Note: This page contains sample records for the topic ovary derived kk1 from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Adipose-derived stem cells improved mouse ovary function after chemotherapy-induced ovary failure  

PubMed Central

Introduction Young patients receiving chemotherapy occasionally face infertility and premature ovarian failure (POF). Numerous investigations reported that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation could ameliorate the structure and function of injured tissues. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy of ADSC transplantation for chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage. Methods Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CTX). After 15 consecutive days of injection, ADSCs were transplanted either directly into bilateral ovaries or via intravenous injection, and the ovaries were excised after either 1 week or 1 month of treatment. The follicles were counted and categorized, and ovarian histologic sections were stained for TUNEL. Ovarian function was evaluated by monitoring ovulation. ADSC tracking, microarray analyses, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to assess the inner mechanism of injury and repair. Results The ovarian function of mice exposed to CTX injection improved after ADSC transplantation. The population of follicles at different stages and ovulation significantly increased after the treatment. Immunofluorescence revealed reduced TUNEL staining. The tracking of ADSCs revealed that these cells did not directly differentiate into the follicle component. Microarray analyses indicated that changes in different groups of genes might affect follicle formation or ovulation. Conclusions ADSC transplantation improved ovarian function. Our results suggest a potential mechanism for ADSC therapy.

2013-01-01

2

Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Help Restore Function to Ovaries in a Premature Ovarian Failure Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. For this reason, they are considered a powerful tool for therapeutic cloning and offer new possibilities for tissue therapy. Recent studies showed that skin-derived stem cells can differentiate into cells expressing germ-cell specific markers in vitro and form oocytes in vivo. The idea that SMSCs may be suitable for the treatment of intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To determine the ability of SMSCs to reactivate injured ovaries, a mouse model with ovaries damaged by busulfan and cyclophosphamide was developed and is described here. Female skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-SMSCs) and male skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-SMSCs) from red fluorescence protein (RFP) transgenic adult mice were used to investigate the restorative effects of SMSCs on ovarian function. Significant increases in total body weight and the weight of reproductive organs were observed in the treated animals. Both F-SMSCs and M-SMSCs were shown to be capable of partially restoring fertility in chemotherapy-treated females. Immunostaining with RFP and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) antibodies demonstrated that the grafted SMSCs survived, migrated to the recipient ovaries. After SMSCs were administered to the treated mice, real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, TGF-?, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1?, and IFN? were significantly lower in the ovaries than in the untreated controls. Consistent with this observation, expression of oogenesis marker genes Nobox, Nanos3, and Lhx8 increased in ovaries of SMSCs-treated mice. These findings suggest that SMSCs may play a role within the ovarian follicle microenvironment in restoring the function of damaged ovaries and could be useful in reproductive health.

Lai, Dongmei; Wang, Fangyuan; Dong, Zhangli; Zhang, Qiuwan

2014-01-01

3

Suspension-adapted Chinese hamster ovary-derived cells expressing green fluorescent protein as a screening tool for biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biomaterials play an important role in regenerative medicine. To be effective they must support cell attachment\\u000a and proliferation in addition to being non-toxic and non-immunogenic. We used a suspension-adapted Chinese hamster ovary-derived\\u000a cell line expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) to assess cell attachment and growth on synthetic biomaterials by direct\\u000a measurement of GFP-specific fluorescence. To simplify operations, all cell

E.-M. Engelhardt; S. Houis; T. Gries; J. Hilborn; M. Adam; F. M. Wurm

2009-01-01

4

Comparative mutagenicity of alkylsulfate and alkanesulfonate derivatives in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Mutation induction and cell killing produced by selected alkylsulfates and alkanesulfonates have been quantitated using the Chinese hamster ovary/hypoxanthine--guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) system. Dose--response relationships of cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are presented for two alkylsulfates [dimethylsulfate (DMS), diethylsulfate (DES)] and three alkyl alkanesulfonates [methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), and isopropyl methanesulfonate (iPMS)]. Under the experimental conditions employed, cytotoxicity decreased with the size of the alkyl group. DMS was more toxic than DES, and MMS was more toxic than EMS and iPMS. All agents produced linear dose--response of mutation induction: DMS was more mutagenic than DES, and MMS was more mutagenic than EMS and iPMS based on mutants induced per unit mutagen concentration. However, the following relative mutagenic potency was observed when comparisons were made at 10% survival: DES greater than DMS; EMS greater than MMS greater than iPMS. PMID:207981

Couch, D B; Forbes, N L; Hsie, A W

1978-05-01

5

Differential genes in adipocytes induced from polycystic and non-polycystic ovary syndrome-derived human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

We explored the molecular mechanisms of obesity and insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using a human embryonic stem cell model (hESCs). Three PCOS-derived and one non-PCOS-derived hESC lines were induced into adipocytes, and then total RNA was extracted. The differentially expressed PCOS-derived and non-PCOS-derived adipocytes genes were identified using the Boao Biological human V 2.0 whole genome oligonucleotide microarray. Signals of interest were then validated by real-time PCR. A total of 153 differential genes were expressed of which 91 genes were up-regulated and 62 down-regulated. Nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 (NR0B2) was an up-regulated gene, and the GeneChip CapitalBio® Molecule Annotation System V4.0 indicated that it was associated with obesity and diabetes (Ratio ? 2.0X). Multiple genes are involved in PCOS. Nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 may play a role in obesity and insulin resistance in patients with PCOS. PMID:24517280

Wang, Fang; Liu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xue-Mei; Kong, Hui-Juan; Li, Jing; Sun, Ying-Pu

2014-06-01

6

Effects of Upregulation of Hsp27 Expression on Oocyte Development and Maturation Derived from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a heat shock protein family member which can inhibit apoptosis. Our previous studies reported down-regulated Hsp27 in ovarian tissue derived from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) however, the exact effect of Hsp27 on oocyte maturation and developmental competence in PCOS is unclear. The effect of Hsp27 over-expression was studied in vitro using oocytes derived from PCOS patients. An artificial GFP-plasmid was injected into human oocyte to increase Hsp27 protein level. Oocyte maturation was evaluated by morphological observation. Mature oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryonic developmental competence was evaluated. Critical apoptotic factors and cytokines were measured at both the mRNA and protein level. Our results revealed that Overexpression of HSP27 lowered the maturation rate of oocytes derived from PCOS patients. Meanwhile, fertilization rate and high quality embryo rate were similar between the Hsp27 overexpressing group and controls; however, the blastocyst formation rate in this group was significantly higher than control. Expression analysis revealed that the oocyte-secreted factors, BMP15 and GDF9, and the apoptotic-related regulators, Caspase 3, 8 and 9, were all significantly decreased in Hsp27 overexpressing oocytes. In conclusion, upregulation of Hsp27 inhibits oocyte maturation from PCOS patients, but improves embryonic developmental potential.

Liu, Shan; Liu, Jinjuan; Wang, Wei; Cui, Yugui; Ding, Wei; Mao, Yundong; Chen, Huiping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Zuomin; Liu, Jiayin

2013-01-01

7

Effects of upregulation of Hsp27 expression on oocyte development and maturation derived from polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a heat shock protein family member which can inhibit apoptosis. Our previous studies reported down-regulated Hsp27 in ovarian tissue derived from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) however, the exact effect of Hsp27 on oocyte maturation and developmental competence in PCOS is unclear. The effect of Hsp27 over-expression was studied in vitro using oocytes derived from PCOS patients. An artificial GFP-plasmid was injected into human oocyte to increase Hsp27 protein level. Oocyte maturation was evaluated by morphological observation. Mature oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryonic developmental competence was evaluated. Critical apoptotic factors and cytokines were measured at both the mRNA and protein level. Our results revealed that Overexpression of HSP27 lowered the maturation rate of oocytes derived from PCOS patients. Meanwhile, fertilization rate and high quality embryo rate were similar between the Hsp27 overexpressing group and controls; however, the blastocyst formation rate in this group was significantly higher than control. Expression analysis revealed that the oocyte-secreted factors, BMP15 and GDF9, and the apoptotic-related regulators, Caspase 3, 8 and 9, were all significantly decreased in Hsp27 overexpressing oocytes. In conclusion, upregulation of Hsp27 inhibits oocyte maturation from PCOS patients, but improves embryonic developmental potential. PMID:24391762

Cai, Lingbo; Ma, Xiang; Liu, Shan; Liu, Jinjuan; Wang, Wei; Cui, Yugui; Ding, Wei; Mao, Yundong; Chen, Huiping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Zuomin; Liu, Jiayin

2013-01-01

8

Bovine and buffalo in vitro embryo production using oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries or collected by transvaginal follicle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effect of oocyte source (live animals and abattoir ovaries) on subsequent embryo development in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Cow ovaries were also collected as oocyte donors for in vitro embryo production (IVEP).Three hundred thirty-eight oocytes were recovered by ovum pick up (OPU, Group A) from 8 pluriparous buffalo cows, while 1127 and

Gianluca Neglia; Bianca Gasparrini; Viviana Caracciolo di Brienza; Rossella Di Palo; Giuseppe Campanile; Giorgio Antonio Presicce; Luigi Zicarelli

2003-01-01

9

Establishment of a Line of Cells Derived from Ovariation Tissue of Culex Quinquefasciatus Say.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A line of mosquito cells derived from ovarian tissue of adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) was established and grown successfully in vitro. The cells were epithelioid in appearance and firmly attached to the vessel surface, forming monolayers. Two distinc...

S. H. Hsu W. H. Mao J. H. Cross

1970-01-01

10

In vitro developmental potential of macaque oocytes, derived from unstimulated ovaries, following maturation in the presence of glutathione ethyl ester  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The inadequacies of oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) systems for both non-human primates and humans are evidenced by reduced fertilization and poor embryonic development, and may be partly explained by significantly lower glutathione (GSH) contents compared with in vivo matured (IVO) oocytes. As this influence has not been fully explored, this study investigated the effect of the GSH donor, glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-OEt), on the IVM and development of macaque oocytes as a model of human oocyte IVM. METHODS Macaque oocytes derived from unstimulated ovaries were cultured in mCMRL-1066 alone or supplemented with 3 or 5 mM GSH-OEt. In vitro matured oocytes were subjected to the GSH assay, fixed for the assessment of spindle morphology or prepared ICSI. Embryo development of zygotes cultured in mHECM-9 was assessed up to Day 9 post-ICSI. RESULTS Supplementation of the maturation medium with GSH-OEt significantly increased oocyte maturation and normal fertilization rates compared with control oocytes, but only 5 mM GSH-OEt significantly increased the oocyte and cumulus cell GSH content. Confocal microscopy revealed significant differences in the spindle morphology between IVO and control in vitro matured metaphase II oocytes. Oocytes matured with 5 mM GSH-OEt exhibited spindle area and spindle pole width similar to that seen in the IVO oocyte. While no significant differences were observed in blastocyst rates, addition of 3 mM GSH-OEt during IVM significantly increased the proportion of embryos developing to the 5–8 cell stage while 5 mM GSH-OEt significantly increased the proportion of morula-stage embryos compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Supplementation of the IVM medium with GSH-OEt promotes better maturation and normal fertilization of macaque oocytes compared with non-supplemented medium. However, further improvement of the primate oocyte IVM culture system is required to support better blastocyst development of oocytes derived from unstimulated ovaries.

Curnow, E.C.; Ryan, J.P.; Saunders, D.M.; Hayes, E.S.

2010-01-01

11

Dedifferentiated follicular granulosa cells derived from pig ovary can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts.  

PubMed

Transdifferentiation is the conversion of cells from one differentiated cell type into another. How functionally differentiated cells already committed to a specific cell lineage can transdifferentiate into other cell types is a key question in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In the present study we show that porcine ovarian follicular GCs (granulosa cells) can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Pure GCs isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 20% FBS (fetal bovine serum) proliferated and dedifferentiated into fibroblast-like cells. We referred to these cells as DFOG (dedifferentiated follicular granulosa) cells. Microarray analysis showed that DFOG cells lost expression of GC-specific marker genes, but gained the expression of osteogenic marker genes during dedifferentiation. After osteogenic induction, DFOG cells underwent terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro. Furthermore, when DFOG cells were transplanted subcutaneously into SCID mice, these cells formed ectopic osteoid tissue. These results indicate that DFOG cells derived from GCs can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that GCs provide a useful model for studying the mechanisms of transdifferentiation into other cell lineages in functionally differentiated cells. PMID:22839299

Oki, Yoshinao; Ono, Hiromasa; Motohashi, Takeharu; Sugiura, Nobuki; Nobusue, Hiroyuki; Kano, Koichiro

2012-10-15

12

Pigment epithelium-derived factor, insulin sensitivity, and adiposity in polycystic ovary syndrome: impact of exercise training.  

PubMed

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is upregulated in obese rodents and is involved in the development of insulin resistance (IR). We aim to explore the relationships between PEDF, adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular risk factors in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and weight-matched controls and to examine the impact of endurance exercise training on PEDF. This prospective cohort intervention study was based at a tertiary medical center. Twenty obese PCOS women and 14 non-PCOS weight-matched women were studied at baseline. PEDF, cardiometabolic markers, detailed body composition, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were performed and measures were repeated in 10 PCOS and 8 non-PCOS women following 12 weeks of intensified aerobic exercise. Mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) was 31.7% lower (P = 0.02) in PCOS compared to controls (175.6 ± 96.3 and 257.2 ± 64.3 mg.m(-2).min(-1)) at baseline, yet both PEDF and BMI were similar between groups. PEDF negatively correlated to GIR (r = -0.41, P = 0.03) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = -0.46, P = 0.01), and positively to cardiovascular risk factors, systolic (r = 0.41, P = 0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.47, P = 0.01) and triglycerides (r = 0.49, P = 0.004). The correlation with GIR was not significant after adjusting for fat mass (P = 0.07). Exercise training maintained BMI and increased GIR in both groups; however, plasma PEDF was unchanged. In summary, PEDF is not elevated in PCOS, is not associated with IR when adjusted for fat mass, and is not reduced by endurance exercise training despite improved insulin sensitivity. PEDF was associated with cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting PEDF may be a marker of cardiovascular risk status. PMID:22641183

Joham, Anju E; Teede, Helena J; Hutchison, Samantha K; Stepto, Nigel K; Harrison, Cheryce L; Strauss, Boyd J; Paul, Eldho; Watt, Matthew J

2012-12-01

13

Analysis of individual and combined effects of ochratoxin A and zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 cells with mathematical models.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are widespread mycotoxins that contaminate foodstuffs simultaneously, but sufficient data regarding their mixed toxicities are lacking. This study aims to analyze the style of combined effects of OTA and ZEA on cells of their target organs. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 and KK-1 cells treated with single and combined forms of OTA and ZEA. Furthermore, we have analyzed the data using two mathematical models based on the concepts of concentration addition (CA) and independent addition (IA). By analyzing data with nonlinear regression, toxins applied singly showed classic sigmoid dose-response curves in HepG2 cells whereas in KK-1 cells hormetic responses were observed. Exposure to equieffective mixtures of OTA and ZEA showed additive effects, irrespective of different nonlinear regression models used. Our results demonstrate that IA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of OTA and ZEA. The results in ROS generation indicate a departure from additivity to antagonism or synergism at different concentrations, probably due to potential interaction during ROS production. This study shows that a risk assessment of mycotoxins should account for mixture effects, and prediction models are valuable tools for mixture assessment. PMID:24674935

Li, Yuzhe; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Liang, Rui; Luo, Haoshu; Huang, Kunlun

2014-04-01

14

Analysis of Individual and Combined Effects of Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 Cells with Mathematical Models  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are widespread mycotoxins that contaminate foodstuffs simultaneously, but sufficient data regarding their mixed toxicities are lacking. This study aims to analyze the style of combined effects of OTA and ZEA on cells of their target organs. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 and KK-1 cells treated with single and combined forms of OTA and ZEA. Furthermore, we have analyzed the data using two mathematical models based on the concepts of concentration addition (CA) and independent addition (IA). By analyzing data with nonlinear regression, toxins applied singly showed classic sigmoid dose-response curves in HepG2 cells whereas in KK-1 cells hormetic responses were observed. Exposure to equieffective mixtures of OTA and ZEA showed additive effects, irrespective of different nonlinear regression models used. Our results demonstrate that IA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of OTA and ZEA. The results in ROS generation indicate a departure from additivity to antagonism or synergism at different concentrations, probably due to potential interaction during ROS production. This study shows that a risk assessment of mycotoxins should account for mixture effects, and prediction models are valuable tools for mixture assessment.

Li, Yuzhe; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Liang, Rui; Luo, Haoshu; Huang, Kunlun

2014-01-01

15

Comparison of the developmental potential of 2-week-old preantral follicles derived from vitrified ovarian tissue slices, vitrified whole ovaries and vitrified/transplanted newborn mouse ovaries using the metal surface method  

PubMed Central

Background Cryopreservation of preantral follicles or ovarian tissues would enable the storage of large numbers of primordial follicles or preantral follicles and preserves the structural integrity of somatic and reproductive cells. In the present study, we compared the developmental potential of cryopreserved two-week-old mouse preantral follicles, ovarian tissue slices, two-week-old mouse ovaries and newborn mouse ovaries using a metal plate with a high cooling rate for cooling the droplet of vitrification solution. Methods Groups of 2 to 4 samples (including of 14-day old preantral follicles, ovarian tissue slices, whole ovaries, and whole newborn ovaries) were exposed to 4% ethylene glycol (EG) in DPBS + 10% FBS for 15 min and then rinsed in a vitrification solution composed of 6 M ethylene glycol and 0.4 M trehalose in DPBS + 10% FBS. Equilibration in room temperature was performed for 20–30 seconds for preantral follicle and 5 min equilibration was performed in an ice bath for ovaries. The samples were dropped onto the surface of metal plate around -180°C in the volume of 2 ?l and 6 ?l. After thawing, the ovarian tissue was mechanically isolated for collecting the preantral follicles. The thawed newborn ovaries were transplanted under the renal capsule of recipient male mice for 14 days. Preantral follicles collected from each groups were cultured individually in 20-?l droplets of ?-MEM culture medium in culture dish for 12 days. On the day 12 of culture, the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected for IVM and IVF. Fertilization and embryo cleavage were scored. Results After the vitrification of 14-day-old preantral follicles using 2 ?l or 6 ?l droplet onto surface of metal plate, the results indicated that no significant difference in survival rate, antral-like cavity formation, COCs collected, 2 cell embryo cleavage and blastocyst development was found in vitrification of the 2 ?l and 6 ?l droplet groups. As comparing 14-day old ovarian tissue (ovarian tissue slices and whole ovaries) and whole newborn ovaries vitrified in 6 ?l droplet, lower success rates of antral-like cavity formation and COCs collection were found in the whole ovaries group. Conclusion Our results suggest that the metal plate surface vitrification method is an appropriate and convenient method for cryopreservation of mouse ovaries and preantral follicles. The droplet volume of vitrification solution in 2 ?l and 6 ?l can be an option.

Lin, Ta-Chin; Yen, Jui-Mei; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng; Gong, Kun-Bing; Hsu, Kung-Hao; Hsu, Teng-Tsao

2008-01-01

16

Low concentrations of recombinant granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells augments long-term bioactivity with delayed clearance in vitro.  

PubMed

To date, the biological activity of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been investigated by using mostly Escherichia coli- or yeast cell-derived recombinant human GM-CSF (erhGM-CSF and yrhGM-CSF, respectively). However, Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived recombinant human GM-CSF (crhGM-CSF), as well as natural human GM-CSF, is a distinct molecule that includes modifications by complicated oligosaccharide moieties. In the present study, we reevaluated the bioactivity of crhGM-CSF by comparing it with those of erhGM-CSF and yrhGM-CSF. The effect of short-term stimulation (0.5h) on the activation of neutrophils/monocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by crhGM-CSF was lower than those with erhGM-CSF or yrhGM-CSF at low concentrations (under 60pM). Intermediate-term stimulation (24h) among the different rhGM-CSFs with respect to its effect on the activation of TF-1 cells, a GM-CSF-dependent cell line, or PBMCs was not significantly different. In contrast, the proliferation/survival of TF-1 cells or PBMCs after long-term stimulation (72-168h) was higher at low concentrations of crhGM-CSF (15-30pM) than that of cells treated with other GM-CSFs. The proportion of apoptotic TF-1 cells after incubation with crhGM-CSF for 72h was lower than that of cells incubated with other rhGM-CSFs. These effects were attenuated by desialylation of crhGM-CSF. Clearance of crhGM-CSF but not desialylated-crhGM-CSF by both TF-1 cells and PBMCs was delayed compared with that of erhGM-CSF or yrhGM-CSF. These results suggest that sialylation of oligosaccharide moieties delayed the clearance of GM-CSF, thus eliciting increased long-term bioactivity in vitro. PMID:24813650

Hashimoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takahiro; Itoh, Yuko; Yamagata, Akira; Kitamura, Nobutaka; Tazawa, Ryushi; Nakagaki, Kazuhide; Nakata, Koh

2014-08-01

17

Circulating levels and subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor in polycystic ovary syndrome and normal women: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been recognized as a metabolic disorder, manifested by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is a pleiotropic protein known for its antiangiogenic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties and has been shown to induce insulin resistance and play a role in glucose metabolism. Recent studies investigating circulating PEDF levels show elevated serum PEDF in association with insulin resistance in normal-weight women with PCOS, but not in obese PCOS patients. The aims of this study were 1) to assess PEDF gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) from women with PCOS and nonhirsute, ovulatory controls, and 2) to determine the circulating levels of PEDF in these groups. Methods Total RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsy samples and reverse-transcribed to cDNA. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine relative gene expression levels. Results The 22 women with PCOS and 14 non-PCOS controls included in the study had similar age, BMI, and fasting glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Participants with PCOS exhibited higher 2 h oral glucose tolerance test levels (p?=?0.006), total (p?=?0.026) and LDL-cholesterol (p?=?0.036), Ferriman-Gallwey score (p?=?0.003) and total testosterone (p?=?0.001) as compared to controls. BMI-adjusted PEDF serum levels and scAT gene expression were similar in the PCOS and control groups (p?=?0.622 and p?=?0.509, respectively). Circulating PEDF levels were not associated with scAT PEDF gene expression. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, in women with PCOS, insulin contributed positively and significantly to serum PEDF (p = 0.027), independently of testosterone. Conclusion Serum PEDF levels and scAT gene expression were associated with metabolic risk factors, but did not differ between women with PCOS and age- and BMI-matched controls. Circulating levels and scAT gene expression of PEDF were not associated in the study subjects, suggesting additional sources for PEDF in addition to or instead of fat tissue.

2013-01-01

18

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... likely to have polycystic ovary syndrome. Symptoms of PCOS include: Infertility Pelvic pain Excess hair growth on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes Baldness or thinning hair Acne, oily skin, or dandruff Patches of thickened dark ...

19

Polycystic ovary syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS is linked to changes in the level of certain hormones: Estrogen and progesterone, the female hormones ... a woman's period. This is called ovulation. In PCOS, mature eggs are not released from the ovaries. ...

20

Arrhenoblastoma of ovary  

MedlinePLUS

... Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 17. Coleman RL, Gershenson DM. Neoplastic diseases of the ovary: screening, benign and ... In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby ...

21

Ontogeny of the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Activation of primordial follicles into the growing pool, selection of the dominant follicle, and its eventual ovulation require complex endocrine and metabolic interactions as well as intraovarian paracrine signals to coordinate granulosa cell proliferation, theca cell differentiation, and oocyte maturation. Early preantral follicle development relies mostly upon mesenchymal-epithelial cell interactions, intraovarian paracrine signals, and oocyte-secreted factors, whereas development of the antral follicle depends on circulating gonadotropins as well as locally derived regulators. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), ovarian hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia from insulin resistance, and altered intrafollicular paracrine signaling perturb the activation, survival, growth, and selection of follicles, causing accumulation of small antral follicles within the periphery of the ovary, giving it a polycystic morphology. Altered adipocyte-ovarian interactions further compound these adverse events on follicle development and also can harm the oocyte, particularly in the presence of increased adiposity. Finally, endocrine antecedents of PCOS occur in female infants born to mothers with PCOS, which suggests that interactions between genes and the maternal-fetal hormonal environment may program ovarian function after birth. PMID:23472949

Dumesic, Daniel A; Richards, Joanne S

2013-07-01

22

Ovary Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Ovary C569 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 17 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical event

23

Ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, together with dissection and light microscopy, have produced heretofore unavailable structural detail of the ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus. Structural and functional interrelationships among developing follicles and other histological elements, particularly as they might relate to vascularization of follicles, oocyte development, and ovulation, are described and discussed. Mature eggs, ovulated into the ovarian lumen, accumulate in

Anna Ruth Brummett; James N. Dumont; Jeanne R. Larkin

1982-01-01

24

“Secondary” Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularities are the most common endocrine symptoms in premenopausal women. The vast majority\\u000a of these women suffer from the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is defined as a state of “gonadotropin-dependent functional\\u000a hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation” in which no distinct autonomous source of androgen secretion is identified. PCOS is\\u000a a chronic disorder characterized by specific clinical, endocrine, and

Gregory Kaltsas; George Chrousos

25

Ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus  

SciTech Connect

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, together with dissection and light microscopy, have produced heretofore unavailable structural detail of the ovary of Fundulus heteroclitus. Structural and functional interrelationships among developing follicles and other histological elements, particularly as they might relate to vascularization of follicles, oocyte development, and ovulation, are described and discussed. Mature eggs, ovulated into the ovarian lumen, accumulate in the posterior ovisac region of the ovary prior to oviposition. This ovisac region is thin-walled and apparently nongerminal. The temporary retention of ovulated eggs permits cyclical oviposition even though oogenesis and ovulation are asynchronous. The histological differences between the ovisac and the anterior ovigerous region of the ovary are described. The lumenal epithelium of the ovisac displays a localized population of unusual cells with long cytoplasmic extensions. The ultrastructure of these cells suggests that they might function in the transport of ovulated eggs into the oviduct and/or in secreting the substance (jelly) which forms the surface coat of extruded eggs.

Brummett, A.R. (Oberlin Coll., OH); Dumont, J.N.; Larkin, J.R.

1982-01-01

26

Plasma visfatin levels and mRNA expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from normal weight females with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease, however, an explicit etiology is not known. Insulin resistance (IR) appears to be central to the pathogenesis of PCOS and inflammation may be significant in the pathogenesis of IR in PCOS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the plasma visfatin level and the gene expression of visfatin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMMs) from PCOS patients, in addition to investigating the association between PCOS and IR. A total of 21 PCOS patients and 21 control subjects were enrolled in the study; the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was considered to be a stratified method for establishing the subgroups. Fasting blood samples were collected and the levels of sex hormones, insulin, glucose, blood lipids and visfatin were measured. In addition, visfatin gene expression levels in PBMCs and PBMMs were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The plasma visfatin and gene expression levels of visfatin in PBMCs and PBMMs were not observed to increase in the normal weight PCOS and normal weight IR patients. Furthermore, plasma visfatin levels did not correlate with the normal weight PCOS patients or the normal weight IR patients per se. Further investigation into the role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of PCOS or IR should examine macrophages in the tissues, rather than macrophages in the peripheral blood.

ZHANG, JING; ZHOU, LINGLING; TANG, LIULIN; XU, LIANGZHI

2014-01-01

27

Polymerase chain reaction-directed DNA sequencing of bleomycin-induced "nondeletion"-type, 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in Chinese hamster ovary cell derivative AS52: effects of an inhibitor and a mimic of superoxide dismutase.  

PubMed

Bleomycin-induced, 6-thioguanine-resistant, "non deletion" mutants pretreated with or without either TRIEN (triethylenetetramine), a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor, or TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a SOD mimic, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-directed DNA sequencing in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell derivative, AS52. Among the 23 bleomycin-induced mutants, six have 3-bp 5'-TGA-3' deletions in the region of 366-371, five have single-base deletions, seven have base substitutions, three have insertions, and two have possible translocations. Among the 16 bleomycin-induced mutants pretreated with TRIEN, six have the 5'-TGA-3' deletion (366-371), two have single-base deletions, one has a 13-bp deletion, four have single-base substitutions, one has a double-base substitution, and two have insertions. Among the 17 bleomycin-induced mutants pretreated with TEMPOL, six have the same TGA deletions, two have single-base deletions, two have single-base insertions, four have single-base substitutions, one mutant has a 12-bp deletion, one has a 13-bp deletion, and one mutant shows no detectable change in its coding region in the DNA sequence. A possible shift from a ROS-mediated mutational spectrum to a spontaneous mutational spectrum by TRIEN further indicates that reactive oxygen species play an important role in bleomycin mutagenesis in mammalian cells. PMID:7511529

An, J; Hsie, A W

1994-01-01

28

Polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous and chronic condition, today affects about 5% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is strongly associated with states of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Risk factors include genetics, metabolic profiles, and the in utero environment. Long-term consequences of PCOS include metabolic complications such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Dysregulation of insulin action is closely linked to the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, whether insulin resistance is the causative factor in the development of PCOS remains to be ascertained. Moreover, the mechanism by which insulin resistance may lead to reproductive dysfunction requires further elucidation. PMID:24582095

Nandi, Anindita; Chen, Zijian; Patel, Ronak; Poretsky, Leonid

2014-03-01

29

Polycystic ovary syndrome and acne.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. It is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS often experience dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, including hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia. This article will review the treatments for acne due to androgen excess in PCOS women. PMID:21076799

Chuan, Sandy S; Chang, R Jeffrey

2010-01-01

30

Adiponectin and Its Receptors in the Ovary: Further Evidence for a Link between Obesity and Hyperandrogenism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

Comim, Fabio V.; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

2013-01-01

31

Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin) on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound) were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. PMID:24260388

Comim, Fabio V; Hardy, Kate; Franks, Stephen

2013-01-01

32

[Polycystic ovary syndrome].  

PubMed

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrine disease in women of reproductive age. Hyperandrogenism, anovulation and metabolic syndrome are the cardinal features of PCOS. Hyperandrogenism results from a diffuse enzymatic hyperactivity at the theca-interstitial cell level. Anovulation is due to an impairment of the selection of a dominant follicle, while the number of smaller follicles is exaggerated. The molecular grounds of insulin resistance could be an increased Serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. The clinical classification of PCOS distinguishes three forms: the classic PCOS, where the three above mentioned features are present, the non classic PCOS and the asymptomatic PCOS, revealed by ultrasonography. Only the increased ovarian volume or surface (>11ml and> 5.5cm(2), respectively) must be viewed as a specific ultrasonic sign of PCOS. Cyproterone acetate remains the basic treatment of hyperandrogenism. The treatment of anovulation and infertility follows a consensual strategy. The insulin sensitizing treatment allows to decrease hyperandrogenism, to reverse the menstrual cycle irregularity and to obtain spontaneous or induced pregnancies. PMID:10804375

Dewailly, D

2000-05-01

33

Does Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Affect Pregnancy?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer risk among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstetrics and Gynecology , 88, 554–559. [top] Morin-Papunen, ... in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Researc h, 35, 282–286. [top] ...

34

Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder in women and typically presents during adolescence. The clinical and biochemical presentation is heterogeneous, but elevated serum concentrations of androgens are the most consistent biochemical abnormality and may be considered to be the hallmark of the syndrome. Many women with PCOS also have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia, which may contribute to

S Franks

2008-01-01

35

[Resistant ovary syndrome. Case report].  

PubMed

Patients with primary amenorrhea, sexual infantilism and elevated pituitary gonadotropins are frequently diagnosed with hypogonadism hypergonadotropic and suspected ovarian failure, secondary to a chromosomal abnormality, intrinsic ovarian failure or altered receptors for gonadotropins, mainly FSH (ovarian resistance). We report the case of a 16-year-old, admitted to the endocrinology clinic for primary amenorrhea and lack of development of secondary sexual characteristics. A complete physical examination revealed: height of 1.58 m and 57 kg weight, with incipient breasts (Tanner I), sparse pubic and axillary hair (Tanner I). The ultrasound reported small uterus and ovaries. Laboratory studies reported high levels of FSH and LH, estradiol and testosterone levels before puberty, prolactin, TSH, T3 and T4 normal. Normal female karyotype. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed which showed two ovarian slips; biopsy was taken and reported both abundant primordial follicles and spindle cell stroma without evidence of primary and antral follicles, which integrates the diagnosis of resistant ovary syndrome. PMID:21966839

Morgan Ortiz, Fred; Meza Mendoza, Cuauhtémoc; Beltrán Lugo, Isabel; Caballero Rodríguez, Beatriz; Contreras Soto, Juan Omar

2011-07-01

36

Pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6 to 15% of reproductive age women worldwide. It is associated with increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, and birth of small for gestational age infant. Many studies on issues relating to pathophysiology and management of these complications have been published recently. These issues are being reviewed here using relevant articles retrieved from Pubmed database, especially from those published in recent past. PMID:23776851

Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

2013-01-01

37

Pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6 to 15% of reproductive age women worldwide. It is associated with increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, and birth of small for gestational age infant. Many studies on issues relating to pathophysiology and management of these complications have been published recently. These issues are being reviewed here using relevant articles retrieved from Pubmed database, especially from those published in recent past.

Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

2013-01-01

38

Derivatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Murray Bourne developed the Interactive Mathematics site while working as a mathematics lecturer at Ngee Ann Polytechnic in Singapore. The site contains numerous mathematics tutorials and resources for students and teachers alike. This specific page is focused on differentiation, or finding derivatives. Bourne walks users through an introduction to differentiation and limits, and then moves on to more specific applications like rate of change, derivatives of polynomials, and differentiating powers of a function. Each topic includes graphs and interactive materials designed to aid users in understanding the presented concepts. The information here is presented in a clear, straightforward manner that is appropriate for introductory and advanced calculus students alike.

Bourne, Murray

2008-04-22

39

Endocannabinoid signaling in mammalian ovary.  

PubMed

The role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in mammalian reproduction is a rather active field of research, due to its potential exploitation to combat human infertility. Available data shows that the aberrant endocannabinoid signaling negatively affects embryo development, implantation and pregnancy. Although many efforts have been devoted to a better understanding of the ECS in these steps of female reproduction, very little is known about its role in regulating ovarian follicle development and production of mature oocytes. This is the subject of the present review where we discuss current knowledge about the impact and potential exploitation of the ECS and endocannabinoid signaling in mammalian ovary and folliculogenesis. PMID:24948047

Cecconi, Sandra; Rossi, Gianna; Castellucci, Annalisa; D'Andrea, Gabriele; Maccarrone, Mauro

2014-07-01

40

Derivate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students input functions in order to calculate the derivative and tangent line of that function. This activity allows students to explore tangent lines of various functions. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

41

Smad signalling in the ovary  

PubMed Central

It has now been a decade since the first discovery of the intracellular Smad proteins, the downstream signalling molecules of one of the most important growth factor families in the animal kingdom, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. In the ovary, several TGF-beta superfamily members are expressed by the oocyte, granulosa and thecal cells at different stages of folliculogenesis, and they signal mainly through two different Smad pathways in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Defects in the upstream signalling cascade molecules, the ligands and receptors, are known to have adverse effects on ovarian organogenesis and folliculogenesis, but the role of the individual Smad proteins in the proper function of the ovary is just beginning to be understood for example through the use of Smad knockout models. Although most of the different Smad knockouts are embryonic lethal, it is known, however, that in Smad1 and Smad5 knockout mice primordial germ cell development is impaired and that Smad3 deficient mice harbouring a deletion in exon 8 exhibit impaired folliculogenesis and reduced fertility. In this minireview we discuss the role of Smad structure and function in the ovarian context.

Kaivo-oja, Noora; Jeffery, Luke A; Ritvos, Olli; Mottershead, David G

2006-01-01

42

OVARY  

Cancer.gov

The Est. Annual PC is the Estimated Annual Percent Change (EAPC) over the time interval. SEER Program. NCHS public use tape. The EAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). The EAPC for 1991-95 is significantly different from the EAPC for

43

Pre-anthesis ovary development determines genotypic differences in potential kernel weight in sorghum  

PubMed Central

Kernel weight is an important factor determining grain yield and nutritional quality in sorghum, yet the developmental processes underlying the genotypic differences in potential kernel weight remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the stage in development at which genetic effects on potential kernel weight were realized, and to investigate the developmental mechanisms by which potential kernel weight is controlled in sorghum. Kernel development was studied in two field experiments with five genotypes known to differ in kernel weight at maturity. Pre-fertilization floret and ovary development was examined and post-fertilization kernel-filling characteristics were analysed. Large kernels had a higher rate of kernel filling and contained more endosperm cells and starch granules than normal-sized kernels. Genotypic differences in kernel development appeared before stamen primordia initiation in the developing florets, with sessile spikelets of large-seeded genotypes having larger floret apical meristems than normal-seeded genotypes. At anthesis, the ovaries for large-sized kernels were larger in volume, with more cells per layer and more vascular bundles in the ovary wall. Across experiments and genotypes, there was a significant positive correlation between kernel dry weight at maturity and ovary volume at anthesis. Genotypic effects on meristem size, ovary volume, and kernel weight were all consistent with additive genetic control, suggesting that they were causally related. The pre-fertilization genetic control of kernel weight probably operated through the developing pericarp, which is derived from the ovary wall and potentially constrains kernel expansion.

Yang, Zongjian; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Jordan, David R.; Hammer, Graeme L.

2009-01-01

44

Primary lymphoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Involvement of the ovary by malignant lymphoma is a well-known late manifestation of disseminated nodal disease. Primary ovarian lymphoma is rare. We report a case of primary ovarian non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with bilateral involvement which was managed by surgery and chemotherapy. A 29-year-old woman was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of an ovarian cancer. Computed tomography revealed an abdominal tumor measuring 20 cm in diameter, without enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was established after bilateral adnexectomy and histological study of the excised tissue. The tumor was classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient has been advised 8 cycles of standard CHOP regimen and is presently on treatment. She has now been without disease for 7 months after the surgery. According to previous reports the treatment principles and prognosis of primary ovarian lymphoma is the same as that of other nodal lymphomas. PMID:19052394

Elharroudi, Tijani; Ismaili, Nabil; Errihani, Hassan; Jalil, Abdelouahed

2008-01-01

45

[Small cell carcinoma of the ovary].  

PubMed

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type is a rare tumor. We report a case in a 34-year-old patient, revealed by a pelvic pain. The imaging found a large mass of the right ovary. The patient had right oophorectomy and total hysterectomy, a left oophorectomy, pelvic and a para-aortic lymphadenectomy. She subsequently received 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by pelvic radiation therapy. The hypercalcemic small cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare disease of poor prognosis. Treatment approaches include surgery, chemotherapy with the addition of radiotherapy. PMID:24637019

Bahri, M; Lahmar, R; Ben Salah, H; Kallel, N; Ben Amar, M; Daoud, J

2014-06-01

46

Linkage of regulators of TGF-? activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Although not often discussed, the ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) show all the hallmarks of increased TGF-? activity, with increased amounts of fibrous tissue and collagen in the ovarian capsule or tunica albuginea and ovarian stroma. Recent studies suggest that PCOS could have fetal origins. Genetic studies of PCOS have also found linkage with a microsatellite located in intron 55 of the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin 3. Fibrillins regulate TGF-? bioactivity in tissues by binding latent TGF-? binding proteins. We therefore examined expression of fibrillins 1–3, latent TGF-? binding proteins 1–4, and TGF-? 1–3 in bovine and human fetal ovaries at different stages of gestation and in adult ovaries. We also immunolocalized fibrillins 1 and 3. The results indicate that TGF-? pathways operate during ovarian fetal development, but most important, we show fibrillin 3 is present in the stromal compartments of fetal ovaries and is highly expressed at a critical stage early in developing human and bovine fetal ovaries when stroma is expanding and follicles are forming. These changes in expression of fibrillin 3 in the fetal ovary could lead to a predisposition to develop PCOS in later life.—Hatzirodos, N., Bayne, R. A., Irving-Rodgers, H. F., Hummitzsch, K., Sabatier, L., Lee, S., Bonner, W., Gibson, M. A., Rainey, W. E., Carr, B. R., Mason, H. D., Reinhardt, D. P., Anderson, R. A., Rodgers, R. J. Linkage of regulators of TGF-? activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bayne, Rosemary A.; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Sabatier, Laetitia; Lee, Sam; Bonner, Wendy; Gibson, Mark A.; Rainey, William E.; Carr, Bruce R.; Mason, Helen D.; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Anderson, Richard A.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

2011-01-01

47

Expression of SET Protein in the Ovaries of Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background. We previously found that expression of SET gene was up-regulated in polycystic ovaries by using microarray. It suggested that SET may be an attractive candidate regulator involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, expression and cellular localization of SET protein were investigated in human polycystic and normal ovaries. Method. Ovarian tissues, six normal ovaries and six polycystic ovaries, were collected during transsexual operation and surgical treatment with the signed consent form. The cellular localization of SET protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of SET protein were analyzed by Western Blot. Result. SET protein was expressed predominantly in the theca cells and oocytes of human ovarian follicles in both PCOS ovarian tissues and normal ovarian tissues. The level of SET protein expression in polycystic ovaries was triple higher than that in normal ovaries (P < 0.05). Conclusion. SET was overexpressed in polycystic ovaries more than that in normal ovaries. Combined with its localization in theca cells, SET may participate in regulating ovarian androgen biosynthesis and the pathophysiology of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

Boqun, Xu; Xiaonan, Dai; YuGui, Cui; Lingling, Gao; Xue, Dai; Gao, Chao; Feiyang, Diao; Jiayin, Liu; Gao, Li; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Xiang

2013-01-01

48

Ovary Removal Linked to Cognitive Problems, Dementia  

Cancer.gov

Women who had one or both ovaries removed before menopause for noncancer reasons faced an increased risk of developing cognitive problems or dementia later in life, according to the Sept. 11, 2007, issue of Neurology.

