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1

Microarray analysis of Foxl2 mediated gene regulation in the mouse ovary derived KK1 granulosa cell line: Over-expression of Foxl2 leads to activation of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Foxl2 transcription factor is required for ovarian function during follicular development. The mechanism of Foxl2 regulation of this process has not been elucidated. Our approach to begin to understand Foxl2 function is through the identification of Foxl2 regulated genes in the ovary. METHODS: Transiently transfected KK1 mouse granulosa cells were used to identify genes that are potentially regulated

Jean M Escudero; Jodi L Haller; Colin M Clay; Kenneth W Escudero

2010-01-01

2

Retinoic acid derived from the fetal ovary initiates meiosis in mouse germ cells.  

PubMed

Meiotic initiation of germ cells at 13.5 dpc (days post-coitus) indicates female sex determination in mice. Recent studies reveal that mesonephroi-derived retinoic acid (RA) is the key signal for induction of meiosis. However, whether the mesonephroi is dispensable for meiosis is unclear and the role of the ovary in this meiotic process remains to be clarified. This study provides data that RA derived from fetal ovaries is sufficient to induce germ cell meiosis in a fetal ovary culture system. When fetal ovaries were collected from 11.5 to 13.5 dpc fetuses, isolated and cultured in vitro, germ cells enter meiosis in the absence of mesonephroi. To exclude RA sourcing from mesonephroi, 11.5 dpc urogenital ridges (UGRs; mesonephroi and ovary complexes) were treated with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) to block retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) activity in the mesonephros and the ovary. Meiosis occurred when DEAB was withdrawn and the mesonephros was removed 2 days later. Furthermore, RALDH1, rather than RALDH2, serves as the major RA synthetase in UGRs from 12.5 to 15.5 dpc. DEAB treatment to the ovary alone was able to block germ cell meiotic entry. We also found that exogenously supplied RA dose-dependently reduced germ cell numbers in ovaries by accelerating the entry into meiosis. These results suggest that ovary-derived RA is responsible for meiosis initiation. PMID:22886539

Mu, Xinyi; Wen, Jing; Guo, Meng; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Ge; Wang, Zhengpin; Wang, Yijing; Teng, Zhen; Cui, Yan; Xia, Guoliang

2013-03-01

3

Agro-morphological characterization of ovary culture-derived plants of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants derived from unpollinated ovary culture of ten rice genotypes showed significant variability in agro-morphological\\u000a characteristics. The ovary-derived plant (H1) populations were completely haploid, doubled haploid or haploid-doubled haploid\\u000a mixture. Haploids had very drastic reduction in plant height, panicle length, grain length, breadth and number and spikelet\\u000a fertility (0.0%–2.1%). Doubled haploids from the hybrid of UPRI 95–121 UPRI 95–165 were

Li Rongbai; M. P. Pandey; S. K. Pandey; D. K. Dwivedi

1999-01-01

4

Characterization of an oxygen-tolerant cell line derived from Chinese hamster ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To study the cellular defense mechanism against oxygen toxicity, an oxygen-tolerant cell line from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) was obtained by multistep adaptation to increased O2 levels. The hyperoxia-adapted (HA) cells were able to proliferate under an atmosphere of 99% O2\\/1% CO2, an O2 tension lethal to the parental (control) cells. When grown under normoxic conditions (20% O2\\/1% CO2\\/79%

P. van der Valk; J. J. P. Gille; A. B. Oostra; E. W. Roubos; T. Sminia; H. Joenje

1985-01-01

5

On the series $\\\\pmb{\\\\sum_{k = 1}^\\\\infty \\\\binom{3k}{k}^{-1}k^{-n} x^k}$  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the series $\\\\sum_{k = 1}^\\\\infty\\u000a\\\\binom{3k}{k}^{-1}k^{-n}x^k$. Obtaining some integral representations of them,\\u000awe evaluated the sum of them explicitly for $n = 0, 1, 2$.

Necdet Batir

2005-01-01

6

On the series $\\\\pmb{\\\\sum_{k = 1}^\\\\infty \\\\binom{3k}{k}^{-1}k^{-n} x^k}$  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the series $\\\\sum_{k = 1}^\\\\infty \\\\binom{3k}{k}^{-1}k^{-n}x^k$. Obtaining some integral representations of them, we evaluated the sum of them explicitly for $n = 0, 1, 2$.

Necdet Batir

2005-01-01

7

Dedifferentiated follicular granulosa cells derived from pig ovary can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

Transdifferentiation is the conversion of cells from one differentiated cell type into another. How functionally differentiated cells already committed to a specific cell lineage can transdifferentiate into other cell types is a key question in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In the present study we show that porcine ovarian follicular GCs (granulosa cells) can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Pure GCs isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 20% FBS (fetal bovine serum) proliferated and dedifferentiated into fibroblast-like cells. We referred to these cells as DFOG (dedifferentiated follicular granulosa) cells. Microarray analysis showed that DFOG cells lost expression of GC-specific marker genes, but gained the expression of osteogenic marker genes during dedifferentiation. After osteogenic induction, DFOG cells underwent terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro. Furthermore, when DFOG cells were transplanted subcutaneously into SCID mice, these cells formed ectopic osteoid tissue. These results indicate that DFOG cells derived from GCs can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that GCs provide a useful model for studying the mechanisms of transdifferentiation into other cell lineages in functionally differentiated cells.

Oki, Yoshinao; Ono, Hiromasa; Motohashi, Takeharu; Sugiura, Nobuki; Nobusue, Hiroyuki; Kano, Koichiro

2012-01-01

8

Pigment epithelium-derived factor, insulin sensitivity, and adiposity in polycystic ovary syndrome: impact of exercise training.  

PubMed

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is upregulated in obese rodents and is involved in the development of insulin resistance (IR). We aim to explore the relationships between PEDF, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular risk factors in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and weight-matched controls and to examine the impact of endurance exercise training on PEDF. This prospective cohort intervention study was based at a tertiary medical center. Twenty obese PCOS women and 14 non-PCOS weight-matched women were studied at baseline. PEDF, cardiometabolic markers, detailed body composition, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were performed and measures were repeated in 10 PCOS and 8 non-PCOS women following 12 weeks of intensified aerobic exercise. Mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) was 31.7% lower (P = 0.02) in PCOS compared to controls (175.6 ± 96.3 and 257.2 ± 64.3 mg.m(-2).min(-1)) at baseline, yet both PEDF and BMI were similar between groups. PEDF negatively correlated to GIR (r = -0.41, P = 0.03) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = -0.46, P = 0.01), and positively to cardiovascular risk factors, systolic (r = 0.41, P = 0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.47, P = 0.01) and triglycerides (r = 0.49, P = 0.004). The correlation with GIR was not significant after adjusting for fat mass (P = 0.07). Exercise training maintained BMI and increased GIR in both groups; however, plasma PEDF was unchanged. In summary, PEDF is not elevated in PCOS, is not associated with IR when adjusted for fat mass, and is not reduced by endurance exercise training despite improved insulin sensitivity. PEDF was associated with cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting PEDF may be a marker of cardiovascular risk status. PMID:22641183

Joham, Anju E; Teede, Helena J; Hutchison, Samantha K; Stepto, Nigel K; Harrison, Cheryce L; Strauss, Boyd J; Paul, Eldho; Watt, Matthew J

2012-05-29

9

Cytogenetic, morphologic and oncogene analysis of a cell line derived from a heterologous mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A cell line was established from a mixed mullerian tumor of the ovary and designated LN1. Histopathologic analysis of the\\u000a fresh tumor specimen demonstrated a highly aneuploid heterologous tumor comprised of undifferentiated mesodermal components\\u000a with carcinomatous cells present as a smaller population. Long-term in vitro culture resulted in the establishment of a cell line that exhibits an epithelial-like morphology and

Jeanne L. Becker; Peter R. Papenhausen; Raymond H. Widen

1997-01-01

10

Comparative study of Chinese hamster ovary cell versus Escherichia coli-derived bone morphogenetic protein-2 using the critical-size supraalveolar peri-implant defect model.  

PubMed

Background: Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been introduced for spine, long bone, and craniofacial indications. Escherichia coli- (E. coli) derived rhBMP-2 displays comparable efficacy to CHO cell-derived rhBMP-2 in vitro and in small-animal models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of E. coli-derived rhBMP-2 compared to the benchmark CHO cell-derived rhBMP-2 using an established large-animal model. Methods: Contralateral, critical-size supraalveolar peri-implant defects in six adult male Hound Labrador mongrel dogs received CHO cell- or E. coli-derived rhBMP-2 (0.2 mg/mL) in an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier. In each quadrant, three dental implants were placed. A titanium mesh device was used to support space provision. The animals received fluorescent bone markers for qualitative evaluations. Animals were euthanized at 8 weeks for histopathologic and histometric evaluation. Results: Clinical healing included significant swelling, but none of the animals experienced wound dehiscences. CHO cell- and E. coli-derived rhBMP-2 supported comparable bone formation (new bone area, 35.8 ± 3.6 versus 30.1 ± 2.2 mm(2); bone density, 31.8% ± 1.6% versus 35.6% ± 2.5%; and osseointegration, 32.9% ± 7.4% versus 33.7% ± 8.1%) without statistically significant differences between treatments. Newly formed immature delicate trabecular bone in fibrovascular marrow filled the space underneath the titanium mesh and extended coronally above the mesh. Seroma formation was frequently observed. There were no discernable qualitative histologic differences between treatments. Conclusion: CHO cell- and E. coli-derived rhBMP-2 in an ACS carrier appear equally effective at inducing local bone formation in support of dental implant osseointegration. PMID:22612368

Lee, Jaebum; Lee, Eui Nam; Yoon, James; Chung, Sung-Min; Prasad, Hari; Susin, Cristiano; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

2012-05-21

11

Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone and its derivatives (alpha and beta zearalenol) on apoptosis and proliferation of cultured granulosa cells from equine ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives, alpha and beta-zearalenol (alpha and beta-ZOL), synthesized by genera Fusarium, often occur as contaminants in cereal grains and animal feeds. The importance of ZEA on reproductive disorders is well known in domestic animals species, particularly in swine and cattle. In the horse, limited data are available to date on the influence of dietary exposure to ZEA on reproductive health and on its in vitro effects on reproductive cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZEA and its derivatives, alpha and beta-ZOL, on granulosa cells (GCs) from the ovaries of cycling mares. Methods The cell proliferation was evaluated by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test after 3 days exposure at different concentrations of ZEA and its derivatives (from 1 × 10-7 to 0.1 microM). The apoptosis induction was evaluated after 1 day exposure, by DNA analysis using flow cytometry. Results An increase in cell proliferation with respect to the control was observed in the presence of ZEA at 1 × 10-3 and 1 × 10-4 microM and apoptosis was induced by all mycotoxins at different concentrations. Conclusion The simultaneous presence of apoptosis and proliferation in GC cultures treated with zearalenones could indicate that these mycotoxins could be effective in inducing follicular atresia. These effects of zearalenones may result from both direct interaction with oestrogen-receptors as well as interaction with the enzymes 3alpha (beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endogenous steroid hormones. These cellular disturbances, described for the first time in equine GCs cultured in vitro, could be hypothesized as referred to reproductive failures of unknown ethiology in the mare.

Minervini, Fiorenza; Giannoccaro, Alessandra; Fornelli, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Minoia, Paolo; Visconti, Angelo

2006-01-01

12

Effect of pH, temperature, and salt on the stability of Escherichia coli- and Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived IgG1 Fc.  

PubMed

The circulation half-life of a potential therapeutic can be increased by fusing the molecule of interest (an active peptide, the extracellular domain of a receptor, an enzyme, etc.) to the Fc fragment of a monoclonal antibody. For the fusion protein to be a successful therapeutic, it must be stable to process and long-term storage conditions, as well as to physiological conditions. The stability of the Fc used is critical for obtaining a successful therapeutic protein. The effects of pH, temperature, and salt on the stabilities of Escherichia coli- and Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO)-derived IgG1 Fc high-order structure were probed using a variety of biophysical techniques. Fc molecules derived from both E. coli and CHO were compared. The IgG1 Fc molecules from both sources (glycosylated and aglycosylated) are folded at neutral pH and behave similarly upon heat- and low pH-induced unfolding. The unfolding of both IgG1 Fc molecules occurs via a multistep unfolding process, with the tertiary structure and C(H)2 domain unfolding first, followed by changes in the secondary structure and C(H)3 domain. The acid-induced unfolding of IgG1 Fc molecules is only partially reversible, with the formation of high-molecular weight species. The CHO-derived Fc protein (glycosylated) is more compact (smaller hydrodynamic radius) than the E. coli-derived protein (aglycosylated) at neutral pH. Unfolding is dependent on pH and salt concentration. The glycosylated C(H)2 domain melts at a temperature 4-5 °C higher than that of the aglycosylated domain, and the low-pH-induced unfolding of the glycosylated Fc molecule occurs at a pH ~0.5 pH unit lower than that of the aglycosylated protein. The difference observed between E. coli- and CHO-derived Fc molecules primarily involves the C(H)2 domain, where the glycosylation of the Fc resides. PMID:23078371

Li, Cynthia H; Narhi, Linda O; Wen, Jie; Dimitrova, Mariana; Wen, Zai-qing; Li, Jenny; Pollastrini, Joseph; Nguyen, Xichdao; Tsuruda, Trace; Jiang, Yijia

2012-12-04

13

Characterization of the Inhibitor of KappaB Kinase (IKK) Complex in Granulosa Cell Tumors of the Ovary and Granulosa Cell Tumor-Derived Cell Lines.  

PubMed

Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (GCT) are a distinct, hormonally active subset of ovarian cancers. Although it has recently been shown that ?97 % of all adult GCT harbor a novel somatic missense mutation in the FOXL2 gene, given its almost universal presence, it does not explain differences in tumor stage and/or recurrence. The nuclear factor kappaB (NF?B) transcription factor is constitutively active in two human GCT-derived cell lines, COV434 and KGN, which are useful in vitro models to investigate juvenile and adult GCT, respectively. This study aimed to determine the molecular basis and pathogenetic significance of this aberrant NF?B activity. Selective chemical inhibitors were used to target candidate components of the pathway. The constitutive activity was blocked by two independent inhibitors of I?B? phosphorylation, suggesting that aberrant activation occurs upstream of this point. NF?B inhibition resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability and a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. Inhibitors of earlier components of the pathway were without effect. Two independent inhibitors of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK)?, a catalytic subunit of the NF?B activation complex, were unable to inhibit the constitutive activity, but surprisingly also ligand-induced activity. These findings suggest a central role for IKK?; however, no mutations or altered expression of the IKK?, IKK?, or IKK? genes was observed in the cell lines or in a panel of human GCT samples. This study highlights unresolved issues in understanding the pathogenesis of GCT and in the use of the COV434 and KGN cells lines as model systems. PMID:23674259

Jamieson, Stacey; Fuller, Peter J

2013-05-15

14

Non-radioactive mRNA fingerprinting to visualise gene expression in mature ovaries of Brachiaria hybrids derived from B. brizantha, an apomictic tropical forage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apomixis is an asexual mode of reproduction by seed, which is found in a number of families of higher plants. During apomictic processes, both meiosis and egg cell fertilisation are omitted making offspring exact genetic replicas of the mother plant. To gain an insight into the molecular basis of apomictic reproduction, gene expression in mature ovaries containing reduced and unreduced

Olivier Leblanc; Ian Armstead; Silvina Pessino; Juan Pablo A Ortiz; Clive Evans; Cacilda do Valle; Michael D Hayward

1997-01-01

15

Organogenesis of the Ovary  

PubMed Central

The general perspective of ovary organogenesis is that the ovary is the default organ which develops in the absence of testis-promoting factors. Testis formation, on the other hand, is a male-specific event promoted by active components that override the default ovarian process. However, when comparing the sex determination mechanism among different vertebrate species, it is apparent that this default view of ovary formation can only be applied to mammals. In species such as reptiles and birds, ovary formation is an active process stimulated by estrogen. Remnants of this estrogen-dominant pathway are still present in marsupials, a close relative of eutherian mammals, like humans and mice. Although initial formation of the mammalian ovary has become strictly regulated by genetic components and is therefore independent of estrogen, the feminizing effect of estrogen regains its command in adult ovaries. When estrogen production, or its signaling, is inhibited, transdifferentiation of ovarian tissues to testis structures occur in adult females. Taken together, these observations prompt us to reconsider the process of ovary organogenesis as the default organ and question if testis development is actually the default pathway.

Ditewig, Amy C

2005-01-01

16

Proteomics and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder of heterogeneous etiology. Proteomics techniques have been used for elucidating the physiopathology of PCOS, yet the proteins identified so far were rarely the same across tissues and studies. The present review discusses the current challenges in the application of proteomics to the study of PCOS. A well-defined research design and an appropriate selection of study populations, samples and proteomic platforms are essential in clinical proteomics. Furthermore, the findings derived from proteomic approaches should be validated by complementary techniques, and the reproducibility of the results has ideally to be confirmed by different studies. Only when meeting these requirements, the proteins identified by proteomic techniques should be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to define specific molecular phenotypes of PCOS and their possible role in the metabolic and hormonal abnormalities characteristic of this syndrome. PMID:24087928

Insenser, María; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

2013-10-03

17

Microscopic anatomy of the ovary of Alouatta caraya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microscopic structure of theAlouatta caraya ovary is studied in different ages and reproductive stages. The most significant feature seems to be the presence in adult\\u000a ovaries of abundant glandular interstitial tissue which occupies both the cortex and medulla. It seems to be derived from\\u000a the theca interna of atretic follicles. Discrete luteinized masses are present in the medulla in

Juan Alberto Claver; Irene von Lawzewitsch; Orestes Jorge Colillas

1984-01-01

18

Integrins in the ovary.  

PubMed

Integrins are the major receptors mediating adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Following ligand binding, conformational changes of integrins induce the recruitment of multiple signaling and scaffolding proteins that connect integrin tails to the actin cytoskeleton and permit activation of signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration. In the ovary, extracellular matrix components present in the follicular basement membrane, around follicular cells, and in the follicular fluid participate in the regulation of follicular development, and a role of integrins in this process is strongly suggested. We discuss available data on integrin expression in ovary, integrin function in granulosa cells, and the possible involvement of integrins in follicular growth, atresia, and luteinization. We also discuss the potential role of oocyte integrins as receptors for sperm ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) in fertilization and the cooperation of integrins with proteinases in regulating proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion of ovarian surface epithelium cells in ovarian tumor development. PMID:16944422

Monniaux, Danielle; Huet-Calderwood, Clotilde; Le Bellego, Frédérique; Fabre, Stéphane; Monget, Philippe; Calderwood, David A

2006-09-01

19

Primary osteosarcoma of ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary osteosarcoma originating from the ovary is an exceedingly rare, highly malignant tumor. Only a few cases have been\\u000a reported in the past few decades. We describe a 50-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with a large abdominal mass.\\u000a The clinical diagnosis was malignant ovarian cancer. Her disease was aggressive; she had no response to systemic chemotherapy\\u000a and died within 1

Shamima Yeasmin; Kentaro Nakayama; Masako Ishibashi; Atsuko Katagiri; Kouji Iida; Atsushi Manabe; Toru Nabika; Naomi Nakayama; Kohji Miyazaki

2009-01-01

20

“Secondary” Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularities are the most common endocrine symptoms in premenopausal women. The vast majority\\u000a of these women suffer from the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is defined as a state of “gonadotropin-dependent functional\\u000a hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation” in which no distinct autonomous source of androgen secretion is identified. PCOS is\\u000a a chronic disorder characterized by specific clinical, endocrine, and

Gregory Kaltsas; George Chrousos

21

Ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus  

SciTech Connect

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, together with dissection and light microscopy, have produced heretofore unavailable structural detail of the ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus. Structural and functional interrelationships among developing follicles and other histological elements, particularly as they might relate to vascularization of follicles, oocyte development, and ovulation, are described and discussed. Mature eggs, ovulated into the ovarian lumen, accumulate in the posterior ovisac region of the ovary prior to oviposition. This ovisac region is thin-walled and apparently nongerminal. The temporary retention of ovulated eggs permits cyclical oviposition even though oogenesis and ovulation are asynchronous. The histological differences between the ovisac and the anterior ovigerous region of the ovary are described. The lumenal epithelium of the ovisac displays a localized population of unusual cells with long cytoplasmic extensions. The ultrastructure of these cells suggests that they might function in the transport of ovulated eggs into the oviduct and/or in secreting the substance (jelly) which forms the surface coat of extruded eggs.

Brummett, A.R. (Oberlin Coll., OH); Dumont, J.N.; Larkin, J.R.

1982-01-01

22

Chinese hamster ovary K1 host cell enables stable cell line development for antibody molecules which are difficult to express in DUXB11-derived dihydrofolate reductase deficient host cell.  

PubMed

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are often produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Three commonly used CHO host cells for generating stable cell lines to produce therapeutic proteins are dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) positive CHOK1, DHFR-deficient DG44, and DUXB11-based DHFR deficient CHO. Current Genentech commercial full-length antibody products have all been produced in the DUXB11-derived DHFR-deficient CHO host. However, it has been challenging to develop stable cell lines producing an appreciable amount of antibody proteins in the DUXB11-derived DHFR-deficient CHO host for some antibody molecules and the CHOK1 host has been explored as an alternative approach. In this work, stable cell lines were developed for three antibody molecules in both DUXB11-based and CHOK1 hosts. Results have shown that the best CHOK1 clones produce about 1 g/l for an antibody mAb1 and about 4 g/l for an antibody mAb2 in 14-day fed batch cultures in shake flasks. In contrast, the DUXB11-based host produced ?0.1 g/l for both antibodies in the same 14-day fed batch shake flask production experiments. For an antibody mAb3, both CHOK1 and DUXB11 host cells can generate stable cell lines with the best clone in each host producing ?2.5 g/l. Additionally, studies have shown that the CHOK1 host cell has a larger endoplasmic reticulum and higher mitochondrial mass. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 29:980-985, 2013. PMID:23606666

Hu, Zhilan; Guo, Donglin; Yip, Shirley S M; Zhan, Dejin; Misaghi, Shahram; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy Y

2013-04-18

23

Protein tyrosine kinase expression in the porcine ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various growth factor receptors contain intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, indicating that protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) play an important role in signal transduction pathways for cell proliferation and differentiation. To identify oocyte-derived factors which control follicle cells as well as oocyte-controlling factors produced by follicle cells, we examined the expression of genes which contain the PTK domain in the porcine ovary,

Yoshinori Okamura; Akira Myoumoto; Noboru Manabe; Nobuyuki Tanaka; Hitoshi Okamura; Manabu Fukumoto

2001-01-01

24

Antioxidant treatment during preservation of bovine ovaries increased the development potential of embryos.  

PubMed

The overnight preservation of bovine ovaries would be highly useful in the subsequent harvest of viable oocytes for reproductive study. The present study aimed to optimize conditions for overnight preservation of bovine ovaries by examining the effects of temperature, solution and supplementation. In Experiment 1, the rate of development to the blastocyst stage of oocytes derived from ovaries preserved at 15°C was higher than that at either 5 or 25°C (p < 0.05). In Experiment 2, the rate of development to the blastocyst stage of oocytes derived from ovaries preserved in University of Wisconsin solution was higher than when PBS or saline was used (p < 0.05). In Experiment 3, oocytes preserved in saline supplemented with 0.3 mM glutathione (GSH) exhibited an increase in the rate of blastocyst formation compared with oocytes supplemented with 0 or 3 mM GSH (p < 0.05). In Experiment 4, supplementation with 10 ?M epigallocatechin gallate during ovary preservation increased the rate of blastocyst formation (p < 0.05). The blastocysts derived from ovaries stored in saline supplemented with GSH at 15°C for 24 h were shown to develop into normal offsprings following transfer to recipient heifers. Our studies indicate that bovine IVM/IVF embryos derived from ovaries preserved in saline supplemented with an antioxidant at 15°C for 24 h can successfully develop to the blastocyst stage and result in offspring. PMID:20444311

Nagao, Yoshikazu; Harada, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Mari; Igarashi, Akane; Ooshima, Yuki; Kato, Yoku

2010-05-06

25

[Evolution of xenografts of embryonic gonads and juvenile ovaries from Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw, transplanted into Triturus alpestris Laur].  

PubMed

Gonad primordium of Ambystoma mexicanum when grafted at tail-bud stage on Triturus alpestris is indefinately tolerated. Testis or ovaries derived from those grafted embryonic gonads follow their differentiaion and reach sexual maturity. Axolotl juvenile ovaries transplanted in Triturus alpestris are also tolerated; the ovocytes achieve the entire vitellogenesis but are not able to be laid. PMID:809199

Houillon, C

1975-07-21

26

[Resistant ovary syndrome. Case report].  

PubMed

Patients with primary amenorrhea, sexual infantilism and elevated pituitary gonadotropins are frequently diagnosed with hypogonadism hypergonadotropic and suspected ovarian failure, secondary to a chromosomal abnormality, intrinsic ovarian failure or altered receptors for gonadotropins, mainly FSH (ovarian resistance). We report the case of a 16-year-old, admitted to the endocrinology clinic for primary amenorrhea and lack of development of secondary sexual characteristics. A complete physical examination revealed: height of 1.58 m and 57 kg weight, with incipient breasts (Tanner I), sparse pubic and axillary hair (Tanner I). The ultrasound reported small uterus and ovaries. Laboratory studies reported high levels of FSH and LH, estradiol and testosterone levels before puberty, prolactin, TSH, T3 and T4 normal. Normal female karyotype. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed which showed two ovarian slips; biopsy was taken and reported both abundant primordial follicles and spindle cell stroma without evidence of primary and antral follicles, which integrates the diagnosis of resistant ovary syndrome. PMID:21966839

Morgan Ortiz, Fred; Meza Mendoza, Cuauhtémoc; Beltrán Lugo, Isabel; Caballero Rodríguez, Beatriz; Contreras Soto, Juan Omar

2011-07-01

27

Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many of the pregnancies in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be uneventful, there are several complications\\u000a of pregnancy associated with maternal PCOS. These include an increased prevalence of early pregnancy loss (EPL), gestational\\u000a diabetes (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (PET\\/PIH) and the birth of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) babies.\\u000a Increased risk of EPL has been attributed to obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, elevated

Roy Homburg

28

Pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6 to 15% of reproductive age women worldwide. It is associated with increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, and birth of small for gestational age infant. Many studies on issues relating to pathophysiology and management of these complications have been published recently. These issues are being reviewed here using relevant articles retrieved from Pubmed database, especially from those published in recent past.

Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

2013-01-01

29

Epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma\\/hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (LGMFS\\/HSCT) and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEFS) have come to be recognized as distinctive types of fibrosarcoma. Because their pathological features seem to sometimes overlap, it may be that these tumors belong to a similar entity. We report an aggressive sarcoma with unusual histology arising from the right ovary of a

Kazuo Watanabe; Toshimitsu Suzuki

2004-01-01

30

Obesity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryPolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of fertile age. Obesity is encountered in 30–70% of PCOS-affected women, and its presence significantly modifies both clinical and laboratory expression of the syndrome. Obesity increases the risk of co-morbidities associated with PCOS, such as impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and arterial hypertension.

Jana Vrbikova; Vojtech Hainer

2009-01-01

31

Smad signalling in the ovary  

PubMed Central

It has now been a decade since the first discovery of the intracellular Smad proteins, the downstream signalling molecules of one of the most important growth factor families in the animal kingdom, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. In the ovary, several TGF-beta superfamily members are expressed by the oocyte, granulosa and thecal cells at different stages of folliculogenesis, and they signal mainly through two different Smad pathways in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Defects in the upstream signalling cascade molecules, the ligands and receptors, are known to have adverse effects on ovarian organogenesis and folliculogenesis, but the role of the individual Smad proteins in the proper function of the ovary is just beginning to be understood for example through the use of Smad knockout models. Although most of the different Smad knockouts are embryonic lethal, it is known, however, that in Smad1 and Smad5 knockout mice primordial germ cell development is impaired and that Smad3 deficient mice harbouring a deletion in exon 8 exhibit impaired folliculogenesis and reduced fertility. In this minireview we discuss the role of Smad structure and function in the ovarian context.

Kaivo-oja, Noora; Jeffery, Luke A; Ritvos, Olli; Mottershead, David G

2006-01-01

32

Smad signalling in the ovary.  

PubMed

It has now been a decade since the first discovery of the intracellular Smad proteins, the downstream signalling molecules of one of the most important growth factor families in the animal kingdom, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. In the ovary, several TGF-beta superfamily members are expressed by the oocyte, granulosa and thecal cells at different stages of folliculogenesis, and they signal mainly through two different Smad pathways in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Defects in the upstream signalling cascade molecules, the ligands and receptors, are known to have adverse effects on ovarian organogenesis and folliculogenesis, but the role of the individual Smad proteins in the proper function of the ovary is just beginning to be understood for example through the use of Smad knockout models. Although most of the different Smad knockouts are embryonic lethal, it is known, however, that in Smad1 and Smad5 knockout mice primordial germ cell development is impaired and that Smad3 deficient mice harbouring a deletion in exon 8 exhibit impaired folliculogenesis and reduced fertility. In this minireview we discuss the role of Smad structure and function in the ovarian context. PMID:16611366

Kaivo-oja, Noora; Jeffery, Luke A; Ritvos, Olli; Mottershead, David G

2006-04-12

33

Hormone Secretion by the Human Ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The secretory function of both human ovaries was studied simultaneously by comparing the concentrations of several steroids in the effluent blood from the two ovaries with their concentrations in the peripheral blood. As expected, progesterone and estradiol emerged as important secretory products. In both the preovulatory and postovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle, significant amounts of 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione

G. Mikhail

1970-01-01

34

Polycystic Ovaries in Women With Gestational Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the occurrence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study of ultrasonographic findings of ovaries in 31 women with GDM and 30 healthy controls matched according to maternal age and body mass index (BMI). Women who presented evidence of impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy were excluded from the

L Anttila; K Karjala; T.-A Penttilä; K Ruutiainen; U Ekblad

1998-01-01

35

Pre-anthesis ovary development determines genotypic differences in potential kernel weight in sorghum.  

PubMed

Kernel weight is an important factor determining grain yield and nutritional quality in sorghum, yet the developmental processes underlying the genotypic differences in potential kernel weight remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the stage in development at which genetic effects on potential kernel weight were realized, and to investigate the developmental mechanisms by which potential kernel weight is controlled in sorghum. Kernel development was studied in two field experiments with five genotypes known to differ in kernel weight at maturity. Pre-fertilization floret and ovary development was examined and post-fertilization kernel-filling characteristics were analysed. Large kernels had a higher rate of kernel filling and contained more endosperm cells and starch granules than normal-sized kernels. Genotypic differences in kernel development appeared before stamen primordia initiation in the developing florets, with sessile spikelets of large-seeded genotypes having larger floret apical meristems than normal-seeded genotypes. At anthesis, the ovaries for large-sized kernels were larger in volume, with more cells per layer and more vascular bundles in the ovary wall. Across experiments and genotypes, there was a significant positive correlation between kernel dry weight at maturity and ovary volume at anthesis. Genotypic effects on meristem size, ovary volume, and kernel weight were all consistent with additive genetic control, suggesting that they were causally related. The pre-fertilization genetic control of kernel weight probably operated through the developing pericarp, which is derived from the ovary wall and potentially constrains kernel expansion. PMID:19228817

Yang, Zongjian; van Oosterom, Erik J; Jordan, David R; Hammer, Graeme L

2009-02-19

36

Pre-anthesis ovary development determines genotypic differences in potential kernel weight in sorghum  

PubMed Central

Kernel weight is an important factor determining grain yield and nutritional quality in sorghum, yet the developmental processes underlying the genotypic differences in potential kernel weight remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the stage in development at which genetic effects on potential kernel weight were realized, and to investigate the developmental mechanisms by which potential kernel weight is controlled in sorghum. Kernel development was studied in two field experiments with five genotypes known to differ in kernel weight at maturity. Pre-fertilization floret and ovary development was examined and post-fertilization kernel-filling characteristics were analysed. Large kernels had a higher rate of kernel filling and contained more endosperm cells and starch granules than normal-sized kernels. Genotypic differences in kernel development appeared before stamen primordia initiation in the developing florets, with sessile spikelets of large-seeded genotypes having larger floret apical meristems than normal-seeded genotypes. At anthesis, the ovaries for large-sized kernels were larger in volume, with more cells per layer and more vascular bundles in the ovary wall. Across experiments and genotypes, there was a significant positive correlation between kernel dry weight at maturity and ovary volume at anthesis. Genotypic effects on meristem size, ovary volume, and kernel weight were all consistent with additive genetic control, suggesting that they were causally related. The pre-fertilization genetic control of kernel weight probably operated through the developing pericarp, which is derived from the ovary wall and potentially constrains kernel expansion.

Yang, Zongjian; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Jordan, David R.; Hammer, Graeme L.

2009-01-01

37

Cardiometabolic aspects of the polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome. PMID:22829562

Randeva, Harpal S; Tan, Bee K; Weickert, Martin O; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

2012-07-24

38

Cardiometabolic Aspects of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic perturbations, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. In general, women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease at an older age. However, women with PCOS, as compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without the syndrome, appear to have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, possibly resulting in a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and finally cardiovascular disease and mortality. Further alterations in PCOS include an increased prevalence of sleep apnea, as well as various changes in the secretion and/or function of adipokines, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory factors and gut hormones, all of them with direct or indirect influences on the complex signaling network that regulates metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy homeostasis. Reviews on the cardiometabolic aspects of PCOS are rare, and our knowledge from recent studies is expanding rapidly. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge, focusing on the alterations of cardiometabolic factors in women with PCOS. Further insight into this network of factors may facilitate finding therapeutic targets that should ameliorate not only ovarian dysfunction but also the various cardiometabolic alterations related to the syndrome.

Tan, Bee K.; Weickert, Martin O.; Lois, Konstantinos; Nestler, John E.; Sattar, Naveed; Lehnert, Hendrik

2012-01-01

39

Ovaries of Tubificinae (Clitellata, Naididae) resemble ovary cords found in Hirudinea (Clitellata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the ovaries and oogenesis was studied in three species of three genera of Tubificinae. The paired ovaries\\u000a are small, conically shaped structures, connected to the intersegmental septum between segments X and XI by their narrow end.\\u000a The ovaries are composed of syncytial cysts of germ cells interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges (ring canals) and surrounded\\u000a by follicular

Anna Z. Urbisz; Mariola Krodkiewska; Piotr ?wi?tek

2010-01-01

40

Linkage of regulators of TGF-? activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Although not often discussed, the ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) show all the hallmarks of increased TGF-? activity, with increased amounts of fibrous tissue and collagen in the ovarian capsule or tunica albuginea and ovarian stroma. Recent studies suggest that PCOS could have fetal origins. Genetic studies of PCOS have also found linkage with a microsatellite located in intron 55 of the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 3. Fibrillins regulate TGF-? bioactivity in tissues by binding latent TGF-? binding proteins. We therefore examined expression of fibrillins 1–3, latent TGF-? binding proteins 1–4, and TGF-? 1–3 in bovine and human fetal ovaries at different stages of gestation and in adult ovaries. We also immunolocalized fibrillins 1 and 3. The results indicate that TGF-? pathways operate during ovarian fetal development, but most important, we show fibrillin 3 is present in the stromal compartments of fetal ovaries and is highly expressed at a critical stage early in developing human and bovine fetal ovaries when stroma is expanding and follicles are forming. These changes in expression of fibrillin 3 in the fetal ovary could lead to a predisposition to develop PCOS in later life.—Hatzirodos, N., Bayne, R. A., Irving-Rodgers, H. F., Hummitzsch, K., Sabatier, L., Lee, S., Bonner, W., Gibson, M. A., Rainey, W. E., Carr, B. R., Mason, H. D., Reinhardt, D. P., Anderson, R. A., Rodgers, R. J. Linkage of regulators of TGF-? activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bayne, Rosemary A.; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Sabatier, Laetitia; Lee, Sam; Bonner, Wendy; Gibson, Mark A.; Rainey, William E.; Carr, Bruce R.; Mason, Helen D.; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Anderson, Richard A.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

2011-01-01

41

Does Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Affect Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... notices & mechanisms Peer Review Review of the scientific & technical merit of grant applications Contacts for NICHD Funding ... D. A. (2005). Polycystic ovary syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine , 352, 1223–1236. [top] Boomsma, C. ...

42

Catecholaminergic innervation of the chicken ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innervation of the chicken ovary was investigated with special emphasis on adrenergic nerves in the follicular wall. Quantitative determinations of catecholamines (CA) by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection (hplc-ed) revealed 15.4±3.3 ng\\/mg protein of norepinephrine (NE) and 3.14 ng\\/mg protein of epinephrine (E), with even larger amounts in the cranial part of the ovary close to the adrenal

K. Unsicker; F. Seidel; H.-D. Hofmann; T. H. Müller; R. Schmidt; A. Wilson

1983-01-01

43

Metformin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility due to anovulation, affects 4–7% of women). Etiology of PCOS remains largely unknown, familial aggregation of cases suggests genetic susceptibility to the disorder. Though genes involved remain unknown, recent evidence points to a gene of the insulin receptor. Genes implicated in ovarian follicular development may also play a role. A fundamental aspect of the syndrome seems to be a defect in insulin metabolism. There is consistent evidence that increase of body weight may favour a more severe hyperandrogenism. Treatment of PCOS has been mostly symptomatic. Only recently has the use of insulinomimetic or insulin sensitizing agents provided an option to treat the presumed underlying cause of this disorder, which is insulin resistance. Metformin appears to improve risk factors for cardiovascular disease in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, indicating that its use could be associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease in patients with PCOS. The use of metformin in hyperinsulinemic women with PCOS improved the lipid profile, including decreases in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration.

Omran, Maha Yousef Soliman

2007-01-01

44

Epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Recently, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma/hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (LGMFS/HSCT) and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEFS) have come to be recognized as distinctive types of fibrosarcoma. Because their pathological features seem to sometimes overlap, it may be that these tumors belong to a similar entity. We report an aggressive sarcoma with unusual histology arising from the right ovary of a 44-year-old woman. The tumor was 12 cm in size, and there were multiple distant metastases to lung, kidney, stomach and bones. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of broad sheets or variously sized nodules of polygonal epithelioid cells accompanied by hyalinous stroma, resembling SEFS. The hyalinous nodules surrounded by the palisading epithelioid cells, as seen in a rosette of HSCT, were scattered. Between these nodules, spindle cells arranged in fascicles or whorled bundles, mimicking LGMFS, proliferated. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses revealed fibroblastic differentiation of epithelioid cells and the myofibroblastic nature of the spindle tumor cells. We think the present tumor is a distinctive epithelioid fibrosarcoma with the combined features of SEFS and LGFMS/HSCT, suggesting their intimate relationship. PMID:15322876

Watanabe, Kazuo; Suzuki, Toshimitsu

2004-08-19

45

[Polycystic ovary syndrome and pregnancy].  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine metabolic dysfunction closely associated with insulin resistance and obesity, which predisposes to pregnancy complications and prenatal programming of the offspring. The aim of this review is to report our experience in PCOS patients who became pregnant and were followed during the whole pregnancy. Firstly, we analyzed the effect of pregnancy on PCOS pathophysiology and secondly the role of PCOS in pregnancy outcomes. Regarding the firstpoint, during normal pregnancy a progressive insulin resistance, serum lipid changes and an increase in androgen levels is observed, which is exacerbated in the PCOS condition. This adverse intrauterine environment could have a prenatal programming effect with detrimental consequences for female or male fetuses. Regarding the second point, PCOS is associated with an increased risk for maternal complications such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Moreover, these adverse pregnancy outcomes are more frequently associated with an increase in low birth weight and high birth weight newborns. According to our clinical experience, PCOS patients who became pregnant and were not treated with metformin during the whole pregnancy, showed a higher prevalence of gestational diabetes and SGA newborns, which was improved with metformin treatment. In summary, pregnancy may constitute a period in which an abnormal condition is established or aggravated in the fetus of a PCOS mother. Moreover, PCOS enhanced adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. PMID:23282707

Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Ladrón de Guevara, Amanda; Villarroel, Ana Claudia; Preisler, Jessica; Echiburú, Bárbara; Recabarren, Sergio

2012-07-01

46

Transport of equine ovaries for assisted reproduction.  

PubMed

Use of assisted reproduction to obtain foals from valuable mares post-mortem typically necessitates holding of ovaries during shipment to a laboratory. The present study evaluated whether holding ovaries briefly at a warm ( approximately 30 degrees C) temperature improves meiotic and developmental competence of oocytes, as determined after maturation in vitro and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Ovaries were packaged in pairs in insulated containers, and held either at 24 or 25-35 degrees C for 4h, followed by cooling. Ovaries in both treatments were held for either a short (mean, 7-7.4h) or long (mean, 20.6-20.7h) duration before oocyte recovery. Control ovaries were collected en masse at the abattoir. The ovary temperature in this treatment slowly decreased to approximately 27 degrees C; oocyte recovery was performed after 3.5-7h total holding. There was no effect of temperature on oocyte meiotic or developmental competence within either treatment time period. Oocytes in the short duration holding group had similar meiotic competence to controls, but had a significantly decreased rate (P<0.05) of blastocyst development. Oocytes in the long duration holding group had decreased (P<0.05) meiotic competence and blastocyst development compared to controls. These findings indicate that storage of equine ovaries for only 7h may decrease blastocyst development, and that longer storage reduces both rate of oocyte maturation and blastocyst development. Further work is needed to determine if there is a critical time before 7h post-mortem by which equine oocytes should be recovered to maximize developmental competence. PMID:17888596

Ribeiro, B I; Love, L B; Choi, Y H; Hinrichs, K

2007-08-15

47

Polycystic ovary and gonadoblastoma in Turner's syndrome.  

