenetic mechanism involved in PCOS progression remains largely unknown. Here, combining the DNA methylation profiling together with transcriptome analysis, we showed that (i) there were 7929 differentially methylated CpG sites (? > 0.1, P < 0.05) and 650 differential transcripts (fold change > 1.5, P < 0.005) in PCOS compared to normal ovaries; (ii) 54 genes were identified with methylated levels that were correlated with gene transcription in PCOS; and (iii) there were less hypermethylated sites, but many more hypomethylated sites residing in CpG islands and N_Shore in PCOS. Among these genes, we identified that several significant pathways, including the type I diabetes mellitus pathway, p53 signaling pathway and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and some immune and inflammatory diseases may be highly involved in PCOS development. These results suggested that differences in genome-wide DNA methylation and expression patterns exist between PCOS ovaries and normal ovaries; epigenetic mechanisms may in part be responsible for the different gene expression and PCOS phenotype. All of this may improve our understanding of the basic molecular mechanism underlying the development of PCOS. PMID:25051372

Wang, Xiu-Xia; Wei, Jing-Zan; Jiao, Jiao; Jiang, Shu-Yi; Yu, Da-Hai; Li, Da

2014-01-01

205

Variation within the Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Gene Calpain-10 and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

E-print Network

to account for linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 2q in Mexican-Americans, and associations­2610, 2002) POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS) is a hetero- geneous endocrine disorder of premenopausal women in groups at increased risk of future type 2 diabetes, such as offspring of diabetic parents and women

Cox, Nancy J.

206

The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

2014-01-01

207

Ovary and Gametophyte Development Are Coordinately Regulated by Auxin and Ethylene following Pollination.  

PubMed Central

The differentiation and development of ovules in orchid flowers are pollination dependent. To define the developmental signals and timing of critical events associated with ovule differentiation, we have examined factors that regulate the initial events in megasporogenesis and female gametophyte development and characterized its progression toward maturity and fertilization. Two days after pollination, ovary wall epidermal cells begin to elongate and form hair cells; this is the earliest visible morphological change, and it occurs at least 3 days prior to pollen germination, indicating that signals associated with pollination itself trigger these early events. The effects of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis on early morphological changes indicated that ethylene, in the presence of auxin, is required to initiate ovary development and, indirectly, subsequent ovule differentiation. Surprisingly, pollen germination and growth were also strongly inhibited by inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, indicating that male gametophyte development is also regulated by ethylene. Detailed characterization of the development of both the female and male gametophyte in pollinated orchid flowers indicated that pollen tubes entered the ovary and grew along the ovary wall for 10 to 35 days, at which time growth was arrested. Approximately 40 days after pollination, coincident with ovule differentiation as indicated by the presence of a single archesporial cell, the direction of pollen tube growth became redirected toward the ovule, suggesting a chemical signaling between the developing ovule and male gametophyte. Taken together, these results indicate that both auxin and ethylene contribute to the regulation of both ovary and ovule development and to the coordination of development of male and female gametophytes. PMID:12271070

Zhang, XS; O'Neill, SD

1993-01-01

208

Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

Gupta, R.K. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Schuh, R.A. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fiskum, G. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Flaws, J.A. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States)]. E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

2006-11-01

209

The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

2014-01-01

210

Changes in the Level of Peptidase Activities in Pea Ovaries during Senescence and Fruit Set Induced by Gibberellic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The activities and changes in the levels of exopeptidase and endopeptidase activities were characterized in unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska during senescence and early fruit development induced by gibberellic acid (GA3). Two aminopeptidases and one iminopeptidase were electrophoretically separated. These peptidases were sensitive to inhibitors of sulfhydryl proteases. Carboxypeptidase activity was inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride. An azocasein-degrading endopeptidase, sensitive to thiol protease inhibitors, was also found. An increase in the specific activity of aminopeptidase during both fruit development and ovary senescence was observed. In contrast, the specific activity of carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase increased only during senescence of the ovary. Changes in exopeptidase activity in senescing ovaries could be mainly the consequence of a greater stability to proteolysis while the rise in endopeptidase activity appeared to be due to new or increased synthesis of the enzyme. These results suggest that endopeptidase, and not amino or carboxypeptidase, plays a key role in the senescence of pea ovaries and that the changes in unpollinated ovaries leading to ovary senescence or fruit development can be controlled by gibberellins. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667372

Carrasco, Pedro; Carbonell, Juan

1990-01-01

211

Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary  

PubMed Central

The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON) will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV) to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh) and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry. PMID:20723258

2010-01-01

212

Recent arguments against germ cell renewal in the adult human ovary: is an absence of marker gene expression really acceptable evidence of an absence of oogenesis?  

PubMed

In 2004, a study from our lab published in the journal Nature reignited a worldwide debate over the validity of the dogma that mammalian females are incapable of oocyte and follicle production during postnatal life. Amidst widespread skepticism, we forged ahead and published a second study in 2005 in the journal Cell, which not only reaffirmed with different experimental approaches that this dogma is invalid but also identified cells in bone marrow (BM) and blood of adult female mice that could generate oocytes contained within immature follicles in the ovaries of recipient females following transplantation. Although this work has been the subject of extensive critical commentary as well, two recent reports from others have confirmed the germline potential of adult BM-derived cells in mice. Further, independent corroboration of the results and conclusions presented in our earlier Nature paper is also now available. However, three papers have been published that purportedly question our work and conclusions. The first is a paper by Eggan et al. published in the journal Nature, which attempts to draw conclusions about the germline potential of BM-derived cells after focusing solely on ovulated eggs while ignoring what may be occurring at the level of oogenesis in the ovaries. The second, from Veitia and colleagues, attempts to draw the same conclusions as Eggan et al. from a single clinical case report of a female Fanconi anemia patient who conceived a genetically-related daughter after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The third is a report from Liu et al. just released in the journal Developmental Biology that claims to provide evidence refuting the possibility that adult female mammals produce new oocytes. However, all of the data presented in this latter report are derived from gene expression studies that the authors say fail to show the occurrence of meiosis or germ cell mitosis in adult human ovaries. Given that more than three years have passed since our initial study challenging the dogma was published, it is our belief that continuing arguments against the possibility of postnatal oogenesis in mammals should be based on more rigorous experimental approaches than simply an absence of evidence, especially from gene expression analyses. Further, the interpretations offered by Liu et al. of their results are not as straightforward as they contend since some of their data can also be viewed as supportive of postnatal oogenesis in reproductive age women. PMID:17438374

Tilly, Jonathan L; Johnson, Joshua

2007-04-15

213

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes: results from a long-term prospective study.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) recently has been identified as a risk factor associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the evidence derives from cross-sectional observational studies, retrospective studies, or short-term prospective studies. This long-term prospective study of a large cohort of women with PCOS, followed from youth to middle age, aimed at estimating, for the first time, the incidence and potential predictors of type 2 diabetes in this population. A total of 255 women with PCOS were followed for at least 10 years (mean follow-up 16.9 years). Six women were patients with diabetes at baseline, and another 42 women developed type 2 diabetes during the follow-up. The incidence rate of type 2 diabetes in the study population was 1.05 per 100 person-years. The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes at the end of follow-up was 39.3%, which is significantly higher with respect to that of the general Italian female population of a similar age (5.8%). The likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes significantly increased as BMI, fasting glucose, and glucose area under the curve at baseline increased and significantly decreased as sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels at follow-up increased. This study demonstrates that the risk of type 2 diabetes is markedly elevated in middle-aged women with PCOS and suggests including BMI, glucose, and SHBG-circulating levels in the risk stratification. PMID:22698921

Gambineri, Alessandra; Patton, Laura; Altieri, Paola; Pagotto, Uberto; Pizzi, Carmine; Manzoli, Lamberto; Pasquali, Renato

2012-09-01

214

Mosaic analysis in the drosophila ovary reveals a common hedgehog-inducible precursor stage for stalk and polar cells.  

PubMed Central

The fates of two small subgroups of the ovarian follicle cells appear to be linked: mutations in Notch, Delta, fs(1)Yb, or hedgehog cause simultaneous defects in the specification of stalk cells and polar cells. Both of these subgroups are determined in the germarium, and both cease division early in oogenesis. To test the possibility that these subgroups are related by lineage, we generated dominantly marked mitotic clones in ovaries. Small, restricted clones in stalk cells and polar cells were found adjacent to each other at a frequency much too high to be explained by independent induction. We therefore propose a model in which stalk cells and polar cells are derived from a precursor population that is distinct from the precursors for other follicle cells. We support and extend this model by characterization of mutants that affect stalk and polar cell formation. We find that ectopic expression of Hedgehog can induce both polar and stalk cell fate, presumably by acting on the precursor stage. In contrast, we find that stall affects neither the induction of the precursors nor the decision between the stalk cell and polar cell fate but, rather, some later differentiation step of stalk cells. In addition, we show that ectopic polar and stalk cells disturb the anterior-posterior polarity of the underlying oocyte. PMID:9927465

Tworoger, M; Larkin, M K; Bryant, Z; Ruohola-Baker, H

1999-01-01

215

Isolation and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary cell variants defective in adhesion to fibronectin-coated collagen  

PubMed Central

Variant clones of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were selected for reduced adhesion to serum-coated tissue culture plates. These clones also displayed reduced adhesion to substrata composed of collagen layers coated with bovine serum or with fibronectin (cold-insoluble globulin). Wild-type (WT) and adhesion variant (ADv) cells grew at comparable rates in suspension culture, but the adhesion variants could not be grown in monolayer culture because of their inability to attach to the substratum. The adhesion deficit in these cells was not corrected by raising the concentration of divalent cations or of serum to levels 10-fold greater than those normally utilized in cell culture. However, both WT and ADv clones could adhere, spread, and attain a normal CHO morphology on substrata coated with concanavalin A or poly-L- lysine. In addition, the adhesion variants could attach to substrata coated with "footpad" material (substratum-attached material) derived from monolayers of human diploid fibroblasts or WT CHO cells. These observations suggest that the variant clones may have a cell surface defect that prevents them from utilizing exogeneous fibronectin as an adhesion-promoting ligand; however the variants seem to have normal cytoskeletal and metabolic capacities that allow them to attach and spread on substrata coated with alternative ligands. These variants should be extremely useful in studying the molecular basis of cell adhesion. PMID:7193214

1980-01-01

216

Three-dimensional culture of a mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary: expression of in vivo characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) is a novel in vitro cell culture system used to successfully culture a cell line derived from a heterologous mixed mullerian tumor cell of the ovary. Although the original tumor was comprised of both epithelial and mesodermal components, long-term culture in conventional flasks established a cell line from this tumor with homogeneous epitheliallike growth characteristics (1). Cells from Passage 36 were seeded into a Rotating-Wall Vessel containing Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads. Scanning electron micrographs of tumor cells cultured for 32 d in the RWV showed the presence of heterogeneous cell populations organized into three-dimensional tissuelike architecture. Immunocytochemical analysis confirmed the cellular heterogeneity, as demonstrated by expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal antigens. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification demonstrated the presence of mRNA for cellular oncogenes HER-2/neu, H-ras, K-ras, and tumor suppressor p53. Thus, there are two advantages to propagation of tissue in the RWV culture system:(a) tissue diversification representing populations present in the original tumor, and (b) the three-dimensional freedom to organize tissues morphologically akin to those observed in vivo. These data indicate that the RWV culture system is suitable for generating large quantities of ovarian tumor cells in vitro that are amenable to immunocytochemical, oncogenic, morphologic characteristics demonstrated in vivo.

Goodwin, T. J.; Prewett, T. L.; Spaulding, G. F.; Becker, J. L.

1997-01-01

217

Biologically Active Constituents from Salix viminalis Bio-Oil and Their Protective Activity Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells.  

PubMed

The protective antioxidative effect of the phenolic extract (PE) isolated from Salix viminalis pyrolysis derived bio-oil was shown in vitro on the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cells pretreated with 0.05 ?g/ml PE after exposure to different concentrations of H2O2 (300-900 ?M) showed up to 25 % higher viability than the unpretreated ones. The antioxidative effect of PE was also observed in a time-dependent manner. The results were confirmed by visual examination of the specimens using microscopy. Finally, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity modulation was shown by SOD assay, designed to determine the activity of enzymes removing free radicals. PMID:25172057

Ilnicka, Anna; Roszek, Katarzyna; Olejniczak, Andrzej; Komoszynski, Michal; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P

2014-11-01

218

77 FR 70451 - Report of the Evidence-Based Methodology Workshop on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prevention.nih.gov/workshops/2012/pcos/default.aspx. DATES: Comments on...INFORMATION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormone disorder that affects...women in the United States. Women with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant...

2012-11-26

219

Pelvic tumors with normal-appearing shapes of ovaries and uterus presenting as an emergency (Review)  

PubMed Central

Abdominal pain with an associated pelvic mass is a common problem in everyday practice. Concerns about ectopic pregnancy, torsion of an enlarged ovary or malignancy usually dominate the diagnostic evaluation. On physical and imaging examination, when a palpable painful mass is present in the pelvis and the two ovaries and uterus are detected in their normal anatomical locations, the content and origin of the lesions may be significant in narrowing the pre-operative differential diagnosis. Thus, the emergent pelvic indications discussed in this review should be considered. The causes of acute abdominal pain are few in number and therefore an accurate diagnosis may be most frequently made at the time of exploratory laparotomy. PMID:22807951

IMAI, ATSUSHI; ICHIGO, SATOSHI; TAKAGI, HIROSHI; MATSUNAMI, KAZUTOSHI; WATANABE, SADAYOSHI; MURASE, TAKAYUKI; IKEDA, TSUNEKO

2012-01-01

220

The ovary structure, previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages in parthenogenetic species Dactylobiotus dispar (Murray, 1907) (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada).  

PubMed

The reproductive system of Dactylobiotus dispar consists of the ovary and the oviduct that opens into the rectum. The sack-like ovary is filled with the developing oocytes, which are assisted by the trophocytes. In D. dispar, the mixed vitellogenesis takes place. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), the second part is absorbed by micropinocytosis while the third part is synthesized in the trophocytes and is transported to the oocytes through the cytoplasmatic bridges. Moreover, rRNA, lipids and mitochondria are transfered from the trophocytes to the oocytes. The histochemical researches show that the reserve material accumulated in the oocytes contains proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. PMID:16125743

Poprawa, Izabela

2005-10-01

221

Bilateral lymphangiomas of the ovary: an immunohistochemical characterization and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Lymphangiomas of the ovary are rare tumors, with only 13 cases reported. The diagnoses of these tumors have been based on histologic findings without immunohistochemical confirmation of endothelial cell origin. It is uncertain if these tumors are true neoplasms or if some represent reactive lesions. In this report, the literature is reviewed, and a 53-year-old woman with bilateral ovarian lymphangiomas is described. The ovarian masses were composed of numerous, thin-walled, cystic spaces containing a proteinaceous fluid, mature lymphocytes, and occasional erythrocytes. The cyst walls were lined by flat, benign-appearing cells that were immunoreactive for factor VIII-related antigen, CD34, and CD31. Further examination of the specimen showed absent fallopian tube fimbriae, tuboovarian adhesions, and chronic follicular salpingitis, suggesting that the lymphatic proliferation in the ovaries was a reactive change secondary to impaired regional lymphatic drainage. PMID:9891248

Evans, A; Lytwyn, A; Urbach, G; Chapman, W

1999-01-01

222

Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Consensus Review for Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary.  

PubMed

Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer with a distinct clinical behavior. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of CCC. The CCC is more likely to be detected at an early stage than high-grade serous cancers, and when confined within the ovary, the prognosis is good. However, advanced disease is associated with a very poor prognosis and resistance to standard treatment. Cytoreductive surgery should be performed for patients with stage II, III, or IV disease. An international phase III study to compare irinotecan/cisplatin and paclitaxel/carboplatin as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIV CCC has completed enrollment (GCIG/JGOG3017). Considering the frequent PIK3CA mutation in CCC, dual inhibitors targeting PI3K, AKT in the mTOR pathway, are promising. Performing these trials and generating the evidence will require considerable international collaboration. PMID:25341576

Okamoto, Aikou; Glasspool, Rosalind M; Mabuchi, Seiji; Matsumura, Noriomi; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Takano, Masashi; Takano, Tadao; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke; Konishi, Ikuo; Covens, Alan; Ledermann, Jonathan; Mezzazanica, Delia; Steer, Christopher; Millan, David; McNeish, Iain A; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Kang, Sokbom; Gladieff, Laurence; Bryce, Jane; Oza, Amit

2014-11-01

223

[Disorder of Tiangui (kidney essence) and reproductive dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome].  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) usually views polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as a menstrual disease or infertility disease. Reproductive dysfunction in PCOS is characterized by ovarian androgen excess and disturbance of follicular development, and its main clinical manifestations include delayed menstruation, scant menstruation, amenorrhea or infertility. Insulin resistance is a key pathological mechanism of PCOS. "Tiangui" (kidney essence) as a sex-stimulating essence in female in TCM theory, is essential to the menstruation and pregnancy of women. The disturbance of Tiangui (including time, status and rhythm) would result in female reproductive problems. Current studies of Tiangui indicate that ovary is the target organ of PCOS treatment, and its functional characteristics are consistent with the properties of Tiangui in time frame, state form and rhythm cycle. It is then concluded that ovarian dysfunction in PCOS can be expressed as disorder of Tiangui. PMID:21078264

Wang, Bo; Yan, Wei; Hou, Li-hui; Wu, Xiao-ke

2010-11-01

224

Signet-ring stromal tumor of the ovary: an extremely rare neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Signet-ring stromal tumor (SRST) of the ovary is an extremely rare neoplasm. Herein, we present a SRST of the ovary, which is the twelfth report in the literature. A 44 year-old, G4P2 patient was admitted with the complaint of polymenorrhea. She was operated on for persistent semisolid ovarian mass measuring 5 cm in diameter. The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a benign ovarian SRST. In conclusion, SRST is an extremely rare benign ovarian tumor with good prognosis according to the current literature. Although the recurrence rate or malignant transformation potential of these tumors are not yet known, close follow-up in the post-operative period may be beneficial. PMID:24591961

?ükür, Yavuz Emre; Özmen, Batuhan; Atabeko?lu, Cem Somer; Sönmezer, Murat; Ortaç, F?rat

2011-01-01

225

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view. PMID:24073009

Johansson, Julia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

2013-01-01

226

The hyaline vascular type of Castleman's disease of the ovary: a case report.  

PubMed

Castleman's disease in the pelvic cavity is rare. We present a 72-year-old woman with hyaline vascular type of Castleman's disease of the right ovary. Right ovarian enlargement was detected in the medical examination. Computed tomography revealed a solid mass, measured 2.5 cm in size, in the right ovary. A bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Morphologically, lymphoid follicles with regressed germinal centers (GCs) were surrounded by a broad mantle zone composed of concentric rings of small lymphocytes, and the hyalinized blood vessels with plump endothelial cells penetrated radially into GCs. Proliferation of follicular dendritic cells, which were positive for CD21 and epidermal growth factor receptor, were detected in GCs and mantle zone. No other lesions were found. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyaline vascular type of Castleman's disease of ovarian primary. PMID:24401192

Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Yoshioka, Takako; Tasaki, Takashi; Tanimoto, Akihide

2014-10-01

227

Distribution of photoassimilates in the pea plant: chronology of events in non-fertilized ovaries and effects of gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-lived isotope11C (t1\\/2=20.4 min) has been used to study assimilate distribution in intact pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). Radiolabel was measured at the leaf fed with11CO2 (feed-leaf), at the ovary of the flower subtended by this leaf, and in shoot apex and roots of individual plants. Considerable11C-radiolabel was detected in the young ovaries during the first days after anthesis.

Siegfried Jahnke; Dirk Bier; Juan José Estruch; José Pío Beltrán

1989-01-01

228

Analysis of apoptosis and expression of bcl-2 gene family members in the human and baboon ovary.  

PubMed

Recent data support a role for apoptosis, under tight regulatory control by bcl-2, oxidative stress response, tumor suppressor, and CASP gene family members, in mediating granulosa cell demise during follicular atresia in the rodent and avian ovary. Herein we evaluated the occurrence of apoptosis in the human and baboon ovary relative to follicular health status, and analyzed expression of several cell death genes in these tissues. In situlocalization of DNA strand breaks in fixed human and baboon ovarian tissue sections indicated that apoptosis was essentially restricted to granulosa cells of atretic antral follicles. Biochemical analysis of DNA oligonucleosomes in individual follicles isolated from baboon ovaries during the ovulatory phase revealed the presence of apoptotic DNA fragments in subordinate but not dominant follicles, thus substantiating the in situ labeling studies. Messenger RNA transcripts encoded by the bax death susceptibility gene, the bcl-xlong survival gene, the bcl-xshort pro-apoptosis gene, the p53 tumor suppressor gene, and two members of the CASP gene family (CASP-2/Ich-1, CASP-3/CPP32), were detected by Northern blot analysis of total RNA prepared either from human ovaries or from Percoll-purified granulosa-lutein cells obtained from patients undergoing assisted reproductive technologies. Lastly, immunohistochemical localization of the BAX death-susceptibility protein in the human ovary revealed abundant expression in granulosa cells of early atretic follicles, whereas BAX protein was extremely low or non-detectable in healthy or grossly-atretic follicles. We conclude that apoptosis occurs during, and is probably responsible for, folicular atresia in the human and baboon ovary. Moreover, apoptosis in the human ovary is likely controlled by altered expression of the same cohort of cell death regulatory factors recently implicated as primary determinants of apoptosis induction or suppression in the rodent ovary. PMID:10200447

Kugu, K; Ratts, V S; Piquette, G N; Tilly, K I; Tao, X J; Martimbeau, S; Aberdeen, G W; Krajewski, S; Reed, J C; Pepe, G J; Albrecht, E D; Tilly, J L

1998-01-01

229

Comparative studies on fatty acid composition of the ovaries and hepatopancreas at different physiological stages of the Chinese mitten crab  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of the ovary at different physiological stages (immature, mature, spawning, egg loss and abortion) of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was investigated with capillary gas chromatograph. A total of 18 types of fatty acids were found in the ovary of E. sinensis. Three of them were major fatty acids: oleic acid (C18:1) (31.96–37.31%), palmitic acid

Xue-Ping Ying; Wan-Xi Yang; Yong-Pu Zhang

2006-01-01

230

Immunohistochemical evidence identifying the site of androgen production in the ovary of the protogynous grouper Epinephelus merra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgen plays an important role in the developing ovaries of female fish. However, little is known regarding either the sites of production of androgen or its functional roles. In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemically the localization of cholesterol-side-chain-cleavage (P450scc) and cytochrome P45011ß-hydroxylase (P45011ß) with antibodies P450scc and P45011ß in the ovary of the female honeycomb grouper Epinephelus merra during

Mohammad Ashraful Alam; Hiroki Komuro; Ramji Kumar Bhandari; Shigeo Nakamura; Kiyoshi Soyano; Masaru Nakamura

2005-01-01

231

Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

2013-01-01

232

Evaluation for Insulin Resistance and Comorbidities Related to Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often have coexisting insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance or diabetes,\\u000a and metabolic syndrome. For larger epidemiological studies, detection of IR may be accomplished using surrogate measures,\\u000a such as the homeostatic model assessment or the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index. Alternatively, research studies\\u000a of IR, particularly those involving a smaller number of subjects, should strive to

Ricardo Azziz

233

Unilateral or bilateral vagotomy induces ovulation in both ovaries of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development. Methods Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 90–92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear. Results In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats. Conclusions This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries. PMID:23866168

2013-01-01

234

Heat shock proteins in porcine ovary: synthesis, accumulation and regulation by stress and hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies aimed to understand the interrelationships between stress, hormones and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in\\u000a the ovary. We examined (1) whether HSP70.2, HSP72 and HSP105\\/110 can be produced and accumulated in porcine ovarian tissue,\\u000a (2) whether these HSPs could be indicators of stress, i.e. whether two kinds of stress (high temperatures and malnutrition\\/serum\\u000a deprivation) can affect them, and

Alexander V. Sirotkin; Miroslav Bauer

2011-01-01

235

[Rehabilitation of the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome during sanatorium-and-spa treatment].  

PubMed

An original method for the combined non-medicamentous balneotherapeutic treatment of the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and compromised reproductive function has been developed. The method designed to be applied after laparoscopic intervention for the management of infertility includes the use of radon water in combination with acupuncture. It was shown to help to restore regular menstrual cycles in half of the treated women and normalize fertility in some of them. PMID:20017384

Akhkubekova, N K

2009-01-01

236

A woman with polycystic ovary syndrome treated for infertility by in vitro fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A 25-year-old South Asian woman presented at an infertility unit with a 2-year history of anovulatory infertility. She had experienced irregular and infrequent periods for over a decade.Investigations. Endocrine profile (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-function test, prolactin, testosterone), oral glucose tolerance test and pelvic ultrasonography were performed.Diagnosis. Polycystic ovary syndrome, in accordance with the recent Rotterdam consensus (2004) criteria.Management.

Thomas Tang; Adam H. Balen

2009-01-01

237

Hormonal regulation of S-adenosylmethionine synthase transcripts in pea ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cDNA clones coding for S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthase (SAMs, EC 2.5.1.6) have been isolated from a cDNA library of gibberellic acid-treated unpollinated pea ovaries. Both cDNAs were sequenced showing a high degree of identity but coding for different SAMs polypeptides. The presence of two SAMs genes in pea was further confirmed by Southern analysis. Expression of the SAMs genes in the

Lourdes Gómez-Gómez; Pedro Carrasco

1996-01-01

238

Hormonal effects on the development of the mouse ovary in vitro  

E-print Network

Aims MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals and Reagents Culture Procedures . Media Fixation . Measurements RESULTS Ouantitati ve Analysis of Ovarian Cultures Oualitative Analysis of Ovarian Cultures Electron Microscopy DISCUSSION... later time. The initiation of fol 1 i cul ar growth continues throughout the reproductive life span of the animal. The greatest number of studies of ovarian function in vitro have involved the isolation of one or two cell types from the ovary...