49

Crohn's disease of the mouth and ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A patient is presented who has granulomatous involvement of the gingiva, ileum, cecum, appendix, and ovary consistent with Crohn's disease. A discussion of the uncommon oral and ovarian lesions is presented.

Stephen S. Frost; Mark P. Elstein; Frantz Latour; James L. A. Roth

1981-01-01

50

Adiponectin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a prevalence of 5–8% in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities. Adiponectin is a circulating protein produced by adipocytes. Circulating levels of adiponectin are inversely related to adipocyte mass. Low levels occur with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity-related cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the literature on the link between adiponectin and PCOS and the potential use of adiponectin as a biomarker for PCOS. Method Data-based studies on adiponectin and PCOS and adiponectin measurement were identified through the Medline (1950–2009) and ISI Web of Knowledge (1973–2009) databases. Results Fifteen studies related to adiponectin and PCOS met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These studies present evidence that adiponectin is linked to insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), and adiposity. In women with PCOS, lower levels, as opposed to higher levels, of adiponectin occur in the absence of adiposity. Conclusion The relationships between adiponectin and insulin resistance and sensitivity, metabolic syndrome, and BMI in women with PCOS suggest that adiponectin potentially could serve as a marker for disease risk and provide opportunity for earlier intervention if knowledge is successfully translated from laboratory to clinical practice. However, further study of the relationship between adiponectin and PCOS is required before there can be direct application to clinical practice.

Groth, Susan W.

2013-01-01

51

[Polycystic ovary syndrome and pregnancy].  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine metabolic dysfunction closely associated with insulin resistance and obesity, which predisposes to pregnancy complications and prenatal programming of the offspring. The aim of this review is to report our experience in PCOS patients who became pregnant and were followed during the whole pregnancy. Firstly, we analyzed the effect of pregnancy on PCOS pathophysiology and secondly the role of PCOS in pregnancy outcomes. Regarding the firstpoint, during normal pregnancy a progressive insulin resistance, serum lipid changes and an increase in androgen levels is observed, which is exacerbated in the PCOS condition. This adverse intrauterine environment could have a prenatal programming effect with detrimental consequences for female or male fetuses. Regarding the second point, PCOS is associated with an increased risk for maternal complications such as gestational diabetes (GDM) and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Moreover, these adverse pregnancy outcomes are more frequently associated with an increase in low birth weight and high birth weight newborns. According to our clinical experience, PCOS patients who became pregnant and were not treated with metformin during the whole pregnancy, showed a higher prevalence of gestational diabetes and SGA newborns, which was improved with metformin treatment. In summary, pregnancy may constitute a period in which an abnormal condition is established or aggravated in the fetus of a PCOS mother. Moreover, PCOS enhanced adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. PMID:23282707

Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Ladrón de Guevara, Amanda; Villarroel, Ana Claudia; Preisler, Jessica; Echiburú, Bárbara; Recabarren, Sergio

2012-07-01

52

Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among reproductive-age women, yet the diagnosis may be overlooked during adolescence. Although the clinical and metabolic features are similar to those found in adult women, it can be difficult to distinguish the young woman with PCOS from a normal adolescent. Irregular menses, anovulatory cycles, and acne are not uncommon in adolescent women. Adolescents with a history of premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean-Hispanic and African-American ancestry, and/or obesity are at risk for PCOS and deserve close surveillance. The laboratory evaluation of the adolescent with suspected PCOS or hyperandrogenism should be individualized based on the history, symptoms, and examination findings. The cornerstone of management of PCOS in adolescence includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne, and various treatments for hair removal are dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. Healthy eating, regular exercise, and for the overweight adolescent, weight reduction, are encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have shown that weight loss and exercise decrease androgen levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and lead to the resumption of ovulation. Although initial studies suggest that Metformin may be particularly useful for treating the PCOS adolescent with insulin resistance and obesity, additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy and long-term outcome. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results. PMID:14644809

Driscoll, Deborah A

2003-11-01

53

Ovary Cells Apoptosis in Opium-Addicted Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism of cell death and it can be triggered by a variety of internal and external stimuli. It has been indicated that some opium derivatives develop cell apoptosis. Objectives The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of opium addiction on ovary cell apoptosis in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on control, control-addicted, diabetic and diabetic-addicted rats. DNA fragmentation as a biomarker of apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL assay. Results The blood glucose concentration in diabetic-addicted and diabetic rats was increased when compared to control (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between weights of control, control-addicted (non-diabetic) and diabetic-addicted groups during this study. The results of this study indicated that apoptosis in addicted and diabetic-addicted ovary cells was significantly higher than in diabetic group, and also apoptosis in addicted group was significantly more than the control rats. In addition, we found that ovary cells apoptosis of diabetic rats were significantly less than in control group. Conclusions Overall, these findings suggest that opium-addiction could play an important role in ovary cell apoptosis and could be very harmful for the reproductive system. Also, ovary cells of non-diabetic rats are more susceptible to opium-induced apoptosis than those of diabetic.

Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Asiabanha, Majid; Sirati Sabet, Majid

2013-01-01

54

Targeting angiogenesis in the pathological ovary.  

PubMed

The ovary is a key tissue in the study of physiological neo-vascularisation in the adult and its study has highlighted important molecules involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in vivo. These include vascular endothelial growth factor, delta-like ligand 4, thrombospondin-1, prokineticin-1 and prostaglandin E2. Targeting these molecular pathways has therapeutic potential and their manipulation has an increasing preclinical and clinical role in the management of the pathological ovary. Targeting angiogenic pathways has utility in the promotion of ovarian angiogenesis to improve tissue and follicle survival and function as well as the prevention and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. There is a theoretical possibility that targeting angiogenesis may improve the function of the polycystic ovary and a real role for targeting angiogenesis in ovarian cancer. PMID:22951108

Duncan, W Colin; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko

2013-01-01

55

Biochemical Characterization of Soybean Ovary Growth from Anthesis to Abscission of Aborting Ovaries 1  

PubMed Central

Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) ovary growth was measured from anthesis to 6 days after anthesis (DAA) to establish a timetable of biochemical events that might be useful in identifying processes that initiate abscission. Two procedures were developed to provide samples with either high or low percent pod set for `IX93-100,' a semideterminate line having long racemes. Characteristics measured were fresh and dry weight, soluble and insoluble protein, soluble carbohydrate, starch, RNA, and DNA. Setting ovaries grew more rapidly than abscising ovaries. Since there was a daily increase in ovary weight in both groups, all measured characteristics showed daily increases when expressed on perovary basis. Statistically significant differences between groups were detected between 2 and 5 DAA for most characteristics. When chemical composition was expressed on concentration basis, starch level was significantly higher in setting ovaries at 5 and 6 DAA. Regression analysis showed that these deviations between setting and abscising samples started between anthesis and 1 DAA. We conclude that processes leading to eventual shedding of fertilized ovaries (called flower abortion in soybeans) commence soon after anthesis of the shed flower, and that setting and abscising ovaries do not differ in protein, soluble carbohydrate, starch, or nucleic acid content when abscission processes begin.

Dybing, C. Dean; Ghiasi, H.; Paech, Christian

1986-01-01

56

Surgically transplanted ovary simulating a hepatic metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical procedures may alter normal anatomy, confounding the interpretation of cross-sectional imaging studies. This problem is greater if neither a relevant history nor previous comparison studies are available. Case outline In a 29-year-old woman submitted to radical hysterectomy for cervical carcinoma, one ovary was surgically reposi-tioned into the right paracolic gutter out of the radiation field. This ovary simulated a hepatic metastasis on subsequent CT examinations. History was obscure, adding to the interpretive challenge. Discussion Clues to establishing the correct diagnosis are presented. The availability of an adequate history and previous radiological images are important to prevent diagnostic error.

Morello, FA; Goodacre, BW; Wittich, GR

2001-01-01

57

Primary insular carcinoid of the ovary.  

PubMed

Primary ovarian carcinoids are very rare tumors that account for less than 5% of all carcinoids and 0.1% of all ovarian malignancies. We present a rare case of a primary, non-functioning, insular carcinoid of the left ovary in a 44-year-old woman originating from the outer surface of a mature cystic teratoma. After an uneventful unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, the patient had no sign of recurrence with computed tomography and 5-HIAA evaluation at 3-year follow-up. Although rare, primary ovarian insular carcinoid tumors that are confined to the ovary and treated with surgery are expected to have an excellent overall outcome. PMID:19051836

Lagoudianakis, E E; Markogiannakis, H; Karantzikos, G; Papadima, A; Alevizos, L; Manouras, A

2008-01-01

58

Development of infantile rat ovaries autotransplanted after cryopreservation by vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We cryopreserved infantile rat ovaries by vitrification and assessed their viability by autotransplantation. Hemilateral ovarian transplantation was performed on rats on postnatal Days 10 to 12. The left ovary of each rat was dissected out, cryopreserved by vitrification using a modified vitrification solution (VS1), and then autotransplanted under the capsule of the right kidney. The right ovary of each rat

M. Sugimoto; S. Maeda; N. Manabe; H. Miyamoto

2000-01-01

59

Polycystic ovary syndrome: etiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of up to 10%. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed, generally centered around the features of hyperandrogenism and\\/or hyperandrogenemia, oligo-ovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology. Insulin resistance is present in a majority of cases, with compensatory hyperinsulinemia contributing to hyperandrogenism via stimulation of ovarian

Mark O. Goodarzi; Daniel A. Dumesic; Gregorio Chazenbalk; Ricardo Azziz

2011-01-01

60

Comparative Analysis of the Testis and Ovary Transcriptomes in Zebrafish by Combining Experimental and Computational Tools  

PubMed Central

Studies on the zebrafish model have contributed to our understanding of several important developmental processes, especially those that can be easily studied in the embryo. However, our knowledge on late events such as gonad differentiation in the zebrafish is still limited. Here we provide an analysis on the gene sets expressed in the adult zebrafish testis and ovary in an attempt to identify genes with potential role in (zebra)fish gonad development and function. We produced 10 533 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from zebrafish testis or ovary and downloaded an additional 23 642 gonad-derived sequences from the zebrafish EST database. We clustered these sequences together with over 13 000 kidney-derived zebrafish ESTs to study partial transcriptomes for these three organs. We searched for genes with gonad-specific expression by screening macroarrays containing at least 2600 unique cDNA inserts with testis-, ovary- and kidney-derived cDNA probes. Clones hybridizing to only one of the two gonad probes were selected, and subsequently screened with computational tools to identify 72 genes with potentially testis-specific and 97 genes with potentially ovary-specific expression, respectively. PCR-amplification confirmed gonad-specificity for 21 of the 45 clones tested (all without known function). Our study, which involves over 47 000 EST sequences and specialized cDNA arrays, is the first analysis of adult organ transcriptomes of zebrafish at such a scale. The study of genes expressed in adult zebrafish testis and ovary will provide useful information on regulation of gene expression in teleost gonads and might also contribute to our understanding of the development and differentiation of reproductive organs in vertebrates.

Li, Yang; Chia, Jer Ming; Bartfai, Richard; Christoffels, Alan; Yue, Gen Hua; Ding, Ke; Ho, Mei Yin; Hill, James A.

2004-01-01

61

Fibrillins in Adult Human Ovary and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Is Fibrillin-3 Affected in PCOS?  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Although genetic linkage analyses have demonstrated a susceptibility locus for PCOS mapping to the fibrillin-3 gene, the presence of fibrillin proteins in normal and polycystic ovaries has not been characterized. This study compared and contrasted fibrillin-1, -2, and -3 localization in normal and polycystic ovaries. Immunohistochemical stainings of ovaries from 21 controls and 9 patients with PCOS were performed. Fibrillin-1 was ubiquitous in ovarian connective tissue. Fibrillin-2 localized around antral follicles and in areas of folliculolysis. Fibrillin-3 was present in a restricted distribution within the specialized perifollicular stroma of follicles in morphological transition from primordial to primary type [transitional follicles (TFs)]. Fibrillin-1 and -2 stainings of PCOS ovaries were similar to those of the controls. However, in eight of the nine PCOS ovaries, there was a decrease in the number of TFs associated with fibrillin-3, including no staining in five PCOS samples; decreased number of fibrillin-3-associated TFs/mm2 was confirmed by quantitative analysis. Our findings support a role for fibrillin-3 in the pathogenesis of PCOS and suggest fibrillin-3 may function in primordial to primary follicle transition. We propose that loss of fibrillin-3 during folliculogenesis may be an important factor in PCOS pathogenesis. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:903–915, 2010)

Jordan, C. Diana; Bohling, Sandra D.; Charbonneau, Noe L.; Sakai, Lynn Y.

2010-01-01

62

Detection of unconjugated and conjugated steroids in the ovary, eggs, and haemolymph of the decapod crustacean Nephrops norvegicus.  

PubMed

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring has been employed to examine extracts from the ovary, eggs, and haemolymph of the marine prawn, Nephrops norvegicus, to demonstrate the presence of steroids. Both free and conjugated steroids were isolated by solvent partitioning and chromatography (lipophilic Sephadex, reversed-phase Sep Pak, and normal phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography) and steroidal conjugates were cleaved enzymatically. Steroids were determined as their methyloxime derivatives, trimethylsilyl (TMS) ethers or methyloxime-TMS ethers. All assignments were based on the detection of characteristic ions and cochromatography with the authentic steroid derivatives. 5 alpha-Dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, pregnenolone, and 20 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were detected in unconjugated form in the ovary. The eggs and haemolymph were found to contain unconjugated 17 beta-estradiol. Conjugated 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone was detected in both the ovary and haemolymph, but no conjugated steroids were found in the eggs. PMID:2714624

Fairs, N J; Evershed, R P; Quinlan, P T; Goad, L J

1989-05-01

63

Genetics of the polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly complex endocrine disorder, characterized by hyperandrogenemia, menstrual irregularities and polycystic ovaries. A strong genetic component to the etiology of PCOS is evident. However, due to the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of PCOS and the lack of insufficiently large cohorts, studies to identify specific contributing genes to date have yielded only few conclusive results. In this review we discuss the current status of the genetic analysis of PCOS including the results of numerous association studies with candidate genes involved in TGF-? and insulin signaling, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity susceptibility. Furthermore, we address current challenges in genetic studies of PCOS, and the promise of new approaches, including genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing. PMID:23079471

Kosova, Gülüm; Urbanek, Margrit

2013-07-01

64

Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction.

Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

2013-01-01

65

GENETICS OF THE POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly complex endocrine disorder, characterized by hyperandrogenemia, menstrual irregularities and polycystic ovaries. A strong genetic component to the etiology of PCOS is evident. However, due to the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of PCOS and the lack of insufficiently large cohorts, studies to identify specific contributing genes to date have yielded only few conclusive results. In this review we discuss the currnt status of the genetic analysis of PCOS including the results of numerous association studies with candidate genes involved in TGF-? and insulin signaling, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity susceptibility. Furthermore, we address current challenges in genetic studies of PCOS, and the promise of new approaches, including genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing.

KOSOVA, Gulum; URBANEK, Margrit

2012-01-01

66

Relationship of ovarian stromal volume to serum androgen concentrations in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate of the relationship of ovarian stromal volume, measured using three-dimensional ultrasound, to serum androgen concentrations in patients with polycystic ovaries. Serum gonadotrophin, oestradiol and androgen concentrations and ovarian volume measurements were obtained in the early follicular phase from 100 women undergoing assisted conception treatment cycles. Group 1 contained 50 women with regular menstrual cycles and normal ovarian morphology, group 2 contained 24 women with regular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovaries seen on ultrasound scan and group 3 contained 26 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, Scheffé's procedure and Pearson's correlation. Total ovarian volume (15.7-16.1 versus 11 ml, P < 0.05), stromal volume (14.5 versus 9.4 ml, P < 0.05) and thecal steroid concentrations were significantly greater in groups 2 and 3. Stromal volume was positively correlated with serum androstenedione concentrations (r = 0.45, P = 0.0019 in group 3) but was not correlated with any other endocrine parameter. It was concluded that polycystic ovaries are characterized by increased ovarian stroma with associated overproduction of theca-derived steroids, particularly androstenedione. PMID:9688367

Kyei-Mensah, A A; LinTan, S; Zaidi, J; Jacobs, H S

1998-06-01

67

Fetal Origins of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the origins of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in humans are still debated, animal models reliably implicate a fetal\\u000a origin. Androgen excess, one of the key diagnostic criteria for PCOS and one of its most reliably inherited traits, programs\\u000a reproductive, adrenal and metabolic organs and tissues during fetal development, producing adult pathology that closely mimics\\u000a PCOS. Differential gestational timing of

David H. Abbott; Cristin M. Bruns; Deborah K. Barnett; Alice F. Tarantal; Sarah M. Hoffmann; Rao Zhou; Jon E. Levine; Daniel A. Dumesic

68

Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms and the beneficial effects of acupuncture, exercise and resveratrol on animal models and on humans affected by PCOS.

Aquino, C. I.; Nori, S. L.

2014-01-01

69

Polycystic ovary syndrome and its developmental origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in\\u000a women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS-like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH)\\u000a hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased\\u000a abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with

Daniel A. Dumesic; David H. Abbott; Vasantha Padmanabhan

2007-01-01

70

Statins, Oxidative Stress, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction, and altered ovarian\\u000a morphology. Typically, women with PCOS also have a broad range of metabolic changes including hyperinsulinemia, increased\\u000a oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and elevation of several growth factors and cytokines. Oxidative stress,\\u000a proinflammatory cytokines, and hyperinsulinemia may significantly contribute to excessive growth of the ovarian theca-interstitial\\u000a compartment

Pinar H. Kodaman; Antoni J. Duleba

71

Clinical Features of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be elicitable on obtaining the history or on physical exam. Biochemical\\u000a or radiographic evaluation may also reveal additional features (see Chapters 16 and 17). The medical history will provide important information regarding the presenting complaint, the onset\\u000a and progression of hyperandrogenic signs and symptoms, menstrual dysfunction and irregularity, and weight gain. Usually,

Walter Futterweit; Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Ricardo Azziz

72

Vascular morphogenesis in the primate ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian function is dependent on intense cyclical vascular morphogenesis and regression. The molecular and cellular pathways\\u000a involved in the generation of new capillary networks in the ovary are now being elucidated. Focussing on the marmoset, the\\u000a course of angiogenesis at different stages of follicular maturation and in the corpus luteum throughout the cycle and in early\\u000a pregnancy have been quantified

Hamish M. Fraser; W. Colin Duncan

2005-01-01

73

Lipid Abnormalities in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex reproductive disorder with the consequent clinical and metabolic derangements.\\u000a In the natural disease course, an increased cardiovascular risk has to be anticipated in a metabolically unstable condition.\\u000a \\u000a Among risk factors, dyslipidemia is certainly the most persistent with high prevalence. Consequently, it is reasonable to\\u000a conclude that women with PCOS may indeed be at

Djuro Macut

74

Rodent models for human polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder, affecting 5%-10% of women, causing infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and ovulation, distinctive multicystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism, together with metabolic abnormalities including obesity, hyperinsulinism, an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of PCOS is unclear, and decisive clinical studies are limited by ethical and logistic constraints. Consequently treatment is palliative rather than curative and focuses on symptomatic approaches. Hence, a suitable animal model could provide a valuable means with which to study the pathogenesis of the characteristic reproductive and metabolic abnormalities and thereby identify novel and more effective treatments. So far there is no consensus on the best experimental animal model, which should ideally reproduce the key features associated with human PCOS. The prenatally androgenized rhesus monkey displays many characteristics of the human condition, including hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, increased adiposity, and insulin insensitivity. However, the high cost of nonhuman primate studies limits the practical utility of these large-animal models. Rodent models, on the other hand, are inexpensive, provide well-characterized and stable genetic backgrounds readily accessible for targeted genetic manipulation, and shorter reproductive life spans and generation times. Recent rodent models display both reproductive and metabolic disturbances associated with human PCOS. This review aimed to evaluate the rodent models reported to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the distinct rodent models used to investigate this complex endocrine disorder. PMID:22337333

Walters, Kirsty A; Allan, Charles M; Handelsman, David J

2012-05-01

75

Adventitious shoot regeneration from ovaries of Hosta ‘Golden Scepter’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability ofHosta Golden Scepter (GS) ovary explants to generate adventitious shootsin vitro. Ovaries were transversely cut into halves and transferred to petri dishes containingHosta initiation medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 2.5 ?M and N6-benzyladenine (BA) at 10 ?M. GS produced adventitious shoots from the ovary base via organogenesis. The

D. J. Williams; K. H. Al-Juboory; R. M. Skirvin

1998-01-01

76

Oxytocin receptors in the primate ovary: molecular identity and link to apoptosis in human granulosa cells  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Oxytocin (OT) is produced by granulosa cells (GCs) of pre-ovulatory ovarian follicles and the corpus luteum (CL) in some mammalian species. Actions of OT in the ovary have been linked to luteinization, steroidogenesis and luteolysis. Human IVF-derived (h)GCs possess a functional OT receptor (OTR), linked to elevation of intracellular Ca2+, but molecular identity of the receptor for OT in human granulosa cells (hGCs) and down-stream consequences are not known. METHODS AND RESULTS RT–PCR, sequencing and immunocytochemistry identified the genuine OTR in hGCs. OT (10 nM–10 µM) induced elevations of intracellular Ca2+ levels (Fluo-4 measurements), which were blocked by tocinoic acid (TA; 50 µM, a selective OTR-antagonist). Down-stream effects of OTR-activation include a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability/metabolism, manifested by reduced ATP-levels, increased caspase3/7-activity (P < 0.05) and electron microscopical signs of cellular regression. TA blocked all of these changes. Immunoreactive OTR was found in the CL and GCs of large and, surprisingly, also small pre-antral follicles of the human ovary. Immunoreactive OTR in the rhesus monkey ovary was detected in primordial and growing primary follicles in the infantile ovary and in follicles at all stages of development in the adult ovary, as well as the CL: these results were corroborated by RT–PCR analysis of GCs excised by laser capture microdissection. CONCLUSIONS Our study identifies genuine OTRs in human and rhesus monkey GCs. Activation by high levels of OT leads to cellular regression in hGCs. As GCs of small follicles also express OTRs, OT may have as yet unkown functions in follicular development.

Saller, S.; Kunz, L.; Dissen, G.A.; Stouffer, R.; Ojeda, S.R.; Berg, D.; Berg, U.; Mayerhofer, A.

2010-01-01

77

Lipid and fatty acid composition of ovaries from wild fish and ovaries and eggs from captive fish of white sea bream ( Diplodus sargus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of ovaries from wild white sea bream and ovaries and eggs of captive white sea bream were investigated to estimate the fatty acid requirements of this species. The total lipid (TL) content in wild fish ovaries was similar to that found in ovaries and eggs from captive fish. The general pattern of the fatty acid distribution

Juana Rosa Cejas; Eduardo Almansa; Jose Enrique Villamandos; Pilar Bad??a; Ana Bolaños; Antonio Lorenzo

2003-01-01

78

Psychiatric disorders related to polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. The psychiatric disorders accompanying the clinical symptoms and hormonal abnormalities are important, but underestimated, aspects in PCOS. Obesity, hirsutism, acne, menstrual disturbances and infertility play important roles in lowering the quality of life in women with PCOS. Depression and anxiety are more often observed in patients with PCOS than in healthy women. Some authors consider that there is a relationship between valproic acid treatment of bipolar disease and PCOS. There have been reports that in women with PCOS anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and other unspecified eating disorders are found more often than in the general population. PMID:23339008

Kr?pu?a, Katarzyna; Bidzi?ska-Speichert, Bo?ena; Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Tworowska-Bardzi?ska, Urszula

2012-01-01

79

Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a time of rapidly changing reproductive hormones and menstrual patterns making diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) challenging in this population. Nonetheless, there is significant concern that the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities that emerge at adolescence associated with a diagnosis of PCOS have lifelong implications for the individual. There are limited data available on the best treatments for the adolescent with PCOS. The focus of treatment is often best served by attention to the individual abnormalities such as menstrual dysfunction, symptoms of androgen excess such as hirsutism and acne, possible metabolic dysfunction primarily seen with concurrent obesity, and concerns related to self-image and mood disorders. PMID:24715516

Vitek, Wendy; Hoeger, Kathleen M

2014-05-01

80

Oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age and combined oral contraceptives (OCs) are often the first-line treatment of the syndrome by improving hyperandrogenism and regulating menstrual cycles. Oral contraceptives have some cardiovascular and metabolic effects that varies among different formulations depending upon the dose and type of the both estrogen and progestin components. These cardiometabolic effects of OCs raise some concerns about their long-term use in PCOS, but available data suggest that the benefits outweigh the risks. More studies are needed to clarify the safety of long-term use of OCs in PCOS. PMID:25003228

Helvaci, N; Yildiz, B O

2014-09-01

81

Postmenopausal hyperthecosis: functional dysregulation of androgenesis in climacteric ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin is rare in postmenopausal women. However, there is evidence that the ovaries of postmenopausal women are active endocrine glands, secreting mainly androgens.CASE: A postmenopausal woman sought treatment for progressive hirsutism. Endocrine evaluation revealed androgen excess. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed enlarged ovaries. Hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were recommended. However, surgery had to be withheld for 6 months

Esther Krug; Sarah L Berga

2002-01-01

82

Polycystic ovaries after precocious pubarche: relation to prenatal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 1998, we revealed a sequence departing from prenatal growth restraint in girls and evolving, through precocious pubarche (PP) in mid-childhood, towards anovulatory and hyperinsulinaemic hyperandrogenism. The latter condition fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which was then defined independently of the presence of polycystic ovaries (PCOs). Since 2003, the diagnosis of PCOS has

L. Ibanez; A. Jaramillo; G. Enriquez; E. Miro; A. Lopez-Bermejo; D. Dunger; F. de Zegher

2006-01-01

83

Ovarian stromal echogenicity in women with normal and polycystic ovaries.  

PubMed

Since the widespread use of transvaginal ultrasound to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a cardinal feature has been shown to be the presence of a bright, highly echogenic stroma. This is usually assessed subjectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether ovarian stromal echogenicity when measured objectively actually differed between women with polycystic ovaries and those with normal ovaries. A total of 67 women underwent a detailed ultrasound assessment before considering assisted conception treatment. Ovarian morphology was assessed and total ovarian volume, stromal volume, peak stromal blood flow velocity and mean stromal echogenicity were measured. The stromal index (ratio of mean stromal echogenicity to mean echogenicity of the entire ovary) and total stromal echogenicity were also calculated. Ovarian volume, stromal volume, and stromal peak blood flow velocity were all significantly higher in ovaries from women with PCOS. There was no difference in the mean stromal echogenicity, although the stromal index was significantly greater in women with polycystic ovaries. The apparent subjective increase in stromal echogenicity in women with polycystic ovaries, as exemplified by the greater stromal index, is due to a combination of the increased volume of ovarian stroma and the significantly lower mean echogenicity of the entire ovary in these women. PMID:10221685

Buckett, W M; Bouzayen, R; Watkin, K L; Tulandi, T; Tan, S L

1999-03-01

84

Visualization of the Ovaries in Early Pregnancy by Transvaginal Sonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the frequency of visualization of the ovaries by transvaginal sonography (TVS) in a group of women in early pregnancy and to determine the onset of a decrease in sonographic visualization of the ovaries during this time. Methods: The study population included all patients with an intrauterine pregnancy confirmed by the presence of a yolk sac, embryo, or

Phyllis Glanc; Nicole Brofman; Anat Kornecki; Jason Abrams; Dan Farine; Shia Salem

85

Marked hyperandrogenemia and acne associated with polycystic ovaries in Greek women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

PCOS represents the commonest endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between polycystic ovaries and clinical and biochemical features of the syndrome. TVS was performed in 74 women with the clinical diagnosis of PCOS. The findings were compared to biochemical, hormonal and clinical features of the syndrome. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly higher prevalence of acne, LH/FSH ratios and testosterone levels in women with PCO compared to those with normal ovarian morphology. In the subgroup analysis, total ovarian volume correlated significantly with hirsutism scores. Our study revealed a great prevalence of polycystic ovaries in Greek women with PCOS, and emphasizes the significance of transvaginal ultrasound in establishment of the diagnosis of the syndrome. The presence of PCO may not be clinically important when present alone without clinical manifestations but reflects the underlying hyperandrogenemia in PCOS women, representing a useful tool in the management of these patients. PMID:21793282

Skampardonis, N; Kouskoukis, A; Karpouzis, A; Maroulis, G

2011-01-01

86

Polycystic ovary syndrome: a dermatologic approach.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (POS) is one of the most common endocrine abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. It is a cause of significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be a complex multigenic disorder, including abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, steroidogenesis, and insulin resistance. The main diagnostic findings of the syndrome are: hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology seen on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia and, in severe cases, signs of virilization. Treatment may improve the clinical manifestations of excess androgen production, normalize menses and ameliorate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. This article reviews the diagnosis, clinical manifestations, metabolic complications, and treatment of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and the consequent early treatment may prevent metabolic complications and emotional distress that negatively impact the patients' quality of life. PMID:21437531

Moura, Heloisa Helena Gonçalves de; Costa, Dailana Louvain Marinho; Bagatin, Ediléia; Sodré, Celso Tavares; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

2011-01-01

87

New adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome perspectives.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but heterogeneous disorder that usually arises during puberty. This endocrine disorder is associated with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenemia with clinical manifestation of oligomenorrhea, hirsutism and acne. While the underlying etiology of PCOS remains unknown, it is commonly associated with obesity and insulin resistance leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus in hyperandrogenemic phenotypes. Menstrual irregularities and insulin resistance in obese adolescents are usually indistinguishable from the clinical manifestations of PCOS and pose a diagnostic dilemma due to higher circulating androgens during puberty. Consequently, a universal consensus on the definition of hyperandrogenemia in adolescents has been elusive. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenemia, independent of obesity, in postmenarchal adolescents is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome. Therefore, treatment strategies including lifestyle changes and/or use of insulin-sensitizers, hormone replacement and antiandrogens should be utilized in order to delay long-term cardiovascular and metabolic complications of this endocrinopathy. PMID:21311428

Alemzadeh, R; Kansra, A R

2011-02-01

88

A chitin-like component in Aedes aegypti eggshells, eggs and ovaries.  

PubMed

An insoluble white substance was prepared from extracts of eggshells of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito and dengue vector. Its infrared and proton NMR spectra were similar to that of standard commercial chitin. This putative chitin-like material, also obtained from ovaries, newly laid and dark eggs, was hydrolyzed in acid and a major product was identified by HPLC to be glucosamine. The eggshell acid hydrolysate was also analyzed by ESI-MS and an ion identical to a glucosamine monoprotonated species was detected. The presence of chitin was also analyzed during different developmental stages of the ovary using a fluorescent microscopy technique and probes specific for chitin. The results showed that a chitin-like material accumulates in oocytes during oogenesis. Streptomyces griseus chitinase pre-treatment of oocytes greatly reduced the chitin-derived fluorescence. Chitinase activity was detected in newborn larvae and eggs prior to hatching. Feeding experiments indicated that the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron inhibited chitin synthesis, either when mosquitoes were allowed to feed directly on lufenuron-treated chickens or when an artificial feeding system was used. Lufenuron inhibited egg hatch, larval development and reduced mosquito viability. These data demonstrate for the first time that (1) a chitin-like material is present in A. aegypti eggs, ovaries and eggshells; (2) a chitin synthesis inhibitor can be used to inhibit mosquito oogenesis; and (3) chitin synthesis inhibitors have potential for controlling mosquito populations. PMID:17967344

Moreira, Mônica F; Dos Santos, Amanda S; Marotta, Humberto R; Mansur, Juliana F; Ramos, Isabela B; Machado, Ednildo A; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Eberlin, Marcos N; Kaiser, Carlos R; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Vasconcellos, Ana Maria H

2007-12-01

89

Identification and characterization of putative stem cells in the adult pig ovary.  

PubMed

Recently, the concept of 'neo-oogenesis' has received increasing attention, since it was shown that adult mammals have a renewable source of eggs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the origin of these eggs and to confirm whether neo-oogenesis continues throughout life in the ovaries of the adult mammal. Adult female pigs were utilized to isolate, identify and characterize, including their proliferation and differentiation capabilities, putative stem cells (PSCs) from the ovary. PSCs were found to comprise a heterogeneous population based on c-kit expression and cell size, and also express stem and germ cell markers. Analysis of PSC molecular progression during establishment showed that these cells undergo cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of Oct4 in a manner reminiscent of gonadal primordial germ cells (PGCs). Hence, cells with the characteristics of early PGCs are present or are generated in the adult pig ovary. Furthermore, the in vitro establishment of porcine PSCs required the presence of ovarian cell-derived extracellular regulatory factors, which are also likely to direct stem cell niche interactions in vivo. In conclusion, the present work supports a crucial role for c-kit and kit ligand/stem cell factor in stimulating the growth, proliferation and nuclear reprogramming of porcine PSCs, and further suggests that porcine PSCs might be the culture equivalent of early PGCs. PMID:24866115

Bui, Hong-Thuy; Van Thuan, Nguyen; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Han, Jae-Woong; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

2014-06-01

90

Androgens stimulate early stages of follicular growth in the primate ovary.  

PubMed Central

The concept that androgens are atretogenic, derived from murine ovary studies, is difficult to reconcile with the fact that hyperandrogenic women have more developing follicles than normal-cycling women. To evaluate androgen's effects on primate follicular growth and survival, normal-cycling rhesus monkeys were treated with placebo-, testosterone-(T), or dihydrotestosterone-sustained release implants, and ovaries were taken for histological analysis after 3-10 d of treatment. Growing preantral and small antral follicles up to 1 mm in diameter were significantly and progressively increased in number and thecal layer thickness in T-treated monkeys from 3-10 d. Granulosa and thecal cell proliferation, as determined by immunodetection of the Ki67 antigen, were significantly increased in these follicles. Preovulatory follicles (> 1 mm), however, were not increased in number in androgen-treated animals. Follicular atresia was not increased and there were actually significantly fewer apoptotic granulosa cells in the T-treated groups. Dihydrotestosterone treatment had identical effects, indicating that these growth-promoting actions are mediated by the androgen receptor. These findings show that, over the short term at least, androgens are not atretogenic and actually enhance follicular growth and survival in the primate. These new data provide a plausible explanation for the pathogenesis of "polycystic" ovaries in hyperandrogenism.

Vendola, K A; Zhou, J; Adesanya, O O; Weil, S J; Bondy, C A

1998-01-01

91

A guide to understanding polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Some 20% of women will have polycystic ovaries on an ultrasound scan and around 7% of women have the additional clinical or biochemical features of PCOS. As a complex multisystem disorder its background can be confusing to understand. They key feature, however, is an increased production of androgen by the ovaries. This review uses ovarian biology to describe a strategy to aid understanding and explanation of PCOS. This framework can be also be used to teach about PCOS and to inform different approaches to its management. PMID:24591680

Duncan, W Colin

2014-07-01

92

Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

2013-01-01

93

Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to provide a stepwise approach to treating the infertility/subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Defining polycystic ovary syndrome in a patient requires first investigating other possible causes for polycystic ovary morphology, acne, hirsutism, obesity, and the metabolic derangements that often accompany polycystic ovary syndrome. Beginning with lifestyle modification and use of metformin, the progressive inclusion of more intensive therapies for induction of ovulation is described. Second-line treatments are discussed and the new findings from a large multicenter trial are discussed in the context of evidence-based treatment strategies for first-line agents. Finally, monofollicular development as a treatment goal and in vitro fertilization are discussed for those with recalcitrant disease.

Berger, Joshua J; Bates, G Wright

2014-01-01

94

Cyclin A1 Is Expressed in Mouse Ovary  

PubMed Central

Cyclin A1 belongs to the type-A cyclins and participates in cell cycle regulation. Since its discovery, cyclin A1 has been shown mostly in testis. It plays important roles in spermatogenesis. However, there were also reports on ovary expression of cyclin A1. Therefore, we intended to revisit the expression of cyclin A1 in mouse ovary. Our study showed that cyclin A1 was expressed at the mRNA level and the protein level in mouse ovary. Tissue staining revealed that cyclin A1 was expressed in maturating oocytes. With the recent data on the functions of cyclins in somatic and stem cells, we also discussed the possibilities of further studies of cyclin A1 in mouse oocytes and perhaps in the oogonial stem cells. Our findings not only add to the supportive evidence of cyclin A1 expression in oocytes, but also may promote more interest in exploring cyclin A1 functions in ovary.

Wei, Hongquan; Li, Yuanhong; Zhao, Chen; Jiang, Xuejun; Chen, Hongduo; Lang, Ming-Fei; Sun, Jing

2014-01-01

95

Treatments to Relieve Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

MedlinePLUS

... predictors, and positive health associations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , 204, 352.e1–352.e6. [top] ... Metformin for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstetrics and Gynecology , 101, 785–793. [top] Radosh, L. ( ...

96

Treatments for Infertility Resulting from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

MedlinePLUS

... considerations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology , 50, 295–304. [top] Kiddy, D.S., ... randomised trials. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology , 51, 125–129. [top] ACOG. (2011). Polycystic ...

97

Cracking open cell death in the Drosophila ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila melanogaster ovary is a powerful yet simple system with only a few cell types. Cell death in the ovary can be induced in response to multiple\\u000a developmental and environmental signals. These cell deaths occur at distinct stages of oogenesis and involve unique mechanisms\\u000a utilizing apoptotic, autophagic and perhaps necrotic processes. In this review, we summarize recent progress characterizing

Tracy L. Pritchett; Elizabeth A. Tanner; Kimberly McCall

2009-01-01

98

Ultrastructural studies on Icerya Seychellarum seychellarum (Westwood) ovaries (Hemipotera: Margarodidae).  

PubMed

The paired ovaries of the scale insect Icerya seychellarum are composed of Large number of telotrophic ovarioles that are devoid of terminal filaments. Each ovariole is subdivided into an apical tropharium (= trophic chamber) and the vitellarium. The tropharium contains 7 trophocytes, while a single oocyte develops in the vitellarium. The tubular paired accessory glands are also been distinguished. This investigation clearly points out the cytotogical features of the ovaries as well as the accessory glands. PMID:19226791

Beshr, Sahar M

2008-01-01

99

Metabolic design of macroscopic bioreaction models: application to Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present a systematic methodology to design macroscopic bioreaction models for cell cultures based upon metabolic networks. The cell culture is seen as a succession of phases. During each phase, a metabolic network represents the set of reactions occurring in the cell. Then, through the use of the elementary flux modes, these metabolic networks are used to derive macroscopic bioreactions linking the extracellular substrates and products. On this basis, as many separate models are obtained as there are phases. Then, a complete model is obtained by smoothly switching from model to model. This is illustrated with batch cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:17013615

Provost, A; Bastin, G; Agathos, S N; Schneider, Y-J

2006-12-01

100

Ovary structure in a presocial insect, Elasmucha grisea (Heteroptera, Acanthosomatidae).  

PubMed

First generation egg clusters of Elasmucha grisea are more closely guarded than second generation clusters. The ovaries of this species are structured to enhance this behavior. The population of E. grisea from S-W Poland breeds in the spring (May-June) and late summer (July-August). The second generation clutches contain fewer eggs and are destroyed 3-4 days after oviposition by predators and parasitoids. The ovary structure in the studied species differs from that found in other Heteroptera. The average number of ovarioles per ovary is 24 while in the other investigated species the number of ovarioles per ovary is 6-7. Lateral oviducts are elongated and the ovarioles are arranged in a pennate pattern. Each ovariole contains only one growing ovarian follicle. Differentiation of the ovarioles and ovarian follicles is synchronised thus enabling simultaneous oviposition. A comparative analysis of the ovary structure during the life cycle, particularly the presence of atresive ovarian follicles in the ovarioles of egg- and nymph guarding females, as well as the shape and structure of the apical part of the tropharium all support the hypothesis of cooperation between females in E. grisea. A similar ovary structure has been observed in the Coccoidea (Hemiptera, Homoptera) which indicates presocial behavior. PMID:19682601

Ogorza?ek, Antoni; Trochimczuk, Artur

2009-11-01

101

Dermatologic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of reproductive-aged women and is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. The disorder is commonly characterized by elevated levels of androgen and insulin. Women with PCOS may present with a range of signs and symptoms, and face increased risks of reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular, psychologic, and neoplastic sequelae, particularly if the condition is left unrecognized or untreated. The clinical definition of PCOS has changed in recent years and includes as one of its cardinal criteria the dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, chiefly hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenetic alopecia. Acanthosis nigricans, a cutaneous sign of hyperinsulinemia, may also be present. These dermatologic features may provide early clinical clues to recognition of PCOS, and treatment of these cutaneous conditions may improve the patient's quality of life and psychologic well-being. The effects of androgen on pilosebaceous units in the skin can vary by anatomic location, producing pathophysiologic effects on hair growth and differentiation, sebaceous gland size and activity, and follicular keratinization. Treatment modalities may include hormonal therapy intended to modulate androgen production and action as well as non-hormonal therapies directed toward specific dermatologic conditions. PMID:17645376

Lee, Amy T; Zane, Lee T

2007-01-01

102

Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise) and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms. PMID:21339935

Badawy, Ahmed; Elnashar, Abubaker

2011-01-01

103

Socioeconomic Status and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic-endocrine disorder in women and is associated with a number of metabolic morbidities. We examined the association of PCOS and its components with socioeconomic status (SES) over the life course to explore the role of the environment on the development of PCOS. Methods Participants included 1163 women, aged 34–39, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Women's Study, examined at year 16 of the CARDIA study (2001). PCOS was defined according to the 1990 National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria. Results Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and oral contraceptive (OC) use, demonstrated a statistically significant association between those women with low parental education/high personal education and PCOS (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–4.4). Conclusions Our results indicate that women who experienced low childhood SES are at increased risk of PCOS, but this risk is limited to those who have personally attained a high level of education. More research is needed to determine the childhood socioeconomic factors that might influence this risk and whether conditions associated with upward life mobility play a role or if this group of at-risk women is simply more likely to recall the symptoms that define PCOS.