PubMed

Turner's syndrome (TS) is characterized by typical facial features, short stature, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, streak gonads, infertility, hearth and kidney malformations. Typical karyotype is 45,X0; however, 6% of TS have mosaic patterns including Y chromosome or fragments of Y. This karyotype is a risk factor of developing a dysgerminoma in dysgenic gonads. Furthermore, rare cases of polycystic ovary are described in young-adult patients with TS. We describe the clinical case of a 12-year-old girl with TS treated with GH who showed a good response to treatment. She developed an ovary with histological polycystic pattern and a contralateral gonadoblastoma in the streak gonad. Laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed, with a good prognosis. Of remark is the opportunity to carry out gonadectomy in prepubertal age in girls with TS and Y chromosome material. This is a rare precocious case of polycystic ovary in TS, with different evolution in the two gonads with different histological differentiation. PMID:17947845

Maggio, M C; Liotta, A; De Grazia, E; Cimador, M; Di Pace, R; Corsello, G

2007-08-01

48

Position of follicles in normal human ovary during definitive histogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Follicular growth in the mammalian ovary follows a geographically determined pattern, but no exhaustive data about their spatial localization in the cortex of human ovary exists. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the spatial position of the follicles during human ovarian definitive histogenesis using morphometric methods. Subjects: Ovaries removed from four fetuses, five newborns and one

Chiarella Sforza; Laura Vizzotto; Virgilio F. Ferrario; Antonino Forabosco

2003-01-01

49

Ovary cord structure and oogenesis in Hirudo medicinalis and Haemopis sanguisuga (Clitellata, Annelida): remarks on different ovaries organization in Hirudinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Hirudo medicinalis and Haemopis sanguisuga, two convoluted ovary cords are found within each ovary. Each ovary cord is a polarized structure composed of germ cells\\u000a (oogonia, developing oocytes, nurse cells) and somatic cells (apical cell, follicular cells). One end of the ovary cord is\\u000a club-shaped and comprises one huge apical cell, numerous oogonia, and small cysts (clusters) of interconnected

Piotr ?wi?tek

2008-01-01

50

Polycystic ovary syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of up to 10%. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed, generally centered around the features of hyperandrogenism and\\/or hyperandrogenemia, oligo-ovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology. Insulin resistance is present in a majority of cases, with compensatory hyperinsulinemia contributing to hyperandrogenism via stimulation of ovarian

Mark O. Goodarzi; Daniel A. Dumesic; Gregorio Chazenbalk; Ricardo Azziz

2011-01-01

51

Insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in humans, affecting approximately 7–8% of women of reproductive age. Despite the criteria adopted, PCOS is considered to be a predominantly hyperandrogenetic syndrome and the evaluation of metabolic parameters and insulin sensitivity is not mandatory. Most women with PCOS also exhibit features of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin

Aldo Galluzzo; Marco Calogero Amato; Carla Giordano

2008-01-01

52

Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female reproductive endocrine disorders. It is a complex disorder that leads to, among other things, irregular ovulation or anovulation. Weight loss as a strategy to reduce hirsutism has been demonstrated to be effective by several authors in PCOS women. Weight loss, through diet and exercise, improves health in a much

Sajal Gupta; Lauren Metterle; Puja Thakkar; Nilopher Surti; Anjali Chandra; Ashok Agarwal

2009-01-01

53

Obesity and the polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic oligo-anovulation. However, many features of the metabolic syndrome are inconsistently present in the majority of women with PCOS. Approximately 50% of PCOS women are overweight or obese and most of them have the abdominal phenotype. Obesity may play a pathogenetic role in the development of the syndrome

A Gambineri; C Pelusi; V Vicennati; U Pagotto; R Pasquali

2002-01-01

54

Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5–10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms

Johanna S. Archer; R. Jeffrey Chang

2004-01-01

55

Ovaries of Tubificinae (Clitellata, Naididae) resemble ovary cords found in Hirudinea (Clitellata)  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructure of the ovaries and oogenesis was studied in three species of three genera of Tubificinae. The paired ovaries are small, conically shaped structures, connected to the intersegmental septum between segments X and XI by their narrow end. The ovaries are composed of syncytial cysts of germ cells interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges (ring canals) and surrounded by follicular cells. The architecture of the germ-line cysts is exactly the same as in all clitellate annelids studied to date, i.e. each cell in a cyst has only one ring canal connecting it to the central, anuclear cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. The ovaries found in all of the species studied seem to be meroistic, i.e. the ultimate fate of germ cells within a cyst is different, and the majority of cells withdraw from meiosis and become nurse cells; the rest continue meiosis, gather macromolecules, cell organelles and storage material, and become oocytes. The ovaries are polarized; their narrow end contains mitotically dividing oogonia and germ cells entering the meiosis prophase; whereas within the middle and basal parts, nurse cells, a prominent cytophore and growing oocytes occur. During late previtellogenesis/early vitellogenesis, the oocytes detach from the cytophore and float in the coelom; they are usually enveloped by the peritoneal epithelium and associated with blood vessels. Generally, the organization of ovaries in all of the Tubificinae species studied resembles the polarized ovary cords found within the ovisacs of some Euhirudinea. The organization of ovaries and the course of oogenesis between the genera studied and other clitellate annelids are compared. Finally, it is suggested that germ-line cysts formation and the meroistic mode of oogenesis may be a primary character for all Clitellata.

Urbisz, Anna Z.; Krodkiewska, Mariola

2010-01-01

56

Metastatic urachal carcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman had undergone a partial cystectomy for a cystic mass at the dome of the urinary bladder in 1997. The pathological diagnosis was a urachal mucinous cystadenoma with borderline malignancy. Twelve years later, multiple masses were noted on the uterus, ovaries and abdominal wall. She underwent debulking surgery, including a total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, infracolic omentectomy, appendectomy, colon mass removal and abdominal wall mass removal. Remnants of the tumor were seeded throughout the abdominal cavity. The pathological evaluation confirmed metastatic urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma in both ovaries, the abdominal wall, the colon mass, the uterosacral ligament and the bladder. Adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin was administered, which showed stable disease. She is now undergoing second-line chemotherapy. PMID:21794003

Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Chel Hun; Bae, Duk-Soo; Park, Se Hoon; Hong, Sung-Ran; Lee, Je-Ho

2011-07-27

57

Stockpiling of transitional and classic primary follicles in ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Recently, we proposed an oocyte-growth differentiation factor-9 hypothesis that predicts alterations in the initial stages of folliculogenesis in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ovaries. Here, we test this hypothesis by scoring the composition of follicles in normal and PCOS ovaries. Follicles were classified as primordial, transitional primary, classic primary, secondary, and Graafian. A total of 2274 follicles were scored. The total number of growing follicles was significantly greater in PCOS ovaries than normal, but the number of nongrowing primordial follicles did not differ. Consequently, the increase in growing follicles in PCOS cannot be explained by increased primordial follicle recruitment. Differential counts showed that the number of growing follicles at each stage of development was significantly greater: PCOS had 2.7-fold more primary, 1.8-fold more secondary, and 2-fold more Graafian follicles than normal. The greatest effect was on the classic primary follicles where the number was almost 5-fold greater in PCOS ovaries. The absence of apoptosis in normal and PCOS preantral follicles argues that the increase in growing follicles in PCOS cannot be explained by changes in atresia. We conclude, therefore, that primary follicle growth is abnormally slow in PCOS and the dynamics are reflected in a stockpiling of classic primary follicles. PMID:15531477

Maciel, Gustavo A R; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Benda, Jo Ann; Markham, Sanford M; Hensinger, Krista; Chang, R Jeffrey; Erickson, Gregory F

2004-11-01

58

Ultrasonography of the uterus and ovaries.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography is the most frequently used imaging investigation in the assessment of the female genital tract. Most often the uterus and ovaries are evaluated with the help 2D transabdominal or endovaginal ultrasonography. The interpretation of the ultrasonographic data in order to establish the diagnosis of the main uterine and ovarian pathologies requires information about the examination technique and proper knowledge of the female genital tract ultrasound anatomy. PMID:21894299

Mihu, Dan; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela

2011-09-01

59

Chronic Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The more immediate\\u000a benefits have been amply demonstrated and include improvement in acne, hirsutism, alopecia, as well as regulation of abnormal\\u000a cycles with the potential for preventing endometrial hyperplasia and, subsequently, cancer. In addition, OCPs provide protection\\u000a against pregnancy, especially if other

Shahla Nader

60

Polycystic ovary syndrome and its developmental origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in\\u000a women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS-like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH)\\u000a hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased\\u000a abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with

Daniel A. Dumesic; David H. Abbott; Vasantha Padmanabhan

2007-01-01

61

Statins, Oxidative Stress, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction, and altered ovarian\\u000a morphology. Typically, women with PCOS also have a broad range of metabolic changes including hyperinsulinemia, increased\\u000a oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and elevation of several growth factors and cytokines. Oxidative stress,\\u000a proinflammatory cytokines, and hyperinsulinemia may significantly contribute to excessive growth of the ovarian theca-interstitial\\u000a compartment

Pinar H. Kodaman; Antoni J. Duleba

62

Pathogenesis of Hyperandrogenism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgen excess (AE) is an important, even essential feature of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and arises primarily\\u000a from ovarian AE, although a hyperactivity of adrenocortical function and adrenal androgen (AA) excess are present in a significant\\u000a number of patients. Increased ovarian theca cell function, and possibly number, and augmented expression of steroidogenic\\u000a enzymes have been demonstrated in PCOS. Increased

Wendy Y. Chang; Ricardo Azziz

63

Environmental Factors in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent disorder that is still not well understood. Genetic predisposition is important,\\u000a but neonatal, prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal factors participate in its clinical expression. In this chapter we will\\u000a review these factors and the evidence that supports causal association with the development of PCOS. Unfortunately, little\\u000a evidence exists for many of these factors. Obesity

Marie-France Hivert; Jean-Patrice Baillargeon

64

Lipid Abnormalities in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex reproductive disorder with the consequent clinical and metabolic derangements.\\u000a In the natural disease course, an increased cardiovascular risk has to be anticipated in a metabolically unstable condition.\\u000a \\u000a Among risk factors, dyslipidemia is certainly the most persistent with high prevalence. Consequently, it is reasonable to\\u000a conclude that women with PCOS may indeed be at

Djuro Macut

65

Overexpressed Human Metallothionein IIA Gene Protects Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells from Killing by Alkylating Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-II_A gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-II_A, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT

Bernd Kaina; Horst Lohrer; Michael Karin; Peter Herrlich

1990-01-01

66

Value of inhibin in the identification of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibins are peptide hormones that participate in the regulation of the pituitary-gonadal feedback system and are selectively expressed by cells of sex cord—stromal derivation. To determine the efficacy of this marker for distinguishing granulosa cell tumors, 134 primary and metastatic lesions of the ovary were evaluated for expression of the alpha-subunit of inhibin in routinely processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. A

Richard H Hildebrandt; Robert V Rouse; Teri A Longacre

1997-01-01

67

The role of ovarian surface epithelium in folliculogenesis during fetal development of the bovine ovary: a histological and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Although many aspects of ovarian differentiation have been established, comparatively little is known about prenatal follicle formation and differentiation of bovine ovaries. The objective of this investigation was to study the role of the surface epithelium during the development of germ cell nests, germ cell cords and follicle formation in the fetal bovine ovary. Associated important proliferation and apoptotic features were further investigated. Additionally, the expression pattern of the S100 protein was detected. A strong increase of mitotic figures was detected in the surface epithelium, germ cell nests and germ cell cords of ovaries with a crown-rump length (CRL) of 13.0-58.0 cm. Oocytes were positively stained with S100 in bovine ovaries from fetuses with a CRL of 21.0 cm. The staining intensity enhanced parallel to increasing oocyte and follicle sizes during the ovary development. In later stages, a strong staining for S100 was observed in healthy oocytes in contradistinction to atretic oocytes where no expression of the S100 protein could be found. In conclusion, increasing mitosis index of surface epithelium cells, as well as oogonia directly beneath the surface epithelium, in combination with open surface connection during stages from a CRL of 11.0-94.0 cm of bovine fetal ovaries could play an important role in the period of time of ongoing folliculogenesis and derivation of granulosa cells. Additionally, S100-positive oocytes in primordial and later follicle stages joined by a high rate of Ki67-positive index in surrounding granulosa cells indicate that in the oocytes the S100 protein can perhaps be a useful marker for intact oocytes in bovine ovaries. PMID:23571709

Kenngott, R A M; Vermehren, M; Ebach, K; Sinowatz, F

2013-04-04

68

Cracking open cell death in the Drosophila ovary  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful yet simple system with only a few cell types. Cell death in the ovary can be induced in response to multiple developmental and environmental signals. These cell deaths occur at distinct stages of oogenesis and involve unique mechanisms utilizing apoptotic, autophagic and perhaps necrotic processes. In this review, we summarize recent progress characterizing cell death mechanisms in the fly ovary.

Pritchett, Tracy L.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; McCall, Kimberly

2010-01-01

69

Anatomicohistological characteristics of the ovary of the coypu (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Using histological, histochemical and macroscopic and microscopic measurement techniques, the macroscopic and microscopic structures of coypu ovaries were studied in sexually mature virgin females. The mature ovaries of the coypu were ovoid or elongated bodies, not encapsulated, covered by a single layer of epithelium. They had a parenchyma formed by follicles at different stages of evolution and true and accessory corpora lutea. The interstitial tissue was a prominent and permanent structure in the ovaries. Some ovaries contained a few rete ovarii in the hilus. PMID:10386002

Felipe, A; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

1999-05-01

70

Lipid and fatty acid composition of ovaries from wild fish and ovaries and eggs from captive fish of white sea bream ( Diplodus sargus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of ovaries from wild white sea bream and ovaries and eggs of captive white sea bream were investigated to estimate the fatty acid requirements of this species. The total lipid (TL) content in wild fish ovaries was similar to that found in ovaries and eggs from captive fish. The general pattern of the fatty acid distribution

Juana Rosa Cejas; Eduardo Almansa; Jose Enrique Villamandos; Pilar Bad??a; Ana Bolaños; Antonio Lorenzo

2003-01-01

71

Clinical implications of metastases to the ovary.  

PubMed

Predictive factors for ovarian metastases were analyzed in 313 autopsy cases of women dying of malignancy. Genital, hematopoietic, brain tumors, and double primaries were excluded. Ovarian metastases were found in 60 of 313 (19.2%) cases. The primary sites of origin were stomach (18 cases), breast (13), pancreas (7), bile duct (7), large intestine (4), kidney (3), liver (2), lung (1), and other (5). The percentages of ovarian metastasis in each primary site were 50% (3/6) in the kidney, 38.3% (18/47) in the stomach, 30.8% (4/13) in the large intestine, 22.9% (13/57) in the breast, 22.6% (7/31) in the bile duct, 19.4% (7/36) in the pancreas, 5.4% (2/37) in the liver, and 3.4% (1/29) in the lung. Seventy-five percent (75%) of ovaries with metastasis were 5 cm or less in the greatest dimension. Seventy-eight percent (78%) of ovarian metastases were bilateral. Fifty-one percent (51%) of the involved ovaries were cystic. Twenty-four percent (24%) of the metastasis were occult in which microscopic disease was present in normal appearing ovaries. The mean age of death in the cases with ovarian metastasis was 53.8 +/- 16.8 years. This was significantly younger than the mean age without ovarian metastasis that mainly was attributable to the younger ages for breast and bile duct cancer. The number of other extraovarian metastatic sites for positive ovarian cases was significantly greater than for the negative ovarian cases (7.6 +/- 2.4 and 5.8 +/- 2.5, respectively). This difference was dominant in gastric and bile duct cancers. The other metastatic sites that accompanied ovarian metastases were the adrenal gland in gastric cancer, the spleen and small intestine in breast cancer, and the adrenal gland and colon in bile duct cancer. The frequency of peritoneal dissemination was essentially the same between cases with positive and negative ovarian metastasis. Scirrhous adenocarcinoma of the stomach more commonly metastasized to the ovary than any other stomach histological type. These findings suggest that although the impact upon outcome of bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy at the initial operation is unknown, the discovery of ovarian metastases in a large proportion of patients may dramatically alter initial management in patients otherwise thought to have only local disease. PMID:7557597

Fujiwara, K; Ohishi, Y; Koike, H; Sawada, S; Moriya, T; Kohno, I

1995-10-01

72

Lipid Cell Tumor of the Ovary  

PubMed Central

A 32-year-old nulligravida, with a history of abdominal hysterectomy for multiple leiomyomas of the uterus, was seen initially with signs of masculinization. Normal values for 17-ketosteroids, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, and plasma cortisol eliminated the adrenal as the source of the excess androgen as well as Cushing syndrome. Increased plasma testosterone and androstenedione levels in the peripheral blood as well as in the right ovarian vein sampling implicated the right ovary, which revealed a lipid cell tumor (0.5 to 1.3 cm in maximum dimension). ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

Williams, Philip C.; Hyman, Samuel; Kraft, Joseph R.

1980-01-01

73

Insulin sensitizers in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

From the conceptual point of view, there are several reasons to expect that improvement of insulin sensitivity may produce several benefits in the treatment of a complex disorder like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including a decrease in insulin and androgen levels, improvement of metabolic comorbidities, and, finally, improved ovulation and fertility. This can be achieved with the help of specific agents, particularly metformin and thiazolidinediones. They may ease the suffering of women with PCOS because insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia appear to be major contributors to the pathophysiology of the syndrome. PMID:24002407

Pasquali, Renato; Gambineri, Alessandra

2012-10-18

74

Fine needle aspiration cytology in sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary: a series of three cases.  

PubMed

Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) of the ovary is a distinct subtype of sex cord-stromal tumor, which is derived from the ovarian stroma and, in turn, from the sex cords of the embryonic gonads. It is a benign tumor, predominantly, unilateral in nature and mostly involves the right side of the ovary. Histopathological features are characteristic and are well described in the literature; however to the best of our knowledge fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has not been described previously. We present FNAC findings in a series of three cases of SST and discuss the cytomorphological features. We have described Call-Exner like bodies in one of our cases and hence, suggest that these may not be an exclusive feature of granulosa cell tumor. PMID:21630480

Banik, Tarak; Gupta, Nalini; Dey, Pranab; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur

2011-05-31

75

Postmenopausal hyperthecosis: functional dysregulation of androgenesis in climacteric ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin is rare in postmenopausal women. However, there is evidence that the ovaries of postmenopausal women are active endocrine glands, secreting mainly androgens.CASE: A postmenopausal woman sought treatment for progressive hirsutism. Endocrine evaluation revealed androgen excess. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed enlarged ovaries. Hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were recommended. However, surgery had to be withheld for 6 months

Esther Krug; Sarah L Berga

2002-01-01

76

(Implications of oxidative stress in the mammalian ovary and embryo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen (ROS) or nitrogen (RNS) species or free radicals are products of normal organic metabolism and their accumulation can generate the oxidative stress. Then, this stress causes cellular damage, leading to death. This process is involved with cellular degeneration and\\/or apoptosis during embryos development and in different organs, such as the mammalian ovary. In murine ovary, ROS are produced

Dom Manoel de Medeiros

77

Polycystic ovaries in hirsute women with normal menses  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeHirsute women with normal ovulatory menstrual function are often diagnosed as having idiopathic hirsutism. We prospectively evaluated 62 hirsute ovulatory women to determine if they had a subtle form of polycystic ovary syndrome, and if they exhibited any of the metabolic abnormalities commonly associated with classic polycystic ovary syndrome.

Enrico Carmina; Rogerio A Lobo

2001-01-01

78

Leptin and queen ovary: new insights about ovulation.  

PubMed

Leptin has been proven to be crucial in the ovulatory process. Aims of this study are to assess the expression of leptin receptor (Ob-R) in the ovaries of queens at estrus and to evaluate the capability of leptin in modulating ovarian contractility in vitro. Right ovaries underwent immunoblot analysis. Left ovaries were mounted in an organ bath under physiological condition and exposed to murine leptin (10(-6) M). Immunoblot analysis showed that the queen ovary expresses leptin receptor at estrus. Leptin at the dose of 10(-6) M significantly reduced the contractile activity of the ovary. The presence of ovarian Ob-R and leptin inhibitory effects on ovarian contractility suggest leptin implication in the modulation of ovarian activity, as well as in ovulatory disorders. PMID:23261151

Trisolini, C; Albrizio, M; Roscino, M T; Pantaleo, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

2012-12-20

79

Polycystic Ovaries Are Inherited as an Autosomal Dominant Trait: Analysis of 29 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and 10 Control Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the genetic basis of polycystic ovaries (PCO) and premature male pattern baldness (PMPB) by screening first-degree relatives of women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Because of the high prevalence of PCO in the general population, we also studied first-degree relatives of ten asymptomatic control volunteers of reproductive age. The

A. GOVIND; M. S. OBHRAI; R. N. CLAYTON

2010-01-01

80

Diagnosis of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age and is increasingly recognized as a disorder manifesting in the peripubertal and adolescent period. Diagnosis in the adolescent is difficult due to the high background rate of menstrual irregularity, the high prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology and hyperandrogenic features in this population. Recent guidelines suggest that menstrual irregularity for over two years, reduced reliance on ultrasound diagnosis of polycystic ovarian morphology, and accurate assessment of hyperandrogenic and metabolic features are suitable strategies for the diagnosis of PCOS in the adolescent. Accurate diagnosis is important given the long-term implications of the disorder, with increasing emphasis on metabolic sequelae. PMID:23624032

Hardy, Tristan S E; Norman, Robert J

2013-04-24

81

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder of pre-menopausal women, is characterized by chronic hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, obesity and insulin resistance. Importantly, PCOS women are at increased risk for glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Recent reports indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in PCOS. Alterations in sex steroids (i.e. high androgen and low estrogen levels) and increased visceral adiposity in PCOS could potentially contribute to the increased prevalence of OSA in this disorder. There is some evidence to suggest that there may be strong associations between the presence and severity of OSA and the metabolic disturbances that characterize PCOS. Causal mechanisms in the link between PCOS and OSA remain to be elucidated. Clinicians who manage PCOS patients should be aware of the high prevalence of OSA in these patients and systematically evaluate these women for sleep disturbances.

Tasali, Esra; Van Cauter, Eve; Ehrmann, David A.

2008-01-01

82

Polycystic ovary syndrome: obesity, insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism.  

PubMed

The authors submitted 24 patients affected by polycystic ovary syndrome to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and determined glucose, insulin and C Peptide levels. Patients were divided in four groups according to the degree of obesity and androgenic blood levels. Eight non hirsute women with normal ovulatory function, matched for height and weight, served as controls. The authors pointed out that insulin levels were greater in the obese and hyperandrogenic PCO women than in only the obese PCO women or only the hyperandrogenic PCO women. Obese patients with PCO had higher insulin levels than obese control group. Patients with PCO nonobese and nonhyperandrogenic had higher insulin levels than nonobese control group. Insulin levels did not differ in obese PCO and hyperandrogenic PCO women. These findings suggest that at least a component of insulin resistance which is found in PCO women is independent from body weight. PMID:2700062

Lo Dico, G; Alongi, G; Savatteri, L; Rini, G B; Mascellino, M R; Di Fede, G; Rizzo, G

83

The role of eicosanoids on Rhodnius heme-binding protein (RHBP) endocytosis by Rhodnius prolixus ovaries.  

PubMed

The participation of eicosanoids and second messengers on the regulation of RHBP endocytosis by the ovaries was investigated, using [(125)I]RHBP in experiments in vivo and in vitro. Addition of PGE(2) (one of the products of the cyclooxygenase pathway) decreased in vitro the uptake of RHBP by 35%. The rate of RHBP endocytosis increased in the presence of indomethacin, a potent cyclooxigenase inhibitor, up to 50% in vitro and up to 55% in vivo, thus giving support to the role of cyclooxygenase derivatives on endocytosis regulation. The amount of PGE(2) secreted to the culture medium by the cells of Rhodnius prolixus ovaries was 1.1 ng/ovary following RHBP uptake assay. The amount of PGE(2) decreases approximately 25% in the presence of 5 microM indomethacin. Using a scanning electron microscope we have observed that neither the surface area nor the patencies of follicle cells were affected by treatment with indomethacin, thus suggesting that, its effect is elicited in the oocyte. Finally, we have identified two ovarian peptides that were dephosphorylated after the indomethacin treatment (18 and 25 kDa). Taken together these data show that local mediators such as eicosanoids act upon the oocytes controlling RHBP endocytosis, perhaps using the protein phosphorylation signal transduction pathway. PMID:11891130

Medeiros, Marcelo N; Oliveira, Danielle M P; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Romeiro, Alexandre; Bozza, Marcelo; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Machado, Ednildo A

2002-05-01

84

Estrogen-Dependent Gene Expression in the Mouse Ovary  

PubMed Central

Estrogen (E) plays a pivotal role in regulating the female reproductive system, particularly the ovary. However, the number and type of ovarian genes influenced by estrogen remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we have utilized wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO; estrogen free) mouse ovaries as an in vivo model to profile estrogen dependent genes. RNA from each individual ovary (n?=?3) was analyzed by a microarray-based screen using Illumina Sentrix Mouse WG-6 BeadChip (45,281 transcripts). Comparative analysis (GeneSpring) showed differential expression profiles of 450 genes influenced by E, with 291 genes up-regulated and 159 down-regulated by 2-fold or greater in the ArKO ovary compared to WT. Genes previously reported to be E regulated in ArKO ovaries were confirmed, in addition to novel genes not previously reported to be expressed or regulated by E in the ovary. Of genes involved in 5 diverse functional processes (hormonal processes, reproduction, sex differentiation and determination, apoptosis and cellular processes) 78 had estrogen-responsive elements (ERE). These analyses define the transcriptome regulated by E in the mouse ovary. Further analysis and investigation will increase our knowledge pertaining to how E influences follicular development and other ovarian functions.

Liew, Seng H.; Sarraj, Mai A.; Drummond, Ann E.; Findlay, Jock K.

2011-01-01

85

Treatments to Relieve Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

MedlinePLUS

... notices & mechanisms Peer Review Review of the scientific & technical merit of grant applications Contacts for NICHD Funding ... 2011). Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. International Journal of Women's Health , 3, 25–35. [top] ACOG. ( ...

86

Removal of toxin (tetrodotoxin) from puffer ovary by traditional fermentation.  

PubMed

The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (I(Na)) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries decreased to 1/50-1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes" fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented "Nukazuke" and "Kasuzuke" ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. PMID:23334671

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

2013-01-18

87

Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

2013-01-01

88

Therapeutics with Hormones of the Ovary 1  

PubMed Central

The proliferation of the endometrium in the first half of the normal cycle is caused by the follicular hormone. The transformation into the secretion phase in the second half is caused by the hormone developed by the yellow substance of the corpus luteum. The term “menstrual” bleeding must be preserved for the discharged endometrium which has been proliferated first by the follicular hormone, and then transformed into the secretion phase (pregravid phase) by the corpus luteum hormone. The growth of the uterus in childhood and its pubescence depends on the follicular hormone (vegetative activity of the ovary), just as does the preservation of turgor in the genitals of the puberal woman. Many years ago, cyclic genital activity in the castrated animal was first produced by the injection of hormone, and this effect is now employed as a test for ovarian hormones. I succeeded eighteen months ago in producing complete menstruation in the castrated woman. The size of the doses of ovarian hormones administered is the important factor. In numerous experiments I have shown that—according to our present conceptions—very large doses of follicular hormones are required to produce the proliferation phase of the endometrium. The required dose is about 200,000 mouse units (= 1 million international units). For transformation of the proliferated endometrium into the secretion phase, 35 rabbit units of corpus luteum hormone are needed. The doses of follicular hormones up to now employed in therapeutics do not exert any traceable influence on the endometrium of the castrated woman. Neither have I noticed, that with doses of 600 or 1,000 mouse units, a shrivelling of the uterus which is due to long lasting functional troubles may be done away with. I have therefore proceeded to treat serious hormonal affections of the ovaries with very large doses of ovarian hormones. This paper reports on: (a) The effect of the follicular hormone on the hypoplastic uterus, in primary and secondary amenorrhœa; (b) spontaneous regulation of the cycle in secondary amenorrhœa also after treatment; (c) the treatment of symptoms produced by castration and at the climacteric; (d) the treatment of genital bleeding with corpus luteum hormone. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6

Kaufmann, C.

1934-01-01

89

Screening for diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

olycystic ovary syndrome is a common hormonal dis- order that affects an estimated 5%-10% of women of reproductive age.1 This condition usually begins in the early teens and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism; clinical manifestations include oligo- menorrhea or secondary amenorrhea, polycystic ovaries, hir- sutism, acne, male-pattern hair loss and infertility. Although the etiology of the syndrome is

David C. W. Lau

90

Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their\\u000a workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless\\u000a conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey\\u000a bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly

Olav Rueppell; Mananya Phaincharoen; Ryan Kuster; Salim Tingek

2011-01-01

91

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population  

PubMed Central

Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinical phenotypes but different underlying pathophysiological processes. However, hyperandrogenism remains the syndrome's clinical hallmark. The clinical manifestations of PCOS often emerge during childhood or in the peripubertal years, suggesting that the syndrome is influenced by fetal programming and/or early postnatal events. However, given that the full clinical spectrum of PCOS does not typically appear until puberty, a “two-hit” hypothesis has been proposed: (1) a girl develops hyperandrogenism via one or more of many different potential mechanisms; (2) the preexisting hyperandrogenism subsequently disturbs the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, resulting in ovulatory dysfunction and sustained hyperandrogenism. No consensus guidelines exist regarding the diagnosis and management of PCOS in the pediatric population; however, because the syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, the clinical evaluation of girls suspected of having PCOS is aimed at excluding other causes of androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction. For the syndrome's management, emphasis is placed on lifestyle and symptom-directed treatment.

2010-01-01

92

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Oocyte Developmental Competence  

PubMed Central

Folliculogenesis is a complex process, in which multiple endocrine and intraovarian paracrine interactions create a changing intrafollicular microenvironment for appropriate oocyte development. Within this microenvironment, bidirectional cumulus cell-oocyte signaling governs the gradual acquisition of developmental competence by the oocyte, defined as the ability of the oocyte to complete meiosis and undergo fertilization, embryogenesis and term development. These regulatory mechanisms of follicle growth, controlled in part by the oocyte itself, are susceptible to derangement in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by ovarian hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and paracrine dysregulation of follicle development. Consequently only a subset of PCOS patients experience reduced pregnancy outcome following ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Recent data implicate functional associations between endocrine/paracrine abnormalities, metabolic dysfunction and altered oocyte gene expression with impaired oocyte developmental competence in women with PCOS. Therefore, an understanding of how developmentally relevant endocrine/paracrine factors interact to promote optimal oocyte developmental is crucial to identify those PCOS patients who might benefit from long-term correction of follicle growth to improve fertility, optimize follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin therapy and enhance pregnancy outcome by IVF.

Dumesic, Daniel A.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Abbott, David H.

2009-01-01

93

Formation of apolar ecdysteroid conjugates by ovaries of the house cricket Acheta domesticus in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The newly laid eggs of the house cricket Acheta domesticus contain apolar ecdysteroid conjugates, which we have hypothesized to be ecdysone long-chain fatty acyl esters [Whiting & Dinan (1988) J. Insect Physiol., in the press]. The ovaries of mature adult female A. domesticus in vitro convert [3H]ecdysone into apolar conjugates identical with those found in newly laid eggs. Comparison of the radioactive metabolites produced on incubation of [3H]ecdysone with various organs of adult female A. domesticus in vitro indicate that the fat-body is the major producer of polar ecdysteroid metabolites at this stage of development, whereas the ovaries are the major site of production of apolar metabolites. Apolar metabolites are also produced to a lesser extent by the crop, gut sections and the fat-body. Hydrolysis of radioactive metabolites produced by the ovaries with Helix enzymes releases only [3H]ecdysone, and thus ecdysone is not metabolized before conjugation by the ovaries. Formation of chemical derivatives (acetonide and acetates) of these 3H-labelled apolar conjugates strongly indicates that the position of conjugation is through the hydroxy group at C-22 of ecdysone. Extensive chromatographic analysis of the 3H-labelled apolar metabolites produced by the ovaries by t.l.c. and h.p.l.c. and comparison with authenticated reference compounds have conclusively demonstrated that the conjugates consist of ecdysone esterified at C-22 to a mixture of common long-chain fatty acids. The major fatty acyl esters have been identified and their percentage contribution to the mixture determined: laurate (0.5%), myristate (2.8%), palmitate (25.8%), stearate (8.4%), arachidate (1.0%), oleate (15.7%), linoleate (38.8%) and linolenate (2.1%). In addition there are three minor unidentified peaks, one of which has been tentatively identified as ecdysone 22-palmitoleate (2.6%). Comparison of this percentage composition with the previously published fatty acid composition of A. domesticus haemolymph [Wang & Patton (1969) J. Insect Physiol. 15, 851-860] reveals remarkable similarities, indicating that the acyl transferase(s) forming the conjugates have a broad specificity with regard to the fatty acyl substrate.

Whiting, P; Dinan, L

1988-01-01

94

The forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 is expressed in somatic cells of the human ovary prior to follicle formation  

PubMed Central

Interactions between germ cells and surrounding somatic cells are central to ovarian development as well as later function. Disruption of these interactions arising from abnormalities in either cell type can lead to premature ovarian failure (POF). The forkhead transcription factor FOXL2 is a candidate POF factor, and mutations in the FOXL2 gene are associated with syndromic and non-syndromic ovarian failure. Foxl2-deficient mice display major defects in primordial follicle activation with consequent follicle loss, and earlier roles in gonadal development and sex determination have also been suggested. However, despite its importance no data presently exist on its expression in the developing human ovary. Expression of FOXL2 mRNA was demonstrated in the human fetal ovary between 8 and 19 weeks gestation, thus from soon after sex determination to primordial follicle development. Expression in the ovary was higher after 14 weeks than at earlier gestation weeks and was very low in the fetal testis at all ages examined. Immunolocalization revealed FOXL2 expression to be confined to somatic cells, both adjacent to germ cells and those located in the developing ovarian stroma. These cells are the site of action of oocyte-derived activin signalling, but in vitro treatment of human fetal ovaries with activin failed to reveal any regulation of FOXL2 transcription by this pathway. In summary, the expression of FOXL2 in somatic cells of the developing human ovary before and during follicle formation supports a conserved and continuing role for this factor in somatic/germ cell interactions from the earliest stages of human ovarian development.

Duffin, K.; Bayne, R.A.L.; Childs, A.J.; Collins, C.; Anderson, R.A.

2009-01-01

95

The treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women in reproductive age. As for the treatment of this disease the lack of a clear etiology for PCOS has led to a symptom-orientated treatment. However, the overall aims of treatment are to induce ovulation for women desiring conception, to reduce androgen levels, to reduce body weight and to reduce long-term health risks of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is recommended as first line treatment for induction of ovulation in patients with PCOS by virtue of its efficacy, safety, and ease of administration. Alternatives for CC-resistant patients include gonadotrophin therapy (better with low-dose step-up protocol) and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy. Recently, recombinant FSH (rFSH) has been introduced in clinical practice and it seems more effective than urinary FSH as demonstrated by a significantly higher number of follicles recruited and embryos obtained with a shorter treatment period. The addition of GnRH-agonist to the stimulation protocol for women affected by PCOS could reduce premature luteinization and increase cycle fecundity. Other drugs under investigation are metformin and cabergoline. Hirsutism is the manifestation of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. The primary goal of the treatment of hirsutim is central or peripheral androgen suppression using 3 groups of drugs: inhibitors of androgen production (oral contraceptives, GnRH analogues), peripheral androgen blockers (cyproterone acetate, flutamide, finasteride and spironolactone), and insulin-sensitizing agents (metformin). Weight reduction and exercise could also improve not only menstrual disturbances and infertility, but also insulin resistance and its adverse metabolic con-sequences. PMID:14973407

Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Melis, G B

2004-02-01

96

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and its Developmental Origins  

PubMed Central

The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS–like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular arrest in adulthood, as well as premature follicle differentiation and impaired embryo development during gonadotropin therapy for in vitro fertilization (IVF). A second animal model for PCOS, the prenatal T-treated sheep also is characterized by LH hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback, persistent follicles and insulin resistance, but also is associated with intrauterine growth retardation and compensatory growth after birth. The ability of prenatal T excess in both species to alter the developmental trajectory of multiple organ systems in utero provides evidence that the hormonal environment of intrauterine life programs target tissue differentiation, raising the possibility that T excess in human fetal development promotes PCOS in adulthood. Such a hypothesis must include data from clinical studies of PCOS women to clarify the homology between these PCOS-like animal models and PCOS per se in reproductive and metabolic function. Future studies should develop new clinical strategies that improve pregnancy outcome and minimize pregnancy loss in women with disorders of insulin action, including PCOS, obesity and diabetes mellitus as well as minimize transgenerational susceptibility to adult PCOS and its metabolic derangements in male close relatives.

Dumesic, Daniel A.; Abbott, David H.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

2009-01-01

97

Worker honeybee sterility: a proteomic analysis of suppressed ovary activation.  

PubMed

Eusocial behavior is extensively studied in the honeybee, Apis mellifera, as it displays an extreme form of altruism. Honeybee workers are generally obligatory sterile in a bee colony headed by a queen, but the inhibition of ovary activation is lifted upon the absence of queen and larvae. Worker bees are then able to develop mature, viable eggs. The detailed repressive physiological mechanisms that are responsible for this remarkable phenomenon are as of yet largely unknown. Physiological studies today mainly focus on the transcriptome, while the proteome stays rather unexplored. Here, we present a quantitative 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis comparison between activated and inactivated worker ovaries and brains of reproductive and sterile worker bees, including a spot map of ovaries, containing 197 identified spots. Our findings suggest that suppression of ovary activation might involve a constant interplay between primordial oogenesis and subsequent degradation, which is probably mediated through steroid and neuropeptide hormone signaling. Additionally, the observation of higher viral protein loads in both the brains and ovaries of sterile workers is particularly noteworthy. This data set will be of great value for future research unraveling the physiological mechanisms underlying the altruistic sterility in honeybee workers. PMID:22483170

Cardoen, Dries; Ernst, Ulrich R; Boerjan, Bart; Bogaerts, Annelies; Formesyn, Ellen; de Graaf, Dirk C; Wenseleers, Tom; Schoofs, Liliane; Verleyen, Peter

2012-04-06

98

Building Pathways for Ovary Organogenesis in the Mouse Embryo  

PubMed Central

Despite its significant role in oocyte generation and hormone production in adulthood, the ovary, with regard to its formation, has received little attention compared to its male counterpart, the testis. With the exception of germ cells, which undergo a female-specific pattern of meiosis, morphological changes in the fetal ovary are subtle. Over the past 40 years, a number of hypotheses have been proposed for the organogenesis of the mammalian ovary. It was not until the turn of the millennium, thanks to the advancement of genetic and genomic approaches, that pathways for ovary organogenesis that consist of positive and negative regulators have started to emerge. Through the action of secreted factors (R-spondin1, WNT4, and follistatin) and transcription regulators (?-catenin and FOXL2), the developmental fate of the somatic cells is directed toward ovarian, while testicular components are suppressed. In this chapter, we review the history of studying ovary organogenesis in mammals and present the most recent discoveries using the mouse as the model organism.

Liu, Chia-Feng; Liu, Chang; Yao, Humphrey H-C

2012-01-01

99

Pathways of Metastases from Primary Organs to the Ovaries  

PubMed Central

To investigate the metastatic pathways from the primary organs to the ovaries, we examined the microscopic findings from 18 original and 18 metastatic ovarian tumors carefully. In addition, we examined the immunohistochemical findings (Victoria blue stain for vascular invasion and D2-40 expression for lymphangio invasion) of metastatic ovarian tumors carefully. There were 4 (57%) ovarian lymphangio invasion cases in the 7 gastric cancers, but there were no cases in the 6 colorectal cancers (P < 0.05). There were 4 (67%) ovarian vascular invasion cases and one (17%) liver metastasis case in the 6 colorectal cancers, while there were no ovarian vascular invasions (P < 0.05) or no liver metastases in the 7 gastric cancers. The patients with metastatic ovarian tumors originating from distant organs who were treated at the same time as the original cancers had a significantly poorer prognosis than the patients with ovarian tumors treated later (P < 0.05). The rate of lymphatic metastasis from the stomach to the ovary was significantly higher than from the colon to the ovary. In addition we hypothesized that the rate of intravascular metastasis from the colorectum to the ovary was relatively higher than from the stomach to the ovary.

Yamanishi, Yukio; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Ohnaka, Megumi; Ueda, Masashi; Ukita, Shingo; Hishikawa, Kenji; Nagura, Michikazu; Kim, Tomoko; Hirose, Masaya; Ozasa, Hiroshi; Shirase, Tomoyuki

2011-01-01

100

Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

2011-09-01

101

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents: (Women's Health Series).  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the single most common endocrine abnormality of women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of female infertility. Common clinical features include hirsutism, various ovarian abnormalities, obesity, and insulin resistance. Expert consensus recommendations on diagnostic criteria vary, but the most recent focus on the presence of clinical features of hyperandrogenism, hyperandrogenemia, polycystic ovaries, and ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction to the exclusion of alternative diagnoses. In adolescence, diagnosis is more difficult because of the frequent presence of individual clinical findings in otherwise "normal" individuals. Laboratory tests and pelvic ultrasound are necessary to confirm polycystic ovary syndrome and exclude other disorders that may mimic this syndrome. Treatment is centered on the clinical manifestations and should be initiated early to prevent/limit long-term complications, including the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, endometrial carcinoma, and infertility. PMID:24096951

Horn, Michelle; Geraci, Stephen A

2013-10-01

102

Follicular cell differentiation in polytrophic ovaries of a moth midge, Tinearia alternata.  

PubMed

Dipteran ovaries consist of structural-functional units termed egg chambers. Each egg chamber is composed of a cluster of germ cells enveloped by a simple somatic follicular epithelium. With the progress of oogenesis, initially an almost uniform population of follicular cells (FCs) becomes diversified into a few subgroups, which significantly differ in their function and behaviour. From the extensive genetic and molecular studies on Drosophila it became evident that the mode of diversification of FCs and the interactions between distinct FC subpopulations and the germ-line cells are essential for a proper course of oogenesis and the generation of oocyte/embryo polarity. Recent comparative studies showed that major dipteran lineages may significantly differ in the mode of FC differentiation. The most essential difference occurs in the ability of the FCs to undertake migrations within the egg chamber. In contrast to long distance, invasive migrations characteristic of distinct FC subgroups in the egg chambers of the most derived flies (Brachycera), including Drosophila, the FCs in the ovaries of more ancestral Nematocera lack migratory activity and change their location only within the epithelial layer. Comparative analyses indicate that the FCs in the representatives of particular evolutionary lineages within Nematocera may differ in their behaviour during oogenesis. In this report we describe the FC differentiation pathway in the egg chambers of a moth midge, T. alternata (Psychodomorpha). Comparison with representatives of craneflies (Nematocera: Polyneura) showed that differences in the behaviour of FCs and in the number of FC subpopulations between Polyneura and Psychodomorpha, may depend on different oogenesis dynamics. In spite of the observed differences, some functional homologies between distinct subsets of the FCs in dipteran ovaries are postulated. PMID:18311717

Mazurkiewicz, Marta; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

2008-01-01

103

Estrogen production by fetal and infantile rat ovaries.  

PubMed

The de novo production of estrone and estradiol by the fetal and infantile rat ovary and its regulation by cAMP, LH and FSH were investigated. Basal estrogen secretion was not demonstrable before d 5 after birth. However, the fetal ovary was responsive to cAMP as early as 14 d old. Estrone was the main estrogen secreted. Steroid aromatase inhibitors inhibited cAMP-stimulated estrone secretion. Responsiveness to LH and FSH appeared at 5 d after birth. The proportion of estradiol grew more important with advancing age, becoming predominant at 7 d. PMID:8395854

Weniger, J P; Zeis, A; Chouraqui, J

1993-01-01

104

Coexistent dermoid cysts of the pouch of the Douglas and ovary resected by laparoscopy.  

PubMed

Dermoid cysts of the ovary are one of the most common ovarian neoplasms, but parasitic dermoid cysts as well as coexistent dermoid cysts are unusual. Almost all reports of coexistent dermoid cysts involve the omentum and ovary, but our case involved the pouch of Douglas and ovary. We managed this case by laparoscopy. PMID:22776340

Tokunaga, M; Seta, M; Yamada, M; Nishio, M; Yamamoto, K; Koyasu, Y

2012-02-01

105

Purification and characterization of vitellin from the ovaries of the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Penaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellin from the ovaries of the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis was isolated using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration revealed the presence of three peaks in an extract of mature ovaries. Two of these peaks were hardly noticeable in ovaries from immature shrimp. One of these was identified to be vitellin based on the results of Sudan black B

Y. W. QIU; T. B. NG; K. H. CHU

1997-01-01

106

Oxidative Stability of Lipids Rich in EPA and DHA Extracted from Fermented Scallop Ovary.  

PubMed

A novel seafood paste was developed by the fermentation of scallop ovary using rice malt (koji) and yeast culture. Chemical analysis of the product showed the formation of high level of free amino acids and organic acids during the fermentation. The product color and flavor resembled to Japanese traditional soybean miso. The contents of total lipids (TLs) extracted from the fermented products were ranged from 9.18% to 11.59% or 11.38% to 13.57%/dry sample weight. Although the TL was rich in oxidatively unstable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), little decrease was found in these PUFAs during the fermentation, showing the high oxidative stability of the TL from the fermented scallop ovary. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the TL extracted from the fermented products increased with increasing the fermentation time. This would be mainly due to the formation of lipid soluble antioxidants such as tocopherols, which might be derived from yeast used for fermentation. PMID:23915081

Hamaoka, Naohiro; Shimajiri, Junki; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

2013-08-05

107

Temporal Differences in Granulosa Cell Specification in the Ovary Reflect Distinct Follicle Fates in Mice1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The embryonic origins of ovarian granulosa cells have been a subject of debate for decades. By tamoxifen-induced lineage tracing of Foxl2-expressing cells, we show that descendants of the bipotential supporting cell precursors in the early gonad contribute granulosa cells to a specific population of follicles in the medulla of the ovary that begin to grow immediately after birth. These precursor cells arise from the proliferative ovarian surface epithelium and enter mitotic arrest prior to upregulating Foxl2. Granulosa cells that populate the cortical primordial follicles activated in adult life derive from the surface epithelium perinatally, and enter mitotic arrest at that stage. Ingression from the surface epithelium dropped to undetectable levels by Postnatal Day 7, when most surviving oocytes were individually encapsulated by granulosa cells. These findings add complexity to the standard model of sex determination in which the Sertoli and granulosa cells of the adult testis and ovary directly stem from the supporting cell precursors of the bipotential gonad.