Mitchell, Philip Allen

2012-06-07

239

Maturation of stamens and ovaries on cultured ear inflorescences of maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on the maturation of stamens and ovaries from cultured maize (Zea mays L.) ear inflorescences. Immature ears (5.1–10.0 mm long) of maize were cultured in kinetin medium to study microsporogenesis and pollen maturation in developing stamens. Male spikelets developed on ears cultured in kinetin medium. Meiosis-I began by 7 days of culture in the developing anthers and

V. R. Bommineni

1990-01-01

240

Effects of Hyperthermia on Survival and Progression of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to hyperthermic temperatures of 42.5-46.0° de creases exponentially as a function of duration of heat exposure in a manner quite similar to survival as a function of radiation dose. The data indicate that above 43°a 1° change in temperature requires a 2-fold change in time to achieve the same degree

Stephen A. Sapareto; Larry E. Hopwood; William C. Dewey; Mundundi R. Raju; Joe W. Gray

241

Reproductive Performance of Mouse Oocyte after In Vivo Exposure of The Ovary to Continuous Wave Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background: There is a lack of studies regarding the effects of ultrasound (US) and replication of its exposure on pre-implantation events in mammals. Thus, this study assesses the reproductive performance of mouse oocytes that have been obtained from ovaries irradiated with US waves versus non-irradiated ovaries. Also comparision of their parthenogenesis, ovulation, fertilization, and pre-implantation development rates. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we divided extracted ovaries into three experimental groups that received the same dosage, but different replicates of radiation for each group. Results were compared with the control and sham groups. Continuous wave (CW) US, at a spatial average intensity of 355 mW/cm2 and a frequency of 3.28 MHz, was administered for 5 minutes to the ovaries at an interval between pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injections. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA test and the level of significance was determined to be 0.05. Results: Data collection was based on microscopic visualization. According to the obtained results, metaphase II (MII) oocyte numbers and the percentage of blastocysts significantly reduced in the USexposed groups versus the unexposed groups. Fertilization rate was comparable between groups while parthenogenesis was significantly higher in the US-exposed groups compared to the unexposed groups. Conclusion: Structural damage to cells, intracellular organelles and proteins, as well as changes in signaling pathways induced by US may be reasons for some of the observed adverse effects in groups that have received more US exposure. PMID:24520439

Nasiri, Nahid; VosoughTaqi Dizaj, Ahmad; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Akhond, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

242

Lunar Synchronization of in Vitro Steroidogenesis in Ovaries of the Golden Rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the relationship between lunar cycle and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, the intact follicles of oocytes were incubated in vitro with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and seven steroid hormones, 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), 17?,20?,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20?-S), 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), progesterone (P), cortisol, estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone, during the two lunar phases, the new moon (1 week before

Akihiro Takemura; Kazunori Takano

2002-01-01

243

Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. II. Isolation and characterization of phosphatidylserine auxotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants that required exogenously added phosphatidylserine for cell growth were isolated by using the replica technique with polyester cloth, and three such mutants were characterized. Labeling experiments on intact cells with ³²Pi and L-(U-¹⁴C)serine revealed that a phosphatidylserine auxotroph, designated as PSA-3, was strikingly defective in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis. When cells were grown for 2 days

O. Kuge; M. Nishijima; Y. Akamatsu

1986-01-01

244

Isolation of cell cycle-dependent gamma ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the isolation of gamma ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants is described, which uses nylon cloth replica plating and photography with dark-field illumination to directly monitor colonies for growth after gamma irradiation. Two gamma raysensitive mutants were isolated using this method. One of these cells (XR-1) had a two-slope survival curve: an initial steep slope and

Thomas D. Stamato; Ronald Weinstein; Amato Giaccia; Laurie Mackenzie

1983-01-01

245

Selection of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) with reduced glutamate and aspartate uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of L-[3H]glutamate into Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) was characterized and the results used to design a tritium suicide selection for cells with transport defects. Replicas of surviving colonies on polyester cloth disks were scrrened by autofluorography for reduced uptake and two mutant clones, Ed-A1 and Ed-B8, were obtained. Uptake of glutamate through a sodium-dependent system in both mutants

John F. Ash; Robert P. Igo Jr; Martha Morgan; Allen Grey

1993-01-01

246

Melatonin Receptor 1A Gene Polymorphism Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene is a regulator of circadian rhythms and reproductive processes. The MTNR1A gene is also a potential candidate gene of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the MTNR1A gene polymorphism is associated with a predisposition to PCOS. Methods: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2119882 in

Chao Li; Yuhua Shi; Li You; Laicheng Wang; Zi-Jiang Chen

2011-01-01

247

Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy reduces the development of gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether metformin safely reduced development of gestational diabetes in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective and retrospective study.Setting: Outpatient clinical research center.Patient(s): The prospective study included 33 nondiabetic women with PCOS who conceived while taking metformin and had live births; of these, 28 were taking metformin through delivery. The retrospective study included 39 nondiabetic women

C. J Glueck; Ping Wang; Suichi Kobayashi; Harvey Phillips; Luann Sieve-Smith

2002-01-01

248

Effects of metformin on gonadotropin-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate whether pretreatment with metformin improves FSH-induced ovulation in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Randomized prospective trial.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Siena.Patient(s): Twenty women with clomiphene citrate–resistant PCOS.Intervention(s): The women were divided randomly into groups A and B (10 subjects each). Group B received 1,500 mg of metformin for at least a month

Vincenzo De Leo; Antonio la Marca; Antonino Ditto; Giuseppe Morgante; Antonio Cianci

1999-01-01

249

Effect of genotype and medium composition on linseed ( Linum usitatissimum ) ovary culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) using haploid techniques allows breeders to develop new cultivars in a shorter time period. Many research groups successfully\\u000a created new linseed genotypes through anther culture; however ovary culture has been the subject of only a few earlier studies.\\u000a In the present study, the effect of genotype and growth regulators combination on callus induction and shoots

Natalija Burbulis; Aušra Blinstrubien?; Ramun? Kuprien?

2011-01-01

250

Vitrification of mouse ovaries using ethylene glycol and DMSO as cryoprotectants: histopathological evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten, 4- to 6-week-old BALB\\/c mice were randomly assigned to either control (non-vitrified, n = 5) or treatment (vitrified, n = 5) groups. Ovaries in the vitrified group were frozen sequentially by immersion into two vitrification solutions VS1: 10% ethylene glycol (EG) + 10% DMSO in holding medium (TCM-199 + 20% FBS) and VS2: 20% EG + 20% DMSO in

Homayoon Babaei; Amin Derakhshanfar; Arash Kheradmand

2007-01-01

251

Role of Ovarian Transposition Based on the Dosimetric Effects of Craniospinal Irradiation on the Ovaries: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we present a case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function in an adult female patient treated with craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma. The prescribed dose to the craniospinal axis was 2340 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction and was delivered with 6-MV photons. Before ovarian transposition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained for localization of the ovaries and was registered with the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Surgical clips allowed for CT localization of the ovaries after transposition. As a result of ovarian transposition, mean and maximum radiation doses decreased from 983 to 68 cGy and 1624 to 84 cGy for the left ovary and from 166 to 87 cGy and 723 to 103 cGy for the right ovary, respectively. Review of the literature indicates that such radiation doses are below the threshold that causes ovarian dysfunction and infertility. We conclude that ovarian localization with an MRI of the pelvis can be offered to females undergoing craniospinal irradiation. Transposition of the ovaries provides an option to preserve ovarian function in cases where the ovaries would otherwise be included within the radiation field.

Mitchell, James D.; Hitchen, Christine [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Vlachaki, Maria T. [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)], E-mail: mvlachaki@med.wayne.edu

2007-10-01

252

[Importance of the interdisciplinary, evidence-based diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome].  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is recognized as the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder of women. This heterogeneous endocrinopathy characterized by clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, oligo- or amenorrhoea, anovulatory infertility, and polycystic ovarian morphology. The prevalence, clinical feature and the risk of co-morbidity vary depending on the accuracy of the diagnosis and the criteria used. Evidence suggests that those women are at high risk who fulfil the criteria based on National Institute of Health. The complex feature of the syndrome and the considerable practice heterogeneity that is present with regards to diagnostic testing of patients who are suspected to have polycystic ovary syndrome require an interdisciplinary, evidence-based diagnostic approach. Such a method can ensure the patient safety and the effectiveness and efficiency of the diagnosis. This paper summarises the highest available evidence provided by well-designed studies, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of the clinical feature and the clinical implications of the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25063700

G?dény, Sándor; Csenteri, Orsolya

2014-07-27

253

Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women  

PubMed Central

Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22366948

White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

2012-01-01

254

Transcriptional signature of progesterone in the fathead minnow ovary (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

A growing number of studies have examined transcriptional responses to sex steroids along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in teleost fishes. However, data are lacking on the molecular cascades that underlie progesterone signaling. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptional response in the ovary of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in response to progesterone (P4). Fathead minnow ovaries were exposed in vitro to 500 ng P4/L. Germinal vesicle migration and breakdown (GVBD) was observed and microarrays were used to identify gene cascades affected by P4. Microarray analysis identified 1702 differentially expressed transcripts after P4 treatment. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that transcripts involved in the molecular functions of protein serine/threonine kinase activity, ATP binding, and activity of calcium channels were increased after P4 treatment. There was an overwhelming decrease in levels of transcripts of genes that are structural constituents of ribosomes with P4 treatment. There was also evidence for gene expression changes in steroid and maturation-related transcripts. Pathway analyses identified cell cycle regulation, insulin action, hedgehog, and B cell activation as pathways containing an over-representation of highly regulated transcripts. Significant regulatory sub-networks of P4-mediated transcripts included genes regulated by tumor protein p53 and E2F transcription factor 1. These data provide novel insight into the molecular signaling cascades that underlie P4-signaling in the ovary and identify genes and processes that may indicate premature GVBD due to environmental pollutants that mimic progestins. PMID:23796460

Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Escalon, B Lynn; Spade, Daniel J; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-10-01

255

Normal human ovary and ovarian tumors express glycodelin, a glycoprotein with immunosuppressive and contraceptive properties.  

PubMed Central

Glycodelin is a glycoprotein with potent immunosuppressive and contraceptive activities. It reacts with antibodies against placental protein 14, or progesterone-associated endometrial protein, and has a unique carbohydrate structure. Previous nomenclature is misleading, because glycodelin is neither synthesized in the placenta nor is it endometrium specific. No ovarian synthesis of glycodelin has been demonstrated. We present evidence for glycodelin synthesis in the human ovary and ovarian tumors. In follicular phase, immunoperoxidase staining of microwave-treated tissue sections employing affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies localized glycodelin to areas of stromal cell condensation in ovarian cortex, theca interna, and the granulosa. In luteal phase, cortical stroma was negative or only weakly positive, whereas glycodelin was present in theca interna of the corpus luteum and luteinized granulosa cells and also in corpus albicans and Leydig cells of the ovarian hilus. In situ hybridization gave negative results for glycodelin mRNA in normal ovary, whereas in ovarian tumors strong expression of both the glycodelin mRNA and the protein were found in benign and malignant serous cystadenomas, mucinous ovarian tumors being negative. We conclude that glycodelin is synthesized in human ovarian tumors, and its occurrence in normal human ovary may represent either synthesis or a site of glycodelin action. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8623915

Kamarainen, M.; Leivo, I.; Koistinen, R.; Julkunen, M.; Karvonen, U.; Rutanen, E. M.; Seppala, M.

1996-01-01

256

In vivo inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and growth in tobacco ovary tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post fertilization growth of tobacco ovary tissues treated with inhibitors of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis was examined in relation to endogenous PA titers and the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17). DL-alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), specific, irreversible ("suicide") inhibitors of ODC and ADC in vitro, were used to modulate PA biosynthesis in excised flowers. ODC represented >99% of the total decarboxylase activity in tobacco ovaries. In vivo inhibition of ODC with DFMO resulted in a significant decrease in PA titers, ovary fresh weight and protein content. Simultaneous inhibition of both decarboxylases by DFMO and DFMA produced only a marginally greater depression in growth and PA titers, indicating that ODC activity is rate-limiting for PA biosynthesis in these tissues. Paradoxically, DFMA alone inhibited PA biosynthesis, not as a result of a specific inhibition of ADC, but primarily through the inactivation of ODC. In vivo inhibition of ODC by DFMA appears to result from arginase-mediated hydrolysis of this inhibitor to urea and DFMO, the suicide substrate for ODC. Putrescine conjugates in tobacco appear to function as a storage form of this amine which, upon hydrolysis, may contribute to Put homeostasis during growth.

Slocum, R. D.; Galston, A. W.

1985-01-01

257

Biocompatible core-shell electrospun nanofibers as potential application for chemotherapy against ovary cancer.  

PubMed

Polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) core-shell nanofibers are successfully fabricated by a simple coaxial electrospinning method, in which PVA forms the core layer and CS forms the shell layer. With the change of the feed ratio between PVA and CS, the surface morphology and the microstructures of the nanofibers are largely changed. The as-prepared core-shell fibers can be used as a carrier for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. FT-IR analysis demonstrates that hydrogen bond between CS and PVA chains forms. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity test indicate that the core-shell fibers are completely biocompatible and the free DOX shows higher cytotoxicity than the DOX loaded nanofibers. The standing PVA/CS core-shell fibers remarkably promote the attachment, proliferation and spreading of human ovary cancer cells (SKOV3). Via observing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the DOX released from the fibers can be delivered into SKOV3 cell nucleus, which is significant for the future tumor therapy. And, the as-prepared fibers exhibit controlled release for loaded DOX via adjusting the feed ratio between PVA and CS, and the DOX loaded nanofibers are quite effective in prohibiting the SKOV3 ovary cells attachment and proliferation, which are potential for chemotherapy of ovary cancer. PMID:24907754

Yan, Eryun; Fan, Yingmei; Sun, Zhiyao; Gao, Jianwei; Hao, Xiaoyuan; Pei, Shichun; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Liguo; Zhang, Deqing

2014-08-01

258

Cell proliferation and apoptosis in the fetal and neonatal ovary of guinea pigs.  

PubMed

The guinea pig is an excellent animal model for studying reproductive biology of adult humans and most domestic animals. Yet, whether this animal might serve as a good model for embryonic stage investigations and determinations of signals affecting or directing ovary development remains unknown. These questions were addressed by examining morphological evolution and the expression of biomarkers of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the ovaries of fetal and neonatal guinea pigs in the present study. Embryonic and neonatal guinea pigs at 30, 40, 50, 60, and 68 days postcoitum (dpc) and at 1 day postpartum (dpp) were evaluated, and the dynamic changes in follicles between 30 dpc and 1 dpp were observed. Results also showed that a critical period of follicular development in guinea pig embryos occurred at 40 to 50 dpc. Moreover, the proliferating-cell nuclear antigen, a cell proliferation marker, immunohistochemically stained healthy follicles, while caspase-3, an apoptosis marker, was mainly observed in atretic follicles. Together, these results demonstrate that cell proliferation and apoptosis contribute to follicular formation, development, and atresia in fetal and neonatal guinea pig ovaries. Furthermore, this study confirmed that the guinea pig is also an excellent animal model for studying reproductive biology in human and domestic animal embryos. PMID:24668631

Sun, S Y; Zhang, W; Han, X; Huang, R H; Shi, F X

2014-01-01

259

Expression of fibroblast growth factor 10 and cognate receptors in the developing bovine ovary.  

PubMed

In the mammalian ovary, FGF10 is expressed in oocytes and theca cells and is a candidate for paracrine signaling to the developing granulosa cells. To gain insight into the participation of FGF10 in the regulation of fetal folliculogenesis, we assessed mRNA expression patterns of FGF10 and its receptors, FGFR1B and FGFR2B, in relation to fetal follicle dynamics and localized FGF10 protein in bovine fetal ovaries at different ages. Primordial, primary, secondary, and antral follicles were first observed on Days 75, 90, 150, and 210 of gestation, respectively. The levels of GDF9 and BMP15 mRNA, markers for primordial and primary follicles, respectively, increased during fetal ovary development in a consistent manner with fetal follicle dynamics. CYP17A1 mRNA abundance increased from Day 60 to Day 75 and then from Day 120 to Day 150, coinciding with the appearance of secondary follicles. FGF10 mRNA abundance increased from Day 90, and this increase was temporally associated with increases in FGFR1B mRNA abundance and in the population of primary follicles. In contrast, FGFR2B mRNA expression was highest on Day 60 and decreased thereafter. FGF10 protein was localized to oogonia and oocytes and surrounding granulosa cells at all fetal ages. The present data suggest a role for FGF10 in the control of fetal folliculogenesis in cattle. PMID:24650928

Castilho, A C S; da Silva, R Bueno; Price, C A; Machado, M F; Amorim, R L; Buratini, J

2014-06-01

260

Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

Wallace, W. Hamish B. [Section of Child Life and Health, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Saran, Frank [Royal Marsden NHS Trust Foundation, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kelsey, Tom W. [School of Computer Science, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

261

Development of the germinal ridge and ovary in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

The follicular reserve and its ontogeny in the elephant are of interest because elephants have the longest reproductive life of all land-based mammals. They also have the longest recorded pregnancy, which allows a protracted view of the series of significant events involved in the development of the embryonic and fetal gonads. The large elephant population of Zimbabwe provided the opportunity to collect conceptuses from elephants culled for management reasons and hunted professionally. Five embryos aged 76-96 days and the ovaries of four fetuses aged 4.8-11.2 months were fixed in 4% buffered formalin and studied by conventional histological sectioning and a stereological protocol to calculate the follicle reserve of each fetus. These observations enabled the conclusion that the migration of primordial germ cells into the indifferent gonad terminates at around 76 days of gestation while entry of oogonia into meiosis along with first follicle formation starts at around 5 months. Peak numbers of follicles are present by mid-gestation towards the end of the 6-month mitotic-meiotic transition period. It appears that the cortex of the elephant fetal ovary at mid-gestation (11 months) has already reached a developmental stage exhibited by the ovaries of many other mammals at full term. PMID:22991581

Stansfield, F J; Nöthling, J O; Soley, J T; Allen, W R

2012-11-01

262

Relationship between HBV cccDNA expression in the human ovary and vertical transmission of HBV.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the ovary and vertical transmission of HBV. HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA were assayed in the ovaries of 33 pregnant women who were positive for HBV DNA. The HBVM (HBV markers, including HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, HBcAb) level and the HBV DNA content in peripheral blood of infants were measured. The overall positive rate of HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA in samples was 51·52% (17/33). The intrauterine infection rate of the infants was 12·12% (4/33). When HBV DNA and HBV cccDNA were both positive, the intrauterine infection rate of infants was significantly higher than when they were both negative (P<0·05). Levels of HBV cccDNA and the rate of positive samples were significantly higher in mothers with infants with intrauterine infection than in those without (P<0·01 and P<0·05, respectively). HBV can infect the human ovary and may transmit to the filial generation via the ovum. PMID:22000033

Yu, M M; Gu, X J; Xia, Y; Wang, G J; Kan, N Y; Jiang, H X; Wu, K H; Ji, Y; Ju, L L

2012-08-01

263

Immunoexpression of aromatase cytochrome P450 and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in women's ovaries after menopause  

PubMed Central

Background Menopause results in a lack of regular menstrual cycles, leading to the reduction of estrogen production. On the other hand, ovarian androgen synthesis is still present at reduced levels and requires expression of several steroidogenic enzymes. Methods This study was performed on 104 postmenopausal women hospitalized due to uterine leiomyomas, endometriosis, and/or a prolapsed uterus. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the time from menopause. Group A patients experienced menopause 1–5 years before enrollment in the study (42 women). Group B included women who had their last menstruation 5–10 years before the study (40 women). Group C consisted of 22 women who were more than 10 years past menopause. Hysterectomy or removal of the uterine corpus with adnexa was performed during laparotomy. We evaluated the expression of aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP 19) and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17? HSD) by employing immunohistochemistry. Results Activity of 17?-HSD and CYP19 was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of stromal cells of postmenopausal ovaries, epithelium cells coating the ovaries, vascular endothelial cells, and epithelial inclusion cysts. However, overall expression of both 17?-HSD and CYP 19 decreased with time after menopause. Conclusion Demonstration of the activity of the key enzymes of ovarian steroidogenesis, CYP 19 and 17?-HSD, confirms steroidogenic activity in the ovaries of postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, ovarian steroidogenic activity decreases with time, and its significant decrease occurs 10 years after menopause. PMID:24855493

2014-01-01

264

Anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil in ovaries of laying hens target prostaglandin pathways  

PubMed Central

Background An effective way to control cancer is by prevention. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Progress in the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer has been hampered due to the lack of an appropriate animal model and absence of effective chemo-prevention strategies. The domestic hens spontaneously develop ovarian adenocarcinomas that share similar histological appearance and symptoms such as ascites and metastasis with humans. There is a link between chronic inflammation and cancer. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most pro-inflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. PGE2 exerts its effects on target cells by coupling to four subtypes of receptors which have been classified as EP1-4. Fish oil is a source of omega-3 fatty acids (OM-3FAs) which may be effective in prevention of ovarian cancer. Our objective was to assess the potential impact of fish oil on expression of COX enzymes, PGE2 concentration, apoptosis and proliferation in ovaries of laying hens. Methods 48 white Leghorn hens were fed 50, 100, 175, 375 and 700 mg/kg fish oil for 21 days. The OM3-FAs and omega-6 fatty acids contents of egg yolks were determined by Gas Chromatography. Proliferation, apoptosis, COX-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin receptor subtype 4 (EP4) protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 concentration in ovaries were measured by PCNA, TUNEL, Western blot, quantitative real-time qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Results Consumption of fish oil increased the incorporation of OM-3FAs into yolks and decreased both COX-1 and COX-2 protein and mRNA expression. In correlation with COXs down-regulation, fish oil significantly reduced the concentrations of PGE2 in ovaries. EP4 protein and mRNA expression in ovaries of hens was not affected by fish oil treatment. A lower dose of fish oil increased the egg laying frequency. 175 and 700 mg/kg fish oil reduced proliferation and 700 mg/kg increased apoptosis in hen ovaries. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the lower doses of fish oil reduce inflammatory PG and may be an effective approach in preventing ovarian carcinogenesis. These findings may provide the basis for clinical trials utilizing fish oil as a dietary intervention targeting prostaglandin biosynthesis for the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24156238

2013-01-01

265

Prostaglandin E 2 in Previtellogeic Ovaries of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Synthesis and Effect on the Level of cAMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elcosanoids are thought to play a role in the regulation of invertebrate reproduction, as they do in vertebrate systems. This was investigated using the previtellogenic ovary of the freshwater prawn Macyobrachium rosenbergii as a biological model. Concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), assessed by means of radioimmunoassay, in the previtellogenic ovary (oocyte diameter 20-40 ?m) were 32.4 ± 14.1 pg\\/mg ovary.

Amir Sagi; Julia Silkovsy; Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich; Abraham Danon; Reuben Chayoth

1995-01-01

266

Self-pollination and parthenocarpic ability in developing ovaries of self-incompatible Clementine mandarins (Citrus clementina).  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine if self-pollination is needed to trigger facultative parthenocarpy in self-incompatible Clementine mandarins (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). 'Marisol' and 'Clemenules' mandarins were selected, and self-pollinated and un-pollinated flowers from both cultivars were used for comparison. These mandarins are always seedless after self-pollination and show high and low ability to develop substantial parthenocarpic fruits, respectively. The time-course for pollen grain germination, tube growth and ovule abortion was analyzed as well as that for carbohydrates, active gibberellins (GA1 and GA4 ), auxin (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) content in the ovary. 'Clemenules' showed higher pollen grain germination, but pollen tube development was arrested in the upper style 9?days after pollination in both cultivars. Self-pollination did not stimulate parthenocarpy, whereas both un-pollinated and self-pollinated ovaries set fruit regardless of the cultivar. On the other hand, 'Marisol' un-pollinated flowers showed greater parthenocarpic ovary growth than 'Clemenules' un-pollinated flowers, i.e. higher ovule abortion rate (+21%), higher fruit set (+44%) and higher fruit weight (+50%). Further, the greater parthenocarpic ability of 'Marisol' paralleled higher levels of GA1 in the ovary (+34% at anthesis). 'Marisol' ovary also showed higher hexoses and starch mobilization, but lower ABA levels (-64% at anthesis). Self-pollination did not modify carbohydrates or GA content in the ovary compared to un-pollination. Results indicate that parthenocarpy in the Clementine mandarin is pollination-independent with its ability to set depending on the ovary hormone levels. These findings suggest that parthenocarpy in fertile self-incompatible mandarins is constitutively regulated. PMID:23002897

Mesejo, Carlos; Yuste, Roberto; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Reig, Carmina; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel

2013-05-01

267

Hyperandrogenemia in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Exploration of the Role of Free Testosterone and Androstenedione in Metabolic Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods We analyzed the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic parameters in a cross-sectional study including 706 polycystic ovary syndrome and 140 BMI-matched healthy women. Polycystic ovary syndrome women were categorized into 4 groups: normal androstenedione and normal free testosterone (NA/NFT), elevated androstenedione and normal free testosterone (HA/NFT), normal androstenedione and elevated free testosterone (NA/HFT), elevated androstenedione and free testosterone (HA/HFT). Results Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels (HA/HFT and NA/HFT) have an adverse metabolic profile including 2 h glucose, HbA1c, fasting and 2 h insulin, area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda), triglycerides, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to NA/NFT (p<0.05 for all age- and BMI-adjusted analyses). In binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, odds ratio for insulin resistance was 2.78 (1.34–5.75, p?=?0.006) for polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/HFT compared to NA/NFT. We found no significantly increased risk of metabolic disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/NFT. In multiple linear regression analyses (age- and BMI-adjusted), we found a significant negative association between androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio and area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol-ratio and a positive association with Matsuda-index, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05 for all). Conclusions Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels but not with isolated androstenedione elevation have an adverse metabolic phenotype. Further, a higher androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio was independently associated with a beneficial metabolic profile. PMID:25310562

Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Rabe, Thomas; Giuliani, Albrecht; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

2014-01-01

268

Sugar-responsive Gene Expression, Invertase Activity, and Senescence in Aborting Maize Ovaries at Low Water Potentials  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Ovary abortion can occur in maize (Zea mays) if water deficits lower the water potential (?w) sufficiently to inhibit photosynthesis around the time of pollination. The abortion decreases kernel number. The present work explored the activity of ovary acid invertases and their genes, together with other genes for sucrose-processing enzymes, when this kind of abortion occurred. Cytological evidence suggested that senescence may have been initiated after 2 or 3 d of low ?w, and the expression of some likely senescence genes was also determined. • Methods Ovary abortion was assessed at kernel maturity. Acid invertase activities were localized in vivo and in situ. Time courses for mRNA abundance were measured with real time PCR. Sucrose was fed to the stems to vary the sugar flux. • Key Results Many kernels developed in controls but most aborted when ?w became low. Ovary invertase was active in controls but severely inhibited at low ?w for cell wall-bound forms in vivo and soluble forms in situ. All ovary genes for sucrose processing enzymes were rapidly down-regulated at low ?w except for a gene for invertase inhibitor peptide that appeared to be constitutively expressed. Some ovary genes for senescence were subsequently up-regulated (RIP2 and PLD1). In some genes, these regulatory changes were reversed by feeding sucrose to the stems. Abortion was partially prevented by feeding sucrose. • Conclusions A general response to low ?w in maize ovaries was an early down-regulation of genes for sucrose processing enzymes followed by up-regulation of some genes involved in senescence. Because some of these genes were sucrose responsive, the partial prevention of abortion with sucrose feeding may have been caused in part by the differential sugar-responsiveness of these genes. The late up-regulation of senescence genes may have caused the irreversibility of abortion. PMID:15355866

McLAUGHLIN, JOHN E.; BOYER, JOHN S.