Azziz, Ricardo; Seeman, Teresa; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Daviglus, Martha; Kiefe, Catarina; Matthews, Karen; Sternfeld, Barbara; Siscovick, David

2011-01-01

104

Intrauterine environment and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The maternal-fetal environment plays an important role in developmental programming of adult disease. Metabolic and hormonal dysfunction during human fetal development accompanies gestational diabetes as a common occurrence in mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), while human fetal androgen excess from congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors precedes PCOS-like symptoms after birth. To date, clinical studies of infant blood levels at term have yet to confirm that human fetal androgen excess promotes PCOS development after birth. Earlier in development, however, circulating androgen levels in the second trimester female human fetus can normally rise into the male range. Furthermore, midgestational amniotic testosterone levels are elevated in female fetuses of PCOS compared with normal mothers and might influence fetal development because experimentally induced fetal androgen excess in animals produces a PCOS-like phenotype with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Such alterations in the maternal-fetal environment likely program adult PCOS by epigenetic modifications of genetic susceptibility of the fetus to PCOS after birth. Understanding this phenomenon requires advanced fetal surveillance technologies and postnatal assessment of midgestational androgen exposure for new clinical strategies to improve reproduction in PCOS women, optimize long-term health of their offspring, and minimize susceptibility to acquiring PCOS in future generations. PMID:24715510

Dumesic, Daniel A; Goodarzi, Mark O; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D; Abbott, David H

2014-05-01

105

Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually spans a woman's reproductive years. While treatment of androgenic symptoms is often a primary concern, periodically, the regimen has to be modified because of a desire for pregnancy. As these women are usually anovulatory, ovulation induction is generally required. The premise on which ovulation induction in PCOS is based is two-fold: increasing ovarian exposure to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and/or correcting hormonal derangements. Potential differences in pathogenesis, evidenced clinically by phenotypic diversity, suggest that treatment should be individualized. This paper is an overview of treatments available and also provides a critical appraisal of management options. These options include the use of clomiphene citrate, insulin sensitizers, and the combination. Protocols for ovulation induction with FSH injections are outlined and the relative risks of multiple gestation and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome of these various protocols discussed. The use of aromatase inhibitors and the occasional use of glucocorticoids are briefly reviewed. Finally, the role of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in the management of anovulatory infertility in PCOS is outlined. PMID:18277352

Nader, S

2008-02-01

106

Polycystic ovary syndrome and oocyte developmental competence.  

PubMed

Folliculogenesis is a complex process, in which multiple endocrine and intraovarian paracrine interactions create a changing intrafollicular microenvironment for appropriate oocyte development. Within this microenvironment, bidirectional cumulus cell-oocyte signaling governs the gradual acquisition of developmental competence by the oocyte, defined as the ability of the oocyte to complete meiosis and undergo fertilization, embryogenesis, and term development. These regulatory mechanisms of follicle growth, controlled in part by the oocyte itself, are susceptible to derangement in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by ovarian hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and paracrine dysregulation of follicle development. Consequently, only a subset of PCOS patients experience reduced pregnancy outcome after ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Recent data implicate functional associations between endocrine/paracrine abnormalities, metabolic dysfunction, and altered oocyte gene expression with impaired oocyte developmental competence in women with PCOS. Therefore, an understanding of how developmentally relevant endocrine/paracrine factors interact to promote optimal oocyte developmental is crucial to identify those PCOS patients who might benefit from long-term correction of follicle growth to improve fertility, optimize follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin therapy, and enhance pregnancy outcome by in vitro fertilization. PMID:18081939

Dumesic, Daniel A; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Abbott, David H

2008-01-01

107

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population  

PubMed Central

Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinical phenotypes but different underlying pathophysiological processes. However, hyperandrogenism remains the syndrome's clinical hallmark. The clinical manifestations of PCOS often emerge during childhood or in the peripubertal years, suggesting that the syndrome is influenced by fetal programming and/or early postnatal events. However, given that the full clinical spectrum of PCOS does not typically appear until puberty, a “two-hit” hypothesis has been proposed: (1) a girl develops hyperandrogenism via one or more of many different potential mechanisms; (2) the preexisting hyperandrogenism subsequently disturbs the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, resulting in ovulatory dysfunction and sustained hyperandrogenism. No consensus guidelines exist regarding the diagnosis and management of PCOS in the pediatric population; however, because the syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, the clinical evaluation of girls suspected of having PCOS is aimed at excluding other causes of androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction. For the syndrome's management, emphasis is placed on lifestyle and symptom-directed treatment.

2010-01-01

108

Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

PubMed Central

In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions.

Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

2013-01-01

109

Cryogenic effect of antifreeze protein on transgenic mouse ovaries and the production of live offspring by orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the cryogenic effect of antifreeze protein (AFP) on transgenic mouse ovaries which is expressed AFP type III from Ocean pout and the production of live offspring by orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved mouse ovaries. In this study, whole transgenic and nontransgenic mouse ovaries were vitrified with 20% DMSO and 20% EG in M2 medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. All vitrified and toxicity control and fresh ovaries were transplanted orthotopically into ovariectomized recipients bilaterally. For fresh ovaries transplantation, 5 mice delivered litters of 18 and 19 live pups in first and second matings, respectively. For toxicity control of chemicals, 6 mice delivered litters of 22 and 23 live pups. For nontransgenic mouse ovaries (vitrified) transplantation, 7 mice delivered litters of 22 and 23 live pups. For transgenic mouse ovaries (vitrified) transplantation, 10 mice delivered litters of 35 and 37 live pups. Litter sizes from pups of freshly transplanted ovaries were not significantly different from AFP-transplanted transgenic ovaries but those from nontransgenic-transplanted ovaries were significantly different from the AFP-transplanted transgenic ovaries group (P < 0.05). In this study, for the first time, it was shown that the ovarian tissue of AFP transgenic mice was protected from cryopreservation by vitrification. These results demonstrate that a normal reproductive lifespan can be restored by orthotopic transplantation of AFP transgenic-vitrified ovary. PMID:17874447

Bagis, Haydar; Akkoç, Tolga; Tas?, Arzu; Aktoprakligil, Digdem

2008-04-01

110

Formation of apolar ecdysteroid conjugates by ovaries of the house cricket Acheta domesticus in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The newly laid eggs of the house cricket Acheta domesticus contain apolar ecdysteroid conjugates, which we have hypothesized to be ecdysone long-chain fatty acyl esters [Whiting & Dinan (1988) J. Insect Physiol., in the press]. The ovaries of mature adult female A. domesticus in vitro convert [3H]ecdysone into apolar conjugates identical with those found in newly laid eggs. Comparison of the radioactive metabolites produced on incubation of [3H]ecdysone with various organs of adult female A. domesticus in vitro indicate that the fat-body is the major producer of polar ecdysteroid metabolites at this stage of development, whereas the ovaries are the major site of production of apolar metabolites. Apolar metabolites are also produced to a lesser extent by the crop, gut sections and the fat-body. Hydrolysis of radioactive metabolites produced by the ovaries with Helix enzymes releases only [3H]ecdysone, and thus ecdysone is not metabolized before conjugation by the ovaries. Formation of chemical derivatives (acetonide and acetates) of these 3H-labelled apolar conjugates strongly indicates that the position of conjugation is through the hydroxy group at C-22 of ecdysone. Extensive chromatographic analysis of the 3H-labelled apolar metabolites produced by the ovaries by t.l.c. and h.p.l.c. and comparison with authenticated reference compounds have conclusively demonstrated that the conjugates consist of ecdysone esterified at C-22 to a mixture of common long-chain fatty acids. The major fatty acyl esters have been identified and their percentage contribution to the mixture determined: laurate (0.5%), myristate (2.8%), palmitate (25.8%), stearate (8.4%), arachidate (1.0%), oleate (15.7%), linoleate (38.8%) and linolenate (2.1%). In addition there are three minor unidentified peaks, one of which has been tentatively identified as ecdysone 22-palmitoleate (2.6%). Comparison of this percentage composition with the previously published fatty acid composition of A. domesticus haemolymph [Wang & Patton (1969) J. Insect Physiol. 15, 851-860] reveals remarkable similarities, indicating that the acyl transferase(s) forming the conjugates have a broad specificity with regard to the fatty acyl substrate.

Whiting, P; Dinan, L

1988-01-01

111

Occurrence and metabolism of anandamide and related acyl-ethanolamides in ovaries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid receptors have been described in sea urchin sperm and shown to mediate inhibition of sperm acrosome reaction. Anandamide (arachidonoyl-ethanolamide), the mammalian physiological ligand at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, has been subsequently found to effect this inhibition. Here we present data showing that ovaries from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus contain anandamide and two related acyl-ethanolamides, as well as enzymatic activities potentially responsible for their biosynthesis and degradation. Pilot experiments carried out with either ovaries or spermatozoa, extracted from both P. lividus and Arbacea lixula and radiolabelled with [14C]ethanolamine, showed that in sexually mature ovaries of both species significant levels of radioactivity were incorporated into a lipid component with the same chromatographic behaviour as anandamide. Lipid extracts from P. lividus ovaries were purified and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry which showed the presence of low but measurable amounts of anandamide, palmitoyl- and stearoyl-ethanolamides. The extracts were also found to contain lipid components with the same chromatographic behaviour as the N-acyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamines, the phospholipid precursors of acyl-ethanolamides in mammalian tissues, and capable of releasing anandamide, palmitoyl- and stearoyl-ethanolamides upon digestion with S. chromofuscus phospholipase D. Accordingly, whole homogenates from P. lividus contained an enzymatic activity capable of converting synthetic [3H]N-arachidonoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine into [3H]anandamide. Finally, mature ovaries of P. lividus were shown also to contain an amidohydrolase activity which catalyses the hydrolysis of anandamide and palmitoyl-ethanolamide to ethanolamine. This enzyme displayed subcellular distribution, pH/temperature dependency profiles and sensitivity to inhibitors similar but not identical to those of the previously described 'anandamide amidohydrolase' from mammalian tissues. These data support the hypothesis, formulated in previous studies, that anandamide or related metabolites may be oocyte-derived cannabimimetic regulators of sea urchin fertility. PMID:9150253

Bisogno, T; Ventriglia, M; Milone, A; Mosca, M; Cimino, G; Di Marzo, V

1997-04-21

112

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and its Developmental Origins  

PubMed Central

The prenatal testosterone (T)-treated adult female rhesus monkey is one animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women, with early prenatal T excess programming a permanent PCOS–like phenotype characterized by luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback and relative insulin excess from increased abdominal adiposity. These combined reproductive and metabolic abnormalities are associated with ovarian hyperandrogenism and follicular arrest in adulthood, as well as premature follicle differentiation and impaired embryo development during gonadotropin therapy for in vitro fertilization (IVF). A second animal model for PCOS, the prenatal T-treated sheep also is characterized by LH hypersecretion from reduced hypothalamic sensitivity to steroid negative feedback, persistent follicles and insulin resistance, but also is associated with intrauterine growth retardation and compensatory growth after birth. The ability of prenatal T excess in both species to alter the developmental trajectory of multiple organ systems in utero provides evidence that the hormonal environment of intrauterine life programs target tissue differentiation, raising the possibility that T excess in human fetal development promotes PCOS in adulthood. Such a hypothesis must include data from clinical studies of PCOS women to clarify the homology between these PCOS-like animal models and PCOS per se in reproductive and metabolic function. Future studies should develop new clinical strategies that improve pregnancy outcome and minimize pregnancy loss in women with disorders of insulin action, including PCOS, obesity and diabetes mellitus as well as minimize transgenerational susceptibility to adult PCOS and its metabolic derangements in male close relatives.

Dumesic, Daniel A.; Abbott, David H.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

2009-01-01

113

Dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a very common metabolic abnormality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiology of PCOS, thus dyslipidemia in women with PCOS may be consistent with those found in an insulin resistant state. In recent meta-analysis, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were 26 mg/dL and 12 mg/dL higher, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 6 mg/dL lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. Alterations in LDL quality also have been reported in women with PCOS: women with PCOS have an increased proportion of atherogenic small dense LDL or decreased mean LDL particle size. However, in a recent Korean study, non-obese Korean women with PCOS had no significant quantitative or qualitative changes in LDL cholesterol profile. Lipoprotein (a) has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and its elevation in PCOS patients has been consistently reported in diverse studies including non-obese Korean population. Some studies have investigated apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and ApoC-I levels in women with PCOS and levels of ApoA-I, which has cardio-protective effects, were significantly lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. ApoC-I is known to increase the postprandial serum lipid level that is common in coronary artery disease patients, and one study reported that such an elevation may be the earliest variation of lipid abnormality in women with PCOS. In conclusion, women with PCOS should receive a complete lipid test, and lifestyle modification, including diet and exercise, is the first line therapy for all women with PCOS and is particularly important for those with dyslipidemia. PMID:24327994

Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min

2013-05-01

114

Dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Dyslipidemia is a very common metabolic abnormality in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiology of PCOS, thus dyslipidemia in women with PCOS may be consistent with those found in an insulin resistant state. In recent meta-analysis, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were 26 mg/dL and 12 mg/dL higher, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 6 mg/dL lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. Alterations in LDL quality also have been reported in women with PCOS: women with PCOS have an increased proportion of atherogenic small dense LDL or decreased mean LDL particle size. However, in a recent Korean study, non-obese Korean women with PCOS had no significant quantitative or qualitative changes in LDL cholesterol profile. Lipoprotein (a) has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, and its elevation in PCOS patients has been consistently reported in diverse studies including non-obese Korean population. Some studies have investigated apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and ApoC-I levels in women with PCOS and levels of ApoA-I, which has cardio-protective effects, were significantly lower in women with PCOS than those of controls. ApoC-I is known to increase the postprandial serum lipid level that is common in coronary artery disease patients, and one study reported that such an elevation may be the earliest variation of lipid abnormality in women with PCOS. In conclusion, women with PCOS should receive a complete lipid test, and lifestyle modification, including diet and exercise, is the first line therapy for all women with PCOS and is particularly important for those with dyslipidemia.

Kim, Jin Ju

2013-01-01

115

Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees.  

PubMed

During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level. PMID:21732186

Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

2011-09-01

116

Cross-species correlation between queen mating numbers and worker ovary sizes suggests kin conflict may influence ovary size evolution in honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During social evolution, the ovary size of reproductively specialized honey bee queens has dramatically increased while their workers have evolved much smaller ovaries. However, worker division of labor and reproductive competition under queenless conditions are influenced by worker ovary size. Little comparative information on ovary size exists in the different honey bee species. Here, we report ovariole numbers of freshly dissected workers from six Apis species from two locations in Southeast Asia. The average number of worker ovarioles differs significantly among species. It is strongly correlated with the average mating number of queens, irrespective of body size. Apis dorsata, in particular, is characterized by numerous matings and very large worker ovaries. The relation between queen mating number and ovary size across the six species suggests that individual selection via reproductive competition plays a role in worker ovary size evolution. This indicates that genetic diversity, generated by multiple mating, may bear a fitness cost at the colony level.

Rueppell, Olav; Phaincharoen, Mananya; Kuster, Ryan; Tingek, Salim

2011-09-01

117

Development of infantile rat ovaries autotransplanted after cryopreservation by vitrification.  

PubMed

We cryopreserved infantile rat ovaries by vitrification and assessed their viability by autotransplantation. Hemilateral ovarian transplantation was performed on rats on postnatal Days 10 to 12. The left ovary of each rat was dissected out, cryopreserved by vitrification using a modified vitrification solution (VS1), and then autotransplanted under the capsule of the right kidney. The right ovary of each rat was removed. For the control, the left ovary was dissected out from each rat and was immediately transplanted by the same procedure, without cryopreservation. Rats were nursed until weaning, and then the day of vaginal opening, estrous cyclicity from the day of vaginal opening until postnatal Day 84, and histology of ovarian grafts at postnatal Day 84 were examined. The time course of development of endocrine function of cryopreserved grafts was similar to that of fresh grafts. In ovarian transplants recovered on postnatal Day 84, antral follicles and corpora lutea (CL) were observed in addition to small follicles, although the number of antral follicles in cryopreserved grafts was smaller than in the fresh grafts. These results indicate that cryopreservation of ovarian tissue by vitrification can be used for the preservation of fertility and endocrine function of ovaries. PMID:10798487

Sugimoto, M; Maeda, S; Manabe, N; Miyamoto, H

2000-03-15

118

ALTERED STEROIDOGENESIS IN WHOLE-OVARY AND ADRENAL CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cultures of minced, whole-ovary (whole-ovary culture) were used to determine if three selected chemicals altered steroidogenic profiles. irst, phenolaulfonthalein (PST), when used in culture medium, was tested for its influence on in vitro steroidogenesis. ext, aminoglutethimide ...

119

Altered Steroidogenesis in Whole-Ovary and Adrenal Culture in Cycling Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cultures of minced, whole-ovary (whole-ovary culture) were used to determine if three selected chemicals altered steroidogenic profiles. First, phenolsulfonthalein (PST), when used in culture medium, was tested for its influence on in vitro steroidogenesi...

E. Berman J. W. Laskey

1993-01-01

120

Identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs are the major class of gene-regulating molecules playing diverse roles through sequence complementarity to target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. Tightly regulated expression and interaction of a multitude of genes for ovarian folliculogenesis could be regulated by these miRNAs. Identification of them is the first step towards understanding miRNA-guided gene regulation in different biological functions. Despite increasing efforts in miRNAs identification across various species and diverse tissue types, little is known about bovine ovarian miRNAs. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary through cloning, expression analysis and target prediction. Results The miRNA library (5'-independent ligation cloning method), which was constructed from bovine ovary in this study, revealed cloning of 50 known and 24 novel miRNAs. Among all identified miRNAs, 38 were found to be new for bovine and were derived from 43 distinct loci showing characteristic secondary structure. While 22 miRNAs precursor loci were found to be well conserved in more than one species, 16 were found to be bovine specific. Most of the miRNAs were cloned multiple times, in which let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-21, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-126 and miR-143 were cloned 10, 28, 13, 4, 11, 7, 6, 4 and 11 times, respectively. Expression analysis of all new and some annotated miRNAs in different intra-ovarian structures and in other multiple tissues showed that some were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed among different tissue types. Bta-miR-29a was localized in the follicular cells at different developmental stages in the cyclic ovary. Bio-informatics prediction, screening and Gene Ontology analysis of miRNAs targets identified several biological processes and pathways underlying the ovarian function. Conclusion Results of this study suggest the presence of miRNAs in the bovine ovary, thereby elucidate their potential role in regulating diverse molecular and physiological pathways underlying the ovarian functionality. This information will give insights into bovine ovarian miRNAs, which can be further characterized for their role in follicular development and female fertility as well.

Hossain, Md Munir; Ghanem, Nasser; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Phatsara, Chirawath; Tholen, Ernst; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

2009-01-01

121

Isolation and characterization of an angiotensin converting enzyme substrate from vitellogenic ovaries of Neobellieria bullata.  

PubMed

Vitellogenic ovaries of the gray fleshfly Neobellieria bullata contain a variety of unidentified substances that interact, either as a substrate or as an inhibitor, with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). We here report the isolation and characterization of the first ACE interactive compound hereof. This 1312.7 Da peptide with the sequence NKLKPSQWISL, is substrate to both insect and human ACE. It is a novel peptide that shows high sequence similarity to a sequence at the N-terminal part of dipteran yolk polypeptides (YPs). We propose to call it N. bullata ovary-derived ACE interactive factor or Neb-ODAIF. Both insect and human ACE hydrolyze Neb-ODAIF by sequentially cleaving off two C-terminal dipeptides. K(m) values of Neb-ODAIF and Neb-ODAIF(1-9) (NKLKPSQWI) for human somatic ACE (sACE) are 17 and 81 microM, respectively. Additionally, Neb-ODAIF(1-7) (NKLKPSQ) also interacts with sACE (K(m/i)=90 microM). These affinity-constants are in range with those of the physiological ACE substrates and suggest the importance of Neb-ODAIF and its cleavage products in the elucidation of the physiological role of insect ACE. Alternatively, they can serve as lead compounds in the development of new drugs against ACE-related diseases in humans. PMID:12383874

Vandingenen, Anick; Hens, Korneel; Baggerman, Geert; Macours, Nathalie; Schoofs, Liliane; De Loof, Arnold; Huybrechts, Roger

2002-10-01

122

Oxidative stability of lipids rich in EPA and DHA extracted from fermented scallop ovary.  

PubMed

A novel seafood paste was developed by the fermentation of scallop ovary using rice malt (koji) and yeast culture. Chemical analysis of the product showed the formation of high level of free amino acids and organic acids during the fermentation. The product color and flavor resembled to Japanese traditional soybean miso. The contents of total lipids (TLs) extracted from the fermented products were ranged from 9.18% to 11.59% or 11.38% to 13.57%/dry sample weight. Although the TL was rich in oxidatively unstable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), little decrease was found in these PUFAs during the fermentation, showing the high oxidative stability of the TL from the fermented scallop ovary. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the TL extracted from the fermented products increased with increasing the fermentation time. This would be mainly due to the formation of lipid soluble antioxidants such as tocopherols, which might be derived from yeast used for fermentation. PMID:23915081

Hamaoka, Naohiro; Shimajiri, Junki; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

2013-09-01

123

The Regulators of VEGF Expression in Mouse Ovaries  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to explore whether ovarian vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mice can be regulated by IL-6 (interleukin-6), angiotensin II, FSH, and hCG; and to test whether the mouse ovarian VEGF expression can result in angiogenesis. The ICR mice were sacrificed, and their ovaries were recovered. Recovered ovaries were treated with IL-6, angiotensin II, FSH, and hCG separately and incubated for 24 hours in ?-MEM. Expression of mRNA and protein of VEGF were assessed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The resulting angiogenesis was evaluated through immunohistochemical analysis for CD34. Treatment of mice ovaries with IL-6, FSH, and hCG resulted in a significant increase of VEGF mRNA, and IL-6 was the most potent inducer of VEGF. IL-6 and FSH resulted in increased neovascularization in the follicular phase of mouse ovaries. In contrast, angiotensin II could not increase VEGF expression or neovascularization. We documented an in vitro increase in VEGF expression by IL-6, FSH, and hCG; and reaffirmed that the proliferative response of murine ovarian endothelial cells paralleled an increase of VEGF expression.

Shin, So-Young; Lee, Ho-Jung; Ko, Duck-Sung; Lee, Hoi-Chang

2005-01-01

124

Autistic Traits in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies suggested that prenatal androgen exposure might contribute to development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The androgen theory of autism proposes that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are in part due to elevated fetal testosterone levels. Furthermore, higher rates of androgen-related conditions including PCOS are reported in…

Herguner, Sabri; Harmanci, Hatice; Hergner, Arzu; Toy, Harun

2012-01-01

125

Laparoscopic surgery of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.  

PubMed

Operative laparoscopy can be used for many surgical procedures on the fallopian tube and ovary. These include: (1) tubal sterilization; (2) salpingectomy and salpingostomy for tubal pregnancy; (3) fimbrioplasty, salpingoneostomy, and linear salpingostomy for tubal obstruction and infertility; (4) microsurgical tubal reanastomosis for reversal of tubal sterilization; (5) oophorectomy, cystectomy, cyst drainage and fulguration, and excision of ovarian tumors; (6) wedge resection and ovarian drilling for polycystic ovaries; and (7) fulguration and laser vaporization for endometriosis. Many of these procedures are conservative and involve reconstruction of the tube and ovaries to preserve fertility. Microsurgical techniques are incorporated into such fertility sparing or enhancing procedures. Comparison of similar surgical procedures on the tube and ovaries indicates better or similar surgical outcome when done through the laparoscope rather than laparotomy; less blood loss, faster recovery, and cheaper cost are the hallmarks when the procedure is done by laparoscopy. With further improvement and expansion in laparoscopy equipment, it can be expected that more surgical procedures on the adnexa can be undertaken safely and effectively. PMID:10459057

Dawood, M Y

1999-06-01

126

Circulating leptin concentrations and ovarian function in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by ovarian dysfunction. Although the role of leptin in the control of reproduction is unclear, it may be involved in the control of ovulation. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the relationship between circulating leptin concentrations, and anthropometric, metabolic and endocrine variables as well as to examine a possible role

I R Pirwany; R Fleming; N Sattar; I A Greer; A M Wallace

2001-01-01

127

Carcinosarcoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of carcinosarcoma arising within an otherwise benign cystic teratoma is reported. The patient, a 78 year old nulliparous woman, presented with right sided abdominal pain of short duration and subsequently underwent a bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy. Slicing of the left ovary revealed a unilocular cyst containing hair admixed with soft yellow material with a thin wall apart from a solid

D S Arora; S Haldane

1996-01-01

128

Combined Laparoscopic Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Disease and Gallstones  

PubMed

Laparoscopic surgery has largely replaced laparotomy in the management of both polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) and gallstones. The number of patients with a combination of these disorders has increased. From 1991 to 1996, 908 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In 29 women of reproductive age (18-41 yrs) with PCOD and gallstones, we performed combined laparoscopic cholecystectomy and various procedures on the ovaries (15 wedge resections, 8 multiple ovariotomies by thermocoagulation incisions, 5 electrosurgical coagulations of the ovaries). All operations were performed by the usual approach for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and in only four women did we place a supplemental cannula. The diagnosis of PCOD was established preoperatively in 22 women, but in 6 it was an incidental finding during laparoscopic inspection of abdominal cavity. We suggest that one-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and procedures on the ovaries may be performed with single-puncture technique. Performing the procedures simultaneously has the advantages of minor surgical trauma, much less adhesion formation, and ability to treat hormonal disorders and infertility. For best results in women with combined PCOD and gallstones, the joint participation of abdominal surgeon and gynecologist is preferred. PMID:9074124

Ghidirim; Gladun; Danch; Mishina

1996-08-01

129

Pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary: a case report  

PubMed Central

Pure ovarian choriocarcinoma can be gestational or nongestational in origin. Nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary is extremely rare, and its diagnosis is very difficult during the reproductive years. We present a case of a 33-year-old woman diagnosed with pure nongestational ovarian choriocarcinoma. Following surgery, multiple courses of a chemotherapy regimen of etoposide, methotrexate, and actinomycin-D (EMA) were effective.

2013-01-01

130

Reproductive endocrinology: live birth prediction in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Anovulatory infertility is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Clinicians who provide first-line treatment have to decide how best to induce ovulation with the desired outcome of live birth, a decision often complicated by the phenotypic heterogeneity of PCOS. could a new livebirth prediction model of different ovulation induction methods developed from basic clinical parameters help select infertility treatments? PMID:20098444

Nader, Shahla

2010-02-01

131

Hyperandrogenism during puberty in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The hormonal events of puberty, from adrenarche to menarche and beyond, include the secretion of androgens as well as estrogen and P. This normal pubertal process is briefly reviewed and a physiologic role for pubertal androgens proposed. It is further suggested that the hyperandrogenic state we call polycystic ovary syndrome is a maladaptation of the advantageous role of normal pubertal androgens. PMID:23642453

Nader, Shahla

2013-07-01

132

The Drosophila ovary: an active stem cell community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a small number of cells in adult tissues (the stem cells) possess the ability to self-renew at every cell division, while producing differentiating daughter cells to maintain tissue homeostasis for an organism's lifetime. The Drosophila ovary harbors three different types of stem cell populations (germline stem cell (GSC), somatic stem cell (SSC) and escort stem cell (ESC)) located in

Dániel Kirilly; Ting Xie

2007-01-01

133

Treatment outcome in women with a single ovary versus patients with two ovaries undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF\\/ET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare ovarian response and pregnancy rate between women with one and two ovaries undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF\\/ET). Study design: 20 IVF\\/ET treatment cycles in ten women with a single ovary were compared with 60 IVF\\/ET cycles in 47 women with two ovaries. Both groups were matched for age and treated for mechanical infertility. In

E. Levitas; B. Furman; I. Shoham-Vardi; E. Lunenfeld

2000-01-01

134

Oocytes are a source of catecholamines in the primate ovary: Evidence for a cell-cell regulatory loop  

PubMed Central

Catecholamines, thought to derive from the extrinsic innervation of the ovary, participate in the regulation of ovarian development and mature gonadal function. Recently, intraovarian neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, were described in the ovary of nonhuman primates. We now show that the primate ovary expresses both the genes encoding TH and dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH), the key enzymes in norepinephrine (NE) biosynthesis. Ovarian neurons were identified as a site of TH and DBH gene expression, and surprisingly, oocytes were identified as an exclusive site of DBH synthesis. Oocytes contain neither TH mRNA nor protein, indicating that they are unable to synthesize dopamine (DA). They did, however, express a DA transporter gene identical to that found in human brain. The physiological relevance of this transporter system and DBH in oocytes was indicated by the ability of isolated oocytes to metabolize exogenous DA into NE. Isolated follicles containing oocytes—but not those from which the oocytes had been removed—responded to DA with an elevation in cAMP levels; this elevation was prevented by propranolol, a ?-adrenoreceptor antagonist. The results suggest that oocytes and somatic cells are linked by a neuroendocrine loop consisting of NE synthesized in oocytes from actively transported DA and cAMP produced by somatic follicular cells in response to NE-induced ?-adrenoreceptor activation.

Mayerhofer, Artur; Smith, Gary D.; Danilchik, Michael; Levine, Jon E.; Wolf, Don P.; Dissen, Gregory A.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

1998-01-01

135

Signet ring stromal cell tumor revisited and related signet ring cell lesions of the ovary.  

PubMed

In this article, we revisit the first reported case of ovarian signet ring stromal cell tumor (SRSCT) using modern immunohistochemical techniques and compare it to a case of signet ring cell transformation of lutein cells in an ovarian stromal tumor having components of luteinized thecoma and sclerosing stromal tumor. We introduce a new classification of signet ring stromal cell lesions of the ovary that serves as a framework to distinguish pathogenetically distinct ovarian stromal lesions that may be confused with cases of true SRSCT. The SRSCT in our first case most likely arose directly from the ovarian stroma without an identifiable precursor neoplasm. In our second case, the association of the signet ring cells with lutein cells and the positive staining of the signet ring cells for inhibin and steroidogenic factor 1 confirm that in some instances signet ring cells are derived from lutein cells. PMID:24342431

Roth, Lawrence M; Ramzy, Ibrahim

2014-03-01

136

Neurologic disorders associated with disease of the ovaries and testis.  

PubMed

The spectrum of neurologic complications of disease of the testis and ovaries includes complications of established neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). It also includes diverse CNS presentations that precede a known diagnosis of testis or ovarian tumors. Well-defined clinical phenotypes, imaging characteristics, and specific serum markers allow clinical recognition and search for a primary gonadal neoplasm. Androgen receptor abnormalities and primary ovarian failure frequently occur in a number of inherited disorders that also affect the CNS and PNS. Moreover, the integrity and normal function of the ovaries and testis may be affected in common neurologic disorders leading in part to infertility in male patients. PMID:24365352

Kattah, Jorge C; Kattah, William C

2014-01-01

137

Polycystic ovary syndrome: current status and future perspective.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a widespread reproductive disorder that encompasses many associated health conditions and has an impact on various metabolic processes. PCOS is depicted by hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulation. It increases the risk of insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. The etiology of the disease remains unclear, and the subjective phenotype makes a united diagnosis difficult among physicians. It seems to be a familial genetic syndrome caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be linked with metabolic disorders in first-degree family members. PCOS is the cause of up to 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment. Currently, there is no cure for PCOS. Despite the growing incidence of this syndrome, limited research has been done that encompasses the entirety of PCOS spectrum. In this review, the current status and possible future perspective will be discussed. PMID:24389146

Barthelmess, Erin K; Naz, Rajesh K

2014-01-01

138

Increased Serum Neopterin Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 5-10% of premenopausal women. Studies suggest that PCOS is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). To investigate this relationship, 15 PCOS women (group 1) and 10 healthy women (group 2) were studied. Blood leukocyte counts (white blood cells, WBC) and serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, sensitive C- reactive protein

Burcu Barutcuoglu; A. Erkin Bozdemir; Didem Dereli; Zuhal Parildar; M. Isil Mutaf; Dilek Ozmen; Oya Bayindir

2006-01-01

139

Metformin for the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Because of the high prevalence of insulin resistance, there is a growing interest in the application of insulin sensitizing\\u000a agents in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin is the most widely prescribed insulin sensitizing agent\\u000a in patients with PCOS. In this chapter, we address the importance of lifestyle modification as the initial intervention in\\u000a patients with PCOS. Furthermore, we

Satin S. Patel; Victor E. Beshay; Bruce R. Carr

140

Mechanisms and Treatment of Obesity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility because of anovulation, affects 4–7% of\\u000a women. Intriguingly, obesity has an important pathophysiological impact on PCOS, and obese PCOS women are characterized by\\u000a worsened endocrine and metabolic profiles and poorer fertility. Although it is believed that obesity simply emphasizes most\\u000a common alterations such as hyperandrogenism and the

Renato Pasquali; Alessandra Gambineri

141

HOX cofactors expression and regulation in the human ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: HOX cofactors enhance HOX binding affinities and specificities and increase HOX's unique functional activities. The expression and the regulation of HOX cofactors in human ovaries are unknown. METHODS: In this study, the expression of HOX cofactors, PBX1, PBX2, and MEIS1\\/2, were examined by using RT-PCR, immunofluorescence in cultured immortalized human granulosa (SVOG) cells. The distribution of these HOX cofactors

Takayo Ota; Haruka Asahina; Se-Hyung Park; Qing Huang; Takashi Minegishi; Nelly Auersperg; Peter CK Leung

2008-01-01

142

Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis  

PubMed Central

We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we predict the morphological maturation observed in these gonads is concomitant with increased endocrine activities.

Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

2009-01-01

143

[Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary. Report of 3 cases].  

PubMed

Sclerosing Stromal Tumor (SST) is an uncommon benign tumor of the ovary, distinct from thecoma and fibroma because of predominant occurrence below 30 years of age, lack of hormonal manifestations and histologic heterogenity. Three cases of SST occuring in a 15, 26 and 56-year-old females are reported. Review of the literature and clinicopathological features are described in the present article. Histogenesis and differential diagnosis are also discussed. PMID:15822514

Bouraoui, Sâadia; Ben Fadhl, Carole; Bellil, Khadija; Guettiti-Tounsi, Haifa; Mekni, Amina; Kchir, Nidhameddine; Zouari, Faouzia; Zitouna, Moncef; Haouet, Slim

2004-12-01

144

Impaired glucose tolerance in pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are more likely to develop gestational diabetes mellitus compared with age- and weight-matched controls.Methods: This retrospective cohort study compared reproductive-age women with and without PCOS who received prenatal care at the University of North Carolina Hospitals between April 1989 and June 1998. We reviewed the medical charts of 22 women

Paula A Radon; Michael J McMahon; William R Meyer

1999-01-01

145

Prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Hypothyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications both for the mother and progeny and it should be considered in reproductive\\u000a age. Thyroid autoimmunity is stated to be the main cause of hypothyroidism in iodine sufficient areas. Polycystic ovary syndrome\\u000a (PCOS) is known as the most common endocrine disorder affecting women in reproductive age. Early diagnosis and treatment of\\u000a hypothyroidism in PCOS

Maryam Kachuei; Fatemeh Jafari; Ali Kachuei; Ammar H. Keshteli

146

Tachykinins in the normal and gonadotropin-stimulated ovary of the mouse.  

PubMed

In this investigation, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) concentrations have been determined in the ovary of control prepubertal mice, and prepubertal mice injected with pregnant mare serum (PMS) gonadotropin, an equine gonadotropin with predominant FSH action, or with PMS followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which produces heavily luteinized ovaries after the stimulation with PMS. Control animals were injected with saline. The ovaries of animals treated with gonadotropins were heavier than the control ovaries, the combination of PMS plus hCG produced significantly heavier ovaries than PMS alone. The concentrations of SP and NKA in the ovaries of the animals treated with PMS or PMS/hCG were significantly lower than in control ovaries. No significant differences in ovarian tachykinin concentrations were observed between PMS and PMS/hCG-treated animals. The total ovarian content of SP was lower in PMS-injected animals as compared with the controls. The total ovarian content of NKA was not significantly different in the three groups of animals studied. These results show that ovaries stimulated with gonadotropins have lower concentrations of tachykinins than normal ovaries at the same age. It is therefore evident that gonadotropins can affect tachykinin stores in the ovaries of mice. PMID:14706561

Debeljuk, Luciano

2003-09-01

147

Phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase: a newer molecular target in metabolic and hormonal pathway of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia and/or abnormal ovulation, which are the 3 main consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome. The occurrence of polycystic ovary syndrome is higher and 1 out of 45 women gets affected by this disorder. The pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome is very unique, and many hormonal and metabolic changes occur at molecular level. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a hormonal disorder that affects multiple organ systems within the body, which is caused by insensitivity to the hormone insulin. The target organs of insulin action are skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, fibroblasts where metabolic actions of insulin take place. In polycystic ovary syndrome condition, due to insulin resistance, the actions like glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis gets declined along with exhibiting steroidogenic effect in ovaries. The action of phophatidylinositide-3 kinase varies in different tissues. It plays major role in several kinases. The inhibition and activation of phophatidylinositide-3 kinase in different tissues results in differential outcomes. The inhibition of phophatidylinositide-3 kinase in ovary leads to decreased androgen synthesis and the activation affects the positive actions of insulin like glucose uptake. Targeting the hyperandrogenemia of polycystic ovary syndrome, we can get more ameliorating action in polycystic ovary syndrome because glucose uptake, which is mediated by phophatidylinositide-3 kinase activation, is not much altered during polycystic ovary syndrome as much as the androgen levels in polycystic ovary syndrome. Therefore, it is beneficial to control the androgen level. Thus, phophatidylinositide-3 kinase inhibition can be a promising target in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:24710644

Shah, K N; Patel, S S

2014-05-01

148

Ovary starch reserves and pistil development in avocado (Persea americana).  

PubMed

In avocado, only a very small fraction of the flowers are able to set fruit. Previous work in other woody perennial plant species has shown the importance of carbohydrates accumulated in the flower in the reproductive process. Thus, in order to explore the implications of the nutritive status of the flower in the reproductive process in avocado, the starch content in the pistil has been examined in individual pollinated and non-pollinated flowers at anthesis and during the days following anthesis. Starch content in different pistilar tissues in each flower was quantified with the help of an image analysis system attached to a microscope. Flowers at anthesis were rich in highly compartmentalized starch. Although no external morphological differences could be observed among flowers, the starch content varied widely at flower opening. Starch content in the ovary is largely independent of flower size because these differences were not correlated with ovary size. Differences in the progress of starch accumulation within the ovule integuments between pollinated and non-pollinated flowers occurred concomitantly with the triggering of the progamic phase. The results suggest that starch reserves in the ovary could play a significant role in the reproductive process in avocado. PMID:20849425

Alcaraz, M Librada; Hormaza, J Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

2010-12-01

149

A case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the ovary.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman had a pathological fracture of the right femur. On histopathological examination bone metastasis from renal cell carcinoma was suspected. Abdominal computed tomography showed a heterogeneous mass (9.1 x 7.8 x 6.5 cm) in the left kidney and a cystic multilocular mass (12 x 10 cm) in the pelvis. Bone scintigraphy revealed an abnormal uptake in the left coracoid process, right third rib, and right distal femur and proximal tibia. Clinical diagnosis was left renal cancer with multiple bone metastases (cT2NOM1, stage IV) and a right ovarian tumor. We performed left radical nephrectomy and resection of right ovarian tumor by bilateral adnexectomy. On histopathological examination, the left kidney tumor was diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma (clear cell carcinoma with chromophobe component, G2 > G1). The ovarian tumor consisted of carcinoma of clear cell type (G2) that resembled components of left renal cell carcinoma, confirming the diagnosis of metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma to the ovary. Although she underwent immunotherapy with interferon, she died 10 months after nephrectomy. Metastasis to the ovary from renal clear cell carcinoma is very rare and only 18 cases have been reported in the literature. This rarity may be related to the difficulty of differential diagnosis between metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the ovary and primary ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Elaborate analysis of microscopic features and immunohistochemical profiles may help in the distinction of this metastatic lesion. PMID:17252974

Kato, Yuji; Numata, Atsushi; Wada, Naoki; Iwata, Tatsuya; Saga, Yuji; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

2006-12-01

150

Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this brief review is to describe the management of anovulatory infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This has traditionally involved the use of clomiphene citrate (CC), and then gonadotropin therapy or laparoscopic ovarian surgery, in those who are clomiphene resistant (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). Recently developed therapeutic approaches include aromatase inhibitors and the potential use of in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes collected from unstimulated (or minimally stimulated) polycystic ovaries. Unfortunately the early promise of the insulin sensitizing drugs has not been translated into significant improvement in outcomes and therefore are not prescribed unless the patient has an impairment of glucose tolerance (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). There has been an unfortunate shift away from Mono-follicular ovulation induction remains the first line approach for the management of anovulatory PCOS, and in vitro fertilization treatment (IVF) should be reserved for those who fail to respond or who have additional infertility factors (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). Superovulation for IVF presents significant risks for women with polycystic ovaries, namely the potentially life-threatening complication of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Carefully conducted and monitored ovulation induction can achieve good cumulative conception rates and furthermore, multiple pregnancy rates can be minimized with strict adherence to criteria that limit the number of follicles that are permitted to ovulate. PMID:23084977

Balen, Adam H

2013-07-01

151

[Convenience clinic redefine polycystic ovary syndrome (Stein-Leventhal)].  