Mork, Lindsey; Maatouk, Danielle M.; McMahon, Jill A.; Guo, Jin Jin; Zhang, Pumin; McMahon, Andrew P.; Capel, Blanche

2011-01-01

108

Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary: Tumor Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms that originate from sex-cord stromal cells. The long natural history of granulosa cell tumors and their tendency to recur years after the initial diagnosis are the most prominent of their characteristics. The secretion of estradiol is the reason for signs at presentation such as vaginal bleeding and precocious puberty. Abdominal pain

Georgios V. Koukourakis; Vasilios E. Kouloulias; Michael J. Koukourakis; Georgios A. Zacharias; Christos Papadimitriou; Kyriaki Mystakidou; Kyriaki Pistevou-Gompaki; John Kouvaris; Athanasios Gouliamos

2008-01-01

109

Bone Metastasis from a Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary generally have a good prognosis. Recurrences tend to be late and are usually abdominopelvic. Bone metastases are extremely rare.Case. A case of recurrent GCT with vertebral metastasis is presented. Radiologic studies were helpful in documenting the presence of an invasive tumor destroying the vertebral body of T7. Bone scintigraphy excluded other metastatic

Josée Dubuc-Lissoir; Marie-Josée Berthiaume; Ghassan Boubez; Thu Van Nguyen; Guy Allaire

2001-01-01

110

Management of Recurrent Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are a rare form of neoplasm that makes up less than 5% of ovarian tumors in childhood and adolescence. About 90% are diagnosed in stage I with a favorable prognosis. More advanced stages (FIGO stages II–IV) have a poor prognosis.Case. A patient was initially diagnosed at age 17 with FIGO stage IIIC

John L. Powell; G. Patrick Connor; Gregory S. Henderson

2001-01-01

111

EST sequencing for gene discovery in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are one of the most important cell lines in biological research, and are the most widely used host for industrial production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Despite their extensive applications, little sequence information is available for molecular based research. To facilitate gene discovery and genetic engineering, two cDNA libraries were con- structed from three CHO cell

Katie Fraass Wlaschin; Peter Morin Nissom; Marcela de Leon Gatti; Peh Fern Ong; Sanny Arleen; Kher Shing Tan; Anette Rink; Breana Cham; Kathy Wong; Miranda Yap; Wei-Shou Hu

2005-01-01

112

Depression and Body Image among Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and obesity, can be highly distressing. We compared 40 women with PCOS to women with infertility but not PCOS, and to women with neither PCOS nor infertility, on measures of depression and body image. Women with PCOS reported higher depression scores and greater body dissatisfaction (p < .001) than

Melissa J. Himelein; Samuel S. Thatcher

2006-01-01

113

Progesterone Regulation of Primordial Follicle Assembly In Bovine Fetal Ovaries  

PubMed Central

Fertility in mammals is dependant on females having an adequate primordial follicle pool to supply oocytes for fertilization. The formation of primordial follicles is called ovarian follicular assembly. In rats and mice progesterone and estradiol have been shown to inhibit follicle assembly with assembly occurring after birth when the pups are removed from the high-steroid maternal environment. In contrast, primordial follicle assembly in other species, such as cattle and humans, occurs during fetal development before birth. The objective of the current study is to determine if progesterone levels regulate primordial follicle assembly in fetal bovine ovaries. Ovaries and blood were collected from bovine fetuses. Interestingly, ovarian progesterone and estradiol concentrations were found to decrease with increasing fetal age and correlated to increased primordial follicle assembly. Microarray analysis of fetal ovary RNA suggests that progesterone membrane receptor and estrogen nuclear receptor are expressed. Treatment of fetal bovine ovary cultures with a higher progesterone concentration significantly decreased primordial follicle assembly. Observations indicate that progesterone affects ovarian primordial follicle assembly in cattle, as it does in rats and mice.

Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

2009-01-01

114

Survival Estimates, by Race, Diagnosis Year, Stage and Age (Ovary)  

Cancer.gov

Ovary excludes borderline cases or histologies 8442, 8451, 8462, 8472, and 8473. a Based on End Results data from a series of hospital registries and one population-based registry. b SEER 9 areas (San Francisco, Connecticut, Detroit, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Seattle, Utah, Atlanta). Based on follow-up of patients into 2008.

115

Synchronous carcinomas of cervix and ovary: case reports.  

PubMed

Four cases of synchronous carcinoma of the cervix and ovary are reported. In all cases the ovarian and cervical tumours were adenocarcinoma. Surgical management was determined by the extent of the tumours and the need for intracavitary radiotherapy. The dilema in determining whether the tumours were separate primaries or one primary with metastasis is discussed. PMID:7653409

Ilesanmi, A O; Edozien, L C; Williams, G A; Ladipo, O A

1994-12-01

116

Acupuncture in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Current Experimental and Clinical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the aetiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and evaluates the use of acupuncture to prevent and reduce symptoms related with PCOS. PCOS is the most common female endocrine disorder and it is strongly associated with hyperandroge- nism, ovulatory dysfunction and obesity. PCOS increases the risk for metabolic disturbances such as hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance, which

E. Stener-Victorin; E. Jedel; L. Mannerås

2008-01-01

117

Ultrasound assessment of the polycystic ovary: international consensus definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition, the pathophysiology of which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The definition of the syndrome has been much debated. Key features include menstrual cycle disturbance, hyperandrogenism and obesity. There are many extra-ovarian aspects to the pathophysiology of PCOS, yet ovarian dysfunction is central. At a recent joint ASRM\\/ESHRE consensus meeting,

Adam H. Balen; Joop S. E. Laven; Seang-Lin Tan; Didier Dewailly

118

Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

2012-01-01

119

Ultrasound criteria in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on ultrasound (US) will have the syndrome, and clinical and biochemical features of PCOS may be present without US features. The sensitivity of US in detecting PCOS was, therefore, prospectively determined in 72 women (32 PCOS and 40 controls). The most sensitive features were the presence of 10 or more follicles

William U Atiomo; Sally Pearson; Steve Shaw; Archibald Prentice; Paul Dubbins

2000-01-01

120

Origin of kinetochore microtubules in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have attempted to determine whether chromosomal microtubules arise by kinetochore nucleation or by attachment of pre-existing microtubules. The appearance of new microtubules was investigated in vivo on kinetochores to which microtubules had not previously been attached. The mitotic apparatus of Chinese hamster ovary cells was reconstructed in three dimensions from 0.25 µm thick serial sections, and the location of

Patricia L. Witt; Hans Ris; Gary G. Borisy

1980-01-01

121

The Drosophila ovary: an active stem cell community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a small number of cells in adult tissues (the stem cells) possess the ability to self-renew at every cell division, while producing differentiating daughter cells to maintain tissue homeostasis for an organism's lifetime. The Drosophila ovary harbors three different types of stem cell populations (germline stem cell (GSC), somatic stem cell (SSC) and escort stem cell (ESC)) located in

Dániel Kirilly; Ting Xie

2007-01-01

122

Treatment outcome in women with a single ovary versus patients with two ovaries undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF\\/ET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare ovarian response and pregnancy rate between women with one and two ovaries undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF\\/ET). Study design: 20 IVF\\/ET treatment cycles in ten women with a single ovary were compared with 60 IVF\\/ET cycles in 47 women with two ovaries. Both groups were matched for age and treated for mechanical infertility. In

E. Levitas; B. Furman; I. Shoham-Vardi; E. Lunenfeld

2000-01-01

123

Initiation of V(D)J recombination in zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovaries  

PubMed Central

The assembly of mammalian antigen receptor genes is a lymphoid-specific process. However, rearranged immunoglobulin genes can also be recovered from non-lymphoid tissues of cartilaginous fish. This event, known as germline rearrangement, has been speculated to arise from recombination-activating gene (RAG)-mediated recombination in germ cells. In this report, we demonstrate that zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes expressing high levels of RAG-RNA can readily initiate recombination cleavage at immunoglobulin gene loci, providing direct evidence for an ongoing process of attempted germline rearrangement in zebrafish ovaries. This attempted rearrangement is largely unproductive, yielding no accumulation of germline-joined immunoglobulin genes in zebrafish, which is consistent with their general absence in this species. Our data, therefore, substantiate the speculation that RAG might have been derived from a transposase, invading germ cells of ancient species, and later become a dedicated recombinase only expressed in developing lymphocytes.

Zhong, Hanbing; Li, Zhi; Lin, Shuo; Chang, Yung

2007-01-01

124

Novel heneicosadienoic and tricosadienoic acid isomers in ovaries of marine archaeogastropods.  

PubMed

To investigate unusual odd-chain fatty acids (FA) from gonads of archaeogastropods, limpets Cellana grata and Cellana toreuma, a subfraction enriched in FA with two double bonds extracted from the gonads was obtained by using argentation thin-layer chromatography. The resulting fraction was analyzed by using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of its methyl esters, 3-pyridylcarbinol esters and pyrrolidide derivatives. Six novel all-cis diene isomers were identified as 7,18-heneicosadienoic (21:2?7,18), 8,14-tricosadienoic (23:2?8,14), 9,15-tricosadienoic (23:2?9,15), 7,18-tricosadienoic (23:2?7,18), 9,18-tricosadienoic (23:2?9,18), and 9,20-tricosadienoic (23:2?9,20) acids. In the present study, the differences in the proportion of tricosadienoic acid isomers between the ovary lipids of C. grata and C. toreuma were recognized. PMID:22733314

Kawashima, Hideki; Ohnishi, Masao

2012-06-26

125

Ultrastructural characterization of apoptotic granulosa cells in caprine ovary.  

PubMed

The unique phenomenon of cell proliferation and apoptosis is encountered in the ovarian follicles undergoing early stages of atresia. The aim of this study was to verify the morphological variations in these two physiologically distinct processes operating in antral follicles of caprine ovaries using histological and ultrastructural techniques. Histologically the degenerating granulosa cells were characterized by condensed cytoplasm, and nucleus fragmentation in hazy cytosol. The pyknotic nuclei of degenerating cells stained darkly with haematoxylin and giemsa while the cytoplasm was eosinophilic. Under electron microscopy, apoptosis was marked by asymmetrical shrinkage, vacuolization of cytoplasm, swollen and vacuolated mitochondria, increased irregularity and/or fragmentation of nucleus, chromatin condensation and finally, production of membrane enclosed nuclear fragments containing intracellular material, the apoptotic bodies. The parallel use of these two methods on caprine ovaries has enabled us to analyse the decline in the frequency of granulosa cells during follicular atresia due to apoptosis. PMID:19941563

Sharma, R K; Bhardwaj, J K

2009-12-01

126

Androgen receptor in the ovary of postnatal bank vole females.  

PubMed

In this experiment, we investigated the influence of the photoperiod upon androgen receptor (AR) distribution and steroid concentrations in ovaries of 21-day-old bank vole females. Sections (6 mum) were assayed immunohistochemically. ARs were localized in the nuclei of granulosa cells. The strongest immunoreaction was observed in primary and early antral follicles, and declined during follicular development. P(4), A, and E(2) contents were measured by RIAs in ovarian homogenates from animals kept in two photoperiods. Ovaries of animals kept in a long photoperiod (18:6 light:dark), which stimulates gonadal activity, contained more P(4) than those kept in a short one (6:18 light:dark). There was no difference in levels of A and E(2). PMID:15891050

Galas, Jerzy; Slomczynska, Maria; Kwasnik, Anna

2005-04-01

127

Binding sites for gonadotropins in human postmenopausal ovaries  

SciTech Connect

The binding of human LH and human FSH to postmenopausal ovarian tissue from 21 patients with cervical carcinoma was analyzed. The binding sites for FSH and LH were demonstrated in postmenopausal ovarian tissue. The surface-binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the cells of cortical stroma of the postmenopausal ovary. In addition, diffuse cytoplasmic staining of endogenous estrogen and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity were detected immunohistochemically and histochemically in the cells of the cortical stroma. Electron microscopic study also suggested steroidogenic function in the cells of the cortical stroma. The results of the present study suggest that postmenopausal ovaries contain specific binding sites for pituitary gonadotropins and play a role in ovarian steroidogenesis.

Nakano, R.; Shima, K.; Yamoto, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Nishimori, K.; Hiraoka, J.

1989-02-01

128

Neuroendocrine cells are present in the domestic fowl ovary.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine cells are present in virtually all organs of the vertebrate body; however, it is yet uncertain whether they exist in the ovaries. Previous reports of ovarian neurons and neuron-like cells in mammals and birds might have resulted from misidentification. The aim of the present work was to determine the identity of neuron-like cells in immature ovaries of the domestic fowl. Cells immunoreactive to neurofilaments, synaptophysin, and chromogranin-A, with small, dense-core secretory granules, were consistently observed throughout the sub-cortical ovarian medulla and cortical interfollicular stroma. These cells also displayed immunoreactivity for tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine ?-hydroxylases, as well as to aromatic L-DOPA decarboxylase, implying their ability to synthesize both catecholamines and indolamines. Our results support the argument that the ovarian cells previously reported as neuron-like in birds, are neuroendocrine cells. PMID:23083425

Hofmann, Pablo G; Báez Saldaña, Armida; Fortoul Van Der Goes, Teresa; González del Pliego, Margarita; Gutiérrez Ospina, Gabriel

2012-10-22

129

The Genetic Basis of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex genetic disorder. Its inherited basis was established by studies demonstrating\\u000a an increased prevalence of PCOS, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and disordered insulin secretion in relatives of women\\u000a with PCOS. To date, efforts to elucidate the genetic basis of PCOS have focused on candidate genes chosen from logical pathways,\\u000a including steroid synthesis and action,

Mark O. Goodarzi

130

Management of Advanced Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) of the ovary are rare. They usually present in children and adolescents. About 90% are diagnosed in early stage (FIGO I) with a favorable prognosis. More advanced stages (FIGO II–IV) have a poor clinical outcome. We report two cases of short-term, disease-free survival of teenagers with Stage III JGCTs treated with aggressive debulking and thorough

John L. Powell; Christopher N. Otis

1997-01-01

131

Microarray Analyses of Newborn Mouse Ovaries Lacking Nobox1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nobox is a homeobox gene expressed in oocytes and critical in oogenesis. Nobox deficiency leads to rapid loss of postnatal oocytes. Early oocyte differentiation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that lack of Nobox perturbs global expression of genes preferentially expressed in oocytes as well as microRNAs. We compared Nobox knockout and wild-type ovaries using Affymetrix 430 2.0 microarray platform. We

Youngsok Choi; Yingying Qin; Michael F. Berger; Daniel J. Ballow; Martha L. Bulyk; Aleksandar Rajkovic

2007-01-01

132

[The role of the dopaminergic system in the rat ovary].  

PubMed

Although many studies have been carried out on the dopaminergic system, little is known about the dopaminergic system in the ovary. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the dopamine (DA) system in ovarian function especially in steroidogenesis using rat ovaries. Ovarian cells from PMS-treated rats were incubated for 1 hour with or without DA or other drugs. DA, norepinephrine (NE) and isoproterenol (Iso) increased the levels of progesterone (P4) and cAMP in the media. D1 agonists (SKF38393, SKF82526-J, CY208-243) increased P4 secretion, whereas bromocriptine (D2 agonists) did not show any effect on the P4 level in the media. The effect of NE and Iso on P4 and cAMP levels was inhibited by propranolol (Pro; beta-blocker), while the increase of P4 and cAMP levels caused by DA or D1 agonists was suppressed by bulbocapnine (Bul; D1 antagonists). Propranolol (beta-blocker) or domperidone (D2 antagonists) did not affect the levels of P4 and cAMP. The presence of dopamine D1 receptor in the PMS-treated rat ovary was revealed by a kinetic study. The maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of ovarian D1 receptor was 1.33fmol/mg tissue and the Kd value was 0.357nM. These results suggest that the DA system may physiologically play a role in the steroidogenesis in the ovary through D1 receptor. PMID:7958095

Isobe, S

1994-05-20

133

Ontogeny of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Creative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

olycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heteroge- neous familial disorder characterized by hyperandro- genism, oligo\\/amenorrhea, infertility, and insulin resistance\\/hy- perinsulinemia. Familial clustering of hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia in this syndrome is well described (1-5). Both genetic and environmental factors con- tribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Affected women have a higher risk to develop impaired glucose tolerance and

134

Androgen Receptor in the Ovary of Postnatal Bank Vole Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment, we investigated the influence of the photoperiod upon androgen receptor (AR) distribution and steroid concentrations in ovaries of 21-day-old bank vole females. Sections (6 µm) were assayed immunohistochemically. ARs were localized in the nuclei of granulosa cells. The strongest immunoreaction was observed in primary and early antral follicles, and declined during follicular development. P4, A, and E2

Jerzy Galas; Maria Slomczynska; Anna Kwasnik

2005-01-01

135

Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis  

PubMed Central

We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we predict the morphological maturation observed in these gonads is concomitant with increased endocrine activities.

Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

2009-01-01

136

Recommended Therapies for Metabolic Defects in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not just a reproductive condition but has metabolic sequelae. The heterogeneity of the\\u000a condition is reflected in different emphases in patients on expression of these abnormalities. These conditions include effects\\u000a on lipids, glucose and insulin metabolism, cardiovascular system and weight control. The metabolic syndrome appears to be\\u000a more common in PCOS. Treatment of metabolic sequelae

Robert J. Norman; Anneloes E. Ruifrok; Lisa J. Moran; Rebecca L. Robker

137

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated With Endothelial Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We recently reported endothelial dysfunction as a novel cardiovascular risk factor associated with insulin resistance\\/obesity. Here, we tested whether hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who are at increased risk of macrovascular disease display impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and whether endothelial function in PCOS is associated with particular metabolic and\\/or hormonal characteristics. Methods and Results—We studied leg blood flow

Giancarlo Paradisi; Helmut O. Steinberg; Annette Hempfling; Jessica Cronin; Ginger Hook; Marguerite K. Shepard; Alain D. Baron

2001-01-01

138

Method for isolating preantral follicles from mare ovaries.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of collagenase treatment to isolate preantral follicles from mare ovaries and to assess the effect of this treatment on follicular morphology. Intact mare ovaries were chopped into pieces, incubated individually with 1, 3 or 5 mg collagenase (type 1A) ml(-1) in a shaking waterbath at 37 degrees C for up to 2 h and passed through a series of stainless steel filters with pore size 50-300 microm to remove large clumps and stromal cells. The samples were prepared for histological analysis and sections were examined by light microscopy. Isolated follicles and oocytes were measured and the quality of the follicles was assessed by microscopic examination. Very few intact preantral follicles were isolated after 30 min incubation with 1, 3 or 5 mg collagenase ml(-l). After 60 and 90 min incubations, between eight and 71 intact preantral follicles were isolated with 3 or 5 mg collagenase ml(-1), whereas very few were isolated after incubation with 1 mg collagenase ml(-1). The number of intact follicles isolated after incubation with either 3 or 5 mg collagenase ml(-1) was not significantly different. The quality of the isolated follicles decreased with increasing incubation time and no intact follicles were observed after 2 h of incubation. Preantral follicles 60-300 microm in diameter were isolated from ovaries after treatment with either 3 or 5 mg collagenase ml(-1). Most of the follicles isolated were 90-150 microm in diameter. This study indicates that equine preantral follicles can be isolated from equine ovaries using collagenase and that collagenase does not have a deleterious effect on follicle morphology when used at the appropriate concentration for a minimum period. However, oocyte quality and follicle viability remain to be determined. PMID:20681157

Telfer, E E; Watson, E D

2000-01-01

139

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Dysfunction in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 20 and 30% of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) demonstrate adrenal androgen (AA) excess, detectable\\u000a primarily by elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels. Generalized adrenocortical hyperresponsivity to adrenocorticotropic\\u000a hormone (ACTH) stimulation is also observed and may be the principal mechanism determining AA excess in PCOS. The causes of\\u000a this abnormality are unclear, but increased peripheral metabolism of cortisol, altered

Bulent O. Yildiz; Enrico Carmina; Ricardo Azziz

140

Mechanisms and Treatment of Obesity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility because of anovulation, affects 4–7% of\\u000a women. Intriguingly, obesity has an important pathophysiological impact on PCOS, and obese PCOS women are characterized by\\u000a worsened endocrine and metabolic profiles and poorer fertility. Although it is believed that obesity simply emphasizes most\\u000a common alterations such as hyperandrogenism and the

Renato Pasquali; Alessandra Gambineri

141

Metformin for the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Because of the high prevalence of insulin resistance, there is a growing interest in the application of insulin sensitizing\\u000a agents in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin is the most widely prescribed insulin sensitizing agent\\u000a in patients with PCOS. In this chapter, we address the importance of lifestyle modification as the initial intervention in\\u000a patients with PCOS. Furthermore, we

Satin S. Patel; Victor E. Beshay; Bruce R. Carr

142

Menstrual Cyclicity After Metformin Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of insulin-lowering treatment on menstrual cyclicity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Forty oligoamenorrheic women with PCOS were recruited in a prospective clinical study to receive metformin for a minimum period of 6 months. Twenty-two women completed the study. Serum LH, FSH, free testosterone, and glucose and insulin response to oral glucose load were measured both

Elsy Velázquez M; Arnaldo Acosta; Soaira G Mendoza

1997-01-01

143

[True hermaphrodite with ipsilateral vas deferens and intrascrotal ovary].  

PubMed

A 15-year-old, legally male patient came to our department with chief complaint of gynecomastia. Serum testosterone was at a low level of 1.6 ng/ml, and prolactin a high level of 23 ng/ml. Blood type was a mixed type of both type A and type B, and a chromosomal analysis with peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated a mosaic of 46, XX/46, XY. During the follow-up, he complained a painful swelling in his right scrotum, and received an emergent surgery. A large amount of blood was noted in the right scrotum. Unicorn uterus, Fallopian tube and finbriae were observed, and a thumb-sized gonad with hemorrhage and fissure was also seen in the upper part of the scrotum. The right gonad was an ovary and no testicular tissue was confirmed in the right scrotum, whereas the right vas deferens was noted. The left testis was accompanied by an induration on its upper pole which was histologically found to be ovarian tissue. The patient was diagnosed as a true hermaphroditism with 46, XX/46, XY chimera that had an ovary with inguinal uterus hernia and an unusual vas deferens in the right scrotum and an ovotestis in the left. It was considered that an adequate amount of testosterone secreted from the left testis during the early embryonal period might have affected the descent of the right ovary into the scrotum and on the development of the right vas deferens. PMID:1779499

Kyoku, I; Senzaki, A; Yamagiwa, K; Tanaka, T; Shinka, T

1991-12-01

144

Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this brief review is to describe the management of anovulatory infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This has traditionally involved the use of clomiphene citrate (CC), and then gonadotropin therapy or laparoscopic ovarian surgery, in those who are clomiphene resistant (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). Recently developed therapeutic approaches include aromatase inhibitors and the potential use of in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes collected from unstimulated (or minimally stimulated) polycystic ovaries. Unfortunately the early promise of the insulin sensitizing drugs has not been translated into significant improvement in outcomes and therefore are not prescribed unless the patient has an impairment of glucose tolerance (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). There has been an unfortunate shift away from Mono-follicular ovulation induction remains the first line approach for the management of anovulatory PCOS, and in vitro fertilization treatment (IVF) should be reserved for those who fail to respond or who have additional infertility factors (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). Superovulation for IVF presents significant risks for women with polycystic ovaries, namely the potentially life-threatening complication of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Carefully conducted and monitored ovulation induction can achieve good cumulative conception rates and furthermore, multiple pregnancy rates can be minimized with strict adherence to criteria that limit the number of follicles that are permitted to ovulate. PMID:23084977

Balen, Adam H

2012-10-17

145

HOX cofactors expression and regulation in the human ovary  

PubMed Central

Background HOX cofactors enhance HOX binding affinities and specificities and increase HOX's unique functional activities. The expression and the regulation of HOX cofactors in human ovaries are unknown. Methods In this study, the expression of HOX cofactors, PBX1, PBX2, and MEIS1/2, were examined by using RT-PCR, immunofluorescence in cultured immortalized human granulosa (SVOG) cells. The distribution of these HOX cofactors in human ovaries was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on PBX2 in SVOG cells were investigated by western blot analysis. Binding activities of HOXA7 and PBX2 to the specific sequences in granulosa cells were determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results and conclusion In SVOG cells, PBX1, PBX2 and MEIS1/2 were expressed during cell culture. In normal human ovaries, PBX1 and MEIS1/2 were expressed in granulosa cells at essentially all stages of follicular development. These cofactors were expressed in the nuclei of the granulosa cells from the primordial to the secondary follicles, whereas beyond multilayered follicles was observed in the cytoplasm. The co-expression of PBX1 and MEIS1/2 in granulosa cells in normal human ovaries suggested that MEIS1/2 might control PBX1 sublocalization, as seen in other systems. PBX2 was not expressed or weakly expressed in the primordial follicles. From the primary follicles to the preovulatory follicles, PBX2 expression was inconsistent and the expression was found in the granulosa cell nuclei. The PBX2 expression pattern is similar to HOXA7 expression in ovarian follicular development. Furthermore, FSH down-regulated, GDF-9 did not change PBX2 expression, but co-treatment of the granulosa cells with FSH and GDF-9 up-regulated PBX2 expression. These results implicated a role for PBX2 expression in the steroidogenic activities of granulosa cells in humans. Moreover, PBX2 and HOXA7 bound together to the Pbx sequence, but not to the EMX2 promoter sequence, in SVOG cells. Our findings indicate that HOX cofactors expression in normal human ovary is temporally and spatially specific and regulated by FSH and GDF-9 in granulosa cells. HOX proteins may use different HOX cofactors, depending on DNA sequences that are specific to the granulosa cells.

Ota, Takayo; Asahina, Haruka; Park, Se-Hyung; Huang, Qing; Minegishi, Takashi; Auersperg, Nelly; Leung, Peter CK

2008-01-01

146

Biosynthesis of 1-methyladenine by isolated segments of starfish ovaries  

SciTech Connect

Acid-soluble 1-methyladenine (1-MeA) and an insoluble fraction containing 1-MeA were formed when radioactive L-methionine or adenine (A) were incubated with starfish ovary segments. Attempts to prepare free ribonucleic acid (RNA) from ovaries failed since it was strongly bonded to protein as ribonucleoprotein (RN-P) which was therefore used in studies involving RNA. Incubation of ovary segments with (8-/sup 14/C)adenine-8 (A-8-/sup 14/C) yielded both soluble 1-Me-A-8-/sup 14/C and RN-P-8-/sup 14/C, and similar incubation with L-(methyl-/sup 14/C)methionine yielded soluble 1-MeA-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/ and RN-P-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/. Hydrolysis of RN-P-8-/sup 14/C with 1 N HCl at 100 degrees yielded 91% of the initial radioactivity in the purine fraction, and of this 90% was in A, 9% in 1-MeA, and 1% in 4(5)-amino-5(4)-imidazole carboxamidine (AIMCAD). With RN-P-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/ the corresponding figures were 20, 45, 27, and 28%. Degradation of 1-MeA-8-/sup 14/C or RN-P-8-/sup 14/C with 6 N HCl at 110 degrees yielded radioactive AIMCAD which, on heating at pH 12, gave radioactive 4(5)-amino-5(4)-imidazole carboxamide (AICA). When 1-MeA-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/ or RN-P-/sup 14/CH/sub 3/ were similarly degraded, radioactive AIMCAD was formed, but the AICA possessed little or no radioactivity due to the loss of the radioactive methyl group. Addition of radial nerve factor (GSS) increased the yield of 1-MeA up to 19 times when radioactive L-methionine was substrate, but was ineffective with radioactive A. S-(8-/sup 14/C)Adenosylmethionine was only about 3% as effective as L-(methyl-/sup 14/C)methionine in supporting formation of 1-MeA, and its slight activity was not enhanced by GSS. Immature ovary segments were much more active than those from mature ovaries in synthesizing 1-MeA. The results support the contention that formation of free 1-MeA in starfish ovarian tissues involves methylation of adenine residues in a polynucleotide followed by liberation of 1-MeA by enzymatic hydrolysis.

Tarr, H.L.

1985-11-01

147

The expression and biological role of the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functioning of the ovary depends on an interplay between hormones, locally produced growth factors and neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are delivered to the ovary via its sympathetic innervation and originate from intrinsic nerve cells expressing catecholaminergic and peptidergic traits. We found that the nerve fibers and nerve cells of the ovary were however not immunoreactive for the ACh-synthesizing enzyme, choline-acetyl transferase (ChAT).

Artur Mayerhofer; Nicola Dimitrijevic; Lars Kunz

2003-01-01

148

Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: is there a role of histology-specific treatment?  

PubMed

Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0); however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1 cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1 cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC) was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease. PMID:22655678

Takano, Masashi; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Toru

2012-06-01

149

Regulation of behaviorally associated gene networks in worker honey bee ovaries  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Several lines of evidence support genetic links between ovary size and division of labor in worker honey bees. However, it is largely unknown how ovaries influence behavior. To address this question, we first performed transcriptional profiling on worker ovaries from two genotypes that differ in social behavior and ovary size. Then, we contrasted the differentially expressed ovarian genes with six sets of available brain transcriptomes. Finally, we probed behavior-related candidate gene networks in wild-type ovaries of different sizes. We found differential expression in 2151 ovarian transcripts in these artificially selected honey bee strains, corresponding to approximately 20.3% of the predicted gene set of honey bees. Differences in gene expression overlapped significantly with changes in the brain transcriptomes. Differentially expressed genes were associated with neural signal transmission (tyramine receptor, TYR) and ecdysteroid signaling; two independently tested nuclear hormone receptors (HR46 and ftz-f1) were also significantly correlated with ovary size in wild-type bees. We suggest that the correspondence between ovary and brain transcriptomes identified here indicates systemic regulatory networks among hormones (juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids), pheromones (queen mandibular pheromone), reproductive organs and nervous tissues in worker honey bees. Furthermore, robust correlations between ovary size and neuraland endocrine response genes are consistent with the hypothesized roles of the ovaries in honey bee behavioral regulation.

Wang, Ying; Kocher, Sarah D.; Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Grozinger, Christina M.; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

2012-01-01

150

Regulation of behaviorally associated gene networks in worker honey bee ovaries.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence support genetic links between ovary size and division of labor in worker honey bees. However, it is largely unknown how ovaries influence behavior. To address this question, we first performed transcriptional profiling on worker ovaries from two genotypes that differ in social behavior and ovary size. Then, we contrasted the differentially expressed ovarian genes with six sets of available brain transcriptomes. Finally, we probed behavior-related candidate gene networks in wild-type ovaries of different sizes. We found differential expression in 2151 ovarian transcripts in these artificially selected honey bee strains, corresponding to approximately 20.3% of the predicted gene set of honey bees. Differences in gene expression overlapped significantly with changes in the brain transcriptomes. Differentially expressed genes were associated with neural signal transmission (tyramine receptor, TYR) and ecdysteroid signaling; two independently tested nuclear hormone receptors (HR46 and ftz-f1) were also significantly correlated with ovary size in wild-type bees. We suggest that the correspondence between ovary and brain transcriptomes identified here indicates systemic regulatory networks among hormones (juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids), pheromones (queen mandibular pheromone), reproductive organs and nervous tissues in worker honey bees. Furthermore, robust correlations between ovary size and neuraland endocrine response genes are consistent with the hypothesized roles of the ovaries in honey bee behavioral regulation. PMID:22162860

Wang, Ying; Kocher, Sarah D; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Grozinger, Christina M; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

2012-01-01

151

FDG PET/CT in Serous Psammocarcinoma of the Ovary.  

PubMed

Serous psammocarcinoma of the ovary is a rare variant of ovarian serous carcinoma with a favorable prognosis. We present a case of bilateral ovarian serous psammocarcinoma showing extensive calcification in the primary and disseminated lesions with intense FDG uptake on FDG PET/CT. It may be difficult to differentiate the extensively calcified omental and peritoneal metastases from benign calcified lesions on CT images. This case indicates FDG PET/CT may have an advantage over conventional CT in differentiating malignant calcification from benign calcification based on glucose metabolic activity, and may be helpful for diagnosis and staging of this rare ovarian tumor. PMID:23510884

Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Zuo, Changjing

2013-03-18

152

Mitochondrial regulation of cell death in the Drosophila ovary  

PubMed Central

Interactions between the Bcl-2 family proteins and the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery regulate cell death in mammals and worms. In Drosophila, the Bcl-2 family proteins have not been shown to be major regulators of cell death. However, emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial remodeling may be important in Drosophila cell death. We recently demonstrated a series of events that occur during follicle removal in the Drosophila ovary that included mitochondrial remodeling and clustering, followed by uptake and degradation in the follicle cells. Importantly, the Bcl-2 family proteins, mitochondrial dynamics and autophagic proteins regulate these events.

Tanner, Elizabeth A

2011-01-01

153

Insulin resistance influences central opioid activity in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

This pilot study describes a relationship between insulin resistance and ?-opioid neurotransmission in limbic appetite and mood-regulating regions in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting that insulin-opioid interactions may contribute to behavioral and reproductive pathologies of PCOS. We found that [1] patients with PCOS who are insulin-resistant (n = 7) had greater limbic ?-opioid receptor availability (nondisplaceable binding potential) than controls (n = 5); [2] receptor availability was correlated with severity of insulin resistance; and [3] receptor availability normalized after insulin-regulating treatment. PMID:21486668

Berent-Spillson, Alison; Love, Tiffany; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Sowers, MaryFran; Persad, Carol C; Pennington, Kathryn P; Eyvazaddeh, Aimee D; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R

2011-04-12

154

More harm than good? The anatomy of misguided shielding of the ovaries  

PubMed Central

Objective Popular gonad shield designs aim to provide coverage of the true pelvis, which is presumed to be the probable location of the ovaries. Shields are frequently placed inaccurately, especially in children, obscuring important orthopaedic landmarks on pelvic radiographs. We aimed to identify the position of the ovaries and asses how this may vary with age and the degree of bladder filling. We aimed to identify the position of the ovaries and asses how this may vary with age and the degree of bladder filling. Methods Using MRI examinations of the pelvis in women and children, we located 594 ovaries in 306 female patients aged from birth to 59 years. Results This study provides new evidence that bladder filling affects ovary position. A lower than expected number of patients had both ovaries within the pelvis if the bladder contained more than a moderate volume of urine. Bladder emptying should be achieved wherever practical if a shield is used. In children under the age of 7 years, more than half (19/37) had at least one ovary outside the true pelvis. There was a significant association between age and ovary position, with the percentage of patients with one or both ovaries outside the true pelvis decreasing with age (?2, p<0.0001). Conclusion The embryological descent of the ovaries into the pelvis would appear to continue after birth, well into childhood. Current popular shield designs are therefore inappropriate for use in young children. Given the high risk of obscuring critical landmarks, coupled with the new evidence that even accurate placement will not necessarily protect the ovaries, the use of pelvic shields in girls should be reconsidered.

Fawcett, S L; Gomez, A C; Barter, S J; Ditchfield, M; Set, P

2012-01-01

155

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of goat ovaries, follicles and oocytes in view of in vitro production of embryos  

PubMed Central

Goat ovaries were collected from the slaughterhouse and categorized as right, left, corpus luteum (CL)-present and -absent group and evaluated on the basis of weight (g), length (cm), width (cm), number of follicles, follicles aspirated and number and state of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs). Comparatively higher weight [(0.66±0.02) vs (0.64±0.02) g], length [(1.17±0.02) vs (1.11±0.02) cm] and width [(0.77±0.02) vs (0.74±0.02) cm] were found in right ovaries than those of left. On the other hand significantly (P<0.05) higher weight [(0.71±0.03) vs (0.64±0.01) g] and width [(0.76±0.03) vs (0.75±0.01) cm] were found in CL-present group than those of CL-absent group of ovaries. The left ovaries contained comparatively higher number of normal COCs [(1.06±0.09) per ovary] than right ovaries [(1.03±0.10) per ovary] and the similar trend was found in total number of follicles [(4.51±0.25) vs (4.30±0.23) per ovary] and follicles aspirated [(2.55±0.14) vs (2.52±0.12) per ovary]. But the total COCs per ovary was almost similar in both ovaries [right and left: (1.85±0.12) and (1.85±0.11) per ovary, respectively]. Higher number of total COCs [(1.87±0.09) vs (1.76±0.16) per ovary], total number of follicles [(4.45±0.19) vs (4.16±0.37) per ovary], follicles aspirated [(2.55±0.10) vs (2.48±0.21) per ovary] and normal COCs [(1.12±0.07) vs (0.76±0.14) per ovary] were found in CL-absent group than those of CL-present group of ovaries.

Islam, M.R.; Khandoker, M.A.M.Y.; Afroz, S.; Rahman, M.G.M.; Khan, R.I.

2007-01-01

156

Germline competency of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells from immature oocytes of adult mouse ovary  

PubMed Central

Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have been generated in several mammalian species from parthenogenetic embryos that would otherwise die around mid-gestation. However, previous reports suggest that pESCs derived from in vivo ovulated (IVO) mature oocytes show limited pluripotency, as evidenced by low chimera production, high tissue preference and especially deficiency in germline competence, a critical test for genetic integrity and pluripotency of ESCs. Here, we report efficient generation of germline-competent pESC lines (named as IVM pESCs) from parthenogenetic embryos developed from immature oocytes of adult mouse ovaries following in vitro maturation (IVM) and artificial activation. In contrast, pESCs derived from IVO oocytes show defective germline competence, consistent with previous reports. Further, IVM pESCs resemble more ESCs from fertilized embryos (fESCs) than do IVO pESCs on genome-wide DNA methylation and global protein profiles. In addition, IVM pESCs express higher levels of Blimp1, Lin28 and Stella, relative to fESCs, and in their embryoid bodies following differentiation. This may indicate differences in differentiation potentially to the germline. The mechanisms for acquisition of pluripotency and germline competency of IVM pESCs from immature oocytes remain to be determined.

Liu, Zhong; Hu, Zhe; Pan, Xinghua; Li, Minshu; Togun, Taiwo A.; Tuck, David; Pelizzola, Mattia; Huang, Junjiu; Ye, Xiaoying; Yin, Yu; Liu, Mengyuan; Li, Chao; Chen, Zhisheng; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Lingjun; Chen, Lingyi; Keefe, David L.; Liu, Lin

2011-01-01

157

ADAMTS-1 is involved in normal follicular development, ovulatory process and organization of the medullary vascular network in the ovary.  

PubMed

To clarify the role of disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs-1 (ADAMTS-1) in ovarian function, we examined abnormalities in ovulatory processes, folliculogenesis and the vascular system of ADAMTS-1 null ovaries. First, when immature female mice were treated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG)/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the number of ovulated oocytes was markedly decreased in ADAMTS-1 null mice in comparison to ADAMTS-1 (+/-) controls. The proportion of anovulated follicles to total mature follicles was significantly higher in ADAMTS-1 null females when compared with controls. The numbers of growing follicles at each stage were counted. The number of follicles at type 5b (late preantral) and later stages was markedly reduced in ADAMTS-1 null mice, irrespective of gonadotropin treatment (no gonadotropins, PMSG alone or PMSG/hCG). These data demonstrate that impairment of ovarian function to ovulate oocytes in ADAMTS-1 null mice occurs at two different levels: in the development of growing follicles and ovulatory processes. Furthermore, ADAMTS-1 null ovaries included a number of unusual atretic follicles that showed no sign of oocyte degeneration but lost the surrounding granulosa cell layers and were considered to be derived from type 4 or 5a follicles. These results suggest that ADAMTS-1 is important for follicular development beyond the type 4 and/or 5a and for maintaining normal granulosa cell layers in follicles. Finally, the number of large blood vessels in the medullar zone was significantly decreased in ADAMTS-1 null mice ovaries, suggesting that ADAMTS-1 is also involved in the organization of the medullary vascular network. PMID:16216914

Shozu, M; Minami, N; Yokoyama, H; Inoue, M; Kurihara, H; Matsushima, K; Kuno, K

2005-10-01

158

Outcome of metformin treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical diagnosis. During one year period, 50 women suffering from PCOS were treated with either 850 mg/twice daily or 500 mg/thrice daily along with clomiphene citrate and/or letrozole, with advice for exercise and dietary therapy. Diagnosis of the PCOS patients was made by the presence of two out of the following three criteria: (a) oligo and/or anovulation, (b) hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical), and (c) polycystic ovaries, with the exclusion of other aetiologies. The mean±SD age of our patients was 26.74±3.85 years, BMI 26.64±2.64 kg/m2, pulse 80.56±4.61 b/min, systolic blood pressure 113.80±4.40 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 76.10±4.77 mmHg, duration of marriage 6.19±3.20 years, and parity was 43(86%) nulliparous and 7(14%) primiparous. Oligomenorrhoea was present in 100%, hypomenorrhoea in 38%, secondary amenorrhoea in 28% and acne in 70% women. Results showed that 92% women followed advice on exercise and dietary therapy, in maximum number of women progesterone level was 31.40 nmol/L (66%), weight loss was 2 kg (44%), menstrual cycle regular (90%) and pregnancy test negative (90%). Only in 5 cases (10%) pregnancy test was positive. PMID:22314456

Anwary, S A; Alfazzaman, M; Bari, N; Islam, M R

2012-01-01

159

Phenotype and Metabolic Disorders in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrinopathies in women. Its incidence is assessed at 6–8% of the female population in the reproductive age. It is characterised by oligomenorrhea (Oligo), hyperandrogenism (HA), and the presence of polycystic ovaries (PCOs). Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is being disturbed in many women with PCOS. The pathogenesis of PCOS is still unexplained. Following the main criteria of diagnosis (Rotterdam Consensus 2003), Dewailly, Welt and Pehlivanov divided the patients with PCOS into 4 phenotype groups: A, B, C, and D. In our studies of 93 patients with PCOS, we found (1) the most frequent appearance (60,2%) of the phenotype A [Oligo + HA + PCO]; (2) an increased androstenedione concentration in a group with HA (A, B, C); (3) an increased HOMA-? and insulin concentration after 30?min an oral 75?g glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a group of obese women with BMI > 30?kg/m2; (4) high levels of total testosterone, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol concentrations in a group A with classic phenotype of PCOS: Oligo + HA + PCO—increasing the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. The average androstenedione concentrations could be a good diagnostic and prognostic parameter.

Gluszak, Olgierd; Stopinska-Gluszak, Urszula; Glinicki, Piotr; Kapuscinska, Renata; Snochowska, Hanna; Zgliczynski, Wojciech; Debski, Romuald

2012-01-01

160

Cardiometabolic abnormalities in the polycystic ovary syndrome: pharmacotherapeutic insights.  

PubMed

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of all premenopausal women. It is diagnosed by a combination of oligo-amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism (NIH criteria) or by the presence of two out of three of: oligo-amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound (Rotterdam criteria). PCOS is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Different patterns of dyslipidemia can be present, both in lean and obese PCOS. Low HDL-cholesterol, with or without elevated TG, is the most prominent lipid abnormality. In addition, smaller HDL and LDL particles and elevated postprandial TG responses are reported. Hyperandrogenism, anovulation and insulin resistance affect multiple steps in lipid metabolism in PCOS, as will be discussed. Surrogate markers for atherosclerosis are consistently abnormal in PCOS, while studies on clinical CVD endpoints are limited and non-conclusive. The (pharmaco-) therapy of dyslipidemia in PCOS will be discussed. In addition, the effects of other PCOS related (pharmaco-) therapies, primarily aimed at hyperandrogenism, anovulation or insulin resistance, on lipid metabolism will be addressed. PMID:18602948

Westerveld, H E; Hoogendoorn, M; de Jong, A W F; Goverde, A J; Fauser, B C J M; Dallinga-Thie, G M

2008-06-17

161

Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese PCOS patients. Levels of sexual hormone binding globulin are decreased, and levels of free androgens are increased in obese PCOS patients. Weight loss treatment is important for overweight or obese PCOS patients, but not necessary for normal weight PCOS patients, who only need to avoid increasing their body weight. Obesity decreases or delays several infertility treatments. The differences in the hormonal and metabolic profile, as well as the different focus and response to treatment between obese and non obese PCOS patients suggest that obesity has to be considered as a characteristic for classification of PCOS phenotypes.

Moran, Carlos; Arriaga, Monica; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Moran, Segundo

2012-01-01

162

The Genetic Basis of Transgressive Ovary Size in Honeybee Workers  

PubMed Central

Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200–360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits.

Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

2009-01-01

163

Caprin Controls Follicle Stem Cell Fate in the Drosophila Ovary  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation for tissue homeostasis. The Drosophila ovary has provided a wealth of information about the extrinsic niche signals and intrinsic molecular processes required to ensure appropriate germline stem cell renewal and differentiation. The factors controlling behavior of the more recently identified follicle stem cells of the ovary are less well-understood but equally important for fertility. Here we report that translational regulators play a critical role in controlling these cells. Specifically, the translational regulator Caprin (Capr) is required in the follicle stem cell lineage to ensure maintenance of this stem cell population and proper encapsulation of developing germ cells by follicle stem cell progeny. In addition, reduction of one copy of the gene fmr1, encoding the translational regulator Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, exacerbates the Capr encapsulation phenotype, suggesting Capr and fmr1 are regulating a common process. Caprin was previously characterized in vertebrates as Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein. Significantly, we find that loss of Caprin alters the dynamics of the cell cycle, and we present evidence that misregulation of CycB contributes to the disruption in behavior of follicle stem cell progeny. Our findings support the idea that translational regulators may provide a conserved mechanism for oversight of developmentally critical cell cycles such as those in stem cell populations.

Reich, John; Papoulas, Ophelia

2012-01-01

164

Caprin controls follicle stem cell fate in the Drosophila ovary.  

PubMed

Adult stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation for tissue homeostasis. The Drosophila ovary has provided a wealth of information about the extrinsic niche signals and intrinsic molecular processes required to ensure appropriate germline stem cell renewal and differentiation. The factors controlling behavior of the more recently identified follicle stem cells of the ovary are less well-understood but equally important for fertility. Here we report that translational regulators play a critical role in controlling these cells. Specifically, the translational regulator Caprin (Capr) is required in the follicle stem cell lineage to ensure maintenance of this stem cell population and proper encapsulation of developing germ cells by follicle stem cell progeny. In addition, reduction of one copy of the gene fmr1, encoding the translational regulator Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, exacerbates the Capr encapsulation phenotype, suggesting Capr and fmr1 are regulating a common process. Caprin was previously characterized in vertebrates as Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein. Significantly, we find that loss of Caprin alters the dynamics of the cell cycle, and we present evidence that misregulation of CycB contributes to the disruption in behavior of follicle stem cell progeny. Our findings support the idea that translational regulators may provide a conserved mechanism for oversight of developmentally critical cell cycles such as those in stem cell populations. PMID:22493746

Reich, John; Papoulas, Ophelia

2012-04-06

165

Sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary: two case reports.  

PubMed

Sclerosing stromal tumours are rare benign ovarian neoplasms of the sex cord stromal that occur predominantly in the second and third decades of life. Herein, we report two cases of sclerosing stromal tumour of the ovary. The two patients were 16 and 45 years old and both presented with pelvic pain. Ultrasonography demonstrated a heterogeneous solid mass of the left and right ovary, respectively, with some cystic foci in the second tumour. Laboratory tests including tumour markers and serum hormonal assays were normal in both cases. The two patients underwent left and right salpingo-oophrectomy, respectively. Microscopically, the tumours showed a pseudolobular pattern with cellular areas separated by oedematous and collagenous areas. The cellular areas were richly vascularized, with a hemangiopericytic pattern, and were composed of an admixture of theca-like and spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumour cells were positive for smooth muscle actin, inhibin and vimentin, but negative for cytokeratin. The final pathological diagnosis was sclerosing stromal tumour. Postoperative course was uneventful for both patients. PMID:23951586

Limaiem, F; Boudabous, E; Ben Slama, S; Chelly, B; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Gara, F; Mzabi, S

2013-04-01

166

The genetic basis of transgressive ovary size in honeybee workers.  

PubMed

Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200-360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits. PMID:19620393

Linksvayer, Timothy A; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

2009-07-20

167

Radiation-induced tumors in transplanted ovaries. [Mice  

SciTech Connect

A comparison was made of tumor induction in the ovaries of whole-body-irradiation mice (250-kV X rays, doses of 0.25-4.00 Gy) or in ovaries irradiated in vivo and then transplanted intramuscularly into castrated syngeneic hosts. The form of the dose-induction relationships was similar in the two cases, showing a steeply rising branch at doses up to 0.75 Gy followed by a maximum and an elevated plateau up to 4.00 Gy. A higher incidence of tumors in transplanted organs was apparent for doses up to the maximum, which was attributed to castration-induced hormonal imbalance. Specific death rate analysis of mice dying with ovarian tumors showed that in this system radiation acts essentially by decreasing tumor latency. Ovarian tumors were classified in various histological types and their development in time was followed by serial sacrifice. Separate analysis of death rate of animals carrying different tumor classes allowed further resolution of the various components of the tumor induction phenomenon. It was thus possible to show that the overall death rate analysis masks a true effect of induction of granulosa cell tumors in whole-body-irradiation animals. The transplantation technique offers little advantage for the study of radiation induction of ovarian tumor.

Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

1982-04-01

168

Phenotypic expression of polycystic ovary syndrome in South Asian women.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 6% to 10% of women and, as the most common worldwide endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women, is linked to a constellation of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, including anovulatory infertility, hirsutism, acne, and insulin resistance in association with metabolic syndrome. Despite a genetic component to PCOS, ethnicity plays an important role in the phenotypic expression of PCOS, with South Asian PCOS women having more severe reproductive and metabolic symptoms than other ethnic groups. South Asians with PCOS seek medical care at an earlier age for reproductive abnormalities; have a higher degree of hirsutism, infertility, and acne; and experience lower live birth rates following in vitro fertilization than do whites with PCOS. Similarly, South Asians with PCOS have a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome than do other PCOS-related ethnic groups of a similar body mass index. Inheritance of PCOS appears to have a complex genetic basis, including genetic differences based on ethnicity, which interact with lifestyle and other environmental factors to affect PCOS phenotypic expression. Target Audience: Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to state an ethnic difference in reproductive dysfunction between South Asian and white women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), state an ethnic difference in metabolic dysfunction between South Asian and white women with PCOS, identify a genetic abnormality found in South Asian women with PCOS, and list 2 environmental factors that predispose South Asian women to metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23945839

Mehta, Jaya; Kamdar, Vikram; Dumesic, Daniel

2013-03-01

169

Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

2012-09-23

170

Identification of novel missense mutations of GDF9 in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene for growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is expressed in human oocytes and has an important function in regulating early follicle growth and fertility. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common defects that causes ovary dysfunction and is linked to aberrant processes in folliculogenesis. Previous studies have discovered several mutations in the screening of GDF9 in premature

Binbin Wang; Sirui Zhou; Jing Wang; Jingjing Liu; Feng Ni; Jinting Yan; Yuan Mu; Yunxia Cao; Xu Ma

2010-01-01

171

Expressed sequence tag analysis of expression profiles of zebrafish testis and ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, two gonad cDNA libraries from zebrafish testes and ovaries were constructed and a total of 1025 expressed sequence tag (EST) clones were generated from the two libraries: 501 from the testis library and 524 from the ovary library. A total of 641 of the EST clones were identified to share significant sequence identity with known sequences

Sheng Zeng; Zhiyuan Gong

2002-01-01

172

Expression of glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) in the rat ovary during the oestrous cycle and postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are low-molecular-weight proteins which participate in redox events in association with glutathione (GSH) and are involved in a variety of cellular processes. It is known that oxidative stress plays important physiological roles within the ovary. In the present study, we have prepared specific antibodies against rat Grx and have used them to localize the protein in the ovaries

R Gonzalez-Fernandez; F Gaytán; E Martínez-Galisteo; P Porras; C A Padilla; J E Sánchez Criado; J A Bárcena

2005-01-01

173

The ovary structure, previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages in parthenogenetic species Dactylobiotus dispar (Murray, 1907) (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive system of Dactylobiotus dispar consists of the ovary and the oviduct that opens into the rectum. The sack-like ovary is filled with the developing oocytes, which are assisted by the trophocytes. In D. dispar, the mixed vitellogenesis takes place. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), the second part is absorbed by micropinocytosis

Izabela Poprawa

2005-01-01

174

Proteomic analysis of human ovaries from normal and polycystic ovarian syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, affecting 5 -10% of females of reproduc- tive age. Currently, little is known about the changes in whole proteins between PCOS and normal ovaries. In the present study, a proteomic approach comprised two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) analysis and mass spectroscopy was used to identify proteins and examine expression

Xiang Ma; Lu Fan; Yan Meng; Zheng Hou; Yun-Dong Mao; Wei Wang; Wei Ding; Jia-Yin Liu

2007-01-01

175

Distribution of steroidogenic enzymes involved in androgen synthesis in polycystic ovaries: an immunohistochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find an explanation for the possible working mechanism of laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery for the treatment of anovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), we evaluated the distribution of steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of ovarian androgens in surgical pathology specimens of entire polycystic ovaries. A total of 13 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of the ovaries of patients with clinically

Eugenie M. Kaaijk; Hironobu Sasano; Takashi Suzuki; Johan F. Beek; Fulco van der Veen

2000-01-01

176

Ultrastructural study of the ovary of the sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Hemiptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the ultrastructure of meroistic telotrophic ovaries of the sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata. In this type of ovary, nurse cells, oogonia, and prefollicular tissue are located at the terminal (distal) regions or tropharium of ovarioles. Oocytes in different developmental stages, classified from I to V, are observed in the vitellarium. Stage I oocytes do not exhibit intercellular

Débora Caperucci; Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias

2006-01-01

177

Morphological characterization of the ovary and vitellogenesis dynamics in the tick Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we describe the internal morphology of the female reproductive system of the cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense. This system is represented by a panoistic ovary, which lacks nurse cells in the germarium. This ovary consists of a single tube, in which a large number of oocytes develop asynchronously, thus accompanying the processes of yolk deposition in the oocytes.

Sandra Eloisi Denardi; Gervásio Henrique Bechara; Patrícia Rosa de Oliveira; Érika Takagi Nunes; Kelly Cristina Saito; Maria Izabel Camargo Mathias

2004-01-01

178

Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Benghazi Libya; A Retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition affecting women of reproductive age and characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. There are no published data on this syndrome in Libyan patients. Aims and objectives: To assess the frequency of clinical and biochemical features of PCOS in our patient population, and to compare this with data collected

Najem FI; Swalem AM

179

Resynthesizing Brassica napus from interspecific hybridization between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea through ovary culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using three varieties of Brassica rapa, cv. Hauarad (accession 708), cv. Maoshan-3 (714) and cv. Youbai (715), as the maternal plants and one variety of B. oleracea cv. Jingfeng-1 (6012) as the paternal plant, crosses were made to produce interspecific hybrids through ovary culture techniques. A better response of seed formation was observed when ovaries were cultured in vitro at

G. Q. Zhang; G. X. Tang; W. J. Song; W. J. Zhou

2004-01-01

180

Ovary and oocyte maturation of the tick Amblyomma brasiliense Aragão, 1908 ( Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the ovary anatomy and dynamics of oocytes maturation process of Amblyomma brasiliense ticks. The ovary is of panoistic type lacking nurse and follicular cells. This organ consists of a single continuous tubular structure comprising a lumen delimited by the ovarian wall. Oocytes of this tick species are classified into five stages (I–V) and described based on cytoplasm

Gustavo Seron Sanches; Gervásio Henrique Bechara; Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias

2010-01-01

181

Endophytic and pathogenic fungi of developing cranberry ovaries from flower to mature fruit: diversity and succession  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Culturable fungal population diversity and succession were investigated in developing cranberry ovaries of fruit rot-resistant and rot-susceptible cranberry selections, from flower through mature fruit. Fungi were recovered in culture from 1185 of 1338 ovary tissues collected from June to September,...

182

Somatic Sex Reprogramming of Adult Ovaries to Testes by FOXL2 Ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In mammals, the transcription factor SRY, encoded by the Y chromosome, is normally responsible for triggering the indifferent gonads to develop as testes rather than ovaries. However, testis differentiation can occur in its absence. Here we demonstrate in the mouse that a single factor, the forkhead tran- scriptional regulator FOXL2, is required to prevent transdifferentiation of an adult ovary

N. Henriette Uhlenhaut; Susanne Jakob; Katrin Anlag; Tobias Eisenberger; Ryohei Sekido; Jana Kress; Anna-Corina Treier; Claudia Klugmann; Christian Klasen; Nadine I. Holter; Dieter Riethmacher; Günther Schütz; Austin J. Cooney; Robin Lovell-Badge; Mathias Treier

2009-01-01

183

Partial characterization of the antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody to Ascaris suum ovary extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody produced against ovary extracts from the worm Ascaris suum showed immunoreactivity against granules in the rachis and oocytes, the inner layer of the eggshell and the middle layer of some egg, but not against either ovary wall or uterus wall. Furthermore, the same antigens were detected on the body surface of migrated larva in guinea pig lung,

T. Inoue; M. Takashima; S. Murakami; T. Watanabe

2007-01-01

184

Hormonal regulation of S-adenosylmethionine synthase transcripts in pea ovaries.  

PubMed

Two cDNA clones coding for S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthase (SAMs, EC 2.5.1.6) have been isolated from a cDNA library of gibberellic acid-treated unpollinated pea ovaries. Both cDNAs were sequenced showing a high degree of identity but coding for different SAMs polypeptides. The presence of two SAMs genes in pea was further confirmed by Southern analysis. Expression of the SAMs genes in the pea plant was found at different levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. We characterized the expression levels of SAMs genes during the development or senescence of pea ovaries. Northern analysis showed that transcription of SAMs genes in parthenocarpic fruits was upregulated by auxins in the same manner as in fruits from pollinated ovaries. In both pollinated and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-treated ovaries, and benzyladenine, although able to induce parthenocarpic development, did not affect SAMs mRNA levels. These data are consistent with an active participation of auxins in the upregulation of SAMs during fruit setting in pea and suggest that, at the molecular level, parthenocarpic development of pea ovaries is different for gibberellin- and cytokinin-treated ovaries than for auxin-induced parthenocarpic biosynthesis since treatment of the ovaries with aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in a delay of senescence and prevention of SAMs mRNA accumulation. A possible mechanism for hormonal regulation of SAMs during ovary development is discussed. PMID:8624412

Gómez-Gómez, L; Carrasco, P

1996-02-01

185

Amblyomma triste (Koch, 1844) (Acari: Ixodidae): Morphological description of the ovary and of vitellogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study presents the morphology, histology, and the dynamics of vitellogenesis in females of the tick Amblyomma triste. The ovary in this species is of the panoistic type, therefore it lacks nurse cells. It is composed of a layer of epithelial cells that outwardly form the wall of the ovary, but also originate the pedicel, the structure that attaches

Patrícia Rosa de Oliveira; Maria Izabel Camargo Mathias; Gervásio Henrique Bechara

2006-01-01

186

Suppression of Notch Signaling in the Neonatal Mouse Ovary Decreases Primordial Follicle Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notch signaling directs cell fate during embryogenesis by influencing cell proliferation, differen- tiation, and apoptosis. Notch genes are expressed in the adult mouse ovary, and roles for Notch in regulatingfolliculogenesisarebeginningtoemergefrommousegeneticmodels.Weinvestigated how Notch signaling might influence the formation of primordial follicles. Follicle assembly takes place when germ cell syncytia within the ovary break down and germ cells are encapsulated by pregranulosa

Daniel J. Trombly; Teresa K. Woodruff; Kelly E. Mayo

2009-01-01

187

The restorative effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on damaged ovarian function.  

PubMed

The clinical application of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as treatment for intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To address the ability of reactivating injured ovaries, we prepared a rat model with damaged ovaries by using an anticancer agent, cyclophosphamide (CTX). We then investigated the restorative effects on ovarian function and the safety of adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). MSCs were shown to be capable of inducing angiogenesis and restoring the number of ovarian follicles and corpus lutea in ovaries. No deformities, tumor formation or deaths were observed in F1 and F2 rats, indicating that the local injection of MSCs into the ovary did not have any obvious side effects. In addition, the localization of the Y chromosome was investigated using the fluorescent in situ hybridization method by injecting male A-MSCs into the ovaries; as a result, the Y chromosomes were localized not in the follicles, but in the thecal layers. ELISA revealed that A-MSCs secreted higher levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than tail fibroblast cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that higher expression levels of VEGF, IGF-1 and HGF were observed in CTX-treated ovaries after A-MSC transplantation. These findings suggest that MSCs may have a role in restoring damaged ovarian function and could be useful for regenerative medicine. PMID:23212100

Takehara, Yuji; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Ezoe, Kenji; Kuroda, Tomoko; Yamadera, Rie; Sano, Chiaki; Murata, Nana; Aida, Takuya; Nakama, Ken; Aono, Fumihito; Aoyama, Naoki; Kato, Keiich; Kato, Osamu

2012-11-19

188

The restorative effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on damaged ovarian function  

PubMed Central

The clinical application of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as treatment for intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To address the ability of reactivating injured ovaries, we prepared a rat model with damaged ovaries by using an anticancer agent, cyclophosphamide (CTX). We then investigated the restorative effects on ovarian function and the safety of adipose-derived MSCs (A-MSCs). MSCs were shown to be capable of inducing angiogenesis and restoring the number of ovarian follicles and corpus lutea in ovaries. No deformities, tumor formation or deaths were observed in F1 and F2 rats, indicating that the local injection of MSCs into the ovary did not have any obvious side effects. In addition, the localization of the Y chromosome was investigated using the fluorescent in situ hybridization method by injecting male A-MSCs into the ovaries; as a result, the Y chromosomes were localized not in the follicles, but in the thecal layers. ELISA revealed that A-MSCs secreted higher levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than tail fibroblast cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that higher expression levels of VEGF, IGF-1 and HGF were observed in CTX-treated ovaries after A-MSC transplantation. These findings suggest that MSCs may have a role in restoring damaged ovarian function and could be useful for regenerative medicine.

Takehara, Yuji; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Ezoe, Kenji; Kuroda, Tomoko; Yamadera, Rie; Sano, Chiaki; Murata, Nana; Aida, Takuya; Nakama, Ken; Aono, Fumihito; Aoyama, Naoki; Kato, Keiich; Kato, Osamu

2013-01-01

189

RNA interference mediated pten knock-down inhibit the formation of polycystic ovary.  

PubMed

Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10), a kind of tumor suppressor gene, plays important roles in female reproductive system. But its expression and roles in the formation of polycystic ovaries are yet to be known. In this study, we constructed a rat model of PCOS using norethindrone and HCG injections and found the expressions of pten mRNA and PTEN protein increased significantly in the polycystic ovary tissue by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and western blot. Furthermore, the results showed that in vivo ovaries could be effectively transfected by lentiviral vectors through the ovarian microinjection method and indicated that pten shRNA may inhibit the formation of polycystic ovaries by pten down-regulation. Our study provides new information regarding the role of PTEN in female reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:23686705

Ouyang, Jie-Xiu; Luo, Tao; Sun, Hui-Yun; Huang, Jian; Tang, Dan-Feng; Wu, Lei; Zheng, Yue-Hui; Zheng, Li-Ping

2013-05-19

190

Evaluation of normal-sized ovaries associated with primary peritoneal serous carcinoma for possible precursors of ovarian serous carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThree groups of “high-risk” ovaries have previously been studied for possible precursors of ovarian carcinoma: ovaries removed prophylactically from women at high risk, normal ovaries contralateral to a unilateral ovarian carcinoma, and normal ovarian tissue found adjacent to primary ovarian carcinomas. No data are available for a fourth high-risk group: normal-sized ovaries from women with primary peritoneal serous carcinoma.

Jeffrey D. Seidman; Brant G. Wang

2007-01-01

191

Expression of insulin-receptor substrate-1 and -2 in ovaries from women with insulin resistance and from controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the role of insulin-receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and -2 in ovary dysfunction in women with insulin resistance.Design: Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analyses of the localization and staining intensity of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the ovaries of women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes mellitus.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Turku University Central Hospital.Patient(s): Sections of ovary

Xiao-Ke Wu; Kirsimarja Sallinen; Leena Anttila; Marjaana Mäkinen; Cheng Luo; Pasi Pöllänen; Risto Erkkola

2000-01-01

192

Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON) will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV) to

Leticia Morales-Ledesma; Rosa Linares; Gabriela Rosas; Carolina Morán; Roberto Chavira; Mario Cárdenas; Roberto Domínguez

2010-01-01

193

Low-grade chronic inflammation in the peripheral blood and ovaries of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic inflammation in the peripheral blood and ovaries of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). 86 PCOS patients and 50 controls were randomly enrolled in the study. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), blood routine test, lipid metabolism index, inflammation cytokines were detected. Ovary samples from PCOS group

Yong-lao Xiong; Xiao-yan Liang; Xing Yang; Yi Li; Li-na Wei

194

Structural features and expression of an alternatively spliced growth factor type I receptor for follitropin signaling in the developing ovary.  

PubMed

The pleiotropic actions of pituitary follitropin (FSH), regulate the expression of many cell cycle genes controlling ovarian follicular development and differentiation. In this study we asked the question whether different receptor motifs are created by the alternative splicing of the single large 80-100 Kb receptor gene. A 1.2 Kb transcript identified from a cDNA library of hormone primed (immature) sheep ovaries, codes for a putative protein lacking the seven transmembrane segment. The receptor of 259 amino acids designated FSH-R3 is derived from a transcript comprising the first eight exons of the Gs coupled larger FSH receptor (R1) spliced to another DNA segment. This event produces a different carboxyl terminus at the junction creating a novel receptor motif with a single membrane spanning domain, assigning it to the growth factor type I receptor family. In transfected cells the expressed receptor localizes on the cell surface and specific antibodies directed against the unique C-terminal portion (residues 242-259) of FSH-R3 demonstrate the presence of the receptor protein in solubilized ovarian and testicular membrane preparations. FSH binding to the transfected cells induced [Ca2+]i identifying coupling of the R3 receptor to calcium signaling pathways. Thus, a growth factor type I receptor for FSH may be implicated in the growth promoting actions of FSH in the ovary. This is the first documentation of alternative splicing of a G protein coupled receptor gene creating a different signaling motif for cellular signaling. PMID:10527886

Babu, P S; Jiang, L; Sairam, A M; Touyz, R M; Sairam, M R

1999-07-01

195

CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL-DERIVED RECOMBINANT HUMAN ACID ?-GLUCOSIDASE IN INFANTILE-ONSET POMPE DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct an open-label, multinational, multicenter study examining the safety and efficacy of recombinant human acid ?-glucosidase (rhGAA) in treatment of infantile-onset Pompe disease. Study design We enrolled 8 infant patients who had Pompe disease with GAA activity <1% of normal, cardiomyopathy, and hypotonia. In the 52-week initial phase, rhGAA was infused intravenously at 10 mg/kg weekly; an extension phase continued survivors’ treatment with 10 to 20 mg/kg of rhGAA weekly or 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks for as long as 153 weeks. Safety measurements included adverse events, laboratory tests, and anti-rhGAA antibody titers. Efficacy evaluations included survival, ventilator use, echo-cardiograms, growth, and motor and cognitive function. Result After 52 weeks of treatment, 6 of 8 patients were alive, and 5 patients were free of invasive ventilator support. Clinical improvements included ameliorated cardiomyopathy and improved growth and cognition. Five patients acquired new motor milestones; 3 patients walked independently. Four patients died after the initial study phase; the median age at death or treatment withdrawal for all patients was 21.7 months, significantly later than expected for patients who were not treated. Treatment was safe and well tolerated; no death was drug-related. Conclusion rhGAA improved ventilator-free survival, cardiomyopathy, growth, and motor function in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease compared with outcomes expected for patients without treatment.

Kishnani, Priya Sunil; Nicolino, Marc; Voit, Thomas; Rogers, R. Curtis; Tsai, Anne Chun-Hui; Waterson, John; Herman, Gail E.; Amalfitano, Andreas; Thurberg, Beth L.; Richards, Susan; Davison, Mark; Corzo, Deyanira; Chen, YT

2009-01-01

196

Animal models of the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.  

PubMed

The etiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unclear, despite its high prevalence among infertility disorders in women of reproductive age. Although there is evidence for a genetic component of the disorder, other causes, such as prenatal insults are considered among the potential factors that may contribute to the development of the syndrome. Over the past few decades, several animal models have been developed in an attempt to understand the potential contribution of exposure to excess steroids on the development of this syndrome. The current review summarizes the phenotypes of current animal models exposed to excess steroid during the prenatal and early postnatal period and how they compare with the phenotype seen in women with PCOS. PMID:23701728

Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

2013-05-20

197

The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and recent human evolution.  

PubMed

The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder characterised both by reproductive and metabolic disturbance, and is the most common cause globally of ovarian infertility. It is also a familial polygenic condition, linked genetically to both Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The striking evolutionary paradox of this prominent genetically-based condition, which impairs fertility, is that not only should it have diminished in prevalence, but it should have done so rapidly - unless there has been some form of balancing selection. The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine can provide important insights into the causes and patterns of occurrence of common diseases such as PCOS. In this paper we review the impacts of PCOS on infertility, fecundability and lifetime reproductive success and then critically appraise published hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of PCOS and related conditions. PMID:23352610

Corbett, Stephen; Morin-Papunen, Laure

2013-01-23

198

Germ cell proliferations in the fetal horse ovary.  

PubMed

During the 340 day pregnancy of the horse, the germ cells in the fetal ovary showed a meiotic prophase which began in days 60-70 and might be prolonged after day 200. Three or four successive oogonial mitotic proliferations passed into the meiotic prophase but the great majority of the oocytes first involved degenerated, and no appreciable numbers of primordial follicles were left behind. At 150 days of pregnancy and again at 197 days, oocytes in early meiotic stages filled the ovarian cortex. Primordial follicles were present, but rare. As the prophase gradually came to an end, groups of oocytes became enclosed by small 'boundary' cells which formed in the stroma. Coalescence of these groups led to the appearance of coiled and branching formations containing small and large oocytes. Many of the original groups, however, contracted and became narrow strands and these persisted until the end of pregnancy, many oocytes disappearing from them, while others eventually developed in primordial follicles. PMID:597852

Deanesly, R

1977-12-19

199

OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA AND METABOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an underrecognized, yet significant factor in the pathogenesis of metabolic derangements in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Recent findings suggest that there may be two “subtypes” of PCOS, i.e. PCOS with or without OSA, and these two subtypes may be associated with distinct metabolic and endocrine alterations. PCOS women with OSA may be at much higher risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease than PCOS women without OSA and may benefit from therapeutic interventions targeted to decrease the severity of OSA. The present chapter will review what is currently known about the roles of sex steroids and adiposity in the pathogenesis of OSA, briefly review the metabolic consequences of OSA as well as the metabolic abnormalities associated with PCOS, review the prevalence of OSA in PCOS and finally present early findings regarding the impact of treatment of OSA on metabolic measures in PCOS.

Nitsche, Katie; Ehrmann, David A.

2010-01-01

200

The role of Akt signalling in the mammalian ovary.  

PubMed

The serine/threonine protein kinase Akt is involved in many cellular processes including cell growth, survival, proliferation and metabolism. Akt activity is modulated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) in response to different extracellular stimuli. In the mammalian ovary, Akt collaborates with other kinases in the regulation of coordinate follicle and oocyte development. Akt determines the pool of primordial follicles and the transition from quiescent to growing phase. In addition, the kinase modulates granulosa cell apoptosis throughout folliculogenesis. In oocytes Akt participates in the control of meiosis resumption and, at metaphase II stage, regulates polar body emission and spindle organization. Its inhibition negatively affects preimplantation embryo development. As a consequence of such a central role, Akt dysregulation is associated with several human diseases including infertility and ovarian cancer. PMID:23417403

Cecconi, Sandra; Mauro, Annunziata; Cellini, Valerio; Patacchiola, Felice

2012-01-01

201

Dyspnoea and the ovaries: a rare presentation of Krukenberg tumour.  

PubMed

Krukenberg tumour is a metastatic signet-ring adenocarcinoma of the ovary, usually with a gastrointestinal primary detected metachronously or synchronously. We present here a case of a 48 year-old woman who presented with a prolonged history of dyspnoea on exertion. Workup had revealed a pelvic mass. Thoracocentesis of her pleural effusion, with cytology, and pathology reports from her total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed a carcinoma with signet-ring cells. Immunostains were positive for CDX2, CK7 and CK20, which was highly suggestive of a gastric primary. Colonoscopy was negative, and an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a few small crater ulcers, the biopsy of which was negative for cancer. A right-sided pleurodesis was performed for the unremitting malignant effusion, and a PleurX catheter was placed in her left pleural space. She was discharged home with a very poor prognosis. PMID:23378553

Rawasia, Wasiq Faraz; Chaddha, Udit; El-Kersh, Karim; Perez, Rafael L

2013-02-01

202

Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females with a high prevalence. The etiology of this heterogeneous condition remains obscure and its phenotype expression varies. Two, widely cited, previous ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshops focused on diagnosis (published in 2004) and infertility management (published in 2008). The present third PCOS consensus paper summarizes current knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps regarding various women's health aspects of PCOS. Relevant topics addressed-all dealt with in a systematic fashion-include adolescence, hirsutism and acne, contraception, menstrual cycle abnormalities, quality of life, ethnicity, pregnancy complications, long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health and finally cancer risk. Additional, comprehensive background information is provided separately in an extended online publication. PMID:22147920

2011-12-05

203

Organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in muscle and ovaries of Gulf coast striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the Apalachicola River, Florida, USA.  

PubMed

Eight female Gulf coast striped bass (Morone saxatilis) broodfish collected for induced spawning from the Apalachicola River below the Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and metals in muscle and ovarian tissues. Chemical analyses revealed that muscle and ovaries contained detectable amounts of OCs and metals. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, a derivative of the pesticide DDT, in muscle and ovary (0.54 and 0.65 microg/g, respectively) were significantly higher than alpha-chlordane, dieldrin, and p,p'-DDD. The presence of p,p'-DDE, an antiandrogenic compound, in females suggests that the compound also may be present in male striped bass. Concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mg, and Mn were higher in muscle than in ovarian tissues. Concentrations of Hg have almost doubled in muscle tissues (0.85 microg/g) and tripled in ovaries (0. 15 microg/g) in our samples, compared with the data from 1986 to 1989. Organochlorine pesticides and metal contaminants were present in muscle and ovarian tissues of adult females and may have been retarding development of eggs leading to low hatching rates. PMID:11281252

Brim, M S; Alam, S K; Jenkins, L G

2001-01-01

204

Gonadotropin regulation of glutathione synthesis in the rat ovary.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant and conjugator of electrophilic toxicants, prevents toxicant-mediated destruction of ovarian follicles and oocytes. Ovarian GSH has previously been shown to change with estrous cycle stage in rats, suggesting that the gonadotropin hormones may regulate ovarian GSH synthesis. The present studies tested the hypotheses that [1] estrous cycle-related changes in ovarian GSH result from cyclic changes in protein and mRNA expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, also called gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase), and [2] that these changes result from gonadotropin-mediated regulation of GCL subunit expression. In the first experiment, ovaries were harvested from cycling adult female rats on each stage of the estrous cycle. In the second experiment immature female rats were injected with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) to stimulate follicular development or with vehicle and killed 8, 24, or 48 h later. In both experiments the ovaries were harvested for [1] total GSH assay, [2] Western analysis for GCL catalytic (GCLc) and regulatory (GCLm) subunit protein levels, or [3] Northern analysis for Gclc and Gclm mRNA levels. Ovarian GSH concentrations and Gclc and Gclm mRNA levels, but not GCL subunit protein levels, varied significantly with estrous cycle stage. PMSG administration significantly increased ovarian GSH concentrations 24 and 48 h later. GCLm protein levels increased significantly at 24 h and 48 h following PMSG. GCLc protein levels did not increase significantly following PMSG. Gcl subunit mRNA levels were not significantly increased at any time point by the planned ANOVA; however, an increase in Gelc at 48 h was identified by t-testing. These results support the hypothesis that gonadotropins regulate ovarian GSH synthesis by modulating GCL subunit expression. PMID:11780957

Luderer, U; Kavanagh, T J; White, C C; Faustman, E M

205

The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both ovary and uterus are in addition to age-related co-morbidities, which together have synergistic effects on reducing the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome. PMID:23103636

Nelson, S M; Telfer, E E; Anderson, R A

2012-10-26

206

Thyrostimulin, but Not Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH), Acts as a Paracrine Regulator to Activate the TSH Receptor in Mammalian Ovary*  

PubMed Central

The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), activated by either TSH or the newly discovered glycoprotein hormone thyrostimulin, plays a central role in the control of body metabolism. Interestingly, in addition to its thyroid expression, we discovered that the mRNA level of TSHR is periodically regulated in rat ovary by gonadotropins. Ovarian microdissection followed by real-time PCR analysis indicated that granulosa cells show the highest level of TSHR expression. Cultures of follicles and primary granulosa cells demonstrated that the level of TSHR is up-regulated and decreased by the gonadotropin-driven cAMP cascade and estradiol production, respectively. Furthermore, in contrast to the negligible expression of TSH in the ovary, we also found by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analysis that thyrostimulin is expressed mainly in oocytes. Evolving before the appearance of gonadotropins, thyrostimulin is considered the most ancestral glycoprotein hormone. Therefore, the presence of thyrostimulin in the ovary suggests that it may have a primitive function in reproduction when it activates ovarian TSHR. Next, we generated recombinant thyrostimulin protein and characterized its non-covalent heterodimeric nature. Using purified recombinant thyrostimulin, we show that the human ovarian cell line NIH:OVCAR-3 also expresses endogenous and functional TSHR. Using cultured rat granulosa cells isolated from different ovarian stages, we found that treatments with thyrostimulin significantly increase cAMP production and the c-fos gene response in the presence of gonadotropins. Thus, this study demonstrates that oocyte-derived thyrostimulin and granulosa cell-expressed TSHR compose a novel paracrine system in the ovary, where the activity is tightly controlled by gonadotropins.

Sun, Su-Chin; Hsu, Pei-Jen; Wu, Fang-Ju; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lu, Chung-Hao; Luo, Ching-Wei

2010-01-01

207

The Genomic Sequence of the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) K1 cell line  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic proteins and antibodies represent a $125 billion annual market. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here, we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45Gb genomic sequence with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most scaffolds to 21 microfluidically-isolated chromosomes to identify chromosomal locations of genes. Furthermore, we investigate genes involved in glycosylation, which affects therapeutic protein quality, and viral susceptibility genes, which affect cell engineering and regulatory concerns. Specifically, homologs for most human glycosylation-associated genes are identified in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 are not expressed under exponential growth. In addition, many important viral entry genes are present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance property of CHO cell lines. We demonstrate how the availability of this genome sequence may facilitate genome-scale science for biopharmaceutical protein production.

Xu, Xun; Nagarajan, Harish; Lewis, Nathan E.; Pan, Shengkai; Cai, Zhiming; Liu, Xin; Chen, Wenbin; Xie, Min; Wang, Wenliang; Hammond, Stephanie; Andersen, Mikael R.; Neff, Norma; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Fan, H. Christina; Wang, Jianbin; Gui, Yaoting; Lee, Kelvin H.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Famili, Iman; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Wang, Jun

2011-01-01

208

Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions.

Kaina, B.; Lohrer, H.; Karin, M.; Herrlich, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.))

1990-04-01

209

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) recently has been identified as a risk factor associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the evidence derives from cross-sectional observational studies, retrospective studies, or short-term prospective studies. This long-term prospective study of a large cohort of women with PCOS, followed from youth to middle age, aimed at estimating, for the first time, the incidence and potential predictors of type 2 diabetes in this population. A total of 255 women with PCOS were followed for at least 10 years (mean follow-up 16.9 years). Six women were patients with diabetes at baseline, and another 42 women developed type 2 diabetes during the follow-up. The incidence rate of type 2 diabetes in the study population was 1.05 per 100 person-years. The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes at the end of follow-up was 39.3%, which is significantly higher with respect to that of the general Italian female population of a similar age (5.8%). The likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes significantly increased as BMI, fasting glucose, and glucose area under the curve at baseline increased and significantly decreased as sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) levels at follow-up increased. This study demonstrates that the risk of type 2 diabetes is markedly elevated in middle-aged women with PCOS and suggests including BMI, glucose, and SHBG-circulating levels in the risk stratification.

Gambineri, Alessandra; Patton, Laura; Altieri, Paola; Pagotto, Uberto; Pizzi, Carmine; Manzoli, Lamberto; Pasquali, Renato

2012-01-01

210

Distribution and HPLC study of chromium-51 binding sites in Chinese Hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Chinese hamster ovary cells were cultured with chromium-51 chromate to study the site of chromium interaction with cell biomolecules. After incubation, cells were homogenized and separated into nuclear, mitochondrial, microsomal, and cytosolic fractions. Greater than 75% of the radioactivity was found in the cytosolic fraction. The supernatant from the centrifuged cell homogenate, which contained > 90% of the chromium radioactivity, was subjected to chromatographic investigation. The combination of anion exchange and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that at least three different molecular species interact with chromate or its reduced derivative, Cr(III). These species are glutathione, the nucleotides cytosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate, guanine triphosphate, adenosine triphosphate, and adenosine diphosphate, plus an as yet unknown species of protein or peptide. Preliminary data for the specific activity of nucleoside triphosphates range from 6000 to 18,000 cpm/..mu..g ribonucleoside triphosphate. The glutathione accounted for 50% of the observed radioactivity, the nucleotides for 30%, and the metalloprotein accounted for the remainder.

Denniston, M.L.; Uyeki, E.M.

1987-01-01

211

The fine structure of the ovary of the feather star Nemaster rubiginosa (Echinodermata: Crinoidea).  

PubMed

The outer layer of the crinoid ovary consists of coelomic epithelium, smooth muscles, and nerve cell processes. The middle layer of the ovary contains non-germinal accessory cells, small germinal cells (either oogonia or pre-leptotene primary oocytes), and post-pachytene primary oocytes; all these cells are completely embedded in a haemal matrix of 200 A-diameter granules. The primary oocytes larger than 20mu in diameter have abundant invaginations in the plasma membrane, suggesting uptake of materials from the haemal matrix. The innermost layer of the ovary is a ciliated epithelium lining the cell-free ovarian lumen. PMID:18631548

Holland, N D

1971-01-01

212

Bilateral ovarian squamous cell carcinoma with an antecedent dermoid cyst in the left ovary.  

PubMed

Ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy and its occurrence is commonly attributed to malignant transformation of a pre-existing mature cystic teratoma. The de novo occurrence of primary squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare. Malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma is almost always unilateral; however, there have been isolated reports of an uncomplicated mature cystic teratoma in the contralateral ovary. We report here a case of a 40-year-old woman presenting with squamous cell carcinoma of both ovaries with antecedent dermoid cyst in the left ovary, along with involvement of the fallopian tubes, cervix and omentum. PMID:21518128

Prasad, Sruthi; Suguna, B V; Ravindra, Savithri

2011-04-26

213

Carcinoid of the Ovary: Diagnostic Challenge on Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology.  

PubMed

Carcinoid of the ovary is an uncommon tumor. In the present article we have described the cytological features of carcinoid of the ovary in a 53-year old post-menopausal female. The patient presented with abdominal discomfort and loose stools. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the left adnexal mass showed clusters and also scattered, relatively monomorphic population of tumor cells with vague rosette-like structures. Cytological diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumor possibly sex cord stromal tumor or carcinoid of ovary was offered and subsequent histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of carcinoid. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23456982

Kumar, Mahendra; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Dey, Pranab

2013-03-01

214

Femoral hernia containing strangulated ileum along with the uterus and both ovaries: a first case report.  

PubMed

Strangulated femoral hernia is a common surgical emergency. The contents of the hernial sac commonly include omentum and small bowel, but, occasionally, strangulation of other organs such as Meckel's diverticulum, stomach, ovary, or appendix may occur, resulting in unusual clinical presentations. We report of a case with strangulated femoral hernia containing the uterus and both ovaries, and this is the first report of such a case. We believe that it is important to take into consideration herniation of the uterus and ovaries with omentum or small bowel into the femoral canal to prevent various complications related to the reproductive functions of the patient. PMID:21509570

Ay, A; Agac Ay, A; Kaptanoglu, B; Ozer, S; Akalin, C

2011-04-21

215

Transvaginal Hydrolaparoscopic Ovarian Drilling Using Bipolar Electrosurgery to Treat Anovulatory Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study ObjectiveTo verify the value, feasibility, and reliability of transvaginal hydrolaparoscopic ovarian drilling using the bipolar VersaPoint system to treat clomiphene-resistant, anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Alessandro Casa; Francesco Sesti; Massimiliano Marziali; Lorenza Gulemì; Emilio Piccione

2003-01-01

216

Pure Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Ovary: A Rare Clinical Entity and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the ovary is a rare tumor and is now included in the World Health Organization tumor classification. Its prognosis is generally very poor even when the diagnosis is made at an early stage. We report a case of pure large cell neuroendocrine tumour of ovary, appearing 9 months following laparoscopic type I hysterectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection with ovarian preservation of anatomically normal looking ovaries performed for a cervical biopsy diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III with foci of invasion. The rarity lies in the rapid onset (9 months) of a large tumor following conservation of an anatomically normal ovaries. Surgical debulking and five cycles of chemotherapy (Etoposide and Cisplatin) were administered to the woman. She is on followup with no clinical or radiological evidence of disease recurrence for 6 months.

Shakuntala, P. N.; Uma Devi, K.; Shobha, K.; Bafna, U. D.; Geetashree, M.

2012-01-01

217

Down-regulation of lactate dehydrogenase-A by siRNAs for reduced lactic acid formation of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing thrombopoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate, one of the major waste products in mammalian cell culture, can inhibit cell growth and affect cellular metabolism\\u000a at high concentrations. To reduce lactate formation, lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion\\u000a of glucose-derived pyruvate to lactate, was down-regulated by an expression vector of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) in recombinant\\u000a Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells producing human thrombopoietin

Sung Hyun Kim; Gyun Min Lee

2007-01-01

218

Radiation Treatment of Advanced or Recurrent Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Because granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare, the optimal treatment for women with gross residual disease after primary surgery or recurrence is not known. Our objective was to review the results of radiotherapy for advanced or recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.Methods.This retrospective review identified 34 patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors treated with radiation at the

Judith K. Wolf; John Mullen; Patricia J. Eifel; Thomas W. Burke; Charles Levenback; David M. Gershenson

1999-01-01

219

Expression of growth-differentiating factor 9 and its type 1 receptor in human ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of growth-differentiating factor 9 (GDF9) has not been studied in ovaries from girls and human fetuses nor has its receptor transforming growth factor-?1 receptor (TGF?R1) been investigated in ovaries of girls\\/women. The aim of this study was to fill these gaps. Ovarian samples were obtained from 16 human fetuses at 21–35 gestational weeks and from 34 girls\\/women aged

Galia Oron; Benjamin Fisch; Asangla Ao; Xiao Yun Zhang; Jacob Farhi; Avi Ben Haroush; Gania Kesseler-Icekson; Ronit Abir

2010-01-01

220

Metformin improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the fertility promoting effect of metformin in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Twenty-nine\\u000a infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are included in our prospectively designed study and 15 normal menstruating\\u000a women served as controls for reproductive hormones and ovarian volumes. All PCOS patients received a total of 78 cycles of\\u000a clomiphene citrate (CC) in the beginning,

C. Batukan; B. Baysal

2001-01-01

221

Oocyte formation by mitotically active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically active cells that have a gene expression profile that is

Yvonne A R White; Dori C Woods; Yasushi Takai; Osamu Ishihara; Hiroyuki Seki; Jonathan L Tilly

2012-01-01

222

Inguinal hernia in Nigerian female children: beware of ovary and fallopian tube as contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The risk of injury to the ovary and fallopian tube during herniotomy in female children is quite high, and reports on the\\u000a frequency of these organs as inguinal hernia contents and, as such, prevention from injuries are not available in this subregion.\\u000a This study was designed to determine the frequency of ovary and fallopian tube as contents of inguinal hernias

O. D. Osifo; M. E. Ovueni

2009-01-01

223

"Cutaneous-type" angiosarcoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Benign and malignant somatic tumours arising in mature cystic teratomas of the ovary are a rare but recognised phenomenon. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common somatic malignancy arising in ovarian teratomas, although many other types of tumour have been described. An angiosarcoma with “cutaneous” type typical features arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary is reported. Vascular tumours have only rarely been described as secondary somatic tumours in ovarian teratomas. The diagnostic features and complications of such tumours are described.

den Bakker, M A; Ansink, A C; Ewing-Graham, P C

2006-01-01

224

Effect of Korean red ginseng extract in a steroid-induced polycystic ovary murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental induction of polycystic ovary (PCO) in rodent resembling some aspects of human PCO syndrome was produced using\\u000a the long-acting compound estradiol valerate (EV). Our previous study on the role of Korean red ginseng total saponins in a\\u000a steroid-induced PCO rat model demonstrated that electro-acupuncture modulates nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration in the\\u000a ovaries. In fact, the involvement of a

Sok Cheon Pak; Se-Eun Kim; Dong-Min Oh; Kyung Mi Shim; Moon Jin Jeong; Sung Chul Lim; Seung Yeol Nah; Soo Hyun Park; Seong Soo Kang; Chang Jong Moon; Jong Choon Kim; Sung Ho Kim; Chun Sik Bae

2009-01-01

225

Role of cytochrome P450c17 in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appears to be due to dysregulation of steroidogenesis within the ovaries and adrenal glands. P450c17 is the key enzyme that regulates androgen synthesis. It is the only enzyme known to have the capacity to convert C21-precursors to the androgen pre-hormones, the 17-ketosteroids. It is a single enzyme with two activities, 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase.