2004-01-01

269

Sequence and Expression Characteristics of Long Noncoding RNAs in Honey Bee Caste Development - Potential Novel Regulators for Transgressive Ovary Size  

PubMed Central

Division of labor in social insect colonies relies on a strong reproductive bias that favors queens. Although the ecological and evolutionary success attained through caste systems is well sketched out in terms of ultimate causes, the molecular and cellular underpinnings driving the development of caste phenotypes are still far from understood. Recent genomics approaches on honey bee developmental biology revealed a set of genes that are differentially expressed genes in larval ovaries and associated with transgressive ovary size in queens and massive cell death in workers. Amongst these, two contigs called special attention, both being over 200 bp in size and lacking apparent coding potential. Herein, we obtained their full cDNA sequences. These and their secondary structure characteristics placed in evidence that they are bona fide long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) differentially expressed in larval ovaries, thus named lncov1 and lncov2. Genomically, both map within a previously identified QTL on chromosome 11, associated with transgressive ovary size in honey bee workers. As lncov1 was over-expressed in worker ovaries we focused on this gene. Real-time qPCR analysis on larval worker ovaries evidenced an expression peak coinciding with the onset of autophagic cell death. Cellular localization analysis through fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed perinuclear spots resembling omega speckles known to regulate trafficking of RNA-binding proteins. With only four lncRNAs known so far in honey bees, two expressed in the ovaries, these findings open a novel perspective on regulatory factors acting in the fine tuning of developmental processes underlying phenotypic plasticity related to social life histories. PMID:24205350

Humann, Fernanda C.; Tiberio, Gustavo J.; Hartfelder, Klaus

2013-01-01

270

Adrenoceptors and nerve growth factor. Effects of electro-acupuncture and physical exercise in rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries.  

E-print Network

??Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, follicular cyst and hyperandrogenism. The abnormalities detected in PCOS have been… (more)

Manni, Luigi 1962-

2005-01-01

271

Mutational specificity of chromium(VI) compounds in the hprt locus of Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells.  

PubMed

Chromium(VI) compounds exert their genotoxicity and mutagenicity by complex metabolic reducing pathways that generate a variety of reactive forms of chromium and free radicals. To investigate the molecular nature of chromium-induced mutations, we characterized the entire coding region of the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene of 27 independent mutants derived from chromium(VI) oxide (CrO3)-treated Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells, by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified cDNA. Among these mutants, 10 consisted of single base substitutions, five contained two base substitutions, one had four base substitutions, six were splicing mutations, and five exhibited single base pair insertions or deletions. All of the base substitutions and most of the frameshift mutations observed were located at A/T-rich sequences. More than 90% of the base substitutions (22/24) occurred in A.T base pairs. Among them, T-->A and T-->G transversions (18/22) predominated. The mutational hotspots for single and double base substitutions were the 3' thymidine of 5'PuT and thymidines of 5'ATTT sequences respectively. This mutational specificity was also observed in CHO-K1 cells treated with two other chromium(VI) compounds, namely K2Cr2O7 and PbCrO4. Strand bias was noticed in chromium mutagenicity, since 77% of T base substitutions occurred on the non-transcribed strand. This highly sequence-specific mutation spectrum suggests that a particular form of chromium may directly interact with DNA at these hotspot sequences. PMID:1423875

Yang, J L; Hsieh, Y C; Wu, C W; Lee, T C

1992-11-01

272

Estrogen Responsiveness of the TFIID Subunit TAF4B in the Normal Mouse Ovary and in Ovarian Tumors1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Estrogen signaling in the ovary is a fundamental component of normal ovarian function, and evidence also indicates that excessive estrogen is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the gonadally enriched TFIID subunit TAF4B, a paralog of the general transcription factor TAF4A, is required for fertility in mice and for the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells following hormonal stimulation. However, the relationship between TAF4B and estrogen signaling in the normal ovary or during ovarian tumor initiation and progression has yet to be defined. Herein, we show that Taf4b mRNA and TAF4B protein, but not Taf4a mRNA or TAF4A protein, are increased in whole ovaries and granulosa cells of the ovary after exposure to 17beta-estradiol or the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol and that this response occurs within hours after stimulation. Furthermore, this increase occurs via nuclear estrogen receptors both in vivo and in a mouse granulosa cancer cell line, NT-1. We observe a significant increase in Taf4b mRNA in estrogen-supplemented mouse ovarian tumors, which correlates with diminished survival of these mice. These data highlight the novel response of the general transcription factor TAF4B to estrogen in the normal ovary and during ovarian tumor progression in the mouse, suggesting its potential role in regulating actions downstream of estrogen stimulation. PMID:24068106

Wardell, Jennifer R.; Hodgkinson, Kendra M.; Binder, April K.; Seymour, Kimberly A.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Vanderhyden, Barbara C.; Freiman, Richard N.

2013-01-01

273

Wide-field spectral imaging of human ovary autofluorescence and oncologic diagnosis via previously collected probe data  

PubMed Central

Abstract. With no sufficient screening test for ovarian cancer, a method to evaluate the ovarian disease state quickly and nondestructively is needed. The authors have applied a wide-field spectral imager to freshly resected ovaries of 30 human patients in a study believed to be the first of its magnitude. Endogenous fluorescence was excited with 365-nm light and imaged in eight emission bands collectively covering the 400- to 640-nm range. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify all image pixels and generate diagnostic maps of the ovaries. Training the classifier with previously collected single-point autofluorescence measurements of a spectroscopic probe enabled this novel classification. The process by which probe-collected spectra were transformed for comparison with imager spectra is described. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 51% were obtained in classifying normal and cancerous ovaries using autofluorescence data alone. Specificity increased to 69% when autofluorescence data were divided by green reflectance data to correct for spatial variation in tissue absorption properties. Benign neoplasm ovaries were also found to classify as nonmalignant using the same algorithm. Although applied ex vivo, the method described here appears useful for quick assessment of cancer presence in the human ovary. PMID:22502561

Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

2012-01-01

274

Wide-field spectral imaging of human ovary autofluorescence and oncologic diagnosis via previously collected probe data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With no sufficient screening test for ovarian cancer, a method to evaluate the ovarian disease state quickly and nondestructively is needed. The authors have applied a wide-field spectral imager to freshly resected ovaries of 30 human patients in a study believed to be the first of its magnitude. Endogenous fluorescence was excited with 365-nm light and imaged in eight emission bands collectively covering the 400- to 640-nm range. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify all image pixels and generate diagnostic maps of the ovaries. Training the classifier with previously collected single-point autofluorescence measurements of a spectroscopic probe enabled this novel classification. The process by which probe-collected spectra were transformed for comparison with imager spectra is described. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 51% were obtained in classifying normal and cancerous ovaries using autofluorescence data alone. Specificity increased to 69% when autofluorescence data were divided by green reflectance data to correct for spatial variation in tissue absorption properties. Benign neoplasm ovaries were also found to classify as nonmalignant using the same algorithm. Although applied ex vivo, the method described here appears useful for quick assessment of cancer presence in the human ovary.

Renkoski, Timothy E.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

2012-03-01

275

The steroid hormone environment during primordial follicle formation in perinatal mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

Primordial follicle assembly is essential for reproduction in mammalian females. Oocytes develop in germ cell cysts that in late fetal development begin break down into individual oocytes and become surrounded by pregranulosa cells, forming primordial follicles. As they separate, many oocytes are lost by apoptosis. Exposure to steroid hormones delays cyst breakdown, follicle formation, and associated oocyte loss in some species. One model for regulation of follicle formation is that steroid hormones in the maternal circulation keep cells in cysts and prevent oocyte death during fetal development but that late in pregnancy hormone levels drop, triggering cyst breakdown and associated oocyte loss. However, herein we found that, while maternal circulating levels of progesterone drop during late fetal development, maternal estradiol levels remain high. We hypothesized that fetal ovaries were the source of hormones and that late in fetal development their production stops. To test this, mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic enzymes required for estradiol and progesterone synthesis were measured. We found that aromatase and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA levels drop before cyst breakdown. The 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase protein levels also dropped, but we did not detect a change in aromatase protein levels. The steroid content of perinatal ovaries was assayed, and both estradiol and progesterone were detected in fetal ovaries before cyst breakdown. To determine the role of steroid hormones in oocyte development, we examined the effects of blocking steroid hormone production in organ culture and found that the number of oocytes was reduced, supporting our model that steroid hormones are important for fetal oocyte survival. PMID:25078683

Dutta, Sudipta; Mark-Kappeler, Connie J; Hoyer, Patricia B; Pepling, Melissa E

2014-09-01

276

Clinical, endocrinologic, and ultrasonographic features of polycystic ovary syndrome in Singaporean adolescents.  

PubMed

The study sought to evaluate the clinical, endocrinologic, and ultrasonographic features in 150 Singaporean adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) before and after treatment, which was composed primarily of a combined hormone therapy of estrogen and cyproterone acetate. The patients' ages ranged from 12 to 22 years with the majority between 15 and 18 years of age. Most of these girls were seen between their third and fifth gynecologic year. A considerable proportion of them had matured early, experiencing menarche between 9 and 12 years of age. Tanner staging was normal except for a greater proportion at higher stages for pubic and axillary hair, most likely a reflection of the substantial degree of androgenization commonly found in subjects with PCOS. All 150 patients presented with menstrual disorders including secondary amenorrhea, menarche only, anovulatory uterine bleeding, oligomenorrhea, and primary amenorrhea. The majority had normal body weight; 10% to 27% were either underweight or overweight, respectively. On ultrasound, patients presented with enlarged ovaries; enlargement was more pronounced in the right ovary with dense stroma and multiple subcapsular cysts. Many subjects had elevated androgen, luteinizing hormone (LH), and LH/ follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Although characteristic of PCOS, FSH levels were either low or normal. Prolactin, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and androstenedione were generally normal. A substantial proportion of the study group had elevated cortisol levels. It was noted that adolescent girls with PCOS responded well to treatment; more than 60% showed improvement in cycle profiles following at least 1 year of treatment. Our current opinion is that adolescents with PCOS should be managed early, and that treatment should include medical correction of any hormonal or body-weight imbalance and include psychologic intervention when necessary. PMID:9288656

Dramusic, V; Goh, V H; Rajan, U; Wong, Y C; Ratnam, S S

1997-08-01

277

Characterization of reproductive, metabolic, and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome in female hyperandrogenic mouse models.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age, causing a range of reproductive, metabolic and endocrine defects including anovulation, infertility, hyperandrogenism, obesity, hyperinsulinism, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent feature of PCOS, but its etiology remains unknown, and ethical and logistic constraints limit definitive experimentation in humans to determine mechanisms involved. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic PCOS traits in 4 distinct murine models of hyperandrogenism, comprising prenatal dihydrotestosterone (DHT, potent nonaromatizable androgen) treatment during days 16-18 of gestation, or long-term treatment (90 days from 21 days of age) with DHT, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), or letrozole (aromatase inhibitor). Prenatal DHT-treated mature mice exhibited irregular estrous cycles, oligo-ovulation, reduced preantral follicle health, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte hypertrophy, but lacked overall changes in body-fat composition. Long-term DHT treatment induced polycystic ovaries displaying unhealthy antral follicles (degenerate oocyte and/or > 10% pyknotic granulosa cells), as well as anovulation and acyclicity in mature (16-week-old) females. Long-term DHT also increased body and fat pad weights and induced adipocyte hypertrophy and hypercholesterolemia. Long-term letrozole-treated mice exhibited absent or irregular cycles, oligo-ovulation, polycystic ovaries containing hemorrhagic cysts atypical of PCOS, and displayed no metabolic features of PCOS. Long-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment produced no PCOS features in mature mice. Our findings reveal that long-term DHT treatment replicated a breadth of ovarian, endocrine, and metabolic features of human PCOS and provides the best mouse model for experimental studies of PCOS pathogenesis. PMID:24877633

Caldwell, A S L; Middleton, L J; Jimenez, M; Desai, R; McMahon, A C; Allan, C M; Handelsman, D J; Walters, K A

2014-08-01

278

Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.  

PubMed

Abstract The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant potential in the clinic. PMID:24831605

Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

2014-10-01

279

Selection of donor and recipient females by ultrasonic imaging of the bovine ovary  

E-print Network

of the CL or plasma P4 concentration on treatment day l. The second experiment used one hundred sixty-one Holstein recipient cows to examine the effects of number and location of follicles, CL size and concentration of P4 in plasma on pregnancy rate... to the CL bearing ovary within 24 h of the ultrasonic examination. The pregnancy rate of the recipients was 54X and was positively correlated to CL diameter (P & . 001) and to plasma P4 concentration (P & . 03) on day 7 post-estrus. Recipients with a...

Jackson, Samuel Paul

2012-06-07

280

Neuromuscular organization and aminergic modulation of contractions in the Drosophila ovary  

PubMed Central

Background The processes by which eggs develop in the insect ovary are well characterized. Despite a large number of Drosophila mutants that cannot lay eggs, the way that the egg is moved along the reproductive tract from ovary to uterus is less well understood. We remedy this with an integrative study on the reproductive tract muscles (anatomy, innervation, contractions, aminergic modulation) in female flies. Results Each ovary, consisting of 15–20 ovarioles, is surrounded by a contractile meshwork, the peritoneal sheath. Individual ovarioles are contained within a contractile epithelial sheath. Both sheaths contain striated muscle fibres. The oviduct and uterine walls contain a circular striated muscle layer. No longitudinal muscle fibres are seen. Neurons that innervate the peritoneal sheath and lateral oviduct have many varicosities and terminate in swellings just outside the muscles of the peritoneal sheath. They all express tyrosine decarboxylase (required for tyramine and octopamine synthesis) and Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT). No fibres innervate the ovarioles. The common oviduct and uterus are innervated by two classes of neurons, one with similar morphology to those of the peritoneal sheath and another with repeated branches and axon endings similar to type I neuromuscular junctions. In isolated genital tracts from 3- and 7-day old flies, each ovariole contracts irregularly (12.5 ± 6.4 contractions/minute; mean ± 95% confidence interval). Peritoneal sheath contractions (5.7 ± 1.6 contractions/minute) move over the ovary, from tip to base or vice versa, propagating down the oviduct. Rhythmical spermathecal rotations (1.5 ± 0.29 contractions/minute) also occur. Each genital tract organ exhibits its own endogenous myogenic rhythm. The amplitude of contractions of the peritoneal sheath increase in octopamine (100 nM, 81% P < 0.02) but 1 ?M tyramine has no effect. Neither affects the frequency of peritoneal sheath contractions. Conclusion The muscle fibres of the reproductive tract are circular and have complex bursting myogenic rhythms under octopaminergic neuromodulation. We propose a new model of tissue-specific actions of octopamine, in which strengthening of peritoneal sheath contractions, coupled with relaxation of the oviduct, eases ovulation. This model accounts for reduced ovulation in flies with mutations in the octopaminergic system. PMID:16768790

Middleton, C Adam; Nongthomba, Upendra; Parry, Katherine; Sweeney, Sean T; Sparrow, John C; Elliott, Christopher JH

2006-01-01

281

Clinical evaluation of a confocal microendoscope system for imaging the ovary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a mobile confocal microendoscope system that provides live cellular imaging during surgery to aid in diagnosing microscopic abnormalities including cancer. We present initial clinical trial results using the device to image ovaries in-vivo using fluorescein and ex-vivo results using acridine orange. The imaging catheter has improved depth control and localized dye delivery mechanisms than previously presented. A manual control now provides a simple way for the surgeon to adjust and optimize imaging depth during the procedure while a tiny piezo valve in the imaging catheter controls the dye delivery.

Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Sampliner, Richard E.; Udovich, Josh A.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

2008-02-01

282

Anti-anxiety effect of ovary lipid extracted from Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) in rats.  

PubMed

Using an elevated plus-maze test, we evaluated anxiety level in rats given ovary lipid extracted from Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis; OLS). The percentage of open time was significantly higher in rats given OLS than in rats in the control group, but lower than in rats given diazepam (1.0 mg/kg body weight). Based on this fact and findings about other indicators, this study showed that OLS does not have as fast-acting and strong an anti-anxiety effect as diazepam but that continuous ingestion of OLS causes an anti-anxiety effect in animals. PMID:17611360

Ookawa, Katumasa; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Shida, Eiji; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ooba, Tomoko; Matumoto, Toru; Hokari, Yoshinori; Hashidume, Masayuki; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

2007-06-01

283

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To investigate the correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD) concentrations and metabolic parameters in obese\\u000a and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred women with PCOS were divided into two groups, obese and non-obese, according to their body mass index (BMI). Waist-to-hip\\u000a ratio (WHR), Ferriman–Gallwey score, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, triglycerides,\\u000a calcium, 25-OH-VD,

Recep Yildizhan; Mertihan Kurdoglu; Ertan Adali; Ali Kolusari; Begum Yildizhan; Hanim Guler Sahin; Mansur Kamaci

2009-01-01

284

Mixed germ cell tumor of ovary and clitoromegaly in Swyer's syndrome: a case report.  

PubMed

Swyer syndrome is a type of pure gonadal dysgenesis correlating with 46 XY karyotype, primary amenorrhea, and female internal and external genitalia. It reveals a testicular differentiation abnormality.A 16-year old girl admitted to our center with primary amenorrhea and abdominal mass. In spite of the absence of normal testis, clitoromegaly was noticed. Peripheral blood karyotype analysis showed 46 XY. Histopathology of the excised gonads determined mixed germ cell tumor in right ovary and streak left gonad without gonadoblastoma in left side. In patients suffering from Swyer syndrome, high risk of gonadal neoplasia dictates early prophylactic gonadal excision to lengthen survival. PMID:22773216

Aminimoghaddam, S; Mokri, B; Mahmoodzadeh, F

2012-07-01

285

Primary malignant lymphoma of the ovary: an unusual presentation of a rare disease.  

PubMed

Because the outcome of patients with primary ovarian non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is controversial, we present the incidental finding of a primary malignant lymphoma of the ovary in a 50-year-old patient. Three and a half years following ablative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient is alive and disease free. Ovarian lymphoma is a disease of reportedly poor prognosis. However, many previously reported cases of ovarian lymphoma actually represented ovarian involvement by a more diffuse lymphomatous process. If stringent criteria are used for case selection, true primary ovarian lymphoma is a very rare disease and usually carries a favorable prognosis. PMID:11214624

Mansouri, H; Sifat, H; Gaye, M; Hassouni, K; Mansouri, A; El Gueddari, B

2000-01-01

286

Synchronous mucinous tumors of the ovary and the appendix associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei: CT findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To present the computed tomographic (CT) findings of synchronous mucinous tumors of the ovary and the appendix associated\\u000a with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Imaging studies, mainly abdominal CT scans, of three women aged 49–75 years were reviewed. Attention was directed to the\\u000a ovarian masses, peritoneal seeding, and the presence of an appendiceal mucocele.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: The ovarian tumors and the

R. Zissin; G. Gayer; A. Fishman; E. Edelstein; M. Shapiro-Feinberg

2000-01-01

287

Indirect Inguinal Hernia Containing a Fallopian Tube and Ovary in a Reproductive Aged Woman  

PubMed Central

An indirect inguinal hernia containing an incarcerated fallopian tube and ovary is extremely rare in adult females. The current report describes a woman of reproductive years presenting with an irreducible indirect hernia which required the surgical intervention of a general surgeon as well as counseling regarding future fertility by a gynecologist. The diagnosis was made by physical and sonographic examination and was confirmed by CT scan and surgical intervention. We suggest a multimodel and multidisciplinary approach in order to safely and efficiently preserve ovarian and fertility function in young women who present with an inguinal hernia containing reproductive organs. PMID:25028618

Graul, Ashley; Ko, Emily

2014-01-01

288

Metformin therapy decreases hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of metformin therapy on hormonal and clinical indices in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective study.Setting: University hospital.Patient(s): Thirty-nine women with PCOS and fasting hyperinsulinemia.Intervention(s): Twelve weeks of therapy with oral metformin (500 mg three times per day).Main Outcome Measure(s): Levels of insulin, T, DHEAS, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), gonadotropins, and sex hormone-binding

Beata Kolodziejczyk; Antoni J Duleba; Robert Z Spaczynski; Leszek Pawelczyk

2000-01-01

289

Peptides derived from HIV1, HIV2, Ebola virus, SARS coronavirus and coronavirus 229E exhibit high affinity binding to the formyl peptide receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptides derived from the membrane proximal region of fusion proteins of human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, Coronavirus 229 E, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus were all potent antagonists of the formyl peptide receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Binding of viral peptides was affected by the naturally occurring polymorphisms at residues 190 and 192, which

John S. Mills

2006-01-01

290

Micro structure analysis of the ovaries of common carp, cyprinus carpio L. Inhabiting a polluted reservoir, umiam in meghalaya, India.  

PubMed

The study uses microscopy to analyze damage caused to the ovaries of a fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio L., owing to its exposure to municipal wastes in a polluted reservoir, Umiam in Meghalaya, India. Histological analysis of the ovary showed atretic oocytes, detached ovarian wall, detached follicular linings, and necrosis of nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed deformed oocytes with a rough and distorted surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed a poorly developed chorion, presence of relatively less electron-dense materials as compared with control, multinucleation in some cells surrounding the oocytes, and distorted and condensed mitochondria. The importance of microscopy in its different forms in analyzing histological, surface microstructural and fine structural damage to fish ovaries in response to environmental pollution owing to municipal wastes and city garbage is discussed with the help of available literature. PMID:25089745

Massar, Bashida; Dey, Sudip; Dutta, Karabi

2014-10-01

291

Expression of the le Mutation in Young Ovaries of Pisum sativum and Its Effect on Fruit Development.  

PubMed Central

The effect of the le mutation on the growth and gibberellin (GA) content of developing fruits was investigated using the near-isogenic lines of Pisum sativum L. 205+ (LeLe) and 205- (lele). Although stem elongation is known to be reduced in 205- plants by approximately 65%, the growth of pods and seeds was unaffected by the le mutation. GA1, GA3, and GA20 stimulated parthenocarpic development of unpollinated ovaries on both 205+ and 205- plants. GA20 was less active on 205- ovaries than on 205+, whereas GA1 had similar, high activity in both lines. The activity of GA3 was even higher than that of GA1 in both lines. Decapitation of 205+ plants induced parthenocarpic development of unpollinated ovaries, but this treatment was much less effective on 205- plants. The contents of GA1 and GA8 in entire ovaries 6 d after anthesis, as well as in the pod and fertilized ovules, were substantially lower in 205- than in 205+ plants, whereas the reverse was true for the levels of GA20 and GA29. These results suggest that 3[beta]-hydroxylation of GA20 to GA1 is reduced in ovaries as well as in vegetative tissues. Thus, the le mutation appears to be expressed in young reproductive organs of the 205- line, even though it does not affect the fruit phenotype. Because the content of GA3 in the ovary was similar in the two lines, one explanation for the normal fruit size in the 205- line is that GA3 is the native regulator of pod growth. Alternatively, sufficient GA1 may still be produced in 205- fruits to maintain normal pod growth. PMID:12231727

Santes, C. M.; Hedden, P.; Sponsel, V. M.; Reid, J. B.; Garcia-Martinez, J. L.