PubMed

In 1935 during a medical meeting behalf in New Orleans was presents a study that included seven cases of women that suffered menstrual dysfunctions, hirsutism and sterility, for laparotomy the description of the ovaries had a pearly white color and it was hypertrophic, the cuneiform resection in both ovaries resulted in correction of the menstrual dysfunction and two of them got pregnancy later on, receiving the name of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The technological advance facilitates the hormonal analyses demonstrating the hyperandrogenism existence and the mechanism of the anovulation, the PCOS showed to be heterogeneous, reason why it was hindered to define it, this advanced the current trend to question the existence of the PCOS and to accept the convenience, either to change the name or to redefine it, leaving it as a simple syndrome with several phenotypes. The endocrine component includes abnormal secretion of insulin and consequently outlying resistance to this hormone, likewise is hyperandrogenism, dislipoproteinemia and obesity. The hormonal exams are unnecessary for the diagnostic and treatment; it is convenient to demonstrate for sonography the ovarian growth. Other dysfunctions like the congenital suprarenal hyperplasia, hyperprolactinemia and hypotiroidism should be discarded. The treatment should be individualized with relationship to the reason of the consultation and the patients age. It has not been demonstrated that the sensibilitizers use to the insulin avoids long term cardiovascular illness and diabetes. Therefore, the phenotype is heterogeneous with a fickle metabolic component and for it has arisen the restlessness of a better definition of the SPO. PMID:24881358

Zárate-Treviño, Arturo; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Morán, Carlos; Manuel, Leticia; Saucedo, Renata

2014-04-01

152

The aging ovary--the poor granulosa cells.  

PubMed

The development of a competent oocyte intimately depends on the maintenance of energetic homeostasis in the ovarian and follicular microenvironment. On this basis, it is very likely that the oocyte ages as the ovary ages. Starting from the molecular evidence for energy perturbations in the whole ovary, we review current knowledge on the involvement of endogenous highly reactive metabolites in follicle aging. The first part provides an update of recent findings that confirm the key role of oxidative stress in aged granulosa cells. The second part focuses on studies providing evidence for the implication of advanced glycation end product (AGE) in aging reproductive dysfunction. With their prolonged half-life and ability to act as signaling molecules AGEs may gradually accumulate in the ovary and potentiate the wide spatiotemporal spread of oxidative stress. Clinical evidence for this view supports the hypothesis that AGE is a good candidate as a predictive marker and therapeutic target in new strategies for improving reproductive counseling in aging women. PMID:23273984

Tatone, Carla; Amicarelli, Fernanda

2013-01-01

153

AROMATASE EXCESS IN CANCERS OF BREAST, ENDOMETRIUM AND OVARY  

PubMed Central

Pathogenesis and growth of three common women’s cancers (breast, endometrium and ovary) are linked to estrogen. A single gene encodes the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis named aromatase, inhibition of which effectively eliminates estrogen production in the entire body. Aromatase inhibitors successfully treat breast cancer, whereas their roles in endometrial and ovarian cancers are less clear. Ovary, testis, adipose tissue, skin, hypothalamus and placenta express aromatase normally, whereas breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers overexpress aromatase and produce local estrogen exerting paracrine and intracrine effects. Tissue-specific promoters distributed over a 93-kilobase regulatory region upstream of a common coding region alternatively control aromatase expression. A distinct set of transcription factors regulates each promoter in a signaling pathway- and tissue-specific manner. In cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary, aromatase expression is primarly regulated by increased activity of the proximally located promoter I.3/II region. Promoters I.3 and II lie 215 bp from each other and are coordinately stimulated by PGE2 via a cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway. In breast adipose fibroblasts exposed to PGE2 secreted by malignant epithelial cells, activation of PKC potentiates cAMP-PKA-dependent induction of aromatase. Thus, inflammatory substances such as PGE2 may play important roles in inducing local production of estrogen that promotes tumor growth.

Bulun, Serdar E.; Chen, Dong; Lu, Meiling; Zhao, Hong; Cheng, Youhong; Demura, Masashi; Yilmaz, Bertan; Martin, Regina; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Thung, Steven; Su, Emily; Marsh, Erica; Hakim, Amy; Yin, Ping; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Amin, Sanober; Imir, Gonca; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Erkut; Reierstat, Scott; Innes, Joy; Lin, Zhihong

2007-01-01

154

A Single Mutation Affects Both N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase and Glucuronosyltransferase Activities in a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Mutant Defective in Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells have been found that no longer produce heparan sulfate. Characterization of one of the mutants, pgsD-677, showed that it lacks both N-acetylglucosaminyl- and glucuronosyltransferase, enzymes required for the polymerization of heparan sulfate chains. pgsD-677 also accumulates 3- to 4-fold more chondroitin sulfate than the wild type. Cell hybrids derived from pgsD-677 and wild type

Kerstin Lidholt; Julie L. Weinke; Cheryl S. Kiser; Fulgentius N. Lugemwa; Karen J. Bame; Sela Cheifetz; Joan Massague; Ulf Lindahl; Jeffrey D. Esko

1992-01-01

155

The impact of alpha lipoic acid on developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to those isolated from vitrified ovaries.  

PubMed

Background: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissues and pre-antral follicles is a promising prospect for preservation of women fertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to isolated pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified ovaries in the presence of alpha lipoic acid (ALA). Materials and Methods: Pre-antral follicles derived from fresh, vitrified-warmed ovarian tissues and vitrified-warmed pre-antral follicles were cultured individually with or without ALA, followed by adding hCG to induce ovulation. The follicle growth, oocyte maturation, and embryo development were assessed. Results: The diameter and development of follicles, oocyte maturation and embryo development rates were significantly higher in ALA supplemented groups compared to the respective ALA-free conditions groups. Aforementioned parameters were significantly higher in vitrified-warmed follicles in comparison to follicles derived from vitrified-warmed ovaries. Conclusion: These findings support a superior performance of pre-antral follicles when vitrified rather than when isolated from vitrified ovaries with regard to increasing the rates of developmental parameters. Moreover, ALA improves the in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles in vitrified and non-vitrified samples. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Sahar Hatami). PMID:24799862

Hatami, Sahar; Zavareh, Saeed; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Karimi, Isaac

2014-01-01

156

The impact of alpha lipoic acid on developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to those isolated from vitrified ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background: Cryopreservation of ovarian tissues and pre-antral follicles is a promising prospect for preservation of women fertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro developmental competence of mouse vitrified pre-antral follicles in comparison to isolated pre-antral follicles derived from vitrified ovaries in the presence of alpha lipoic acid (ALA). Materials and Methods: Pre-antral follicles derived from fresh, vitrified-warmed ovarian tissues and vitrified–warmed pre-antral follicles were cultured individually with or without ALA, followed by adding hCG to induce ovulation. The follicle growth, oocyte maturation, and embryo development were assessed. Results: The diameter and development of follicles, oocyte maturation and embryo development rates were significantly higher in ALA supplemented groups compared to the respective ALA-free conditions groups. Aforementioned parameters were significantly higher in vitrified-warmed follicles in comparison to follicles derived from vitrified-warmed ovaries. Conclusion: These findings support a superior performance of pre-antral follicles when vitrified rather than when isolated from vitrified ovaries with regard to increasing the rates of developmental parameters. Moreover, ALA improves the in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles in vitrified and non-vitrified samples. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Sahar Hatami)

Hatami, Sahar; Zavareh, Saeed; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Ghorbanian, Mohammad Taghi; Karimi, Isaac

2014-01-01

157

Morphological characteristics and developmental changes of the ovary in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann.  

PubMed

Haemaphysalis longicornis (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is an important vector of transovarially transmitted parasites of the genus Babesia (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae). In the present study, we investigated the morphological characteristics and developmental changes of the ovary of H.?longicornis. We show that the ovary of H.?longicornis has a single tubular structure and is surrounded by a tunica propria. There is a longitudinal groove along one side of the ovary. During feeding and after engorgement, great changes can be observed in the ovary of H.?longicornis and two rapid growth phases can be detected. The number of major protein bands of the ovary is significantly increased from day?3 of feeding and reaches a maximum on the day of engorgement. Therefore, the great diversity of proteins in the ovaries of H.?longicornis can facilitate the identification of new targets for vaccine development. PMID:24138414

Yang, X L; Yu, Z J; Gao, Z H; Yang, X H; Liu, J Z

2014-06-01

158

Stereolithographic biomodeling of equine ovary based on 3D serial digitizing device  

PubMed Central

The 3D internal structure microscopy (3D-ISM) was applied to the equine ovary, which possesses peculiar structural characteristics. Stereolithography was applied to make a life-sized model by means of data obtained from 3D-ISM. Images from serially sliced surfaces contributed to a successful 3D reconstruction of the equine ovary. Photopolymerized resin models of equine ovaries produced by stereolithography can clearly show the internal structure and spatial localizations in the ovary. The understanding of the spatial relationship between the ovulation fossa and follicles and/or corpora lutea in the equine ovary was a great benefit. The peculiar structure of the equine ovary could be thoroughly observed and understood through this model.

Kakusho, Nobunori; Yamazawa, Kenji; Hirano, Yuuko; Nambo, Yasuo; Yokota, Hideo; Himeno, Ryutaro

2009-01-01

159

Stereolithographic biomodeling of equine ovary based on 3D serial digitizing device.  

PubMed

The 3D internal structure microscopy (3D-ISM) was applied to the equine ovary, which possesses peculiar structural characteristics. Stereolithography was applied to make a life-sized model by means of data obtained from 3D-ISM. Images from serially sliced surfaces contributed to a successful 3D reconstruction of the equine ovary. Photopolymerized resin models of equine ovaries produced by stereolithography can clearly show the internal structure and spatial localizations in the ovary. The understanding of the spatial relationship between the ovulation fossa and follicles and/or corpora lutea in the equine ovary was a great benefit. The peculiar structure of the equine ovary could be thoroughly observed and understood through this model. PMID:19461213

Kimura, Junpei; Kakusho, Nobunori; Yamazawa, Kenji; Hirano, Yuuko; Nambo, Yasuo; Yokota, Hideo; Himeno, Ryutaro

2009-06-01

160

Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary  

PubMed Central

The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final phase of ovarian life when the follicle reserve wanes below certain threshold size.

Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

2014-01-01

161

Fractalkine is expressed in the human ovary and increases progesterone biosynthesis in human luteinised granulosa cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent evidence from rodent ovaries has demonstrated expression of fractalkine and the existence of fractalkine receptor,\\u000a and showed that there is a significant increase in steroidogenesis in response to fractalkine, yet the role of fractalkine\\u000a and CX3CR1 in the human ovary is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the expression levels of fractalkine and CX3CR1\\u000a in the human ovary

Shuo Huang; Ping Zhao; Liying Yang; Yuan Chen; Jie Yan; Enkui Duan; Jie Qiao

2011-01-01

162

Seasonal morphological changes in the ovary of the Jungle crow ( Corvus macrorhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric and histological studies were conducted to examine the seasonal ovarian changes in the Jungle crow of the Kanto\\u000a area, Japan, from December to June. The ovary weights, largest diameters and atresias of the ovarian follicles and steroid-producing\\u000a cells were examined. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained ovary sections and ImageJ software were used. The most developed ovary\\u000a weight increased 373-fold in April,

Muhammad Nazrul Islam; Xiao Bo Zhu; Masato Aoyama; Shoei Sugita

2010-01-01

163

[Comparative histological study of the reproductive system of the female llama (Lama guanicoe glama). I. Ovary].  

PubMed

In the present study a cytological, histological and morphometrical comparison between the ovaries of the llama, the cow and the sheep is presented, at two phases of the ovarian cycle. There were found differences in the amount of primordial and primary follicles, the size of secondary follicles and follicular cells, and type and distribution of the connective tissue inside the stroma of the ovary. It would be necessary to study the fine structure of the ovary and the so-called "embryological remnants", for its permanent appearance in most (50%) of the ovaries. PMID:1489107

Arias, P; Feder, F H; Porcel, R; Cox, J

1992-12-01

164

Cancer of the supernumerary ovary in Mayer-Rokitansty-Küster-Hauser Syndrome: A case report.  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansty-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a Müllerian anomaly that presents with varying degrees of uterovaginal aplasia and is secondarily associated with cervicothoracic, auditory and skeletal anomalies. However, MRKH syndrome patients have normal and functional ovaries. A supernumerary ovary is an extremely rare form of an ectopic ovary and there are no reported cases of MRKH syndrome with cancer of the supernumerary ovary in the current literature. A 31-year-old female with a history of MRKH syndrome that was diagnosed 4 years previously presented with abdominal pain and a suspected malignant pelvic mass was identified. During the staging surgery, both ovaries were separated from the main mass, observed and removed. A third ovary was discovered in the pelvic mass and the diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer from the third ovary was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We report the first known case of cancer of the supernumerary ovary in a patient with MRKH syndrome. Although both ovaries were confirmed to be normal in the patient with MRKH syndrome, we propose that an ovarian neoplasm should be considered in the diagnosis of a pelvic mass. PMID:23420814

Bae, Hyo Sook; Ryu, Min Ji; Kim, In Sun; Kim, Sun Haeng; Song, Jae Yun

2013-02-01

165

Cancer of the supernumerary ovary in Mayer-Rokitansty-K?ster-Hauser Syndrome: A case report  

PubMed Central

Mayer-Rokitansty-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a Müllerian anomaly that presents with varying degrees of uterovaginal aplasia and is secondarily associated with cervicothoracic, auditory and skeletal anomalies. However, MRKH syndrome patients have normal and functional ovaries. A supernumerary ovary is an extremely rare form of an ectopic ovary and there are no reported cases of MRKH syndrome with cancer of the supernumerary ovary in the current literature. A 31-year-old female with a history of MRKH syndrome that was diagnosed 4 years previously presented with abdominal pain and a suspected malignant pelvic mass was identified. During the staging surgery, both ovaries were separated from the main mass, observed and removed. A third ovary was discovered in the pelvic mass and the diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer from the third ovary was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We report the first known case of cancer of the supernumerary ovary in a patient with MRKH syndrome. Although both ovaries were confirmed to be normal in the patient with MRKH syndrome, we propose that an ovarian neoplasm should be considered in the diagnosis of a pelvic mass.

BAE, HYO SOOK; RYU, MIN JI; KIM, IN SUN; KIM, SUN HAENG; SONG, JAE YUN

2013-01-01

166

Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: underpinning of insulin resistance and ovarian dysfunction.  

PubMed

Chronic low-grade inflammation has emerged as a key contributor to the pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). A dietary trigger such as glucose is capable of inciting oxidative stress and an inflammatory response from mononuclear cells (MNC) of women with PCOS, and this phenomenon is independent of obesity. This is important because MNC-derived macrophages are the primary source of cytokine production in excess adipose tissue, and also promote adipocyte cytokine production in a paracrine fashion. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) is a known mediator of insulin resistance. Glucose-stimulated TNF? release from MNC along with molecular markers of inflammation are associated with insulin resistance in PCOS. Hyperandrogenism is capable of activating MNC in the fasting state, thereby increasing MNC sensitivity to glucose; and this may be a potential mechanism for promoting diet-induced inflammation in PCOS. Increased abdominal adiposity is prevalent across all weight classes in PCOS, and this inflamed adipose tissue contributes to the inflammatory load in the disorder. Nevertheless, glucose ingestion incites oxidative stress in normal weight women with PCOS even in the absence of increased abdominal adiposity. In PCOS, markers of oxidative stress and inflammation are highly correlated with circulating androgens. Chronic suppression of ovarian androgen production does not ameliorate inflammation in normal weight women with the disorder. Furthermore, in vitro studies have demonstrated the ability of pro-inflammatory stimuli to upregulate the ovarian theca cell steroidogenic enzyme responsible for androgen production. These findings support the contention that inflammation directly stimulates the polycystic ovary to produce androgens. PMID:22178787

González, Frank

2012-03-10

167

Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents: current and future treatment options.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common disorder affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. The pivotal endocrine abnormalities of this syndrome are insulin resistance and ovarian and, to a lesser degree, adrenal hypersensitivity to hormonal stimulation. PCOS may manifest itself as early as the first decade of life by premature pubarche or menarche. Oligoamenorrhea in the first postpubarchal years, although very common, may be an early symptom of PCOS, especially in overweight girls with hirsutism or acne. Girls with low birth weight as well as a family history of diabetes mellitus or premature cardiovascular disease are at high risk for developing PCOS. Circulating bioavailable testosterone levels are usually elevated, while total testosterone may be normal due to low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. The typical sonographic appearance of PCOS ovaries consists of high ovarian volume (>10 mL) and the presence of 12 or more follicles in each ovary measuring 2-9 mm in diameter. However, this finding is not specific, since it may occur in >20% of healthy girls. The therapeutic goals in adolescents with PCOS is first to restore bodyweight and menses and to reduce the signs of hyperandrogenism. The reduction of bodyweight in this young age group may require the collaboration of the pediatrician, dietitian, and psychotherapist. The adolescent should be urged to adopt a healthy lifestyle with the aim to maintain a normal body mass index throughout adolescence and adult life. The choice of medical therapy depends on the clinical presentation. Oral contraceptives are a good option when acne and hirsutism are the principal complaints. Adolescents with isolated cycle irregularity may be placed on a cyclical progestin regimen to induce withdrawal bleeding. Metformin, by decreasing insulin resistance, alleviates many of the hormonal disturbances and restores menses in a considerable proportion of patients. It may be used alone or in combination with oral contraceptives. Independently of medical treatment, restoration and maintenance of bodyweight within normal range is of paramount importance. PMID:17037948

Mastorakos, George; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Creatsas, George

2006-01-01

168

Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Bovine Follicular Cystic Ovaries  

PubMed Central

Follicular cystic ovary (FCO) is one of the most frequently diagnosed ovarian diseases and is a major cause of reproductive failure in mammalian species. However, the mechanism by which FCO is induced remains unclear. Genetic alterations which affect the functioning of many kinds of cells and/or tissues could be present in cystic ovaries. In this study, we performed a comparison analysis of gene expression in order to identify new molecules useful in discrimination of bovine FCO with follicular cystic follicles (FCFs). Normal follicles and FCFs were classified based on their sizes (5 to 10 mm and ?25 mm). These follicles had granulosa cell layer and theca interna and the hormone 17?-estradiol (E2)/ progesterone (P4) ratio in follicles was greater than one. Perifollicular regions including follicles were used for the preparation of RNA or protein. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) that showed greater than a 2-fold change in expression were screened by the annealing control primer (ACP)-based PCR method using GeneFishing™ DEG kits in bovine normal follicles and FCFs. We identified two DEGs in the FCFs: ribosomal protein L15 (RPL15) and microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) based on BLAST searches of the NCBI GenBank. Consistent with the ACP analysis, semi-quantitative PCR data and Western blot analyses revealed an up-regulation of RPL15 and a down-regulation of MAP1B in FCFs. These results suggest that RPL15 and MAP1B may be involved in the regulation of pathological processes in bovine FCOs and may help to establish a bovine gene data-base for the discrimination of FCOs from normal ovaries.

Choe, Changyong; Cho, Young-Woo; Kim, Chang-Woon; Son, Dong-Soo; Han, Jaehee

2010-01-01

169

Intraoperative scrape cytology: Adult granulosa cell tumor of ovary  

PubMed Central

Adult granulosa cell tumor is often a hormonally active stromal cell neoplasm of the ovary with malignant potential. Intra-operative pathological assessment is a valuable tool in guiding optimal surgical treatment in patients. Of the various intra-operative cytological diagnostic modalities, scrape smear cytology is an effective, economical, simple, fast and reliable method with results comparable with frozen section diagnosis. We describe a case of adult granulosa cell tumor in a 30-years-old lady diagnosed on intra-operative scrape cytology, and further reconfirmed on frozen section and histopathology.

Deb, Prabal; Malik, Ajay; Sinha, Kavita K

2011-01-01

170

Diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome: a practical guide.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome, which can be defined as a group of recognisable patterns of symptoms or abnormalities that indicate a particular medical situation. The current definition of PCOS requires the presence of two of the following three conditions: (i) oligo- and/or anovulation; (ii) clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism; and (iii) polycystic ovaries--and the exclusion of other aetiologies. It is generally accepted that the prevalence of PCOS is approximately 5-10%, and that of polycystic ovaries alone is 21-23%. Other features of PCOS are obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnoea and infertility. An approach to a patient with possible PCOS should be directed towards making a diagnosis and screening for associated endocrine abnormalities. Therapeutic interventions are directed towards addressing the needs of the patient at present and towards preventing long-term complications of the syndrome. Body mass index, which is a primary mediator in the relationship between PCOS and health-related quality of life in obese PCOS adolescents, may play a similar role in other PCOS patients. Any intervention directed at reducing central obesity will not only improve quality of life but also correct hyperinsulinism and improve fertility and lipid and androgen profiles. It is also the only currently available intervention that can have a lifelong impact on reducing possible long-term complications of the syndrome. Lifestyle modification is the cardinal intervention. Pharmacological treatments are available for specific indications. Infertility can be treated with clomifene (clomiphene citrate), metformin, gonadotropins or surgery to the ovaries. Cyproterone (alone or in combination with ethinylestradiol) and spironolactone are the main drugs used in the treatment of hirsutism. Other drugs that can be considered include flutamide, ketoconazole and finasteride. Women with PCOS require ongoing surveillance to detect impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidaemia, endometrial hyperplasia and consequent complications. Obese women, in particular, require regular glucose tolerance testing because of the potential for rapid progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. The focus of this article is the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this common endocrine disorder. Diagnostic and co-morbid features are discussed separately to facilitate understanding of PCOS. Symptom-directed strategies, as well as short- and long-term goals of treatment, are outlined. PMID:16740005

Stankiewicz, Marcin; Norman, Robert

2006-01-01

171

Characterization of ornithine decarboxylase of tobacco cells and tomato ovaries.  

PubMed Central

Some characteristics of L-ornithine decarboxylase of tomato ovaries and tobacco cells are described. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 8.0. It requires pyridoxal phosphate and thiol reagent (dithiothreitol) for activity. It is specific for L-ornithine and has an apparent Km of 1.4 X 10-4 M. It has an apparent molecular weight of 107000. Putrescine inhibited the activity in vitro. Spermidine and spermine also inhibit the enzyme, but less effectively. It is concluded that the enzyme is similar to that of mammalian origin and likewise fulfils a function related to cell proliferation.

Heimer, Y M; Mizrahi, Y

1982-01-01

172

Glucose intolerance states in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common hyperandrogenic disorder affecting 4-7% of women, is often associated with metabolic alterations, chiefly insulin resistance and obesity. Based on available scientific evidence, PCOS should be regarded as an independent risk for the development of glucose intolerance states. This short review summarizes the available literature on the prevalence and incidence of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes in this disorder. In addition, some insights on potential factors responsible for individual susceptibility are discussed. Targeted intervention studies focused on prevention and treatment of glucose intolerance states in PCOS are warranted. PMID:24105073

Pasquali, R; Gambineri, A

2013-09-01

173

Follistatin Operates Downstream of Wnt4 in Mammalian Ovary Organogenesis  

PubMed Central

Wnt4?/? XX gonads display features normally associated with testis differentiation, suggesting that WNT4 actively represses elements of the male pathway during ovarian development. Here, we show that follistatin (Fst), which encodes a TGF? superfamily binding protein, is a downstream component of Wnt4 signaling. Fst inhibits formation of the XY-specific coelomic vessel in XX gonads. In addition, germ cells in the ovarian cortex are almost completely lost in both Wnt4 and Fst null gonads before birth. Thus, we propose that WNT4 acts through FST to regulate vascular boundaries and maintain germ cell survival in the ovary. Developmental Dynamics 230:210–215, 2004.

Yao, Humphrey H.C.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Menke, Douglas B.; Page, David C.; Swain, Amanda; Capel, Blanche

2014-01-01

174

Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: a single institution review of 84 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary are found in 10% of women with ovarian cancer and 5% of women with endometrial cancer. The purpose of this study was to characterize patients diagnosed with synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary with an emphasis on risk factors.Methods. Between 1989 and 2002, 84 patients with synchronous primary cancers

Pamela T. Soliman; Brian M. Slomovitz; Russell R. Broaddus; Charlotte C. Sun; Jonathan C. Oh; Patricia J. Eifel; David M. Gershenson; Karen H. Lua

2004-01-01

175

Synchronous occurrence of primary malignant mixed m?llerian tumor in ovary and uterus  

PubMed Central

Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) arising from female internal genitalia is rare with the uterine corpus being the most prevalently affected site. It is even more rare when it occurs on both uterus and ovary at the same time. We describe a case of synchronized occurrence of MMMT on ovary and uterine adenosarcoma with review of literature.

Lee, Tae Yeon; Lee, Chulmin; Choi, Won Jun; Lee, Ji Young

2013-01-01

176

Malignant Transformation in Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Ovary: Three Cases Mimicking Primary Ovarian Epithelial Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports 3 unusual cases of malignant transformation in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary (dermoid cyst), namely carcinosarcoma, atypical choroid plexus papilloma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma, the last case involving both ovaries and with peritoneal dissemination. Adequate sampling is essential in such ovarian tumors to establish their teratomatous origin and avoid an erroneous diagnosis of primary ovarian or

Asif M. Quadri; Raji Ganesan; Ye Lin Hock; Sabeeha Naheed Karim; Lynn Hirschowitz

2011-01-01

177

Structural homology and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification in Lithophragma (Saxifragaceae).  

PubMed

Lithophragma, comprising only ten species, encompasses a remarkable diversity of ovary positions, reported to range from inferior to superior. The structural homology of the gynoecium and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification are investigated for Lithophragma. Scanning electron and light microscopy indicate that all species of Lithophragma have epigynous flowers. Lithophragma campanulatum, L. glabrum, and L. heterophyllum have ovaries that externally appear nearly superior, but are actually shallowly inferior or "pseudosuperior." The inferior ovaries of Lithophragma species can be conceptually divided into superior and inferior regions that meet at the point of perianth and androecial insertion. Static and ontogenetic allometry reveal that across the species of Lithophragma the lengths of these two ovary regions are coordinated. Ovary regions in mature flowers display an approximately linear relationship that can be expressed through the allometric equation SL = -0.5314 IL + 2.0348 (where SL and IL are the lengths of the superior and inferior regions of the ovary, respectively; r = 0.7683, df = 35, P = 2.45 × 10). Mapping ontogenetic allometries onto a recent phylogeny for Lithophragma shows that ovary position evolution is bidirectional and has shifted toward greater superiority in some species and greater inferiority in others. PMID:11222242

Kuzoff, R K; Hufford, L; Soltis, D E

2001-02-01

178

Electro-Oophorogram: A Preliminary Study of the Electric Activity of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric activity of the ovary was studied in 13 female mongrel dogs aiming at characterizing a normal electro-oophorogram (EOOG). Two monopolar silver-silver chloride electrodes were sutured under anesthesia to the ovary of the bitches which were in the anestrus phase of the estrous cycle. A daily recording session of 60 min was performed for 10 days. Furthermore, the effect

Ahmed Shafik

1998-01-01

179

The reproduction of Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae). I. Ovarial cycle, environmental factors and feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blennius (Salaria) pavo is a very common coastal fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The development of the ovary was studied over a period of one year; seven stages of oogenesis are described. Ripe eggs are carried during the spawning season from Juni to August. The ovary shows a resting period of more than half a year (September to March). Environmental

Robert A. Patzner

1983-01-01

180

Primary hypothyroidism associated with pituitary enlargement, slipped capital femoral epiphysis and cystic ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of primary hypothyroidism with pituitary enlargement, slipped capital femoral epiphysis and cystic ovaries is reported. The pituitary abnormality and cystic ovaries disappeared dramatically after thyroid hormone therapy. Hip pinning was performed. The recognition of these associations may eliminate unnecessary surgery and lead to the choice of hormone replacement therapy.

Y. Nishi; H. Masuda; H. Iwamori; T. Urabe; K. Sakoda; T. Uozumi; T. Usui

1985-01-01

181

Host regulation effects of ovary fluid and venom of Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host regulation effects of venom and ovary fluid of the endophagous braconid Aphidius ervi Haliday on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), have been studied. Extracts of ovaries and of venom glands were injected into nonparasitized 4th instar pea aphids, both separately and mixed. Aphids treated with parasitoid material died as 4th instars, often showing developmental arrest. In contrast,

M. C Digilio; F Pennacchio; E Tremblay

1998-01-01

182

Elevated ghrelin plasma levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder in women. It is associated with hirsuitism, obesity, insulin resistance, abnormality in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) axis and polycystic ovaries. The etiology of PCOS has not been clarified. Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It is mainly secreted by stomach cells but has also been shown to be present in hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas and gonads. Ghrelin is a regulator of energy homeostasis and GH secretion. The influence of ghrelin on insulin secretion and gonadal function is known. Since ghrelin may play an important role in pathophysiology of PCOS, we studied ghrelin levels in a group of 52 women with PCOS and in 16 women in a control group. Plasma levels of insulin, total testosterone, SHBG, LH, and FSH were also measured. In conclusion, PCOS women have higher ghrelin levels than controls. Ghrelin negatively correlates with BMI and insulin levels in PCOS group. A relation between ghrelin and SHBG was observed. Our data suggest that ghrelin could be the possible link in PCOS etiology. PMID:15057670

Wa?ko, R; Komarowska, H; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Sowi?ski, J

2004-03-01

183

Significance of atrophic ovaries in livestock production in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

In a study of 3000 cattle of different breeds and origin (Bos indicus and Bos taurus) in Northern Nigeria, an overall 22.7 per cent incidence of anoestrus associated with organic genital abnormalities was observed. Of this 19.3 per cent was due to ovarian atrophy. This was observed mostly during the pre-dry and dry seasons, periods of poor and inadequate feed. The average incidence of atrophic ovaries in the exotic breeds (Bos taurus) was 17.1 per cent, while an incidence of 20.4 per cent was observed in the indigenous (Bos indicus) cattle; there was no significant difference between the two groups. A relatively higher incidence of functional anoestrus (27.5 per cent) which showed no seasonal pattern and no significant difference between the breeds was observed. Inadequate nutrition was the major cause of the ovarian atrophy and subsequent anoestrus. Other clinical genital abnormalities included hypoplastic ovaries (1.9 per cent), follicular cysts (4.5 per cent), pyometra (4.5 per cent) and freemartinism (0.3 per cent). The influence of anoestrus (50 per cent total incidence) on the economic aspect of livestock production in Northern Nigeria is discussed. PMID:7196640

Kumi-Diaka, J; Ogwu, D; Osori, D I

1981-03-28

184

[Treatment experience with metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome].  

PubMed

Based on the favourable international experience with metformin in the most common female endocrine disease, the polycystic ovary syndrome, which has insulin resistance in the background, the author's treatment advice has been this in such cases since early 2002: for sexually active women who do not want to become pregnant for the time being, anti-androgenic contraceptive pill; for those who do not want to take contraceptives, contraceptives are contraindicated, or who do want to conceive, metformin. 44/71 non-diabetic patients opted for metformin treatment. A 3 to 30 month follow-up period of 25 patients could be evaluated. Seven patients had transient vertigo, diarrhoea or abdominal discomfort at the beginning of the treatment. The severity of acne of 21 patients diminished significantly by three months and the acne score fell close to the half value by six months. Body hair of 17 women with hypertrichosis diminished significantly by six months. Menstrual cycles of 8/13 patients became regular by three months; a further woman became pregnant and continued metformin throughout pregnancy. Her blood pressure remained normal despite suffering from pre-eclampsia during all of her previous pregnancies. The average body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio did not change significantly during the follow-up. Apart from few initial, transient side effects, disadvantages of the treatment were not found. Long-term metformin treatment resulted in significant improvement of the symptoms of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:15991679

Petrányi, Gyula

2005-05-22

185

Phenotypic expression of polycystic ovary syndrome in South Asian women.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 6% to 10% of women and, as the most common worldwide endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women, is linked to a constellation of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, including anovulatory infertility, hirsutism, acne, and insulin resistance in association with metabolic syndrome. Despite a genetic component to PCOS, ethnicity plays an important role in the phenotypic expression of PCOS, with South Asian PCOS women having more severe reproductive and metabolic symptoms than other ethnic groups. South Asians with PCOS seek medical care at an earlier age for reproductive abnormalities; have a higher degree of hirsutism, infertility, and acne; and experience lower live birth rates following in vitro fertilization than do whites with PCOS. Similarly, South Asians with PCOS have a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome than do other PCOS-related ethnic groups of a similar body mass index. Inheritance of PCOS appears to have a complex genetic basis, including genetic differences based on ethnicity, which interact with lifestyle and other environmental factors to affect PCOS phenotypic expression. Target Audience: Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to state an ethnic difference in reproductive dysfunction between South Asian and white women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), state an ethnic difference in metabolic dysfunction between South Asian and white women with PCOS, identify a genetic abnormality found in South Asian women with PCOS, and list 2 environmental factors that predispose South Asian women to metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23945839

Mehta, Jaya; Kamdar, Vikram; Dumesic, Daniel

2013-03-01

186

Outcome of metformin treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical diagnosis. During one year period, 50 women suffering from PCOS were treated with either 850 mg/twice daily or 500 mg/thrice daily along with clomiphene citrate and/or letrozole, with advice for exercise and dietary therapy. Diagnosis of the PCOS patients was made by the presence of two out of the following three criteria: (a) oligo and/or anovulation, (b) hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical), and (c) polycystic ovaries, with the exclusion of other aetiologies. The mean±SD age of our patients was 26.74±3.85 years, BMI 26.64±2.64 kg/m2, pulse 80.56±4.61 b/min, systolic blood pressure 113.80±4.40 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 76.10±4.77 mmHg, duration of marriage 6.19±3.20 years, and parity was 43(86%) nulliparous and 7(14%) primiparous. Oligomenorrhoea was present in 100%, hypomenorrhoea in 38%, secondary amenorrhoea in 28% and acne in 70% women. Results showed that 92% women followed advice on exercise and dietary therapy, in maximum number of women progesterone level was 31.40 nmol/L (66%), weight loss was 2 kg (44%), menstrual cycle regular (90%) and pregnancy test negative (90%). Only in 5 cases (10%) pregnancy test was positive. PMID:22314456

Anwary, S A; Alfazzaman, M; Bari, N; Islam, M R

2012-01-01

187

The Genetic Basis of Transgressive Ovary Size in Honeybee Workers  

PubMed Central

Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200–360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits.

Linksvayer, Timothy A.; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

2009-01-01

188

Polycystic ovary syndrome: reviewing diagnosis and management of metabolic disturbances.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women at reproductive age associated with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Proposed diagnosed criteria for PCOS include two out of three features: androgen excess, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovary appearance on ultrasound (PCO), after other causes of hyperandrogenism and dysovulation are excluded. Based on these diagnostic criteria, the most common phenotypes are the "classic PCOS"--hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea, with or without PCO; the "ovulatory phenotype"--hyperandrogenism and PCO in ovulatory women; and the "non-hyperandrogenic phenotype", in which there is oligomenorrhea and PCO, without overt hyperandrogenism. The presence of obesity may exacerbate the metabolic and reproductive disorders associated with the syndrome. In addition, PCOS women present higher risk for type 2 diabetes and higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors that seems to be associated with the classic phenotype. The main interventions to minimize cardiovascular and metabolic risks in PCOS are lifestyle changes, pharmacological therapy, and bariatric surgery. Treatment with metformin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, lowering blood glucose and androgen levels. These effects are more potent when combined with lifestyle interventions. In conclusion, besides reproductive abnormalities, PCOS has been associated to metabolic comorbidities, most of them linked to obesity. Confounders, such as the lack of standard diagnostic criteria, heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, and presence of obesity, make management of PCOS difficult. Therefore, the approach to metabolic abnormalities should be tailored to the risks and treatment goals of each individual woman. PMID:24830595

Spritzer, Poli Mara

2014-03-01

189

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications.

Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

2014-01-01

190

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%-20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine criteria are used. Clinical manifestations include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Risk factors for PCOS in adults includes type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance affects 50%-70% of women with PCOS leading to a number of comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and diabetes. Studies show that women with PCOS are more likely to have increased coronary artery calcium scores and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS includes oral contraceptives for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are used to treat symptoms of androgen excess. Treatment options for infertility include clomiphene, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, gonadotropins, and assisted reproductive technology. Recent data suggest that letrozole and metformin may play an important role in ovulation induction. Proper diagnosis and management of PCOS is essential to address patient concerns but also to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24379699

Sirmans, Susan M; Pate, Kristen A

2013-01-01

191

Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance. PMID:23001751

Musia?, K; P?achno, B J; ?wi?tek, P; Marciniuk, J

2013-06-01

192

The genetic basis of transgressive ovary size in honeybee workers.  

PubMed

Ovarioles are the functional unit of the female insect reproductive organs and the number of ovarioles per ovary strongly influences egg-laying rate and fecundity. Social evolution in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) has resulted in queens with 200-360 total ovarioles and workers with usually 20 or less. In addition, variation in ovariole number among workers relates to worker sensory tuning, foraging behavior, and the ability to lay unfertilized male-destined eggs. To study the genetic architecture of worker ovariole number, we performed a series of crosses between Africanized and European bees that differ in worker ovariole number. Unexpectedly, these crosses produced transgressive worker phenotypes with extreme ovariole numbers that were sensitive to the social environment. We used a new selective pooled DNA interval mapping approach with two Africanized backcrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the transgressive ovary phenotype. We identified one QTL on chromosome 11 and found some evidence for another QTL on chromosome 2. Both QTL regions contain plausible functional candidate genes. The ovariole number of foragers was correlated with the sugar concentration of collected nectar, supporting previous studies showing a link between worker physiology and foraging behavior. We discuss how the phenotype of extreme worker ovariole numbers and the underlying genetic factors we identified could be linked to the development of queen traits. PMID:19620393

Linksvayer, Timothy A; Rueppell, Olav; Siegel, Adam; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

2009-10-01

193

Ovary development and maturation in Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).  

PubMed

Ovary development and maturation of Nezara viridula (L.) were evaluated by examining ovariole morphology and the alterations in the biochemical (protein synthesis related to reproduction) composition of the hemolymph. Quantitative and qualitative protein analyses were performed and ovary structural alterations for the pre-reproductive and reproductive stages were recorded. Total concentration of proteins in female hemolymph gradually increased until the end of the pre-mating stage, remaining unaltered thereafter. Proteins linked to reproduction (vitellogenins) appeared in the hemolymph 10 days after adult emergence and indicated the end of the pre-mating stage. After mating, total protein concentration in the hemolymph was lower compared to virgin females; vitellogenin levels were similar during most of the observation period. Oocyte development and maturation were gradual and age dependent. Ten-day-old females had chorionated oocytes ready for fertilization. Mating did not stimulate oocyte development in N. viridula, but the lack of mating activity appeared to have stimulated oocyte resorption in 17-day-old females. PMID:21437488

Fortes, P; Salvador, G; Cônsoli, F L

2011-01-01

194

Caprin Controls Follicle Stem Cell Fate in the Drosophila Ovary  

PubMed Central

Adult stem cells must balance self-renewal and differentiation for tissue homeostasis. The Drosophila ovary has provided a wealth of information about the extrinsic niche signals and intrinsic molecular processes required to ensure appropriate germline stem cell renewal and differentiation. The factors controlling behavior of the more recently identified follicle stem cells of the ovary are less well-understood but equally important for fertility. Here we report that translational regulators play a critical role in controlling these cells. Specifically, the translational regulator Caprin (Capr) is required in the follicle stem cell lineage to ensure maintenance of this stem cell population and proper encapsulation of developing germ cells by follicle stem cell progeny. In addition, reduction of one copy of the gene fmr1, encoding the translational regulator Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, exacerbates the Capr encapsulation phenotype, suggesting Capr and fmr1 are regulating a common process. Caprin was previously characterized in vertebrates as Cytoplasmic Activation/Proliferation-Associated Protein. Significantly, we find that loss of Caprin alters the dynamics of the cell cycle, and we present evidence that misregulation of CycB contributes to the disruption in behavior of follicle stem cell progeny. Our findings support the idea that translational regulators may provide a conserved mechanism for oversight of developmentally critical cell cycles such as those in stem cell populations.

Reich, John; Papoulas, Ophelia

2012-01-01

195

Women with one ovary have decreased response to GnRHa\\/HMG ovulation induction protocol in IVF but the same pregnancy rate as women with two ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

ovaries. Tubal disease was the sole cause for infertility in all yielded .0.33106 spermatozoa\\/ml were included. cases. The two groups were similar in age and parity. The patients with one ovary required more ampoules of HMG Ovulation induction protocol (62.9 versus 48.9, P ,0.001), a longer induction period (13.5 In all cycles our standard treatment protocol was followed (Rutherford versus

Amir Lass; Moses Paul; Raul Margara; M. L. Winston

196

Influence of irradiation and chemotherapy on the ovaries of children with abdominal tumours.  

PubMed Central

The ovaries of children with abdominal tumours were studied in 12 autopsy specimens. Ovaries from 25 children who died in accidents or after a short acute disease served as controls. All ovaries from normal children showed follicle growth, but follicle development was inhibited in 67% of the children with abdominal tumours. The effect of treatment with cytotoxic drugs and/or abdominal irradiation on ovarian morphology was investigated. Normal ovaries were found only in children who had received no chemotherapy or a short course. All patients who had been treated with radiation therapy either alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy had severely damaged ovaries: follicle growth was inhibited in all cases, and the number of small non-growing follicles was markedly reduced in most. It is argued that abdominal irradiation might impair follicle development as well as destroy small follicles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Himelstein-Braw, R.; Peters, H.; Faber, M.