Ke-nan Qin; Robert L Rosenfield

1998-01-01

226

Ovary structure and early oogenesis in the remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus (Crustacea, Remipedia): phylogenetic implications.  

PubMed

Remipedia are enigmatic crustaceans of uncertain phylogenetic position with the general consensus that they are crucial for understanding the crustacean/arthropod evolution. It has been demonstrated previously that the features of the ovary organization and subcellular aspects of oogenesis are useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships in arthropods such as hexapods and onychophorans. The structure of the female gonads in Remipedia remains largely unknown; therefore, we examined the gross morphology and ultrastructural details of the ovary in a remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus, with special emphasis on characters relevant to phylogenetic reconstructions. The ovaries of G. frondosus are located in the anterior part of the body and are composed of a single anterior proliferative zone (the germarium) and paired ovarian tubes (the vitellarium). The oocytes undergo subsequent stages of development within the lumen of the ovarian tubes, hence the remipede ovaries can be classified as endogenous. During oogenesis, each oocyte is enveloped by a set of characteristic somatic follicular cells, which results in the formation of distinct ovarian follicles. Here, we demonstrate that Remipedia share significant similarities in the ovary organization with Cephalocarida, including the anterior location of the ovary, the anterior-most position of the germarium and the endogenous type of oocyte development. Phylogenetic implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:22521117

Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Iliffe, Thomas M; Bilinski, Szczepan M; Koenemann, Stefan

2012-04-19

227

Effect of Korean red ginseng extract in a steroid-induced polycystic ovary murine model.  

PubMed

Experimental induction of polycystic ovary (PCO) in rodent resembling some aspects of human PCO syndrome was produced using the long-acting compound estradiol valerate (EV). Our previous study on the role of Korean red ginseng total saponins in a steroid-induced PCO rat model demonstrated that electro-acupuncture modulates nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration in the ovaries. In fact, the involvement of a neurogenic component in the pathology of PCO-related ovarian dysfunction is preceded by an increase in sympathetic outflow to the ovaries. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) administration modulates sympathetic nerve activity in PCO-induced rats. This was done by analyzing NGF protein and NGF mRNA expression involved in the pathophysiological process underlying steroid-induced PCO. EV injection resulted in significantly higher ovarian NGF protein and NGF mRNA expression in PCO-induced rats compared to control rats, and PCO ovaries were counteracted by KRGE administration with significantly lower expression of NGF protein and NGF mRNA compared to EV treated ovaries. These results indicate that EV modulates the neurotrophic state of the ovaries, which may be a component of the pathological process by which EV induces cyst formation and anovulation in rodents. PMID:19387577

Pak, Sok Cheon; Kim, Se-Eun; Oh, Dong-Min; Shim, Kyung Mi; Jeong, Moon Jin; Lim, Sung Chul; Nah, Seung Yeol; Park, Soo Hyun; Kang, Seong Soo; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim, Sung Ho; Bae, Chun Sik

2009-04-23

228

The genetics of obesity. Lessons for polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity are common disorders with a complex phenotype. Both are presumably heterogeneous in etiology. Understanding the genetics of obesity, which has a longer and richer history, may therefore illuminate the genetics of PCOS, where major projects are now underway. Obesity may be the penultimate condition in which the effects of heredity and environment will forever mingle. Most obesity mutations identified to date (with the exception of the Agouti mutation) are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Therefore, it is unlikely that such mutations, even when identified in a human population, could explain only a fraction of the cases that make up the high prevalence of both of these disorders. Although the mouse models of single gene defects causing obesity contain many similar aspects of the PCOS phenotype such as obesity and subfecundity, there is no mouse model that mimics all aspects of the syndrome, especially the circulating androgen excess. This elevation in circulating androgens may be the sine qua non of the syndrome as indicated by our findings in sisters of PCOS probands that hyperandrogenemia may be the distintinctive reproductive phenotype. Isolation of PCOS and obesity genes may allow the development of targeted interventions that will lead to effective and safe treatment of both obesity and PCOS. PMID:10818406

Legro, R S

2000-01-01

229

Toxicity of sixteen metallic compounds in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of 16 metal salts to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was determined by measuring the cloning efficiency (CE) of CHO cells after exposure to the metals. CHO cells differed by a factor of 10/sup 5/ to 10/sup 6/ in their toxic response to these metal salts. While Cd(II) was the most toxic ion, Mg(II) exhibited the least toxicity based on either CE/sub 50/ (concentration required to reduce the CE to 50%) or D/sub 0/ (concentration increment which reduced the CE by 63%). On the basis of CE/sub 50/, the toxicity ranking was Ag > T1 for monovalent metals, Cd > Zn > Hg > Co > Cu > Mn > Ni > Be > Pd > Sr > Mg for divalent metals, and In > Rh > Y for trivalent metals. A similar ranking was found for D/sub 0/. For the 11 divalent metals, correlations of CE/sub 50/ and D/sub 0/ in the CHO cell assay and the Pearson-Mawby softness parameter for metals (sigma/sub p/) were reasonably strong. A good correlation exists between the results of this study on the toxic response in CHO cells and published data on toxicity in mice and Drosophila. It appears that the CHO cell cloning assay may be useful in preliminary screening of metallic compounds as an indicator of their predicted toxicity in higher organisms.

Tan, E.L.; Williams, M.W.; Schenley, R.L.; Perdue, S.W.; Hayden, T.L.; Turner, J.E.; Hsie, A.W.

1984-01-01

230

Vitellogenin transport and yolk formation in the quail ovary.  

PubMed

Morphological and biochemical investigations were made on the yolk formation in ovaries of the quail Coturnix japonica. Morphologically, two ways of nutrient uptake were observed in follicles. In small oocytes of white follicles, vitellogenin (VTG) was taken up through fluid-phase endocytosis which was assisted by follicular lining bodies. The lining bodies were produced in follicle cells. They adhered to the lateral cell membrane, moved along the membrane in the direction of the enclosed oocyte and were posted to the tips of the microvilli. These tips, now with lining bodies, were pinched off from the main cell body, engulfed by indented cell membranes of the oocyte, and transported to yolk spheres. In large oocytes of yellow follicles, VTG and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) were taken up through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The VTG and VLDL particles diffused through the huge interspaces between follicle cells, and once in oocytes were transported to yolk spheres via coated vesicles. Immunohistochemistry showed that the VTG resides on or near the surface of the follicle cell membrane at the zona radiata whereas the cathepsin D resides at or near the oocytic cell membranes. Tubular and round vesicles in the cortical cytoplasm of oocytes were also stained with both antisera, suggesting that these vesicles are the sites where the VTG is enzymatically processed by cathepsin D. Upon analysis by SDS-PAGE, a profile similar to that of yolk-granule proteins was produced by incubating VTG with a quail cathepsin D of 40 kD. PMID:12832822

Ito, Yasushi; Kihara, Machiko; Nakamura, Etsuko; Yonezawa, Satoshi; Yoshizaki, Norio

2003-06-01

231

Clinical and pathological features of hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary  

PubMed Central

Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary (HCO), a rare invasive malignant tumor composed mainly of epithelioid cells, presented with unilateral or bilateral ovarian masses and elevated serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP), has been found mainly in post-menopausal women. We hereby report on the case of a 53-year-old Chinese woman who presented with abdominal distension and a lower abdominal mass with high serum levels of CA-125 and AFP. She was later diagnosed with bilateral HCO. After surgery and following chemotherapy, the patient had no recurrence of tumor or ascites. The hepatoid cells were positive for AFP, p53 and CK7 by immunohistochemistry. Her serum CA-125 and AFP levels had decreased significantly after surgery. Our results suggest that testing and monitoring of serum levels of AFP and CA-125 are considered as potential biomarkers in the diagnosis and progression of this malignancy, and that tissue immunohistochemical staining for AFP, p53 and CK7, plays an important role in distinguishing HCO from other ovarian tumors.

2013-01-01

232

Salvage radiotherapy for carcinoma of the ovary following chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Following single-agent or combination chemotherapy, 9 patients with epithelial carcinoma of the ovary had elective second-look laparotomy. Macroscopic intraperitoneal disease was resected in 4 patients. Therefore, after the laparotomy, all 9 patients had only biopsy-proven, microscopic residual disease, and they received whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Hematological tolerance was satisfactory, with only 2 patients developing asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Mild gastrointestinal reactions, while frequent during radiotherapy, did not interrupt treatment in any patient. After follow-up ranging from 6 to 28 months (median 12 months), 2 patients died of cancer, 2 were alive with cancer, 3 were alive without clinical recurrence, and 2 were alive without biopsy-proven recurrence. Bowel complication occurred in 4 patients: 2 developed intestinal obstruction due to recurrent tumor, 1 developed subacute bowel obstruction which spontaneously resolved, and 1 patient required bowel resection because of a radiation complication. This study indicated that after single- or multiple-drug chemotherapy, most patients could complete the course of whole abdominopelvic irradiation. Gastrointestinal complications could be secondary to radiation damage or to recurrent tumor. While whole abdominopelvic irradiation was not an effective second-line treatment, some long-term survivors could still be expected.

Cheung, A.Y.

1988-05-01

233

Sebaceous Carcinoma Arising in Mature Cystic Teratoma of Ovary  

PubMed Central

Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports.

An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

2013-01-01

234

Minireview: Physiological and Pathological Actions of RAS in the Ovary  

PubMed Central

The small G proteins of the RAS superfamily act as molecular switches in the transduction of cellular signals critical for a wide range of normal developmental events as well as pathological processes. However, the functions of Ras genes in ovarian cells have only started to be unveiled. RAS, most likely KRAS that is highly expressed in granulosa cells of growing follicles, appears crucial for mediating the gonadotropin-induced events associated with the unique physiological process of ovulation. By contrast, conditional expression of a constitutively active KrasG12D mutant in granulosa cells results in ovulation defects due to the complete disruption of normal follicular growth, cessation of granulosa cell proliferation, and blockage of granulosa cell apoptosis and differentiation. When the tumor suppressor Pten is disrupted conditionally in the KrasG12D-expressing granulosa cells, granulosa cell tumors fail to develop. However, ovarian surface epithelial cells expressing the same Pten;KrasG12D mutations rapidly become ovarian surface epithelial serous cystadenocarcinomas. In this minireview, we summarize some of the physiological as well as pathological functions of RAS in the rodent ovary, discuss the implications of the KrasG12D mutant mouse models for understanding human diseases such as premature ovarian failure and ovarian cancers, and highlight new questions raised by the results of recent studies.

Fan, Heng-Yu; Richards, JoAnne S.

2010-01-01

235

Autophagy and its implication in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.  

PubMed

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, that are widely used for production of therapeutic proteins, are subjected to apoptosis and autophagy under the stresses induced by conditions such as nutrient deprivation, hyperosmolality and addition of sodium butyrate. To achieve a cost-effective level of production, it is important to extend the culture longevity. Until now, there have been numerous studies in which apoptosis of recombinant CHO (rCHO) cells was inhibited, resulting in enhanced production of therapeutic proteins. Recently, autophagy in rCHO cells has drawn attention because it can be genetically and chemically controlled to increase cell survival and productivity. Autophagy is a global catabolic process which involves multiple pathways and genes that regulate the lysosomal degradation of intracellular components. A simultaneous targeting of anti-apoptosis and pro-autophagy could lead to more efficient protection of cells from stressful culture conditions. In this regard, it is worthwhile to have a detailed understanding of the autophagic pathway, in order to select appropriate genes and chemical targets to manage autophagy in rCHO cells, and thus to enhance the production of therapeutic proteins. PMID:23881315

Kim, Yeon Jung; Baek, Eric; Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Gyun Min

2013-07-24

236

Exocytosis of pinocytic contents by Chinese hamster ovary cells  

PubMed Central

The extent of exocytosis of pinocytic vesicle contents was studied in suspension-cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a pinocytic content marker. HRP was shown to be internalized via fluid-phase pinocytosis in CHO cells. After an HRP pulse of 2.5-10 min a rapid decrease of 30-50% in cell-associated HRP activity was observed within 10-20 min at 37 degrees C. During this time the loss of cell-associated HRP was accompanied by an equivalent increase in extracellular HRP. After this rapid exocytosis of HRP, the remaining peroxidase activity decreased with a t1/2 of 6-8 h, the known lysosomal half-life of HRP. In pulse-chase experiments HRP was chased into a nonexocytic compartment. Based on cell fractionation and electron microscopic experiments, this nonexocytic compartment was identified as a lysosome and the compartment from which exocytosis occurs as a pinosome. The occurrence of pinocytic content exocytosis in cultured fibroblasts suggests that exocytosis of pinocytic vesicle contents is a general phenomenon.

1982-01-01

237

Ovulatory effects of flutamide in the polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The long-term effects and tolerability of flutamide (Flu) on the menstrual cycle and the ovulatory function of hyperandrogenic women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were investigated. The study included 118 white women with the diagnosis of various forms of hyperandrogenism (80 PCOS and 38 non-PCOS patients). Patients received Flu for three years at dosages that declined each of the three years (250, 125 and 62.5 mg/day). Sex steroid, ovulatory function and menstrual profile at baseline and during each year of Flu treatment were evaluated. Flu therapy showed a significant increase in the percentage of cycles that were ovulatory (with progesterone concentrations greater than 4 ng/ml in mid-luteal phase) and concomitant regularization of the menstrual profile in PCOS patients. A luteinizing hormone decrease and an estrone, estradiol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone increase are also observed during treatment. Regular cycles persisted in non-PCOS patients. The results were maintained during the three years of treatment. The study suggests that Flu is a satisfactory therapeutic regimen of the chronic anovulation and the irregularities of the menstrual cycle in hyperandrogenic PCOS patients in the long run. PMID:23327685

Paradisi, Roberto; Fabbri, Raffaella; Battaglia, Cesare; Venturoli, Stefano

2013-01-18

238

Alterations of folliculogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to examine some factors involved in follicular development of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS showed increased levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) but decreased follicular production of progesterone and estradiol by pre-ovulatory follicles. The mRNA expression corresponding to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) was increased, while that corresponding to cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was decreased in PCOS follicles as compared to controls. No changes in the mRNA expression for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3?-HSD2), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), cytochrome P450 17 alpha hydroxylase/lyase (P450c17), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and transcription factors (GATA-4 and GATA-6) were found. We conclude that despite the hyper-luteinized environment of PCOS follicles, these follicles produce lower levels of progesterone and estradiol, and that this is characterized by increased degradation of progesterone and decreased estradiol synthesis. Our data demonstrate that the synthesis of prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) may be affected in PCOS-follicles and that the transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6 are present in PCOS-follicles but they are not involved in the abnormal transcription observed in the steroidogenic enzymes. PMID:21262361

Sander, Valeria Analía; Hapon, María Belén; Sícaro, Laura; Lombardi, Eduardo Pedro; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

2011-01-22

239

An ultrastructural study of the ovary cord organization and oogenesis in Erpobdella johanssoni (Annelida, Clitellata: Hirudinida).  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to analyze the ovary cord structure and oogenesis in Erpobdella johanssoni under light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy and to compare the obtained results with other clitellate annelids, especially with other arhynchobdellid leeches. Each of the paired ovaries is composed of the ovary wall (ovisac) and several (7-8) short, cone-shaped ovary cords. The ovary cords are of the "Erpobdella" type, i.e. they are short and polarized and five zones containing germ cells at consecutives stages of their development can be distinguished along their long axis. One, huge somatic cell (the apical cell), oogonia and premeiotic germ cells occur at the tip of the apical part of the ovary cord - zone I. Below, in zone II germ cells enter meiosis, whereas in zone III only a few cells continue meiosis and gather nutrients (oocytes), while the rest become nurse cells. In zone IV, huge vitellogenic oocytes form protuberances on the surface of the cord, and degenerating germ cells were observed at the base of the ovary cord (zones IV and V). The germline cells form syncytial cysts in zones I-III. The germline cysts have broadly the same architecture as in the ovaries of all of the clitellate annelids that have been described to date. Each germ cell in a cyst has only one cytoplasmic bridge connecting it to the common cytoplasmic mass - the cytophore. The cytophore is poorly developed, and it has the form of thin, long cytoplasmic strands. The presence of two categories of germ cells suggests a meroistic mode of oogenesis. The germline cysts are closely associated with somatic, follicular cells. There are two subpopulations of follicular cells: one envelops the growing oocytes, while the second is distributed between other germ cells. The entire ovary cord is additionally enveloped by a layer of somatic cells with a spongy appearance - the spongiosa cells. A characteristic feature of vitellogenic oocytes is the condensation of the chromosomes into a karyosome. Fully grown oocytes are excluded from the ovary cords and float freely in the ovisac lumen. PMID:22921789

Ben Ahmed, Raja; Tekaya, Saïda; Ma?ota, Karol; ?wi?tek, Piotr

2012-08-04

240

The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is expressed in normal human ovaries and is upregulated in ovarian endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease involving the ovary.  

PubMed

Estrogens play a crucial role in maintaining ovarian function. Deregulation of estrogen signals is associated with fertility-impairing disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is present in the human ovary. Additionally, we  analyzed the folliculogenesis and ovarian endometriosis in GPER expression. Seventy-nine patients (ovarian endometriosis, n = 26; ovarian pelvic inflammatory disease [PID], n = 10; normal ovaries/endometrium, n = 30/13) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Normal ovaries were also assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and double immunofluorescence. The most intense expression of GPER was noted in the ovarian surface epithelium. Theca cells and oocytes were also significantly positive. Expression of GPER was more frequent in mature follicles/oocytes than in primordial ones, implying that GPER could be a selector during folliculogenesis. Moreover, GPER was upregulated in ovarian endometriosis and PID. Overexpression of GPER in both inflammation and endometriosis affecting the ovary may prove useful in explaining/predicting the main endometriosis-related symptoms. PMID:22573494

Heublein, Sabine; Lenhard, Miriam; Vrekoussis, Thomas; Schoepfer, Jutta; Kuhn, Christina; Friese, Klaus; Makrigiannakis, Antonis; Mayr, Doris; Jeschke, Udo

2012-05-09

241

Genetic characterization of small ovaries, a gene required in the soma for the development of the Drosophila ovary and the female germline  

SciTech Connect

The small ovary gene (sov) is required for the development of the Drosophila ovary. Six EMS-induced recessive alleles have been identified. Hypomorphic alleles are female sterile and have no effect on male fertility, whereas more severe mutations result in lethality. The female-sterile alleles produce a range of mutant phenotypes that affect the differentiation of both somatic and germline tissues. These mutations generally produce small ovaries that contain few egg cysts and disorganized ovarioles, and in the most extreme case no ovarian tissue is present. The mutant egg cysts that develop have aberrant morphology, including abnormal numbers of nurse cells and patches of necrotic cells. We demonstrate that sov gene expression is not required in the germline for the development of functional egg cysts. This indicates that the sov function is somatic dependent. We present evidence using loss-of-function and constitutive forms of the somatic sex regulatory genes that sov activity is essential for the development of the somatic ovary regardless of the chromosomal sex of the fly. In addition, the genetic mapping of the sov locus is presented, including the characterization of two lethal sov alleles and complementation mapping with existing rearrangements. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wayne, S.; Liggett, K.; Pettus, J.; Nagoshi, R.N. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1995-03-01

242

Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs.  

PubMed

To move closer to understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of sex differences in human longevity, we studied pet dogs to determine whether lifetime duration of ovary exposure was associated with exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, age at death, and cause of death for a cohort of canine 'centenarians'--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than average life expectancy for the breed. Sex and lifetime ovary exposure in the oldest-old Rottweilers (age at death, > or = 13 years) were compared to a cohort of Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death, 8.0-10.8 years). Like women, female dogs were more likely than males to achieve exceptional longevity (OR, 95% CI = 2.0, 1.2-3.3; P = 0.006). However, removal of ovaries during the first 4 years of life erased the female survival advantage. In females, a strong positive association between ovaries and longevity persisted in multivariate analysis that considered other factors, such as height, body weight, and mother with exceptional longevity. A beneficial effect of ovaries on longevity in females could not be attributed to resistance against a particular disease or major cause of death. Our results document in dogs a female sex advantage for achieving exceptional longevity and show that lifetime ovary exposure, a factor not previously evaluated in women, is associated with exceptional longevity. This work introduces a conceptual framework for designing additional studies in pet dogs to define the ovary-sensitive biological processes that promote healthy human longevity. PMID:19732047

Waters, David J; Kengeri, Seema S; Clever, Beth; Booth, Julie A; Maras, Aimee H; Schlittler, Deborah L; Hayek, Michael G

2009-09-02

243

Exploring mechanisms of sex differences in longevity: lifetime ovary exposure and exceptional longevity in dogs  

PubMed Central

To move closer to understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of sex differences in human longevity, we studied pet dogs to determine whether lifetime duration of ovary exposure was associated with exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, age at death, and cause of death for a cohort of canine ‘centenarians’– exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than average life expectancy for the breed. Sex and lifetime ovary exposure in the oldest-old Rottweilers (age at death, ? 13 years) were compared to a cohort of Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death, 8.0–10.8 years). Like women, female dogs were more likely than males to achieve exceptional longevity (OR, 95% CI = 2.0, 1.2–3.3; P= 0.006). However, removal of ovaries during the first 4 years of life erased the female survival advantage. In females, a strong positive association between ovaries and longevity persisted in multivariate analysis that considered other factors, such as height, body weight, and mother with exceptional longevity. A beneficial effect of ovaries on longevity in females could not be attributed to resistance against a particular disease or major cause of death. Our results document in dogs a female sex advantage for achieving exceptional longevity and show that lifetime ovary exposure, a factor not previously evaluated in women, is associated with exceptional longevity. This work introduces a conceptual framework for designing additional studies in pet dogs to define the ovary-sensitive biological processes that promote healthy human longevity.

Waters, David J; Kengeri, Seema S; Clever, Beth; Booth, Julie A; Maras, Aimee H; Schlittler, Deborah L; Hayek, Michael G

2009-01-01

244

Stereological study of the effects of letrozole and estradiol valerate treatment on the ovary of rats  

PubMed Central

Objective Letrozole and estradiol valerate are used to treat some hormonally-responsive symptoms and also in modeling of the polycystic ovary syndrome. However, the stereological analysis of the ovary has received less attention. Estimation of the whole ovary volume using the Cavalieri method can be applied in any orientation desired, but estimation of the mean volume of the oocytes requires isotropic uniform random sectioning. Here, a combined method was developed for estimating the parameters. To our knowledge, no comparison has been made of the effects of letrozole and estradiol on the ovary. Methods Sixty rats were divided into 4 groups receiving estradiol (4 mg/kg), olive oil, letrozole (1 mg/kg), or normal saline. After 21 days, their ovaries were studied. Results Relative to the control group, the total volume of the ovary and the cortex increased in the letrozole-treated and estradiol-treated rats. In addition, the number of the preantral, antral, and granulosa cells decreased by 43% to 56% in the letrozole- and estradiol-treated rats. On average, a 19% increase was observed in the atretic oocytes of the letrozole-treated and estradiol-treated rats, but the mean oocyte volume decreased by 29% to 44% in letrozole- and estradiol-treated rats. Furthermore, the letrozole-treated rats showed a 5-fold and 7-fold increase in the volume of the cysts and corpus luteum, respectively. A 3-fold increase was found in the volume of both the cysts and corpus luteum in the estradiol group. Conclusion The structural changes of the ovary were most pronounced in the letrozole-treated animals.

Noorafshan, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mesbah, Seyed-Fakhroddin

2013-01-01

245

Assessment of symptoms of urinary incontinence in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The pelvic floor muscles are sensitive to androgens, and due to hyperandrogenism, women with polycystic ovary syndrome can have increased mass in these muscles compared to controls. The aim of this study is to compare reports of urine leakage and quality of life between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: One hundred thirteen 18- to 40-year-old nulliparous women with polycystic ovary syndrome or without the disease (controls) were recruited at the University Hospital of School Medicine of São Paulo University at Ribeirão Preto City, Brazil. The subjects were not taking any hormonal medication, had not undergone previous pelvic surgery and did not exercise their pelvic floor muscles. The women were divided into the following four groups: I- polycystic ovary syndrome with normal body mass index (n?=?18), II- polycystic ovary syndrome with body mass index ?25 (n?=?32), III- controls with normal body mass index (n?=?29), and IV- controls with Body Mass Index ?25 (n?=?34). Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire, and the subjects with urinary complaints also completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form to evaluate the severity of their urinary incontinence. RESULTS: The replies to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form revealed a significant difference in urinary function between groups, with 24% of the subjects in group IV reporting urinary incontinence. The mean scores for the SF-36 questionnaire revealed that group II had the lowest quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The control obese group (IV) reported a higher prevalence of urinary incontinence. There was no difference in the reported frequency of urine loss between the polycystic ovary syndrome and control groups with normal body mass index or between the polycystic ovary syndrome and control groups with body mass index ?25.

Montezuma, Thais; Antonio, Flavia Ignacio; de Sa Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; de Sa, Marcos Felipe Silva; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

2011-01-01

246

Distribution of adenylyl cyclases in the rat ovary by immunofluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

In the mammalian ovary both gonadotropins and local cytokines, acting through G-protein coupled receptors, govern the physiology of the ovary in part by regulating the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate via adenylyl cyclases. The nine transmembrane adenylyl cyclases and a soluble adenylyl cyclase are regulated by a diversity of ligands. In this study we have examined the rat ovaries, prior to and subsequent to gonadotropin treatment, for the presence of different transmembrane adenylyl cyclases by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Adenylyl cyclase I immunoreactivity was observed in the nuclei of oocytes in preantral and antral follicles along with some staining in granulosa cells. Equine chorionic gonadotropin injection increased adenylyl cyclase I staining in granulosa cells. Adenylyl cyclase I staining was also observed in luteal and endothelial cells. Adenylyl cyclase II was observed throughout the ovary, including granulosa cells and the ovarian surface epithelium. Adenylyl cyclase II staining was also found to increase in granulosa cells after equine chorionic gonadotropin injection. Adenylyl cyclase III was distributed primarily in theca and smooth muscle cells of arterioles, with faint staining in the oocytes of equine chorionic gonadotropin-injected ovaries. Adenylyl cyclase IV staining was present throughout the ovary, including the nuclei of oocytes. Adenylyl cyclase VIII staining in granulosa cells increased subsequent to equine chorionic gonadotropin injection and remained in luteal cells. Our study reveals the redundancy of adenylyl cyclases present in the rat ovary and, therefore, implies potential regulation of follicular and corpus luteum physiology by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate generated through distinct adenylyl cyclases. PMID:22899545

Bagavandoss, P; Grimshaw, S

2012-08-16

247

Effects of culture and transplantation on follicle activation and early follicular growth in neonatal mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

Mouse models have been widely utilized to elucidate the basic principles and regulatory mechanisms of primordial follicle activation. Outside their natural environment, the growth of follicles might be affected by unknown factors in vitro and the elimination of regulation in vivo. Currently, in vitro culture and transplantation of ovaries under the kidney capsule are two commonly used incubation methods. However, the limited number of studies that have been published compare various incubation systems and reveal differences between ovaries that are incubated and grown in vivo. We compare the number of primordial, primary and secondary follicles in cultured, transplanted and in-vivo-grown ovaries. We investigate the expression levels of four genes, including zona pellucida 3 (ZP3), growth and differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Our results suggest that in vitro culture accelerates follicle activation, delays the transition from primary to secondary follicles and affects the expression patterns of ZP3, GDF-9, PCNA and AMH. A larger number of secondary follicles in ovaries cultured in alpha-minimal essential medium (?-MEM) had intact zona pellucida compared with those grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing Ham's F-12 nutrient mixture (D/F12), suggesting that ?-MEM is a better basal medium. The transplanted ovaries demonstrated the most similar characteristics to the in-vivo-grown ovaries, indicating that transplantation provided an optimal environment for ovarian incubation. This study has thus established the similarities and differences between in-vivo-grown and incubated ovaries, demonstrated that transplantation can mostly mimic the environment of ovarian growth in vivo and determined the optimal basal culture medium between ?-MEM and D/F12. PMID:23824101

Wang, Shuo; Yang, Shuhong; Lai, Zhiwen; Ding, Ting; Shen, Wei; Shi, Liangyan; Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Lanfang; Tian, Yong; Du, Xiaofang; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

2013-07-04

248

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, polycystic-ovary syndrome, and thrombophilia.  

PubMed

We studied thrombophilia, hypofibrinolysis, and polycystic-ovary syndrome (PCOS) in 65 women consecutively referred because of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) as a means of better understanding the origin of IIH, with the ultimate goal of developing novel medical therapies for IIH. Our hypothesis: IIH results in part from inadequate drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulting from thrombotic obstruction to CSF resorption-outflow, favored by thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis. We conducted the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and assessed serologic coagulation measures in 65 women (64 of them white) with IIH, PCR in 102 healthy white female controls (72 children, 30 age-matched adults), and serologic measures in the 30 adults. Of the 65 patients, 37 (57%) were found to have PCOS; 16 (43%) were obese (BMI > or = 30 to < 40), and 19 (51%) were extremely obese (BMI > or = 40). Of the 65 women with IIH, 25 (38%) were homozygous for the thrombophilic C677T MTHFR mutation, compared with 14% of controls (14/102) ( P = .0002). Thrombophilic high concentrations of factor VIII (>150%) were present in 9 of 65 (14%) IIH cases, compared with 0 of 30 controls (0%) (Fisher's p [p f ] = .053). An increased concentration of lipoprotein A (> or = 35 mg/dL), associated with hypofibrinolysis, was present in 19 of 65 IIH cases (29%), compared with 3 of 30 controls (10%) (p f = .039). IIH occurred in 18 of 65 IIH patients taking estrogen-progestin contraceptives (28%), in 6 patients taking hormone-replacement therapy (9%), and in 5 pregnant subjects (8%). We speculate that PCOS, associated with obesity and extreme obesity, is a treatable promoter of IIH. We also speculate that if thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis and subsequent thrombosis are associated with reduced CSF resorption in the arachnoid villi of the brain, thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis-often exacerbated by thrombophilic exogenous estrogens, pregnancy, or the paradoxical hyperestrogenemia of PCOS-are treatable promoters of IIH. PMID:15746649

Glueck, Charles J; Aregawi, Dawit; Goldenberg, Naila; Golnik, Karl C; Sieve, Luann; Wang, Ping

2005-02-01

249

Risk of cardiovascular events in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. However, data on the incidence of CV events are lacking in this population. Using Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing CV events in women with PCOS with those of women without PCOS in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Between 1966 and 1988, 309 women with PCOS and 343 without PCOS were identified. Mean (SD) age at PCOS diagnosis was 25.0 (5.3) years; mean age at last follow-up was 46.7 years. Mean (SD) follow-up was 23.7 (13.7) years. Women with PCOS had a higher body mass index (29.4 kg÷m2 vs 28.3 kg÷m2; p=.01). Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension and levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were similar in the two groups. We observed no increase in CV events, including myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32 to 1.72; p=.48); coronary artery bypass graft surgery (adjusted HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.42 to 5.48; p=.52); death (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.29 to 3.71; p=.96); death due to CV disease (adjusted HR 5.67; 95% CI 0.51 to 63.7; p=.16); or stroke (adjusted HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.28 to 3.92; p=.94). Although women with PCOS weighed more than controls, there was no increased prevalence of other CV risk factors. Furthermore, we found no increase in CV events. While prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings, women with PCOS do not appear to have adverse CV outcomes in midlife. PMID:22418753

Iftikhar, S; Collazo-Clavell, M L; Roger, V L; St Sauver, J; Brown, R D; Cha, S; Rhodes, D J

2012-03-01

250

Body weight reduction and metformin: Roles in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Background and objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women at fertile age. A prospective study was conducted to clarify the pathophysiological responses during an application of insulin sensitizer, metformin and weight reduction therapy at the Gynecology Center in Ohud hospital, in AL-Madinah AL-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: Twenty healthy women served as controls and 180 PCOS women divided into three groups participated in the study. First group was treated with Clomid citrate 100mg/day from the 2nd day of menses to the 6th day plus gonadotrophin from day three to the 13th. Group II was treated as group I plus 850mg metformin twice a day and group III was treated as group I plus weight reduction. Clinical symptoms, menstrual pattern, hirsutism, blood glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, insulin, hormonal, and lipid profiles were assessed pre- and post treatment. Insulin resistance was calculated. Results: PCOS women had significantly higher values than the healthy women in most of the measurements. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting insulin, glucose/insulin ratio and HOMA-IR. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid parameters, testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, SHBG, and prolactin levels. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in women with PCOS. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with testosterone, estradiol, TG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol parameters, and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and FSH levels. Conclusion: Metformin therapy and weight reduction had favorable influences on the basic metabolic and hormonal profiles in women with PCOS and that metformin and lifestyle modification (weight reduction via diet restriction or exercise) resulted in a significantly greater weight loss than hormonal therapy alone. Metformin and weight reduction therapy decreased also hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. PMID:23608322

Al-Nozha, Omar; Habib, Fawziah; Mojaddidi, Moaz; El-Bab, Mohamed Fath

2013-04-20

251

N-glycan analysis of human ?1-antitrypsin produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Human alpha-1-antitrypsin (?1AT) is a glycoprotein with protease inhibitor activity protecting tissues from degradation. Patients with inherited ?1AT deficiency are treated with native ?1AT (nAT) purified from human plasma. In the present study, recombinant ?1AT (rAT) was produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and their glycosylation patterns, inhibitory activity and in vivo half-life were compared with those of nAT. A peptide mapping analysis employing a deglycosylation reaction confirmed full occupancy of all three glycosylation sites and the equivalency of rAT and nAT in terms of the protein level. N-glycan profiles revealed that rAT contained 10 glycan structures ranging from bi-antennary to tetra-antennary complex-type glycans while nAT displayed six peaks comprising majorly bi-antennary glycans and a small portion of tri-antennary glycans. In addition, most of the rAT glycans were shown to have only core ?(1?-?6)-fucose without terminal fucosylation, whereas only minor portions of the nAT glycans contained core or Lewis X-type fucose. As expected, all sialylated glycans of rAT were found to have ?(2?-?3)-linked sialic acids, which was in sharp contrast to those of nAT, which had mostly ?(2?-?6)-linked sialic acids. However, the degree of sialylation of rAT was comparable to that of nAT, which was also supported by an isoelectric focusing gel analysis. Despite the differences in the glycosylation patterns, both ?1ATs showed nearly equivalent inhibitory activity in enzyme assays and serum half-lives in a pharmacokinetic experiment. These results suggest that rAT produced in CHO cells would be a good alternative to nAT derived from human plasma. PMID:23065139

Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Mee; Gil, Jin Young; Kwon, Ohsuk; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Soon Jae; Chung, Hye-Shin; Oh, Doo-Byoung

2012-10-12

252

Synthesis, DNA binding and topoisomerase inhibition of mononaphthalimide homospermidine derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel mononaphthalimide homospermidine derivatives (2a, 2b) with three or four methylene unit as linkages were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against human leukemia K562, murine melanoma B16 and Chinese hamster ovary CHO cell lines. The presence of homospermidine motif could greatly elevate the potency of 1,8-naphthalimide. Conjugate 2b with longer spacer exhibited higher in vitro cytotoxicity than 2a. The

Zhi Yong Tian; Hong Xia Ma; Song Qiang Xie; Xue Wang; Jin Zhao; Chao Jie Wang; Wen Yuan Gao

2008-01-01

253

Studies on primary cell cultures derived from ovarian tissue of Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a bioassay approach to investigate ovarian development and function, primary cell cultures were derived from Penaeus monodon ovaries at various stages of maturation. These cultures were established in modified Grace's or modified 2× L-15 media. Various supplements including growth factors, vitamins and minerals were trailed. Four morphologically different types of cells (epithelioid, fibroblastic, rounded, and epithelioid with

C. A. Fraser; M. R. Hall

1999-01-01

254

Follicular development and atresia in the B6.Y(TIR) sex-reversed mouse ovary.  

PubMed

The B6.Y(TIR) mouse fails to develop normal testes despite transcription of Sry, the primary testis-determining gene on the Y chromosome. Consequently, B6.Y(TIR) fetuses with bilateral ovaries develop into apparently normal but infertile females. This infertility can be mainly attributed to oocyte incompatibility for postfertilization development. In addition, abnormality in preovulatory follicles and rapid loss of oocytes have been observed in XY ovaries. This study examined the effect of gonadotropins on follicular development and atresia in B6.Y(TIR) prepubertal females. The results show that untreated XY females had fewer late preantral follicles and their frequency of atresia was lower. No other difference was found when they were compared with XX females. After treatment with gonadotropins for 24 h, frequency of atresia decreased in both XX and XY ovaries. After 48 h, most preovulatory follicles in XY ovaries were nonatretic, but the oocytes often were denuded. Immunocytochemical staining for connexin 43 detected punctate foci along the oocyte plasma membrane. The density of these foci changed during follicular development, which was similar in XX and XY ovaries. In conclusion, follicular development and atresia under the control of gonadotropins is not influenced by defective oocytes until the preovulatory phase. PMID:10952917

Wong, J; Luckers, L; Okawara, Y; Pelletier, R; Taketo, T

2000-09-01

255

Transplantation of young ovaries to old mice increased life span in transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Previously we reported that prepubertally ovariectomized mice that received young transplanted ovaries at a postreproductive age showed a 40% increase in life expectancy. To study this phenomenon in greater detail, 11-month-old ovariectomized and ovary-intact CBA/J mice underwent ovarian transplantation with 60-day-old ovaries or a sham surgery. Results from observations on transplant recipients in the current study extended our previous results. Whereas intact control mice lived an average of 726 days, transplant recipients lived an average of 770 days (i.e., 780 days for intact recipients and 757 days for ovariectomized recipients). If intact recipients had ceased reproductive cycling by the time of transplant, we observed a further increase in mean life span to 811 days. These results demonstrate that young ovaries enhanced longevity when transplanted to old mice and that ovarian status, examined by means of ovariectomy and ovarian transplantation, clearly influenced the potential of young transplanted ovaries to positively impact longevity. PMID:19776215

Mason, Jeffrey B; Cargill, Shelley L; Anderson, Gary B; Carey, James R

2009-09-23

256

Induction of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in estradiol valerate (EV) induced polycystic ovary.  

PubMed

The excessive administration of estradiol valerate induces polycystic ovary syndrome by formation of follicular cysts. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) promotes wound healing by decreasing the excessive inflammatory response, stimulating keratinocyte proliferation and increasing collagen deposition through the inhibition of protease activity. In this study, SLPI expression was high in the ovarian stroma, corpus luteum, unilaminar primary follicle, multilaminar primary follicle and granulose layer of the antral follicle in polycystic ovary (PCO) compared to the normal ovary. SLPI was expressed strongly in the theca around the cyst in PCO compared to the mature follicle in the normal ovary. The levels of SLPI mRNA and protein expression were higher in PCO than in the normal ovary, and the level of MMP-2 expression was lower in PCO. These results showed that the formation of a cyst was initiated from a multilaminar primary follicle and SLPI expression was increased depending on the morphological changes in the follicle and ovarian stroma. Therefore, an increase in SLPI may be related to the suppression of tissue disruption, and act as a protease inhibitor in PCO, suggesting that SLPI increases independently of the estrogen concentration in pathological tissues. PMID:21910062

Park, Jin-Ju; Bae, Chun Sik; Choi, Baik-Dong; Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Wang, Guanlin; Lim, Do-Seon; Kim, Byung-Ock; Cho, Young-Sik; Kim, Sun-Ju; Jeong, Moon-Jin

2011-09-11

257

Study of oostatic peptide uptake and metabolism in developing ovaries of the flesh fly, Neobellieria bullata.  

PubMed

The uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-OH (5P), in ovaries of Neobellieria bullata (Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. During selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3HPro(3)]5P after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. The ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. A detection sensitivity of 60-100 fmol of the labeled 5P was achieved using radio-high performance liquid chromatography. While the uptake of the applied radioactivity strongly depended on the stage of vitellogenesis, especially for the in vitro experiment, degradation of 5P was very quick and independent of whether the label was injected or incubated with the ovaries, regardless of the developmental stage of ovaries. No tracers of 5P were detected at 30 s after applying the labeled 5P in all tests. PMID:20572785

Bennettová, Blanka; Slaninová, Jirina; Vlasáková, V?ra; Hlavácek, Jan; Holík, Josef; Tykva, Richard

2010-01-01

258

Study of Oostatic Peptide Uptake and Metabolism in Developing Ovaries of the Flesh Fly, Neobellieria bullata  

PubMed Central

The uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-OH (5P), in ovaries of Neobellieria bullata (Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. During selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3HPro3]5P after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. The ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. A detection sensitivity of 60–100 fmol of the labeled 5P was achieved using radio-high performance liquid chromatography. While the uptake of the applied radioactivity strongly depended on the stage of vitellogenesis, especially for the in vitro experiment, degradation of 5P was very quick and independent of whether the label was injected or incubated with the ovaries, regardless of the developmental stage of ovaries. No tracers of 5P were detected at 30 s after applying the labeled 5P in all tests.

Bennettova, Blanka; Slaninova, Jirina; Vlasakova, Vera; Hlavacek, Jan; Holik, Josef; Tykva, Richard

2010-01-01

259

Changes in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.  

PubMed

Sex steroids participate in the regulation of reproduction in female chickens. In this work, we determined the content of androgen receptor (AR), intracellular progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), membrane progesterone receptor ? (mPR?) and estrogen receptor ? (ER-?) in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to 1-month-old chickens by western blot analysis. A marked difference in the morphological characteristics of the left and the right ovaries during development was observed. Results show a higher content of AR in the left ovary than in the right one in all ages. In the left ovary, the highest content of AR was observed on day 13 of embryonic development, and diminished with age. In the right ovary, AR was expressed from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old, and became undetectable at 1-week and 1-month-old. In the left ovary, PR isoforms were not detected on day 13 of embryonic development, but they presented a marked expression after hatching. In the right ovary, the highest expression of both PR isoforms was found on 1-day-old, and significantly decreased with age. PR-B was the predominant isoform on 1-day and 1-month old in the left ovary, whereas PR-A was the predominant one on day 13 of embryonic development in the right ovary. Interestingly, mPR? was detected at 1-week and 1-month-old in the left ovary meanwhile in the right ovary, it was detected from day 13 of embryonic development to 1-day-old. ER-? was only detected in the left ovary from day 13 to 1-week-old, while in 1-month-old chickens, it was expressed in both ovaries. In the left ovary, ER-? content was lower from 1-day to 1-month-old as compared with day 13 of embryonic development. Our results demonstrate a differential expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between the left growing and the right regressing ovary, and throughout chickens' age; and this is the first report about mPR expression in birds. PMID:23660445

González-Morán, María Genoveva; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

2013-05-06

260

Steroid-induced polycystic ovaries in rats: effect of electro-acupuncture on concentrations of endothelin-1 and nerve growth factor (NGF), and expression of NGF mRNA in the ovaries, the adrenal glands, and the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on the effect of repeated electro-acupuncture (EA) treatments in rats with steriod-induced polycystic ovaries (PCO), EA has been shown to modulate nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration in the ovaries as well as corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the median eminence (ME). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that repeated EA treatments modulates sympathetic nerve activity in

Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Thomas Lundeberg; Stefan Cajander; Luigi Aloe; Luigi Manni; Urban Waldenström; Per Olof Janson

2003-01-01

261

17?-Hydroxylase (CYP17) expression and subsequent androstenedione production in the human ovary.  