1993-01-01

292

A comparison of the multiple oocyte maturation gene expression patterns between the newborn and adult mouse ovary  

PubMed Central

Background: The interaction between follicular cells and oocyte leads to a change in gene expression involved in oocyte maturation processes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify the expression of more common genes involved in follicular growth and oocyte developmental competence. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the expression of genes was evaluated with qRT-PCR assay in female BALB/c mice pups at 3-day of pre-pubertal and 8 week old virgin adult ovaries. The tissue was prepared by H&E staining for normal morphological appearance. The data were calculated with the 2-?Ct formula and assessed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The data showed a significant increase in the level of Stra8 and GDF9 in adult compared with newborn mice ovaries (p=0.049). In contrast, a significant decrease in the level of Mvh, REC8, SCP1, SCP3, and ZP2 was observed in adult mice ovaries compared to those in the newborn mice ovaries (all p=0.049 except SCP1: p=0.046). There was no significant difference in the level of OCT4 and Cx37 expression between adult and newborn mice ovaries. Conclusion: The modifications in gene expression patterns coordinate the follicular developmental processes. Furthermore, the findings showed higher expression level of premeiotic gene (Stra8) and lower level of meiotic entry markers (SCP1, SCP3, and REC8) in juvenile than newborn mouse ovaries. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Nehleh Zarei fard) PMID:24639702

Bahmanpour, Soghra; Talaei Khozani, Tahereh; Zarei fard, Nehleh; Jaberipour, Mansoureh; Hosseini, Ahmah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

2013-01-01

293

Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the liver and ovary of the euryhaline hermaphroditic fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus.  

PubMed

The self-fertilizing hermaphroditic fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus is considered a suitable model species in the fields of eco-biology, developmental biology, endocrinology, environmental genomics, aquatic toxicology, and molecular carcinogenesis. However, more extensive gene information is still needed to improve our understanding of the biology of this fish with respect to toxicological responses. We performed a transcriptomic study in this species using pyrosequencing. Liver and ovary mRNA was reverse synthesized into cDNA and randomly sequenced by a Roche 454, GS-20 sequencer. After quality assessment, the assembled expressed sequence tag (EST) translations were compared with the GenBank non-redundant (nr) amino acid sequence database using BLASTX. In the assembly stage 1, both 59,732 transcripts in liver and 103,526 transcripts in ovary were obtained. To identify the differently expressed genes in the ovary and liver tissues, all transcripts were sorted out with an expected value threshold of 1.00E-05. Consequently, 7168 contigs of ovary ESTs and 3855 contigs of liver ESTs were not overlapped for expression in both tissues, whereas 3763 contigs were commonly found in both tissues. Subsequently, we described the most highly represented genes in the liver and ovary of K. marmoratus. Isoforms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and receptor-related genes showed tissue-preferential expressed patterns. To identify the potential biomarkers in this species, ovary and liver ESTs were assembled and annotated with the nr amino acid sequence database using BLASTX. Then, 35,471 transcripts were obtained, and 9130 transcripts were hit (26%) at the assembly stage 2. Finally, we identified a number of stress-, antioxidant defense-, and DNA repair-related genes as potential molecular biomarkers for toxicological response using this species. We discuss the potential use for these markers in K. marmoratus for environmental genomics and eco-toxicological studies to uncover mechanisms of environmental stresses and chemical toxicities to K. marmoratus. PMID:21612991

Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

2011-09-01

294

CD59 Silencing via Retrovirus-Mediated RNA Interference Enhanced Complement-Mediated Cell Damage in Ovary Cancer  

PubMed Central

CD59, belonging to membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs), inhibits the cytolytic activity of complement and is over-expressed in solid cancers, including ovary cancer. The aim of the present study was to construct recombinant retrovirus encoding shRNA targeted human CD59 and infect A2780 cells in order to investigate the relationship between decreased CD59 expression and tumorigenesis of ovary cancer. siCD59 and siCD59-C were successfully constructed and identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analyses and DNA sequencing, respectively. The siCD59 was able to efficiently infect A2780 cells, which was confirmed by Western blotting. When incubated with fresh normal human serum (8%, v/v) for 1 h at 37°C, the cell viability was decreased and cell damage was increased in siCD59 infected A2780 cells compared to siCD59-C infected cells. This led to the activation of caspase-3. The apoptosis in siCD59 infected cells was shown with hypercondensed nuclei using Hoechst staining. Meanwhile, the weight of ovary tumor graft in nude mice was significantly decreased in siCD59 group compared to that of siCD59-C group. And the expression of CD59 protein in tumor tissue in siCD59 group was significantly decreased. These results suggested that CD59 silencing in ovary cancer cells via retrovirus-mediated RNAi can enhance complement-mediated cell damage, inhibiting growth of ovary cancer. CD59 might be a potential target for gene therapy in ovary cancer. PMID:19254481

Shi, Xuexiang; Zhang, Bei; Zang, Jinlin; Wang, Guoying; Gao, Meihua

2009-01-01

295

Immunohistochemical Characterization of S100A6 in the Murine Ovary  

PubMed Central

S100 proteins comprise a large family of Ca2+-binding proteins and exhibit a variety of intra- and extracellular functions. Despite our growing knowledge about the biology of S100 proteins in some tissues such as brain and smooth muscle, little is known about S100 proteins in the normal mammalian reproductive tissue. In the present study, we investigated the distribution pattern of S100A6 (alternatively named calcyclin) in the murine ovary by immunohistochemical study using specific antibody. S100A6 was localized substantially in the cytoplasm of luteal cells, with concomitant expression of S100A11, another S100 protein, but not in the other type of cells such as oocytes, follicle epithelial cells (granulosa cells), and cells of stroma including theca interna cells in the murine ovary. S100A6-immunoreactive corpora lutea (CLs) were divided into two types: homogeneously and heterogeneously stained CLs, and possibly they may represent differentiating and mature CL, respectively. Our regression analysis revealed that expression level of S100A6 positively correlated with that of cytochrome P450 11A, a steroidogenic enzyme in the heterogeously stained CL. These results suggested that S100A6 may contribute to differentiation of steroidogenic activity of luteal cells in a synergistic manner with S100A11 by facilitating some shared functions. PMID:22489100

Hanaue, Mayu; Miwa, Naofumi; Takamatsu, Ken

2012-01-01

296

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like phenotypes in the d-galactose-induced aging mouse model.  

PubMed

The D-galactose (D-gal)-induced animal model, which is established by consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections for approximately 6weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. This animal model has been shown to accelerate aging of the brain, kidneys, liver, and blood cells. However, aging of the female reproductive organs in this animal model has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the ovary in the d-gal-induced aging mouse model. First, we evaluated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a marker of ovarian aging in blood plasma. We speculated there would be lower AMH levels in d-gal-treated mice because ovarian aging would be induced by d-gal, as reported for other tissues. However, the results showed that AMH levels in d-gal-treated mice were approximately four-fold higher than control mice. Abnormally high AMH levels are detected in ovarian cancer and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Therefore, we examined PCOS-related markers in this mouse model. Total testosterone levels were high and abnormal estrous cycles were induced in d-gal-treated mice. These changes, including AMH levels, in d-gal-treated mice were inhibited by aminoguanidine treatment, an advanced glycation end product reducer. In addition, ovarian cysts were observed in some d-gal-treated mice. These results indicate that with respect to female reproduction, d-gal-treated mice are suitable for PCOS studies, rather than aging studies. PMID:23022527

Park, Ji-Hun; Choi, Tae-Saeng

2012-11-01

297

Glycosylation analysis of an aggregated antibody produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells in bioreactor culture.  

PubMed

N-Glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies contributes not only to their biological function, but also to their stability and tendency to aggregate. Here, we investigated the impact of the glycosylation status of an aggregated antibody that accumulated during the bioreactor culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that there was no apparent difference in the glycosylation patterns of monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregated forms of the antibody. In contrast, lectin binding assays, which enable the total amounts of specific sugar residues to be detected, showed that both galactose and fucose residues in dimers and large aggregates were reduced to 70-80% of the amount in monomers. These results strongly suggest that the lack of N-linked oligosaccharides, a result of deglycosylation or aglycosylation, occurred in a proportion of the dimeric and large aggregated components. The present study demonstrates that glycosylation heterogeneities are a potential cause of antibody aggregation in cell culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells, and that the lack of N-glycosylation promotes the formation of dimers and finally results in large aggregates. PMID:24326352

Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kawaguchi, Akira; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

2014-05-01

298

Vitellogenin of Fujian oyster, Crassostrea angulata: Synthesized in the ovary and controlled by estradiol-17?.  

PubMed

In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding vitellogenin (Vg) in the Fujian oyster Crassostrea angulata. The complete Vg cDNA consists of 5160 nucleotides with a long open reading frame encoding 1641 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shared high similarity with the Vgs of other mollusc, fish, nematode and arthropod species, particularly in the N-terminal region. We analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of caVg transcripts by Real-time Quantitative PCR. In common with other mollusc Vgs, the caVg gene was expressed primarily in the ovary, and the levels were 348 and 177 times higher in maturation and ripeness stages (P<0.01), respectively, than in the partially spent stage. There was negligible expression in male oysters. In situ hybridization analysis further localized caVg mRNA to the follicle cells (also named auxiliary cells) surrounding the oocytes in the ovary. Moreover, in vivo waterborne exposure experiments in early gametogenesis oysters showed that estradiol-17? (E2) administration resulted in a significant increase in caVg mRNA expression. We conclude that caVg is synthesized in the follicle cell surrounding the vitellogenic oocyte in C. angulata, and directly passed to oocytes through the extracellular space without mediation through hemolymph. Also, we hypothesize that this process is mediated by E2 in a dose dependent. PMID:24709360

Ni, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhen; Kong, Dezheng; Hou, Lin; Huang, Heqing; Ke, Caihuan

2014-06-01

299

Effects of postmortem interval on mouse ovary oocyte survival and maturation.  

PubMed

To study the time- and temperature-dependent survival of ovarian oocytes collected from postmortem carcass, ICR mice were killed and placed for different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) at different temperatures (25°C, 4°C and 37°C). After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte number, oocyte meiotic maturation percentage, mitochondrial distribution and intracellular glutathione (GSH) level were evaluated. The results showed no surviving oocytes could be collected by 2h, 6h, and 12 h after carcass preservation at 37°C, 25°C and 4°C, respectively. The number of collected GV oocytes in the ovary deceased as the preservation time lasted at the same temperature. Meanwhile at the same point in time, the ratio of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body emission (PBE) gradually reduced as preservation temperature increased. In addition, the percentage of abnormal mitochondrial distribution in the preserved oocytes was obviously higher than that in the control oocytes, while GSH level was not altered in collected oocytes. Unexpectedly, neither chromosome arrangement nor spindle organization was affected as long as the oocytes from preserved carcasses could complete maturation. These data are helpful for proper use of ovary oocytes from postmortem carcass of valuable individuals. PMID:24874949

Zhang, Guang-Li; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Quan; Hu, Meng-Wen; Yang, Xiu-Yan; Gao, Si-Hua; Jiang, Guang-Jian

2014-01-01

300

Effects of Postmortem Interval on Mouse Ovary Oocyte Survival and Maturation  

PubMed Central

To study the time- and temperature-dependent survival of ovarian oocytes collected from postmortem carcass, ICR mice were killed and placed for different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) at different temperatures (25°C, 4°C and 37°C). After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte number, oocyte meiotic maturation percentage, mitochondrial distribution and intracellular glutathione (GSH) level were evaluated. The results showed no surviving oocytes could be collected by 2h, 6h, and 12 h after carcass preservation at 37°C, 25°C and 4°C, respectively. The number of collected GV oocytes in the ovary deceased as the preservation time lasted at the same temperature. Meanwhile at the same point in time, the ratio of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body emission (PBE) gradually reduced as preservation temperature increased. In addition, the percentage of abnormal mitochondrial distribution in the preserved oocytes was obviously higher than that in the control oocytes, while GSH level was not altered in collected oocytes. Unexpectedly, neither chromosome arrangement nor spindle organization was affected as long as the oocytes from preserved carcasses could complete maturation. These data are helpful for proper use of ovary oocytes from postmortem carcass of valuable individuals. PMID:24874949

Zhang, Guang-Li; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Quan; Hu, Meng-Wen; Yang, Xiu-yan; Gao, Si-Hua; Jiang, Guang-Jian

2014-01-01

301

Intergeneric (intersubtribe) hybridization between Moricandia arvensis and Brassica A and B genome species by ovary culture.  

PubMed

Intergeneric hybrids between Moricandia arvensis (C3-C4 intermediate species) and Brassica A and B genome species (B. campestris and B. nigra) were produced via ovary culture. When M. arvensis was used as a female parent, the hybrid embryo yield (0.25-0.45 embryo per pollination) was similar between two genomes, regardless of the male parent. The reciprocal hybrid using B. campestris as a female was also obtained, although yield of embryo was lower (0.02 embryo per pollination). On the other hand, no hybrids were obtained without the in vitro technique. As most hybrid embryos could not develop normal shoots, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured hypocotyl. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plant was confirmed morphologically and cytogenetically. A certain amount of bivalents (2.52-2.71) in the hybrids indicated the existence of partial chromosome homology between two genera. The present results indicate that ovary culture is an effective technique for overcoming the crossing barrier between M. arvensis and Brassica cultivated species. PMID:24220808

Takahata, Y; Takeda, T

1990-07-01

302

Evaluation of Mean Platelet Volume values in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) is an important indicator of platelet activation. It is known that MPV increases in patients with coronory artery disease, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Our aim was to measure the MPV in lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: The present study was designed to examine the platelet function by measuring MPV in non-obese women with PCOS. A total of 50 outpatients with PCOS were included. The control group consisted of 50 healthy subjects. Serum platelet, MPV, and white blood cell (WBC) levels were compared and evaluated retrospectively in all participants. These values were compared by statistical analysis. Results: There were no statistically significant difference in between groups regarding MPV (p?0.357), WBC (p?0,414) and platelet (p?0,666). Conclusion: There are studies implying MPV increase in PCOS patients, in our patients MPV levels did not correlate with PCOS except for patients with obesity. We think that PCOS itself has no effect on MPV levels and obesity changes MPV levels. PMID:24948985

Silfeler, Dilek Benk; Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Yengil, Erhan; Un, Burak; Arica, Secil; Baloglu, Ali

2014-01-01

303

Alphafetoprotein and atretic follicles in the ovary of the pregnant rat.  

PubMed

Previous experiments have been conducted concerning the role of alphafetoprotein in genital system blockade in several cases: during adult rat N2-fluorenylacetamide hepatocarcinogenesis, after alphafetoprotein injections into normal adult female rats, during fetal life, and during postnatal and prepuberal development. In these conditions, alphafetoprotein is present at high plasma levels, and the normal cyclic ovarian function is stopped or nonexistent. The degenerating oocytes observed in the ovaries are often AFP-positive by histo-immunolocalization. Pregnancy corresponds to a physiological state in which alphafetoprotein levels are high while the gonadal activity is not characterized by ovulatory cycles. In order to assess our hypothesis, alpha-fetoprotein was studied in the ovary of pregnant rats from day 18 to 21 of gestation by an immunofluorescent technique, and alpha-fetoprotein was assayed in plasma samples. The results of this work show that, during pregnancy, follicular maturation is blocked at the antral stage, and the follicles contain degenerating oocytes that are AFP-positive in immunofluorescence. In conclusion, we suggest that the alpha-fetoprotein produced by the fetal liver and the yolk sac is disseminated in the amniotic fluid and passes through the placenta, and then reaches the ovarian follicles and the oocytes. The possible role of alphafetoprotein in follicular atresia is discussed. PMID:2428090

Seralini, G E; Lafaurie, M; Krebs, B; Stora, C

1986-01-01

304

Ultrastructural analysis of the ovary and oogenesis in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata (Branchiopoda) and its phylogenetic implications.  

PubMed

Recent molecular studies have indicated a close relationship between Crustacea and Hexapoda and postulated their unification into the Pancrustacea/Tetraconata clade. Certain molecular analyses have also suggested that the crustacean lineage, which includes the Branchiopoda, might be the sister group of Hexapoda. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the structure of the ovary and the ultrastructural features of oogenesis in two branchiopod species, Cyzicus tetracerus and Lynceus brachyurus, representing two separate orders, Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata, respectively. The female gonads of these species have not been investigated before. Here, we demonstrate that in both studied species the ovarian follicles develop inside characteristic ovarian protrusions and comprise a germline cyst surrounded by a simple somatic (follicular) epithelium, supported by a thin basal lamina. Each germline cyst consists of one oocyte and three supporting nurse cells, and the oocyte differentiates relatively late during ovarian follicle development. The synthesis of oocyte reserve materials involves rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. The follicular cells are penetrated by a complex canal system and there is no external epithelial sheath covering the ovarian follicles. The structure of the ovary and the ultrastructural characteristics of oogenesis are not only remarkably similar in both Cyzicus and Lynceus, but also share morphological similarities with Notostraca as well as the basal hexapods Campodeina and Collembola. Possible phylogenetic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24657201

Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; J?drzejowska, Izabela; Go?dyn, Bart?omiej; Bili?ski, Szczepan M

2014-06-01

305

Ulipristal Blocks Ovulation by Inhibiting Progesterone Receptor-Dependent Pathways Intrinsic to the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Ulipristal acetate (UPA), a progesterone receptor (PR) modulator, is used as an emergency contraceptive in women. Here, using a mouse model, we investigated the mechanism of action of UPA as an ovulation blocker. In mice, ovulation is induced ~12 hours following the treatment with exogenous gonadotropins, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH). When administered within 6 hours of hCG treatment, UPA is a potent blocker of ovulation. However, UPA’s effectiveness declined significantly when it was given at 8 hours post hCG. Our study revealed that, when administered within 6 hours of hCG, UPA blocks ovulation by inhibiting PR-dependent pathways intrinsic to the ovary. At 8 hours post hCG, when the PR signaling has already occurred, UPA is unable to block ovulation efficiently. Collectively, these results indicated that UPA, when administered within a critical time window following the LH surge, blocks PR-dependent pathways in the ovary to function as an effective antiovulatory contraceptive. PMID:23012316

Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Kim, Jaeyeon; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Bagchi, Milan

2013-01-01

306

Effect of prenatal and neonatal exposure to lead on gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenesis in rat ovaries  

SciTech Connect

Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lead chloride (20 or 200 ppm) or sodium chloride (controls) in their drinking water, either prior to pregnancy or during pregnancy and lactation, and female offspring were examined at weaning (21 d) or at 150 d. Other female rats were treated from d 21 to 35. Tissue (blood, kidney, bone) lead levels, body, ovary, and uterus weights, ovarian steroidogenesis, and gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) levels, and gonadotropin-receptor binding were determined. Prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to lead at these levels (20 and 200 ppm) did not affect tissue weights but did cause a significant decrease in gonadotropin-receptor binding in the prepubertal, pubertal and adult females. Conversion of progesterone to androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone was significantly decreased in 21-d-old rats; in 150-d-old females, the prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased conversion to the 5-alpha-reduced steroid, normally high during puberty. The results demonstrate that lead exposure prior to mating may affect gonadotropin-receptor binding in the offspring and that lead exposure (in utero, via mother's milk, or post weaning) may significantly alter steroid production and gonadotropin binding in ovaries of the prepubertal, pubertal, and adult female.

Wiebe, J.P.; Barr, K.J.; Buckingham, K.D.

1988-01-01

307

Whole exome sequence analysis of serous borderline tumors of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Objective Serous borderline tumor (SBT) is a unique histopathologic entity of the ovary, believed to be intermediate between benign cystadenoma and invasive low-grade serous carcinoma. While somatic mutations in the KRAS or BRAF, and rarely ERBB2, genes have been well characterized in SBTs, other genetic alterations have not been described. Toward a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular genetic architecture of SBTs, we undertook whole exome sequencing of this tumor type. Methods Following pathologic review and laser capture microdissection to enrich for tumor cells, whole exomes were prepared from DNA of two independent SBTs and subjected to massively parallel DNA sequencing. Results Both tumors contained an activating mutation of the BRAF gene. A total of 15 additional somatic mutations were identified, nine in one tumor and six in the other. Eleven were missense mutations and four were nonsense or deletion mutations. Fourteen of the 16 genes found to be mutated in this study have been reported to be mutated in other cancers. Furthermore, 12 of these genes are mutated in ovarian cancers. The FBXW7 and KIAA1462 genes are noteworthy candidates for a pathogenic role in serous borderline tumorigenesis. Conclusions These findings suggest that a very small number of somatic genetic mutations are characteristic of SBTs of the ovary, thus supporting their classification as a relatively genetically stable tumor type. The mutant genes described herein represent novel candidates for the pathogenesis of ovarian SBT. PMID:23774303

Boyd, Jeff; Luo, Biao; Peri, Suraj; Wirchansky, Beth; Hughes, Lucinda; Forsythe, Caitlin; Wu, Hong

2014-01-01

308

Angiosarcoma of the Breast with Solitary Metastasis to the Ovary during Pregnancy: An Uncommon Pattern of Metastatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Primary de novo angiosarcoma of the breast is an uncommon, aggressive neoplasm. Here, we present a case of a young woman who initially developed primary angiosarcoma of the breast, and subsequently angiosarcoma of the ovary during pregnancy two years later. Only two confirmed primary angiosarcomas of the breast metastasizing specifically to the ovary have been described in the literature. However, all previous cases had ovarian metastases at presentation or shortly after initial diagnosis. This case is unusual as it occurred after a relatively long interval, and apparently developed during pregnancy. We discuss this rare phenomenon, as well as the possible factors contributing to the recurrence. PMID:24383023

Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

2013-01-01

309

Purification and characterization of a group of five novel peptide serine protease inhibitors from ovaries of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovary of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, contains multiple inhibitors of serine proteases. Five serine protease inhibitors, designated SGPI-1–5 (Schistocerca gregaria protease inhibitors) were purified from methanolic extracts of mature ovaries and analyzed by mass spectrometry and amino acid sequencing. The revealed primary structures display amino acid similarities and are related to the serine protease inhibitors identified in the

Ahmed Hamdaoui; Said Wataleb; Bart Devreese; Shean-Jaw Chiou; Jozef Vanden Broeck; Jozef Van Beeumen; Arnold De Loof; Liliane Schoofs

1998-01-01

310

Luteinizing Hormone Receptor, Steroidogenesis Acute Regulatory Protein, and Steroidogenic Enzyme Messenger Ribonucleic Acids Are Overexpressed in Thecal and Granulosa Cells from Polycystic Ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data suggest that steroidogenic enzyme messenger ribo- nucleic acids (mRNAs) may be overexpressed in thecal cells, and LH receptors may be prematurely expressed in granulosa cells in women with polycystic ovaries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is abnormal gene expression in thecal and granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. Ovarian tissue specimens were obtained from

ARTUR J. JAKIMIUK; STACY R. WEITSMAN; ALIREZA NAVAB; DENIS A. MAGOFFIN

311

Comparison of ultrastructure, pollen tube growth pattern and starch content in developing and abortive ovaries during the progamic phase in hazel  

PubMed Central

HIGHLIGHTS In an abortive ovary of hazel, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed.In an abortive ovary of hazel, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded.Ovary abortion in the four hybrid cultivars was indicated to be associated with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla was at least partly determined by pollen availability. In Northeast China, a high frequency of ovary abortion contributes to serious losses in yield of hazelnut. The development of pistillate inflorescences and fruit clusters of four large-fruited hybrid hazel cultivars and the small-fruited Corylus heterophylla were used to study ovary abortion and its possible causes during the progamic phase in hazel. The average number of pistillate (ANP) flowers per inflorescence and average number of fruit (ANF) per cluster of four hybrid hazel cultivars were 7.6–8.5 and 2.4–3.0 respectively; in C. heterophylla, its ANP and ANF was 5.8–6.2 and 3.5, respectively. The total drop varied from 50 to 67%. Ovary abortion in hazel initiated from about 30 days after blooming. The percentage of abortive ovaries (PAO) in the four hybrid hazel cultivars ranged from 63 to 72%, and was significantly higher than that of C. heterophylla (29–42%). Only the abortive ovary ratio of C. heterophylla was significantly reduced after artificial pollination. Fruit number per cluster was positively and negatively correlated with yield and nut mass, respectively. In abortive ovaries, the diameter remained less than 2 mm during the entire fruit development, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed. In addition, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded. Compared with abortive ovary, starch content in developing ovary of four hybrid hazel cultivars and C. heterophylla were significantly higher. This study suggests that abortive ovary was incapable to finish fertilization process due to the absence of mature embryo sac and arrested pollen tubes, and this is likely associate with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers in four hybrid hazel cultivars, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla is at least partly determined by pollen availability. PMID:25339969

Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Huidi; Cheng, Yunqing; Wang, Ju; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting

2014-01-01

312

Fractional Derivative as Fractional Power of Derivative  

E-print Network

Definitions of fractional derivatives as fractional powers of derivative operators are suggested. The Taylor series and Fourier series are used to define fractional power of self-adjoint derivative operator. The Fourier integrals and Weyl quantization procedure are applied to derive the definition of fractional derivative operator. Fractional generalization of concept of stability is considered.

Vasily E. Tarasov

2007-11-16

313

Copyright 1999 by the Genetics Society of America Mosaic Analysis in the Drosophila Ovary Reveals a Common Hedgehog-Inducible  

E-print Network

Copyright © 1999 by the Genetics Society of America Mosaic Analysis in the Drosophila Ovary Reveals undifferentiated and provide an excellent in developmental biology (for a recent review see Jan and system in which, asym- to several genetic investigations: the polar cells and the metric expression of HO endonuclease

Bryant, Zev

314

Increased Endothelin1 Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Beneficial Effect of Metformin Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome who present with hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resis- tance appear to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of endothelin-1, a marker of vasculopathy, have been reported in insulin-resistant subjects with endo- thelial dysfunction. Male gender also seems to be an aggra- vating factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study we investigated endothelin-1

EVANTHIA DIAMANTI-KANDARAKIS; GIOVANNA SPINA; CHRYSSA KOULI; ILIAS MIGDALIS

2010-01-01

315

Vitellogenin levels in hemolymph, ovary and hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda: Parastacidae) during the reproductive cycle.  