1977-01-01

197

Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1  

PubMed Central

Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of ?-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or ?-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. ?-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of ?-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries.

Fos, Mariano; Proano, Karina; Alabadi, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; Garcia-Martinez, Jose L.

2003-01-01

198

Ovary organization and oogenesis in two species of Lumbriculida (Annelida, Clitellata).  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to describe the organization of the ovary and mode of oogenesis at the ultrastructural level in two representatives of Lumbriculida -Lumbriculus variegatus and Stylodrilus heringianus. In both species studied, the ovaries are small and conically shaped structures that are attached to the intersegmental septum via a thin ligament. The ovaries are composed of germline cysts formed by germ cells interconnected by stable cytoplasmic bridges. As a rule, the cyst center is occupied by a poorly developed anuclear cytoplasmic mass, termed a cytophore, whereas the germ cells are located at the periphery of the cyst. Germline cysts are enveloped by somatic cells. The ovaries of the species studied are polarized, i.e., along the long axis of the ovary there is an evident gradient of germ cell development. The data obtained suggest ovary meroism, i.e., two categories of germ cells were found: oocytes, which continue meiosis, gather nutrients, grow and protrude into the body cavity, and nurse cells, which do not grow and are supposed to supply oocytes with cell organelles and macromolecules via the cytophore. The ovary structure and mode of oogenesis in the species studied were compared with those of other clitellate annelids. As a rule, in all clitellates studied to date, the ovaries are composed of germline cysts equipped with a cytophore and associated with somatic cells; however, the ovary morphology differs between taxa regarding several quantitative and qualitative features. The ovary organization and mode of oogenesis in L. variegatus and S. heringianus strongly resemble those found in Tubificinae and Branchiobdellida studied to date. Our results also support a sister-group relationship between Lumbriculida and a clade comprising ectoparasitic clitellates (i.e., Branchiobdellida, Acanthobdellida and Hirudinida) with Branchiobdellida as a plesiomorphic sister group to Acanthobdellida and Hirudinida. PMID:23375544

Urbisz, Anna Z; ?wi?tek, Piotr

2013-04-01

199

Cytotoxicity of Diimine Palladium (II) Complexes of Alkyldithiocarbamate Derivatives on Human Lung, Ovary and Liver Cells.  

PubMed

Three new Complexes of formula [pd(bpy)(R-NH-CSS)] Cl (where bpy is 2/2'- bipyridine, and R-NH-CSS is butylamine, hexylamine- and octyamine-dithiocabamate anion) have been synthesized by University of Sistan and Blachostan. These complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic methods such as ultraviolet-visible, infrared and (1)H-NMR as well as conductivity measurements and chemical analysis. In these complexes, each of the dithiocarbamate ligands coordinates to Pd (II) center as bidentate with two sulfur atoms. We have found a 1:1 electrolyte in water conductivity test for the above mentioned compounds. To measure the biologic activity and potential anticancer efficacy of these compounds, they have been compared with cisplatin and its palladium analogue of [Pd (NH3)2 Cl2] on three different cell lines of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2, human ovarian carcinoma OV2008, and human lung adenocarcinoma A549. Clonogenic assay has shown LD50s in the range of 0.131±0.025 to 0.934 ± 0.194 for these compounds on above cell lines. In comparison, cisplatin has shown LD50s of 0.838 ± 0.074, 2.196 ± 0.220, and 2.799 ± 0.733 on OV2008, HepG2 and A549 cell lines, respectively. As a conclusion, above three new complexes have shown higher cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin on three different human cell lines. Based on biological tests, these compounds may potentially be considered as good anticancer candidates for further pharmacological studies. PMID:24250494

Aryanpour, Narges; Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan; Nakhjavan, Maryam; H Shirazi, Farshad

2012-01-01

200

The role of TGF-? in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic oligoanovulation and hyperandrogenism and associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. In recent years, genetic studies have linked PCOS to a dinucleotide marker D19S884 in the fibrillin 3 gene. Fibrillins make up the major component of microfibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and interact with molecules in the ECM to regulate transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling. Therefore, variations in fibrillin 3 and subsequent dysregulation of TGF-? may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Here, we review the evidence from genetic studies supporting the role of TGF-? in PCOS and describe how TGF-? dysregulation may contribute to (1) the fetal origins of PCOS, (2) reproductive abnormalities in PCOS, and (3) cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities in PCOS. PMID:23585338

Raja-Khan, Nazia; Urbanek, Margrit; Rodgers, Raymond J; Legro, Richard S

2014-01-01

201

Animal models of the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype  

PubMed Central

The etiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unclear, despite its high prevalence among infertility disorders in women of reproductive age. Although there is evidence for a genetic component of the disorder, other causes, such as prenatal insults are considered among the potential factors that may contribute to the development of the syndrome. Over the past few decades, several animal models have been developed in an attempt to understand the potential contribution of exposure to excess steroids on the development of this syndrome. The current review summarizes the phenotypes of current animal models exposed to excess steroid during the prenatal and early postnatal period and how they compare with the phenotype seen in women with PCOS.

Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

2013-01-01

202

Metformin and other insulin sensitizers in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disorder affecting a substantial group of women from adolescent to menopausal age groups. A substantial subgroup of these women exhibits increased insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is difficult to establish in clinical practice and many surrogate tests are available, although their value in the clinical setting is uncertain. The QUICKI method is an inexpensive and easy test to administer and is probably the best test to be used in PCOS patients, preferably in a clinical trial context. There is considerable evidence that insulin-sensitizing agents are not contributory to infertility management in the majority of women with PCOS. Currently, there is no evidence that cardiovascular morbidity is decreased by long-term use of insulin sensitizers in PCOS women. PMID:24919033

Bhagavath, Bala; Vitek, Wendy; Queenan, John; Hoeger, Kathleen

2014-07-01

203

Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor of Ovary- A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Sertoli Leydig Cell Tumours (SLCTs) are rare, unilateral, sex cord stromal tumours of ovary, which constitute less than 1% of all the ovarian neoplasms. These tumours can be functionally diverse and they may have heterologous elements. We aim to report a case of a 25-year- old woman who presented with suprapubic pain of 5 days duration, a unilateral adnexal mass, hypertestosteronism without virilization. Intraoperative frozen section of the unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy specimen was suggestive of granulosa cell tumour. Histopathological examination, supplemented with alpha-inhibin immunohistochemistry, was diagnostic of Meyer’s type II SLCT. Clinical presentation, pathology and the diagnostic pitfalls in the present case have been presented with a brief review of literature.

C.S, Rohini Dhanya; Padhi, Somanath; Varghese, Renu G'Boy

2014-01-01

204

Screening for and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in teenagers.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually arises during puberty and is marked by hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Adolescents with PCOS are at an increased risk of developing health problems later on in life such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and infertility. Furthermore, the physical signs of PCOS can be detrimental to a teenage girl's self-image. Early diagnosis and treatment of PCOS in adolescents are essential in ensuring adulthood health and restoring self-esteem. Treatments for an adolescent with PCOS include diet and exercise, metformin, and oral contraceptive pills. Each of these options has been shown to be effective in improving certain aspects of PCOS, and probably the best treatment plan involves some combination of them. PMID:15096648

Salmi, Darren J; Zisser, Howard C; Jovanovic, Lois

2004-05-01

205

Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females with a high prevalence. The etiology of this heterogeneous condition remains obscure and its phenotype expression varies. Two, widely cited, previous ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshops focused on diagnosis (published in 2004) and infertility management (published in 2008). The present third PCOS consensus paper summarizes current knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps regarding various women's health aspects of PCOS. Relevant topics addressed-all dealt with in a systematic fashion-include adolescence, hirsutism and acne, contraception, menstrual cycle abnormalities, quality of life, ethnicity, pregnancy complications, long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health and finally cancer risk. Additional, comprehensive background information is provided separately in an extended online publication. PMID:22147920

2012-01-01

206

A life course perspective on polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a major public health problem in the US. Worldwide, the public is largely unaware of the condition and health care providers do not seem to fully understand it. Research on PCOS has primarily focused on its etiology and clinical characteristics and less on the psychosocial aspects of human development associated with PCOS. This paper posits that a life course perspective provides a framework for further understanding the psychosocial experiences of women with PCOS and the contexts in which they live. The paper discusses how life course principles of human development, constraints on agency, interdependence of lives, time and place, and timing of events and experiences are relevant to the management of PCOS and prevention of its complications.

Sanchez, Ninive

2014-01-01

207

Ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. There are multiple ways to induce ovulation in PCOS patients, which will eventually provide a successful live birth. Each of these treatments varies in aggressiveness and effectiveness. Ranging from lifestyle modifications, through insulin-sensitizing agents, selective estrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropins, to laparoscopic ovarian drilling and assisted reproductive techniques, each method achieves ovulation induction through different mechanisms of action. This review provides a description and specific characteristics of the different methods used for ovulation induction which can help to design a personalized approach to each PCOS patient, and a general stepwise approach to ovulation induction in these patients. PMID:23707553

Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Legro, Richard S

2013-08-01

208

Ovariole development in telotrophic ovaries of snake flies (Raphidioptera).  

PubMed

Snake flies (Raphidioptera), alder flies (Megaloptera: Sialidae) and also some myxophagan coleopterans share the same, peculiar telotrophic organization of their ovarioles usually referred to as ovarioles of the Sialis-type. Ovariole ontogenesis in Raphidia sp. is described and the basic events that lead to the formation of germ cell clusters and their subsequent transformations are reported. It was found that the major cellular events during ovariole formation in Raphidia and Sialis are essentially the same. Discrepancies concern details of germ cell cluster formation, differentiation of cystocytes within clusters and their location within the developing tropharium. Based on these results the hypothetical model of the Sialis-type ovariole formation, previously presented by King and Büoning (1985) is verified. A hypothesis on the mechanisms of oocyte determination in telotrophic ovaries is also presented. PMID:19058557

Jedrzejowska, Izabela; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz

2004-01-01

209

The ageing ovary and uterus: new biological insights  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review details recent developments in our understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing in women and the implications for fertility and pregnancy. METHODS Sociological online libraries (IBSS, SocINDEX), PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant demographic, epidemiological, clinical and biological studies, using key words and hierarchical MeSH terms. From this, we identified and focused on key topics where it was judged that there had been clinically relevant advances in the understanding of ovarian and uterine ageing with implications for improved diagnostics and novel interventions. RESULTS Mapping of the ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers, across the reproductive lifespan has recently been performed. This now allows an assessment of the effects of environmental, lifestyle and prenatal exposures on follicular dynamics and the identification of their impact during periods of germ cell vulnerability and may also facilitate early identification of individuals with shorter reproductive lifespans. If women choose to time their family based on their ovarian reserve this would redefine the meaning of family planning. Despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the primordial follicle and thereby the oocyte pool, therapeutic interventions in female reproductive ageing at present remain limited. Maternal ageing has detrimental effects on decidual and placental development, which may be related to repeated exposure to sex steroids and underlie the association of ageing with adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ageing has incontrovertible detrimental effects on the ovary and the uterus. Our enhanced understanding of ovarian ageing will facilitate early identification of individuals at greatest risk, and novel therapeutic interventions. Changes in both ovary and uterus are in addition to age-related co-morbidities, which together have synergistic effects on reducing the probability of a successful pregnancy outcome.

Nelson, S.M.; Telfer, E.E.; Anderson, R.A.

2013-01-01

210

Immunohistochemistry: A diagnostic aid in differentiating primary epithelial ovarian tumors and tumors metastatic to the ovary  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Among cancers of the female genital tract, the incidence of ovarian cancer ranks below only carcinoma of the cervix and the endometrium. Recent years have witnessed significant development in the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnostic ovarian pathology. Materials and Methods: We received 95 specimens and biopsies of primary ovarian neoplasms and neoplasms metastatic to the ovary in a period of 2 years. Of these 30 cases were of the primary surface epithelial neoplasms and seven of metastatic tumors. Discussion: The most common tumors metastasizing to the ovary originate from the gastrointestinal tract followed by the endometrium. We used a panel of six markers including cytokeratin-7 (CK7), CK20, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), estrogen receptor (ER) and Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1) to help classify various surface epithelial tumors as well as to differentiate them from tumors metastatic to the ovary. Conclusion: CK7 is the most helpful marker to differentiate primary ovarian carcinoma from metastatic colorectal carcinoma of the ovary. Nearly, 96% of ovarian adenocarcinomas were positive for CK7 in contrast to metastatic colorectal, which showed only 25% positivity. We also found that CK7, CK20 and CEA are useful markers to differentiate primary serous tumors from primary mucinous tumors; however, these are less helpful in differentiating ovarian mucinous adenocarcinomas from colorectal adenocarcinomas metastasizing to the ovaries. WT1 helps in typing primary surface epithelial tumors of the ovary and is also significant in determining whether a serous carcinoma within the ovary is primary or metastatic.

Kriplani, Divya; Patel, Mandakini M.

2013-01-01

211

Pollination Increases Gibberellin Levels in Developing Ovaries of Seeded Varieties of Citrus.  

PubMed Central

Reproductive and vegetative tissues of the seeded Pineapple cultivars of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) contained the following C-13 hydroxylated gibberellins (GAs): GA53, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA1, GA29, and GA8, as well as GA97, 3-epi-GA1, and several uncharacterized GAs. The inclusion of 3-epi-GA1 as an endogenous substance was based on measurements of the isomerization rates of previously added [2H2]GA1. Pollination enhanced amounts of GA19, GA20, GA29, and GA8 in developing ovaries. Levels of GA1 increased from 5.0 to 9.5 ng/g dry weight during anthesis and were reduced thereafter. The amount of GA in mature pollen was very low. Emasculation reduced GA levels and caused a rapid 100% ovary abscission. This effect was partially counteracted by either pollination or application of GA3. In pollinated ovaries, repeated paclobutrazol applications decreased the amount of GA and increased ovary abscission, although the pattern of continuous decline was different from the sudden abscission induced by emasculation. The above results indicate that, in citrus, pollination increases GA levels and reduces ovary abscission and that the presence of exogenous GA3 in unpollinated ovaries also suppresses abscission. Evidence is also presented that pollination and GAs do not, as is generally assumed, suppress ovary abscission through the reactivation of cell division.

Ben-Cheikh, W.; Perez-Botella, J.; Tadeo, F. R.; Talon, M.; Primo-Millo, E.

1997-01-01

212

Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

213

The rise of estradiol and inhibin B after acute stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone predict the follicle cohort size in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, regularly menstruating women with polycystic ovaries, and regularly menstruating women with normal ovaries.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovaries contain a larger number of antral follicles than control ovaries. The aim of this study was to test whether the increase in estradiol (E(2)) and inhibin B after stimulation with 300 IU recombinant FSH in the early follicular phase and the ovarian volume can predict the size of the follicle cohort in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients (n = 10), patients with polycystic ovaries detected by ultrasound but with regular menstrual cycles (PCO; n = 10), and regularly menstruating patients with normal ovaries (n = 10). The follicle cohort size was measured as the FSH-sensitive follicles growing during a standardized in vitro fertilization stimulation. Linear regression analysis showed that the slopes of the regression lines of the E(2) increment and the inhibin B increment in relation to the number of follicles were not significantly different among the three groups, meaning that an increased sensitivity for FSH of the granulosa cells of polycystic ovaries was not found. For the total group (n = 30) we calculated that an E(2) increment of 100 pmol/L predicts 5.5 follicles (95% confidence interval, 2.8--8.2; r = 0.617; P < 0.001), and an inhibin B increment of 100 ng/L predicts 6.2 follicles (95% confidence interval, 3.5--9.0; r = 0.665; P < 0.001). The ovarian volume could not be used in a prediction model because the association with the number of follicles was different in the PCO group compared with the PCOS and the control group. Women with PCO and women with PCOS both had a follicle cohort twice as big as the cohort in control women (P < 0.01). The differences in menstrual cycle pattern between the PCO and PCOS groups cannot be explained by differences in cohort size. PMID:11297588

Elting, M W; Kwee, J; Schats, R; Rekers-Mombarg, L T; Schoemaker, J

2001-04-01

214

Carcinoid of the ovary: diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed

Carcinoid of the ovary is an uncommon tumor. In the present article we have described the cytological features of carcinoid of the ovary in a 53-year old post-menopausal female. The patient presented with abdominal discomfort and loose stools. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the left adnexal mass showed clusters and also scattered, relatively monomorphic population of tumor cells with vague rosette-like structures. Cytological diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumor possibly sex cord stromal tumor or carcinoid of ovary was offered and subsequent histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of carcinoid. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:612-614. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23456982

Kumar, Mahendra; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Dey, Pranab

2014-07-01

215

Struma Ovarii with Elevated Ca-125 Levels and Ascites Mimicking Advanced Ca Ovary  

PubMed Central

Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery.

Sinha, Navin Kumar

2014-01-01

216

Struma ovarii with elevated ca-125 levels and ascites mimicking advanced ca ovary.  

PubMed

Struma ovarii is uncommon tumor of ovary which can mimic as advanced carcinoma of ovary. Thyroid tissue is relatively frequent constituent of mature ovarian teratoma. Case of struma ovarii masquerading as cancer of ovary in a female aged 63 yrs showing complex large unilateral multilocular adnexal mass with elevated CA 125 (more than 1721 IU/L) and massive ascites mislead treating surgeons for long time. Clinicians were virtually clueless about preoperative diagnosis. Combination of ascites has been seen in one third cases but association with raised CA 125 is rare(only 8-10 cases so far). This case developed hypothyroidism one week after surgery. PMID:24783110

Sinha, Navin Kumar

2014-03-01

217

Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions. Images

Kaina, B; Lohrer, H; Karin, M; Herrlich, P

1990-01-01

218

Cellular and genomic toxicity produced by UV light in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

UVB and UVC toxicity was detected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines AA8, UV5 and XEM2 (a V79-derived cell line expressing rat P450 1A1). Unlike FICZ-HPLC assay that showed induction of CYP1A1 enzyme activity after 20 minutes and 2 hour UVC exposure, the EROD assay showed no difference in cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activity after exposure to different doses of UVB and UVC light. Different cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of photo lesions induced by UVC and UVB light was investigated with the DRAG and HPRT assays, comparing the wild type cell line AA8 and the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) deficient cell line UV5. DRAG assay showed a significant difference in UV induced cytotoxicity between UVC and UVB reflecting the larger energy and toxic effect of UVC along with significant difference in UV induced toxicity between AA8 and UV5 cell lines. This was further validated through the HPRT assay, which also showed a significant difference in UVC (5 J/m(2)) induced mutagenic effect between these cell lines. In addition, HPRT assay showed the mutagenic effect of photosensitizer, acetophenone. These results show that UVB and UVC generate serious damage through photo products on DNA, and might induce the metabolic activity of CYP1A1. PMID:24577918

Rahman, Inayatur; Karim, Abdul; Idrees, Muhammad; Khan, Mohammad Iqbal

2014-03-01

219

Effect of soy phytoestrogen on metabolic and hormonal disturbance of women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Phytoestrogens are a group of plants derived compounds with weekly estrogen effect that appear to have protective effects on metabolic and hormonal abnormalities of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). So the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and lipid profiles in PCOS women. METHODS: In this quasi-randomized trial, 146 subjects with PCOS were divided into two groups; the experimental group who received Genistein (Bergamon, Italy) 18 mg twice a day orally and the control group that received similar capsules with cellulose for 3 months. Hormonal features and lipid profiles were measured before and after 3 months of supplement therapy. RESULTS: After 3 months of supplement therapy there were no statistically significant differences in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) serum levels in Genistein and placebo group before and after treatment; however serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), dehydroepiandrostrone sulfate (DHEAS) and testosterone were significantly decreased after 3 months therapy in Genistein group. CONCLUSIONS: Genistein consumption may prevent cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in PCOS patients by improving their reproductive hormonal and lipid profiles.

Khani, Behnaz; Mehrabian, Ferdous; Khalesi, Elaheh; Eshraghi, Azadeh

2011-01-01

220

Distribution and HPLC study of chromium-51 binding sites in Chinese Hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Chinese hamster ovary cells were cultured with chromium-51 chromate to study the site of chromium interaction with cell biomolecules. After incubation, cells were homogenized and separated into nuclear, mitochondrial, microsomal, and cytosolic fractions. Greater than 75% of the radioactivity was found in the cytosolic fraction. The supernatant from the centrifuged cell homogenate, which contained > 90% of the chromium radioactivity, was subjected to chromatographic investigation. The combination of anion exchange and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that at least three different molecular species interact with chromate or its reduced derivative, Cr(III). These species are glutathione, the nucleotides cytosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate, guanine triphosphate, adenosine triphosphate, and adenosine diphosphate, plus an as yet unknown species of protein or peptide. Preliminary data for the specific activity of nucleoside triphosphates range from 6000 to 18,000 cpm/..mu..g ribonucleoside triphosphate. The glutathione accounted for 50% of the observed radioactivity, the nucleotides for 30%, and the metalloprotein accounted for the remainder.

Denniston, M.L.; Uyeki, E.M.

1987-01-01

221

Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions.

Kaina, B.; Lohrer, H.; Karin, M.; Herrlich, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.))

1990-04-01

222

Detection of biosynthetic intermediates in proteoglycan-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants lacking xylosyltransferase or galactosyltransferase I do not synthesize mature proteoglycans. The authors predicted that the mutants would accumulate biosynthetic intermediates upstream from the block imposed by mutation. Using the fusogenic properties of vesicular stomatitis virus, the authors fused monolayers composed of galactosyltransferase I-deficient cells with virus-infected xylosyltransferase-deficient cells. Immediately following fusion the cells were pulse-labelled with /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ for one hour. Quantification of radioactive products showed that the mutants contained biosynthetically active intermediates that proceeded to mature glycosaminoglycans. The production of glycosaminoglycan was dependent on fusion, and fusion of each mutant to itself did not result in radioactive product. Analysis of the newly made glycosaminoglycans through HPLC anion-exchange chromatography showed that the fused cells synthesized heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in about the same proportion as wildtype cells. These findings suggest that the mutants accumulate precursors to both families of proteoglycans. They also found that progeny virus from infected CHO cells contain proteoglycans, presumably derived from the plasma membrane. This observation suggests that the virus can be used to isolate intermediates accumulating in the mutants.

Montgomery, R.I.; Esko, J.D.

1987-05-01

223

Purification and characterization of human tissue prokallikrein and kallikrein isoforms expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

We report here the expression of recombinant human prokallikrein and kallikrein in engineered Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with a human genomic gene encoding preprokallikrein. At high expression levels, recombinant prokallikrein, an inactive proenzyme form, is predominantly secreted into the culture medium. Upon chromatographic separations, the inactive prokallikrein as well as the mature kallikrein after thermolysin activation of the proenzyme can be prepared to apparent purity. Both prokallikrein and kallikrein can be further separated into two distinct high- and low-molecular-weight isoforms. Kallikrein preparations are fully active in standard kallikrein activity assays such as esterase activity and kinin release from kininogen. Both kallikrein and prokallikrein display multiple molecular forms with differences in both molecular sizes and charges. The structural differences in high- and low-molecular-weight kallikreins or prokallikreins were found to be due to glycosylation, with the high-molecular-weight species glycosylated at three Asn-linked sites and the low-molecular-weight species at two of the three Asn-linked sites. The multiply charged kallikrein isoforms are derived from different numbers of sialic acids attached at the detected Asn-linked carbohydrates. In comparison with kallikrein, prokallikrein appears to show a significant decrease in the magnitude of near uv-circular dichroism bands, suggesting a change in local conformation. This conformational change correlates with the loss of activity in proenzyme due to the presence of propeptide. PMID:8812867

Lu, H S; Hsu, Y R; Narhi, L O; Karkare, S; Lin, F K

1996-09-01

224

Subjects with polycystic ovaries without hyperandrogenaemia exhibit similar disturbances in insulin and lipid profiles as those with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovaries (PCO) are detected using ultrasonography in a proportion of women who do not have clinical symptoms of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic and endocrine differences between women with such ultrasound-detected PCO and women with PCOS, and to relate these changes to clinical presentation with particular reference to cycle irregularity. A group of 118 women showing PCO on vaginal ultrasound scan was divided into those who had no hyperandrogenaemia (n = 21) and those who had increased androgens and a clinical presentation normally associated with PCOS (n = 97). These were compared with a reference group of 26 normal subjects. Glucose tolerance, lipid concentrations and endocrine profiles were compared between groups. Apart from higher concentrations of androgens in the PCOS group, there were no significant differences between the PCO and PCOS groups in either fasting and stimulated insulin and glucose or in concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin, gonadotrophins and blood lipids or in ovarian volume. Both PCO and PCOS subjects with cycle irregularity had significantly higher concentrations of serum fasting and stimulated insulin independent of androgens and body mass index than those with normal cycles. It was concluded that: (i) PCO and PCOS patients have equivalent disturbances in relation to insulin and glucose metabolism as well as lipid and lipoprotein disturbances compared to reference subjects; (ii) higher serum insulin values are associated with menstrual irregularity in both groups; (iii) ultrasound evidence for PCO predicts similar metabolic sequelae to PCOS and can therefore be used for studies of the genetics and long term risks for this condition. PMID:8530647

Norman, R J; Hague, W M; Masters, S C; Wang, X J

1995-09-01

225

Effect of mating delay on the ovary of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens.  

PubMed

The effect of mating delay on the ovary structure of virgin queens of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was investigated. Virgin queens 15, 20, 25 and 30 days old were dissected to analyze their degree of ovary degeneration. To verify whether the degeneration would cause permanent sterility, virgin queens of the same ages (15, 20, 25 and 30 days) were mated and accompanied for at least 14 days to verify whether there was physogastry and then dissected. The ovaries were analyzed by histology, histochemical tests and TUNEL to verify programmed cell death. The results showed that mating delay interrupted oogenesis preventing vitellogenesis. Mating delay results in ovary degeneration which increased with queen age. However, even when there was ovariole degeneration, 25-day-old virgin queens after mating presented normal ovariole activation. PMID:17010626

de Souza, Edmilson Amaral; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; de Oliveira Campos, Lucio Antonio; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

2007-01-01

226

Recurrent immature teratoma of the ovary with long-term disease-free interval.  

PubMed

Grade 3 immature teratoma of the ovary is rare and has a poor prognosis due to early recurrence. This report describes a case of grade 3 immature teratoma of the ovary that recurred 16 years after the last treatment. The patient underwent abdominal simple total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic-para-aortic lymphadenectomy, and adjuvant chemotherapy under the diagnosis of grade 3 immature teratoma of the ovary when she was 15 years old, and complete remission was achieved. Sixteen years after the initial treatment, the tumor relapsed in her liver and pleura. She was treated by 10 courses of tri-weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin, and was alive with stable disease for 12 months after the disease relapse. After 1 year, the tumor progressed, and she died 16 months after the relapse. This is the first report of grade 3 immature teratoma of the ovary that relapsed more than 5 years after the prior treatment. PMID:24750519

Matsumoto, Harunobu; Mizoguchi, Chiharu; Nishida, Masakazu; Sato, Shimpei; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi

2014-05-01

227

Wolbachia infect ovaries in the course of their maturation: last minute passengers and priority travellers?  

PubMed

Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers). PMID:24722673

Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

2014-01-01

228

Wolbachia Infect Ovaries in the Course of Their Maturation: Last Minute Passengers and Priority Travellers?  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Studies on such models suggest that Wolbachia's remarkable aptitude to infect offspring may rely on a re-infection of ovaries from somatic tissues instead of direct cellular segregation between oogonia and oocytes. In the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, Wolbachia are vertically transmitted to the host offspring, even though ovary cells are cyclically renewed. Using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we showed that the proportion of infected oocytes increased in the course of ovary and oocyte maturation, starting with 31.5% of infected oocytes only. At the end of ovary maturation, this proportion reached 87.6% for the most mature oocytes, which is close to the known transmission rate to offspring. This enrichment can be explained by a secondary acquisition of the bacteria by oocytes (Wolbachia can be seen as last minute passengers) and/or by a preferential selection of oocytes infected with Wolbachia (as priority travellers).

Genty, Lise-Marie; Bouchon, Didier; Raimond, Maryline; Bertaux, Joanne

2014-01-01

229

Glucose and lipopolysaccharide regulate proatherogenic cytokine release from mononuclear cells in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation, which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We examined the effect of glucose ingestion and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on markers of proatherogenic inflammation in the mononuclear cells (MNC) and plasma of women with PCOS. Sixteen women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 15 weight-matched controls (8 lean, 7 obese) underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) release from MNC cultured in the presence of LPS and plasma IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured from blood samples drawn while fasting and 2h after glucose ingestion. Truncal fat was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA). Lean women with PCOS and obese controls failed to suppress LPS-stimulated IL-6 and IL-1? release from MNC after glucose ingestion. In contrast, obese women with PCOS suppressed these MNC-derived cytokines under the same conditions. In response to glucose ingestion, plasma IL-6 and sVCAM-1 increased and CRP suppression was attenuated in both PCOS groups and obese controls compared with lean controls. Fasting plasma IL-6 and CRP correlated positively with percentage of truncal fat. The absolute change in plasma IL-6 correlated positively with testosterone. We conclude that glucose ingestion promotes proatherogenic inflammation in PCOS with a systemic response that is independent of obesity. Based on the suppressed MNC-derived cytokine responses suggestive of LPS tolerance, chronic low-grade inflammation may be more profound in obese women with PCOS. Excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may contribute to atherogenesis in PCOS. PMID:24576416

González, Frank; Kirwan, John P; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi; O'Leary, Valerie B

2014-06-01

230

Proliferative Effect in Vitroof Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on the Left Ovary of the Chick Embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) on cellular proliferation in the chick embryo ovary. Left ovaries from 18-day-old chick embryos (Babcock B300) were dissociated by trypsin (0.25%) treatment. In some experiments, dissociated ovarian cells were further separated by a continuous metrizamide gradient (0–20%). Four cellular subpopulations were recovered from the

P. N. Velázquez; I. Peralta; E. Pedernera

1997-01-01

231

Effects of carbon dioxide narcosis on ovary activation and gene expression in worker honeybees, Apis mellifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to uncover genes associated with ovary activation in honey bee workers, the extent to which eight candidate genes co-varied in their expression with experimentally-induced changes in worker reproductive state was examined. Groups of caged, queenless workers narcotized with CO2 on consecutive days early in adult life showed a significantly lower level of ovary activation than did groups

Preeyada Koywiwattrakul; Graham J Thompson; Sririporn Sitthipraneed; Benjamin P Oldroyd; Ryszard Maleszka

232

Influence of ovarian stage on transcript profiles in fathead minnow ( Pimephales promelas) ovary tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of toxicogenomic experiments conducted with ovary tissue from asynchronous-spawning small fish species is complicated by background variation in the relative abundance and proportion of follicles at different stages within the ovary tissue sample. This study employed both real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a 15,000 gene oligonucleotide microarray to examine variation in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) ovarian transcriptional

Daniel L. Villeneuve; Natàlia Garcia-Reyero; Dalma Martinovi?; Jenna E. Cavallin; Nathaniel D. Mueller; Leah C. Wehmas; Michael D. Kahl; Anne L. Linnum; Edward J. Perkins; Gerald T. Ankley

2010-01-01

233

Carotid atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Initial results from a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome have greater subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by carotid artery ultrasonography. STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen premenopausal women ?40 years old with a history of clinical polycystic ovary syndrome and a current total testosterone concentration ?2.0 nmol\\/L and 16 age-matched (±5 years) cycling women underwent carotid scanning. Intima-media thickness and plaque

David S. Guzick; Evelyn O. Talbott; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Holly C. Herzog; Lewis H. Kuller; Sidney K. Wolfson

1996-01-01

234

Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified of bilateral ovaries: A rare cause of post menopausal virilization.  

PubMed

Steroid cell tumors of the ovaries are rare sex-hormone secreting tumors which are usually benign and unilateral. One previous study has estimated the tumors to be bilateral in 6% of patients. We report a case of post menopausal virilization where tumor histology revealed steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified with benign charactsristics. The presence of tumor in bilateral ovaries made this case unique. PMID:24251181

Cooray, Samanthi M A; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha D S; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Samarathunga, Praboda

2013-10-01

235

Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified of bilateral ovaries: A rare cause of post menopausal virilization  

PubMed Central

Steroid cell tumors of the ovaries are rare sex-hormone secreting tumors which are usually benign and unilateral. One previous study has estimated the tumors to be bilateral in 6% of patients. We report a case of post menopausal virilization where tumor histology revealed steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified with benign charactsristics. The presence of tumor in bilateral ovaries made this case unique.

Cooray, Samanthi M. A.; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha D. S.; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Samarathunga, Praboda

2013-01-01

236

Adenocarcinoma of the ovary with fat-fluid level: CT appearance.  

PubMed

A fat-fluid level on CT is reported for biopsy proven undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of the ovary. This uncommon radiographic finding has been described in association with germ cell tumors of the ovary, such as cystic teratomas and immature teratomas, but not in other ovarian histologies. The finding of a fat-fluid level on CT is, therefore, suggestive but not exclusive to cystic teratomas. PMID:7962813

Giuliano, V; Savit, R M

1994-01-01

237

Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary and its relationship to endometriosis.  

PubMed

In order to better understand the clinical presentation and biologic behavior of ovarian carcinomas arising in endometriosis, we performed a historical cohort study of all women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary (ECO) diagnosed between 1979 and 1991 at our institutions. A review of pathology reports determined the presence or absence of coexisting endometriosis. Cancers adjacent to endometriosis on the same ovary or arising within endometriosis were labeled endometriosis-associated endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAEA), while all others were considered typical endometrioid adenocarcinoma (TEA). Associations between tumor type and clinicopathologic variables were analyzed by chi 2 and Fisher's exact tests as indicated. Disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The independent prognostic significance of clinicopathologic variables was determined by multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Of 91 ECO patients identified, 63 (69%) had TEA and 28 (31%) had EAEA. Significant differences between TEA and EAEA existed for age at diagnosis (greater than 55 years; 56 vs 32%, P = 0.039), nulliparity (19 vs 46%, P = 0.007), stage (I and II combined; 37 vs 70%, P = 0.004), and disease status at completion of primary surgery (complete tumor resection; 47 vs 70%, P = 0.04). Synchronous atypical endometrial hyperplasia or uterine carcinoma was found in 7/63 (11%) TEA versus 7/28 (25%) EAEA cases (P = 0.054). Estimated 5-year DFI by life table analysis was significantly longer in the EAEA than in the TEA cohorts (57 vs 25%, P = 0.02); however, the 5-year survival difference was not significant (59 vs 45%, P = 0.18). Multivariate analysis identified only stage as an independent prognostic factor in predicting both DFI and survival. In conclusion, women with EAEA are significantly younger, present with earlier stage disease, and have a longer disease-free survival than those with TEA. These factors may reflect a more favorable biologic behavior of ECO when arising in association with endometriosis. PMID:7557621

McMeekin, D S; Burger, R A; Manetta, A; DiSaia, P; Berman, M L

1995-10-01

238

Potential endocrine disruption of ovary synthesis in the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis by the insecticide pyriproxyfen.  

PubMed

The effect of the insecticide, pyriproxyfen on early ovary synthesis was examined in the Gecarcinid land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis. Crabs were fed a mixture of either leaf litter and bait containing 0.5% (wt/wt) pyriproxyfen (experimental groups), or a mixture of leaf litter and a control bait containing no pyriproxyfen (control groups), at simulated baiting doses of 2 kg ha(-1) and 4 kg ha(-1), during the period in which G. natalis synthesises its ovaries. A third group of crabs were fed ad libitum either the bait containing 0.5% Pypriproxyfen or the control bait. Pyriproxyfen affected early ovary development in G. natalis. The ovaries from crabs in the experimental groups at all baiting levels had a higher total nitrogen content and dry mass than the ovaries from crabs in the control groups. Pyriproxyfen affected the histology of the ovaries. Ovaries from animals in the experimental groups were more mature, containing more previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes, of a larger diameter, than the ovaries from crabs in the control groups. Significant amounts of pyriproxyfen accumulated within the midgut gland and ovary, the hypothesised target tissues, while minor amounts of pyriproxyfen was accumulated in the muscle, a hypothesised non target tissue. Pyriproxyfen may have stimulated early ovary development and induced synthesis of yolk protein by mimicking methyl farnesoate and thus causing endocrine disruption. Given this, pyriproxyfen should not be used to control invasive insects in environments where gecarcinid and other land crab species are present. PMID:19249382

Linton, Stuart; Barrow, Lauren; Davies, Claire; Harman, Laura

2009-11-01

239

Hyberbaric oxygen increases atresia in normal & steroid induced PCO rat ovaries  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we investigated the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the morphology of estradiol valerate (EV) induced polycystic ovary (PCO) to find a new treatment modality for improvement of PCO. Methods The rats were divided into four groups. Group1, control; group 2, PCO group; group 3, PCO with HBOT group and group 4, normal ovary with HBOT. PCO was induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg EV in adult cycling rats. Other rats with normal ovaries had oil injection as placebo. HBOT was applied to third and fourth groups for six weeks. Histopathologic evaluation of ovaries of all groups were performed & compared. Results Six weeks of HBOT was resulted in increase in follicular atresia, decrease in the number of primary, secondary, tertiary follicles and decrease in the number of fresh corpus luteum in normal rat ovary. HBOT on polycystic rat ovary, resulted in significant increase in atretic follicles which were already present. Conclusions HBOT of six weeks itself, changed ovarian morphology in favor of atresia both in PCO group and control group. This result of aggravated follicular atresia after HBOT on EV induced PCO may be due to long-term exposure in our protocol which with this state seems to be inapplicable in the improvement of PCO morphology.

2012-01-01

240

Partial ovary development is widespread in honey bees and comparable to other eusocial bees and wasps.  

PubMed

Honey bee workers have few opportunities for direct reproduction because their ovary development is chemically suppressed by queens and worker-laid eggs are destroyed by workers. While workers with fully developed ovaries are rare in honey bee colonies, we show that partial ovary development is common. Across nine studies, an average of 6% to 43% of workers had partially developed ovaries in queenright colonies with naturally mated queens. This shift by workers toward potential future reproduction is linked to lower productivity, which suggests that even small investments in reproductive physiology by selfish workers reduce cooperation below a theoretical maximum. Furthermore, comparisons across 26 species of bees and wasps revealed that the level of partial ovary development in honey bees is similar to that of other eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive conflict among colony members. Natural variation in the extent of partial ovary development in honey bee colonies calls for an exploration of the genetic and ecological factors that modulate shifts in cooperation within animal societies. PMID:24255737

Smith, Michael L; Mattila, Heather R; Reeve, H Kern

2013-09-01

241

Evaluation of apoptosis in long-term culture of vitrified mouse whole ovaries.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the development of follicles and incidence of apoptosis in vitrified neonatal mouse ovaries cultured in vitro in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries of 1-week-old mouse were cultured in the presence or absence of LIF for 7 days. At the beginning and at the end of culture period in each ovary of all groups of study the mean area and the development of ovarian follicles were analyzed; moreover, the incidence of apoptosis was assessed by transmission electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method, DNA laddering and caspase-3/7 activity technique. The hormonal assay was done on the conditioned media collected during culture period. The proportion of preantral follicles and the levels of hormones increased in all cultured groups and it was significantly higher in LIF treated groups than in their control (P<0.001). The ultrastructural characteristics of cell death, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL positive signals were prominent in vitrified cultured ovaries. The level of caspase-3/7 activity was higher in vitrified cultured ovaries. LIF supplementation during 7 days of culture appeared to significantly preserve cells function and increase the follicular development of both vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries. PMID:24216075

Abdi, Shabnam; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Hosseinkhani, Saman

2014-02-01

242

Partial ovary development is widespread in honey bees and comparable to other eusocial bees and wasps  

PubMed Central

Honey bee workers have few opportunities for direct reproduction because their ovary development is chemically suppressed by queens and worker-laid eggs are destroyed by workers. While workers with fully developed ovaries are rare in honey bee colonies, we show that partial ovary development is common. Across nine studies, an average of 6% to 43% of workers had partially developed ovaries in queenright colonies with naturally mated queens. This shift by workers toward potential future reproduction is linked to lower productivity, which suggests that even small investments in reproductive physiology by selfish workers reduce cooperation below a theoretical maximum. Furthermore, comparisons across 26 species of bees and wasps revealed that the level of partial ovary development in honey bees is similar to that of other eusocial Hymenoptera where there is reproductive conflict among colony members. Natural variation in the extent of partial ovary development in honey bee colonies calls for an exploration of the genetic and ecological factors that modulate shifts in cooperation within animal societies.

Smith, Michael L.; Mattila, Heather R.; Reeve, H. Kern

2013-01-01

243

Histological evaluation of rat larynx in experimental polycystic ovary syndrome model.  

PubMed

This study aimed at studying the histopathological effects of hyperandrogenemia and estrogen deficiency on larynx mucosa in experimentally designed polycystic ovary syndrome of female rats. Two groups of experimental polycystic ovary syndrome model were composed in healthy female rats by per oral letrozole administration of for 21 and 42 days. Also a control group which only took vehicle (saline) for 42 days was designed. Laryngeal mucosa and ovaries of all animals were examined histopathologically by light microscopy and the serum hormone levels were analyzed using a solid-phase, two-site chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay. Statistically significant edema, vascular engorgement, inflammation, cilia loss and differentiation of goblet cell distribution were observed when the control group and study groups were compared (p < 0.01). In serum hormonal analysis there was a significant increase in levels of androgens and decrease in levels of estrogens. In addition, polycystic appearance of ovaries in letrozole-administered groups and normal appearance of ovaries in control group have been proven histopathologically. Polycystic ovary syndrome which causes estrogen deficiency and hyperandrogenemia in fertile ages resulted in histopathological changes in laryngeal mucosa. PMID:22407189

Deveci, Hande Senem; Deveci, Ildem; Habesoglu, Mehmet; Sürmeli, Mehmet; K?n?s, Vefa; Eriman, Murat; Gunes, Pembegul; Yekrek, Murat; Egeli, Erol

2012-08-01

244

Diagnosis and challenges of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.  