PubMed

Traditionally, in women, only the theca cells in the ovary and the zona reticularis layer of the adrenal cortex are believed to synthesize androgens. Interestingly, their neighboring cell layers, the granulosa cells and the zona glomerulosa cells, respectively, do not produce androgens. Recent literature has highlighted the role of the activator protein (AP-1) transcription factor, c-Fos, in the dynamics of this structural and functional relationship. Differential expression of c-Fos is believed to result in distinct patterns of steroidogenesis among these compartments in both the ovary and the adrenal glands. Clinically, deficient c-Fos levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this review, we discuss the pivotal role of c-Fos in controlling the expression of CYP17 and hence androgen production in various organ systems throughout the human body. PMID:20720262

Patel, Satin S; Beshay, Victor E; Escobar, Julian C; Carr, Bruce R

2010-08-18

262

Burkitt's lymphoma of the ovary: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the ovary is extremely rare. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with a 1-month history complaints of night sweats, abdominal pain and dyspnea. Physical examination demonstrated pleural effusions, ascites and an abdominal mass. Imaging showed enlargement of both ovaries extending to the surrounding tissue. Frozen sections on explorative laparotomy suggested granulosa cell tumor of the ovary, and thus extensive debulking was carried out. The final pathological report was compatible with Burkitt's lymphoma. A systematic literature review revealed another 16 cases of ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma. Characteristics predictive for the diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma were: younger age, bilateral ovarian involvement, a rapidly progressive course and high LDH levels. PMID:23257666

Shacham-Abulafia, Adi; Nagar, Ran; Eitan, Ram; Levavi, Hanoch; Sabah, Gad; Vidal, Liat; Shpilberg, Ofer; Raanani, Pia

2012-12-13

263

Primary Ovary Choriocarcinoma: Individual DNA Polymorphic Analysis as a Strategy to Confirm Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract Primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary is rare. Furthermore, this tumor can arise from gestational tissue or pure germ cells of the ovary, with the latter resulting in non-gestational choriocarcinoma. While the clinical characteristics and histology of both tumor types are identical, differentiation of these tumors is necessary for effective treatment. One strategy for the differentiation of these tumors types is to assay for the presence of paternal DNA. Accordingly, in the present case, a patient with primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary with a non-gestational origin was confirmed by DNA analysis. The patient subsequently exhibited an excellent response to chemotherapy, and following surgery, achieved complete remission. A pathological analysis of surgical specimens further confirmed the absence of tumor.

Exman, Pedro; Takahashi, Tiago Kenji; Gattas, Gilka F.; Cantagalli, Vanessa Dionisio; Anton, Cristina; Nalesso, Fernando; Diz, Maria Del Pilar Estevez

2013-01-01

264

Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats  

PubMed Central

During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG), and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB) into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.

Moran, Carolina; Zarate, Fabiola; Moran, Jose Luis; Handal, Anabella; Dominguez, Roberto

2009-01-01

265

Fractalkine is expressed in the human ovary and increases progesterone biosynthesis in human luteinised granulosa cells  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence from rodent ovaries has demonstrated expression of fractalkine and the existence of fractalkine receptor, and showed that there is a significant increase in steroidogenesis in response to fractalkine, yet the role of fractalkine and CX3CR1 in the human ovary is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the expression levels of fractalkine and CX3CR1 in the human ovary and to investigate their roles in sexual hormone biosynthesis by human luteinising granulosa cells. This is the first detailed report of fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression and function in the human ovary. Methods Fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression levels were measured by immunohistochemistry using ovarian tissue from pathological specimens from five individuals. Granulosa cells were obtained from patients during IVF treatment. They were cultured and treated with increasing doses of hCG with or without fractalkine. Media were collected to detect estradiol and progesterone by chemiluminescence. StAR, 3-?HSD and CYP11A expression were determined in granulosa cells treated with or without fractalkine by real-time RT-PCR. Results Fractalkine and CX3CR1 were expressed in the human ovary and in luteinising granulosa cells. However, fractalkine expression was stronger in luteinising granulosa cells. Treatment with fractalkine augmented hCG stimulation of progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant increases in transcript levels for key steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, 3-?HSD and CYP11A) but had no effect on estradiol biosynthesis(P < 0.05). Conclusions Fractalkine and CX3CR1 were found to express in human ovary and luteinising granulosa cells. Fractalkine can increase the biosynthesis of progesterone in a dose-dependent manner by enhancing transcript levels of key steroidogenic enzymes.

2011-01-01

266

Distribution and Y397 phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase on follicular development in the mouse ovary.  

PubMed

Several protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are identified as follicle survival factors that suppress apoptosis in granulosa cells. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK/PTK2) interacts with numerous signaling partners and is important for cell adhesion, survival and other vital processes in which FAK autophosphorylation at Y397 (pY397 FAK) is critical for activating signaling pathways. Despite its important roles in apoptosis, the expression and function of FAK in the ovaries remain unknown. Here, we describe FAK expression, including pY397 FAK, in normal healthy mouse ovaries and its association with follicular development and/or atresia. Normal healthy mouse ovaries were used for western blot (n?>?60) and immunohistochemical (n?>?180) analyses. Western blot results in immature and mature mice revealed that total FAK and pY397 FAK were highly expressed in the ovary and immunohistochemistry results in 3-week-old mice showed they were localized to granulosa cells of ovarian follicles, especially preantral follicles. In 3-week-old mice treated with 5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (for obtaining homogenous populations of growing or atretic follicles), western blotting revealed that follicular atresia progression involved decreased phosphorylation of Y397 at 72 and 96 h after treatment, particularly in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, as shown by immunohistochemistry results at 72 h after treatment. Moreover, immunostaining patterns of FAK and cleaved caspase-3 were negatively correlated in serial sections of 3-week-old mouse ovaries. These results suggest that FAK is most active in ovarian follicle granulosa cells and that its phosphorylation at Y397 is histologically meaningful in follicular development in normal healthy ovaries. PMID:22322421

Sakurai, Masahiro; Ohtake, Jun; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Tanemura, Kentaro; Hoshino, Yumi; Arima, Takahiro; Sato, Eimei

2012-02-10

267

Foxl2 functions in sex determination and histogenesis throughout mouse ovary development  

PubMed Central

Background Partial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women. In animal models, Foxl2 is required for maintenance, and possibly induction, of female sex determination independently of other critical genes, e.g., Rspo1. Here we report expression profiling of mouse ovaries that lack Foxl2 alone or in combination with Wnt4 or Kit/c-Kit. Results Following Foxl2 loss, early testis genes (including Inhbb, Dhh, and Sox9) and several novel ovarian genes were consistently dysregulated during embryonic development. In the absence of Foxl2, expression changes affecting a large fraction of pathways were opposite those observed in Wnt4-null ovaries, reinforcing the notion that these genes have complementary actions in ovary development. Loss of one copy of Foxl2 revealed strong gene dosage sensitivity, with molecular anomalies that were milder but resembled ovaries lacking both Foxl2 alleles. Furthermore, a Foxl2 transgene disrupted embryonic testis differentiation and increased the levels of key female markers. Conclusion The results, including a comprehensive principal component analysis, 1) support the proposal of dose-dependent Foxl2 function and anti-testis action throughout ovary differentiation; and 2) identify candidate genes for roles in sex determination independent of FOXL2 (e.g., the transcription factors IRX3 and ZBTB7C) and in the generation of the ovarian reserve downstream of FOXL2 (e.g., the cadherin-domain protein CLSTN2 and the sphingomyelin synthase SGMS2). The gene inventory is a first step toward the identification of the full range of pathways with partly autonomous roles in ovary development, and thus provides a framework to analyze the genetic bases of female fertility.

Garcia-Ortiz, Jose Elias; Pelosi, Emanuele; Omari, Shakib; Nedorezov, Timur; Piao, Yulan; Karmazin, Jesse; Uda, Manuela; Cao, Antonio; Cole, Steve W; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David; Ottolenghi, Chris

2009-01-01

268

Mercury and other metals in muscle and ovaries of goldeye (Hiodon alosoides).  

PubMed

Concentrations of 24 trace metals were assessed in gravid ovaries and in muscle of female juvenile and adult female goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), a fish with both low annual growth (16 g/year as adults) and a long life span (maximum longevity of 30 years). It was hypothesized that adult fish with these life-history characteristics would maintain stable concentrations of metals in their tissues with higher levels of essential elements compared with those that are potentially toxic. As hypothesized, the concentration of most metals in muscle of adult female goldeye was similar at all ages, suggesting that uptake and excretion of metals was equal. Mercury was a notable exception. Total Hg concentrations in muscle of adults increased throughout life from a mean of 206 ng/g wet weight at age 8 to 809 ng/g at age 28, or by 26.2 ng/g/year. Concentrations of Hg were low in ovaries (mean 21.1 ng/g wet wt) compared to the mean for muscle, only 7% of the concentration in muscle. This was the lowest percent of muscle concentration of all 24 metals. Concentrations of Al, Ba, La, V, and Mn were significantly greater in muscle of juveniles and in ovaries than in muscle of adults. Concentrations of 13 metals were higher in ovaries relative to muscle, seven were similar, and four were depleted. Silver was enriched by over 50-fold in ovaries. Overall, the present study suggests that low concentrations of some metals in muscle of adult female goldeye, relative to concentrations in female juveniles and ovaries, may be maintained in part by transfer of metals to the external environment in eggs at spawning. PMID:20821456

Donald, David B; Sardella, Gino D

2010-02-01

269

Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma-Waldenstr?m macroglobulinemia: an unusual presentation in ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterine cervix  

PubMed Central

Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is an indolent malignancy of B cells and plasma cells. The disease presents in the adults with bone marrow and lymph nodes involvement. Extranodal involvement is rare but has been reported in spleen and liver. Herein, we present a case of a 50-year-old woman who underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy for irregular uterine bleeding. Histologic examination of uterine cervix, uterine walls and fallopian tubes reveal dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate that was most pronounced in ovaries. This is the first case report on lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma-Waldenström macroglobulinemia initially presenting and secondarily involving both ovaries and other gynecological organs.

Albawardi, Alia Saeed; Castella, Antonio; Almarzooqi, Saeeda Saleh

2013-01-01

270

Effect of Freezing Condition on the Quality of Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Ovary as Tarako Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tarako and Mentaiko are popular seafood products in Japan. They are prepared mainly from frozen Walleye Pollock roe which are mostly transported from Alaska or Russia. Fresh ovary as material for tarako products is generally believed to be of much better quality than frozen one, however it is yet to be scientifically evaluated. In this study, the effects of freezing rate on freeze-thaw ovarian quality were investigated through drip amount measurement, sensory test and morphological observation. Results showed that the freezing conditions (i.e. freezing rate and storage period) caused physical damage to the ovary resulting to the change its taste.

Uchiumi, Yu; Watanabe, Manabu; Ohsako, Kazufumi; Shirai, Takaaki; Suzuki, Toru

271

How to Make a Gonad: Cellular Mechanisms Governing Formation of the Testes and Ovaries  

PubMed Central

Sex determination of the gonad is an extraordinary process by which a single organ anlage is directed to form one of two different structures, a testis or an ovary. Morphogenesis of these two organs utilizes many common cellular events; differences in the timing and execution of these events must combine to generate sexually dimorphic structures. In this chapter, we review recent research on the cellular processes of gonad morphogenesis, focusing on data from mouse models. We highlight the shared cellular mechanisms in testis and ovary morphogenesis and examine the differences that enable formation of the two organs responsible for the perpetuation of all sexually reproducing species.

Ungewitte, E.K.; Yao, H.H.-C.

2012-01-01

272

Ovary volume in young and premenopausal adults: US determination. Work in progress  

SciTech Connect

Normal adult ovary volume determined by ultrasonography (US) is often stated to be less than 6 cm/sup 3/. This is based on data from teenagers and young adults aged 12-20 years. Recently, the mean normal volume determined by US was reported to be considerably higher. The authors measured the volumes of 28 ovaries from 15 healthy young adults and found them to range as high as 13.84 cm/sup 3/, with an average of 6.48 cm/sup 3/.

Munn, C.S.; Kiser, L.C.; Wetzner, S.M.; Baer, J.E.

1986-06-01

273

An economic evaluation of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy versus gonadotrophin therapy for women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy and gonadotrophin ovulation induction for women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome have been shown to result in similar pregnancy rates, but their relative cost-effectiveness has not been evaluated. METHODS: A cost-minimization study was undertaken alongside a randomized controlled trial in women with anovulatory infertility secondary to clomiphene resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Inclusion criteria were

Cynthia M. Farquhar; Karen Williamson; Paul M. Brown; Jules Garland

2004-01-01

274

Localization and characterization of white blood cell populations within the human ovary throughout the menstrual cycle and menopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to localize and characterize white blood cell populations in the human ovary through its physiological life cycle. Ovaries from 30 women of reproductive age and from three post-menopausal women were embedded in paraffin or frozen. Clinical information and pathology review were used to obtain accurate menstrual cycle information and to ensure the absence of

Craig L. Best; Jeffrey Pudney; William R. Welch; Natalie Burger; Joseph A. Hill

1996-01-01

275

Restoration of Reproductive Potential by Lifestyle Modification in Obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role of Insulin Sensitivity and Luteinizing Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight reduction and exercise have been shown to help with men- strual disturbance and infertility in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied the relationship between insulin sensi- tivity and ovulation patterns in 18 infertile anovulatory obese poly- cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women (NO) with normal glucose tol- erance, aged between 22-39 yr with a body mass index of

M.-M. HUBER-BUCHHOLZ; D. G. P. CAREY; R. J. NORMAN

2010-01-01

276

Neuronal Labeling in the Rat Brain and Spinal Cord from the Ovary Using Viral Transneuronal Tracing Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigations the viral transneuronal labeling method, which is able to reveal hierarchial chains of central nervous system (CNS) neurons, was applied to identify sites in the CNS connected with the ovary and presumably involved in the control of ovarian functions. Pseudorabies virus was injected into the ovaries of rats and a few days later (at various times

Ida Gerendai; Ida E. Tóth; István Medveczky; Béla Halász

1998-01-01

277

Genetic and gene expression analyses of the polycystic ovary syndrome candidate gene fibrillin-3 and other fibrillin family members in human ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the dinucleotide repeat microsatellite marker D19S884, which is located in intron 55 of the fibrillin-3 (FBN3) gene. Fibrillins, including FBN1 and 2, interact with latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-b-binding proteins (LTBP) and thereby control the bioactivity of TGFbs. TGFbs stimulate fibroblast repli- cation and collagen production. The PCOS

Mark J. Prodoehl; Nicholas Hatzirodos; Helen F. Irving-Rodgers; Zhen Z. Zhao; Jodie N. Painter; Theresa E. Hickey; Mark A. Gibson; William E. Rainey; Bruce R. Carr; Helen D. Mason; Robert J. Norman; Grant W. Montgomery; Raymond J. Rodgers

2009-01-01

278

Night temperature and source-sink effects on overall growth, cell number and cell size in bell pepper ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ovary swelling, and resultant fruit malformation, in bell pepper flowers is favoured by low night temperature or a high source–sink ratio. However, the interaction between night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary swelling and the contribution of cell size and cell number to ovary swelling are unknown. The present research examined the interactive effects of night temperature and source–sink ratio on ovary size, cell number and cell size at anthesis in bell pepper flowers. Methods Bell pepper plants were grown in growth chambers at night temperatures of either 20 °C (HNT) or 12 °C (LNT). Within each temperature treatment, plants bore either 0 (non-fruiting) or two developing fruits per plant. Ovary fresh weight, cell size and cell number were measured. Key Results Ovary fresh weights in non-fruiting plants grown at LNT were the largest, while fresh weights were smallest in plants grown at HNT with fruits. In general, mesocarp cell size in ovaries was largest in non-fruiting plants grown at either LNT or HNT and smallest in fruiting plants at HNT. Mesocarp cell number was greater in non-fruiting plants under LNT than in the rest of the night temperature/fruiting treatments. These responses were more marked in ovaries sampled after 18 d of treatment compared with those sampled after 40 d of treatment. Conclusions Ovary fresh weight of flowers at anthesis increased 65 % in non-fruiting plants grown under LNT compared with fruiting plants grown under HNT. This increase was due primarily to increases in mesocarp cell number and size. These results indicate that the combined effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio on ovary swelling are additive. Furthermore, the combined effects of LNT and low source–sink ratio or HNT and high source–sink ratio can partially overcome the detrimental effects of LNT and high source–sink ratio.

Darnell, Rebecca L.; Cruz-Huerta, Nicacio; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

2012-01-01

279

[Uterovaginal agenesis and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Psychological disturbance in adolescence].  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients, age was negative correlated with attention problems and PCOS patients >18 reported significantly more somatic complaints compared with age-mate MRKHS patients and controls. PCO syndrome's clinical manifastations, including menstrual disorders, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility, may cause significant emotional distress. Nevertheless, they appear in great variety and our sample is characterized by mild features of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea. This may explain findings of milder psychological disturbance associated with PCOS in this sample in comparison to other studies. As far as MRKHS is concerned, diagnosis and loss of reproductive ability, especially in late adolescence, obstruct emotional stability, physical maturity and sexual identity development ending that are expected in this period of life. Undoubtedly, the management of MRKHS in adolescence constitutes a complex multidisciplinary issue and psychological support of patients is needed in order to prevent possible psychological consequences and to achieve a normal transition to adulthood. Among the limitations of this study is the small sample size, which limits the generalisability of the reported results, especially in "Youth Self Report" and in "Symptom Checklist-90-R" questionnaires, where the sample was divided according to the age. Nevertheless, the very low incidence of MRKHS (1/5000) emphasize the value of the present results, which support the need for further investigation. PMID:23073543

Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

280

A Novel Functional Role for the Oocyte-Specific Transcription Factor Newborn Ovary Homeobox (NOBOX) during Early Embryonic Development in Cattle  

PubMed Central

Newborn ovary homeobox (NOBOX) is an oocyte-specific transcription factor essential for folliculogenesis and expression of many germ cell-specific genes in mice. Here we report the characterization of the bovine NOBOX gene and its role in early embryogenesis. The cloned cDNA for bovine NOBOX contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 500 amino acids with a conserved homeodomain. mRNA for NOBOX is preferentially expressed in ovaries and undetectable by RT-PCR in somatic tissues examined. NOBOX protein is present in oocytes throughout folliculogenesis. NOBOX is expressed in a stage-specific manner during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development and of maternal origin. Knockdown of NOBOX in early embryos using small interfering RNA demonstrated that NOBOX is required for embryonic development to the blastocyst stage. Depletion of NOBOX in early embryos caused significant down-regulation of genes associated with transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, and cell cycle regulation during embryonic genome activation. In addition, NOBOX depletion in early embryos reduced expression of pluripotency genes (POU5F1/OCT4 and NANOG) and number of inner cell mass cells in embryos that reached the blastocyst stage. This study demonstrates that NOBOX is an essential maternal-derived transcription factor during bovine early embryogenesis, which functions in regulation of embryonic genome activation, pluripotency gene expression, and blastocyst cell allocation.

Tripurani, Swamy K.; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Wang, Lei; Wee, Gabbine; Smith, George W.; Lee, Young S.; Latham, Keith E.

2011-01-01

281

Effect of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy on circulating inhibin B in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) frequently induces ovulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The mechanism by which this effect occurs remains largely unexplained. The aim of this study was to measure changes in inhibin B production in response to LOD to see whether this could explain the mech- anism of action of LOD. METHODS: This prospective study included

S. A. Amer; S. Laird; W. L. Ledger; T. C. Li

2006-01-01

282

CHANGES IN SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS DURING THE CELL CYCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronized populations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in confluent culture have been examined by scanning electron microscopy and their surface changes noted as the cells progress through the cycle . During G, it is characteristic for cells to show large numbers of microvilli, blebs, and ruffles . Except for the ruffles, these tend to diminish in prominence during S

KEITH PORTER; DAVID PRESCOTT; JEARL FRYE

1973-01-01

283

Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Granulosa Cell Tumors of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To review the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the outcome and recurrence patterns of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary. Methods and Materials: The records of all patients with GCTs referred to the Princess Margaret Hospital University Health Network between 1961 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient, tumor, and treatment factors were assessed by univariate and

Jan Hauspy; Mario E. Beiner; Ian Harley; Barry Rosen; Joan Murphy; William Chapman; Lisa W. Le; Anthony Fyles; Wilfred Levin

2011-01-01

284

Identification of transcripts involved in meiosis and follicle formation during ovine ovary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The key steps in germ cell survival during ovarian development are the entry into meiosis of oogonies and the formation of primordial follicles, which then determine the reproductive lifespan of the ovary. In sheep, these steps occur during fetal life, between 55 and 80 days of gestation, respectively. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed ovarian

Adrienne Baillet; Béatrice Mandon-Pépin; Cédric Cabau; Elodie Poumerol; Eric Pailhoux; Corinne Cotinot

2008-01-01

285

Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic doctrine of reproductive biology is that most mammalian females lose the capacity for germ-cell renewal during fetal life, such that a fixed reserve of germ cells (oocytes) enclosed within follicles is endowed at birth. Here we show that juvenile and adult mouse ovaries possess mitotically active germ cells that, based on rates of oocyte degeneration (atresia) and clearance,

Joshua Johnson; Jacqueline Canning; Tomoko Kaneko; James K. Pru; Jonathan L. Tilly

2004-01-01

286

Metformin versus oral contraceptive pill in polycystic ovary syndrome: a Cochrane review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The object of this review was to compare metformin versus oral contraceptive pill (OCP) treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis employing the principles of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group was undertaken. RESULTS: Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (104 subjects) were included. Limited data demonstrated no evidence of a difference in effect between

Michael F. Costello; Bhushan Shrestha; John Eden; Neil P. Johnson; Peter Sjoblom

2007-01-01

287

The post-menopausal ovary displays a unique pattern of steroidogenic enzyme expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While menopause results in the loss of cyclic steroid production, evidence exists for persistent, albeit reduced, ovarian androgen production. In order to continue to synthesize ovarian androgens, the steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis must be present. Few studies have selectively analysed some of the ster- oidogenic enzymes present in the post-menopausal ovary (PMO), and a comprehensive study of

Jon C. Havelock; William E. Rainey; Karen D. Bradshaw; Bruce R. Carr

288

Cholesteryl esterase and endogenous cholesteryl ester pools in ovaries from maturing and superovulated immature rats.  

PubMed

Results from the assay of cholesteryl esterase (EC 3.1.1.13) with radiolabelled substrate are difficult to interpret if endogenous cholesteryl ester is present. We overcame this problem by using an isotope dilution method to measure the endogenous pool sizes of cholesteryl ester in subcellular fractions of the ovary. This permitted calculation of the total cholesteryl esterase activity of the mitochondrial microsomal, and cytosolic fractions of the ovary. At all stages of ovarian development most cholesteryl esterase acitivity was found in the cytosol, and generally there was more activity in the microsomes than the mitochondria. The cholesteryl esterase in all three fractions exhibited higher activity with cholesteryl oleate as substrate than with cholesteryl palmitate. Increases in cholesteryl esterase activity and endogenous ester concentration were found at two stages of ovarian development; firstly after initiation of follicular growth by gonadotropin in the immature ovary, and secondly during luteinization. The increases were observed in all three sub-cellular fractions. Administration of human choriogonadotropin to rats which possessed luteinized ovaries resulted in activation of the mitochondrial and microsomal cholesteryl esterase but not the cytosolic enzyme. PMID:6994818

Tuckey, R C; Stevenson, P M

1980-06-23

289

Diet and Lifestyle Factors in the Etiology and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions of overweight and obesity contribute to reproductive dysfunction. Appropriate dietary strategies and exercise can\\u000a reverse these disorders. This chapter covers the causes and consequences of lifestyle disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome\\u000a and relevant interventions.

R. J. Norman; L. J. Moran

290

Screening for bipolar disorder in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePrevious reports have attributed polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to valproate treatment in women with bipolar disorder and with epilepsy. However, since high rates of mood disorders have been identified in women with PCOS, we sought to investigate the hypothesis that an intrinsic association may exist between PCOS and bipolar disorder, independent of pharmacotherapy.

Kimberly G. Klipstein; Joseph F. Goldberg

2006-01-01

291

Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian autoimmunity—assessment of ovarian antibodies by EIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are conflicting reports of an association of ovarian antibodies, detected by immunofluorescence, with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of ovarian autoimmunity with PCOS. A validated immunoassay for ovarian antibodies was used to assess serum from women with PCOS and with menopause and normal cycling women as controls. The frequency of

J. L Luborsky; S Shatavi; P Adamczyk; C Chiong; B Llanes; J Lafniztzegger; B Soltes; P McGovern; N Santoro

1999-01-01

292

Low Water Potential Disrupts Carbohydrate Metabolism in Maize (Zea mays L.) Ovaries.  

PubMed Central

Water deficit during pollination increases the frequency of kernel abortion in maize (Zea mays L.). Much of the kernel loss is attributable to lack of current photosynthate, but a large number of kernels fail to develop on water-deficient plants even when assimilate supply is increased. We examined the possibility that assimilate utilization by developing ovaries might be impaired at low water potential ([Psi]w). Plants were grown in the greenhouse in 20-L pots containing 22 kg of amended soil. Water was withheld on the first day silks emerged, and plants were hand-pollinated 4 d later when leaf [Psi]w decreased to approximately - 1.8 MPa and silk [Psi]w was approximately -1.0 MPa. Plants were rehydrated 2 d after pollination. The brief water deficit inhibited ovary growth (dry matter accumulation) and decreased kernel number per ear by 60%, compared to controls. Inhibition of ovary growth was associated with a decrease in the level of reducing sugars, depletion of starch, a 75-fold increase in sucrose concentration (dry weight basis), and inhibition of acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity. These results indicate that water deficits during pollination disrupt carbohydrate metabolism in maize ovaries. They suggest that acid invertase activity is important for establishing and maintaining reproductive sink strength during pollination and early kernel development.

Zinselmeier, C.; Westgate, M. E.; Schussler, J. R.; Jones, R. J.

1995-01-01

293

Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-4, but not FGFR-3 is expressed in the pregnant ovary.  

PubMed

The intraovarian mechanisms for follicle recruitment, growth, maturation, and ovulation are not well understood. The data suggest that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 is expressed in granulosa and theca cells of growing and mature follicles and in luteal cells during pregnancy. Exogenous FGF-2 modulates steroidogenesis, stimulates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in cultured follicles. Previously, we have reported that another FGF ligand, FGF-4, is expressed in ovulated mouse oocytes. Two studies have examined the expression of receptors (FGFR) for FGF ligands in the ovary. These prior reports have been limited to FGFR-1, one of the four isoforms that are variably expressed in adult mammalian tissues. This study evaluates FGFR-4 and FGFR-3 mRNA expression in the ovary. Granulosa cells from several follicular stages express the receptor for FGFR-4 mRNA as assayed by in situ hybridization. FGFR-4 mRNA is not expressed in theca cells or the oocyte. FGFR-3 mRNA is not detected in the ovary by in situ hybridization. These results suggest that FGFR-4 may play a role in mediating the effects of FGF ligands in follicular development in the ovary. PMID:9324058

Puscheck, E E; Patel, Y; Rappolee, D A

1997-09-19

294

Bisphenol A alters early oogenesis and follicle formation in the fetal ovary of the rhesus monkey.  

PubMed

Widespread use of the endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products has resulted in nearly continuous human exposure. In rodents, low-dose exposures have been reported to adversely affect two distinct stages of oogenesis in the developing ovary: the events of prophase at the onset of meiosis in the fetal ovary and the formation of follicles in the perinatal ovary. Because these effects could influence the reproductive longevity and success of the exposed individual, we conducted studies in the rhesus monkey to determine whether BPA induces similar disturbances in the developing primate ovary. The routes and levels of human exposure are unclear; hence, two different exposure protocols were used: single daily oral doses and continuous exposure via subdermal implant. Our analyses of second trimester fetuses exposed at the time of meiotic onset suggest that, as in mice, BPA induces subtle disturbances in the prophase events that set the stage for chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. Our analyses of third-trimester fetuses exposed to single daily oral doses during the time of follicle formation revealed an increase in multioocyte follicles analogous to that reported in rodents. However, two unique phenotypes were evident in continuously exposed animals: persistent unenclosed oocytes in the medullary region and small, nongrowing oocytes in secondary and antral follicles. Because effects on both stages of oogenesis were elicited using doses that yield circulating levels of BPA analogous to those reported in humans, these findings raise concerns for human reproductive health. PMID:23012422

Hunt, Patricia A; Lawson, Crystal; Gieske, Mary; Murdoch, Brenda; Smith, Helen; Marre, Alyssa; Hassold, Terry; VandeVoort, Catherine A

2012-09-24

295

Endocrine Profile of an Ovariectomized Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with a Supernumerary Ovary  

PubMed Central

For 21 mo after a bilateral ovariectomy, a 19-y-old ovariectomized cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) continued to have menstrual cycles and measurable premenopausal estradiol and progesterone concentrations. Among these 10 menstrual cycles, 5 cycles were normal in duration and 5 were prolonged. At necropsy, a firm nodule was identified in the omental fat, and histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of ovarian tissue containing various stages of atretic follicles, a regressing corpora lutea, and a degenerating antral follicle. The endometrium and vaginal epithelium were atrophic. The occurrence of ectopic ovarian tissue in any form and location is a rare gynecologic condition in both women and nonhuman primates. Previously reported cases in nonhuman primates have been incidental findings at necropsy; therefore, the steroidogenic capacity and endocrine-related sequelae of such ovarian tissue in any nonhuman primate species is unknown. Based on structure, location, and relationship to normally situated ovaries, the ovarian tissue in this case was classified as a supernumerary ovary. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a supernumerary ovary in a cynomolgus macaque. This report demonstrates that supernumerary ovaries in nonhuman primates can be biologically active for many years beyond sexual maturity and should be considered as a possible cause for vaginal bleeding and elevated ovarian hormone concentrations after ovariectomy.

Ethun, Kelly F; Cline, J Mark; Appt, Susan E

2011-01-01

296

Expression of Muscarinic Receptor Types in the Primate Ovary and Evidence for Nonneuronal Acetylcholine Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of muscarinic receptors (MR) in the ovary of different species has been recognized, but the identity of these receptors as well as ovarian sources of their natural ligand, acetylcholine (ACh), have not been determined. Because luteinized human granulosa cells (GC) in culture express functional MR, we have determined whether the group of the related MR subtypes, M1R, M3R,

S. FRITZ; I. WESSLER; R. BREITLING; W. ROSSMANITH; S. R. OJEDA; G. A. DISSEN; A. AMSTERDAM; A. MAYERHOFER

2007-01-01

297

The Ovary as a Source of alpha -ecdysone in an Adult Mosquito  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovaries of the mosquito Aedes aegypti cultured in vitro secrete material that behaves like ecdysone in a radioimmunoassay. The material was identified as alpha -ecdysone by high-resolution liquid and gas-liquid chromatography. Secretion reached a maximum 16 hr after a blood meal as shown by bioassay and direct determination. Ovariectomy reduced the concentration of ecdysone in the adult after a

H. H. Hagedorn; J. D. O'Connor; Morton S. Fuchs; Becky Sage; Dorothy A. Schlaeger; M. K. Bohm

1975-01-01

298

The Incidence of Fibromyoma and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women in Trinidad (2000-2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Before this study was done there were no reports of similar studies in Trinidad whereas similar study had been reported fr om other parts of the World including the Caribbean sub-region. The present study was thus de signed to investigate the incidence and demographics of leiomyomata and polycystic ovary syndrome in women in two health institutions in Trinidad

E. O. Uche-Nwachi; A. Odekunle; M. Welch; D. Bowleg; B. Cardron; K. Gaebolae; T. Humes; K. Modise; L. Tlale

2009-01-01

299

Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and

R. K. Gupta; R. A. Schuh; G. Fiskum; J. A.. Flaws

2006-01-01

300

Structure of ovaries and oogenesis in the snow scorpionfly boreus hyemalis (LINNE)(MECOPTERA : BOREIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovaries of the snow scorpionfly, Boreus hyemalis (Mecoptera : Boreidae) are panoistic and comprise 7–8 ovarioles. Each ovariole consists of a terminal filament, elongated vitellarium, and ovariole stalk (=pedicel) only ; in adult specimens, functional germaria are absent. Five consecutive stages of oogenesis i.e., early, mid- and late previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, and choriogenesis have been distinguished in imagines. Oocyte nuclei

Szczepan M Bilinski; Jürgen Büning

1998-01-01

301

Removal of Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes Cuts Cancer Risk for BRCA1/2 Carriers  

Cancer.gov

Surgery that removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes is one of the most effective ways to decrease a woman's risk of breast and gynecologic cancer if she carries a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, according to the Jan. 21, 2009, Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

302

Pioglitazone and metformin in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome not optimally responsive to metformin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In an observational study of 13 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) not optimally responsive to metformin diet, we assessed the efficacy and safety of addition of pioglitazone. We also compared these 13 women to 26 women with PCOS, who were responsive to metformin diet, matched by age and by pre- treatment menstrual history and not different by obesity

Charles J. Glueck; Andrew Moreira; Naila Goldenberg; Luann Sieve; Ping Wang

303

In vitro induction of haploid plants from unpollinated ovaries and ovules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent advance in plant tissue culture and experimental embryology is the successful induction of haploid plants by the culture of unpollinated ovaries or ovules. It means that not only the microspore but also the megaspore or female gametophyte of angiosperms can be triggered in vitro to sporophytic development, thus opening a new way to genetical research and haploid breeding.

H. Y. Yang; C. Zhou

1982-01-01

304

Steroid secretion rates and plasma binding activity in androstenedione-immune ewes with an autotransplanted ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Mature Merino ewes in which the left ovary and its vascular pedicle had been autotransplanted to the neck were divided into control (N = 5) and immunized groups (N = 6). The immunized ewes were treated (2 ml s.c.) with Fecundin\\\\s=r\\\\1 and 4 weeks before the start of blood sampling. Ovarian and jugular venous blood was collected every 10

B. K. Campbell; R. J. Scaramuzzi; J. A. Downing; G. Evans

1990-01-01

305

Relationships between free leptin and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Leptin is an adipokine that circulates in a free form and bound to a soluble leptin receptor. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have increased insulin resistance and high incidence of obesity. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate levels of leptin and free leptin in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and note any relationships with insulin resistance

Javad Mohiti-Ardekani; Nasim Tarof; Abbas Aflatonian

2009-01-01

306

Isolation and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in assembly of peroxisomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We made use of autoradiographic screening to isolate two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mu- tants deficient in peroxisomal dihydroxyacetonephos- phate acyltransferase, a key enzyme for the biosyn- thesis of ether glycerolipids such as plasmalogens. Morphological analysis revealed no evidence of perox- isome in these mutants. Catalase was as active as in the normal cells but was not sedimentable. Pulse-

Toshiro Tsukamoto; Sadaki Yokota; Yukio Fujiki

1990-01-01

307

The role of color doppler imaging in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate whether intraovarian and uterine blood flow variations are associated with clinical, ultrasonographic, and endocrine polycystic ovary syndrome findings.Study DESIGN: Thirty-two hirsute, oligomenorrheic patients and 18 volunteer women underwent in the early follicular phase ultrasonographic evaluation of ovarian volume, echodensity, and follicle number; transvaginal color Doppler measurement of the uterine and intraovarian vessel variations; and

Cesare Battaglia; Paolo G. Artini; Gerardo D'Ambrogio; Alessandro D. Genazzani; Andrea R. Genazzani

1995-01-01

308

The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats,

Marilina Casais; Silvia M Delgado; Zulema Sosa; Carlos M Telleria; Ana M Rastrilla

2006-01-01

309

PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG INFERTILE PATIENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME TREATED WITH METFORMIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PSOS) is the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility. Matformin is effective in the treatment of PCOS- related anovulation. Metformin is an oral biguanide, well established for the treatment of hyperglycemia. Preliminary evidence indicates that metformin may also be effective in decreasing the risk of early spontaneous abortion in women with PCOS. The aim of the

FACTA UNIVERSITATIS

310

A New Contributing Factor to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: The Genetic Variant of Luteinizing Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still unclear, LH is considered to play a central role in its pathogenesis. An immunologically anomalous form of LH, with two point mutations in the LHb gene, has been recently described. This genetic variant of LH (v-LH), of wide geographic distribution, is functionally different from wild-type (wt) LH. To assess the

JUHA S. TAPANAINEN; RIITTA KOIVUNEN; BART C. J. M. FAUSER; ANN E. TAYLOR; RICHARD N. CLAYTON; MADHURIMA RAJKOWA; DAVINIA WHITE; STEPHEN FRANKS; LEENA ANTTILA; KIM S. I. PETTERSSON; ILPO T. HUHTANIEMI

2010-01-01

311

Increased Prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is considerably more common in men than women. Preliminary data suggest that androgens may play a role in the male predominance of apnea. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by menstrual disturbances, androgen excess, and frequently obesity. These features suggest that women with PCOS may be at increased risk for OSA. To determine whether obese women

ROBERT B. FOGEL; ATUL MALHOTRA; GIORA PILLAR; STEPHEN D. PITTMAN; ANDREA DUNAIF; DAVID P. WHITE

2010-01-01

312

Effects of metformin treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome depends on insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women at reproductive age, and is the most common reason for hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Some patients with PCOS are insulin-resistant. Also, lowered sex hormone- binding globulin (SHBG) concentration is usually observed. As a consequence, the amount of free and biologically active androgens increases. This implies that, by improving insulin and carbohydrate metabolism,

Jolanta Nawrocka; Andrzej Starczewski

2007-01-01

313

Gonadoblastoma in the ovaries of a lesser galago (Galago senegalensis braccatus).  

PubMed

An enlarged right ovary was removed from a 14-year-old lesser galago (Galago senegalensis braccatus). Cytological preparations consisted of a heterogeneous population of neoplastic cells admixed with extracellular hyaline structures and cell-free nuclei. Microscopically, the ovary was replaced with gonadoblastoma and was composed of nests of germinal cells, including large oocyte-like cells, and sex cord-stromal cells arranged in palisading patterns around the germinal cells, the periphery of the nests and around extracellular hyaline material. The animal died 2 years after initial diagnosis. Necropsy examination revealed gonadoblastoma in the left ovary. The germinal cells of the tumour in the right and left ovaries were immunoreactive for calretinin, OCT3/4, PGP 9.5, Ki67 and/or faintly for cytokeratins. Sex cord-stromal cells were immunoreactive for calretinin, OCT3/4, GATA-4, E-cadherin and vimentin. Luteinized sex cord-stromal cells were immunoreactive for inhibin-alpha. The extracellular hyaline material was immunoreactive for laminin. This is the first case of gonadoblastoma in a non-human primate. PMID:22520808

Irizarry Rovira, A R; Lynch, S; David, M; Ramos Vara, J A

2012-04-18

314

[Role of genetic and environmental factors in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome].  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common heterogeneous endocrine abnormality in women in the reproductive age. The syndrome remains an enigmatic disorder because the aetiology is still unclear. Familial aggreagation is relatively common among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome suggesting a signi?cant genetic component, although the way of inheritance has not been established firmly. The authors review the relevant medical literature and suggest that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome. To date, no gene has been identified that causes or contributes substantially to the development of a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is considered to be an oligogenic disorder in which the interaction of a number of genetic and environmental factors determines the heterogeneous clinical and biochemical phenotype. To summarize current evidence the authors conclude, that when we are able to identify and then modify environmental determinants, then we will be able to safeguard better the health of those patients who are predisposed to disease development due to genotype or previous environmental effects. PMID:23608312

Ságodi, László; Kiss-Tóth, Em?ke; Barkai, László

2013-04-28

315

Determinants of Abnormal Gonadotropin Secretion in Clinically Defined Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of reproductive age women characterized in its broadest definition by the presence of oligoamenorrhea and hyperandrogenism and the ab- sence of other disorders. Defects of gonadotropin secretion, including an elevated LH level, elevated LH to FSH ratio, and an increased frequency and amplitude of LH pulsations have been described, but the prevalence

ANN E. TAYLOR; BRIAN MCCOURT; KATHRYN A. MARTIN; ELLEN J. ANDERSON; JUDITH M. ADAMS; DAVID SCHOENFELD; JANET E. HALL

2010-01-01

316

Evidence for Association Between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Premature Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disorder characterized by obesity, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance. An adverse lipid profile has also been observed in PCOS-affected women, suggesting that these individuals may be at increased risk for coronary heart disease at a young age. The objective of the present study was to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis among women with PCOS

Evelyn O. Talbott; David S. Guzick; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Kathleen P. McHugh-Pemu; Jeanne V. Zborowski; Karen E. Remsberg; Lewis H. Kuller

2010-01-01

317

Prevalence and Predictors of Coronary Artery Calcification in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine dis- order of reproductive-aged women, is associated with multi- ple risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD), such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, visceral obesity, and hyper- tension. However, premature coronary atherosclerosis has not been demonstrated in PCOS women. Electron beam com- puted tomography (EBCT) noninvasively measures coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker for

ROSE C. CHRISTIAN; DANIEL A. DUMESIC; THOMAS BEHRENBECK; ANN L. OBERG; PATRICK F. SHEEDY; LORRAINE A. FITZPATRICK

318

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Arguably the Most Common Endocrinopathy Is Associated with Significant Morbidity in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's health is about the prevention, screening, diag- nosis, and treatment of disorders that are unique to women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is extremely prevalent and probably constitutes the most frequently encountered endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Primary care providers do not commonly appreciate that the syndrome is associated with significant morbidity in terms of both re- productive and

ENRICO CARMINA; ROGERIO A. LOBO

319

Serum Leptin Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: The Role of Insulin Resistance\\/ Hyperinsulinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance (IR)\\/hyperinsu- linemia, and a high incidence of obesity. Thus, PCOS serves as a useful model to assess the role of IR and chronic endogenous insulin excess on leptin levels. Thirty-three PCOS and 32 normally cycling (NC) women of similar body mass index (BMI) were studied. Insulin sensitivity (SI)

G. A. LAUGHLIN; A. J. MORALES; S. S. C. YEN

2010-01-01

320

Prevalence and Characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance with compensatory hyperinsulinemia. In- sulin resistance also plays a role in the metabolic syndrome (MBS). We hypothesized that the MBS is prevalent in PCOS and that women with both conditions would present with more hyperandrogenism and menstrual cycle irregularity than women with PCOS only. We conducted a retrospective chart review

Teimuraz Apridonidze; Paulina A. Essah; Maria J. Iuorno; John E. Nestler

2005-01-01

321

High prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Over a period of 30 months, 175 patients with PCOS were recruited to a prospective multi- center study to evaluate thyroid function and morphology; 168 age-matched women without PCOS were studied as a control group. Methods: PCOS was defined as a- or oligomenorrhea,

Onno E Janssen; Nadine Mehlmauer; Susanne Hahn; Alexandra H Offner; Roland Gartner

2004-01-01

322

Altered Composition of High Density Lipoproteins in Women with the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) appear at in- creased cardiovascular risk due in part to a dyslipidemia character- ized by increased plasma triglyceride and reduced high density li- poprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. This is a detailed exploratory study of HDL composition in 35 obese (body mass index (BMI), .27) and 22 nonobese subjects with PCOS and in 14 healthy

M. Rajkhowa; R. H. NEARY; P. KUMPATLA; P. W. JONES; M. S. OBHRAI; R. N. CLAYTON

1997-01-01

323

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Daytime Sleepiness: Role of Insulin Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of premenopausal women, characterized by chronic hyperan- drogenism, oligoanovulation, and insulin resistance. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are strongly associated with insulin resistance and hypercytokinemia, independently of obesity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS are at risk for OSA and EDS. Fifty-three women with PCOS (age

ALEXANDROS N. VGONTZAS; RICHARD S. LEGRO; EDWARD O. BIXLER; ALLISON GRAYEV; ANTHONY KALES; GEORGE P. CHROUSOS

2010-01-01

324

The polycystic ovary syndrome per se is not associated with increased chronic inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The syndrome of polycystic ovaries (PCOS) is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. It is not known, however, whether the increase in diabetes risk is related to endocrine abnormalities associated with PCOS such as hyperandrogenemia, or whether it is a consequence of the anthropometric or metabolic alterations frequently observed in PCOS women. Design: Since markers of inflammation

Matthias Mohlig; Joachim Spranger; Martin Osterhoff; Michael Ristow; Andreas F H Pfeiffer; Thilo Schill; Hans W Schlosser; Georg Brabant; Christof Schofl

2004-01-01

325

The source of gibberellins in the parthenocarpic development of ovaries on topped pea plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role and source of gibberellins (GAs) involved in the development of parthenocarpic fruits of Pisum sativum L. has been investigated. Gibberellins applied to the leaf adjacent to an emasculated ovary induced parthenocarpic fruit development on intact plants. The application of gibberellic acid (GA3) had to be done within 1 d of anthesis to be fully effective and the response

J. G. Peretó; J. P. Beltrán; J. L. García-Martínez

1988-01-01

326

Study on NPR1 gene transformation by ovary injection pathway into watermelon (citrullus vulgaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of disease-resistant gene NPR1 to Watermelon was studied by ovary injection pathway after artificial pollination . Transgenic plants were obtained.Studies showed the injection of DNA solution at about 24 hours after pollination resulted in the highest transformation rate.PCR and southern blotting hybridization results showed that NPR1 gene were transformed into Watermelon.