PubMed

The freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus is a tropical species of great interest for aquaculture. Vitellogenin (Vg), a lipoprotein precursor of the vitellum accumulated in spawned eggs, can be synthesized in the ovary and/or hepatopancreas of most crustaceans, being the hemolymph the way for transporting Vg throughout the reproductive cycle. Concentration of Vg in hemolymph, ovary and hepatopancreas of Cherax quadricarinatus adult females was measured by means of ELISA, specifically developed after purifying the native Vg. Measurements were made at four periods of the reproductive cycle: pre-reproductive, mid-reproductive, late reproductive and post-reproductive. Besides, both hepatosomatic (HSI) and gonadosomatic (GSI) indexes were determined in each period. Significant variations in Vg levels were detected in both hemolymph and hepatopancreas, being the highest values observed during the mid-reproductive period. Besides, such variations were positively correlated to the HSI. A positive correlation between Vg levels in hepatopancreas and ovary was also seen. These results support previous evidences about the central role of the hepatopancreas as a site of Vg synthesis in the studied species, together with the relevancy of hemolymph for transporting Vg from the hepatopancreas to the ovary. For aquaculture purposes, Vg monitoring in hemolymph could be used as a non-injurious method, to check the reproductive activity of C. quadricarinatus females. PMID:22458222

Ferré, Lilian E; Medesani, Daniel A; García, C Fernando; Grodzielski, Matías; Rodríguez, Enrique M

2012-03-01

316

Actin dynamics in lamellipodia of migrating border cells in the Drosophila ovary revealed by a GFP-actin fusion protein  

E-print Network

Actin dynamics in lamellipodia of migrating border cells in the Drosophila ovary revealed by a GFP-actin observation of migrating border cells revealed loose actin bundles in forepart lamellipodia and numerous the dynamics of actin in migrating border cells in vivo, we constructed a green fluorescent protein-actin

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

317

Evidence for the Presence of Glucose Transporter 4 in the Endometrium and Its Regulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) seems to be involved in the mechanism of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients (PCOSs) in both muscular and adipose tissue. The observation that insulin stimulates glucose oxidation in endometrial cells led us to investigate the presence of GLUT4 in this tissue and whether a defect of GLUT4 is present at the endometrial level

ROBERTO MIONI; SILVIA CHIARELLI; NADIA XAMIN; LAURA ZULIANI; MARNIE GRANZOTTO; BRUNO MOZZANEGA; PIETRO MAFFEI; CHIARA MARTINI; STELLA BLANDAMURA; NICOLA SICOLO; ROBERTO VETTOR

318

Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance as it is very common, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiovascular risk profiles) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened

H Teede; A Deeks; L Moran

2010-01-01

319

A Survey of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Greek Island of Lesbos: Hormonal and Metabolic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperan- drogenism, chronic anovulation, and oligomenorrhea (O\\/M). PCOS has variable clinical phenotypes, biochemical features, and metabolic abnormalities. To determine the prevalence of PCOS in the Greek population as well as the metabolic parameters, we performed a cross-sectional study of 192 women of reproductive age (17- 45 yr), living on the Greek island of

EVANTHIA DIAMANTI-KANDARAKIS; CHRYSSA R. KOULI; ANGELIKI T. BERGIELE; FANNY A. FILANDRA; THOMAIS C. TSIANATELI; GIOVANNA G. SPINA; EVANGELIA D. ZAPANTI; MICHAEL I. BARTZIS

2010-01-01

320

Expression Profiling of Serous Low Malignant Potential, Low-Grade, and High-Grade Tumors of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papillary serous low malignant potential (LMP) tumors are characterized by malignant features and metastatic potential yet display a benign clinical course. The role of LMP tumors in the development of invasive epithelial cancer of the ovary is not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to determine the relationships among LMP tumors and invasive ovarian cancers and identify genes

Tomas Bonome; Ji-Young Lee; Dong-Choon Park; Mike Radonovich; Cindy Pise-Masison; John Brady; Ginger J. Gardner; Wing H. Wong; J. Carl Barrett; Karen H. Lu; Anil K. Sood; David M. Gershenson; Samuel C. Mok; Michael J. Birrer

2005-01-01

321

A rare coexistence of villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and brenner tumor of the ovary.  

PubMed

Synchronous primary gynecological cancers have been reported to be seen rarely in the literature. In this report, we aimed to describe a 51-year-old patient with the coexistence of villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and Brenner tumor in the right ovary. She successfully underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salphing-oopherectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24716032

Guzin, Kadir; Sahin, Sadik; Goynumer, Gokhan; Ero?lu, Mustafa; Usta, Ak?n; Ozel, Nurver

2014-01-01

322

A Rare Coexistence of Villoglandular Papillary Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix and Brenner Tumor of the Ovary  

PubMed Central

Synchronous primary gynecological cancers have been reported to be seen rarely in the literature. In this report, we aimed to describe a 51-year-old patient with the coexistence of villoglandular papillary adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and Brenner tumor in the right ovary. She successfully underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salphing-oopherectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24716032

Guzin, Kadir; Sahin, Sadik; Goynumer, Gokhan; Eroglu, Mustafa; Usta, Ak?n; Ozel, Nurver

2014-01-01

323

Epigenetic Mechanism Underlying the Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)Like Phenotypes in Prenatally Androgenized Rhesus Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is poorly understood. PCOS-like phenotypes are produced by prenatal androgenization (PA) of female rhesus monkeys. We hypothesize that perturbation of the epigenome, through altered DNA methylation, is one of the mechanisms whereby PA reprograms monkeys to develop PCOS. Infant and adult visceral adipose tissues (VAT) harvested from 15 PA and 10 control monkeys

Ning Xu; Soonil Kwon; David H. Abbott; David H. Geller; Daniel A. Dumesic; Ricardo Azziz; Xiuqing Guo; Mark O. Goodarzi

2011-01-01

324

Difference in body weight between American and Italian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: influence of the diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aim was to determine differences in body mass in two populations of women (USA and Italy) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to assess the effect of diet on body mass and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Pools of women with PCOS from the USA (n = 343) and Italy (n = 301), seen between 1993 and 2001,

Enrico Carmina; Richard S. Legro; Kelly Stamets; Jennifer Lowell; Rogerio A. Lobo

2003-01-01

325

Influence Of Serum Luteinising Hormone Concentrations On Ovulation, Conception, And Early Pregnancy Loss In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with the polycystic ovary syndrome do not respond well to treatment with luteinising hormone releasing hormone. To determine whether this might be due to an underlying endocrine disturbance basal concentrations of luteinising hormone were measured in 54 infertile women treated with pulsatile luteinising hormone releasing hormone and concentrations at the time of maximum follicular growth were measured in 23

R. Homburg; N. A. Armar; A. Eshel; J. Adams; H. S. Jacobs

1988-01-01

326

Polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g gene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In view of the strong evidence implicating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g (PPARg) in adiposity and insulin resistance a study was carried out to investigate PPARg genotype frequencies in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to elucidate its role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. METHODS: The study involved 135 women with PCOS and 115 healthy control women who were

S. Korhonen; S. Heinonen; M. Hiltunen; S. Helisalmi; M. Hippelainen; R. Koivunen; J. S. Tapanainen; M. Laakso

327

Metformin reduces pregnancy complications without affecting androgen levels in pregnant polycystic ovary syndrome women: results of a randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Investigation of a possible effect of metformin on androgen levels in pregnant women with poly- cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted. Forty pregnant women with PCOS received diet and lifestyle counselling and were random- ized to either metformin 850 mg twice daily or placebo. Primary outcome measures were changes in serum

E. Vanky; R. Heimstad; K. J. Fougner; P. Romundstad; S. M. Carlsen

2004-01-01

328

Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary: A case report and the review of literature  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing stromal tumours are rare benign ovarian neoplasms of the sex cord stromal that occur predominantly in the second and third decades of life. To date, 208 cases have been recorded in the literature. Most patients have menstrual irregularities and pelvic pain. Infertility and virilisation have also been described. In this article, histopathological features and differential diagnosis of the benign sclerosing stromal tumour were described together with the literature data. It is imperative to consider the differential diagnosis of a sclerozing stromal tumour of the ovary in a young woman with an ovarian tumour. A combination of morphological, immunohistochemical, radiological and clinical findings is needed in differentiating the tumour from thecoma, fibroma/fibrosarcoma, lipoid tumours and Krukenberg tumour.

Ozdemir, Ozhan; Sar?, Mustafa Erkan; Sen, Ertugrul; Kurt, Asl?han; Ileri, Ayse Burce; Atalay, Cemal Resat

2014-01-01

329

The role of aberrant hypothalamic opiatergic function in generating polycystic ovaries in the rat.  

PubMed

Treatment of adult female rats with estradiol valerate produces an intractable hypothalamic impairment that ultimately results in anovulatory acyclicity and polycystic ovaries. Evidence from our laboratory suggests that the hypothalamic impairment compromises regulation of the endogenous opioid system engendering a persistent opiatergic suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, which is subsequently reflected in a chronically low pituitary content of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors. If such is the case, inhibition of opiatergic transmission should improve the gonadotropin-releasing hormone pattern resulting in an improvement in the pituitary content of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors, and in an amelioration of the polycystic condition. We, therefore, treated rats with the polycystic ovarian condition, with daily injections of naltrexone. Within 1 week, there was a significant increase in the pituitary content of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors and a marked improvement in ovarian morphology, indicating that the hypothalamic opiatergic system is chronically active, and contributes significantly to the polycystic ovarian condition. PMID:2557144

Carriere, P D; Farookhi, R; Brawer, J R

1989-08-01

330

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

331

Effect of ovary lipid of Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) on anxious behavior in rats.  

PubMed

Ovary lipid of Skipjack tuna (OLS) (Katsuwonus pelamis) contains a high level of docosahexaenoic acid combined with phospholipids. In this study, we examined the effect of OLS in male Wistar rats given OLS mixed in feed (0.9%) for 42 days, using an animal model of anxiety, the elevated T-maze test. The avoidance latency at the 1st trial was significantly shorter in the OLS ingestion group than in the control group. Those at the 2nd and 3rd trials showed a similar tendency. There was almost no difference in escape latency at the 1st trial between the two groups but the escape latencies at the 2nd and 3rd trials tended to be longer in the OLS group. These results suggested that OLS inhibits anxious behavior in rats. PMID:17146181

Ookawa, Katumasa; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Shida, Eiji; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Matumoto, Toru; Hokari, Yoshinori; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

2006-11-01

332

Analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cell metabolism through a combined computational and experimental approach.  

PubMed

Optimization of cell culture processes can benefit from the systematic analysis of experimental data and their organization in mathematical models, which can be used to decipher the effect of individual process variables on multiple outputs of interest. Towards this goal, a kinetic model of cytosolic glucose metabolism coupled with a population-level model of Chinese hamster ovary cells was used to analyse metabolic behavior under batch and fed-batch cell culture conditions. The model was parameterized using experimental data for cell growth dynamics, extracellular and intracellular metabolite profiles. The results highlight significant differences between the two culture conditions in terms of metabolic efficiency and motivate the exploration of lactate as a secondary carbon source. Finally, the application of global sensitivity analysis to the model parameters highlights the need for additional experimental information on cell cycle distribution to complement metabolomic analyses with a view to parameterize kinetic models. PMID:24292563

Chen, Ning; Bennett, Mark H; Kontoravdi, Cleo

2014-12-01

333

Antimutagenic activities of naturally occurring polyamines in Chinese hamster ovary cell in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Spermine and spermidine, ubiquitous polyamines present in bacteria and animal cells, are also involved in cell growth. Since they interact with the double helix, they can stabilize the DNA molecule. Recent evidence of the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic capacity of spermine has focused attention on the he mechanism(s) by which such agents can protect cells from induced damages. In the present paper the authors show the ability of spermine and spermidine to decrease the level of sister chromatid exchanges induced in Chinese hamster ovary cells cultivated in vitro, by treating them with Psoralen + UVA irradiation (able to induce mainly monoadducts and DNA cross-links). Two different mechanisms of polyamine action can be invoked to explain the preservative activity of this class of agents.

Cozzi, R.; Perticone, P.; Bona, R.; Polani, S. (Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy))

1991-01-01

334

Consequences of RAS and MAPK activation in the ovary: the good, the bad and the ugly.  

PubMed

This review summarizes studies providing evidence (1) that endogenous RAS activation regulates important physiological events during ovulation and luteinization (2) that expression of the mutant, active KRAS(G12D) in granulosa cells in vivo causes abnormal follicle growth arrest leading to premature ovarian failure and (3) that KRAS(G12D) expression in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells renders them susceptible to the pathological outcome of transformation and tumor formation. These diverse effects of RAS highlight how critical its activation is linked to cell- and stage-specific events in the ovary that control normal processes and that can also lead to altered granulosa cell and OSE cell fates. PMID:22197887

Fan, Heng-Yu; Liu, Zhilin; Mullany, Lisa K; Richards, JoAnne S

2012-06-01

335

Bisphenol A (BPA) and its potential role in the pathogenesis of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and the most heterogeneous endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. Apart from signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, hirsutism and hair loss, women with PCOS usually present with menstrual irregularities and fertility problems.Additionally, they are often characterized by impaired glucose tolerance, which usually leads to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review article describes current and novel approach to the pathomechanisms of PCOS and the potential role of an endocrine disrupting chemical ("endocrine disruptor" - ED) - bisphenol A (BPA), which is commonly used as a plasticizer and due to its molecular structure can interact with estrogen receptors (ERs). Recent observations point to the higher levels of BPA in biological fluids of women with PCOS and its role in the pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia. It seems that mother's exposure to BPA during pregnancy may also lead to the development of PCOS in the female offspring. PMID:24397396

Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Racho?, Dominik

2014-04-01

336

[Voluminous ectopic polycystic ovaries in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 20-year-old woman with primary amenorrhea, normally developed sexual characteristics, infantile external genitals and absence of vaginal orifice. Blood chemistry studies showed elevated serum levels of gonadotropin, estrogens, testosterone, 17OH-progesterone, prolactin and TSH and low concentrations of FT(3) and FT(4). Cytogenetic karyotyping and in situ fluorescence hybridization revealed a 46,XX karyotype and the presence of Barr chromatin body. Laparoscopy disclosed absence of a vagina, apparently normal, enlarged tubes, multifolicular ectopic gonads and symmetric bilateral uterine buds. Diagnostic work-up included skeletal radiography, renal ultrasonography, intravenous pyelography, pelvic echography, pelvic phlebography and magnetic resonance imaging studies to demonstrate possible associations between the genitourinary and skeletal anomalies. Based on the clinical and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome was established, associated with the presence of enlarged ectopic polycystic ovaries in the abdominal cavity. PMID:16306871

Pellicano, M; Penner, I; Connola, D; Cascone, D; Sorrentino, V; Gargano, V; Masucci, A; Stella, N; Nappi, C

2005-12-01

337

Cloning and characterization of small circular DNA from Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Small polydisperse circular (spc) DNA was isolated and cloned, using BglII from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The properties of 47 clones containing at least 43 different BglII fragments are reported. The majority of the clones probably contain entire sequences from individual spcDNA molecules. Most of the clones were homologous to sequences in CHO cell chromosomal DNA, and many were also homologous to mouse LMTK- cell chromosomal sequences. The majority of homologous CHO cell chromosomal sequences were repetitive, although a few may be single copy. Only a small fraction of cloned spcDNA molecules were present in every cell; most occurred less frequently than once in 15 cells. Localization studies indicated that at least a portion of spcDNA is associated with the nucleus in CHO cells. PMID:6700583

Stanfield, S W; Helinski, D R

1984-01-01

338

Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Consensus Review for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare complication of mature cystic teratoma. The epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and management of this rare tumor are reviewed. Clinical characteristics, preoperative imaging, and tumor markers may help to predict malignancy preoperatively. Complete cytoreduction should be the aim of surgery. The prognosis for stage 1A disease is good, but for women with advanced or recurrent disease, it is very poor and has not improved in recent years. At present, there are insufficient data to provide clear guidance on the optimal management strategy for advanced disease, and there is a need to gain an understanding of the biology and to develop novel effective therapies. This will require coordinated international collaboration. PMID:25126954

Glasspool, Rosalind M; Martín, Antonio González; Millan, David; Lorusso, Domenica; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Hurteau, Jean A; Davis, Alison; Hilpert, Felix; Kim, Jae-Weon; Alexandre, Jérôme; Ledermann, Jonathan A

2014-11-01

339

First report of MRI findings in a case of an autoamputated wandering calcified ovary  

PubMed Central

An autoamputated wandering calcified ovary (AWCO) is an extremely rare cause of abdominal calcification in the pediatric population. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of AWCO in a child. To our knowledge, the MRI features of AWCO have not been previously described in the published literature. Our case report indicates that the MRI findings are characteristic in the diagnosis of an AWCO and can completely obviate the need for invasive procedures in this mostly benign disease. An AWCO should be considered in all cases of mobile calcific opacities on radiographs in female patients. We advise that MRI be conducted in all suspected cases of AWCO for accurate and noninvasive diagnosis, and regular follow-up should be performed with ultrasound. The findings in our case report have the potential to change the course of investigations and management in suspected cases. PMID:24669196

Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Ahamad, Nazeer; Hussain, Sheik Akbar

2014-01-01

340

decapentaplegic is essential for the maintenance and division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary.  

PubMed

Stem cells are thought to occupy special local environments, or niches, established by neighboring cells that give them the capability for self-renewal. Each ovariole in the Drosophila ovary contains two germline stem cells surrounded by a group of differentiated somatic cells that express hedgehog and wingless. Here we show that the BMP2/4 homolog decapentaplegic (dpp) is specifically required to maintain female germline stem cells and promote their division. Overexpression of dpp blocks germline stem cell differentiation. Conversely, mutations in dpp or its receptor (saxophone) accelerate stem cell loss and retard stem cell division. We constructed mutant germline stem cell clones to show that the dpp signal is directly received by germline stem cells. Thus, dpp signaling helps define a niche that controls germline stem cell proliferation. PMID:9695953

Xie, T; Spradling, A C

1998-07-24

341

Framework for a systems approach to proteomic biomarker profiling in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females of reproductive age, and its prevalence ranges between 6 and 8%. Associated problems include infertility, menstrual disorders, hirsutism and obesity. In addition, individuals with PCOS may be at increased risk of diabetes, endometrial cancer and, possibly, cardiovascular disease and breast cancer in later life. Biomarkers identified from proteomic analyses may help to improve the clinical management of PCOS, provided that new proteomic data can be integrated with existing knowledge and/or pathways implicated in disease etiology. In this study, a database of identity, descriptions and functions/pathways has been developed from 148 published proteomic biomarkers in PCOS. From analysis of the database, a variety of pathways possibly implicated in PCOS were determined, including those related to fibrinolysis, thrombosis, the antioxidant pathway and the immune system. This database, if developed further, will provide a framework for a systems approach to profiling biomarkers in the future. PMID:19811070

Atiomo, William U; Khalid, Somia; Ziauddin, Aysha; Tooth, David; Layfield, Robert

2009-10-01

342

Polycystic ovary syndrome as a paradigm for prehypertension, prediabetes, and preobesity.  

PubMed

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hyperandrogenic disorder affecting 5-10 % of premenopausal women. These patients gather multiple cardiovascular risk factors from early ages. Hence, PCOS is currently considered a paradigm of cardiometabolic disease. Research about its pathogenesis has grown over the last years, covering from the potential fetal developmental programming to the molecular basis of adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, sympathetic hyperactivity, and endothelial dysfunction. All these abnormalities put these patients at an increased risk of vascular events. Thus, practitioners attending these women must have a broad pathophysiological knowledge of PCOS. We here review recent scientific insights about its cardiometabolic phenotype focusing on the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. We emphasize that a diagnosis of PCOS, especially if accompanied by excess weight, must be followed by a complete and periodical cardiometabolic evaluation and by the aggressive management of the abnormalities identified, with the aim of preventing future cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:25304109

Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

2014-12-01

343

[The role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome disorders].  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency connected with insufficient production in the skin and limited alimentation delivery disrupts the function of all systems of the body and increases the risk of chronic diseases. Many studies have reported associations between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and symptoms of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - insulin resistance, hirsutism, and infertility associated with both, ovulatory disorders and abnormal endometrial receptivity. The beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance, ovarian follicles maturation, ovulation and menstrual regularity were confirmed. Due to limited evidence, the additional randomized trials are required to establish the correct dose of vitamin D and confirm the effectiveness of vitamin D treatment in PCOS disorders. However; it seems evident that correct supplementation of vitamin D is beneficial in the management of women with PCOS and low 25(OH)D serum levels, and that it could be helpful in improving the effects of PCOS treatment. PMID:24032264

Brzozowska, Maria; Karowicz-Bili?ska, Agata

2013-06-01

344

Optimization of Conditions for Production of Channel Catfish Ovary Cells and Channel Catfish Virus DNA †  

PubMed Central

Medium supplements were examined for their effect on the growth of channel catfish ovary cells. It was found that the usual serum supplement of 10% fetal calf serum could be successfully replaced with a combination of 5% fetal calf serum and a mixture of insulin, transferrin, and selenous acid. It was also found that these cells could be grown in a more efficient manner on microcarrier beads. This type of culture produced 14 times the number of cells per milliliter of total medium used compared with the usual tissue culture flasks used for cell growth. The microcarrier system also provided for greater production efficiency of DNA from channel catfish virus, a virus that infects this cell line. PMID:16346776

Colyer, Tracey E.; Boyle, John A.

1985-01-01

345

The ovary structure and oogenesis in the basal crustaceans and hexapods. Possible phylogenetic significance.  

PubMed

Recent large-scale phylogenetic analyses of exclusively molecular or combined molecular and morphological characters support a close relationship between Crustacea and Hexapoda. The growing consensus on this phylogenetic link is reflected in uniting both taxa under the name Pancrustacea or Tetraconata. Several recent molecular phylogenies have also indicated that the monophyletic hexapods should be nested within paraphyletic crustaceans. However, it is still contentious exactly which crustacean taxon is the sister group to Hexapoda. Among the favored candidates are Branchiopoda, Malacostraca, Remipedia and Xenocarida (Remipedia + Cephalocarida). In this context, we review morphological and ultrastructural features of the ovary architecture and oogenesis in these crustacean groups in search of traits potentially suitable for phylogenetic considerations. We have identified a suite of morphological characters which may prove useful in further comparative studies. PMID:24858464

Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Bilinski, Szczepan M

2014-07-01

346

Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices During the First Trimester of Pregnancy in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the levels of coagulation and fibrinolytic markers during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and determine the effects of PCOS and obesity on the levels of these hemostatic markers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing, China, on women with PCOS (n = 50), healthy women (n = 50), pregnant women with PCOS (n = 50), and healthy pregnant women (n = 50) at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters were measured. Results: The interaction between PCOS and pregnancy appears to exert effects on the activities of coagulation factors VIII and X. The interaction between PCOS and obesity also seems to affect the level of von Willebrand factor. Conclusions: Pregnant women with PCOS, especially women who are obese, are observed to be in a more prohemostatic state during the first trimester. PMID:23585337

Shan, Yu; Wang, Aiming; Sun, Ying; Jiang, Wen; Pang, Baosen; An, Zhiyuan; Du, Xin; Wang, Wei; Huang, Zhongwei

2013-01-01

347

Expression and activity of Rac1 is negatively affected in the dehydroepiandrosterone induced polycystic ovary of mouse  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the presence of multiple follicular cysts, giving rise to infertility due to anovulation. This syndrome affects about 10% of women, worldwide. The exact molecular mechanism leading to PCOS remains obscure. RhoGTPase has been associated with oogenesis, but its role in PCOS remains unexplored. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the Vav-Rac1 signaling in PCOS mice model. Methods We generated a PCOS mice model by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for a period of 20 days. The expression levels of Rac1, pRac1, Vav, pVav and Caveolin1 were analyzed by employing immuno-blotting and densitometry. The association between Vav and Rac1 proteins were studied by immuno-precipitation. Furthermore, we analyzed the activity of Rac1 and levels of inhibin B and 17?-estradiol in ovary using biochemical assays. Results The presence of multiple follicular cysts in ovary were confirmed by histology. The activity of Rac1 (GTP bound state) was significantly reduced in the PCOS ovary. Similarly, the expression levels of Rac1 and its phosphorylated form (pRac1) were decreased in PCOS in comparison to the sham ovary. The expression level and activity (phosphorylated form) of guanine nucleotide exchanger of Rac1, Vav, was moderately down-regulated. We observed comparatively increased expressions of Caveolin1, 17?-estradiol, and inhibin B in the polycystic ovary. Conclusion We conclude that hyperandrogenization (PCOS) by DHEA diminishes ovarian Rac1 and Vav expression and activity along with an increase in expression of Caveolin1. This is accompanied by an increase in the intra-ovarian level of '17 ?-estradiol and inhibin B. PMID:24628852

2014-01-01

348

Ultrastructure of the ovary of Amphilina japonica Goto & Ishii, 1936 (Cestoda) and its implications for phylogenetic studies.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the ovary of the amphilinidean cestode Amphilina japonica Goto & Ishii, 1936 from the body-cavity of the American sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus Richardson is described using transmission electron microscopy. The characters of the ovary of Amphilina japonica are different from those of all other cestodes. The most important difference is in the nature of the relationship between the germ and accessory cells within the ovary. In A. japonica the oocytes and accessory cells form numerous different intercellular contacts (desmosome-like junctions and zonulae adherentes). Gap junctions are present between the narrow cytoplasmic processes of the accessory cells. Numerous micropinocytotic vesicles and vacuoles from the accessory cells discharge their content into spaces between the oocytes and the accessory cells. The accessory cells are closely associated with the oocytes during the early and middle stages of oogenesis. As the volume of oocytes increases, the accessory cells gradually lose their association with the oocyte surfaces. Peripherally located individual accessory cells of A. japonica give rise to a cellular epithelial layer of irregular shape and thickness which breaks down via numerous invaginations of the basal membrane and underlying basal matrix. The different arrangements of the interconnection of cell components in the Amphilinidea compared with the Gyrocotylidea and Eucestoda (the absence of specialised cell contacts and the syncytial nature of the accessory 'interstitial' cells) are evidence suggesting the presence of unrelated groups within the Cestoda. The nature of the association of the accessory and germ cells in ovary of A. japonica more closely resembles the ovary of non-platyhelminth invertebrates rather than that of other neodermatans. PMID:20960088

Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Xylander, Willi E R

2010-11-01

349

Endometriosis coexisting with dermoid cyst in a single ovary: a case report.  