PubMed

Although the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have become less stringent over the years, determination of the minimum diagnostic features in adolescents is still an area of controversy. Of particular concern is that many of the features considered to be diagnostic for PCOS may evolve over time and change during the first few years after menarche. Nonetheless, attempts to define young women who may be at risk for development of PCOS is pertinent since associated morbidity such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia may benefit from early intervention. The relative utility of diagnostic tools such as persistence of anovulatory cycles, hyperandrogenemia, hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, or alopecia), or ovarian findings on ultrasound is not established in adolescents. Some suggest that even using the strictest criteria, the diagnosis of PCOS may not valid in adolescents younger than 18 years. In addition, evidence does not necessarily support that lack of treatment of PCOS in younger adolescents will result in untoward outcomes since features consistent with PCOS often resolve with time. The presented data will help determine if it is possible to establish firm criteria which may be used to reliably diagnose PCOS in adolescents. PMID:24715514

Agapova, Sophia E; Cameo, Tamara; Sopher, Aviva B; Oberfield, Sharon E

2014-05-01

245

Vitamin K metabolism in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells  

SciTech Connect

Recent investigations suggest that vitamin K may have functions other than in blood coagulation and calcification. The present study was undertaken to investigate this hypothesis using cells in culture. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were chosen due to their active metabolism and growth and lack of similarity to liver and bone cells, in which vitamin K metabolism is well known. Cells were adapted to serum-free media, incubated in media containing the appropriate concentrations of vitamin K for specified times, scraped from plates, pelleted, extensively washed to remove adhering vitamin K, extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1, v/v) and analyzed on C18 HPLC columns. Uptake of vitamin K by CHO cells follows saturation kinetics at vitamin K concentrations up to 25 ..mu.. M and is transported into cells at the rate of 10 pmol/min. 10/sup 6/ cells. After 24 hours, /sup 3/H vitamin K is metabolized by CHO cells to several compounds, the major of which was isolated and identified as vitamin K epoxide. In 3 experiments, after 24 hours, the average cellular uptake of vitamin K was 8% with approximately half being metabolized to vitamin K epoxide. These results demonstrate that vitamin K is metabolized in cells with widely different functions and suggest a generalized function for vitamin K which has yet to be elucidated.

Hoffman, H.S.

1986-01-01

246

Type 2 diabetes and the polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting women in reproductive age, characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. However, several studies have suggested that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. As a consequence of insulin-resistance, women affected by PCOS often present abnormalities of glucose metabolism and lipid profile, and have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease over-time. Besides insulin-resistance, it has been demonstrated that some of these women also have alterations in beta-cell-function. Both disorders (insulin-resistance and beta-cell-dysfunction) are recognized as major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. Long-term studies, evaluating the glucose-insulin system in women affected by PCOS, have shown a higher incidence of glucose intolerance, including both impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, compared to age and weight matched control populations. The risk of glucose intolerance among PCOS subjects seems to be approximately 5 to 10 fold higher than normal and appears not limited to a single ethnic group. Moreover, the onset of glucose intolerance in PCOS women has been reported to occur at an earlier age than in the normal population (approximately by the 3rd-4th decade of life). However, other risk factors such as obesity, a positive family history of type 2 diabetes and hyperandrogenism may contribute to increasing the diabetes risk in PCOS. PMID:14973409

Pelusi, B; Gambineri, A; Pasquali, R

2004-02-01

247

Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment. PMID:24552422

Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

2014-06-01

248

Status of Homocysteine in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).  

PubMed

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease in women of reproductive age and is estimated to affect 5-10 % of the population. Women with PCOS have a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension. Homocysteine has been recognized recently as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Preliminary investigations suggest that high sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine and adiponectin are abnormal in women with PCOS. The possible determinants of elevated homocysteine concentration are still debated among authors who found significant correlations between homocysteine and insulin resistance or hyperandrogenism. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate homocysteine levels in the PCOS population compared with controls. Materials and Methods: Study group comprised of 142 women with PCOS and 65 healthy non-PCOS controls. Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference and serum homocysteine were measured in PCOS subjects and age matched controls. Statastical Analysis: All values are expressed as mean ? SD. The results obtained are analysed statistically using the unpaired student t-test to evaluate the significance of differences between the mean values. Results: The mean BMI, Waist circumference and serum homocysteine values are significantly increased in PCOS subjects when compared with non PCOS controls. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated increase in mean serum homocysteine concentrations in women with PCOS. PMID:24701474

Maleedhu, Priyanka; M, Vijayabhaskar; S S B, Sharma; Kodumuri, Praveen K; Devi D, Vasundhara

2014-02-01

249

Relationship between serum cystatin C and polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes an increased risk of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Also, cystatin C serum levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients. Objective: To investigate the relationship between cystatin C in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: 35 women with PCOS were compared to 35 women with healthy matched age and body mass index. They all underwent tests to determine plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), cystatin C, lipid profile and apo-lipoprotein. Blood pressure and demographic variables of each subject were obtained. Results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in PCOS patients compared to control group. Triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in PCOS; contrariwise, high-density lipoprotein was lower from that of healthy volunteers. Cystatin and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS in comparison with healthy subjects (p<0.0001). Among measured determinants, only PCOS status was independently associated with cystatin C. Conclusion: Cystatin C was positively correlated with PCOS status concentrations but not with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, or any of the lipid profile variables or demographic characteristics. Indeed, no correlation was found between cystatin C and CRP levels. Therefore, cystatin C might be related to PCOS beyond its use as a marker of the renal function.

Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Gholamhosseinian, Ahmad; Musavi, Fatemeh; Mashrouteh, Mahdieh

2013-01-01

250

Pharmacotherapy of polycystic ovary syndrome--an update.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a persisting challenge to clinical and basic research scientists as none of the presently available medications have been fully able to combat these consequences. The aim of the present review is to summarize the different lines of treatment available for the different symptomologies that women with PCOS presents. In this comprehensive review, search was made for various treatment options available for PCOS by using Cochrane library, Pubmed, Medline, in addition to the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. The search results revealed that oral contraceptives containing oestrogen and progesterone regularize the menstruation, antiandrogens like spironolactone and drosperinone have proven to be effective in hirsutism and acne, clomiphene is the gold standard for ovulation induction, but multiple pregnancies and clomiphene failure add to its limitation. Hence, aromatase inhibitors like letrozole, low-dose gondotropins, and ovarian drilling procedure have shown to be beneficial effect in clomiphene-resistant cases. Insulin sensitizers such as metformin, thiazolidinediones, and d-chiro-inositol increase insulin sensitivity and improve ovulation rate. Recently, melatonin, N-acetyl cysteine, acarbose, and statins have shown positive results in different symptomologies of PCOS. The results show that PCOS treatment constitutes varied line of treatment depending upon the clinical features with which a woman is presenting. Still, unfortunately, none of the treatments are fully able to combat the PCOS. PMID:21210850

Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Saha, Pradip Kumar

2012-02-01

251

Managing polycystic ovary syndrome: what our patients are telling us.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience symptoms such as irregular menses, hirsutism, and acne, and are at heightened risk for developing obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, infertility, and some cancers. Data also indicate an inverse correlation between PCOS and health-related quality-of-life indicators and self-image. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of women with PCOS in the management of their disorder and the meaning of that experience for them. Design: This qualitative study was conducted using a phenomenological approach based on the guidelines of Van Manen. Method: Individual, semistructured interviews were completed with 10 participants who were diagnosed with PCOS and managed by a health care practitioner(s) within the past 5 years. Data were analyzed using the process of hermeneutic phenomenological reflection. Findings: The four major themes that described women's lived experience of managing PCOS were frustration, confusion, searching, and gaining control. Conclusions: Women with PCOS face many challenges in managing their disorder and desire to gain control, balance, and well-being through a comprehensive treatment plan. The findings have implications for health care providers in addressing quality of life issues and overall health outcomes. PMID:21357181

Crete, Joan; Adamshick, Pamela

2011-12-01

252

Combined oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome - indications and cautions.  

PubMed

Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been used in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) for the treatment of menstrual disorders, acne and hirsutism. Despite years of their use and broad clinical experience, there are still ongoing doubts concerning their implications for the cardiovascular system and carbohydrate metabolism both in the general population and women with PCOS. In the general population, the risk of venous thromboembolism is reported to be increased. However, arterial thrombotic events seem to require concomitant risk factors to appear during administration of OCPs. In terms of carbohydrate metabolism, available data do not consistently suggest an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus, in spite of some subtle fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels. In subgroup analyses of epidemiological studies in the general population, there is no finding indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related mortality in premenopausal women with PCOS. There is no significant alteration in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism after use of OCP in PCOS either. The absence of further cardiometabolic risk with OCP use in PCOS might suggest some unproven preventive alterations in this patient population. PMID:24002409

Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

2013-01-01

253

A new perspective in diagnosing polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Recently, the term of "possible" polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been used for defining cases in which biochemical evaluations are incomplete but clinical phenotypes are suggestive of PCOS. The aim of this study was, by using Rotterdam 2003 criteria, to detect possible PCOS cases and compare their characteristics and insulin sensitivity status with confirmed PCOS subjects. One-hundred-eighteen women who admitted with complaints and symptoms suggesting PCOS were included. Insulin sensitivity status of the cases was calculated with Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Cases fulfilling Rotterdam 2003 criteria were defined as confirmed PCOS, whereas indeterminate subjects as possible PCOS. Confirmed PCOS was detected in 70 (59.3%) and possible PCOS in 48 (40.7%) cases. Confirmed PCOS was most prevalent among subjects with hirsutism and menstrual dysfunction; 32 (80.0%) vs. 8 (20%), (p=0.000). Body mass index and HOMA-IR values did not differ between groups: confirmed PCOS versus possible PCOS; 25.46+/-5.55 kg/m(2) vs. 26.75+/-7.55 kg/m(2), 3.37+/-4.12 vs. 3.21+/-2.50, (p>0.05). Family history of type-2 diabetes mellifus was similar within both groups (p>0.05). Many PCOS patients seem to be undiagnosed due to inadherence to diagnostic work-up and/or to not fulfill Rotterdam 2003 criteria. These criteria may not be sufficient to cover the entire spectrum of PCOS.

Ertorer, Melek Eda; Anaforoglu, Inan; Bozkirli, Emre; Bakiner, Okan; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascil; Demirag, Nilgun Guvener

2007-01-01

254

Lung cancer diagnosis on ovary mass: a case report  

PubMed Central

Metastatic neoplasms to the ovary often cause diagnostic problems, in particular those large ovarian masses mimicking primary tumors. Most of these tumors arise from digestive system or breast, while 37-year-old woman diagnosed as right adnexal complex mass, with a subpleural nodule in the apical part of the left lower lobe, at preoperative chest computed tomography scan. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy (ovarian mass 220 × 200 mm), total omentectomy, left ovarian biopsy, peritoneal random biopsies, and peritoneal washings for cytology. Pathologic and immunohistochemical examination of ovarian specimen suggested morphology and expression of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with an intense positivity for Thyroid Transcriptional Factor-1 (TTF-1) and Cytokeratin 7 (CK7) staining. Fine needle biopsy of the lung nodule found epithelioid like malignant cells, confirming the diagnosis of an ovarian metastasis from a primary lung cancer. This report focused on the clinical and pathologic diagnostic challenge of distinguishing secondary from primary ovarian neoplasms. Issues on useful immunohistochemical stains are also discussed.

2013-01-01

255

Nesfatin-1 and other hormone alterations in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly characterised by obesity, insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia and hirsutism. Nesfatin-1 a recently discovered hormone, acts upon energy balance, glucose metabolism, obesity and probably gonadal functions. This study was to evaluate the circulating levels of nesfatin-1 in patients with PCOS (n = 30) and in age and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 30). PCOS patients had significantly lower levels of nesfatin-1 (0.88 ± 0.36 ng/mL) than healthy controls (2.22 ± 1.14 ng/mL). PCOS patients also had higher gonadotropin and androgen plasma concentrations, Ferriman-Gallwey scores, blood glucose levels and a homeostasis model of assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR) index than in healthy women. Correlation tests in PCOS subjects detected a negative correlation between nesfatin-1 levels and BMI, fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and a HOMA-IR index. Lower nesfatin-1 concentration may plays a very important role in the development of PCOS. PMID:22367584

Deniz, Rulin; Gurates, Bilgin; Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Husnu; Sahin, Ibrahim; Baykus, Yakup; Catak, Zekiye; Aksoy, Aziz; Citil, Cihan; Gungor, Sami

2012-12-01

256

Serum visfatin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine the serum levels of visfatin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to understand its correlations with other metabolic and hormonal parameters. Thirty-seven patients with PCOS and 30 women without concomitant disease were included in this study. Serum visfatin levels were similar in patients with PCOS and control group. Visfatin levels were higher in normal weight PCOS when compared with obese PCOS, but it did not reach statistical significance. Visfatin levels correlated negatively with fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and lipoprotein-a levels in PCOS patients. CRP levels increased both in obese PCOS and in obese controls. Plasma visfatin levels had no correlation with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels, but the negative correlation between plasma visfatin levels and lipoprotein-a, fasting plasma glucose, TC and LDL levels may indicate a role for visfatin in cardiovascular disease independent of insulin resistance. PMID:22313145

Güdücü, Nilgün; ??çi, Herman; Görmü?, Uzay; Yi?iter, Alin Ba?gül; Dünder, Ilkkan

2012-08-01

257

Glucose ingestion stimulates atherothrombotic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation that can increase the risk of atherothrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the effect of glucose ingestion on markers of atherothrombotic inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 16 women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 16 weight-matched controls. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and the protein content of early growth response-1 (EGR-1), matrix matalloproteinases-2 (MMP2), and tissue factor (TF) were quantified from MNC obtained from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Plasma MMP9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured from fasting blood samples. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Lean women with PCOS exhibited greater AP-1 activation and MMP2 protein content after glucose ingestion and higher plasma MMP9 and CRP levels than lean controls. Obese women with PCOS exhibited greater EGR-1 and TF protein content after glucose ingestion, and plasma CRP levels were even higher compared with lean subjects regardless of PCOS status. Truncal fat correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated increases in AP-1 activation and EGR-1 and TF protein content. Testosterone correlated with glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation, and androstenedione correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation. Thus, both PCOS and obesity contribute to an atherothrombotic state in which excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may be specific risk factors for developing atherothrombosis. PMID:23249695

González, Frank; Kirwan, John P; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

2013-02-15

258

Interventions for the metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic disturbances including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Cardiometabolic risk should be assessed at regular intervals starting from diagnosis. A comprehensive clinical evaluation includes determination of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and measurement of serum lipid and glucose levels in all women with PCOS. A standard 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance test is required for women with a body mass index over 25kg/m(2) and with other risk factors for glucose intolerance. No long-term data are available for the risk or benefit of any medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS. For the initial management of metabolic dysfunction in PCOS, available guidelines recommend lifestyle intervention which improves androgen excess and insulin resistance without significant effect on glucose intolerance or dyslipidemia. Pharmacological interventions include insulin sensitizing agents and statins. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed insulin sensitizer in PCOS. Available randomized controlled trials suggest that metformin improves insulin resistance without any effect on body mass index, fasting glucose or lipid levels. Short term use of statins alone or in combination with metformin decreases total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides in PCOS patients with dyslipidemia. Low dose oral contraception in PCOS appears not to be associated with clinically significant metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23624033

Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent O

2013-08-01

259

Status of Homocysteine in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease in women of reproductive age and is estimated to affect 5-10 % of the population. Women with PCOS have a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension. Homocysteine has been recognized recently as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Preliminary investigations suggest that high sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine and adiponectin are abnormal in women with PCOS. The possible determinants of elevated homocysteine concentration are still debated among authors who found significant correlations between homocysteine and insulin resistance or hyperandrogenism. Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate homocysteine levels in the PCOS population compared with controls. Materials and Methods: Study group comprised of 142 women with PCOS and 65 healthy non-PCOS controls. Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference and serum homocysteine were measured in PCOS subjects and age matched controls. Statastical Analysis: All values are expressed as mean ? SD. The results obtained are analysed statistically using the unpaired student t-test to evaluate the significance of differences between the mean values. Results: The mean BMI, Waist circumference and serum homocysteine values are significantly increased in PCOS subjects when compared with non PCOS controls. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated increase in mean serum homocysteine concentrations in women with PCOS.

Maleedhu, Priyanka; M., Vijayabhaskar; S.S.B., Sharma; Kodumuri, Praveen K; Devi D., Vasundhara

2014-01-01

260

Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) both are known to be associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of the study was to determine the presence of NAFLD and associated factors of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study of 54 women with PCOS and 55 healthy controls who were age and weight matched were included. Anthropometric parameters, biochemical and hormonal investigations were done in all the patients. Insulin resistance was calculated by Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Abdominal ultrasonography and biochemical tests were used to determine the presence of hepatic steatosis after excluding other causes liver disease. RESULTS: Women with PCOS had a higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis (67% vs 25%, P = 0.001) MS (35% vs. 7%, P < 0.01) and elevated transaminases (31% vs. 7%, P = 0.03) than controls. All patients with PCOS and controls with MS had presence of hepatic steatosis. Age, BMI, waist-hip ratio, HOMA-IR, HDL and PCOS diagnosis were the factors associated with presence of hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSION: NAFLD is commonly present in women with PCOS in combination with other metabolic derangements. Evaluation for liver disease should be considered at an earlier age in women with PCOS, particularly those who have an evidence of MS.

Karoli, Ritu; Fatima, Jalees; Chandra, Ashok; Gupta, Uma; Islam, Faraz-ul; Singh, Gagandeep

2013-01-01

261

Elevated circulating levels of tissue factor in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have coagulation disturbances and inflammation, which increases the risk of atherothrombosis. We evaluated the status of circulating tissue factor (TF), the receptor for coagulation factor VII involved in atherothrombosis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status and weight class on TF and other parameters. The TF levels were significantly higher in lean women with PCOS compared to lean controls. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in obese participants compared to lean participants after controlling for PCOS status. The TF levels directly correlated with percentage of truncal fat and plasma levels of PAI-1, testosterone, androstendione, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate; and inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity index-OGTT(IS(OGTT)). Circulating TF is elevated in PCOS independent of obesity, but both PCOS and obesity contribute to a prothrombotic state. In PCOS, abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may exacerbate the risk of atherothrombosis. PMID:22327820

González, Frank; Kirwan, John P; Rote, Neal S; Minium, Judi

2013-01-01

262

Glucose ingestion stimulates atherothrombotic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation that can increase the risk of atherothrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the effect of glucose ingestion on markers of atherothrombotic inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 16 women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 16 weight-matched controls. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and the protein content of early growth response-1 (EGR-1), matrix matalloproteinases-2 (MMP2), and tissue factor (TF) were quantified from MNC obtained from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Plasma MMP9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured from fasting blood samples. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Lean women with PCOS exhibited greater AP-1 activation and MMP2 protein content after glucose ingestion and higher plasma MMP9 and CRP levels than lean controls. Obese women with PCOS exhibited greater EGR-1 and TF protein content after glucose ingestion, and plasma CRP levels were even higher compared with lean subjects regardless of PCOS status. Truncal fat correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated increases in AP-1 activation and EGR-1 and TF protein content. Testosterone correlated with glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation, and androstenedione correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation. Thus, both PCOS and obesity contribute to an atherothrombotic state in which excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may be specific risk factors for developing atherothrombosis.

Kirwan, John P.; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi

2013-01-01

263

Clinical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian women  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common diagnosis in women presenting with infertility. All the dimensions of PCOS have not been completely explored. Many studies have tried to characterize the exact presentation of the disease. In this study we studied clinical features of PCOS in Indian women to characterize different phenotypes of this syndrome. Prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) as surrogate marker of insulin resistance, obesity, hirsutism and hypothyroidism in PCOS women have been simultaneously studied. Materials and Methods: Present work is a non comparative cross-sectional open label study carried out over a period of 18 months in an endocrinology hospital in western Maharashtra, India. Results and Conclusion: Authors conclude that PCOS occurs both in obese and non-obese women; AN and hirsutism occur in equal proportion of patients. AN is correlated with obesity. Hormonal dysfunctions in PCOS manifested together or independently. PCOS women can be sub grouped based on clinical features suggestive of endocrinological malfunctions and can be investigated accordingly for selection of appropriate treatment modalities.

Ramanand, Sunita J.; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.; Ramanand, Jaiprakash B.; Patwardhan, Milind H.; Ghanghas, Ravi R.; Jain, Suyog S.

2013-01-01

264

Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. PMID:24002406

Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

2013-01-01

265

Endocrinopathies and other disorders inducing a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.  

PubMed

Amongst the commonest endocrine symptoms encountered in premenopausal women are those related to excessive androgen secretion or action, along with menstrual irregularity. The vast majority of women presenting with such symptoms will be found to have the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disorder characterized by specific clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. PCOS is regarded as a state of 'functional hyperandrogenism', as no distinct source of autonomous androgen secretion is identified and is commonly associated with insulin resistance. This later feature may also be related to some long-term sequelae of the syndrome that are associated with metabolic abnormalities and excessive cardiovascular morbidity. Although PCOS in the short-term is regarded as a 'benign' disease, a proportion of patients may harbor other underlying disorders that can be life-threatening, requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Adrenal and ovarian androgen-secreting tumors, adrenal and ovarian steroidogenic deficiencies along with other medical or endocrine conditions, particularly in the presence of insulin resistance, can exhibit similar clinical, endocrine and/or ultrasonographic features to PCOS. Their early identification is based on the presence of distinct features and a high index of suspicion. PMID:24002411

Alexandraki, Krystallenia I; Kaltsas, Gregory A

2013-01-01

266

Infertility and pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually spans a woman's reproductive years. While treatment of androgenic symptoms is often a primary concern, periodically, the regimen has to be modified because of a desire for pregnancy. At this time the couple should be evaluated for factors that may contribute to infertility and this should include semen analysis. However, for many, anovulation is likely to be the cause of infertility and ovulation induction is generally required. The premise on which ovulation induction in PCOS is based is two-fold: increasing ovarian exposure to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and/or correcting hormonal derangements. Potential differences in pathogenesis, evidenced clinically by phenotypic diversity, would suggest that treatment should be individualized. After a brief overview of factors relating to infertility, this paper outlines treatments available for ovulation induction in women with PCOS and provides a critical appraisal of management options. These options include the use of clomiphene citrate, insulin sensitizers, and the combination. Protocols for ovulation induction with FSH injections are outlined and the relative risks of multiple gestation and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome of these various protocols discussed. The use of aromatase inhibitors and the occasional use of glucocorticoids are briefly reviewed, and indications for in vitro fertilization and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy outlined. Pregnancy outcome in this patient population is also discussed. PMID:21178917

Nader, S

2010-12-01

267

Adrenarche and polycystic ovary syndrome: a tale of two hypotheses.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an extremely common endocrine disorder affecting young women, with the potential for both reproductive and non-reproductive adverse outcomes. While oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and cystic ovarian morphology are recognized characteristics of this syndrome, the origin of these disturbances is not always apparent. During normal growth and development, adrenarche, the prepubertal onset of adrenal androgen secretion, results phenotypically in pubarche. Gonadarche, which is the ovarian response to gonadotropin releasing hormone-mediated gonadotropin secretion, also occurs, leading to reproductive competence, namely the establishment of ovulatory cycles, repeatedly. In this mini-review, an overview of adrenarche and gonadarche are presented, followed by two hypotheses. The first describes an evolutionary role for adrenarche: an advantage in the attainment of reproductive competence. The second proposes that the path to PCOS be viewed from a developmental perspective, namely, that PCOS is a maladaptation of the processes that lead to reproductive competence in women. Its defining characteristics of oligomenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and cystic ovarian morphology are the final common pathway of multiple possible derangements. Elucidating and understanding these maladaptive processes will be the key to future endeavors at prevention and treatment of this common reproductive disorder. PMID:18082857

Nader, Shahla

2007-12-01

268

The genetics of obesity. Lessons for polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity are common disorders with a complex phenotype. Both are presumably heterogeneous in etiology. Understanding the genetics of obesity, which has a longer and richer history, may therefore illuminate the genetics of PCOS, where major projects are now underway. Obesity may be the penultimate condition in which the effects of heredity and environment will forever mingle. Most obesity mutations identified to date (with the exception of the Agouti mutation) are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Therefore, it is unlikely that such mutations, even when identified in a human population, could explain only a fraction of the cases that make up the high prevalence of both of these disorders. Although the mouse models of single gene defects causing obesity contain many similar aspects of the PCOS phenotype such as obesity and subfecundity, there is no mouse model that mimics all aspects of the syndrome, especially the circulating androgen excess. This elevation in circulating androgens may be the sine qua non of the syndrome as indicated by our findings in sisters of PCOS probands that hyperandrogenemia may be the distintinctive reproductive phenotype. Isolation of PCOS and obesity genes may allow the development of targeted interventions that will lead to effective and safe treatment of both obesity and PCOS. PMID:10818406

Legro, R S

2000-01-01

269

Fertility in cancer patients after cryopreservation of one ovary.  

PubMed

This questionnaire study describes the fertility and ovarian function in 143 adult female cancer survivors with only one ovary due to cryopreservation of the other. The women were asked about their ovarian function (as defined by the presence of a spontaneous menstrual cycle), pregnancies and their outcome. The mean follow-up time was 58months after cryopreservation (range 24-129months). The risk of premature ovarian failure was high in the group of patients with leukaemia (13/15; 87%) but low in the breast cancer group (5/54; 9%). Fifty-seven women had actively tried to become pregnant after end of treatment; of these, 41 women obtained a total of 68 pregnancies resulting in 45 live births and five ongoing pregnancies, 15 spontaneous abortions, one ectopic pregnancy and two elective abortions. In the remaining 86 women without a pregnancy wish, there had been five elective abortions. Ninety-three per cent of the pregnancies were after natural conception and only four cases were a result of fertility treatment. The overall risk of premature ovarian failure was low (22%). Patients who retain their ovarian function after treatment of a malignant disease have a good chance of becoming pregnant. PMID:23352102

Schmidt, K T; Nyboe Andersen, A; Greve, T; Ernst, E; Loft, A; Yding Andersen, C

2013-03-01

270

Use of metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Metformin is quite an old drug, but it is optimal for the control of glycemia in Type 2 diabetes. It was reported, 15 years ago, that insulin resistance was abnormally high in most polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Starting from that moment, increasing numbers of studies were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of metformin in controlling and/or modulating several aspects of PCOS, which is the most common cause of menstrual irregularity, inesthetisms and infertility. Metformin induces higher glucose uptake, thus inducing a lower synthesis/secretion of insulin. Such an effect permits the possible restoration of the normal biological functions that are severely affected by the compensatory hyperinsulinemia reactive to the increased peripheral insulin resistance. These are the basis of the many positive effects of this drug, such as the restoration of menstrual cyclicity, ovulatory cycles and fertility, because abnormal insulin levels affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian function, as well as the use of glucose in peripheral tissues. Metformin improves the impairments typically observed in hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients, reducing the possible evolution towards metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes; and when pregnancy occurs, it consistently reduces the risk of gestational diabetes, eclampsia and hypertension. PCOS seems to be the perfect physiopathological condition that might have higher benefits from metformin administration, obviously after Type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the many aspects of PCOS and on the possible issues of this disease for which metformin might be a putative optimal treatment. PMID:20597621

Genazzani, Alessandro D; Ricchieri, Federica; Lanzoni, Chiara

2010-07-01

271

Sex, stem cells and tumors in the Drosophila ovary  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) gene encodes a female-specific RNA binding protein that in somatic cells globally regulates all aspects of female-specific development and behavior. Sxl also has a critical, but less well understood, role in female germ cells. Germ cells without Sxl protein can adopt a stem cell fate when housed in a normal ovary, but fail to successfully execute the self-renewal differentiation fate switch. The failure to differentiate is accompanied by the inappropriate expression of a set of male specific markers, continued proliferation, and formation of a tumor. The findings in Chau et al., (2012) identify the germline stem cell maintenance factor nanos as one of its target genes, and suggest that Sxl enables the switch from germline stem cell to committed daughter cell by posttranscriptional downregulation of nanos expression. These studies provide the basis for a new model in which Sxl directly couples sexual identity with the self-renewal differentiation decision and raises several interesting questions about the genesis of the tumor phenotype.

Salz, Helen K.

2013-01-01

272

Implications of polycystic ovary syndrome on oocyte development.  

PubMed

Human follicle development requires the recruitment of primordial follicles into a cohort of growing follicles from which one follicle is selected to ovulate a mature oocyte. During this developmental process, complex endocrine and intraovarian paracrine signals create a changing intrafollicular hormonal milieu. With this microenvironment, appropriate cumulus cell-oocyte signaling governs oocyte developmental competence, defined as the ability of the oocyte to complete meiosis and undergo fertilization, embryogenesis, and term development. Many of these mechanisms are perturbed in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by ovarian hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia from insulin resistance, and reduced fecundity. In addition to these endocrinopathies, PCOS also is characterized by paracrine dysregulation of follicle development by intraovarian proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta family. Consequently, PCOS patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization are at increased risks of impaired oocyte developmental competence, implantation failure, and pregnancy loss. Recent data demonstrate links between endocrine/paracrine factors and oocyte gene expression in PCOS and suggest that new clinical strategies to optimize developmental competence of PCOS oocytes should target correction of the entire follicle growth and oocyte development process. PMID:18181083

Dumesic, Daniel A; Abbott, David H

2008-01-01

273

Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects.

Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

1987-05-01

274

PCOS Forum: Research in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Today and Tomorrow  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarize promising areas of investigation into polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to stimulate further research in this area. Summary Potential areas of further research activity include the analysis of predisposing conditions that increase the risk of PCOS, particularly genetic background and environmental factors, such as endocrine disruptors and lifestyle. The concept that androgen excess may contribute to insulin resistance needs to be re-examined from a developmental perspective, since animal studies have supported the hypothesis that early exposure to modest androgen excess is associated with insulin resistance. Defining alterations of steroidogenesis in PCOS should quantify ovarian, adrenal and extraglandular contribution, as well as clearly define blood reference levels by some universal standard. Intraovarian regulation of follicle development and mechanisms of follicle arrest should be further elucidated. Finally, PCOS status is expected to have long-term consequences in women, specifically the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hormone dependent cancers. Identifying susceptible individuals through genomic and proteomic approaches would help to individualize therapy and prevention. A potential limitation of our review is that we focused selectively on areas we viewed as the most controversial.

Pasquali, Renato; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Yildiz, Bulent O.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Hoeger, Kathleen; Mason, Helen; Homburg, Roy; Hickey, Theresa; Franks, Steve; Tapanainen, Juha; Balen, Adam; Abbott, David H.; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Legro, Richard S.

2013-01-01

275

Inositol: history of an effective therapy for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.  

PubMed

Inositol is a physiological compound belonging to the sugar family. The two inositol stereoisomers, myo-inositol and D-chiroinositol are the two main stereisomers present in our body. Myo-inositol is the precursor of inositol triphosphate, a second messenger regulating many hormones such as TSH, FSH and insulin. D-chiroinositol is synthetized by an insulin dependent epimerase that converts myo-inositol into D-chiro-inositol. Polycistic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic and hormonal disorder and a common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinaemia contribute to hyperandrogenism development, typical marker of PCOS. In these patients myo and/or D-chiro-inositol administration improves insulin sensivity while only myo-inositol is a quality marker for oocytes evaluation. Myo-inositol produces second messengers for FSH and glucose uptake, while D-chiroinositol provides second messengers promoting glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The physiological ratio of these two isomers is 40:1 (MI/DCI) and seems to be an optimal approach for the treatment of PCOS disorders. PMID:25010620

Bizzarri, M; Carlomagno, G

2014-07-01

276

Lowering storage temperature during ovary transport is beneficial to the developmental competence of bovine oocytes used for somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature during ovary transport on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes for use in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Ovaries obtained from a slaughterhouse were stored in physiological saline for 3-4h at one of the three temperatures: 15 °C, 25 °C, or 35 °C. The developmental competence of oocytes used for SCNT was ascertained by cleavage and blastocyst formation rate, total cell number, apoptosis index, and the relative abundance of Bax and Hsp70.1 in day 7 blastocysts. Ovaries stored at 35 °C for 3-4h reduced the recovery rate of grade I and II oocytes compared with those stored at 25 °C or 15 °C (45.1±0.7% vs. 76.7±1.2% or 74.8±2.0%, P<0.05). The proportion of oocytes matured to the MII stage (maturation rate) for oocytes stored at 35 °C was significantly lower than those stored at 25 °C or 15 °C (51.3±0.9% vs. 75.1±1.4% or 71.7±1.3%, P<0.05). Cleavage rate (77.7±2.1%, 77.9±1.1% and 72.1±0.7% for 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C groups, respectively) and blastocyst formation rate (39.1±0.5%, 36.8±1.4% and 32.2±0.9% for 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C groups, respectively) following SCNT were not significantly different between treatments. Oocytes from ovaries stored at 15 °C, however, produced blastocysts with higher cell numbers (97.3±8.6 vs. 80.2±10.8 or 77.4±11.7; P<0.05) and lower apoptotic index (5.1±1.3 vs. 13.5±1.6 or 18.6±1.1, P<0.05) than those stored at 25 °C or 35 °C. The relative abundance of Bax and Hsp70.1 in day 7 blastocysts produced from oocytes derived from ovaries stored at 15 °C was lower than those stored at 25 °C or 35 °C (P<0.05). It was concluded that a storage temperature of 15 °C for a 3-4h period had a significant beneficial effect on the quality and developmental competence of oocytes used for SCNT due to the alleviation of stresses on the oocytes compared with those subjected to storage temperatures of 25 °C or 35 °C. PMID:21333472

Wang, Y S; Zhao, X; Su, J M; An, Z X; Xiong, X R; Wang, L J; Liu, J; Quan, F S; Hua, S; Zhang, Y

2011-03-01

277

Genetic characterization of small ovaries, a gene required in the soma for the development of the Drosophila ovary and the female germline  

SciTech Connect

The small ovary gene (sov) is required for the development of the Drosophila ovary. Six EMS-induced recessive alleles have been identified. Hypomorphic alleles are female sterile and have no effect on male fertility, whereas more severe mutations result in lethality. The female-sterile alleles produce a range of mutant phenotypes that affect the differentiation of both somatic and germline tissues. These mutations generally produce small ovaries that contain few egg cysts and disorganized ovarioles, and in the most extreme case no ovarian tissue is present. The mutant egg cysts that develop have aberrant morphology, including abnormal numbers of nurse cells and patches of necrotic cells. We demonstrate that sov gene expression is not required in the germline for the development of functional egg cysts. This indicates that the sov function is somatic dependent. We present evidence using loss-of-function and constitutive forms of the somatic sex regulatory genes that sov activity is essential for the development of the somatic ovary regardless of the chromosomal sex of the fly. In addition, the genetic mapping of the sov locus is presented, including the characterization of two lethal sov alleles and complementation mapping with existing rearrangements. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wayne, S.; Liggett, K.; Pettus, J.; Nagoshi, R.N. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1995-03-01

278

Derivatives Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Derivatives are financial securities whose value is derived from another "underlying" financial security. Options, futures, swaps, swaptions, and structured notes are all examples of derivative securities. Derivatives can be used in hedging, protecting against financial risk, or can be used to speculate on the movement of commodity or security prices, interest rates, or the levels of financial indices. The valuation of derivatives makes use of the statistical mathematics of uncertainty. With links to related articles. See also Derivatives Concepts A-Z, glossary of derivatives-related terminology designed to make the other articles in the Financial Pipeline's Derivatives section easier to understand.

2007-03-22

279

Floral Ontogeny of the Afro-Madagascan Genus Mitrasacmopsis with Comments on the Development of Superior Ovaries in Rubiaceae  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Members of Rubiaceae are generally characterized by an inferior ovary. However, Mitrasacmopsis is cited in the literature as having a semi-inferior to superior ovary. It has previously been hypothesized that the gynoecial development of Rubiaceae with semi-inferior to superior ovaries takes place in the same way as in Gaertnera, one of the most commonly cited rubiaceous genera with a superior ovary. To test this hypothesis, a floral ontogenetic study of Mitrasacmopsis was carried out with special attention paid to the gynoecial development. Methods Floral ontogeny and anatomy of Mitrasacmopsis were examined using scanning electron and light microscopy. Key Results At an early developmental stage, a concavity becomes visible in the centre of the floral apex simultaneously with the perianth initiation. A ring primordium surrounding this concavity expands vertically forming the corolla tube (early sympetaly). Stamen primordia develop inside the corolla. From the bicarpellate gynoecium only two carpel tips are visible because the ovary is formed by a gynoecial hypanthium. In the basal part of each carpel, a placenta primordium is initiated. Two septa divide the ovary into two locules. In each locule, the placenta becomes mushroom shaped and distinctly stalked. Eventually, the inferior ovary of Mitrasacmopsis develops into a beaked capsule. Only very late in the fruiting stage, the continuously expanding ovary is raised above the insertion point of the persistent calyx, changing the ovary position of Mitrasacmopsis from basically inferior to secondarily semi-inferior. Conclusions Mitrasacmopsis follows an epigynous pattern of floral development. However, the presence of a prominent beak in the fruiting stage gives the whole ovary a semi-inferior appearance. This kind of secondarily semi-inferior ovary is shown to be different from the secondarily superior ovary observed in Gaertnera.

Groeninckx, I.; Vrijdaghs, A.; Huysmans, S.; Smets, E.; Dessein, S.

2007-01-01

280

Stereological study of the effects of letrozole and estradiol valerate treatment on the ovary of rats  

PubMed Central

Objective Letrozole and estradiol valerate are used to treat some hormonally-responsive symptoms and also in modeling of the polycystic ovary syndrome. However, the stereological analysis of the ovary has received less attention. Estimation of the whole ovary volume using the Cavalieri method can be applied in any orientation desired, but estimation of the mean volume of the oocytes requires isotropic uniform random sectioning. Here, a combined method was developed for estimating the parameters. To our knowledge, no comparison has been made of the effects of letrozole and estradiol on the ovary. Methods Sixty rats were divided into 4 groups receiving estradiol (4 mg/kg), olive oil, letrozole (1 mg/kg), or normal saline. After 21 days, their ovaries were studied. Results Relative to the control group, the total volume of the ovary and the cortex increased in the letrozole-treated and estradiol-treated rats. In addition, the number of the preantral, antral, and granulosa cells decreased by 43% to 56% in the letrozole- and estradiol-treated rats. On average, a 19% increase was observed in the atretic oocytes of the letrozole-treated and estradiol-treated rats, but the mean oocyte volume decreased by 29% to 44% in letrozole- and estradiol-treated rats. Furthermore, the letrozole-treated rats showed a 5-fold and 7-fold increase in the volume of the cysts and corpus luteum, respectively. A 3-fold increase was found in the volume of both the cysts and corpus luteum in the estradiol group. Conclusion The structural changes of the ovary were most pronounced in the letrozole-treated animals.

Noorafshan, Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mesbah, Seyed-Fakhroddin

2013-01-01

281

Assessment of symptoms of urinary incontinence in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The pelvic floor muscles are sensitive to androgens, and due to hyperandrogenism, women with polycystic ovary syndrome can have increased mass in these muscles compared to controls. The aim of this study is to compare reports of urine leakage and quality of life between women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: One hundred thirteen 18- to 40-year-old nulliparous women with polycystic ovary syndrome or without the disease (controls) were recruited at the University Hospital of School Medicine of São Paulo University at Ribeirão Preto City, Brazil. The subjects were not taking any hormonal medication, had not undergone previous pelvic surgery and did not exercise their pelvic floor muscles. The women were divided into the following four groups: I- polycystic ovary syndrome with normal body mass index (n?=?18), II- polycystic ovary syndrome with body mass index ?25 (n?=?32), III- controls with normal body mass index (n?=?29), and IV- controls with Body Mass Index ?25 (n?=?34). Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire, and the subjects with urinary complaints also completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form to evaluate the severity of their urinary incontinence. RESULTS: The replies to the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form revealed a significant difference in urinary function between groups, with 24% of the subjects in group IV reporting urinary incontinence. The mean scores for the SF-36 questionnaire revealed that group II had the lowest quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The control obese group (IV) reported a higher prevalence of urinary incontinence. There was no difference in the reported frequency of urine loss between the polycystic ovary syndrome and control groups with normal body mass index or between the polycystic ovary syndrome and control groups with body mass index ?25.