Wenlan Li; Xiaowei Sheng; Jingjian Li; Xinmin Qin

2011-01-01

327

Tributyltin exposure causes lipotoxicity responses in the ovaries of rockfish, Sebastiscus marmoratus.  

PubMed

Tributyltin (TBT) is a well-studied endocrine disruptor in mollusks and fishes. Recently, TBT is also recognized as a metabolic disruptor. Since abnormal lipids metabolism can induce negative effects on reproduction, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of TBT on ovarian lipid accumulation and testosterone esterification in rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus). After exposure for 48 d, there was a decrease of neutral lipid droplets in the ooplasm of ovaries. Exposure has also induced lipotoxicity responses in the ovaries, which shown as an increase of interstitial ectopic lipid accumulation and total lipids. The decrease of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations might be responsible for the lipotoxicity responses. In addition, the percentage of testosterone in an esterified form was significantly decreased in the ovaries by TBT exposure, which might be a mechanism by which free testosterone levels increased. The accumulation of ectopic lipids and increase of free testosterone levels in the ovaries might impact ovarian functions and oocyte development in fish. These results strongly indicate that TBT exposure can influence reproductive functions of rockfish through lipotoxic mechanism. PMID:23153777

Zhang, Jiliang; Zuo, Zhenghong; Xiong, Jianli; Sun, Ping; Chen, Yixin; Wang, Chonggang

2012-11-13

328

Antagonism of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways during ovotestis development in mice  

PubMed Central

Ovotestis development in B6-XYPOS mice provides a rare opportunity to study the interaction of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways in the same tissue. We studied expression of several markers of mouse fetal testis (SRY, SOX9) or ovary (FOXL2, Rspo1) development in B6-XYPOS ovotestes by immunofluorescence, using normal testes and ovaries as controls. In ovotestes, SOX9 was expressed only in the central region where SRY is expressed earliest, resulting in testis cord formation. Surprisingly, FOXL2-expressing cells also were found in this region, but individual cells expressed either FOXL2 or SOX9, not both. At the poles, even though SOX9 was not upregulated, SRY expression was down-regulated normally as in XY testes, and FOXL2 was expressed from an early stage, demonstrating ovarian differentiation in these areas. Our data (1) show that SRY must act within a specific developmental window to activate Sox9; (2) challenge the established view that SOX9 is responsible for down-regulating Sry expression; (3) disprove the concept that testicular and ovarian cells occupy discrete domains in ovotestes; and (4) suggest that FOXL2 is actively suppressed in Sertoli cell precursors by the action of SOX9. Together these findings provide important new insights into the molecular regulation of testis and ovary development.

Wilhelm, Dagmar; Washburn, Linda L.; Truong, Vy; Fellous, Marc; Eicher, Eva M.; Koopman, Peter

2009-01-01

329

Synthesis of Brassica carinata from Brassica nigra x Brassica oleracea hybrids obtained by ovary culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassica carinata was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. nigra and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Up to 40 times more hybrids were obtained, using ovary culture than with conventional hand pollination. Two hybrids from the cross B. nigra x B. oleracea var ‘alboglabra’ were raised to maturity. High chromosome pairing was observed in both the

N. Sarla; R. N. Raut

1988-01-01

330

An algorithm for treatment of infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition with both a reproductive and metabolic phenotype. Women with PCOS often seek care because of infertility or menstrual cycle irregularities that result from chronic anovulation interspersed with occasional ovulatory cycles. Initially, it is important to delineate a differential diagnosis for oligo- or amenorrhea and to evaluate for disorders that may “masquerade” as

Jennifer F. Kawwass; Tammy L. Loucks; Sarah L. Berga

2010-01-01

331

Functional anatomy of the ovaries of pregnant and lactating Cape porcupines, Hystrix africaeaustralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The constituent cell types of the ovary of the porcupine were similar to those of New World hystricomorph rodents and accessory corpora lutea and luteal bodies were formed through the luteinization of the membrana granulosa or theca interna of antral follicles. All luteal bodies were histologically similar. The total volume of luteal tissue per female was not affected by

R. J. van Aarde; J. D. Skinner

1986-01-01

332

One tissue, two fates: molecular genetic events that underlie testis versus ovary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pivotal point of vertebrate sex determination is the development of the gonad into a testis or ovary, which governs phenotypic sex through the production of hormones. The identification of Sry, the genetic switch that controls testis development in mammals, fuelled the race for the discovery of downstream pathways. Comparative analyses of XY versus XX gonadogenesis in both mouse and

Jennifer Brennan; Blanche Capel

2004-01-01

333

Steroid concentrations and immunoexpression of steroidogenic enzymes in ovaries of aged bank voles: effect of photoperiod.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to establish morphological and steroidogenic changes occurring in the ovaries of senescent bank voles, with respect to the photoperiod of rearing. Obtained results revealed less pronounced changes in the ovaries of females reared in a long photoperiod (LD). Their gonads still possessed some healthy follicles and old corpora lutea (CLs). Senescence-related changes encompassed the presence of abnormal follicles, large regions containing extra-follicular luteinized granulosa cells and numerous clusters of hypertrophied theca/interstitial cells, exhibiting strong expression of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) and much weaker that of cytochrome P450c17. More pronounced changes were observed in animals reared in short day (SD) conditions and included the presence of only few, usually abnormal follicles and/or remnants of CLs in the surface region, and the isle-like clusters of cells in the ovarian medulla. The clusters were composed of cells generally featuring strong 3?-HSD and/or P450c17 immunoreaction. Steroid content analysis revealed that progesterone dominated in the ovaries of LD bank voles and androgens in SD animals, while estradiol content was very low in both investigated groups. These studies showed for the first time morphological and steroidogenic changes found in the ovaries of senescent bank voles and indicated an important role of length light conditions in the process of reproductive aging. PMID:22952145

Galas, Jerzy; Starowicz, Agnieszka; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Szo?tys, Maria

2012-09-05

334

Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the effectiveness of metformin in improving clinical and biochemical features of polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Randomised controlled trials that investigated the effect of metformin compared with either placebo or no treatment, or compared with an ovulation induction agent. Selection of studies 13 trials were included for analysis, including 543 women with

Jonathan M Lord; Ingrid H K Flight; Robert J Norman

2003-01-01

335

Therapeutic effects of metformin on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia are associated with ovarian hyper- androgenism and menstrual irregularities in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Sixteen obese women with PCOS on a weight-maintaining diet were studied before and after 6 months of therapy with the insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agent metformin at a dose of 1700 mg per day. Compared with baseline values, glucose utilization was

Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Chryssa Kouli; Thomais Tsianateli; Angeliki Bergiele

1998-01-01

336

Isochromosome 18q in a girl with holoprosencephaly, DiGeorge anomaly, and streak ovaries.  

PubMed

We report on the clinical and pathologic findings in a girl with isochromosome 18q (46, XX,i(18q)) who had combined manifestations of monosomy 18p and trisomy 18q. Major congenital anomalies included premaxillary agenesis, alobar holoprosenphaly, double outlet right ventricle, DiGeorge anomaly and streak ovaries. The clinical spectrum in i(18q) is very broad. PMID:8368259

van Essen, A J; Schoots, C J; van Lingen, R A; Mourits, M J; Tuerlings, J H; Leegte, B

1993-08-01

337

Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ovaries by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background Insect ovarioles are classified into two categories: panoistic and meroistic, the later having apparently evolved from an ancestral panoistic type. Molecular data on oogenesis is practically restricted to meroistic ovaries. If we aim at studying the evolutionary transition from panoistic to meroistic, data on panoistic ovaries should be gathered. To this end, we planned the construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) library to identify genes involved in panoistic choriogenesis, using the cockroach Blattella germanica as model. Results We constructed a post-vitellogenic ovary library by SSH to isolate genes involved in choriogenesis in B. germanica. The tester library was prepared with an ovary pool from 6- to 7-day-old females, whereas the driver library was prepared with an ovary pool from 3- to 4-day-old females. From the SSH library, we obtained 258 high quality sequences which clustered into 34 unique sequences grouped in 19 contigs and 15 singlets. The sequences were compared against non-redundant NCBI databases using BLAST. We found that 44% of the unique sequences had homologous sequences in known genes of other organisms, whereas 56% had no significant similarity to any of the databases entries. A Gene Ontology analysis was carried out, classifying the 34 sequences into different functional categories. Seven of these gene sequences, representative of different categories and processes, were chosen to perform expression studies during the first gonadotrophic cycle by real-time PCR. Results showed that they were mainly expressed during post-vitellogenesis, which validates the SSH technique. In two of them corresponding to novel genes, we demonstrated that they are specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of follicular cells in basal oocytes at the time of choriogenesis. Conclusion The SSH approach has proven to be useful in identifying ovarian genes expressed after vitellogenesis in B. germanica. For most of the genes, functions related to choriogenesis are postulated. The relatively high percentage of novel genes obtained and the practical absence of chorion genes typical of meroistic ovaries suggest that mechanisms regulating chorion formation in panoistic ovaries are significantly different from those of meroistic ones.

Irles, Paula; Belles, Xavier; Piulachs, M Dolors

2009-01-01

338

Regulation of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system by bone morphogenetic proteins in the zebrafish ovary.  

PubMed

In the zebrafish, the dynamic expression of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system during folliculogenesis and its exclusive localization (except follistatin) in follicle cells suggests that the system plays important roles in follicle development and that its expression is subject to tight controls, probably by external factors including those derived from the oocyte. We have previously identified zebrafish bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as oocyte factors that may act on follicle cells; however, the targets of BMPs in the follicle cells remain unknown. Considering their spatiotemporal expression in the follicle, we hypothesized that members of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system in follicle cells could be potential target genes of BMPs. In the present study, we developed a novel coculture system to co-incubate zebrafish bone morphogenetic protein 2b or 4 (zfBMP2b/4)-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with zebrafish follicle cells. During incubation, the zfBMPs secreted from the CHO cells would act directly on the follicle cells in a paracrine manner. Our results showed that all activin beta subunits (inhbaa, inhbab, and inhbb) were down-regulated by both zfBMP2b and zfBMP4, while follistatin (fst, an activin-binding protein) and inhibin alpha (inha, an activin antagonist) were significantly up-regulated. The specificity of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) actions was confirmed by short interfering RNA knockdown of zfBMP4 expression in the CHO cells. The robust response of inha to zfBMPs, together with our previous observation that inha expression surged at the full-grown stage prior to oocyte maturation, led us to hypothesize that the full-grown oocyte may signal upper levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis its readiness to mature by releasing BMPs, which in turn stimulate inhibin production. As an ovarian hormone and activin antagonist, inhibin may suppress the action of activin in the pituitary to reduce follicle-stimulating hormone but increase luteinizing hormone (LH) biosynthesis. Meanwhile, by increasing the local follistatin level and reducing the activin production, BMPs could help prevent precocious maturation before preovulatory LH surge. PMID:23843234

Li, Cheuk Wun; Ge, Wei

2013-09-12

339

Accumulation of mercury in ovaries of mice after the application of skin-lightening creams.  

PubMed

Skin-lightening creams are being increasingly used by women in particular, worldwide in an attempt to whiten their skin. Men and older people use these creams to remove age spots or other pigmentation disorders. Several studies have reported the presence of high mercury levels in skin-lightening cream. Women, especially pregnant and nursing mothers, who use these creams are at risk of mercury toxicity because long-term exposure can cause permanent neurological damage, nephrological disorders, fertility problems, and birth defects. Early exposure usually has no clinical symptoms. Mercury levels were measured in a total of 49 ovary tissue samples. The mean mercury contents in the ovaries of non-treated mice (11.70 +/- 13.38 ng/g) were compared to mice treated with Rose skin-lightening cream samples (2,471.92 +/- 1,336.31 ng/g) and those treated with Fair & Lovely skin-lightening creams (58.47 +/- 39.51 ng/g). The mercury content in the ovary tissues increased with number of cream applications and were highest in the ovaries of mice treated twice a day with Fair & Lovely (87.79 +/- 26.20 ng/g) and once a day with Rose (3,515.61 +/- 1,099.78 ng/g). Our data indicate that dermal exposure to mercury can result in a significant accumulation in the ovaries of mice following the application of skin-lightening cream. This may cause alterations in reproductive behavior and contribute to infertility or ovarian failure. Of course, these results need to be confirmed by further research. Imported or locally made skin-lightening creams are widely available in Saudi market. It would be ideal to ban the sale of these creams but unfortunately, advertisements in the mass media presenting celebrities and beauty specialists make these products more popular. Alternatively, public health authorities should encourage more reliance on prescribed creams for the treatment of skin pigmentation problems. PMID:19224137

Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Al-Amodi, Mona

2009-02-18

340

The Effect of Gonadotropin on Glucose Transport and Apoptosis in Rat Ovary  

PubMed Central

Although the effects of Gonadotropin on ovarian physiology have been known for many decades, its action on glucose uptake in the rat ovary remained poorly understood. Evidence also suggests that glucose uptake is mediated by a number of glucose transporter proteins (Glut). Therefore, we examined the rat ovary for the presence of Glut1–4 and blood glucose level after eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin) and anti-eCG antiserum treatment. All of the glucose transports were present in the ovarian oocyte, granulosa cells and theca cells in different stage follicles. The expression of Glut in ovary was up-regulated by eCG, however, anti-eCG antiserum reversed eCG action. Western blot analysis also demonstrated the content of Glut1 was higher in eCG treatment group compared with anti-eCG antiserum and control group. The same tendency was shown in other glut isoforms. Moreover, there were no significant difference between the anti-eCG antiserum and control group. In additional, the level of serum glucose in eCG treatment group was significantly higher than others, which is similar with glut expression pattern. High glucose level in blood is correlated with increased expression of glucose transporter proteins in rat ovary. Meanwhile, anti-eCG antiserum increased granulosa cell apoptosis in antral follicle compared with those in eCG group. Our observations provide potential explanation for the effects of Glut on follicular development in rat ovary and a role for eCG in the regulation of ovarian glucose uptake.

Zhang, Cheng; Niu, Wanbao; Wang, Zhengpin; Wang, Xiaoxia; Xia, Guoliang

2012-01-01

341

Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

Gupta, R.K. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Schuh, R.A. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fiskum, G. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Flaws, J.A. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States)]. E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

2006-11-01

342

Betulinol derivatives  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is directed to betulinol derivatives and betulinol-antibody conjugates having the formulae: ##STR1## and and, in particular, betulinol dimethyl ether. Methods for making and using these derivatives and conjugates, as well as a method for making and using betulonic aldehyde, are also disclosed.

Bomshteyn; Arkadiy L. (Brooklyn, NY); Rathnam; Premila (Englewood Cliffs, NJ); Saxena; Brij B. (Englewood, NJ)

2005-05-10

343

Emetine resistance in chinese hamster ovary cells is associated with an altered ribosomal protein S14 mRNA.  

PubMed Central

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants resistant to the translational inhibitor emetine (Emt B mutants) express a single genetically altered 40S ribosomal subunit protein, S14. that appears to account for their drug resistance. To determine whether Emt B mutation affect the structural gene for the S14 protein, we isolated mRNAs from several wild-type and Emt B mutant clones. We translated the mRNAs in a cell-free system derived from wheat germ, and we discerned the biosynthesis of 59 ribosomal proteins, including S14. In every case, poly(A)+ mRNA programmed the cell-free system to synthesize an S14 protein electrophoretically identical to the S14 extracted from the ribosomes of the corresponding cell line. Messages from two Emt B mutants (Emr-2 and Emr-2-2) specified S14s that were electrophoretically distinct from the wild-type protein. Thus, Emt B mutations were expressed in mutant cell mRNAs, apparently reflecting mutagen-induced changes in S14 structural genes. Images

Madjar, J J; Nielsen-Smith, K; Frahm, M; Roufa, D J

1982-01-01

344

Permselectivity of blood follicle barriers in mouse ovaries of the mifepristone-induced polycystic ovary model revealed by in vivo cryotechnique.  

PubMed

Despite the potential association of polycystic ovary (PCO) syndrome with hemodynamic changes, follicular microenvironment and the involvement of blood follicle barriers (BFB), a histopathological examination has been hampered by artifacts caused by conventional preparation methods. In this study, mouse ovaries of a mifepristone-induced PCO model were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT), which prevents those technical artifacts. Ovarian specimens of PCO model mice were prepared by IVCT or the conventional perfusion fixation after s.c. injection of mifepristone. Their histology and immunolocalization of plasma proteins, including albumin (molecular mass, 69 kDa), immunoglobulin G (IgG, 150 kDa), inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (ITI, 220 kDa), fibrinogen (340 kDa), and IgM (900 kDa), were examined. In the PCO model, enlarged blood vessels with abundant blood flow were observed in addition to cystic follicles with degenerative membrana granulosa. The immunolocalization of albumin and IgM in the PCO model were similar to those in normal mice. Albumin immunolocalized in the blood vessels, interstitium or follicles, and IgM was mostly restricted within the blood vessels. In contrast, immunolocalization of IgG, ITI, and fibrinogen changed in the PCO model. Both IgG and ITI were clearly blocked by follicular basement membranes, and hardly observed in the membrana granulosa, though fibrinogen was mostly observed within blood vessels. These findings suggest that increased blood flow and enhanced selectivity of molecular permeation through the BFB are prominent features in the PCO ovaries, and changes in hemodynamic conditions and permselectivity of BFB are involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of PCO syndrome. PMID:18719066

Zhou, Hong; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo; Saitoh, Sei; Naito, Ichiro; Ohno, Shinichi

2008-08-21

345

A single mutation affects both N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and glucuronosyltransferase activities in a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells have been found that no longer produce heparan sulfate. Characterization of one of the mutants, pgsD-677, showed that it lacks both N-acetylglucosaminyl- and glucuronosyltransferase, enzymes required for the polymerization of heparan sulfate chains. pgsD-677 also accumulates 3- to 4-fold more chondroitin sulfate than the wild type. Cell hybrids derived from pgsD-677 and wild type regained both transferase activities and the capacity to synthesize heparan sulfate. Two segregants from one of the hybrids reexpressed the dual enzyme deficiency, the lack of heparan sulfate synthesis, and the enhanced accumulation of chondroitin sulfate, suggesting that all of the traits were genetically linked. These findings indicate that the pgsD locus may represent a gene involved in the coordinate control of glycosaminoglycan formation. Images

Lidholt, K; Weinke, J L; Kiser, C S; Lugemwa, F N; Bame, K J; Cheifetz, S; Massague, J; Lindahl, U; Esko, J D

1992-01-01

346

Hormonal treatment of a recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGranulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare, primarily treated surgically. In advanced or recurrent disease, data are inconclusive regarding the benefit of either primary or adjuvant chemotherapy. Hormonal therapy has been suggested as an alternative treatment.

Ronald D. Hardy; Jeffrey G. Bell; Charles J. Nicely; Gary C. Reid

2005-01-01

347

Malignant Reticuloendothelial Disease Involving the Ovary as a Primary Manifestation. A Series of 19 Lymphomas and 1 Granulocytic Sarcoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lymphoma and leukemia infiltrates presenting in the ovary as the initial manifestation have been reported only rarely. This study describes the clinical and pathologic findings in 19 patients with unrecognized lymphoma and one patient with an extramedulla...

I. Chorlton H. J. Norris F. M. King

1973-01-01

348

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Genetic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cytotoxic, clastogenic and mutagenic effects of sulfur mustard in Chinese hamster ovary cells are described in this report. The cytotoxicity data indicate that micromolar amounts of HD are highly toxic in micromolar amounts. Chromosome aberration freq...

R. F. Jostes L. B. Sasser R. J. Rausch

1989-01-01

349

Cell-specific localization of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in the rat ovary during follicular development, ovulation and luteal formation.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as one of several important intraovarian regulatory factors. In particular, NO has been implicated in the processes of ovulation and atresia-related apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of the NO-generating nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes in the ovary during follicular development, ovulation and luteal formation of the equine chorionic gonadotrophin (ECG)/human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)-primed rat. NADPH diaphorase activity was used as a histochemical marker for NOS within the ovary. Diaphorase reactivity was most abundant in the stroma (S) of the ovary and in the theca (T) layer of the follicle. In luteinized ovaries, weaker diaphorase reactivity was present within the corpora lutea (CL). Two different isoforms of NOS, the constitutively expressed endothelial NOS (eNOS) and the inducible isoform of NOS (iNOS), were immunolocalized in ovaries of immature rats and in ECG/HCG-primed rats during the periovulatory period from HCG injection until 2 days after ovulation. In addition, ovarian concentrations of eNOS and iNOS were quantified by immunoblotting. Immunoblotting with a monoclonal anti-eNOS antibody demonstrated the presence of eNOS mainly in the residual ovary (ROV) during the periovulatory period. In luteinized ovaries, higher concentrations of eNOS were seen in CL, while those in the ROV at this stage were lower than in the periovulatory ovary. Immature ovaries contained diminutive amounts of eNOS, detectable mostly in the ROV compartment. In contrast, iNOS was barely detectable during follicular development to the preovulatory stage. A slight elevation of iNOS was observed in the granulosa cells at 6 h after the HCG injection. The levels of iNOS during the luteal phase were also low. Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal eNOS and iNOS antibodies revealed the localization of these two isoforms primarily in the S and the T of the periovulatory ovary. In luteinized ovaries, positive immunoreactivity was also seen within the CL. With a monoclonal antibody against eNOS, intense immunoreactivity was observed in the S, T and within CL. There was a particularly strong staining in blood vessels. These data demonstrate the presence of an intraovarian NO-generating system. The localization of this system to the S, T and CL suggests a role for NO in the ovulatory process and in the regulation of CL function. PMID:9021370

Zackrisson, U; Mikuni, M; Wallin, A; Delbro, D; Hedin, L; Brännström, M

1996-12-01

350

The ovary structure, previtellogenic and vitellogenic stages in parthenogenetic species Dactylobiotus dispar (Murray, 1907) (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada).  

PubMed

The reproductive system of Dactylobiotus dispar consists of the ovary and the oviduct that opens into the rectum. The sack-like ovary is filled with the developing oocytes, which are assisted by the trophocytes. In D. dispar, the mixed vitellogenesis takes place. One part of the yolk material is produced inside the oocyte (autosynthesis), the second part is absorbed by micropinocytosis while the third part is synthesized in the trophocytes and is transported to the oocytes through the cytoplasmatic bridges. Moreover, rRNA, lipids and mitochondria are transfered from the trophocytes to the oocytes. The histochemical researches show that the reserve material accumulated in the oocytes contains proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. PMID:16125743

Poprawa, Izabela

2005-10-01

351

Genetic modeling of ovarian phenotypes in mice for the study of human polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents with a range of clinical complications including hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, chronic oligo/anovulation, infertility, and metabolic alterations related to insulin resistance. Because the mechanism by which this disorder develops is poorly understood, information from experimental models of human disease phenotypes may help to define the mechanisms for the initiation and development of PCOS-related pathological events. The establishment of animal models compatible with human PCOS is challenging, and applying the lessons learned from these models to human PCOS is often complicated. In this mini-review we provide examples of currently available genetic mouse models, their ovarian phenotypes, and their possible relationship to different aspects of human PCOS. Because of the practical and ethical limitations of studying PCOS-related events in humans, our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of human PCOS may be enhanced through further study of these transgenic and knockout mouse models. PMID:23390562

Feng, Yi; Li, Xin; Shao, Ruijin

2013-01-21

352

Morphological characterization of the ovary and vitellogenesis dynamics in the tick Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

In this work we describe the internal morphology of the female reproductive system of the cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense. This system is represented by a panoistic ovary, which lacks nurse cells in the germarium. This ovary consists of a single tube, in which a large number of oocytes develop asynchronously, thus accompanying the processes of yolk deposition in the oocytes. The oocytes were classified into stages that varied from I to V, according to: cytoplasm appearance, presence of the germ vesicle, presence of yolk granules, and presence of chorion. The study of vitellogenesis dynamics suggest that the yolk elements are deposited in the oocyte following a preferencial sequence, in which the lipids are the first to appear, followed by proteins an finally by the carbohydrates. In this way the yolk of A. cajennense ticks have these three elements that may be free in the cytoplasm or chemically bounded forming glycoprotein or lipoprotein complexes. PMID:15482894

Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Saito, Kelly Cristina; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

2004-11-10

353

Superoxide Mediates the Toxicity of Paraquat for Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roles of superoxide and H2O2 in the cytotoxicity of paraquat were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Neither catalase nor superoxide dismutase inhibited the loss of ability to form colonies when added to the medium. When introduced into the cells, superoxide dismutase but not catalase inhibited the toxicity of paraquat. That superoxide dismutase acted by its known catalytic action is shown by the loss of inhibition when the enzyme was inactivated by H2O2 before being introduced into the cells. The lack of inhibition by catalase, by dimethyl sulfoxide, and by desferoxamine suggests that the toxicity is not mediated by a reaction between H2O2 and superoxide to engender the hydroxyl radical. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to paraquat may be a suitable means to determine the effects of superoxide anion in cultured cells and the ways in which cells can resist this toxic action.

Bagley, Ann C.; Krall, Judith; Lynch, Robert E.

1986-05-01

354

Therapeutic effect of korean red ginseng extract on infertility caused by polycystic ovaries.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Nerve growth factor (NGF) may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. In this study, we investigated the effect of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) on the ovarian morphology and NGF expression in an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced rat model. Polycystic ovaries were induced by a single intramuscular injection of estadiol valerate (4 mg, dissolved in sesame oil) in adult cycling rats. KRGE was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 60 consecutive days, beginning 60 days after the induction. Ovarian morphology was almost normalized and NGF was normalized in the EV+KRGE group. KRGE lowered the high numbers of antral follicles and increased the number of corpora lutea in the polycystic ovaries. The results are consistent with a beneficial effect of KRGE in the treatment of PCOS. PMID:23717068

Jung, Ji-Hun; Park, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tak; Jeong, Moon Jin; Lim, Sung Chul; Nah, Seung Yeol; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Park, Soo Hyun; Kang, Seong Soo; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim, Sung Ho; Bae, Chun Sik

2011-06-01

355

Metformin before and during pregnancy and lactation in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Metformin improves the endocrinopathy of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), facilitates conception, appears to reduce first trimester miscarriage and gestational diabetes and does not appear to be teratogenic. The concentrations of metformin in breast milk are generally low and the mean infant exposure to metformin has been reported in the range 0.28-1.08% of the weight-normalized maternal dose, well below the level of concern for breastfeeding. No adverse effects on blood glucose of nursing infants have been reported. Metformin during lactation versus formula feeding appears to have no adverse effects on infants' growth, motor-social development and intercurrent illness during the first 6 months of life. Systematic studies have not yet been done assessing how hyperinsulinemia, polycystic ovary syndrome and metformin may affect lactation. PMID:17367265

Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

2007-03-01

356

Bilateral lymphangiomas of the ovary: an immunohistochemical characterization and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Lymphangiomas of the ovary are rare tumors, with only 13 cases reported. The diagnoses of these tumors have been based on histologic findings without immunohistochemical confirmation of endothelial cell origin. It is uncertain if these tumors are true neoplasms or if some represent reactive lesions. In this report, the literature is reviewed, and a 53-year-old woman with bilateral ovarian lymphangiomas is described. The ovarian masses were composed of numerous, thin-walled, cystic spaces containing a proteinaceous fluid, mature lymphocytes, and occasional erythrocytes. The cyst walls were lined by flat, benign-appearing cells that were immunoreactive for factor VIII-related antigen, CD34, and CD31. Further examination of the specimen showed absent fallopian tube fimbriae, tuboovarian adhesions, and chronic follicular salpingitis, suggesting that the lymphatic proliferation in the ovaries was a reactive change secondary to impaired regional lymphatic drainage. PMID:9891248

Evans, A; Lytwyn, A; Urbach, G; Chapman, W

1999-01-01

357

Pelvic tumors with normal-appearing shapes of ovaries and uterus presenting as an emergency (Review)  

PubMed Central

Abdominal pain with an associated pelvic mass is a common problem in everyday practice. Concerns about ectopic pregnancy, torsion of an enlarged ovary or malignancy usually dominate the diagnostic evaluation. On physical and imaging examination, when a palpable painful mass is present in the pelvis and the two ovaries and uterus are detected in their normal anatomical locations, the content and origin of the lesions may be significant in narrowing the pre-operative differential diagnosis. Thus, the emergent pelvic indications discussed in this review should be considered. The causes of acute abdominal pain are few in number and therefore an accurate diagnosis may be most frequently made at the time of exploratory laparotomy.

IMAI, ATSUSHI; ICHIGO, SATOSHI; TAKAGI, HIROSHI; MATSUNAMI, KAZUTOSHI; WATANABE, SADAYOSHI; MURASE, TAKAYUKI; IKEDA, TSUNEKO

2012-01-01

358

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view.

Johansson, Julia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

2013-01-01

359

POTE, a highly homologous gene family located on numerous chromosomes and expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, placenta, and prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a gene located on chromosomes 21 that is expressed in normal and neoplastic prostate, and in normal testis, ovary, and placenta. We name this gene POTE (expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta). The POTE gene has 11 exons and 10 introns and spans 32 kb of chromosome 21q11.2 region. The 1.83-kb mRNA of POTE encodes a

Tapan K. Bera; Drazen B. Zimonjic; Nicholas C. Popescu; Bangalore K. Sathyanarayana; Vasantha Kumar; Byungkook Lee; Ira Pastan

2002-01-01

360

Distribution of photoassimilates in the pea plant: chronology of events in non-fertilized ovaries and effects of gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-lived isotope11C (t1\\/2=20.4 min) has been used to study assimilate distribution in intact pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). Radiolabel was measured at the leaf fed with11CO2 (feed-leaf), at the ovary of the flower subtended by this leaf, and in shoot apex and roots of individual plants. Considerable11C-radiolabel was detected in the young ovaries during the first days after anthesis.

Siegfried Jahnke; Dirk Bier; Juan José Estruch; José Pío Beltrán

1989-01-01

361

Real-time PCR analysis of ovary- and brain-type aromatase gene expression during Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus) development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of cytochrome P450 aromatase, acting in both the brain and the ovary, have been implicated in controlling ovarian development in fish. To better understand the expression of these two enzymes during sexual differentiation in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), real-time PCR was used to quantify the mRNA levels of ovary- (cyp19a) and brain-type cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19b) genes in

Makoto P. Matsuoka; Solveig van Nes; Øivind Andersen; Tillmann J. Benfey; Michael Reith

2006-01-01

362

Uptake of labeled mammalian gonadotropins by ovary and oviduct of the lizard, Lacerta s. sicula, in vivo.  

PubMed

The uptake of radioactivity by ovary, oviduct and thigh muscles of the lizard, Lacerta s. sicula, after administration of labeled mammalian gonadotropins has been followed. Ovary and oviduct show a significantly higher radioactivity than thigh muscles. The ovarian uptake, moreover, is decreased by the corresponding non-labeled gonadotropin. The meaning of these observations for the physiological regulation of reproductive processes in that lizard, are discussed. PMID:16296165

Polzonetti-Magni, A; Botte, V

1977-01-01

363

Estradiol regulates E-cadherin mRNA levels in the surface epithelium of the mouse ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-cadherin is a calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule which is present in the surface epithelium of the mouse ovary. This cell adhesion molecule has been implicated as a suppressor of tumorigenesis. The regulators of E-cadherin mRNA levels in the ovary have not been identified. We have examined the ability of steroids to influence ovarian E-cadherin mRNA levelsin vivo. Immature mice were

Colin D. MacCalman; Riaz Farookhi; Orest W. Blaschuk

1994-01-01

364

Analysis of chromosome abnormalities by comparative genomic hybridization in malignant peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) originating from the ovary rather than from the central nervous system is extremely rare. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the chromosomal abnormalities in a case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PPNET) arising from the ovary of a girl.Methods. The 13-year-old girl underwent exploratory laparotomy because of a huge pelvic tumor in

Song-Nan Chow; Ming-Chieh Lin; Jenta Shen; Sheng Wang; Yiin-Jeng Jong; Chin-Hsiang Chien

2004-01-01

365

Massive edema of ovary with cytogenetic alteration of chromosome 12q13-15 in adolescent patient: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background The massive edema of ovary, with or without fibromatosis, is a rare tumor-like entity characterized by an increase in volume of one or both ovaries for accumulation of edema fluid in the stroma that separates the follicular structures. Case We report a rare case, very peculiar also for its association with a massive stromal fibromatosis and for the presence, never described, of tumoral areas with CHOP gene translocation, on chromosome 12q13–15.

2013-01-01

366

Quality of Life, Psychosocial Well-Being, and Sexual Satisfaction in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperan- drogenism. PCOS is one of the leading causes of infertility and manifests with hirsutism, acne, and obesity. To investigate its impact on health-related quality of life and sexuality, 50 women with PCOS and 50 controls were evaluated with stan- dardized questionnaires (36-item short-form health survey,

SIGRID ELSENBRUCH; SUSANNE HAHN; DANIELA KOWALSKY; ALEXANDRA H. OFFNER; MANFRED SCHEDLOWSKI; KLAUS MANN; ONNO E. JANSSEN

367

Psychosocial and Quality-of-Life Consequences of Androgen Excess and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life is a multidimensional, subjective idea that defies exact definition. In androgen excess, and even more so\\u000a in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), changes in outer appearance, menstrual disturbances, and infertility result in psychological\\u000a distress, reduced quality of life, and a less satisfying sex life. Although obesity and hirsutism are major determinants of\\u000a the physical component of quality

Onno E. Janssen; Susanne Hahn; Sigrid Elsenbruch

368

Body composition characteristics and body fat distribution in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body composition, fat distribution and bone mineral density were examined in lean women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compared with body composition and fat distribution characteristics of weight- matched lean controls. Ten women with PCOS and a body mass index (BMI) below 25.00 (kg\\/m2) and 10 healthy women with a BMI below 25.00 (kg\\/m2) matched for age and

S. Kirchengast; J. Huber

2001-01-01

369

Acute doxorubicin insult in the mouse ovary is cell- and follicle-type dependent.  

PubMed

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR) as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours) than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours), as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10-12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult in the ovary must act almost immediately to prevent acute insult as significant damage was seen in stroma cells within the first two hours. PMID:22876313

Roti Roti, Elon C; Leisman, Scott K; Abbott, David H; Salih, Sana M

2012-08-02

370

Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon  

PubMed Central

The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development.

Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

2013-01-01

371

Luteinizing Hormone Induces Mouse Vas Deferens Protein Expression in the Murine Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to isolate and identify novel proteins that are involved in the process of ovulation. To achieve this goal we used the technique of proteome analysis. Comparison of ovary protein patterns, obtained by high resolution two-dimensional gel electro- phoresis from recombinant FSH (rFSH)- and rFSH 1 human CG (hCG)-treated mice, showed significant differences in protein

EKKEHARD BROCKSTEDT; MICHAELE PETERS-KOTTIG; VOLKER BADOCK; CHRISTA HEGELE-HARTUNG; MONIKA LESSL; Max Delbruck

2000-01-01

372

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: associations with coagulation disorders and polycystic-ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand potentially reversible causes of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also known as pseudotumor cerebri, and an apparent association of IIH with polycystic-ovary syndrome (PCOS), we assessed associations of IIH with coagulation disorders and with PCOS in 38 women with well-documented IIH. Fifteen women were found to have PCOS; 14 of them were obese, with a body-mass index (BMI)

Charles J Glueck; Srinivas Iyengar; Naila Goldenberg; Luann-Sieve Smith; Ping Wang

2003-01-01

373

Induction of fruit set and development in pea ovary explants by gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of unpollinated ovary explants ofPisum sativum L. cv. Alaska No. 7 to several plant growth regulators and nutrients has been studied. Explants consisted of a segment of\\u000a stem and an emasculated flower with or without the adjacent leaf. They were made on the day equivalent to anthesis and were\\u000a cultured in a liquid medium. Growth regulators were applied

José L. García-Martínez; Juan Carbonell

1985-01-01

374

Induction of sertoli cell tumors in the rat ovary by N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively high incidences of Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary were induced in Donryu rats given a 400 ppm N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea solution as drinking water for 4 weeks or a single dose of 200 mg\\/kg N-propyl-N-nitrosourea by stomach tube. Typical Sertoli cell tumors were composed of solid areas showing tubular formation. Tubules were lined by tall, columnar cells having abundant, faintly

Akihiko Maekawa; Hiroshi Onodera; Hiroyuki Tanigawa; Jun Kanno; Kyoko Furuta; Yuzo Hayashi

1986-01-01

375

The new molecular biology of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary belong to the group of ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors and represent 5 to 10% of\\u000a ovarian malignancies. GCTs exhibit several morphological, biochemical and hormonal features of normal proliferating pre-ovulatory\\u000a granulosa cells, such as estrogen biosynthesis. Prognostic factors of this condition are lacking, and alternative treatment\\u000a options to preserve future fertility are needed. Several

Nicolas Kalfa; Reiner A Veitia; Bérénice A Benayoun; Brigitte Boizet-Bonhoure; Charles Sultan

2009-01-01

376

Identification and Characterization of an Ovary-Selective Isoform of Epoxide Hydrolase1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ovary-selective gene was identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) that is expressed only during the mouse periovulatory phase of a stimulated estrous cycle. Anal- ysis of the protein encoded by the full-length cDNA revealed that the majority of it, with the exception of the first 44 amino acids, matched soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, referred to as Ephx2A). By

Jon D. Hennebold; Kuni Mah; Wilma Perez; Jessica E. Vance; Richard L. Stouffer; Christophe Morisseau; Bruce D. Hammock; Eli Y. Adashi

377

Familial Papillary Serous Carcinoma of the Cervix, Peritoneum, and Ovary: A Report of the First Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.We report an occult primary papillary serous carcinoma of the endocervix that was encountered in a woman whose mother and identical twin sister died of papillary serous carcinomas (PSCs) of the peritoneum and ovary, respectively.Methods.The medical records and the histologic material belonging to the patient, her sister, and her mother were reviewed.Results.The cervical PSC was histologically similar to the peritoneal

Edward J. Kaplan; Thomas A. Caputo; Peter U. F. Shen; Robert I. Sassoon; Robert A. Soslow

1998-01-01

378

Effect of hyperthermia on the sodium-potassium pump in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hyperthermia on the Na\\/sup +\\/-K\\/sup +\\/ pump was determined by measuring the influx and efflux of ⁸⁶Rb\\/sup +\\/ in Chinese hamster ovary cells from 31 to 50°C. The maximum initial rate of ouabain-sensitive influx increased with temperature between 31 and 45°C although K\\/sub m\\/ increased significantly above 37°C, implying a diminished affinity of the transport protein for

D. A. Bates; W. J. Mackillop

1985-01-01

379

Luteinized fibrothecomas of the ovary associated with sclerosing peritonitis in a patient with systemic lupus erithematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sclerosing peritonitis is a peritoneal subserosal fibrosis that has been associated with luteinized thecomas of the ovary.\\u000a Ascites, peritoneal thickening and adnexal masses were found in a 38-year-old woman. She had been an intravenous drug abuser\\u000a and had systemic lupus erytematosus. At laparotomy the association of peritoneal diffuse fibrosis and bilateral luteinized\\u000a fibrothecomas was diagnosed. The postoperative course was fatal

M. A. Martínez-Zamora; F. Carmona; J. Ordi; X. Iglesias

2007-01-01

380

Biosynthesis and regulation of two vitellogenins in the fat body and ovaries of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult female Ceratitis capitata both fat body and ovaries synthesize two vitellogenins (Vg-1 and Vg-2) with the same molecular masses as the respective vitellins of the eggs. Furthermore, both tissues contain two abundant mRNAs which yield, in a cell-free system, two previtellogenin polypeptides with molecular masses approximately 1,000 daltons higher than the mature Vgs. In vivo and in vitro

Maria D. Rina; Anastassios C. Mintzas

1988-01-01

381

Solubilization of Serotonin 1A Receptors Heterologously Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptors are members of a superfamily of seven trans- membrane domain receptors that couple to G-proteins. They appear to be involved in various behavioral and cognitive functions. 2. We report here, for the first time, the solubilization of 5-HT1A receptors stably expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells using the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS in presence

Amitabha Chattopadhyay; Shanti Kalipatnapu

2004-01-01

382

Insights into the Prostanoid Pathway in the Ovary Development of the Penaeid Shrimp Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

The prostanoid pathway converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into bioactive lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins, all of which play vital roles in the immune and reproductive systems in most animal phyla. In crustaceans, PUFAs and prostaglandins have been detected and often associated with female reproductive maturation. However, the presence of prostanoid biosynthesis genes remained in question in these species. In this study, we outlined the prostanoid pathway in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon based on the amplification of nine prostanoid biosynthesis genes: cytosolic phospholipase A2, hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, glutathione-dependent prostaglandin D synthase, prostaglandin E synthase 1, prostaglandin E synthase 2, prostaglandin E synthase 3, prostaglandin F synthase, thromboxane A synthase and cyclooxygenase. TBLASTX analysis confirmed the identities of these genes with 51-99% sequence identities to their closest homologs. In addition, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), which is a product of the prostaglandin F synthase enzyme, was detected for the first time in P. monodon ovaries along with the previously identified PUFAs and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) using RP-HPLC and mass-spectrometry. The prostaglandin synthase activity was also observed in shrimp ovary homogenates using in vitro activity assay. When prostaglandin biosynthesis was examined in different stages of shrimp ovaries, we found that the amounts of prostaglandin F synthase gene transcripts and PGF2? decreased as the ovaries matured. These findings not only indicate the presence of a functional prostanoid pathway in penaeid shrimp, but also suggest a possible role of the PGF2? biosynthesis in shrimp ovarian development. PMID:24116186

Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Danwisetkanjana, Kannawat; Pinkaew, Decha; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Vichai, Vanicha

2013-10-08

383

Specific haplotypes of the CALPAIN5 gene are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CALPAIN-5 (CAPN5) gene in PCOS susceptibility. METHODS: We analysed four intronic polymorphisms of the CAPN5 gene in 148 well-characterized women with PCOS and 606 unrelated controls. We performed a case-control study and an

A. González; M. E. Sáez; M. J. Aragón; J. J. Galán; P. Vettori; L. Molina; C. Rubio; L. M. Real; Agustín Ruiz; R. Ramírez-Lorca

384

Lunar Synchronization of in Vitro Steroidogenesis in Ovaries of the Golden Rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus (Bloch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the relationship between lunar cycle and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, the intact follicles of oocytes were incubated in vitro with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and seven steroid hormones, 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), 17?,20?,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20?-S), 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17?-OHP), progesterone (P), cortisol, estradiol-17? (E2) and testosterone, during the two lunar phases, the new moon (1 week before

Akihiro Takemura; Kazunori Takano

2002-01-01

385

Expression of glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) in the rat ovary during the oestrous cycle and postnatal development.  