PubMed

Endometriosis coexisting with a dermoid cyst of the ovary is extraordinarily rare, although both these benign conditions are said to be common in women in the reproductive age group. There are only two previous case reports,which is evident from our literature review from January 1960 through January 2010. Acute abdomen is one of the greatest diagnostic challenges and easily ignored by the clinicians to exclude the possibility of gynecologic illness. A 35-year-old woman was referred by the doctor in Family clinic. She experienced a three-day period of severe right lower abdominal pain and intermittent vomiting. Ultrasonography identified a bilocular, cystic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic tumor, 7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm in the right adnexal region. Laparoscopic cystectomy was performed under the impression of ovarian cyst with torsion or hemorrhage. The frozen section was benign and appendiceal status was adequate. Histopathologic examination described an ovarian cyst composed of endometrial-type lining with stromacells (endometriosis) and benign teratoma tissue with plenty of skin appendages and sebaceous glands. We report this unusual and interesting ovarian mass to remind physicians that the usage of the Endobag after cystectomy, the benefits on minimizing operative time, spilled opportunity, and postoperative complications. Laparoscopic techniques for large ovarian masses might be considered. The experience of the surgeon is also very important to prevent misdiagnosis or complication. Further follow up is mandatory for this simultaneous finding of ovarian endometriosis with coincidental dermoid cyst as a separate pathology in single ovary of such a nature. It also presents a challenge to the clinicians and to the pathologists. PMID:21362294

Chen, Tsai-chuan; Kuo, Hsu-tung; Shyu, Shin-kuo; Chu, Chih-ping; Chang, Tien-chang

2011-02-01

350

Effect and mechanism of cadmium on the progesterone synthesis of ovaries.  

PubMed

The paper presents results of the effect of cadmium on the progesterone synthesis of ovaries. In the current study, we investigated whether Cd also disrupts progesterone synthesis via steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), which play important roles in progesterone synthesis. The Wistar rats were exposed to cadmium in vivo (at 2.5, 5, 7.5mg/kg, as a single s.c. dose). We showed that the serum P(4) and granule cells P(4) of rats were significantly lower than control group. Ovaries granule cells were incubated in Dulbecco-modified Eagle medium +15% fetal bovine serum with 0, 10, 20, or 40 microM CdCl(2) in vitro, progesterone levels were declined in a dose-dependent manner. Our data showed that the expression of StAR and P450scc in vivo or in vitro were inhibited when treated with CdCl(2) (p<0.05). Coculture with 8-bromo-cAMP enhanced progesterone secretion in untreated cultures and reversed the decline in progesterone secretion induced by CdCl(2) treatment; the expression of StAR mRNA and P450scc mRNA in 8-Br-cAMP+40 microM CdCl(2) were significantly higher than 40 microM CdCl(2), and were lower than control group. We concluded that StAR, which delivers cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, is one site at which Cd interferes with progesterone production in cultured rats ovarian granule cells; P450scc, which conveys cholesterol to pregnenolone, is anther site. The mechanisms were mainly controlled by the cAMP-dependent pathway. PMID:17719163

Zhang, Wenchang; Jia, Haimei

2007-10-01

351

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is required for normal gonadotropin responsiveness in the mouse ovary  

SciTech Connect

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of a variety of environmental chemicals. Although little is known about the physiological role of the AHR, studies suggest that it plays an important role in regulating ovulation because Ahr deficient (AhRKO) mice have a reduced number of ovulations compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The reasons for the reduced ability of AhRKO mice to ovulate are unknown. Normal ovulation, however, requires estrous cyclicity, appropriate luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, and LH and FSH responsiveness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ahr deletion regulates ovulation by altering cyclicity, FSH and LH levels, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) and luteinizing hormone receptor (Lhcgr) levels and/or gonadotropin responsiveness. The data indicate that AhRKO and WT mice have similar levels of FSH and LH, but AhRKO mice have reduced Fshr and Lhcgr mRNA levels compared to WT mice. Furthermore, AhRKO ovaries contain fewer corpora lutea compared to WT ovaries after 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment. Lastly, both AhRKO and WT mice ovulate a similar number of eggs in response to 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but AhRKO mice ovulate fewer eggs than WT mice in response to 2.5 IU and 1.25 IU hCG. Collectively, these data indicate that AhRKO follicles have a reduced capacity to ovulate compared to WT follicles and that this is due to reduced responsiveness to gonadotropins. Thus, in addition to mediating toxicity of environmental chemicals, the Ahr is required for normal ovulation.

Barnett, Kimberly R.; Tomic, Dragana [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Gupta, Rupesh K. [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Babus, Janice K. [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Roby, Katherine F. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Terranova, Paul F. [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A. [Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)], E-mail: jflaws@uiuc.edu

2007-08-15

352

Alteration of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in human normal ovaries and neoplastic ovarian cancers.  

PubMed

Most ovarian cancers originate in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Ovarian cancers might undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to various mediators or regulators such as EMT-inducing factors. In this study, ovarian tumor specimens from patients were analyzed to demonstrate alteration of EMT-related markers according to benign and malignant types of ovarian cancers. In the three ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and BG-1, the expression of epithelial (E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin) cell markers was identified by RNA and protein analysis. OVCAR-3 and BG-1 cells strongly expressed E-cadherin as well as morphological features such as epithelial cells, but vimentin was not observed. In contrast to these cancer cells, SKOV-3 showed a phenotype typical of mesenchymal cells. Alteration of EMT markers and EMT-related transcriptional factors were confirmed in clinical ovarian tissue samples obtained from 74 patients. E-cadherin was expressed in 57.1% of benign tumors, while vimentin was expressed in 83.3% of normal ovaries by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of E-cadherin and vimentin revealed the phenomenon in the tissue specimens. Evaluation of the EMT-associated transcriptional factors Snail, Slug, and Twist revealed that Snail was overexpressed by 7.1-fold in malignant ovarian cancer compared to normal ovaries or benign tumors. Although expression levels of other factors were higher in benign and malignant ovarian tumors, they were not closely correlated with the aforementioned ovarian cancer types. Overall, Snail may affect the EMT process in ovarian cancer development and upregulation of Snail expression followed by the downregulation of E-cadherin enhances the invasiveness of ovarian cancer. PMID:25310727

Yi, Bo-Rim; Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Ye-Seul; Choi, Kyung-Chul

2015-01-01

353

Selective Inhibition of Steroidogenic Enzymes by Ketoconazole in Rat Ovary Cells  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Ketoconazole (KCZ) is an anti-fungal agent extensively used for clinical applications related to its inhibitory effects on adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis. Much less information is available on the effects of KCZ on synthesis of steroid hormones in the ovary. The present study aimed to characterize the in situ effects of KCZ on steroidogenic enzymes in primary rat ovary cells. METHODS Following the induction of folliculogenesis in gonadotropin treated rats, freshly prepared ovarian cells were incubated in suspension for up to four hours while radiolabeled steroid substrates were added and time dependent generation of their metabolic products was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). RESULTS KCZ inhibits the P450 steroidogenic enzymes in a selective and dose dependent manner, including cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1/P450scc), the 17?-hydroxylase activity of CYP17A1/P450c17, and CYP19A1/P450arom, with IC50 values of 0.3, 1.8, and 0.3 ?g/mL (0.56, 3.36, and 0.56 ?M), respectively. Unaffected by KCZ, at 10 ?g/mL, were the 17,20 lyase activity of CYP17A1, as well as five non-cytochrome steroidogenic enzymes including 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-?5–4 isomerase type 1 (3?HSD1), 5?-reductase, 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD), and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17HSD1). CONCLUSION These findings map the effects of KCZ on the ovarian pathways of progestin, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Hence, the drug may have a potential use as an acute and reversible modulator of ovarian steroidogenesis in pathological circumstances. PMID:24812532

Gal, Michael; Orly, Joseph

2014-01-01

354

Granulosa cell survival and proliferation are altered in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Context Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the commonest endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age. The cause of PCOS remains largely unknown, but studies suggest an intrinsic ovarian abnormality. Objective To test our hypothesis that differences in granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis may underlie abnormalities that affect follicular development. Design Granulosa cells were prepared from follicular fluid aspirated from 4-8 mm follicles of unstimulated ovaries during routine laparoscopy or laparotomy from women with anovulatory PCOS and those with regular ovulatory cycles. Setting University hospital. Patients 14 women with anovulatory PCOS and 9 women with regular ovulatory cycles. Main outcome measures Immunocytochemistry on granulosa cells to investigate apoptotic and proliferation rates, together with real-time RT-PCR to analyze gene expression profiles of apoptotic regulators. Results Significantly lower apoptotic rates were found in granulosa cells from patients with PCOS compared to women with regular ovulatory cycles (P = 0.004). Lower apoptotic rates were associated with decreased levels of the apoptotic effector caspase 3 (P = 0.001) and increased levels of the anti-apoptotic survival factor cIAP-2 in the PCOS group that were coupled to higher proliferation rates (P = 0.032). Gene expression profiling confirmed the immunocytochemical findings. Conclusions Our findings indicate that there are significant differences in the rate of cell death and proliferation in granulosa cell populations in PCOS patients. These are associated with decreased expression of apoptotic effectors and increased expression of a cell survival factor. These results provide new insights that may be useful in developing specific therapeutic intervention strategies in PCOS. PMID:18073308

Das, M; Djahanbakhch, O; Hacihanefioglu, B; Saridogan, E; Ikram, M; Ghali, L; Raveendran, M; Storey, A

2009-01-01

355

Ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of mice ovaries following experimentally induced copper poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element involved in normal reproduction but its overexposure may produce some detrimental effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of copper sulfate poisoning on morphometery of mice ovarian structures and probable intracellular changes. Methods Thirty mature female mice were randomly allocated to control and two treatment groups. In treatment groups, two different doses of copper sulfate including 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg in 0.2 cc were applied once a day for 35 consecutive days by gavage. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar method. Animals from each experimental group were sacrificed 14 and 35 days after the beginning of drug administration and the left ovaries were removed for stereological evaluations by light microscopy and right ovaries were obtained for preparing electron microscopic sections. Results The morphometrical results showed that only the number of antral follicles was decreased by 100 mg/kg copper sulfate on day 14 compared to the control group (P=0.043). Hence, higher copper dose or longer consumption period significantly reduced different classes of follicles and corpora lutea. With 100 mg/kg copper sulfate some mild ultrastructural cell damages such as decrease of zona pellucida thickness, limited vacuolated areas and nuclear envelop dilation were seen on day 14. Higher or longer Cu administration produced more detrimental effects including more vacuolated areas, presence of secondary lysosomes, irregularity in cell shape and segmented nuclei with condensed and marginated chromatin and more enlarged and damaged mitochondria. Conclusion New evidences of early as well as late intracellular damages of copper has been presented by accurate stereological and ultrastructural methods. Antral follicles was the most susceptible cells with the lower and shorter copper consumption and long term or higher dose of copper affected the whole of ovarian structures. PMID:23115718

Babaei, H; Roshangar, L; Sakhaee, E; Abshenas, J; Kheirandish, R; Dehghani, R

2012-01-01

356

Germ cell specification and ovary structure in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis  

PubMed Central

Background The segregation of the germline from somatic tissues is an essential process in the development of all animals. Specification of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) takes place via different strategies across animal phyla; either specified early in embryogenesis by the inheritance of maternal determinants in the cytoplasm of the oocyte ('preformation') or selected later in embryonic development from undifferentiated precursors by a localized inductive signal ('epigenesis'). Here we investigate the specification and development of the germ cells in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a member of the poorly-characterized superphyla Lophotrochozoa, by isolating the Brachionus homologues of the conserved germ cell markers vasa and nanos, and examining their expression using in situ hybridization. Results Bpvasa and Bpnos RNA expression have very similar distributions in the Brachionus ovary, showing ubiquitous expression in the vitellarium, with higher levels in the putative germ cell cluster. Bpvas RNA expression is present in freshly laid eggs, remaining ubiquitous in embryos until at least the 96 cell stage after which expression narrows to a small cluster of cells at the putative posterior of the embryo, consistent with the developing ovary. Bpnos RNA expression is also present in just-laid eggs but expression is much reduced by the four-cell stage and absent by the 16-cell stage. Shortly before hatching of the juvenile rotifer from the egg, Bpnos RNA expression is re-activated, located in a subset of posterior cells similar to those expressing Bpvas at the same stage. Conclusions The observed expression of vasa and nanos in the developing B. plicatilis embryo implies an epigenetic origin of primordial germ cells in Rotifer. PMID:20849649

2010-01-01

357

Genetic and gene expression analyses of the polycystic ovary syndrome candidate gene fibrillin-3 and other fibrillin family members in human ovaries.  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the dinucleotide repeat microsatellite marker D19S884, which is located in intron 55 of the fibrillin-3 (FBN3) gene. Fibrillins, including FBN1 and 2, interact with latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-binding proteins (LTBP) and thereby control the bioactivity of TGFbetas. TGFbetas stimulate fibroblast replication and collagen production. The PCOS ovarian phenotype includes increased stromal collagen and expansion of the ovarian cortex, features feasibly influenced by abnormal fibrillin expression. To examine a possible role of fibrillins in PCOS, particularly FBN3, we undertook tagging and functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis (32 SNPs including 10 that generate non-synonymous amino acid changes) using DNA from 173 PCOS patients and 194 controls. No SNP showed a significant association with PCOS and alleles of most SNPs showed almost identical population frequencies between PCOS and control subjects. No significant differences were observed for microsatellite D19S884. In human PCO stroma/cortex (n = 4) and non-PCO ovarian stroma (n = 9), follicles (n = 3) and corpora lutea (n = 3) and in human ovarian cancer cell lines (KGN, SKOV-3, OVCAR-3, OVCAR-5), FBN1 mRNA levels were approximately 100 times greater than FBN2 and 200-1000-fold greater than FBN3. Expression of LTBP-1 mRNA was 3-fold greater than LTBP-2. We conclude that FBN3 appears to have little involvement in PCOS but cannot rule out that other markers in the region of chromosome 19p13.2 are associated with PCOS or that FBN3 expression occurs in other organs and that this may be influencing the PCOS phenotype. PMID:19692420

Prodoehl, Mark J; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Zhao, Zhen Z; Painter, Jodie N; Hickey, Theresa E; Gibson, Mark A; Rainey, William E; Carr, Bruce R; Mason, Helen D; Norman, Robert J; Montgomery, Grant W; Rodgers, Raymond J

2009-12-01

358

Production of donor-derived offspring after ovarian transplantation between Muscovy (Cairina moschata) and Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos) ducks.  

PubMed

Transplantation of ovarian tissue between different breeds of chickens or Japanese quail can result in normal egg production and give rise to donor-derived offspring with a high frequency. The feasibility of interspecific ovarian transplantation was evaluated by transplanting ovarian tissue from Muscovy ducks to Pekin ducks just after hatch, with subsequent treatment of the recipients with an immunosuppressant. Among the 8 mature Pekin ducks that had received ovarian tissue from Muscovy ducklings, 2 produced fertile eggs when mated with Muscovy drakes, and one of these produced only Muscovy ducks, which were derived from the transplanted Muscovy ovary. The other produced mule ducks that were hybrids of the host Pekin duck and the Muscovy drake. Further development of interspecific transplantation of ovaries may provide a simple method for the conservation and propagation of endangered birds. PMID:22184444

Song, Y; Cheng, K M; Robertson, M C; Silversides, F G

2012-01-01

359

Diagnostic and treatment characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: descriptive measurements of patient perception and awareness from 657 confidential self-reports  

E-print Network

Background This investigation was undertaken to describe patient perception and awareness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulation/oligoovulation among women of reproductive age. Methods ...

Sills, E. Scott

360

Aberrant expression and dysfunction of Fas antigen in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr murine ovary.  

PubMed

In lpr mice the insertion of an early transposable element (ETn) into intron 2 of the Fas gene, which mediates apoptosis, causes the development of massive lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and autoimmune disease. In the present study we investigated the influence of this mutation on ovarian development of lpr mice. By means of in situ hybridisation, the expression of Fas mRNA was detected at the same levels in the ovarian cells of MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice as in those of MRL/MpJ-(+)/+ (MRL/+) mice. However, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) staining with anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the membrane of follicle and egg of MRL/lpr mice was significantly weaker than that of MRL/+ mice. Furthermore, the expression level of Fas protein at the 45 kDa band from ovarian cell lysates of MRL/lpr mice was much lower than that of MRL/+ mice. The co-incubation of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)-Fas lig- and (L) cells with eggs of MRL/+ mice resulted in apoptosis of eggs, as detected by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase mediated dUPT-nick end labelled (TUNEL) method. In contrast the co-incubation of Sf9-FasL cells with eggs of MRL/lpr mice did not generate apoptosis in eggs. Following intraperitoneal administration of anti-Fas mAb into both types of mice, most oocytes, a proportion of granulosa cells in the ovary and hepatocytes in liver of MRL/+ mice were positively stained by the TUNEL method, corresponding to the appearance of DNA fragmented ladders by DNA fragmentation assay, while negative signals were obtained in those cells of MRL/lpr mice. As the mice aged, the ovarian size of MRL/lpr mice was found to be much larger than that of MRL/+ mice due to the increased number of ovarian follicles. Therefore, the ovarian adenopathy in MRL/lpr mice was strongly suggested to be caused by the dysfunction of Fas antigen in the ovary. PMID:9921647

Xu, J P; Li, X; Mori, E; Guo, M W; Mori, T

1998-11-01

361

First step in developing a 3D biodegradable fibrin scaffold for an artificial ovary  

PubMed Central

Background Although transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue is a promising approach to restore fertility in cancer patients, it is not advisable for women at risk of ovarian involvement due to the threat of reintroducing malignant cells. The aim of this study was therefore to find an alternative for these patients by development of an artificial ovary. Methods For construction of the artificial ovary matrix, we used a central composite design to investigate nine combinations of fibrinogen (mg/ml) and thrombin (IU/mL) (F/T): F1/T4, F12.5/T1, F12.5/T20, F25/T0.1, F25/T4, F25/T500, F50/T1, F50/T20 and F100/T4. From the first qualitative analyses (handling and matrix size), five combinations (F12.5/T1, F25/T4, F50/T20, F50/T1 and F100/T4) yielded positive results. They were further evaluated in order to assess fibrin matrix degradation and homogeneous cell encapsulation (density), survival and proliferation (Ki67), and atresia (TUNEL) before and after 7 days of in vitro culture. To determine the best compromise between maximizing the dynamic density (Y1) and minimizing the apoptosis rate (Y2), we used the desirability function approach. Results Two combinations (F12.5/T1 and F25/T4) showed greater distribution of cells before in vitro culture, reproducible degradation of the fibrin network and adequate support for isolated human ovarian stromal cells, with a high proportion of Ki67-positive cells. SEM analysis revealed a network of fibers with regular pores and healthy stromal cells after in vitro culture with both F/T combinations. Conclusion This study reports two optimal F/T combinations that allow survival and proliferation of isolated human ovarian cells. Further studies are required to determine if such a scaffold will also be a suitable environment for isolated ovarian follicles. PMID:24274108

2013-01-01

362

Growth and development of the ovary and small follicle pool from mid fetal life to pre-puberty in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)  

PubMed Central

Background Follicle numbers and developing ovarian morphology, particularly with reference to the presence of interstitial tissue, are intimately linked within the ovary of the African elephant during the period spanning mid-gestation to puberty. These have not been previously quantified in any studies. The collection of 7 sets of elephant fetal ovaries between 11.2 and 20.2?months of gestation, and 29 pairs of prepubertal calf ovaries between 2?months and 9?years of age during routine management off-takes of complete family groups in private conservancies in Zimbabwe provided an opportunity for a detailed study of this period. Results The changing morphology of the ovary is described as the presumptive cortex and medulla components of the fetal ovary settled into their adult form. Interstitial tissue dominated the ovary in late fetal life and these cells stained strongly for 3?–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This staining continued postnatally through to 4.5?years of age suggesting continued secretion of progestagens by the ovary during this period. The considerable growth of antral follicles peaked at 28% of ovarian volume at around 16.7?months of fetal age. The numbers of small follicles (primordial, early primary and true primary), counted in the cortex using stereological protocols, revealed fewer small follicles in the ovaries of animals aged 0 to 4.5?years of age than during either late fetal life or prepubertal life. Conclusions The small follicle populations of the late-fetal and prepubertal ovaries of the African elephant were described along with the changing morphology of these organs. The changes noted represent a series of events that have been recorded only in the elephant and the giraffe species to date. The expansion of the interstitial tissue of the fetal ovary and its continued presence in early post natal life may well contribute to the control of follicle development in these early years. Further research is required to determine the reasons behind the variation of numbers of small follicles in the ovaries of prepubertal calves. PMID:22824067

2012-01-01

363

Changes in the expression of Fox O1 and death ligand genes during follicular atresia in porcine ovary.  

PubMed

Follicular atresia, a key phenomenon in follicle development, eliminates most of the follicles in mammalian ovaries. To investigate the molecular mechanism of follicular atresia in porcine ovaries, we investigated the mRNA expression of three important cell death ligand-receptor systems and Fox O1 in follicles with a diameter of 3-5 mm. The phosphorylation and subcellular localization of Fox O1 during granulosa cell apoptosis was also determined. TRAIL and Fas L played an important role in follicular atresia at this stage. Fox O1 expression was upregulated during atresia, and was confined to the nucleus of granulosa cells; however, phosphorylated Fox O1 was localized to the cytoplasm. These results suggest Fox O1 involvement in the regulation of TRAIL and Fas L expression during follicular atresia in pigs. PMID:25177944

Lin, F; Fu, Y H; Han, J; Shen, M; Du, C W; Li, R; Ma, X S; Liu, H L

2014-01-01

364

Effects of reproductive stage and 11-ketotestosterone on LPL mRNA levels in the ovary of the shortfinned eel  

PubMed Central

To understand the dynamics of lipid uptake into the ovary and the potential role that lipoprotein lipase plays in this event, changes in LPL transcript abundance during oogenesis were measured in both wild-caught and pituitary homogenate-induced artificially maturing eels. Also, the effects of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) on LPL mRNA levels were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Normalized ovarian LPL transcript abundance increased as oogenesis advanced, and it rose particularly rapidly during midvitellogenesis, corresponding to pronounced increases in ovarian lipid deposits and LPL activity. Furthermore, LPL mRNA levels were dramatically increased following 11-KT treatment in vivo, findings that were reinforced as trends in ovarian tissue incubated in vitro. Ovarian LPL appears to be directly involved in the uptake of lipids into the eel ovary, an involvement that appears to be controlled, at least in part, by the androgen 11-KT. PMID:20713648

Divers, Sean L.; McQuillan, H. James; Matsubara, Hajime; Todo, Takashi; Lokman, P. Mark

2010-01-01

365

KRAS mutation in adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal type arising from a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Mature cystic teratomas (MCT) in the ovary rarely undergo malignant transformation. Moreover, adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal type is much rarer. We present two cases of perimenopausal female pateints with mature cystic teratoma of single ovary, while local adenocarcinoma arising in the MCT. The malignancies showed immunohistochemical features of intestinal differentiation, such as strong positivity for CDX-2, villin and CK-20, and negativity for CK-7. Furthermore, the mutation analysis of molecular alteration revealed a KRAS gene mutation in the intestinal adenocarcinoma part, extending into benign intestinal-type epithelium linings. Yet the mutation was not present in the epidermal component of the teratoma. We present these as two unique cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the intestinal type arising from mature cystic teratoma. Moreover, we also submit that this KRAS mutation might contribute to identify malignant transformation of a MCT and suggest possible effect on targeted treatment decisions for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in metastasized patients. PMID:25297496

Li, Yan; Zhang, Ruiguang; Pan, Danzhen; Huang, Bangxing; Weng, Mixia; Nie, Xiu

2014-01-01

366

Spatial and temporal distribution of free and bound ABA in wheat and dandelion ovaries in the period of egg-cell activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified endogenous free and bound ABA in ovaries of the apomictic Taraxacum officinale Web. (dandelion) and amphimictic Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) species. ABA distribution was assessed in four ovary sections and during three developmental stages: from the\\u000a quiescence release of the egg-cell until its first division (the period of egg-cell activity). ABA content was determined\\u000a by the novel modification

M. A. Gusakovskaya; A. N. Blintsov

2006-01-01

367

Lowering storage temperature during ovary transport is beneficial to the developmental competence of bovine oocytes used for somatic cell nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature during ovary transport on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes for use in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Ovaries obtained from a slaughterhouse were stored in physiological saline for 3–4h at one of the three temperatures: 15°C, 25°C, or 35°C. The developmental competence of oocytes used for

Y. S. Wang; X. Zhao; J. M. Su; Z. X. An; X. R. Xiong; L. J. Wang; J. Liu; F. S. Quan; S. Hua; Y. Zhang

2011-01-01

368

Molecular cloning of flounder Xp18, a newly identified highly conserved protein mainly expressed in the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening of a flounder ovary cDNA library with a rainbow trout p53 probe led to the isolation of a p53-unrelated cDNA encoding an unknown 161 amino acid protein. In view of its apparent molecular weight and yet unknown function, the deduced protein was named Xp18. Corresponding orthologous cDNAs or expressed sequence tags have been identified in several species including human,

Jérôme Cachot; Florence Bultelle; Laurent Drouot; François Galgani; Thierry Frébourg; François Leboulenger; Jean-Michel Danger

2003-01-01

369

Optimization of in vitro conditions for stigma-like-structure production from half-ovary explants of Crocus sativus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Studies were conducted to optimize the in vitro production of stigma-like-structures (SLS) that yielded the important biochemical\\u000a constituents responsible for the color, taste, and aroma naturally found in the stigmas of autumn crocus. Immature half-ovary\\u000a explants were evaluated for the frequency of proliferation of SLS by culture on five basal media supplemented with different\\u000a combinations of plant growth regulators and

A. V. Loskutov; C. W. Beninger; T. M. Ball; G. L. Hosfield; M. Nair; K. C. Sink

1999-01-01

370

Impact of metformin and rosiglitazone treatment on glucose transporter 4 mRNA expression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The insulin-resistant state of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was found to be associated with a decreased glucose transporter GLUT4 expression in the insulin target tissues. This study was performed to explore whether the well-known clinical, hormonal and metabolic efficacy of metformin or rosiglitazone treatment is reflected in the modulation of adipocyte GLUT4 mRNA expression in patients with PCOS.