Montezuma, Thais; Antonio, Flavia Ignacio; de Sa Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; de Sa, Marcos Felipe Silva; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

2011-01-01

282

Effects of culture and transplantation on follicle activation and early follicular growth in neonatal mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

Mouse models have been widely utilized to elucidate the basic principles and regulatory mechanisms of primordial follicle activation. Outside their natural environment, the growth of follicles might be affected by unknown factors in vitro and the elimination of regulation in vivo. Currently, in vitro culture and transplantation of ovaries under the kidney capsule are two commonly used incubation methods. However, the limited number of studies that have been published compare various incubation systems and reveal differences between ovaries that are incubated and grown in vivo. We compare the number of primordial, primary and secondary follicles in cultured, transplanted and in-vivo-grown ovaries. We investigate the expression levels of four genes, including zona pellucida 3 (ZP3), growth and differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Our results suggest that in vitro culture accelerates follicle activation, delays the transition from primary to secondary follicles and affects the expression patterns of ZP3, GDF-9, PCNA and AMH. A larger number of secondary follicles in ovaries cultured in alpha-minimal essential medium (?-MEM) had intact zona pellucida compared with those grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing Ham's F-12 nutrient mixture (D/F12), suggesting that ?-MEM is a better basal medium. The transplanted ovaries demonstrated the most similar characteristics to the in-vivo-grown ovaries, indicating that transplantation provided an optimal environment for ovarian incubation. This study has thus established the similarities and differences between in-vivo-grown and incubated ovaries, demonstrated that transplantation can mostly mimic the environment of ovarian growth in vivo and determined the optimal basal culture medium between ?-MEM and D/F12. PMID:23824101

Wang, Shuo; Yang, Shuhong; Lai, Zhiwen; Ding, Ting; Shen, Wei; Shi, Liangyan; Jiang, Jingjing; Ma, Lanfang; Tian, Yong; Du, Xiaofang; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

2013-11-01

283

Insulin resistance and fertility in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) represents a common endocrinopathy, with anovulation and hyperandrogenism as cardinal symptoms. In recent years it has been recognized that insulin resistance is an intrinsec feature of the disorder and plays a central role in pathogenesis. PCOS is associated with important reproductive morbidity as shown by high prevalence of anovulatory infertility, spontaneous abortion, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The association of insulin resistance with this reproductive pathology has been well documented. Due to major implication of insulin resistance in PCOS pathogenesis, insulin reduction strategies were studied as a possible treatment for infertility in PCOS patients. Weight loss, even modest was proved to be a simple and efficient method to improve reproductive parameters in PCOS patients and should be recommended to all overweight and obese patients with infertility. Metformin was showed to induce ovulation, at least in a subset of patients with PCOS, but there are not unequivocal proves concerning its efficacy for pregnancies and live-birth rate, mainly because few trials studied this aspect. Therefore there are not enough evidences to recommend metformin for infertility treatment in PCOS. Few small studies with newer thiazolidindiones suggest their efficacy for ovulation induction, but further extensive studies are needed to confirm these results. In conclusion, reduction of insulin resistance was proved to ameliorate ovulation rate in PCOS patients, but strong evidences to sustain the utility of insulin-sensitizing drugs as a therapeutic option for infertility are lacking. Future studies are needed to elucidate these aspects and to characterize the particular subtype of patients with higher probability to respond to this treatment. PMID:20108521

Fica, Simona; Albu, Alice; Constantin, M?dd?lina; Dobri, Georgiana Alina

2008-01-01

284

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD.

Vassilatou, Evangeline

2014-01-01

285

Psychological investigation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of mood disorders and examine a range of predictors for psychological well-being among Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the factors related to psychological distress in PCOS patients in Kashan, Iran. Psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In addition we assessed quality of life using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Socio-demographic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity (body mass index), excessive body hair (hirsutism score), acne, menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile also were recorded for each patient. Results In all 300 women with PCOS were entered into the study. Of these 32% (n =96) showed elevated HADS anxiety while depression was high in 5% (n =15). Quality of life was significantly impaired in women with anxiety (P <0.05), and depression (P <0.001) and in particular, in women with coexistence anxiety and depression (P <0.001) compared with unaffected participants. Compared with the non-depressed PCOS patients, the depressed women had significantly higher menstrual irregularities (P?=?0.008). Moreover, we found significant difference in FAI level between the depressed and non depressed (p?=?0.05), the anxious and non anxious patients (p?

2013-01-01

286

Invited commentary: progress in the nutritional epidemiology of ovary cancer.  

PubMed

Researchers do not understand what causes ovarian cancer. Some studies find galactose to be toxic to oocytes which renders ovaries susceptible to cancer. 1 hypothesis is that high levels of lactose consumption and retained ability to digest lactose (lactase persistence) lead to high levels of galactose exposure which increases the ovarian cancer risk. Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland have the highest risk of ovarian cancer in the world. They also have the highest levels of lactase persistence and among the highest levels of milk supply for the population. Conversely, Hong Kong, Japan, Shanghai, and Singapore have low ovarian cancer risk, low consumption of milk, and low levels of lactase persistence. yet other researchers using the same data did not find per capita availability of milk to be significant independent of nondairy animal fat. Lactase persistence did have an independent association, however, but data was not standardized across populations. In a case control study, researchers took the dietary history of 11 dairy products to measure lactose consumption. A significant increase in ovarian cancer risk only existed with frequent intake of yogurt and cottage cheese. Researchers hypothesized that the prehydrolyzed lactose in both foods was the main contributor. Using the case control data, others found an increased risk for total lactose intake in women who never used oral contraceptives (OCs). The strongest predictor to date is the lactose/transferase ratio, yet those who found this association did not define this index based on an earlier study or examination. 1 problem with these studies is that dietary fat confounds the association. 2 studies showed that low fat milk was associated with decreased risk, even though both milks have the same lactose content. Another problem is that the subsets of exposure or subgroups of the population are unpredictable. Further research in nutritional epidemiology of ovarian cancer is needed. PMID:1897501

Mettlin, C J

1991-09-01

287

Altered multihormone synchrony in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and pulsatility are increased in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, patients have hyperandrogenemia and insulin resistance. The mechanisms involved in aberrant hormone regulation in PCOS are still unclear. We investigated 15 obese PCOS women with a body mass index between 30 and 54 kg/m(2) and 9 healthy obese controls (body mass index, 31-60 kg/m(2)) with regular menstrual cycles. Subjects underwent 24-hour blood sampling at 10-minute intervals for later measurements of LH, leptin, testosterone, and insulin concentrations. Data were analyzed with a new deconvolution program, approximate entropy (and bivariate approximate entropy), and a cross-correlation network. Patients had increased LH pulse frequency and more than 2-fold greater daily LH secretion, with diminished pattern regularity. Testosterone secretion was increased 2-fold, but pattern regularity was similar to that in controls. In the network construct, insulin was correlated positively with LH, whereas leptin and testosterone were correlated negatively with LH. Bivariate synchrony of LH with insulin was decreased. Short-term caloric restriction paradoxically increased LH secretion by 1.5-fold and pattern irregularity, and reduced interpulse variability. Testosterone secretion and fasting concentrations of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin levels remained unchanged. Correlations between LH and insulin, leptin, and calculated free testosterone decreased. This study demonstrates marked alterations in the control of LH secretion in PCOS in the fed and calorie-restricted states. The ensemble results point to abnormal feedback control of not only the GnRH-gonadotrope complex, but also LH's relationships with leptin, insulin, and testosterone. PMID:21272901

Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Petra; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Pijl, Hanno

2011-09-01

288

Vitamin D deficiency in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate: the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and the relationship between vitamin D status and clinical or metabolic features in this group. Methods We recruited 38 women with PCOS using the Rotterdam criteria. A total of 109 premenopausal control women were matched with patients based on age and body mass index. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations less than 20 ng/mL were classified as frank vitamin D deficiency. Since vitamin D may play a significant role in metabolic disturbances in women with PCOS, correlations between clinical or metabolic parameters and vitamin D status were analyzed separately in patients and controls. Results Women with PCOS showed no differences in the level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (19.6±6.6 ng/mL in patients vs. 20.1±7.4 ng/mL in controls, respectively, p=0.696) or prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (57.9% in patients vs. 56.5% in controls, respectively, p=0.880). In addition, we did not find any correlations between serum vitamin D level and clinical or metabolic profiles in either PCOS patients or controls. Conclusion Our study found no differences in the absolute level of serum vitamin D between PCOS patients and matched controls. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was equally common among both patients and controls. Additionally, we did not find any correlations between serum vitamin D level and clinical or metabolic profiles, suggesting that the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of PCOS is not yet clear.

Kim, Jin Ju; Chae, Soo Jin; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Yoon, Sang Ho; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu

2014-01-01

289

Body weight reduction and metformin: Roles in polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Background and objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women at fertile age. A prospective study was conducted to clarify the pathophysiological responses during an application of insulin sensitizer, metformin and weight reduction therapy at the Gynecology Center in Ohud hospital, in AL-Madinah AL-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methodology: Twenty healthy women served as controls and 180 PCOS women divided into three groups participated in the study. First group was treated with Clomid citrate 100mg/day from the 2nd day of menses to the 6th day plus gonadotrophin from day three to the 13th. Group II was treated as group I plus 850mg metformin twice a day and group III was treated as group I plus weight reduction. Clinical symptoms, menstrual pattern, hirsutism, blood glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, insulin, hormonal, and lipid profiles were assessed pre- and post treatment. Insulin resistance was calculated. Results: PCOS women had significantly higher values than the healthy women in most of the measurements. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the fasting insulin, glucose/insulin ratio and HOMA-IR. Metformin and weight reduction therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid parameters, testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, SHBG, and prolactin levels. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in women with PCOS. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with testosterone, estradiol, TG, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol parameters, and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and FSH levels. Conclusion: Metformin therapy and weight reduction had favorable influences on the basic metabolic and hormonal profiles in women with PCOS and that metformin and lifestyle modification (weight reduction via diet restriction or exercise) resulted in a significantly greater weight loss than hormonal therapy alone. Metformin and weight reduction therapy decreased also hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. PMID:23608322

Al-Nozha, Omar; Habib, Fawziah; Mojaddidi, Moaz; El-Bab, Mohamed Fath

2013-04-01

290

Impact of Obesity on the Risk for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Context: Although it is well established that adiposity increases the severity of the clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the data regarding the prevalence of PCOS in obese women and the change in body weight women presented with PCOS over time are scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether obesity increases the risk of PCOS and whether the degree of obesity of PCOS patients has increased, paralleling the rise in obesity in the population. Design: We analyzed data from two consecutive populational studies assessing the prevalence of PCOS and a database containing all untreated PCOS patients evaluated at a university clinic between 1987 and 2002. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary care center. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included 675 women who participated in prevalence studies and 746 PCOS patients. Main Outcome Measures: Populational prevalence of PCOS according to body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI of PCOS patients over time were measured. Results: The prevalence rates of PCOS in underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese women were 8.2, 9.8, 9.9, and 9.0%, respectively. Prevalence rates reached 12.4 and 11.5% in women with BMI 35–40 kg/m2 and greater than 40 kg/m2 (P = NS). The mean BMI of PCOS patients diagnosed between 1987 and 2002 rose, beginning in 1997 and reaching 37.3 ± 9.9 kg/m2 in 2000–2002, paralleling the change in BMI of the surrounding population (10–14% obesity rate in 1987, 15–19% in 1997, and 25% or greater in 2002). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the risk of PCOS is only minimally increased with obesity, although the degree of obesity of PCOS patients has increased, similar to that observed in the general population. These data indicate that obesity in PCOS reflects environmental factors to a great extent.

Yildiz, Bulent O.; Knochenhauer, Eric S.; Azziz, Ricardo

2008-01-01

291

Risk of cardiovascular events in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. However, data on the incidence of CV events are lacking in this population. Using Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing CV events in women with PCOS with those of women without PCOS in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Between 1966 and 1988, 309 women with PCOS and 343 without PCOS were identified. Mean (SD) age at PCOS diagnosis was 25.0 (5.3) years; mean age at last follow-up was 46.7 years. Mean (SD) follow-up was 23.7 (13.7) years. Women with PCOS had a higher body mass index (29.4 kg/m2 vs 28.3 kg/m2; p=.01). Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension and levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were similar in the two groups. We observed no increase in CV events, including myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32 to 1.72; p=.48); coronary artery bypass graft surgery (adjusted HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.42 to 5.48; p=.52); death (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.29 to 3.71; p=.96); death due to CV disease (adjusted HR 5.67; 95% CI 0.51 to 63.7; p=.16); or stroke (adjusted HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.28 to 3.92; p=.94). Although women with PCOS weighed more than controls, there was no increased prevalence of other CV risk factors. Furthermore, we found no increase in CV events. While prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings, women with PCOS do not appear to have adverse CV outcomes in midlife.

Iftikhar, S.; Collazo-Clavell, M.L.; Roger, V.L.; St. Sauver, J.; Brown, R.D.; Cha, S.; Rhodes, D.J.

2013-01-01

292

Testosterone and Androstenedione Blood Production Rates in Normal Women and Women with Idiopathic Hirsutism or Polycystic Ovaries*  

PubMed Central

The average plasma testosterone concentration of women with either hirsutism or polycystic ovaries and hirsutism was higher (p < 0.01) than that of normal women although the ranges overlapped. Testosterone blood production rates averaged 830 ± 120 SE and 1,180 ± 310 SE ?g per day in the two groups of hirsute women and 230 ± 33 SE ?g per day in normal women. The ranges did not overlap. The testosterone metabolic clearance rates of hirsute women (1,090 ± 140 SE L per day) and of men (1,240 ± 136 SE L per day) were significantly higher than those of normal women (590 ± 44 SE L per day). These differences persisted when the metabolic clearance rates were corrected for surface area. We suggest that testosterone metabolic clearance rates vary directly with some function of testosterone production. The mean plasma androstenedione levels (2.8 ± 0.35 SE and 2.8 ± 0.30 SE ?g per L) and production rates (6,060 ± 450 SE and 7,360 ± 345 SE ?g per day) of the women with hirsutism or polycystic ovaries, respectively, were significantly higher than those of normal women (1.5 ± 0.22 SE ?g per L; 3,300 ± 830 SE ?g per day). The androstenedione metabolic clearance rates were the same in each group. Plasma androstenedione was the precursor of 49% of plasma testosterone in normal women and of 26% of plasma testosterone in hirsute women. Thus, 74% of the plasma testosterone in these subjects must have been either secreted or derived from a precursor that did not enter the plasma androstenedione pool.

Bardin, C. Wayne; Lipsett, Mortimer B.

1967-01-01

293

Phosphorylation of 3-deazaguanosine by nicotinamide riboside kinase in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

The growth inhibitory activity of 3-deazaguanosine toward a mutant line (TGR-3) of Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.8) was substantially reversed by the simultaneous addition of nicotinamide riboside. The activities of most other ribonucleoside analogues tested were unaffected. The formation of cellular 3-deazaGMP and 3-deazaGTP from the ribonucleoside analogue, as measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography, was inhibited by the presence of nicotinamide riboside. The inhibition was dependent on concentration of 3-deazaguanosine and could also be demonstrated by following the metabolism of 3-deazaguanosine, labeled with 14C in the ribose moiety, to [14C]3-deazaGTP. In the presence of 100 microM nicotinamide riboside formation of the labeled triphosphate derivative of 3-deazaguanosine was undetectable. A 3-deazaguanosine phosphorylating activity was separated from other cellular kinases by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Contaminating purine nucleoside phosphorylase (EC 2.4.2.1) was subsequently removed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The resulting enzyme preparation demonstrated the greatest activities with nicotinamide riboside and 3-deazaguanosine and, in addition, could also phosphorylate tiazofurin and guanosine to lesser, but significant, degrees. These and other observations suggest that 3-deazaguanosine, and perhaps other agents such as tiazofurin, may, at least in part, be phosphorylated by a nicotinamide ribonucleoside kinase in these cells. If so, it is possible that the activity of this agent in other types of cells in vivo could be dependent upon the presence of this enzyme and that it could be influenced by cellular concentrations of the natural pyridine nucleoside. PMID:2555047

Saunders, P P; Tan, M T; Spindler, C D; Robins, R K

1989-12-01

294

Purification and characterization of recombinant human antithrombin containing the prelatent form in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Antithrombin (AT) is a serine proteinase inhibitor and a major regulator of the blood coagulation cascade. AT in human plasma has two isoforms, a predominant alpha-isoform and a minor beta-isoform; the latter lacks N-glycosylation at Asn 135 and has a higher heparin affinity. From the difference in its folding states, the AT molecule can be separated into three forms: a native form, a denatured and inactive form known as the latent form, and a partially denatured form called the prelatent form. In this study, we purified and characterized recombinant human AT (rAT) containing the prelatent form produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. When rAT was purified at physiological pH, its specific activity was lower than that of plasma-derived human AT (pAT). The latent and prelatent forms were detected in rAT by using hydrophobic interaction chromatography analysis. However, when rAT was purified at alkaline pH, the prelatent form was reversibly folded to the native form and the inhibitory activity of rAT increased to a value similar to that of pAT. Highly purified rAT was analyzed and compared with pAT by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism spectroscopy, amino acid composition, N-terminal sequence, monosaccharide composition, peptide mapping, and heparin-binding affinity. From these analyses, rAT was found to be structurally identical to pAT, except for carbohydrate side-chains. rAT in CHO cells had a high beta-isoform content and it caused a higher heparin affinity than by pAT and also pH-dependent reversible inhibitory activity. PMID:15866718

Mochizuki, Shinobu; Miyano, Kenmi; Kondo, Masahide; Hirose, Masaaki; Masaki, Atsushi; Ohi, Hideyuki

2005-06-01

295

Low circulating adiponectin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an updated meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Adiponectin, as an important adipocytokine, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and metabolism. It has been reported that circulating adiponectin levels were decreased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the results remained inconsistent. In order to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship, a large meta-analysis was performed in this study. A comprehensive systematic electronic search was conducted in electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to November 30, 2013. Pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. A meta-analysis technique was used to study 38 trials involving 1,944 PCOS women and 1,654 healthy controls. Overall pooled adiponectin levels in women with PCOS were significantly reduced compared with healthy controls (WMD -2.67, 95% CI -3.22 to -2.13; P?=?0.000), yet with significant heterogeneity across studies (I(2)?=?95.9%, P?=?0.000). In subgroup analysis by HOMA-IR ratio and total testosterone ratio, inconsistent results were presented. No single study was found to affect the overall results by sensitivity testing. Meta-regression suggested that BMI might contribute little to the heterogeneity between including studies. Cumulative meta-analysis demonstrated the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis results. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Our meta-analysis suggested that circulating adiponectin levels in women with PCOS were significantly lower than those in healthy controls, which indicated that circulating adiponectin might play a role in the development of PCOS. PMID:24414393

Li, Shan; Huang, Xiamei; Zhong, Huizhi; Peng, Qiliu; Chen, Siyuan; Xie, Yantong; Qin, Xue; Qin, Aiping

2014-05-01

296

N-glycan analysis of human ?1-antitrypsin produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells.  

PubMed

Human alpha-1-antitrypsin (?1AT) is a glycoprotein with protease inhibitor activity protecting tissues from degradation. Patients with inherited ?1AT deficiency are treated with native ?1AT (nAT) purified from human plasma. In the present study, recombinant ?1AT (rAT) was produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and their glycosylation patterns, inhibitory activity and in vivo half-life were compared with those of nAT. A peptide mapping analysis employing a deglycosylation reaction confirmed full occupancy of all three glycosylation sites and the equivalency of rAT and nAT in terms of the protein level. N-glycan profiles revealed that rAT contained 10 glycan structures ranging from bi-antennary to tetra-antennary complex-type glycans while nAT displayed six peaks comprising majorly bi-antennary glycans and a small portion of tri-antennary glycans. In addition, most of the rAT glycans were shown to have only core ?(1?-?6)-fucose without terminal fucosylation, whereas only minor portions of the nAT glycans contained core or Lewis X-type fucose. As expected, all sialylated glycans of rAT were found to have ?(2?-?3)-linked sialic acids, which was in sharp contrast to those of nAT, which had mostly ?(2?-?6)-linked sialic acids. However, the degree of sialylation of rAT was comparable to that of nAT, which was also supported by an isoelectric focusing gel analysis. Despite the differences in the glycosylation patterns, both ?1ATs showed nearly equivalent inhibitory activity in enzyme assays and serum half-lives in a pharmacokinetic experiment. These results suggest that rAT produced in CHO cells would be a good alternative to nAT derived from human plasma. PMID:23065139

Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Mee; Gil, Jin Young; Kwon, Ohsuk; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Soon Jae; Chung, Hye-Shin; Oh, Doo-Byoung

2013-07-01

297

Referral Bias in Defining the Phenotype and Prevalence of Obesity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: The described phenotype of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been primarily based on findings in a referred (self or otherwise) population. It is possible that the phenotype of PCOS would be different if the disorder were to be detected and studied in its natural (unbiased) state. Objective: Our objective was to compare the phenotype of PCOS detected in an unselected population with that identified in a referral population. Participants: Participants included 292 PCOS patients identified at a tertiary care outpatient facility (referral PCOS) and 64 PCOS women (unselected PCOS) identified through the screening of a population of 668 seeking a pre-employment physical. Among the women undergoing a pre-employment physical, 563 did not demonstrate features of the disorder (unselected controls). All PCOS subjects met the National Institutes of Health 1990 criteria for the disorder. Main Outcome Measures: We estimated prevalence of obesity and severity of disease burden. Results: Referral PCOS subjects had greater mean body mass index and hirsutism score and higher degrees of hyperandrogenemia, were more likely to be non-Hispanic White (83.90%), and demonstrated a more severe PCOS subphenotype than unselected PCOS or unselected controls. The prevalence of obesity and severe obesity in referral PCOS was 2.3 and 2.5 times greater than estimates of the same in unselected PCOS and 2.2 and 3.8 times greater than estimates in unselected controls, respectively. Alternatively, unselected PCOS subjects had a prevalence of obesity and severe obesity and a mean body mass index similar to those of the general population from which they were derived. Conclusion: The phenotype of PCOS, including the racial/ethnic mix, severity of presentation, and rate of obesity, is affected significantly by whether the PCOS subject arises from a referral population or through unselected screening, likely reflecting the degree of patient concern and awareness and access to healthcare.

Ezeh, Uche; Yildiz, Bulent O.

2013-01-01

298

A right sliding indirect inguinal hernia containing paraovarian cyst, fallopian tube, and ovary: a case report.  

PubMed

Albeit very uncommon, the hernia sac may contain unusual structures such as vermiform appendix, acute appendicitis, ovary, fallopian tube and, urinary bladder. Most of the cases of hernia containing ovary and fallopian tubes were reported to be found in children and, often accompanied with other congenital anomalies of genital tract. We present the first case of sliding inguinal hernia containing right ovary and fallopian tube and a right paraovarian cyst in 80-year-old, multiparous patient without any associated genital anomaly. The hernia was repaired with plication darn, while the paraovarian cyst was excised and adnexa were preserved. It is of utmost importance to keep in mind that the hernia sac may contain almost any abdominal organ, and surgical dissection should be carried out accordingly. Pathophysiologically, the ovary might be simply pulled along with a sliding paraovarian cyst or the paraovarian cyst might be accompanying the maldescended ovary. There seems to be a need for clinical and experimental studies to further explain the mechanisms that apply to the pathogenesis of sliding inguinal hernias. PMID:18836735

Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Semerci, Ersan; Aslan, Erdogan; Ozkan, Sebiha; Dolapcioglu, Kenan; Besirov, Elmir

2009-06-01

299

Study of oostatic peptide uptake and metabolism in developing ovaries of the flesh fly, Neobellieria bullata.  

PubMed

The uptake and metabolism of the oostatic pentapeptide analogue of trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), H-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Ala-Pro-OH (5P), in ovaries of Neobellieria bullata (Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) were analyzed during their developmental stages. During selected stages of yolk deposition, the fate of [3HPro(3)]5P after its in vivo injection was compared to its uptake after in vitro incubation of dissected ovaries. The ovaries were analyzed from 30 s to 180 min after incubation. A detection sensitivity of 60-100 fmol of the labeled 5P was achieved using radio-high performance liquid chromatography. While the uptake of the applied radioactivity strongly depended on the stage of vitellogenesis, especially for the in vitro experiment, degradation of 5P was very quick and independent of whether the label was injected or incubated with the ovaries, regardless of the developmental stage of ovaries. No tracers of 5P were detected at 30 s after applying the labeled 5P in all tests. PMID:20572785

Bennettová, Blanka; Slaninová, Jirina; Vlasáková, V?ra; Hlavácek, Jan; Holík, Josef; Tykva, Richard

2010-01-01

300

Investigation of the effects of Aloe barbadensis on rat ovaries: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Effects of Aloe barbadensis, a type of Aloe vera, on ovaries were investigated during pregnancy. A. vera gel, a commercial and nontherapeutic form of A. barbadensis, was used for this purpose. Three groups (one control and two test groups) of female Wistar albino rats with no prior births were studied. Group I was administered 25 mg (140 mg/kg) of A. barbadensis/day both orally and through gavage. A. barbadensis was contained in capsules with 500 mg of soybean oil; therefore Group II was administered 500 mg of soybean oil. Group III was the control group. All three groups were given normal food and water ad libitum. The substance had been administered for 20 days until birth. Ovaries were examined histologically. Vascular increase and the hyperemic form of ovary in the group administered A. barbadensis were notable. Decrease in primary follicle numbers, increase in secondary follicle numbers, and diminishment of secondary follicle diameters occurred in ovaries. The histological changes imply an angiogenesis effect of A. barbadensis and an effect like that of follicle-stimulating hormone in ovaries. PMID:20041799

Kosif, Rengin; Aktas, R Gülhan

2009-12-01

301

Lgr5 marks stem/progenitor cells in ovary and tubal epithelia.  

PubMed

The ovary surface epithelium (OSE) undergoes ovulatory tear and remodelling throughout life. Resident stem cells drive such tissue homeostasis in many adult epithelia, but their existence in the ovary has not been definitively proven. Lgr5 marks stem cells in multiple epithelia. Here we use reporter mice and single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization to document candidate Lgr5(+) stem cells in the mouse ovary and associated structures. Lgr5 is broadly expressed during ovary organogenesis, but becomes limited to the OSE in neonate life. In adults, Lgr5 expression is predominantly restricted to proliferative regions of the OSE and mesovarian-fimbria junctional epithelia. Using in vivo lineage tracing, we identify embryonic and neonate Lgr5(+) populations as stem/progenitor cells contributing to the development of the OSE cell lineage, as well as epithelia of the mesovarian ligament and oviduct/fimbria. Adult Lgr5(+) populations maintain OSE homeostasis and ovulatory regenerative repair in vivo. Thus, Lgr5 marks stem/progenitor cells of the ovary and tubal epithelia. PMID:24997521

Ng, Annie; Tan, Shawna; Singh, Gurmit; Rizk, Pamela; Swathi, Yada; Tan, Tuan Zea; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Leushacke, Marc; Barker, Nick

2014-08-01

302

Developmental competence of oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the endangered Indian blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).  

PubMed

The ability to rescue gametes from endangered or wildlife species and to subsequently produce viable embryos holds tremendous potential as a means to increase the population size of endangered or wildlife species. The objective of this study was to assess the meiotic and developmental competence of oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the Indian blackbuck. Oocytes collected from the ovaries of dead blackbucks were allowed to mature in vitro and then tested for developmental potential by activation with ionomycin followed by treatment with 6-dimethylaminopurine. The average number of oocytes recovered per ovary was 10.9, and recovery of the oocytes did not depend on the presence or absence of the corpus luteum, on the side, size and weight of the ovaries or on the type of oocytes recovered. The proportion of good quality oocytes showing cumulus expansion and extrusion of the first polar body were 79.3% and 46.1% when cultured with gonadotropins. In vitro maturation studies indicated that the proportion of oocytes that reached MII stage was significantly higher when good quality oocytes (68%) were used compared with fair quality oocytes (48%) when cultured in the presence of gonadotropins. Furthermore, fifty eight percent of the in vitro matured oocytes cleaved, and thirteen percent of the cleaved oocytes developed into blastocysts. These findings suggest that the oocytes recovered from postmortem ovaries of the blackbuck can be utilized for production of embryos. PMID:20710122

Sambasiva Rao, Brahmasani; Uma Mahesh, Yelisetti; Lakshmikantan, Uthanda Raman; Suman, Komjeti; Venu Charan, Katari; Shivaji, Sisinthy

2010-12-01

303

Restoration of ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole adult sheep ovaries  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to restore ovarian function and natural fertility following the cryopreservation and autotransplantation of whole ovaries, complete with vascular pedicle, in adult females from a large monovulatory animal model species (i.e. sheep)? SUMMARY ANSWER Full (100%) restoration of acute ovarian function and high rates of natural fertility (pregnancy rate 64%; live birth rate 29%), with multiple live births, were obtained following whole ovary cryopreservation and autotransplantation (WOCP&TP) of adult sheep ovaries utilizing optimized cryopreservation and post-operative anti-coagulant regimes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Fertility preservation by WOCP&TP requires successful cryopreservation of both the ovary and its vascular supply. Previous work has indicated detrimental effects of WOCP&TP on the ovarian follicle population. Recent experiments suggest that these deleterious effects can be attributed to an acute loss of vascular patency due to clot formation induced by damage to ovarian arterial endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Study 1 (2010–2011; N = 16) examined the effect of post-thaw perfusion of survival factors (angiogenic, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic; n = 7–8) and treatment with aspirin (pre-operative versus pre- and post-operative (n = 7–9)) on the restoration of ovarian function for 3 months after WOCP&TP. Study 2 (2011–2012; N = 16) examined the effect of cryoprotectant (CPA) perfusion time (10 versus 60 min; n = 16) and pre- and post-operative treatment with aspirin in combination with enoxaparine (Clexane®; n = 8) or eptifibatide (Integrilin®; n = 8) on ovarian function and fertility 11–23 months after WOCP&TP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Both studies utilized mature, parous, Greyface ewes aged 3–6 years and weighing 50–75 kg. Restoration of ovarian function was monitored by bi-weekly blood sampling and display of behavioural oestrus. Blood samples were assayed for gonadotrophins, progesterone, anti-Müllerian Hormone and inhibin A. Fertility restoration in Study 2 was quantified by pregnancy rate after a 3 month fertile mating period and was confirmed by ultrasound, hormonal monitoring and live birth. Ovarian function was assessed at sacrifice by ovarian appearance and vascular patency (Doppler ultrasound) and by follicular histology. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In Study 1, survival factors were found to have no benefit, but the inclusion of pre-operative aspirin resulted in four ewes showing acute restoration of ovarian function within 3 weeks and a further six ewes showing partial restoration. The addition of post-operative aspirin alone had no clear benefit. In Study 2, combination of aspirin with additional post-operative anti-coagulants resulted in total acute restoration of ovarian function in 14/14 ewes within 3 weeks of WOCP&TP, with 9/14 ewes becoming pregnant and 4/14 giving birth to a total of seven normal lambs. There was no difference between anti-coagulants in terms of restoration of reproductive function and fertility. In contrast, the duration of CPA perfusion was highly significant with a 60 min perfusion resulting in ovaries of normal appearance and function with high rates of primordial follicle survival (70%) and an abundant blood supply, whereas ovaries perfused for 10 min had either resorbed completely and were vestigial (7/14) or were markedly smaller (P < 0.01). It is concluded that both the degree of CPA penetration and the maintenance of post-operative vascular patency are critical determinants of the success of WOCP&TP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Before application of this technology to fertility preservation patients, it will be critical to optimize the CPA perfusion time for different sized human ovaries, determine the optimum period and level of anti-coagulant therapy, and confirm the normality of offspring derived from this procedure. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This technology holds promise for the preservation of fertility in women. It could also

Campbell, B.K.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.; Onions, V.; Pincott-Allen, C.; Aljaser, F.; Fisher, J.; McNeilly, A.S.; Webb, R.; Picton, H.M.

2014-01-01

304

[Characterization of Schistosoma mansoni strains by morphometry of adult worms derived from single-sex infection].  

PubMed

Mice were infected with only one sex cercaria derived from sympatric strains of Schistosoma mansoni. Adult worms presented significative differences (p < 0.05) regarding suckers, testicular lobes, ovary and thickness of the tegument. Data show that morphometric study of unisexual infection worms can be also used for characterization of Schistosoma mansoni strains. PMID:15049120

Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Neves, Renata Heisler; Ormond, Luciana; Hulstijn, Maarten; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

2003-01-01

305

Primary Ovary Choriocarcinoma: Individual DNA Polymorphic Analysis as a Strategy to Confirm Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract Primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary is rare. Furthermore, this tumor can arise from gestational tissue or pure germ cells of the ovary, with the latter resulting in non-gestational choriocarcinoma. While the clinical characteristics and histology of both tumor types are identical, differentiation of these tumors is necessary for effective treatment. One strategy for the differentiation of these tumors types is to assay for the presence of paternal DNA. Accordingly, in the present case, a patient with primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary with a non-gestational origin was confirmed by DNA analysis. The patient subsequently exhibited an excellent response to chemotherapy, and following surgery, achieved complete remission. A pathological analysis of surgical specimens further confirmed the absence of tumor.

Exman, Pedro; Takahashi, Tiago Kenji; Gattas, Gilka F.; Cantagalli, Vanessa Dionisio; Anton, Cristina; Nalesso, Fernando; Diz, Maria Del Pilar Estevez

2013-01-01

306

Fate of the grafted ovaries from female salamander Pleurodeles waltl embarked on the cosmos 2229 flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flight procedure of ``Experience Triton'' on Cosmos 2229 made necessary to sacrifice the embarked females just after landing. In order to detect genetic abnormalities in the progeny of these adult females, we have performed a surgical procedure based on the transplantation of an ovarian piece on a recipient animal. One year later, as observed after laparotomy, the grafted ovaries exhibit oogonies and some growing oocytes. In present time, out of 10 castrated and grafted adult females only one is still alive bearing a large grafted ovary. Out of 5 castred and grafted juvenile males, three are still alive, two of them exhibit a developping grafted ovary. The grafted animals will be ready for mating within a few months. Therefore, it will soon be possible to study the progeny of animals that have been submitted to space conditions.

Bautz, A.; Houillon, Ch.; Aimar, C.; Mitashov, V.; Dournon, C.

307

EVIDENCE OF PROATHEROGENIC INFLAMMATION IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low level inflammation which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We measured circulating proatherogenic inflammatory mediators in women with PCOS (8 lean - BMI, 18–25 kg/m2, 8 obese -BMI, 30–40 kg/m2) and weight-matched controls (8 lean, 8 obese). Blood samples were obtained fasting and 2 hours after glucose ingestion to measure interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and activated nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) in mononuclear cells. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Fasting MCP-1 levels were elevated in lean women with PCOS compared to lean controls (159.9±14.1 vs. 121.2±5.4 pg/ml, p<0.02). Hyperglycemia failed to suppress MMP-2 in lean women with PCOS compared to lean controls (1.7±1.2 vs. ?4.8±1.6 pg/ml, p<0.002). Among women with PCOS, obese individuals exhibited higher fasting sICAM-1 (16.1±0.8 vs. 10.5±1.0 ng/ml, p<0.03) and PAI-1 (6.1±0.7 vs. 3.4±0.8 ng/ml, p<0.03) levels. Trend analysis revealed higher (p<0.005) IL-6, sICAM-1, CRP and PAI-1, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, triglycerides, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in women with PCOS compared to weight-matched controls, and the highest levels in the obese regardless of PCOS status. Fasting MCP-1 levels correlated with activated NF?B during hyperglycemia (p<0.05) and androstendione (p<0.004). Truncal fat correlated with fasting IL-6 (p<0.004), sICAM-1 (p<0.006), CRP (p<0.0009) and PAI-1 (p<0.02). We conclude that both PCOS and obesity contribute to a proatherogenic state, but in women with PCOS, abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may exacerbate the risk of atherosclerosis.

Gonzalez, Frank; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi; Kirwan, John P.

2009-01-01

308

Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats  

PubMed Central

During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG), and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB) into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.

Moran, Carolina; Zarate, Fabiola; Moran, Jose Luis; Handal, Anabella; Dominguez, Roberto

2009-01-01

309

Expression Loss and Revivification of RhoB Gene in Ovary Carcinoma Carcinogenesis and Development  

PubMed Central

RhoB, a member of small GTPases belonging to the Ras protein superfamily, might have a suppressive activity in cancer progression. Here, expression of RhoB gene was evaluated in human benign, borderline and malignant ovary tumors by immunostaining, with normal ovary tissue as control. Malignant tumors were assessed according to Federation Internationale de Gynecologie Obstetrique (FIGO) guidelines and classified in stage I-IV. Revivification of RhoB gene was investigated by analyzing the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin (TSA) and methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) on ovarian cancer cells via RT-PCR and western blot. Apoptosis of ovary cancer cells was detected using flowcytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Subsequently, RhoB expression is detected in normal ovary epithelium, borderline tumors, and decreases significantly or lost in the majority of ovarian cancer specimen (P<0.05). RhoB expression decreases significantly from stage II (71.4%) to stage III (43.5%) to stage IV (18.2%, P<0.05). TSA can both significantly revive the RhoB gene and mediate apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, but 5-Aza couldn’t. Interference into Revivification of RhoB gene results in reduction of ovary carcinoma cell apoptosis. It is proposed that loss of RhoB expression occurs frequently in ovary carcinogenesis and progression and its expression could be regulated by histone deacetylation but not by promoter hypermethylation, which may serve as a prospective gene treatment target for the patients with ovarian malignancy not responding to standard therapies.

Liu, Yingwei; Song, Na; Ren, Kexing; Meng, Shenglan; Xie, Yao; Long, Qida; Chen, Xiancheng; Zhao, Xia

2013-01-01

310

GENOMIC COMPARISON OF IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS ON FATHEAD MINNOW ( PIMEPHALES PROMELAS ) OVARIES REVEALS COMPENSATORY MECHANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates compensatory mechanisms and feedback control within Fathead minnow ( Pimephales promelas ) by comparing genomic and biochemical responses of ovary tissue exposed in vitro to those of ovaries from intact fish after exposure to two model steroidogenesis...

311

Troglitazone Improves Defects in Insulin Action, Insulin Secretion, Ovarian Steroidogenesis, and Fibrinolysis in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are characterized by defects in insulin action, insulin secretion, ovarian steroidogenesis, and fibrinolysis. We administered the insulin-sensitizing agent tro- glitazone to 13 obese women with PCOS and impaired glucose tol- erance to determine whether attenuation of hyperinsulinemia ame- liorates these defects. All subjects had oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, polycystic ovaries, and hyperandrogenemia. Before and after treat-

DAVID A. EHRMANN; DAVID J. SCHNEIDER; BURTON E. SOBEL; MELISSA K. CAVAGHAN; JACQUELINE IMPERIAL; ROBERT L. ROSENFIELD; KENNETH S. POLONSKY

2010-01-01

312

Localization and characterization of white blood cell populations within the human ovary throughout the menstrual cycle and menopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to localize and characterize white blood cell populations in the human ovary through its physiological life cycle. Ovaries from 30 women of reproductive age and from three post-menopausal women were embedded in paraffin or frozen. Clinical information and pathology review were used to obtain accurate menstrual cycle information and to ensure the absence of

Craig L. Best; Jeffrey Pudney; William R. Welch; Natalie Burger; Joseph A. Hill

1996-01-01

313

STEROIDOGENIC ASSESSMENT USING OVARY CULTURE IN CYCLING RATS: EFFECTS OF BIS(2-DIETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE ON OVARIAN STEROID PRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

In vitro whole-ovary culture in rats was used to characterize ovarian steroidogenesis and to evaluate changes produced by In vivo exposure to bis (2-diethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Steroidogenic profiles [progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T)] from minced ovary ...

314

Impaired insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in granulosa-lutein cells from anovulatory women with polycystic ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia are well-recognized characteristics of anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but, paradoxically, steroidogenesis by PCOS granulosa cells remains responsive to insulin. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that insulin resistance in the ovary is confined to the metabolic effects of insulin (i.e. glucose uptake and metabolism), whereas the steroidogenic action of

S. Rice; N. Christoforidis; C. Gadd; D. Nikolaou; L. Seyani; A. Donaldson; R. Margara; K. Hardy; S. Franks

2005-01-01

315

Clear cell carcinoma of ovary with squamous metaplasia: A unique histopathological observation.  

PubMed

Squamous metaplasia though is commonly associated with ovarian endometrioid neoplasm, mixed mullerian tumor and Brenner tumors; it has not been described in an ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Unusual presence of squamous islands, either in the form of morules or keratin plaques, may create diagnostic difficulty in a clear cell carcinoma of ovary, and thus the other common associations should be ruled out. Here, we describe a case of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary, with both gross and microscopically identifiable squamous metaplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on this rare association and should be documented for wider awareness. PMID:22557790

Das, Prasenjit; Singh, Geetika; Kumar, Narender; Hariprasad, Roopa; Dinda, Amit K; Kumar, Lalit; Mathur, Sandeep R

2011-07-01

316

The Inguinal Herniation of the Ovary in the Newborn: Ultrasound and Color Doppler Ultrasound Findings  

PubMed Central

Inguinal hernias in the newborn age group are seldom encountered. In the affected female patient, the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the intestines may settle in the hernia sac. The early diagnosis of torsion in cases in which the ovary is herniated into the inguinal canal is of utmost importance in order to give surgery the chance of reduction and correction. In this paper, a case of an ovarian herniation into the inguinal canal without the presence of torsion is being presented, and the place of US and CDUS in the differential diagnosis of the situation is being discussed.