PubMed

Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are low-molecular-weight proteins which participate in redox events in association with glutathione (GSH) and are involved in a variety of cellular processes. It is known that oxidative stress plays important physiological roles within the ovary. In the present study, we have prepared specific antibodies against rat Grx and have used them to localize the protein in the ovaries of rats during postnatal development and during the oestrous cycle, by immunohistochemical methods. We have also performed a quantitative analysis of Grx by ELISA and Western blotting in homogenates of whole ovaries of cycling and pseudopregnant rats. We have found a prominent presence of Grx in the oocytes and in corpora lutea (CL) during developmental and oestrous cycle changes. Grx was absent from the oocytes in the first days of postnatal life when marked oocyte degeneration takes place, but its presence was very conspicuous in the cytoplasm of oocytes in healthy and attretic follicles in rats from 10 days of age onward, independently of the day of oestrous cycle. Follicular cells were negative. Grx immunostaining in the CL was strong in infiltrating macrophages and in a population of steroidogenic cells that survived the apoptotic burst in regressing CL and in CL remnants, but was faint or absent in young CL of the current cycle and in CL during pseudopregnancy. Grx content and oxidoreductase activity in whole ovaries increased significantly during the phase transition from proestrous to oestrous along the cycle. These results support a role of Grx in the maintenance of functional oocytes and in luteal cells surviving the regression process, probably as a consequence of the demonstrated deglutathionylating function of this protein in an antioxidant and antiapoptotic context. PMID:15956334

González-Fernández, R; Gaytán, F; Martínez-Galisteo, E; Porras, P; Padilla, C A; Sánchez Criado, J E; Bárcena, J A

2005-06-01

386

Effects of somatotropin on the conceptus, uterus, and ovary during maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on ovarian and uterine function and the production of components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system were examined during the period of maternal recognition of pregnancy in cattle. Lactating dairy cows were treated with 25 mg\\/d rbST (n = 8) or saline (n = 8) for 16 d after estrus. Ovaries, uteri, and

M. C. Lucy; W. W. Thatcher; R. J. Collier; F. A. Simmen; Y. Ko; J. D. Savio; L. Badinga

1995-01-01

387

Structural heterogeneity of yolk spheres in hierarchical follicles from hen ovary: a histochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Four types of yolk spheres with variable structure, chemical composition and frequency of occurrence in yolk plasma of hierarchical follicles (F4, F3, F2 and F1 with diameters of 10·0, 15·5, 20·0 and 35·0 mm, respectively) of the hen ovary were identified using histochemical methods for localising lipids, carbohydrates and proteins.2.?Yolk spheres of the first type (YS1) had a phospholipoprotein membrane

R. K. Parshad; R. Kaur; J. K. Natt

2008-01-01

388

Twist Expression Predicts Poor Clinical Outcome of Patients with Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Twist is a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates the expression of E-cadherin and promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is critical for tumor infiltration. We examined the distribution and expression of this molecule in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) to elucidate their clinical significance. Methods: Paraffin sections from CCC tissues (n = 27) were immunostained

Hiroaki Kajiyama; Satoyo Hosono; Mikio Terauchi; Kiyosumi Shibata; Kazuhiko Ino; Eiko Yamamoto; Seiji Nomura; Akihiro Nawa; Fumitaka Kikkawa; M. Singh; S. Prasad

2006-01-01

389

Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. METHODS: Our objectives in this study were (1) to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP) in rats with estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCO; (2) to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in

Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Karolina Ploj; Britt-Mari Larsson; Agneta Holmäng

2005-01-01

390

Ultrastructure of the ovary, ovicapt and oviduct of the spathebothriidean tapeworm Didymobothrium rudolphii (Monticelli, 1890)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural details are presented of the ovary, ovicapt and oviduct of the spathebothriidean tapeworm Didymobothrium rudolphii (Monticelli, 1890) from the intestine of the sand sole Solea lascaris. Oogonia, maturing oocytes and mature oocytes are surrounded by a syncytial interstitial cytoplasm, one of the distinctive\\u000a traits of which is the presence of numerous myelin-like bodies. Oocyte inclusions comprise cortical granules

Larisa G. Poddubnaya; David I. Gibson; Peter D. Olson

2007-01-01

391

Natural and radiation-induced degeneration of primordial and primary follicles in mouse ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the morphological changes of the degenerating primordial and primary follicles induced by ?-radiation. Prepubertal female mice of 3 weeks old ICR strain were ?-irradiated with the dose of LD80(30) (8.3 Gy). The ovaries were collected at 3, 6 and 12 h after irradiation. The largest cross-sections were prepared by histological semithin sections for microscopical observations.

Chang Joo Lee; Ho Hyun Park; Byung Rok Do; Yong-Dal Yoon; Jin Kyu Kim

2000-01-01

392

[Endometrial changes in the ovaries during full-term pregnancy: a case report].  

PubMed

The authors described case of 27 years old female patient treated due to infertility of unknown etiology. The female was pregnant after series of intrauterine insemination. During caesarean section due to pelvic longitudinal lie the chocolate cyst and endometriosis of the ovary were found. The authors did not find any information in the literature about coincidence of endometriosis of female reproductive organs and full-term pregnancy. PMID:9599091

Jakiel, G; Bakalczuk, S; Bokiniec, M; Skomra, D; Swatowski, D; Wieczorek, P; Przytu?a-Pi?at, M

1997-07-01

393

Differentiation of follicular cells in polytrophic ovaries of Neuroptera (Insecta: Holometabola).  

PubMed

Mechanisms that underlie differentiation and diversification of the ovarian follicular epithelium in insects have been best characterized in a fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Recent comparative analyses have shown that dipterans evolved a common, specific system of early patterning of their follicular epithelium, while some of the follicular cells acquired an ability to undertake active and invasive migrations. To gain insight into the evolution of the differentiation pathways we extended comparative analyses to Neuroptera, one of the most archaic holometabolan insects with polytrophic ovaries. Here, we show that the follicular cell differentiation pathway in neuropteran ovaries significantly differs from that observed in Drosophila and its relatives. In neuropteran ovaries differentiation of the germ line cells precedes the organization of the follicular epithelium. In consequence, at early stages of egg chamber formation germ cell clusters are not enveloped completely by the regular follicular epithelium but associate with two types of somatic cells: interstitial and prefollicular cells. Interstitial cells do not contribute to the formation of the follicular epithelium, while prefollicular cells diversify into a number of follicular cell subgroups. Some follicular cells remain in contact with the nurse cell compartment. The remaining ones associate with the lateral aspects of the oocyte and diversify into the mainbody follicular cells and the anterior and posterior centripetal cells. In the advanced stages of vitellogenesis protrusions of the anterior and posterior centripetal cells penetrate the nurse cell-oocyte interface and dragging behind their neighboring mainbody cells, eventually encapsulate the oocyte pole(s) with a confluent epithelial layer. The follicular cells in neuropteran ovaries are not migratory at all. They may only change their position relative to the germ line cells. Almost complete immobility of follicular cells in neuropteran egg chambers results in a lower number of diversified subpopulations when compared to Drosophila and other true flies. PMID:22300788

Garbiec, Arnold; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

2012-02-01

394

Overview of Long-Term Morbidity and Economic Cost of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long- and short-term morbidities associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) result in significant economic costs.\\u000a Using figures obtained in the United States, it has been estimated that the total annual cost of evaluating and providing\\u000a care to reproductive-aged women with PCOS in the United States is $4.37 billion. The initial diagnostic evaluation represented\\u000a only 2.3% of costs; hormonally

Ricardo Azziz

395

Decreased soluble leptin receptor levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and a high incidence of obesity. Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is involved in the regulation of energy balance and obes- ity and circulates in both free and bound forms. The soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) is the most important leptin-binding protein, thus influencing the biologically active free leptin

Susanne Hahn; Uwe Haselhorst; Beate Quadbeck; Susanne Tan; Rainer Kimmig; Klaus Mann; Onno E Janssen

2006-01-01

396

Effect of plant growth regulators on ovary culture of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coconut is a cross pollinating palm, propagated only by seeds. Tissue culture is the only vegetative propagation method available\\u000a for coconut. Consistent callogenesis was obtained by culturing unfertilised ovaries at -4 stage in CRI 72 medium containing\\u000a 100 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.1% activated charcoal. Callusing was improved by application of 9 ?M thidiazuron\\u000a (TDZ). Embryogenic calli were subcultured onto somatic

P. I. P. Perera; V. R. M. Vidhanaarachchi; T. R. Gunathilake; D. M. D. Yakandawala; V. Hocher; J. L. Verdeil; L. K. Weerakoon

2009-01-01

397

Atrazine Exposure Decreases Cell Proliferation in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of atrazine at the ovarian cellular level. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cell line was used to evaluate the degree of in vitro atrazine cytotoxicity and the morphological changes were followed\\u000a during the cell death. Application of four bioassays confirmed that atrazine decreases ovarian cell proliferation and IC50 were determined with

I. Kmeti?; V. Gaurina Sr?ek; I. Slivac; B. Šimi?; Z. Kniewald; J. Kniewald

2008-01-01

398

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis sensitivity to opioids in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the influence of the opioid system on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Controlled clinical study.Setting: Academic research environment.Patient(s): Eight lean and 12 obese women with PCOS, and seven lean and 5 obese control subjects.Intervention(s): Each patient received an i.v. bolus of naloxone at a dose of 125 ?g per kilogram of body

Mario Ciampelli; Maurizio Guido; Francesco Cucinelli; Biagio Cinque; Angela Barini; Antonio Lanzone

2000-01-01

399

Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus in the Ovaries of Experimentally Infected Sows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six sows were infected intranasally with a Korean isolate of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The distribution of virus in ovarian tissues was then assessed for 21 days by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. CSFV was detected in the ovaries between 7 and 21 days post-inoculation (dpi) by both methods, but the labelling was particularly intense and widespread at 7dpi. CSFV

C. Choi; C. Chae

2003-01-01

400

Aspects of Mono and Multiple Dominant Follicle Development in the Human Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chapter 1 \\u000aThe introduction of this thesis starts with general information on reproduction, sub­fertility and reproductive medicine. It continues with a brief overview of current knowledge regarding the function of the human ovary, describing ovarian development and early and advanced follicle development. The importance of the threshold\\/win-dow concept for the selection of a single dominant follicle is stressed in more

F. P. Hohmann

2005-01-01

401

Modeling of Glycoprotein Production by Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells for Process Monitoring and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial improvements of animal cell culture process performance can be achieved by model-based methods of process optimization\\u000a and control. Here, a structured mathematical model describing the dynamics of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth and\\u000a recombinant glycoprotein production has been developed. It covers the main aspects of cell metabolism as well as aspects linked\\u000a to cell cycle regulation. Model predictions

J. Stelling; R. K. BIENER; J. Haas; G. Ooswald; D. Schuller; W. Noe; E. D. GILLES

402

Estrogen-related alopecia due to polycystic ovaries in a terrier dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex hormone-related alopecia is a rare clinical condition in dogs. A 9-year-old female dog was presented with a history of\\u000a symmetrical alopecia on the caudal aspects of both thighs. A dermatophyte culture, skin scrapes, and acetate strip examinations\\u000a were negative for dermatophytes, parasites, and yeasts. The only abnormality in abdominal ultrasonography was multiple cystic\\u000a follicles within the ovaries. This increased

Masoud Selk Ghaffari; Omid Dezfoulian; Seyed Javid Aldavood; Majid Masoudifard

2009-01-01

403

Anti-Müllerian Hormone: Function and Molecular Mechanism of Action in the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menopause, the end of menstrual cycling, is a major milestone in the aging process in women. \\u000aThe cessation of ovarian function is accompanied by the almost complete absence of female sex \\u000asteroid hormone secretion by the ovaries in postmenopausal life. Consequently, before and after the \\u000amenopausal transition very different physiological hormonal regimens prevail, which have a major \\u000aimpact on healthy

M. J. G. Gruijters

2004-01-01

404

Hormonal and Molecular Regulation of the Cytochrome P450 Aromatase Gene Expression in the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromatase), encoded by the Cyp19a1 (Cyp19) gene, is the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens in the ovarian granulosa cells. Estradiol-17? (estradiol), the\\u000a most potent estrogen, is crucial for female and male fertility, as proved by the severe reproductive defects observed when\\u000a its synthesis [1] or actions [2] are blocked. In the ovary, locally produced estradiol

Carlos Stocco

405

The molecular signature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) theca cells defined by gene expression profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by increased ovarian androgen secretion, anovulatory infertility due to arrested folliculogenesis, and is frequently found in association with insulin resistance and obesity. Characterization of PCOS theca cells demonstrated that elevated expression of the steroidogenic enzymes 17? hydroxylase\\/17,20 lyase (CYP17) and P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) play a role in increased androgen production by

Jennifer R Wood; Clement K. M Ho; Velen L Nelson-Degrave; Jan M McAllister; Jerome F Strauss

2004-01-01

406

[Rehabilitation of the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome during sanatorium-and-spa treatment].  

PubMed

An original method for the combined non-medicamentous balneotherapeutic treatment of the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and compromised reproductive function has been developed. The method designed to be applied after laparoscopic intervention for the management of infertility includes the use of radon water in combination with acupuncture. It was shown to help to restore regular menstrual cycles in half of the treated women and normalize fertility in some of them. PMID:20017384

Akhkubekova, N K

407

Autophagy in Drosophila ovaries is induced by starvation and is required for oogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-mediated degradation, promotes cell survival under starvation and is controlled by insulin\\/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling. In Drosophila, nutrient depletion induces autophagy in the fat body. Interestingly, nutrient availability and insulin\\/TOR signaling also influence the size and structure of Drosophila ovaries, however, the role of nutrient signaling and autophagy during this process remains to be elucidated.

J M I Barth; J Szabad; E Hafen; K Köhler

408

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Common Endocrine Disorder and Risk Factor for Vascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, impacting 5–10% of premenopausal\\u000a American women. During the reproductive years, women with PCOS seek medical attention related to infertility, hirsutism, and\\u000a acne. About 60% of women with PCOS are obese and insulin resistant. Up to 40% of women with PCOS will develop diabetes by\\u000a the

Mary P. McGowan

409

Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in first-degree relatives of patients with PCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the rate of clinically evident polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among first-degree female relatives within families with a proband affected by PCOS.Design: Clinical and biochemical evaluation of the mothers and sisters of 93 patients with PCOS. The diagnosis of PCOS was established by: [1] a history of oligomenorrhea, [2] clinical evidence (i.e., hirsutism) or biochemical evidence (i.e., elevated

Melissa D Kahsar-Miller; Christa Nixon; Larry R Boots; Rodney C Go; Ricardo Azziz

2001-01-01

410

Serum testosterone levels decrease in middle age in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether testosterone levels change as women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) grow older.Design: A follow-up cross-sectional study of a cohort of women with PCOS identified up to 20–25 years ago.Setting: Women with PCOS were recruited primarily from practice records between 1970 and 1990. Voter registration tapes and household directories were used to identify age-, race-, and

Stephen J Winters; Evelyn Talbott; David S Guzick; Jeanne Zborowski; Kathleen P McHugh

2000-01-01

411

Identification and characterization of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in granulosa cells of the human ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Granulosa cells (GCs) represent a major endocrine compartment of the ovary producing sex steroid hormones. Recently, we identified in human GCs a Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa) of big conductance (BKCa), which is involved in steroidogenesis. This channel is activated by intraovarian signalling molecules (e.g. acetylcholine) via raised intracellular Ca2+ levels. In this study, we aimed at characterizing 1. expression

Matthias H Traut; Dieter Berg; Ulrike Berg; Artur Mayerhofer; Lars Kunz

2009-01-01

412

Expression of CXCR4 indicates poor prognosis in patients with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Recent reports have shown that CXCR4 is expressed in various solid tumors and is involved in tumor development and metastasis. We examined the distribution and expression of this molecule in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary to elucidate its clinical significance. Paraffin sections from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary tissues (n = 42) were immunostained with CXCR4 antibody, and the staining intensities were evaluated. The clinicopathologic factors examined were age, FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) staging, preoperative value of cancer antigen 125 test, and residual tumor after cytoreductive surgery. Overall survival and progression-free survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was completed using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Of the 42 carcinomas, lower level CXCR4 immunoexpression was observed in 21 cases (50.0%) (CXCR4(low) group); and higher level immunoexpression, in 21 cases (50.0%) (CXCR4(high) group). Five-year overall survival was significantly poorer in the CXCR4(high) group than in the CXCR4(low) group (overall survival, CXCR4(low) group [90.2%], CXCR4(high) group [50.3%]; P = .0002). In addition, CXCR4(high) immunoexpression significantly predicted a poorer progression-free survival when compared with lower expression (5-year progression-free survival, CXCR4(low) group [90.5%], CXCR4(high) group [36.2%]; P < .0001). Furthermore, multivariate analyses including the age, preoperative cancer antigen 125 test value, FIGO stage, and CXCR4 expressions revealed that CXCR4(high) expression was an independent prognostic factor for poorer overall survival and progression-free survival of patients with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (overall survival, P = .0011; progression-free survival, P = .0008, respectively). Our current study suggested that the assessment of CXCR4 immunoreactivity may be a useful prognostic indicator and that CXCR4 may play a critical role in the progression of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. PMID:22169254

Sekiya, Ryuichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Sakai, Kotaro; Umezu, Tomokazu; Mizuno, Mika; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Fujiwara, Sawako; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

2011-12-12

413

Ob receptor in rabbit ovary and leptin in vitro regulation of corpora lutea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied leptin involvement in rabbit corpora lutea (CL) activity, and its post-transcriptional signalling path- way. The expression of leptin receptor (Ob-R) in rabbit ovary at day 9 of pseudopregnancy was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The specificity of the Ob-R receptor antibodies was charac- terised by immunoprecipitation and competition with blocking peptide. Day 9 CL were incubated

Massimo Zerani; Cristiano Boiti; Danilo Zampini; Gabriele Brecchia; Cecilia Dall' Aglio; Piero Ceccarelli; Anna Gobbetti

2004-01-01

414

Title: The genetic basis of transgressive ovary size in honey bee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract 17 Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number,of ovarioles per 18 ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honey bee (Apis 19 mellifera) has resulted in queens with typically 200-360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or 20 less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers

Timothy A. Linksvayer; Olav Rueppell; Adam Siegel; Osman Kaftanoglu; Robert E. Page; V. Amdam

2009-01-01

415

Genetic architecture of ovary size and asymmetry in European honeybee workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular basis of complex traits is increasingly understood but a remaining challenge is to identify their co-regulation and inter-dependence. Pollen hoarding (pln) in honeybees is a complex trait associated with a well-characterized suite of linked behavioral and physiological traits. In European honeybee stocks bidirectionally selected for pln, worker (sterile helper) ovary size is pleiotropically affected by quantitative trait loci

O Rueppell; J D Metheny; T Linksvayer; M K Fondrk; R E Page; G V Amdam

2011-01-01

416

The Endocrine Impact of Obesity and Body Habitus in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity, particularly the abdominal type, is associated with several abnormalities of sex steroid balance in women, including\\u000a an increased androgen production rate and decreased serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. It is hypothesized that\\u000a the increasing epidemic of obesity worldwide may also favor the high prevalence of obesity among women with polycystic ovary\\u000a syndrome (PCOS). Obesity has a profound impact

Renato Pasquali; Alessandra Gambineri

417

IF3, a novel cell-differentiation factor, highly expressed in murine liver and ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IF3 gene was isolated by expression cloning from a cDNA library of mouse oocytes. This gene was revealed to have no homology to any known gene and its cDNA encodes a 202-amino acid protein that contains a signal-peptide sequence. Moreover, an IF3 isoform, IF32, was expressed in both liver and ovary. Its cDNA encoded a 92-amino acid protein contains

Hiroshi Mano; Sachie Nakatani; Rika Aoyagi; Rina Ishii; Yuka Iwai; Nanako Shimoda; Yuko Jincho; Hitoshi Hiura; Minako Hirose; Chikako Mochizuki; Motoko Yuri; Ryang Hyock Im; Ulala Funada-Wada; Masahiro Wada

2002-01-01

418

Functional state of adenylyl cyclase signaling system in rat testis and ovary under conditions of fasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) to polypeptide hormones and biogenic amines is studied in testes\\u000a and ovaries of rats after the 2- and 4-day fasting as compared with control animals. In tissues of the fasted rats there is\\u000a shown a decrease in the basal activity of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and of the basal level of the GTP

A. O. Shpakov; K. V. Derkach; O. V. Chistyakova; V. M. Bondareva

2011-01-01

419

Follicle Stimulating Hormone Increases Somatic and Germ Cell Number in the Ovary during Chick Embryo Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) on cellular proliferation in the chick embryo ovary. Chick embryos (Babcock B300) were injected on chorioallantoic membrane with a single dose of hFSH (2.0 IU\\/ embryo) at Days 7, 9, or 13 of incubation or with hCG (2.0 IU\\/embryo) at Day 13 of

M. C. Méndez-Herrera; L. Tamez; A. Cándido; J. A. Reyes-Esparza; E. Pedernera

1998-01-01

420

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Control of Germline Stem Cell Regulation in the Drosophila Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila ovary represent one of the best studied adult stem cell types, while their regulatory microenvironment or niche is also one\\u000a of the best defined ones. Due to the availability of powerful genetic tools and a large number of mutants, much progress has\\u000a been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying intrinsic and extrinsic

Nian Zhang; Ting Xie

421

Foxl2 functions in sex determination and histogenesis throughout mouse ovary development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Partial loss of function of the transcription factor FOXL2 leads to premature ovarian failure in women. In animal models, Foxl2 is required for maintenance, and possibly induction, of female sex determination independently of other critical genes, e.g., Rspo1. Here we report expression profiling of mouse ovaries that lack Foxl2 alone or in combination with Wnt4 or Kit\\/c-Kit. RESULTS: Following

José Elias Garcia-Ortiz; Emanuele Pelosi; Shakib Omari; Timur Nedorezov; Yulan Piao; Jesse Karmazin; Manuela Uda; Antonio Cao; Steve W Cole; Antonino Forabosco; David Schlessinger; Chris Ottolenghi

2009-01-01

422

Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy reduces the development of gestational diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess whether metformin safely reduced development of gestational diabetes in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Prospective and retrospective study.Setting: Outpatient clinical research center.Patient(s): The prospective study included 33 nondiabetic women with PCOS who conceived while taking metformin and had live births; of these, 28 were taking metformin through delivery. The retrospective study included 39 nondiabetic women

C. J Glueck; Ping Wang; Suichi Kobayashi; Harvey Phillips; Luann Sieve-Smith

2002-01-01

423

Effects of metformin on gonadotropin-induced ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate whether pretreatment with metformin improves FSH-induced ovulation in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Randomized prospective trial.Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Siena.Patient(s): Twenty women with clomiphene citrate–resistant PCOS.Intervention(s): The women were divided randomly into groups A and B (10 subjects each). Group B received 1,500 mg of metformin for at least a month

Vincenzo De Leo; Antonio la Marca; Antonino Ditto; Giuseppe Morgante; Antonio Cianci

1999-01-01

424

Genotypic variation in anther culture and effect of ovary coculture in durum wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of anthers to in vitro culture and the effect of coculture of ovaries on anther culturability have been studied in responsive and recalcitrant cultivars\\u000a of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) from Morocco and ICARDA. A large genotypic-dependence of anther culture has been shown in 18 cultivars. Their response in\\u000a term of callus and embryo induction varied from

F. J'Aiti; O. Benlhabib; H. C. Sharma; S. El Jaafari; I. El Hadrami

1999-01-01

425

Cardiometabolic risk in polycystic ovary syndrome: a comparison of different approaches to defining the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and features in common with the metabolic syndrome (MetS)—factors shown to predict cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes. We investi- gated the prevalence and characteristics of the MetS in PCOS by three definitions—World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP-III) and International Dia- betes Federation

Andrea J. Cussons; Gerald F. Watts; Valerie Burke; Jonathan E. Shaw; Paul Z. Zimmet; Bronwyn G. A. Stuckey

426

Effect of cadmium chloride on cell division and chromosomes in Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Effect of cadmium chloride on cell division and chromosomes was studied in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells in vitro. The cell cultures were exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride. Different treatment of cadmium chloride resulted in various cell division abnormalities like micronucleus formation, lagging chromosome, and chromatid bridges. At higher doses, an abundance of pyknotic nuclei in the monolayer was noteworthy. The 24 hours continuous treatment caused chromosomal aberrations like chromatid gaps, breaks, exchanges and chromatid separation.

Lakkad, B.C.; Nigam, S.K.; Karnik, A.B.; Thakore, K.N.; Chatterjee, B.B.

1986-03-01

427

Lithium induces follicular atresia in rat ovary through a GSK-3?/?-catenin dependent mechanism.  

PubMed

Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a drug used to treat bipolar disorder, but has side effects in the female reproductive system. Although lithium is known to decrease folliculogenesis and induce follicular atresia in rodent ovaries, its cellular and molecular effects in the ovary have not yet been addressed. To investigate these effects, 23-day-old immature female rats were injected with 10 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), followed by injections of 250 mg/kg LiCl every 12 hr for four doses. Ovaries were removed 40 and 48 hr after PMSG administration and prepared for histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and DNA laddering analysis. Our results showed that in the ovaries of LiCl-treated rats, few antral but more atretic follicles were present compared to those of the control rats. The induction of atresia by LiCl was further confirmed by the presence of DNA fragmentation, accompanied by a reduced level of 17?-estradiol in the serum. At the cellular level, lithium significantly decreased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and conversely increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the granulosa layer of the antral follicles. At the molecular level, lithium increased the level of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3?, and unexpectedly decreased the expression of active (stabilized) ?-catenin. Altogether, our results indicate that lithium disrupts the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in granulosa cells, leading to follicular atresia possibly through the reduction in both the stabilized ?-catenin and 17?-estradiol synthesis. PMID:23426897

Mirakhori, Fahimeh; Zeynali, Bahman; Tafreshi, Azita Parvaneh; Shirmohammadian, Ameneh

2013-03-25

428

Maturation of stamens and ovaries on cultured ear inflorescences of maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on the maturation of stamens and ovaries from cultured maize (Zea mays L.) ear inflorescences. Immature ears (5.1–10.0 mm long) of maize were cultured in kinetin medium to study microsporogenesis and pollen maturation in developing stamens. Male spikelets developed on ears cultured in kinetin medium. Meiosis-I began by 7 days of culture in the developing anthers and

V. R. Bommineni

1990-01-01

429

[The effect of graduated radiation doses on the follicular apparatus of the ovaries and the adenohypophysis in sheep].  

PubMed

Gradually increased radiation doses were applied directly to the ovaries of laparotomized ewes. The effect of these doses was studied as exerted on the qualitative and quantitative changes in the follicular apparatus of the ovaries and adenohypophysis of ewes in anoestrus and upon the recovery processes later on after irradiation. The ovaries irradiated with the dose of 4.79 Gy were found to be heavier when examined after some time from irradiation. The 10th and 30th day from irradiation the number of tertiary follicles decreased, the 100th day from irradiation their number increased to a four-fold level, as compared with the 10th day. Adenohypophysis showed a gradual growth of the number of PAS-positive cells. After the irradiation of ovaries with the dose of 9.57 Gy the ovaries showed the lowest rate of damage on the 10th day from irradiation; the 30th and 100th day from irradiation all the present tertiary follicles were in the state of atresia. In comparison with the control group, the amount of gonadotropic cells of adenohypophysis gradually increased, recovering from a rapid drop after irradiation. When the ovaries were irradiated with the dose of 19.14 Gy, all the tertiary follicles were in the state of atresia and the number of PAS-positive cells of adenohypophysis was lower in comparison with the control group. PMID:6419436

Arendarcik, J; Tokos, M; Praslicka, M; Balún, J

1983-10-01

430

Role of Ovarian Transposition Based on the Dosimetric Effects of Craniospinal Irradiation on the Ovaries: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we present a case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function in an adult female patient treated with craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma. The prescribed dose to the craniospinal axis was 2340 cGy at 180 cGy per fraction and was delivered with 6-MV photons. Before ovarian transposition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained for localization of the ovaries and was registered with the planning computed tomography (CT) scan. Surgical clips allowed for CT localization of the ovaries after transposition. As a result of ovarian transposition, mean and maximum radiation doses decreased from 983 to 68 cGy and 1624 to 84 cGy for the left ovary and from 166 to 87 cGy and 723 to 103 cGy for the right ovary, respectively. Review of the literature indicates that such radiation doses are below the threshold that causes ovarian dysfunction and infertility. We conclude that ovarian localization with an MRI of the pelvis can be offered to females undergoing craniospinal irradiation. Transposition of the ovaries provides an option to preserve ovarian function in cases where the ovaries would otherwise be included within the radiation field.

Mitchell, James D.; Hitchen, Christine [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Vlachaki, Maria T. [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)], E-mail: mvlachaki@med.wayne.edu

2007-10-01

431

The effect of herbal medicine on nerve growth factor in estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovaries in rats.  

PubMed

A type of polycystic ovary resembling some aspects of human polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) can be induced in the rat with a single injection of long-acting estradiol valerate. Among several theories behind the development of polycystic ovaries (PCO), the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system draws much attention, and herbal medicine is known to relieve the abnormal symptoms of PCO. Two herbal formulas, Changbudodam-Tang (cang fu dao tan tang) and Yongdamsagan-Tang (long dan xie gan tang), were used in the present study. The administration of herbal medicine was done every other day for 60 days. The morphological changes of ovaries from herbal medicine treatment were compared to those from an oil-treated control group and an estradiol valerate-injected group. This study also examined the possible hypothesis of neurogenic participation in terms of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the pathology of ovarian dysfunction. The nerve growth factor was analyzed in the central nervous system and ovaries by immunohistochemistry. The main findings of the present study were: (1) PCO were fully developed in rats with a single intramuscular injection of estradiol valerate, (2) PCO resulted in the expression of NGF in the ovaries and the brain tissues, and (3) herbal medicine administration significantly decreased the elevated NGF staining in the ovaries without affecting the brain tissues significantly. PMID:14992541

Lee, Jae Chang; Pak, Sok Cheon; Lee, Seung Hoo; Lim, Sung Chul; Bai, Young Hoon; Jin, Cheon Sik; Kim, Jeong Sang; Na, Chang Su; Bae, Chun Sik; Oh, Ki Seok; Choi, Bum Chae

2003-01-01

432

Structure and expression of Furin mRNA in the ovary of the medaka, Oryzias latipes.  

PubMed

A cDNA for furin was cloned from the ovary of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, by a combination of cDNA library screening, 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and 3'- RACE. The cDNA sequence codes for a protein of 814 amino acid residues highly homologous to other vertebrate furins, Ca(2+)-dependent serine proteases belonging to the subtilysin-like proprotein convertase family. The medaka preprofurin consists of a leader sequence, a propeptide with autoactivation sites, a Kex2-like catalytic domain, a P domain, a cysteine-rich domain, a putative transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain. The catalytic triad residues (Asp-164, His-205, and Ser-379) were all conserved. Furin mRNA was expressed in many tissues of this, including the ovary. In the ovary, the greatest expression of furin mRNA occurred in oocytes of small growing follicles, as demonstrated by Northern blotting, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization analysis. Temporary and spatial expression patterns of the medaka fish furin were similar to those of stromelysin-3 and MT5-MMP during oocyte growth and postnatal development. PMID:15114652

Ogiwara, Katsueki; Shinohara, Masakazu; Takahashi, Takayuki

2004-05-01

433

KIT signaling regulates primordial follicle formation in the neonatal mouse ovary.  

PubMed

The pool of primordial follicles determines the reproductive lifespan of the mammalian female, and its establishment is highly dependent upon proper oocyte cyst breakdown and regulation of germ cell numbers. The mechanisms controlling these processes remain a mystery. We hypothesized that KIT signaling might play a role in perinatal oocyte cyst breakdown, determination of oocyte numbers and the assembly of primordial follicles. We began by examining the expression of both KIT and KIT ligand in fetal and neonatal ovaries. KIT was expressed only in oocytes during cyst breakdown, but KIT ligand was present in both oocytes and somatic cells as primordial follicles formed. To test whether KIT signaling plays a role in cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation, we used ovary organ culture to inhibit and activate KIT signaling during the time when these processes occur in the ovary. We found that when KIT was inhibited, there was a reduction in cyst breakdown and an increase in oocyte numbers. Subsequent studies using TUNEL analysis showed that when KIT was inhibited, cell death was reduced. Conversely, when KIT was activated, cyst breakdown was promoted and oocyte numbers decreased. Using Western blotting, we found increased levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinase when KIT ligand was added to culture. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for KIT signaling in perinatal oocyte cyst breakdown that may be mediated by MAP Kinase downstream of KIT. PMID:23831378

Jones, Robin L; Pepling, Melissa E

2013-07-04

434

Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women  

PubMed Central

Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo.

White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

2012-01-01

435

Molecular Characterization of a Patient's Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary of the Hypercalcemic Type  

PubMed Central

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a very rare tumor type that mainly affects young women. We report a 21-year old woman with SCCOHT. The patient initially presented with stage T3AN1MX disease and treated with surgery. The patient then received 8 cycles of multi-agent chemotherapy including cisplatin, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. Upon relapse, the patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy, followed by chemotherapy with gemcitabine. The patient subsequently received radiation therapy and chemotherapy with bevacizumab, irinotecan and docetaxel. She passed away approximately 5 months after the second surgery and with her prior permission an immediate autopsy was performed. We examined the gene expression and copy number profiles of the tumor tissue samples obtained from the autopsy and compared them to normal ovary tissues. Our results indicated that although this tumor did not harbor chromosomal abnormalities nor gene copy number changes, there were significant gene expression changes in a number of genes/pathways. More than 5,000 genes showed significant differential expression in the tumor when compared to normal ovary tissue. Pathway enrichment analysis further identified several pathways/processes including the Vitamin D receptor signaling and the hedgehog signaling pathways to be significantly dysregulated. The gene expression profiling also suggests a number of agents such as pazopanib, bortezomib, 5-azacytidine, and PARP inhibitors as treatment options to possibly explore in future trials against this disease.

Stephens, Bret; Anthony, Stephen P.; Han, Haiyong; Kiefer, Jeffery; Hostetter, Galen; Barrett, Michael; Von Hoff, Daniel D.

2012-01-01

436

Chinese hamster ovary cell lysosomes retain pinocytized horseradish peroxidase and in situ-radioiodinated proteins  

SciTech Connect

We used Chinese hamster ovary cells, a cell line of fibroblastic origin, to investigate whether lysosomes are an exocytic compartment. To label lysosomal contents, Chinese hamster ovary cells were incubated with the solute marker horseradish peroxidase. After an 18-h uptake period, horseradish peroxidase was found in lysosomes by cell fractionation in Percoll gradients and by electron microscope cytochemistry. Over a 24-h period, lysosomal horseradish peroxidase was quantitatively retained by Chinese hamster ovary cells and inactivated with a t 1/2 of 6 to 8 h. Lysosomes were radioiodinated in situ by soluble lactoperoxidase internalized over an 18-h uptake period. About 70% of the radioiodine incorporation was pelleted at 100,000 X g under conditions in which greater than 80% of the lysosomal marker enzyme beta-hexosaminidase was released into the supernatant. By one-dimensional electrophoresis, about 18 protein species were present in the lysosomal membrane fraction, with radioiodine incorporation being most pronounced into species of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons. After a 30-min or 2-h chase at 37 degrees C, radioiodine that was incorporated into lysosomal membranes and contents was retained in lysosomes. These observations indicate that lysosomes labeled by fluid-phase pinocytosis are a terminal component of endocytic pathways in fibroblasts.

Storrie, B.; Sachdeva, M.; Viers, V.S.

1984-02-01

437

Unfertilized ovary: a novel explant for coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Unfertilized ovaries isolated from immature female flowers of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) were tested as a source of explants for callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The correct developmental stage of ovary explants and suitable in vitro culture conditions for consistent callus production were identified. The concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and activated charcoal was found to be critical for callogenesis. When cultured in a medium containing 100 microM 2,4-D and 0.1% activated charcoal, ovary explants gave rise to 41% callusing. Embryogenic calli were sub-cultured into somatic embryogenesis induction medium containing 5 microM abscisic acid, followed by plant regeneration medium (with 5 microM 6-benzylaminopurine). Many of the somatic embryos formed were complete with shoot and root poles and upon germination they gave rise to normal shoots. However, some abnormal developments were also observed. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that all the calli tested were diploid. Through histological studies, it was possible to study the sequence of the events that take place during somatic embryogenesis including orientation, polarization and elongation of the embryos. PMID:16902798

Perera, Prasanthi I P; Hocher, Valerie; Verdeil, Jean Luc; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Yakandawala, Deepthi M D; Weerakoon, L Kaushalya

2006-08-11

438

Molecular cloning of P450 aromatase from the leopard gecko and its expression in the ovary.  

PubMed

In this study, we identified the cDNA of P450 aromatase in the leopard gecko, a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. The cDNA encodes a putative protein of 505 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of leopard gecko aromatase cDNA showed 80% identity with that of turtles, 70% with humans and 77% with chickens. This is the first report of the identification of P450 aromatase cDNA in squamata species. It has been reported that this gene is expressed in different layers of cells in the ovary of mammalian species and avian species. Thus, we also investigated cells expressing the mRNA of this gene in the ovary of the leopard gecko by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The mRNA expression of leopard gecko P450 aromatase was localized in both the thecal and granulosa cell layers in the ovary. The expression in thecal and granulosa cell layers was examined in the largest follicle, second largest follicle and third largest follicle by RT-PCR. A higher level of mRNA expression was observed in the granulosa cell layer of the second largest follicle than in other cell layers. This result may reflect the characteristics of follicles in species with automonochronic ovulation. PMID:15893926

Endo, Daisuke; Park, Min Kyun

2005-07-01

439

Genetic architecture of ovary size and asymmetry in European honeybee workers  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis of complex traits is increasingly understood but a remaining challenge is to identify their co-regulation and inter-dependence. Pollen hoarding (pln) in honeybees is a complex trait associated with a well-characterized suite of linked behavioral and physiological traits. In European honeybee stocks bidirectionally selected for pln, worker (sterile helper) ovary size is pleiotropically affected by quantitative trait loci that were initially identified for their effect on foraging behavior. To gain a better understanding of the genetic architecture of worker ovary size in this model system, we analyzed a series of crosses between the selected strains. The crossing results were heterogeneous and suggested non-additive effects. Three significant and three suggestive quantitative trait loci of relatively large effect sizes were found in two reciprocal backcrosses. These loci are not located in genome regions of known effects on foraging behavior but contain several interesting candidate genes that may specifically affect worker-ovary size. Thus, the genetic architecture of this life history syndrome may be comprised of pleiotropic, central regulators that influence several linked traits and other genetic factors that may be downstream and trait specific.

Rueppell, O; Metheny, J D; Linksvayer, T; Fondrk, M K; Page, R E; Amdam, G V

2011-01-01

440

Genetic architecture of ovary size and asymmetry in European honeybee workers.  

PubMed

The molecular basis of complex traits is increasingly understood but a remaining challenge is to identify their co-regulation and inter-dependence. Pollen hoarding (pln) in honeybees is a complex trait associated with a well-characterized suite of linked behavioral and physiological traits. In European honeybee stocks bidirectionally selected for pln, worker (sterile helper) ovary size is pleiotropically affected by quantitative trait loci that were initially identified for their effect on foraging behavior. To gain a better understanding of the genetic architecture of worker ovary size in this model system, we analyzed a series of crosses between the selected strains. The crossing results were heterogeneous and suggested non-additive effects. Three significant and three suggestive quantitative trait loci of relatively large effect sizes were found in two reciprocal backcrosses. These loci are not located in genome regions of known effects on foraging behavior but contain several interesting candidate genes that may specifically affect worker-ovary size. Thus, the genetic architecture of this life history syndrome may be comprised of pleiotropic, central regulators that influence several linked traits and other genetic factors that may be downstream and trait specific. PMID:21048673

Rueppell, O; Metheny, J D; Linksvayer, T; Fondrk, M K; Page, R E; Amdam, G V

2010-11-03

441

Transcriptional signature of progesterone in the fathead minnow ovary (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

A growing number of studies have examined transcriptional responses to sex steroids along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in teleost fishes. However, data are lacking on the molecular cascades that underlie progesterone signaling. The objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptional response in the ovary of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in response to progesterone (P4). Fathead minnow ovaries were exposed in vitro to 500ng P4/L. Germinal vesicle migration and breakdown (GVBD) was observed and microarrays were used to identify gene cascades affected by P4. Microarray analysis identified 1702 differentially expressed transcripts after P4 treatment. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that transcripts involved in the molecular functions of protein serine/threonine kinase activity, ATP binding, and activity of calcium channels were increased after P4 treatment. There was an overwhelming decrease in levels of transcripts of genes that are structural constituents of ribosomes with P4 treatment. There was also evidence for gene expression changes in steroid and maturation-related transcripts. Pathway analyses identified cell cycle regulation, insulin action, hedgehog, and B cell activation as pathways containing an over-representation of highly regulated transcripts. Significant regulatory sub-networks of P4-mediated transcripts included genes regulated by tumor protein p53 and E2F transcription factor 1. These data provide novel insight into the molecular signaling cascades that underlie P4-signaling in the ovary and identify genes and processes that may indicate premature GVBD due to environmental pollutants that mimic progestins. PMID:23796460

Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Escalon, B Lynn; Spade, Daniel J; Denslow, Nancy D

2013-06-22

442

Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

Wallace, W. Hamish B. [Section of Child Life and Health, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Saran, Frank [Royal Marsden NHS Trust Foundation, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kelsey, Tom W. [School of Computer Science, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

443

Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. (Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))

1993-11-01

444

Expression of connexin 43 mRNA and protein in developing follicles of prepubertal porcine ovaries.  

PubMed

A major form of cell-cell communication is mediated by gap junctions, aggregations of intercellular channels composed of connexins (Cxs), which are responsible for exchange of low molecular weight (<1200 Da) cytosolic materials. These channels are a growing family of related proteins. This study was designed to determine the ontogeny of connexin 43 (Cx43) during early stages of follicular development in prepubertal porcine ovaries. A partial-length (412 base) cDNA clone was obtained from mature porcine ovaries and determined to have 98% identity with published porcine Cx43. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 4.3-kb mRNA in total RNA isolated from prepubertal and adult porcine ovaries. In-situ hybridization revealed that Cx43 mRNA was detectable in granulosa cells of primary follicles but undetectable in dormant primordial follicles. The intensity of the signal increased with follicular growth and was greatest in the large antral follicles. Immunohistochemical evaluation indicated that Cx43 protein expression correlated with the presence of Cx43 mRNA. These results indicate that substantial amounts of Cx43 are first expressed in granulosa cells following activation of follicular development and that this expression increases throughout follicular growth and maturation. These findings suggest an association between the enhancement of intercellular gap-junctional communication and onset of follicular growth. PMID:11470443

Melton, C M; Zaunbrecher, G M; Yoshizaki, G; Patiño, R; Whisnant, S; Rendon, A; Lee, V H

2001-08-01

445

Analysis of Muscle and Ovary Transcriptome of Sus scrofa: Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery  

PubMed Central

Pig (Sus scrofa) is an important organism for both agricultural and medical purpose. This study aims to investigate the S. scrofa transcriptome by the use of Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained a total of 558 743 and 528 260 reads for the back-leg muscle and ovary tissue each. The overall 1 087 003 reads give rise to 421 767 341 bp total residues averaging 388 bp per read. The de novo assemblies yielded 11 057 contigs and 60 270 singletons for the back-leg muscle, 12 204 contigs and 70 192 singletons for the ovary and 18 938 contigs and 102 361 singletons for combined tissues. The overall GC content of S. scrofa transcriptome is 42.3% for assembled contigs. Alternative splicing was found within 4394 contigs, giving rise to 1267 isogroups or genes. A total of 56 589 transcripts are involved in molecular function (40 916), biological process (38 563), cellular component (35 787) by further gene ontology analyses. Comparison analyses showed that 336 and 553 genes had significant higher expression in the back-leg muscle and ovary each. In addition, we obtained a total of 24 214 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 11 928 simple sequence repeats. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetic makeup of S. scrofa transcriptome and provide useful information for functional genomic research in future.

Nie, Qinghua; Fang, Meixia; Jia, Xinzheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoning; He, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiquan

2011-01-01

446

Complex derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

2013-03-01