Mojca Jensterle; Andrej Janez; Barbara Mlinar; Janja Marc; Janez Prezelj; Marija Pfeifer

2008-01-01

371

The effect of periovulatory imbalance of prolactin on the expression of prolactin receptors in rat ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the technique of immunohistochemistry in combination with cytophotometry, we have studied the effect of periovulatory\\u000a hyper- and hypoprolactinemia on the expression of prolactin receptors in various cell types of rat ovaries during early estrus.\\u000a It has been shown that intense specific staining of oocytes is positively controlled by prolactin. The maximal intensity of\\u000a specific staining was found in cells

T. Kotok; R. L. Bogorad; A. N. Smirnov; V. M. Turovetskii; O. V. Smirnova

2000-01-01

372

Metformin-diet benefits in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in the bottom and top quintiles for insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively assessed whether metabolic and menstrual benefits of metformin-diet were equally realized in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), categorized by pretreatment top (n = 32) and bottom (n = 35) quintile homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (IR). Effects of metformin (2.55 g\\/d) and diet (6300-8400 J\\/d [1500-2000 cal\\/d], 26% protein, 44% carbohydrate) were prospectively assessed for 12 months.

Naila Goldenberg; Charles J. Glueck; Matt Loftspring; Adam Sherman; Ping Wang

2005-01-01

373

Relationship between Sugar Chain Structure and Biological Activity of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of erythropoietin, EPO-bi and EPO-tetra, with different biological activities were isolated from the culture medium of a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, B8-300, into which the human erythropoietin gene had been introduced. EPO-bi, an unusual form, showed only one-seventh the in vivo activity and 3 times higher in vitro activity of the previously described recombinant human EPO

Makoto Takeuchi; Noboru Inoue; Thomas W. Strickland; Mamoru Kubota; Michihito Wada; Rie Shimizu; Sakuo Hoshi; Hiroyuki Kozutsumi; Seiichi Takasaki; Akira Kobata

1989-01-01

374

Isolation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Clone Possessing Decreased Calpain Content and a Reduced Proliferative Growth Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHOp) was cul- tured in the presence of benzyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Leu- Tyr diazomethyl ketone (ZLLY-CHN2), to select for re- sistance to this cell-permeant calpain inhibitor. A clone isolated after several courses of exposure (SHI cells) demonstrated decreased sensitivity to ZLLY-CHN2 tox- icity and a decreased growth rate. SHI cells also pos- sessed less m-calpain isozyme relative

Q. Lu; Wenli Zhang; Montaha Lakkis; Elliott Shaw; Maura T. Mericle

1996-01-01

375

Altered Cortisol Metabolism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Insulin Enhances 5Reduction But Not the Elevated Adrenal Steroid Production Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgen excess in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be ovarian and\\/or adrenal in origin, and one pro- posed contributing mechanism is altered cortisol metabolism. Increased peripheral metabolism of cortisol may occur by enhanced inactivation of cortisol by 5-reductase (5-R) or impaired reactivation of cortisol from cortisone by 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11-HSD1) resulting in decreased negative feedback

TASOULA TSILCHOROZIDOU; JOHN W. HONOUR; GERARD S. CONWAY

376

The distribution of APGWamide and RFamides in the central nervous system and ovary of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the distribution of both APGWamide-like and RFamide-like peptides in the central\\u000a nervous system (CNS) and ovary of the mature female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. APGWamide-like immunoreactivity (ALP-ir) was found only within the sinus gland (SG) of the eyestalk, in small- and medium-sized\\u000a neurons of cluster 4, as well as their varicosed axons. RFamide-like immunoreactivity

Ronnarong Palasoon; Sasiporn Panasophonkul; Prapee Sretarugsa; Peter Hanna; Prasert Sobhon; Jittipan Chavadej

2011-01-01

377

Purification of vitellin from the ovary of Chinese mitten-handed crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) and development of an antivitellin ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellin was purified from ovaries of mature female Chinese mitten-handed crab (Eriocheir sinensis) using gel filtration chromatography. Analysis by native PAGE showed the vitellin had a native molecular mass of 520 kDa, while denaturing SDS-PAGE revealed two subunits of 97 and 74 kDa. Purified vitellin was used to raise polyclonal antisera, with which an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed.

Liqiao Chen; Hongbo Jiang; Zhongliang Zhou; Kang Li; Kai Li; Glenn Y Deng; Zhanjiang Liu

2004-01-01

378

Metformin-induced resumption of normal menses in 39 of 43 (91%) previously amenorrheic women with the polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 43 amenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 31 (74%) with fasting hyperinsulinemia (? 20 ?U\\/mL), our aim was to determine whether Metformin (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ), which reduces hyperinsulinemia, would reverse the endocrinopathy of PCOS, allowing resumption of regular normal menses. A second aim was to assess the effects of weight loss versus other Metformin-induced effects on ovarian

C. J. Glueck; Ping Wang; Robert Fontaine; Trent Tracy; Luann Sieve-Smith

1999-01-01

379

Metformin therapy improves the menstrual pattern with minimal endocrine and metabolic effects in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the clinical, hormonal, and biochemical effects of 4–6 months of metformin therapy in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective study.Setting: The Gynecological Endocrine Unit of University Central Hospital, Oulu, Finland.Patient(s): Twenty obese patients with PCOS.Intervention(s): Patients were treated with 0.5 g of metformin three times daily for 4–6 months.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical symptoms, menstrual pattern,

Laure C. Morin-Papunen; Riitta M. Koivunen; Aimo Ruokonen; Hannu K. Martikainen

1998-01-01

380

Metformin therapy improves ovulatory rates, cervical scores, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of metformin therapy on hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, cervical scores, ovulation, and pregnancy rates in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Setting: Infertility clinic of a tertiary referral center.Patient(s): Fifty-six women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS.Intervention(s): Two cycles of oral metformin therapy (850 mg, twice daily) in group I and placebo

Müberra Kocak; Eray Caliskan; Coskun Simsir; Ali Haberal

2002-01-01

381

A case report of quadruple cancer in a single patient including the breast, rectum, ovary, and endometrium  

PubMed Central

Multiple primary cancer is defined as the multiple occurrence of malignant neoplasms in the same individual. Due to the development of new diagnostic techniques and the rise in long-term survival of cancer, reports of multiple primary cancers have gradually increased. Herein, we describe the case of a 68-year-old female patient with quadruple primary cancer of the breast, rectum, ovary, and endometrium. For its great rarity, we report this case with a review of the literature. PMID:19471653

Noh, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Ji Yeong; Ryoo, Ui Nam; Choi, Chel Hun; Sung, Chang Ohk; Kim, Tae Joong; Bae, Duk-Soo

2008-01-01

382

Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co  

SciTech Connect

Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

1989-02-01

383

A qualitative investigation of the impact of peer to peer online support for women living with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a common, chronic condition which affects women living with the condition both physically and psychologically. Social support may be beneficial to sufferers in coping with chronic conditions and the Internet is becoming a common place for accessing social support and information. The aim of this study was to consider the experiences of women living with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome who access and participate in an online support group discussion forum dedicated to issues surrounding this condition. Methods Fifty participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via an online survey. Results Thematic analysis revealed a number of empowering and disempowering experiences associated with online support group participation. The empowering processes reported by members of the group included: Connecting with others who understand; Access to information and advice; Interaction with healthcare professionals; Treatment-related decision making; Improved adjustment and management. In terms disempowering processes, only two were described by group participants: Reading about the negative experiences of others and Feeling like an outsider. Conclusions For women living with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, participation within an online support group may help to empower them in a range of important ways however, there may be some disempowering consequences. PMID:24341398

2013-01-01

384

Evidence for selective expression of angiotensin II receptors on atretic follicles in the rat ovary: an autoradiographic study  

SciTech Connect

Ovarian angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors display a cyclical pattern of variation during the rat estrous cycle. Ang II receptors, estimated by the specific binding of the Ang II receptor antagonist (/sup 125/I)iodo-(Sar1,Ile8) Ang II to ovarian membranes, were lowest at estrus (binding site density (Bmax) = 35 +/- 2 fmol/mg; binding site affinity (KD) = 2.0 +/- 0.2 nM) and highest at diestrus I (Bmax = 59 +/- 3 fmol/mg; KD = 1.6 +/- 0.1 nM). We have previously shown that Ang II receptors in the rat ovary predominantly exist on the granulosa cell layer of a subpopulation of follicles. Our present studies show that the Ang II receptor-containing follicles in the rat ovary are mainly atretic (approximately 80%) or show signs of early atresia (approximately 15%) during all stages of the estrous cycle. A small number of Ang II receptor-containing follicles were healthy (approximately 5%). In contrast to the Ang II receptor-containing follicles, the FSH receptor-containing follicles were predominantly healthy (greater than 90%). Follicles which contained both Ang II receptors and FSH receptors were mainly early atretic. Since Ang II receptor-containing follicles in the rat ovary were mainly atretic these studies suggest that in the rat Ang II may be a major factor in regulating the function of atretic ovarian follicles.

Daud, A.I.; Bumpus, F.M.; Husain, A.

1988-06-01

385

Protein localization of epidermal growth factor in sheep ovaries and improvement of follicle survival and antrum formation in vitro.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to characterize EGF protein expression in ovine ovaries and to verify the effect of EGF on the in vitro development of isolated pre-antral follicles. After collection, ovarian tissue was fixed for immunohistochemical analysis. Additional pairs of ovaries were collected, and secondary follicles were cultured for 18 days in ?-MEM(+) (control) alone or supplemented with EGF (1, 10 or 50 ng/ml). The immunostaining for EGF was observed in oocytes from pre-antral and antral follicles, in granulosa cells of primary and secondary follicles, as well as in cumulus and mural cells of antral follicles. After 18 days, the results showed that treatment with 50 ng/ml EGF significantly increased the percentage of morphologically normal follicles compared with the control group (?-MEM(+) ) and significantly reduced the precocious extrusion of oocytes and increased the percentage of antral follicles compared with the control and 1 ng/ml EGF. All the treatments induced a progressive and significant increase of the follicular diameter throughout the period of culture. However, there were no significant differences in follicular diameter or in the daily growth rate among treatments. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of EGF in ovine ovaries. Moreover, 50 ng/ml EGF increased the percentage of normal follicles and improved antrum formation in isolated ovine follicles after 18 days of in vitro culture. PMID:25130906

Santos, L P; Barros, V R P; Cavalcante, A Y P; Menezes, V G; Macedo, T J S; Santos, J M S; Araújo, V R; Queiroz, M A A; Matos, M H T

2014-10-01

386

Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl ( Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often covaries with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

Roulin, Alexandre

2009-10-01

387

Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl.  

PubMed

While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl (Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often co-varies with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively. PMID:19575175

Roulin, Alexandre

2009-10-01

388

Quantification of steroids and endocrine disrupting chemicals in rat ovaries by LC-MS/MS for reproductive toxicology assessment.  

PubMed

Reproductive function is controlled by a finely tuned balance of androgens and estrogens. Environmental toxicants, notably endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), appear to be involved in the disruption of hormonal balance in several studies. To further describe the effects of selected EDCs on steroid secretion in female rats, we aim to simultaneously investigate the EDC concentration and the sex hormone balance in the ovaries. Therefore, an effective method has been developed for the quantification of the sex steroid hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and estrone) and four endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, atrazine, and the active metabolites of methoxychlor and vinclozolin) in rat ovaries. The sample preparation procedure is based on the so-called "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" approach, and an analytical method was developed to quantify these compounds with low detection limits by liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer. This analytical method, applied to rat ovary samples following subacute EDC exposure, revealed some new findings for toxicological evaluation. In particular, we showed that EDCs with the same described in vitro mechanisms of action have different effects on the gonadal steroid balance. These results highlight the need to develop an integrative evaluation with the simultaneous measurement of EDCs and numerous steroids for good risk assessment. PMID:22526662

Quignot, Nadia; Tournier, Mikaël; Pouech, Charlène; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Barouki, Robert; Lemazurier, Emmanuel

2012-06-01

389

Cutinsomes and lipotubuloids appear to participate in cuticle formation in Ornithogalum umbellatum ovary epidermis: EM-immunogold research.  

PubMed

The outer wall of Ornithogalum umbellatum ovary and the fruit epidermis are covered with a thick cuticle and contain lipotubuloids incorporating (3)H-palmitic acid. This was earlier evidenced by selective autoradiographic labelling of lipotubuloids. After post-incubation in a non-radioactive medium, some marked particles insoluble in organic solvents (similar to cutin matrix) moved to the cuticular layer. Hence, it was hypothesised that lipotubuloids participated in cuticle synthesis. It was previously suggested that cutinsomes, nanoparticles containing polyhydroxy fatty acids, formed the cuticle. Thus, identification of the cutinsomes in O. umbellatum ovary epidermal cells, including lipotubuloids, was undertaken in order to verify the idea of lipotubuloid participation in cuticle synthesis in this species. Electron microscopy and immunogold method with the antibodies recognizing cutinsomes were used to identify these structures. They were mostly found in the outer cell wall, the cuticular layer and the cuticle proper. A lower but still significant degree of labelling was also observed in lipotubuloids, cytoplasm and near plasmalemma of epidermal cells. It seems that cutinsomes are formed in lipotubuloids and then they leave them and move towards the cuticle in epidermal cells of O. umbellatum ovary. Thus, we suggest that (1) cutinsomes could take part in the synthesis of cuticle components also in plant species other than tomato, (2) the lipotubuloids are the cytoplasmic domains connected with cuticle formation and (3) this process proceeds via cutinsomes. PMID:24627134

Kwiatkowska, Maria; Wojtczak, Agnieszka; Pop?o?ska, Katarzyna; Polit, Justyna Teresa; St?pi?ski, Dariusz; Dom?nguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

2014-09-01

390

Disrupted hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1) expression: one of the key mediator for ovarian dysfunction in polycystic ovary rat.  

PubMed

Proper follicular development is crucial for cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) maturation, ovulation and luteinisation. All these ovarian processes are regulated by finely tuned rapid tissue remodeling that involves hyaluronan and interconnecting hyaladherins-rich extracellular matrix synthesis and its breakdown by various proteinase systems like matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). Disrupted tissue remodeling machinery can result into pathophysiologies like atretic follicular cysts formation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In present study, we employ superovulated (SO) and polycystic ovary (PCO) rat models and demonstrate that on contrary to SO, PCO rat ovary illustrates abnormal follicular morphology with differential levels of various ovarian factors [like HA (hyaluronan), TSG-6 (TNF-?-stimulated gene/protein 6), PTX-3 (pentraxin-3), HABP1 (hyaluronan binding protein 1), MMP2 (matrix metalloproteinase), MT1-MMP (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase) and COX2 (Cyclooxygenase-2)] along with hyperactivities of gelatinases (like MMP9 and -2). Besides cultured COC expansion is blocked by anti-HABP1 antibody treatment showing reduced HABP1 expression. Overall, as MT1-MMP has inverse relation with HABP1 level and direct effect on MMP2 activity, the observations from current in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that disrupted ovarian HABP1 along with concurrent altered expression and hyperactivation of related MMPs can lead to abnormal follicular maturation resulting into ovarian dysfunction in PCO rat. PMID:25300617

Arif, Mohammed; Thakur, Sonu Chand; Datta, Kasturi

2015-01-01

391

Localization, characterization, and quantification of insulin-like growth factor-I-binding sites in the ewe ovary  

SciTech Connect

To assess a potential role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the ewe ovary, the presence of IGF-I receptors and IGF-I-binding proteins was studied by binding assays performed on granulosa cell suspensions, in follicular fluid, and on ovarian sections. On the ovarian sections, labeling was quantified after autoradiography by microphotometry. Competition studies with IGF-I and insulin allowed us to estimate the relative proportions of binding proteins and type I receptors in the different compartments of the ewe ovary. Our results clearly show that saturable, specific, and high affinity IGF-I receptors are present on the ovine granulosa cells. At equilibrium for both granulosa cell suspensions and frozen sections, the Kd value was close to 2 nM. IGF-I binding proteins were also present in follicular fluid and stroma, thecal, and granulosa cells. At equilibrium for follicular fluid, the Kd value was 0.91 +/- 0.27 nM (mean +/- SE). Moreover, on frozen sections, it was shown that atresia of small follicles (less than 2 mm) was accompanied by a decrease in the number of IGF-I receptors and an increase in the number of IGF-I-binding proteins on granulosa cells. By contrast, this phenomenon was not observed in large follicles. These data indicate that granulosa cells of ewe ovary possess type I receptors, and IGF-I-binding proteins may modulate IGF-I action in the process of follicular growth and atresia.

Monget, P.; Monniaux, D.; Durand, P. (INRA, Station de Physiologie de la Reproduction, Nouzilly (France))

1989-11-01

392

Increased sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to high intensity pulsed ultrasound.  

PubMed

This study comprised two repeat experiments in which Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to nominal peak intensity Im = 2500 W/cm2, 2.5 MHz, pulsed ultrasound. Cells contained in a 0.53 cm diameter chamber in 0.48 cm thick Plexiglas were exposed to 10 microseconds pulses at 200 Hz prf in 9 sites for 3 min per site for a total duration of 27 min. The -3 dB focal beamwidth was 0.115 cm at an axial distance of 4.8 cm. Analysis of the pooled data from each series of experiments showed a statistically significant increase in the mean frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in exposed compared to control cells. The results show a high degree of variability in the controls and insonated samples, which suggests that large numbers of insonations may be required in studies with SCE to reduce the high probability of missing an effect. The results of this series of experiments provide the first confirmation of an increase in SCEs following exposure to pulsed ultrasound. PMID:3176185

Barnett, S B; Miller, M W; Cox, C; Carstensen, E L

1988-01-01

393

Diamel Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Reduces Hyperinsulinaemia, Insulin Resistance, and Hyperandrogenaemia  

PubMed Central

For to determine the effect of Diamel on the insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, and sexual hormones results in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A study was carried out on 37 patients with this disorder. A triple-blind clinical trial was designed in which the Diamel food supplement was compared with a placebo. The women with reproductive ages were randomly distributed in two groups, with 18 and 19 women respectively, and they took Diamel or placebo and were followed up during 6 months with clinical and biochemical evaluation. A significant decrease in the HOMA-IR from the initial value at six months was observed in the group with Diamel. The insulin sensitivity improved considerably in this group. The rate of menstrual recovery was higher in the group with Diamel, and two patients from this group obtained pregnancy. The hormone levels shows a significant decrease in testosterone at 3 months in the group with Diamel compared with the control group. The LH also decreases in the same group when comparing the start with 6 months.We concluded that the Diamel decreases insulin resistance and improves sensitivity to this hormone in women with PCOS, with improvement in the levels of LH and testosterone. PMID:22778733

Hernández-Yero, Arturo; Santana Pérez, Felipe; Ovies Carballo, Gisel; Cabrera-Rode, Eduardo

2012-01-01

394

Isolation of cell cycle-dependent gamma ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell  

SciTech Connect

A technique for the isolation of gamma ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants is described, which uses nylon cloth replica plating and photography with dark-field illumination to directly monitor colonies for growth after gamma irradiation. Two gamma ray-sensitive mutants were isolated using this method. One of these cells (XR-1) had a two-slope survival curve: an initial steep slope and then a flattening of the curve at about 10% survival. Subsequently, it was found that this cell is sensitive to gamma irradiation in G1, early S, and late G2 phases of the cell cycle, whereas in the resistant phase (late S phase) its survival approaches that of the parental cells. The D37 in the sensitive G1 period is approximately 30 rads, compared with 300 rads of the parental cell. This mutant cell is also sensitive to killing by the DNA breaking agent, bleomycin, but is relatively insensitive to UV light and ethyl methane sulfonate, suggesting that the defect is specific for agents that produce DNA strand breakage.

Stamato, T.D.; Weinstein, R.; Giaccia, A.; Mackenzie, L.

1983-03-01

395

Isolation and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines sensitive to mitomycin C and bleomycin  

SciTech Connect

Seven Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell lines exhibiting sensitivity to anticancer drugs have been isolated by a replica-plating technique. Five of the mutants are hypersensitive to the DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C. Of these, one is also appreciably sensitive to UV light. Significant variations in their cross-sensitivity to cis-platinum(II) diammine dichloride, chlorambucil, and Adriamycin have also been observed. Two additional mutants have been isolated on the basis of sensitivity to the radiomimetic agent bleomycin. One of these shows greater than 6-fold sensitivity to bleomycin, while the other is approximately 14 times more sensitive than the parental strain to bleomycin and is also hypersensitive to a number of other DNA-damaging agents, including cis-platinum(II) diammine dichloride, chlorambucil, X-rays, and UV light. Both bleomycin-sensitive mutants also exhibit some degree of sensitivity to Adriamycin. In all cases, the cell lines have been grown in continuous culture for 3 months without evidence of reversion and should act as suitable recipients in DNA transfection experiments aimed at identifying human DNA repair genes.

Robson, C.N.; Harris, A.L.; Hickson, I.D.

1985-11-01

396

Genotoxic effects induced in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by contaminated aquatic environments.  

PubMed

The Bio-Bio river, running through one of the most important hydrographic basins in Chile, presents concentrations of some chemical agents exceeding the accepted values for continental aquatic environments. The area near to the mouth of the river is highly industrialized and the industrial effluents are discharge directly into the river, most of them without any previous treatment. This river provides the principal source of drinking water for a population of more than one million inhabitants in the region. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of liquid effluents from a cellulose industry and the surface waters of the Bio-Bio river obtained near to the river mouth in the proximity of Concepción city, a short-term bio-assay with cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was used. The frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations in metaphase, anaphase and telophase was determined at different concentrations of the liquid samples. The results show a significant increase in chromosomal damage. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations observed both in metaphase and ana-telophase is dose-related to the concentrations of liquid samples tested. The superficial water shows a significant genotoxic effect. The scope of these results is discussed and compared to results obtained in other biological models. PMID:8728834

Venegas, W; Garcia, M D

1994-01-01

397

Association of the genetic variants of luteinizing hormone, luteinizing hormone receptor and polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background High circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) level is a typical biochemical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) whose pathophysiology is still unclear. Certain mutations of LH and LH receptor (LHR) may lead to changes in bioactivity of these hormones. The aim of this study was determine the role of the LH and LHR polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of PCOS using a genetic approach. Methods 315 PCOS women and 212 controls were screened for the gene variants of LH G1052A and LHR rs61996318 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results PCOS patients had significantly more A allele frequency of LH G1052A mutations than controls (p=0.001). Within PCOS group, carriers of LH 1052A allele had lower LH (p=0.05) and higher fasting glucose levels (p=0.04). No subjects were identified with LHR rs61996318 polymorphisms. A new LHR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found without clear association with PCOS. Conclusions Results suggested LH G1052A mutation might influence PCOS susceptibility and phenotypes. PMID:22546001

2012-01-01

398

Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common female endocrinopathy, is a complex metabolic syndrome of enhanced weight gain. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate metabolic differences between normal (n=10) and PCOS (n=10) women via breath carbon isotope ratio, urinary nitrogen and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined serum metabolites. Breath carbon stable isotopes measured by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) indicated diminished (p<0.030) lipid use as a metabolic substrate during overnight fasting in PCOS compared to normal women. Accompanying urinary analyses showed a trending correlation (p<0.057) between overnight total nitrogen and circulating testosterone in PCOS women, alone. Serum analyzed by NMR spectroscopy following overnight, fast and at 2 h following an oral glucose tolerance test showed that a transient elevation in blood glucose levels decreased circulating levels of lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolic intermediates (acetone, 2-oxocaporate, 2-aminobutyrate, pyruvate, formate, and sarcosine) in PCOS women, whereas the 2 h glucose challenge led to increases in the same intermediates in normal women. These pilot data suggest that PCOS-related inflexibility in fasting-related switching between lipid and carbohydrate/protein utilization for carbon metabolism may contribute to enhanced weight gain. PMID:24765590

Whigham, Leah D.; Butz, Daniel E.; Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Cook, Mark E.; Porter, Warren P.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Markley, John L.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Abbott, David H.; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.

2014-01-01

399

Effect of glutamine limitation on the death of attached Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

The effect of glutamine depletion on the death of attached Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was investigated. Experiments were performed using an anchorage dependent CHO cell line expressing [gamma]-IFN and a second cell line obtained by transfection of that cell line with the human bcl-2 (hbcl-2). Either cell line could grow in media devoid of glutamine with minimal cell death due to endogenous glutamine synthetase activity that allowed cells to synthesize glutamine from glutamic acid in the medium. However, compared to control cultures in glutamine-containing media, the cell growth rate in glutamine-free media was slower with an increased fraction of cells distributed in the G[sub 0]/G[sub 1] phase. The slower rate of cell cycling apparently protected the cells from entering apoptosis when they were stimulated to proliferate in an environment devoid of other protective factors, such as serum or over-expressed hbcl-2. The depletion of both glutamine and glutamic acid did cause cell death, which could be mitigated by hbcl-2 over-expression.

Sanfeliu, A.; Stephanopoulos, G. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1999-07-05

400

The physiological basis of complementary and alternative medicines for polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation leading to symptoms of hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, and infertility. Multiple metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors are associated with PCOS, including insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and subclinical atherosclerosis. However, current treatments for PCOS are only moderately effective at controlling symptoms and preventing complications. This article describes how the physiological effects of major complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments could reduce the severity of PCOS and its complications. Acupuncture reduces hyperandrogenism and improves menstrual frequency in PCOS. Acupuncture's clinical effects are mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle, which, via modulation of the activity in the somatic and autonomic nervous system, may modulate endocrine and metabolic functions in PCOS. Chinese herbal medicines and dietary supplements may also exert beneficial physiological effects in PCOS, but there is minimal evidence that these CAM treatments are safe and effective. Mindfulness has not been investigated in PCOS, but it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and exert positive effects on the central and autonomic nervous systems, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and immune system, leading to reductions in blood pressure, glucose, and inflammation. In conclusion, CAM treatments may have beneficial endocrine, cardiometabolic, and reproductive effects in PCOS. However, most studies of CAM treatments for PCOS are small, nonrandomized, or uncontrolled. Future well-designed studies are needed to further evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and mechanisms of CAM treatments for PCOS. PMID:21487075

Raja-Khan, Nazia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wu, XiaoKe; Legro, Richard S

2011-07-01

401

Ultrasonic backscatter coefficient quantitative estimates from high-concentration Chinese hamster ovary cell pellet biophantoms  

PubMed Central

Previous work estimated the ultrasonic backscatter coefficient (BSC) from low-concentration (volume density?Ovary (CHO, 6.7?-?m cell radius) cell pellets. This study extends the work to higher cell concentrations (volume densities: 9.6% to 63%). At low concentration, BSC magnitude is proportional to the cell concentration and BSC frequency dependency is independent of cell concentration. At high cell concentration, BSC magnitude is not proportional to cell concentration and BSC frequency dependency is dependent on cell concentration. This transition occurs when the volume density reaches between 10% and 30%. Under high cell concentration conditions, the BSC magnitude increases slower than proportionally with the number density at low frequencies (ka??1). The concentric sphere model least squares estimates show a decrease in estimated cell radius with number density, suggesting that the concentric spheres model is becoming less applicable as concentration increases because the estimated cell radius becomes smaller than that measured. The critical volume density, starting from when the model becomes less applicable, is estimated to be between 10% and 30% cell volume density. PMID:22225068

Han, Aiguo; Abuhabsah, Rami; Blue, James P.; Sarwate, Sandhya; O'Brien, William D.

2011-01-01

402

Endogenous TRPM4-like channel in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells  

SciTech Connect

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells used in many transfection studies have been found to endogenously express channels permeable to monovalent cations, but not to divalent cations. In the presence of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, 23-pS channel with a linear current-voltage (I-V) relationship could be frequently observed in inside-out patches but not in cell-attached patches. The open probability was voltage-dependent, which is higher at positive potentials. The channel was dose-dependently activated by relatively high level of Ca{sup 2+} (EC{sub 50} = 1.04 {+-} 0.08 mM), and sensitively inhibited by 100 {mu}M ATP, ADP, AMP, and 1 mM spermine. However, ruthenium red (2 {mu}M) had no effect. Reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) supported the presence of mRNA encoding TRPM4b channel protein. Western blot assay finally confirmed the presence of this channel protein in membrane fraction of CHO cells. These results provide evidence that CHO cells express an endogenous TRPM4b-like channel, and thereby can be used as a tool to study de novo regulation/modulation of TRPM4 channel.

Yarishkin, Oleg V.; Hwang, Eun-Mi; Park, Jae-Yong; Kang, Dawon; Han, Jaehee [Department of Physiology, Institute of Health Sciences, and Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, 90 Chilam, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seong-Geun [Department of Physiology, Institute of Health Sciences, and Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, 90 Chilam, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hong149@gnu.ac.kr

2008-05-02

403

Involvement of the endogenous lectin CSL in adhesion of Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Immunochemical localization of an endogenous mannose-binding protein, the cerebellar soluble lectin (CSL; Zanetta et al., J. Neurochem. 49, 1250-1257 (1987)), in Chinese hamster ovary cells indicated its high concentration in areas of contact between cells. This suggested its role in cell adhesion. The pattern of staining differed significantly in the cells cultured in suspension from that grown as monolayer. In cells maintained for a short time as suspension, the extracellular CSL immunoreactivity was found mainly in close apposition to the plasma membrane including contact areas. In cells cultured as monolayer, extracellularly, the lectin was found both at the cell surface and in a 75-nm thick layer between two cells, apparently adhering to the cell surface through bridges. Endogenous glycoprotein ligands of CSL were present in the cultures of CHO cells, both as membrane-bound glycoproteins and as glycoprotein ligands soluble in the presence of mannose in the absence of detergent. The lectin CSL induced adhesion between these cells as evident by low concentration of anti-CSL Fab fragments inhibiting such adhesion. These data suggested that adhesion between CHO cells occurs, in part, through a glycobiological recognition system involving CSL. This mechanism should be taken into account for the interpretation of experiments of transfection in CHO cells of the genes of glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. PMID:1802725

Lehmann, S; Kuchler, S; Badache, A; Zaepfel, M; Meyer, A; Zanetta, J P

1991-12-01

404

FTO gene associates to metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated) locus has recently been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. To understand the role of the FTO gene in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1421085 (C/T) in women with PCOS (n=207) and controls (n=100) from a Central European population. The homozygous C/C genotype showed increased prevalence in PCOS patients either obese or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared to lean PCOS patients or controls (27.6%, 38.9%, 22.3%, and 16.3%, respectively). In logistic regression, this genotype strongly associated with MetS (P<0.0001, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.7) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) with P<0.0007, OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.1-28.6, independently of BMI or age, and to AUC(gluc) during OGTT (P<0.0001, alpha=0.99), indicating an influential role of the FTO gene in the glucose intolerance component of MetS. PMID:18572014

Attaoua, Redha; Ait El Mkadem, Samira; Radian, Serban; Fica, Simona; Hanzu, Felicia; Albu, Alice; Gheorghiu, Monica; Coculescu, Mihai; Grigorescu, Florin

2008-08-22

405

The Genetic Basis of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Literature Review Including Discussion of PPAR-?  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of the women of reproductive age. Familial clustering of PCOS has been consistently reported suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the development of the syndrome although PCOS cases do not exhibit a clear pattern of Mendelian inheritance. It is now well established that PCOS represents a complex trait similar to type-2 diabetes and obesity, and that both inherited and environmental factors contribute to the PCOS pathogenesis. A large number of functional candidate genes have been tested for association or linkage with PCOS phenotypes with more negative than positive findings. Lack of universally accepted diagnostic criteria, difficulties in the assignment of male phenotype, obscurity in the mode of inheritance, and particularly small sample size of the study populations appear to be major limitations for the genetic studies of PCOS. In the near future, utilizing the genome-wide scan approach and the HapMap project will provide a stronger potential for the genetic analysis of the syndrome. PMID:17389770

Unluturk, Ugur; Harmanci, Ayla; Kocaefe, Cetin; Yildiz, Bulent O.

2007-01-01

406

Role of cell death ligand and receptor system on regulation of follicular atresia in pig ovaries.  

PubMed

Several hundred thousand primordial follicles are present in the mammalian ovary, however, only a limited number develop to the pre-ovulatory stage, and then finally ovulate. The others, more than 99%, will be eliminated through a degenerative process called 'atresia'. The endocrinological regulatory mechanisms involved in follicular development and atresia have been characterized to a large extent, but the precise temporal and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of these events have remained unknown. From many recent studies, it is suggested that the apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells plays a crucial role in follicular atresia. Notably, death ligand-receptor interaction and subsequent intracellular signalling have been demonstrated to be the key mechanisms regulating granulosa cell apoptosis. In this review, we provide an overview of granulosa cell apoptosis regulated by death ligand-receptor signalling. The roles of death ligands and receptors [Fas ligand (FasL)-Fas, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha-TNF receptor (TNFR), and TNFalpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-TRAIL receptor (TRAILR)] and intracellular death-signal mediators [Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), TNF receptor 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD), caspases, apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf1), TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), and cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP), etc.] in granulosa cells will be discussed. PMID:18638134

Manabe, N; Matsuda-Minehata, F; Goto, Y; Maeda, A; Cheng, Y; Nakagawa, S; Inoue, N; Wongpanit, K; Jin, H; Gonda, H; Li, J

2008-07-01

407

Trehalose suppresses antibody aggregation during the culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

The aggregation of therapeutic antibodies during the manufacturing process is problematic because of the potential risks posed by the aggregates, such as an unexpected immune response. One of the hallmark effects of trehalose, a disaccharide consisting of two alpha-glucose units, is as a chemical chaperone with anti-aggregation activity. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a diabody-type bispecific antibody were cultured in medium containing trehalose and the aggregation of the secreted proteins during the culture process was analyzed. An analysis of the various forms of the antibody (monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregates) showed that trehalose decreased the relative content of large aggregates by two thirds. The aggregation kinetics indicated that trehalose directly inhibited the polymerization and aggregation steps in a nucleation-dependent aggregation mechanism. Moreover, both specific and volumetric antibody production were increased in CHO cells cultured in trehalose-containing medium. Thus, the addition of trehalose to recombinant CHO cell cultures would offer a practical strategy for quality improvement in the production of therapeutic antibodies. PMID:24315529

Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Tatsuzawa, Miki; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Shirai, Akihiro; Maseda, Hideaki; Omasa, Takeshi

2014-05-01

408

Effect of ovary lipid from Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) on brain monoamines in rats.  

PubMed

In our previous experiments with rats, ovary lipid from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) (OLS) was shown to have a mitigating effect on anxiety and/or fear in elevated T-maze tests. This suggests that OLS has some effect on the central nervous system (CNS) of rats. Thus, we performed experiments to examine the status of CNS in rats given OLS. The effect of OLS on chronic stress was also examined at the same time. The feed for control rats used oil and fat that have the same energy percentages for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the same n-6/n-3 ratio as OLS. As a result, rats given OLS for 28 days had lower serotonin levels in various brain areas regardless of stress application, showing that OLS affected the serotonin nervous system. From this, it was inferred that the ability of OLS to mitigate anxiety and/or fear resulted from its action on CNS, especially the serotonin nervous system. Substances other than the essential fatty acids may have been responsible for the action of OLS on monoamines and the metabolites. The effect of OLS on CNS, especially the serotonin nervous system, suggests that OLS may suppress anxiety. PMID:17611354

Ookawa, Katumasa; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Shida, Eiji; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Ooba, Tomoko; Matumoto, Toru; Hokari, Yoshinori; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

2007-06-01

409

Granulosa cell tumor of ovary: A clinicopathological study of four cases with brief review of literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare ovarian malignancy having good prognosis in comparison with other epithelial tumors. The study aims to collect data of all granulosa cell tumors diagnosed in ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bangalore over the last 3 years and to describe the patient profile, ultrasonographic and various histopathological features. Materials and Methods: A total of 4 granulosa cell tumors were diagnosed in ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bangalore during the period from June 2010 to June 2013. The patient's age, clinical manifestations, radiological and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results: All 4 patients were diagnosed as adult granulosa cell tumor, three of four cases were in premenopausal age group and one case was in perimenopausal age. The clinical manifestations were menorrhagia and abdominal pain. Ultrasonographically, 2 cases of granulosa cell tumors were both solid and cystic and one case each was either solid or cystic. Histologically, variety of patterns like diffuse, trabecular, cords, spindle and clear cells were noted. Both Call-Exner bodies and nuclear grooves were observed in all cases. All four cases showed simple hyperplasia without atypia endometrial findings. Follow up on all patients revealed no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is a rare ovarian entity. The important prognostic factor is staging of the tumor. Staging and histopathology helps in prediction of survival. Also diligent endometrial pathology has to be sorted to rule out endometrial carcinoma.

Vani, B. R.; Geethamala, K.; Geetha, R. L.; Srinivasa, Murthy V.

2014-01-01

410

An evaluation of simultaneous GnRH and cloprostenol treatment of dairy cattle with cystic ovaries  

PubMed Central

In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, 75 cows with ovarian cysts were treated with the synthetic gonadotropin releasing hormone, gonadorelin acetate (GnRH). Forty-two of these cows were simultaneously treated with cloprostenol (CP), and the remaining 33 cows received sterile saline. Milk progesterone (P4) was measured at treatment and two days later. Clinical response 30 days after treatment was determined by palpation per rectum, and estrus and breeding dates were recorded up to 90 days after treatment. Cows were examined for pregnancy by palpation per rectum 40 days or more after breeding. Milk progesterone levels two days after treatment were significantly lower and the 30-day clinical response rate was significantly higher in the GnRH + CP group than in the GnRH group. Intervals to first estrus and to conception, proportion in heat by day 21 after treatment, and pregnancy rate by 90 days did not differ significantly between the groups. The same relationships held in a subset of cows with P4?1 ng/mL at treatment. Fewer cows in the GnRH + CP group became pregnant by day 90 after treatment, but this difference was not significant. These results suggest that simultaneous GnRH and cloprostenol treatment of all cows with cystic ovaries cannot be recommended at this time. PMID:17423558

Dinsmore, R. Page; White, Maurice E.; English, Paul B.

1990-01-01

411

Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Mutant Having a Mutation in Elongation Factor-2  

PubMed Central

Retroviral insertional mutagenesis provides an effective forward genetic method for identifying genes involved in essential cellular pathways. A Chinese hamster ovary cell line mutant resistant to several bacterial ADP-ribosylating was obtained by this approach. The toxins used catalyze ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2), block protein synthesis, and cause cell death. Strikingly, in the CHO PR328 mutant cells, the eEF-2 substrate of these ADP-ribosylating toxins was found to be modified, but the cells remained viable. A systematic study of these cells revealed the presence of a structural mutation in one allele of the eEF-2 gene. This mutation, Gly717Arg, is close to His715, the residue that is modified to become diphthamide. This Arg substitution prevents diphthamide biosynthesis at His715, rendering the mutated eEF-2 non-responsive to ADP-ribosylating toxins, while having no apparent effect on protein synthesis. Thus, CHO PR328 cells are heterozygous, having wild type and mutant eEF-2 alleles, with the latter allowing the cells to survive even in the presence of ADP-ribosylating toxins. Here, we report the comprehensive characterization of these cells. PMID:20140093

Gupta, Pradeep K.; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H.

2010-01-01

412

Cigarette smoking, nicotine levels and increased risk for metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at risk for metabolic syndrome, which may be exacerbated by smoking. We hypothesized that smoking worsens androgen levels and the metabolic profile in women with PCOS. PCOS smokers (n = 47) and non-smokers (n = 64) and control smokers (n = 30) and non-smokers (n = 28), aged 18–45 years, underwent anthropomorphic measurements, pelvic ultrasound and blood sampling. Smokers had higher cotinine (801 ± 83 versus <11 nmol/L; smokers versus non-smokers, respectively; p < 0.001) and nicotine levels (37 ± 4 versus <12 µmol/L; p < 0.001). Triglyceride levels were higher in women with PCOS who smoked compared to non-smokers (1.55 ± 0.18 versus 0.95 ± 0.08 mmol/L; p < 0.001), even when adjusted for BMI. Metabolic syndrome was more common in smokers with PCOS compared to non-smokers with PCOS and smokers who were controls (28.6 versus 3.6%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in reproductive parameters including androgen levels. Cotinine (r = 0.3; p < 0.001) and nicotine levels (r = 0.2; p = 0.005) correlated with triglycerides. Nicotine levels also correlated with pulse rate (r = 0.2; p = 0.02) and waist:hip ratio (WHR; r = 0.2; p = 0.02). Taken together, smoking may worsen the already high risk for metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. PMID:23656383

Pau, Cindy Ta; Keefe, Candace C.; Welt, Corrine K.

2014-01-01

413

Metformin does not enhance ovulation induction in clomiphene resistant polycystic ovary syndrome in clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Aims To determine whether metformin pretreatment has beneficial effects in clomiphene resistant infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in an infertility clinic. Methods This was a randomized placebo controlled double-blind crossover study of 3 months metformin (1500 mg day?1)/placebo, followed by 3 months metformin/placebo together with clomiphene (50–100 mg for 5 days) for three cycles in clomiphene resistant women with PCOS. The primary outcomes were restoration of spontaneous menses, ovulation induction (spontaneous or clomiphene induced) and pregnancy. Secondary endpoints were changes in biochemical parameters related to androgens and insulin. Results Twelve women completed the metformin arm and 14 the placebo arm. Spontaneous menstruation resumed in five metformin treated patients and in six placebo treated women, P = 0.63. No women given metformin spontaneously ovulated, although one patient given placebo did, P = 0.30. There was no difference in the efficacy of clomiphene between the two groups with ovulation being induced in five (out of 12) metformin treated women and four (out of 14) placebo treated women, P = 0.63. Pregnancy occurred in three (out of 12) women given metformin and two (out of 14) women given placebo, P = 0.59. Conclusions Metformin is not always beneficial when given to clomiphene resistant infertile women with PCOS in clinical practice. PMID:11994052

Sturrock, N D C; Lannon, B; Fay, T N

2002-01-01

414

Essential actions of melatonin in protecting the ovary from oxidative damage.  

PubMed

Free radicals and other reactive species are involved in normal ovarian physiology. However, they are also highly reactive with complex cellular molecules (proteins, lipids, and DNA) and alter their functions leading to oxidative stress. Oxidative damage may play a prominent role in the development of disorders that considerably influence female fertility. Melatonin, because of its amphiphilic nature that allows for crossing morphophysiological barriers, is an effective antioxidant for protecting macromolecules against oxidative stress caused by reactive species. The balance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants within the follicle seems to be critical to the function of the oocyte and granulosa cells and evidence has accumulated showing that melatonin is involved in the protection of these cells. Melatonin appears to have varied functions at different stages of follicle development, oocyte maturation, and luteal stage. Melatonin concentration in the growing follicle may be an important factor in avoiding atresia, because melatonin in the follicular fluid reduces apoptosis of critical cells. Melatonin also has protective actions during oocyte maturation reducing intrafollicular oxidative damage. An association between melatonin concentrations in follicular fluid and oocyte quality has been reported; this would allow a preovulatory follicle to fully develop and provide a competent oocyte for fertilization. The functional role of reactive species and the cytoprotective properties of melatonin on the ovary from oxidative damage are summarized in this brief review. PMID:25107629

Cruz, M H C; Leal, C L V; Cruz, J F; Tan, D X; Reiter, R J

2014-10-15

415

Statins: Do they have potential in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Many women of reproductive age are affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous endocrinopathy characterized by androgen excess, chronic oligo-anovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology. In addition, PCOS is often associated with insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress which, on one hand, lead to endothelial dysfunction and dyslipidemia with subsequent cardiovascular sequelae and, on the other hand, to hyperplasia of the ovarian theca compartment with resultant hyperandrogenism and anovulation. While traditionally statins have been used to treat dyslipidemia by blocking HMG-CoA reductase, the rate limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis; in fact, they possess pleiotropic actions, resulting in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. Statins offer a novel therapeutic approach to PCOS in that they address the dyslipidemia associated with the syndrome, as well as hyperandrogenism/hyperandrogenemia. These actions may be due to an inhibition of the effects of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia. Evidence to date, both in vitro and in vivo, suggests that statins have potential in the treatment of PCOS; however, further clinical trials are needed before they can be considered a standard of care in the medical management of this common endocrinopathy. PMID:18181091

Kodaman, Pinar H.; Duleba, Antoni J.

2010-01-01

416

Recovery of Chinese hamster ovary host cell proteins for proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

Identification and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell protein (HCP) impurities by proteomic techniques can aid bioprocess design and lead to more efficient development and improved biopharmaceutical manufacturing operations. Recovery of extracellular CHO HCP for proteomic analysis is particularly challenging due to the relatively low protein concentration and complex composition of media. In this article, we report the development of optimized protocols that improve proteome capture for CHO HCP. Eleven precipitation protocols were screened for protein recovery and optimized for a subset of precipitants by a design of experiments (DOE) approach. Because total protein recovery does not fully replicate a proteomics experiment, or detect non-protein agents that may interfere with proteomic methods, a subset of precipitation conditions were compared by two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, with optimized recovery shown to differ between the two proteomic methods. This work demonstrates broadly applicable methods that can be applied as initial steps to optimize sample preparation of any sample type for proteomic analysis, and presents optimized precipitation protocols for extracellular CHO HCP recovery, which can vary appreciably between gel-based and shotgun proteomic methods. PMID:24039059

Valente, Kristin N; Schaefer, Amy K; Kempton, Hannah R; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Lee, Kelvin H

2014-01-01

417

Quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Inadequate reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is associated with biased estimates of treatment effects. The reporting quality of RCTs involving patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the reporting quality of RCTs involving patients with PCOS using a standardized tool based on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. Methods We searched PubMed database for English-language RCTs involving patients with PCOS. Quality of reporting was assessed using a 24-item questionnaire based on the revised CONSORT checklist. Reporting was evaluated overall, and for pre- and post-CONSORT periods. RCTs on PCOS associated with fertility and non-fertility disturbances were also evaluated separately. Results Nine of the 24 items were reported in less than 50% of the studies, while a significant improvement (P < 0.05) was detected in 12 of 24 items (50%) over the two CONSORT periods. The RCTs on PCOS with reference to fertility seem to have adhered better to CONSORT statement than RCTs not associated to fertility. Conclusion There is empirical evidence of suboptimal reporting quality of RCTs in PCOS. Endorsement of the CONSORT statement may optimize the reporting quality and enhance the validity of research. PMID:19930576

2009-01-01

418

Modulatory Effect of Gonadotropins on Rats' Ovaries after Nandrolone Decanoate Administration: A Stereological Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) which influences the ovarian structure and function. We assessed the effects of ND on the ovarian volume, number of primordial follicles, and level of hormones and also evaluated the modulatory effects of gonadotropins on the histopathological changes imposed by the administration of ND. Methods: Six groups of Sprague-Dawley adult female rats (n=30) were used. The experimental rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 and 10 mg/kg ND with or without human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), 10 IU weekly for one month. The vehicle and control rats were administered olive oil and saline, respectively, for the same period of time. The ovarian volume and number of primordial follicles were estimated by stereological methods. Results: The results showed a decrease in the ovarian volume, number of primordial follicles, and level of gonadotropins in the ND-treated animals compared with the vehicle groups. In the rats treated with 3 mg/kg of ND with hMG, an increase in the ovarian volume and number of primordial follicles was shown as compared to the rats treated with the same dose of ND without hMG. Conclusion: ND exerted detrimental effects on the dimensions of the ovary, number of follicles, and level of sex hormones. However, hMG, prevented the harmful effects of ND (at least in a low dose) on the ovarian follicles. PMID:24453393

Bordbar, Hossein; Mesbah, Fakhroddin; Talaei, Tahereh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Mirkhani, Hossein

2014-01-01

419

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Aim. To compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women. Materials and Methods. The study included 88 eyes of 44 women (group 1) with PCOS and 84 eyes of 42 healthy women (group 2). In all subjects, the RNFL and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In addition, visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive errors, central macular thickness (CMT), central corneal thickness (CCT), and excavation of optic disc were evaluated in all subjects. Results. Mean values of GCC, IOP, VA, CMT, CCT, and refractive errors were similar between the 2 groups. The average RNFL, superior average RNFL, and inferior average RNFL thicknesses were higher in subjects with PCOS than in healthy subjects (P = 0.003, P = 0.012, and P = 0.009), respectively. Conclusion. The average RNFL, superior average RNFL, and inferior average RNFL thicknesses in women with PCOS were significantly higher than in healthy women. PMID:24377044

Demir, Mehmet; Guven, Dilek; Koc, Arzu; Ozdemir, Savas; Can, Efe

2013-01-01

420

Monitoring of autophagy in Chinese hamster ovary cells using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Recently, autophagy, which is a degradative process, has drawn attention as an anti-cell death engineering target in addition to apoptosis in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell cultures for enhanced production of therapeutic proteins. Appropriate autophagy monitoring methods, that are suitable for long term CHO cell cultures, are necessary in order to investigate the culture conditions that affect the autophagy pathway and to select appropriate engineering targets for autophagy control. Herein, detailed protocols for autophagy monitoring methods based on flow cytometry are provided using the GFP-LC3-overexpressing CHO DG44 host cell line or MDC-like molecules in rCHO cells grown as an adherent culture with serum-containing medium or suspension culture with serum-free medium. Furthermore, combined with the apoptosis detection based on the Annexin V-PS interaction, the simultaneous detection of autophagy and apoptosis is also described. It is anticipated that the protocols described herein will assist in the fast, high throughput monitoring of autophagy that can support other existing autophagy assays. PMID:22142658

Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Gyun Min

2012-03-01