Kaya, Omer; Esen, Kaan; Gulek, Bozkurt; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Soker, Gokhan; Onem, Onder

2014-01-01

317

Developmental Programming of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role of Prenatal Androgen Excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine\\/metabolic disorder in women, characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic\\u000a anovulation, and\\/or polycystic ovaries in association with android fat distribution and insulin resistance\\/hyperinsulinism.\\u000a The etiology of PCOS remains elusive but there is increasing evidence that the phenotypic traits of the syndrome may be programmed\\u000a in utero by androgen excess.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Thus, female primates, exposed to androgen

Agathocles Tsatsoulis

318

Genetic and gene expression analyses of the polycystic ovary syndrome candidate gene fibrillin-3 and other fibrillin family members in human ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the dinucleotide repeat microsatellite marker D19S884, which is located in intron 55 of the fibrillin-3 (FBN3) gene. Fibrillins, including FBN1 and 2, interact with latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-b-binding proteins (LTBP) and thereby control the bioactivity of TGFbs. TGFbs stimulate fibroblast repli- cation and collagen production. The PCOS

Mark J. Prodoehl; Nicholas Hatzirodos; Helen F. Irving-Rodgers; Zhen Z. Zhao; Jodie N. Painter; Theresa E. Hickey; Mark A. Gibson; William E. Rainey; Bruce R. Carr; Helen D. Mason; Robert J. Norman; Grant W. Montgomery; Raymond J. Rodgers

2009-01-01

319

Low-grade chronic inflammation in the peripheral blood and ovaries of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate chronic inflammation in the peripheral blood and ovaries of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). 86 PCOS patients and 50 controls were randomly enrolled in the study. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), blood routine test, lipid metabolism index, inflammation cytokines were detected. Ovary samples from PCOS group and control group were collected for macrophage and lymphocyte immunohistochemistry staining. Patients with PCOS showed significantly higher serum CRP, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophilic granulocytes, as well as higher triglycerides (TG), TNF-? and IL-6. PCOS ovary had greater number of macrophages and lymphocytes immersed throughout. In conclusion, PCOS patients exhibited hypertriglyceridemia and chronic inflammation, with elevated peripheral lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophilic granulocytes. In addition, their ovaries showed persistent chronic inflammation with a larger number of inflammatory cells immersed. PMID:21908093

Xiong, Yong-lao; Liang, Xiao-yan; Yang, Xing; Li, Yi; Wei, Li-na

2011-11-01

320

[Uterovaginal agenesis and polycystic ovary syndrome: psychological disturbance in adolescence].  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) is characterized by complete or partial absence of the vagina, uterus and proximal fallopian tubes and diagnosis is usually made in late adolescence, when primary amenorrhea appears as the major symptom. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, includes a variety of clinical manifestations (menstrual irregularities, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility), due to androgen hypersecretion, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation. Both MRKHS and PCOS have been studied concerning the psychological aspects and have been associated with emotional distress as well as self-esteem, body image, identity and femininity impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological functioning in adolescents with uterovaginal agenesis and primary amenorrhea due to MRKHS and those with hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea due to PCOS, compared with healthy adolescents. The participants were 70 adolescent girls, of whom 24 with MRKHS, 22 with PCOS and 24 healthy eumenorrheic adolescents (control group) matched by age and school grade. Psychological assessment included self report questionnaires, standardized in Greek population sample. Particularly, the "Beck Depression Inventory" (BDI), the "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI-Gr) and the "Youth Self Report" (YSR) were used to measure depression, anxiety and psychopathology respectively, while the "Symptom Checklist-90-R" was used to measure psychopathology for the patients >18 years old. The results showed significantly higher scores on the state - anxiety scale for the MRKHS group compared with the control group. The MRKHS patients in late adolescence (18-20 years old) presented also significantly higher scores in depression and psychopathology scales (symptoms of anxiety, aggressive behavior and phobic disorder) than PCOS patients of the same age. On the contrary, regarding PCOS patients, age was negative correlated with attention problems and PCOS patients >18 reported significantly more somatic complaints compared with age-mate MRKHS patients and controls. PCO syndrome's clinical manifestations, including menstrual disorders, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility, may cause significant emotional distress. Nevertheless, they appear in great variety and our sample is characterized by mild features of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea. This may explain findings of milder psychological disturbance associated with PCOS in this sample in comparison to other studies. As far as MRKHS is concerned, diagnosis and loss of reproductive ability, especially in late adolescence, obstruct emotional stability, physical maturity and sexual identity development ending that are expected in this period of life. Undoubtedly, the management of MRKHS in adolescence constitutes a complex multidisciplinary issue and psychological support of patients is needed in order to prevent possible psychological consequences and to achieve a normal transition to adulthood. Among the limitations of this study is the small sample size, which limits the generalisability of the reported results, especially in "Youth Self Report" and in "Symptom Checklist-90-R" questionnaires, where the sample was divided according to the age. Nevertheless, the very low incidence of MRKHS (1/5000) emphasize the value of the present results, which support the need for further investigation. PMID:23073543

Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

2012-01-01

321

Carcinoid Metastatic to the Ovary. A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 35 Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-five cases of carcinoid metastatic to the ovary were analyzed from a clincopathologic viewpoint. In 25 patients the ovarian tumors were discovered at laparotomy; in the remaining cases, the ovarian involvement was detected only at autopsy as a mani...

H. J. Norris R. E. Scully S. J. Robboy

1973-01-01

322

Endocrine profile of an ovariectomized cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with a supernumerary ovary.  

PubMed

For 21 mo after a bilateral ovariectomy, a 19-y-old ovariectomized cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) continued to have menstrual cycles and measurable premenopausal estradiol and progesterone concentrations. Among these 10 menstrual cycles, 5 cycles were normal in duration and 5 were prolonged. At necropsy, a firm nodule was identified in the omental fat, and histologic evaluation confirmed the presence of ovarian tissue containing various stages of atretic follicles, a regressing corpora lutea, and a degenerating antral follicle. The endometrium and vaginal epithelium were atrophic. The occurrence of ectopic ovarian tissue in any form and location is a rare gynecologic condition in both women and nonhuman primates. Previously reported cases in nonhuman primates have been incidental findings at necropsy; therefore, the steroidogenic capacity and endocrine-related sequelae of such ovarian tissue in any nonhuman primate species is unknown. Based on structure, location, and relationship to normally situated ovaries, the ovarian tissue in this case was classified as a supernumerary ovary. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a supernumerary ovary in a cynomolgus macaque. This report demonstrates that supernumerary ovaries in nonhuman primates can be biologically active for many years beyond sexual maturity and should be considered as a possible cause for vaginal bleeding and elevated ovarian hormone concentrations after ovariectomy. PMID:22330356

Ethun, Kelly F; Cline, J Mark; Appt, Susan E

2011-10-01

323

Studies on radiation induced mutation of pollen, ovary and plant of wheat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pollen, ovary and whole plants of wheat in spike forming stage, ear sprouting stage and the end of flowering stage were irradiated by (sup 60)Co (gamma)-rays. The seed setting rate in the treated generation were calculated. The survival rate of M(sub ...

J. Wang X. Guo M. Huang

1991-01-01

324

Increased micronucleus frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We aimed to assess possible genomic instability in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: The frequency of micronuclei in cultured peripheral lymphocytes was used as a biomarker of genomic instability in somatic cells. Methods: Nineteen women, diagnosed with PCOS and 19 healthy female volunteers of corresponding ages and body-mass index (BMI) were included in the study. Micronuclei frequencies

Elif Yesilada; Ibrahim Sahin; Hamdi Ozcan; Ibrahim Halil Yildirim; Saim Yologlu; Cagatay Taskapan

2006-01-01

325

PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG INFERTILE PATIENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME TREATED WITH METFORMIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PSOS) is the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility. Matformin is effective in the treatment of PCOS- related anovulation. Metformin is an oral biguanide, well established for the treatment of hyperglycemia. Preliminary evidence indicates that metformin may also be effective in decreasing the risk of early spontaneous abortion in women with PCOS. The aim of the

FACTA UNIVERSITATIS

326

Biochemical status of ovaries after induction of superovulation on different days of estrus cycle in mice.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of ovarian status and to find out a suitable hormonal dose for induction of superovulation and its effect on biochemical status of the ovaries, the mice were injected with PMSG in doses of 5, 7.5, and 10 IU on different days of the estrous cycle i.e. proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus followed by hCG injection 48 hr later. All these treatments increased the mean ovarian weight and ovulation rate when compared with that of control animals. Maximum response was observed by treatment with 7.5 IU PMSG on the day of estrus. This treatment resulted in a non-significant decrease in total proteins but a significant increase in the lipid concentrations while no change in cholesterol content of the ovaries of superovulated mice. The activity of acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased and alanine aminotranseferase significantly decreased in the ovaries of mice after superovulatory treatment when compared with that of control animals. This reveals that treatment with PMSG and hCG results in metabolic alterations in the ovaries which may perhaps be inducing biosynthetic deficiencies in oocytes as indicated by increased prenatal mortality in superovulated pregnant mice when compared with that of controls in the present studies. PMID:12018579

Dhanju, C K; Sangha, G K; Sekhon, P K

2001-08-01

327

No Difference Between Actual and Simulated Acupuncture for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), according to a recent study. PCOS is a condition affecting approximately six percent of women of reproductive age and is characterized by missed or irregular menstrual periods, an increased ... Previous studies have suggested that acupuncture may be effective in ...

328

Virilizing Cystic Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour of the Ovary: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of virilizing cystic juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary diagnosed by histopathological examination in a 17-year-old female presented with mass abdomen for two months, growing of the hairs on the face and abdomen and deepening of voice for one year.

Singh, Reecha; Bharathi, K.V.; Himabindu

2014-01-01

329

Removal of Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes Cuts Cancer Risk for BRCA1/2 Carriers  

Cancer.gov

Surgery that removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes is one of the most effective ways to decrease a woman's risk of breast and gynecologic cancer if she carries a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation, according to the Jan. 21, 2009, Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

330

Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm[sup 3] dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimated doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-03-15

331

I'm Seeing Spots!A Review of Literature Regarding Echogenic Foci of the Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echogenic foci of the ovary are a common finding during pelvic sonography exams. Echogenic foci have been associated with benign conditions and have also been noted to occur in some malignant conditions. There is confusion when it comes to assuring that the process seen is benign. A review of the current literature demonstrates that the majority of cases with histological

Jennifer L. Webb

2002-01-01

332

Amplified and orderly growth hormone secretion characterizes lean adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study evaluated the hypothesis that pulsatile GH secretion is altered in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design and patients: Thirteen adolescent girls with PCOS (ages 13 - 19 years) and ten eumenorrheic controls (ages 14 - 19 years) matched for a range of body mass index (BMI) values underwent blood sampling every 20 min for 12

Maria C Garcia-Rudaz; Maria G Ropelato; Maria E Escobar; Johannes D Veldhuis; Marta Barontini

2002-01-01

333

A Niche Maintaining Germ Line Stem Cells in the Drosophila Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stromal cells are thought to generate specific regulatory microenviroments or ``niches'' that control stem cell behavior. Characterizing stem cell niches in vivo remains an important goal that has been difficult to achieve. The individual ovarioles of the Drosophila ovary each contain about two germ line stem cells that maintain oocyte production. Here we show that anterior ovariolar somatic cells comprising

Ting Xie; Allan C. Spradling

2000-01-01

334

Antagonism of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways during ovotestis development in mice  

PubMed Central

Ovotestis development in B6-XYPOS mice provides a rare opportunity to study the interaction of the testis- and ovary-determining pathways in the same tissue. We studied expression of several markers of mouse fetal testis (SRY, SOX9) or ovary (FOXL2, Rspo1) development in B6-XYPOS ovotestes by immunofluorescence, using normal testes and ovaries as controls. In ovotestes, SOX9 was expressed only in the central region where SRY is expressed earliest, resulting in testis cord formation. Surprisingly, FOXL2-expressing cells also were found in this region, but individual cells expressed either FOXL2 or SOX9, not both. At the poles, even though SOX9 was not upregulated, SRY expression was down-regulated normally as in XY testes, and FOXL2 was expressed from an early stage, demonstrating ovarian differentiation in these areas. Our data (1) show that SRY must act within a specific developmental window to activate Sox9; (2) challenge the established view that SOX9 is responsible for down-regulating Sry expression; (3) disprove the concept that testicular and ovarian cells occupy discrete domains in ovotestes; and (4) suggest that FOXL2 is actively suppressed in Sertoli cell precursors by the action of SOX9. Together these findings provide important new insights into the molecular regulation of testis and ovary development.

Wilhelm, Dagmar; Washburn, Linda L.; Truong, Vy; Fellous, Marc; Eicher, Eva M.; Koopman, Peter

2009-01-01

335

Recurrent SMARCA4 mutations in small cell carcinoma of the ovary.  

PubMed

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a rare, highly aggressive form of ovarian cancer primarily diagnosed in young women. We identified inactivating biallelic SMARCA4 mutations in 100% of the 12 SCCOHT tumors examined. Protein studies confirmed loss of SMARCA4 expression, suggesting a key role for the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex in SCCOHT. PMID:24658004

Jelinic, Petar; Mueller, Jennifer J; Olvera, Narciso; Dao, Fanny; Scott, Sasinya N; Shah, Ronak; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Gonen, Mithat; Soslow, Robert A; Berger, Michael F; Levine, Douglas A

2014-05-01

336

Meta-analysis of letrozole versus clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to systematically compare the clinical efficacy and safety of letrozole with clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMbase, CBMdisc and CNKI were searched for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing letrozole with clomiphene citrate in PCOS patients. Two reviewers independently

Donghong He; Fengyan Jiang

2011-01-01

337

Opioid Blockade Effect on Insulin ?-Cells Secretory Patterns in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the involvement of endogenous opiates in the insulin disorders of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOs) a total of 25 PCOs women and 11 normo-ovulatory controls were studied by comparing the effect of a chronic opioid blockade on ?-cells responsiveness to oral glucose load and to intravenous glucagon bolus. Each patient, studied on follicular phase, underwent to oral

Mario Ciampelli; Anna Maria Fulghesu; Maurizio Guido; Francesca Murgia; Giuseppe Muzj; Chiara Belosi; Antonio Fortini; Rosa Cento; Antonio Lanzone

1998-01-01

338

[Functional aspects of lymphatic drainage of the human ovary in vivo explored with isotopic lymphography].  

PubMed

Pelvic lymphoscintigraphy with 99 m Tc colloid injected directly in mesovarium during coelioscopy is able to schon that: drainage of ovaries' lymph is taken up by pelvic, paraortic or both lymph nodes, during genital activity ovarian lymph often diffuse in the other side of the pelvis with a true regional circulation. PMID:1777710

Vanneuville, G; Lebouedec, G; Mestas, D; Scheye, T; Dauplat, J; Veyre, A

1991-06-01

339

Prevalence and Predictors of the Metabolic Syndrome in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the metabolic syn- drome have many features in common and may share the same pathogenesis. Objective: This study was performed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Design: The clinical, hormonal, and oral glucose tolerance test re- sults were analyzed in 394 PCOS women who were screened for participation

David A. Ehrmann; David R. Liljenquist; Kristen Kasza; Ricardo Azziz; Richard S. Legro; Mahmoud N. Ghazzi

2010-01-01

340

CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY OF WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES: EXCELLENT MORPHOLOGY, APOPTOSIS DETECTION, AND SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Ovaries consist of numerous follicles, oocytes, and granulosa cells in different stages of development. Many of these follicles will undergo an apoptotic process during the lifetime of the animal. By using proper tissue preparation methods, the events within the whole...

341

A New Model of Development of the Mammalian Ovary and Follicles  

PubMed Central

Ovarian follicular granulosa cells surround and nurture oocytes, and produce sex steroid hormones. It is believed that during development the ovarian surface epithelial cells penetrate into the ovary and develop into granulosa cells when associating with oogonia to form follicles. Using bovine fetal ovaries (n?=?80) we identified a novel cell type, termed GREL for Gonadal Ridge Epithelial-Like. Using 26 markers for GREL and other cells and extracellular matrix we conducted immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy and chronologically tracked all somatic cell types during development. Before 70 days of gestation the gonadal ridge/ovarian primordium is formed by proliferation of GREL cells at the surface epithelium of the mesonephros. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate into the ovarian primordium. After 70 days, stroma from the underlying mesonephros begins to penetrate the primordium, partitioning the developing ovary into irregularly-shaped ovigerous cords composed of GREL cells and PGCs/oogonia. Importantly we identified that the cords are always separated from the stroma by a basal lamina. Around 130 days of gestation the stroma expands laterally below the outermost layers of GREL cells forming a sub-epithelial basal lamina and establishing an epithelial-stromal interface. It is at this stage that a mature surface epithelium develops from the GREL cells on the surface of the ovary primordium. Expansion of the stroma continues to partition the ovigerous cords into smaller groups of cells eventually forming follicles containing an oogonium/oocyte surrounded by GREL cells, which become granulosa cells, all enclosed by a basal lamina. Thus in contrast to the prevailing theory, the ovarian surface epithelial cells do not penetrate into the ovary to form the granulosa cells of follicles, instead ovarian surface epithelial cells and granulosa cells have a common precursor, the GREL cell.

Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bonner, Wendy; Sabatier, Laetitia; Reinhardt, Dieter P.; Sado, Yoshikazu; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Rodgers, Raymond J.

2013-01-01

342

Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

Gupta, R.K. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Schuh, R.A. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fiskum, G. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Flaws, J.A. [Program in Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, 660 W. Redwood Street, Howard Hall 133B, Baltimore, MD (United States)]. E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

2006-11-01

343

Reproductive Performance and Three-Dimension-Ultrasound Volume Determination of Polycystic Ovaries after Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling  

PubMed

Laparoscopic treatment of polycystic ovaries is a less invasive technique than ovarian wedge resection by laparotomy and is associated with less adhesion formation. Furthermore, the results appear to be superior. The purpose of the current study was to determine the changes in the ovarian volume and the reproductive outcome after laparoscopic treatment of polycystic ovaries. We studied 34 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who failed to ovulate with clomiphene and who subsequently underwent laparoscopic ovarian drilling. A standard procedure was done by a single surgeon using an insulated needle electrode. In six patients, ultrasound examination was performed to determine three-dimensional volume before surgery, and 1 week and 3 weeks postoperatively. Preoperative volume was 12.2 ± 1.8 cm3 and 1 week after surgery it was 13.6 ± 1.5 cm3. The ovarian volume 3 weeks after surgery (6.9 ± 1.3 cm3) was significantly smaller than that before surgery (p <0.05). Ovulation after the procedure occurred in 30 women (88.2%). Using life table analysis, the cumulative probability of conception at 12-month follow-up was 70% (median 8.1 mo). Two patients (6%) who did not ovulate with gonadotropin previously refused further expectant treatment after surgery and conceived in the first cycle of gonadotropin treatment. Aside from these women, the majority of pregnancies (76%) occurred spontaneously, and 18% conceived with clomiphene. We observed for the first time that there is a temporary swelling of the ovary after laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Subsequently, the volume decreases to the size smaller than the preoperative volume. Laparoscopic treatment of polycystic ovaries in women with PCOS who fail clomiphene therapy is associated with an ovulation rate of 88.2% and a pregnancy rate of 70% at 12-month follow-up. PMID:9074251

Tulandi; Watkin; Murray; Mathur

1996-08-01

344

The Effect of Gonadotropin on Glucose Transport and Apoptosis in Rat Ovary  

PubMed Central

Although the effects of Gonadotropin on ovarian physiology have been known for many decades, its action on glucose uptake in the rat ovary remained poorly understood. Evidence also suggests that glucose uptake is mediated by a number of glucose transporter proteins (Glut). Therefore, we examined the rat ovary for the presence of Glut1–4 and blood glucose level after eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin) and anti-eCG antiserum treatment. All of the glucose transports were present in the ovarian oocyte, granulosa cells and theca cells in different stage follicles. The expression of Glut in ovary was up-regulated by eCG, however, anti-eCG antiserum reversed eCG action. Western blot analysis also demonstrated the content of Glut1 was higher in eCG treatment group compared with anti-eCG antiserum and control group. The same tendency was shown in other glut isoforms. Moreover, there were no significant difference between the anti-eCG antiserum and control group. In additional, the level of serum glucose in eCG treatment group was significantly higher than others, which is similar with glut expression pattern. High glucose level in blood is correlated with increased expression of glucose transporter proteins in rat ovary. Meanwhile, anti-eCG antiserum increased granulosa cell apoptosis in antral follicle compared with those in eCG group. Our observations provide potential explanation for the effects of Glut on follicular development in rat ovary and a role for eCG in the regulation of ovarian glucose uptake.

Zhang, Cheng; Niu, Wanbao; Wang, Zhengpin; Wang, Xiaoxia; Xia, Guoliang

2012-01-01

345

A new model of development of the mammalian ovary and follicles.  

PubMed

Ovarian follicular granulosa cells surround and nurture oocytes, and produce sex steroid hormones. It is believed that during development the ovarian surface epithelial cells penetrate into the ovary and develop into granulosa cells when associating with oogonia to form follicles. Using bovine fetal ovaries (n?=?80) we identified a novel cell type, termed GREL for Gonadal Ridge Epithelial-Like. Using 26 markers for GREL and other cells and extracellular matrix we conducted immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy and chronologically tracked all somatic cell types during development. Before 70 days of gestation the gonadal ridge/ovarian primordium is formed by proliferation of GREL cells at the surface epithelium of the mesonephros. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate into the ovarian primordium. After 70 days, stroma from the underlying mesonephros begins to penetrate the primordium, partitioning the developing ovary into irregularly-shaped ovigerous cords composed of GREL cells and PGCs/oogonia. Importantly we identified that the cords are always separated from the stroma by a basal lamina. Around 130 days of gestation the stroma expands laterally below the outermost layers of GREL cells forming a sub-epithelial basal lamina and establishing an epithelial-stromal interface. It is at this stage that a mature surface epithelium develops from the GREL cells on the surface of the ovary primordium. Expansion of the stroma continues to partition the ovigerous cords into smaller groups of cells eventually forming follicles containing an oogonium/oocyte surrounded by GREL cells, which become granulosa cells, all enclosed by a basal lamina. Thus in contrast to the prevailing theory, the ovarian surface epithelial cells do not penetrate into the ovary to form the granulosa cells of follicles, instead ovarian surface epithelial cells and granulosa cells have a common precursor, the GREL cell. PMID:23409002

Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bonner, Wendy; Sabatier, Laetitia; Reinhardt, Dieter P; Sado, Yoshikazu; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Rodgers, Raymond J

2013-01-01

346

Floral and Inflorescence Morphology and Ontogeny in Beta vulgaris, with Special Emphasis on the Ovary Position  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In spite of recent phylogenetic analyses for the Chenopodiaceae–Amaranthaceae complex, some morphological characters are not unambiguously interpreted, which raises homology questions. Therefore, ontogenetic investigations, emphasizing on ‘bracteoles’ in Atripliceae and flowers in Chenopodioideae, were conducted. This first paper presents original ontogenetic observations in Beta vulgaris, which was chosen as a reference species for further comparative investigation because of its unclarified phylogenetic position and its flowers with a (semi-)inferior ovary, whereas all other Chenopodiaceae–Amaranthaceae have hypogynous flowers. Methods Inflorescences and flowers were examined using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Key Results Floral development starts from an inflorescence unit primordium subtended by a lateral bract. This primordium develops into a determinate axis on which two opposite lateral flowers originate, each subtended by a bracteole. On a flower primordium, first five tepal primordia appear, followed by five opposite stamen primordia. Simultaneously, a convex floral apex appears, which differentiates into an annular ovary primordium with three stigma primordia, surrounding a central, single ovule. A floral tube, which raises the outer floral whorls, envelops the ovary, resulting in a semi-inferior ovary at mature stage. Similarly, a stamen tube is formed, raising the insertion points of the stamens, and forming a staminal ring, which does not contain stomata. During floral development, the calyces of the terminal flower and of one of the lateral flowers often fuse, forming a compound fruit structure. Conclusions In Beta vulgaris, the inflorescence is compound, consisting of an indeterminate main axis with many elementary dichasia as inflorescence units, of which the terminal flower and one lateral flower fuse at a later stage. Floral parts develop starting from the outer whorl towards the gynoecium. Because of the formation of an epigynous hypanthium, the ovary becomes semi-inferior in the course of floral development.

Olvera, Hilda Flores; Smets, Erik; Vrijdaghs, Alexander

2008-01-01

347

[Effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus in D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging].  

PubMed

The present study was to investigate the effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus of D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging. Aging female mice model caused by D-galactose were used as model group, the aging model mice intragastrically administered with kinetin solution (daily 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) were used as kinetin groups, and the mice with solvent as normal group (n = 20). To detect the effects of kinetin, estrous cycle, estradiol content, ovarian and uterine wet weight and organ index, SOD and GSH-Px activities, MDA and total protein contents, as well as the reserve function of ovaries were examined. The results showed that, kinetin-induced changes in two kinetin groups were observed, compared with the model group: (1) the estrous cycle was shortened; (2) serum estradiol content was significantly increased; (3) the wet weights of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (4) SOD and GSH-Px activities of ovary and uterus were significantly higher; (5) the MDA contents of the ovary and uterus were reduced significantly; (6) total protein contents of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (7) the numbers of mature oocytes in fallopian tubes were increased significantly. The results show that kinetin can protect ovary and uterus against oxidative damage, prevent low estrogen secretion caused by ovarian oxidative damage, shorten the estrous cycle in mice, and eventually maintain ovarian and uterine vitalities. PMID:23963070

Sun, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Yu-Mei; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Wu-Qing

2013-08-25

348

Changes in the cellular localization of estrogen receptor alpha in the growing and regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus during development.  

PubMed

In this work, the presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-?) was determined in different cell subpopulations in the left growing and right regressing ovaries of Gallus domesticus from 13-day-old chicken embryos to one-month-old chickens by immunohistochemistry. Results revealed positive ER-? immunostaining in both ovaries during development, but the percentage, staining intensity, and cellular distribution of ER-? immunostaining changes according to whether it is the left or right ovary and with the animal's age. In the left ovary, the ER-? was localized in the nuclei of the germinal epithelium and in germ cells of the ovarian cortex, as well as in the interstitial cells, undifferentiated cells, and epithelial cells of the lacunar channels of the ovarian medulla in all ages. In contrast, in the right ovary from 13-day-old chicken embryos to one-week-old chickens, only the epithelial cells of lacunar channels were ER-? immunoreactive, but in the right ovary of one-month-old chickens both the epithelial cells of lacunar channels and the interstitial cells presented ER-?. These results demonstrate differential expression of ER-? in both chicken ovaries during development in a cell type-specific distribution, suggesting that these differences may be regarded as an important cause in the process of asymmetric ovarian development in the chicken. PMID:24704443

González-Morán, María Genoveva

2014-04-25

349

microRNA156-targeted SPL/SBP box transcription factors regulate tomato ovary and fruit development.  

PubMed

Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is well understood at the molecular level. However, information regarding genetic pathways associated with tomato ovary and early fruit development is still lacking. Here, we investigate the possible role(s) of the microRNA156/SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL or SBP box) module (miR156 node) in tomato ovary development. miR156-targeted S. lycopersicum SBP genes were dynamically expressed in developing flowers and ovaries, and miR156 was mainly expressed in meristematic tissues of the ovary, including placenta and ovules. Transgenic tomato cv. Micro-Tom plants over-expressing the AtMIR156b precursor exhibited abnormal flower and fruit morphology, with fruits characterized by growth of extra carpels and ectopic structures. Scanning electron microscopy and histological analyses showed the presence of meristem-like structures inside the ovaries, which are probably responsible for the ectopic organs. Interestingly, expression of genes associated with meristem maintenance and formation of new organs, such as LeT6/TKN2 (a KNOX-like class I gene) and GOBLET (a NAM/CUC-like gene), was induced in developing ovaries of transgenic plants as well as in the ovaries of the natural mutant Mouse ear (Me), which also displays fruits with extra carpels. Conversely, expression of the MADS box genes MACROCALYX (MC) and FUL1/TDR4, and the LEAFY ortholog FALSIFLORA, was repressed in the developing ovaries of miR156 over-expressors, suggesting similarities with Arabidopsis at this point of the miR156/SPL pathway but with distinct functional consequences in reproductive development. Altogether, these observations suggest that the miR156 node is involved in maintenance of the meristematic state of ovary tissues, thereby controlling initial steps of fleshy fruit development and determinacy. PMID:24580734

Silva, Geraldo Felipe Ferreira E; Silva, Eder Marques; da Silva Azevedo, Mariana; Guivin, Mike Anderson Corazon; Ramiro, Daniel Alves; Figueiredo, Cassia Regina; Carrer, Helaine; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira

2014-05-01

350

Discrete Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of finite-differences is an important technique used to obtain numerical solutions to differential equations. Critical to the construction of such discrete models is how should the discrete representations of the derivatives be formulated? A prior, there exists many possibilities; examples, include the forward- and backward-Euler expressions, as well as various central-differences. However, it has become clear in recent years that the order of the discrete derivative must be the same as the particular order of the derivative appearing in the differential equation. If not, numerical instabilities will appear; these are solutions to the discrete equations that do not correspond to any solutions of the original differential equations. We show that discrete representations of first-derivatives can be constructed such that the elementary numerical instabilities do not occur. Our method generalizes the usual calculus based definition of the derivative. The general scalar ODE is used to illustrate our method.

Mickens, Ronald E.

2000-11-01

351

Permselectivity of blood follicle barriers in mouse ovaries of the mifepristone-induced polycystic ovary model revealed by in vivo cryotechnique.  

PubMed

Despite the potential association of polycystic ovary (PCO) syndrome with hemodynamic changes, follicular microenvironment and the involvement of blood follicle barriers (BFB), a histopathological examination has been hampered by artifacts caused by conventional preparation methods. In this study, mouse ovaries of a mifepristone-induced PCO model were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT), which prevents those technical artifacts. Ovarian specimens of PCO model mice were prepared by IVCT or the conventional perfusion fixation after s.c. injection of mifepristone. Their histology and immunolocalization of plasma proteins, including albumin (molecular mass, 69 kDa), immunoglobulin G (IgG, 150 kDa), inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (ITI, 220 kDa), fibrinogen (340 kDa), and IgM (900 kDa), were examined. In the PCO model, enlarged blood vessels with abundant blood flow were observed in addition to cystic follicles with degenerative membrana granulosa. The immunolocalization of albumin and IgM in the PCO model were similar to those in normal mice. Albumin immunolocalized in the blood vessels, interstitium or follicles, and IgM was mostly restricted within the blood vessels. In contrast, immunolocalization of IgG, ITI, and fibrinogen changed in the PCO model. Both IgG and ITI were clearly blocked by follicular basement membranes, and hardly observed in the membrana granulosa, though fibrinogen was mostly observed within blood vessels. These findings suggest that increased blood flow and enhanced selectivity of molecular permeation through the BFB are prominent features in the PCO ovaries, and changes in hemodynamic conditions and permselectivity of BFB are involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of PCO syndrome. PMID:18719066

Zhou, Hong; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo; Saitoh, Sei; Naito, Ichiro; Ohno, Shinichi

2008-11-01

352

Comparison of N-Glycan Pattern of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factors II and IX Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and African Green Monkey (Vero) Cells.  

PubMed

The N-glycan patterns of recombinant human coagulation factors II (rF-II) and IX (rF-IX), derived from both transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and African green monkay (Vero) cells produced at industrial scale, were analyzed by binding to carbohydrate-specific lectins and were compared with the glycan structure of human plasma-derived coagulation factors. Human plasma-derived coagulation factors II (hpF-II) and IX (hpF-IX) exhibited complex-type glycan structures with carbohydrate chains capped with alpha(2-6)-sialic acid. Terminal galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine units were detected in hpF-IX. Both CHO cell-derived rF-II and rF-IX exhibited complex-type glycosylation and contained alpha(2-3)-sialic acid in addition to terminal galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine. Vero cell-derived rF-IX exhibited a complex-type glycan structure similar to that of CHO cell-derived rF-IX. In contrast, rF-II produced by Vero cells exhibited a glycan microheterogeneity composed of hybrid-type glycosylation containing "high-mannose" structures and complex-type glycosylation containing alpha(2-3)-sialic acid. Galactose-beta(1-4)-N-acetylglucosamine structures and a low concentration of alpha(2-6)-sialic acid were detected in both microheterogeneity fractions of Vero cell-derived rF-II. Although different in their carbohydrate structures, coagulation factors II and IX obtained recombinantly from both transformed CHO cells and Vero cells exhibited coagulation activities comparable with the plasma-derived proteins. PMID:10608038

Fischer; Mitterer; Dorner; Eibl

1996-01-01

353

Growth hormone reduces tissue damage in rat ovaries subjected to torsion and detorsion: biochemical and histopathologic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the effects of growth hormone (GH) as an antioxidant and tissue-protective agent and analyse the biochemical and histopathological changes in rat ovaries due to experimental ischemia and ischemia\\/reperfusion injury.

Murat Yigiter; Zekai Halici; Fehmi Odabasoglu; Osman Nuri Keles; Fadime Atalay; Bunyami Unal; Ahmet Bedii Salman

2011-01-01

354

Steroidogenic Assessment Using Ovary Culture in Cycling Rats: Effects of Bis(2-Diethylhexyl) Phthalate on Ovarian Steroid Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In vitro whole-ovary culture in rats was used to characterize ovarian steroidogenesis and to evaluate changes produced by in vivo exposure to bis(2-diethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Steroidogenic profiles (progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2), and testosterone...

J. W. Laskey E. Berman

1993-01-01

355

A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.  

PubMed

Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2?Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape. PMID:24519535

Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

356

Replication of Association of DENND1A and THADA Variants with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in European Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with a strong familial component. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenemia and irregular menses. A recent genome wide association study of PCOS in a Chinese cohort identified three reproducible PCOS susceptibility loci mapping to 2p16.3 (luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor; LHCGR), 2p21 (thyroid associated protein; THADA), and 9q33.3 (DENN/MADD domain containing 1A; DENNDIA). The impact of these loci in non-Chinese PCOS cohorts remains to be determined. Methods/Results We tested association with PCOS of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to the three Chinese PCOS loci in two European-derived PCOS cohorts (Cohort A = 939 cases and 957 controls; Cohort B = 535 cases and 845 controls). Cases fulfilled the NICHD criteria for PCOS. Variation in DENND1A was strongly associated with PCOS in our cohort (pcombined cohorts=10?8 ); multiple variants in THADA were also associated with PCOS, while there was no significant evidence for association of LHCGR variation with PCOS. We had greater than 80% power to detect an effect of similar size as was observed by Chen et al. for DENND1A and THADA but reduced power (at <40%) for LHCGR at p=0.0001. We had sufficient power (57-88%) for LHCGR at p=0.01. Conclusions At least two of the PCOS susceptibility loci identified in the Chinese PCOS GWAS (DENND1A and THADA) are also associated with PCOS in European-derived populations, and therefore likely to be important in the etiology of PCOS regardless of ethnicity. Our analysis of the LHCGR gene was not sufficiently powered to detect modest effects.

Goodarzi, Mark O; Jones, Michelle R; Li, Xiaohui; Chua, Angela K; Garcia, Obed; Chen, Yii-Der I; Krauss, Ronald M; Rotter, Jerome I; Ankener, Wendy; Legro, Richard S; Azziz, Ricardo; Strauss, Jerome F; Dunaif, Andrea; Urbanek, Margrit

2012-01-01

357

Analysis of chromosome abnormalities by comparative genomic hybridization in malignant peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) originating from the ovary rather than from the central nervous system is extremely rare. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the chromosomal abnormalities in a case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PPNET) arising from the ovary of a girl.Methods. The 13-year-old girl underwent exploratory laparotomy because of a huge pelvic tumor in

Song-Nan Chow; Ming-Chieh Lin; Jenta Shen; Sheng Wang; Yiin-Jeng Jong; Chin-Hsiang Chien

2004-01-01

358

Multi-organ metastatic capability of Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable high-level green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) were used to visualize the degree of metastatic behavior of this cell line in nude and SCID mice. A stable GFP high-expression CHO clone, selected in 1.5 µM methotrexate, was injected subcutaneously in nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and implanted orthotopically in the ovary of nude mice. CHO

Meng Yang; Takashi Chishima; Xiaoen Wang; Eugene Baranov; Hiroshi Shimada; A. R. Moossa; Robert M. Hoffman

1999-01-01

359

Histopathological effects of hexavalent chromium in the ovary of a fresh water fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).  

PubMed

The histopathological effects of hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) in the ovary of a fresh water teleost, Channa punctatus were investigated. An exposure-dependent alteration in ovarian histology is reported. For both acute and chronic exposures to Cr (VI), the percentages of atretic oocytes were increased; this increase was more pronounced in the acute exposure group. A decrease in percentage of vitellogenic oocytes was observed in the chronic exposure group indicating impairment of vitellogenesis. The hepatocellular vacuolization and atrophy along with pyknotic nuclei in both acute and chronic chromium exposed fish liver supports the vitellogenic impairment. The observed alterations may be due to both direct cytotoxic effect of Cr (VI) on the ovary as well as mediation by overall systemic toxicity affecting other vital organs. PMID:18392725

Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Mohanty, Banalata

2008-06-01

360

Superoxide Mediates the Toxicity of Paraquat for Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The roles of superoxide and H2O2 in the cytotoxicity of paraquat were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Neither catalase nor superoxide dismutase inhibited the loss of ability to form colonies when added to the medium. When introduced into the cells, superoxide dismutase but not catalase inhibited the toxicity of paraquat. That superoxide dismutase acted by its known catalytic action is shown by the loss of inhibition when the enzyme was inactivated by H2O2 before being introduced into the cells. The lack of inhibition by catalase, by dimethyl sulfoxide, and by desferoxamine suggests that the toxicity is not mediated by a reaction between H2O2 and superoxide to engender the hydroxyl radical. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to paraquat may be a suitable means to determine the effects of superoxide anion in cultured cells and the ways in which cells can resist this toxic action.

Bagley, Ann C.; Krall, Judith; Lynch, Robert E.

1986-05-01

361

Genetic modeling of ovarian phenotypes in mice for the study of human polycystic ovary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents with a range of clinical complications including hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, chronic oligo/anovulation, infertility, and metabolic alterations related to insulin resistance. Because the mechanism by which this disorder develops is poorly understood, information from experimental models of human disease phenotypes may help to define the mechanisms for the initiation and development of PCOS-related pathological events. The establishment of animal models compatible with human PCOS is challenging, and applying the lessons learned from these models to human PCOS is often complicated. In this mini-review we provide examples of currently available genetic mouse models, their ovarian phenotypes, and their possible relationship to different aspects of human PCOS. Because of the practical and ethical limitations of studying PCOS-related events in humans, our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of human PCOS may be enhanced through further study of these transgenic and knockout mouse models.

Feng, Yi; Li, Xin; Shao, Ruijin

2013-01-01

362

Ovarian Volume Correlates Strongly with the Number of Nongrowing Follicles in the Human Ovary  

PubMed Central

A reliable indirect measure of ovarian reserve for the individual woman remains a challenge for reproductive specialists. Using descriptive statistics from a large-scale study of ovarian volumes, we have developed a normative model for healthy females for ages 25 through 85. For average values, this model has a strong and positive correlation (r = 0.89) with our recent model of nongrowing follicles (NGFs) in the human ovary for ages 25 through 51. When both models are log-adjusted, the correlation increases to r = 0.99, over the full range of ovarian volume. Furthermore we can deduce that an ovary of 3?cm3 volume (or less) contains approximately 1000?NGF (or fewer). These strong correlations indicate that ovarian volume is a useful factor in the indirect estimation of human ovarian reserve for the individual woman.

Kelsey, Thomas W.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

2012-01-01

363

Successful vitrification of mouse ovaries using less-concentrated cryoprotectants with Supercool X-1000 supplementation.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of using less-concentrated cryoprotectants supplemented with ice blocker Supercool X-1000 to vitrify ovarian tissues. Mouse ovaries were cryopreserved in different concentrations of vitrification solution alone or with Supercool X-1000, and fresh non-frozen ovaries were used as control. The proportions of morphological normality of follicles, normal GCs in follicular fluids and developing to blastocysts were higher in 12.5% ethylene glycol (EG)?+?12.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) with Supercool X-1000 than those of treated in 10% EG?+?10% DMSO or 15% EG?+?15% DMSO alone or with Supercool X-1000. In conclusion, the inclusion of Supercool X-1000 in less-concentrated vitrification solution was effective to improve the efficiency and efficacy of cryopreservation of ovarian tissues. PMID:22234481

Tan, Xiuwen; Song, Enliang; Liu, Xiaomu; Liu, Guifen; Cheng, Haijian; Wan, Fachun

2012-02-01

364

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Ovulation Induction  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, is characterized by the coexistence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). PCOS also represents the largest part of female oligoovulatory infertility, and the management of ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction, comprises a third of the high costs of PCOS treatment. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for reproductive symptoms are effective, however, associated with negative side effects, such as cardiovascular complications and multiple pregnancies. For menstrual irregularities and ovulation induction in women with PCOS, acupuncture has indicated beneficial effects. This review will focus on the results from randomized controlled acupuncture trials for regulation of menstrual dysfunction and for inducing ovulation in women with PCOS although there are uncontrolled trials with nonetheless interesting results. Animal experimental studies will be further discussed when they can provide a more mechanistic explanatory view.

Johansson, Julia; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

2013-01-01

365

Mutational analysis of human bone morphogenetic protein 15 in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common defects that cause ovary dysfunction and link to the aberrant process of folliculogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) is expressed in human oocytes and functions importantly to regulate early follicle growth and fertility. Previous studies have discovered several mutations in the screening of BMP15 in premature ovarian failure but none in PCOS. In this current study, we focused on the mutational analysis of the coding region of BMP15 among 216 Chinese PCOS patients. Five novel missense mutations in BMP15 were discovered, namely, c.34C>G, c.109G>C, c.169C>G, c.288G>C, and c.598C>T. These results are the first to indicate that BMP15 gene mutations may be potentially associated with PCOS patients. PMID:22014425

Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Binbin; Wei, Zhaolian; Zhou, Ping; Zu, Yuping; Zhou, Sirui; Wen, Qiaolian; Wang, Jing; Cao, Yunxia; Ma, Xu

2011-11-01

366

A patient with combined polycystic ovary syndrome and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2.  

PubMed

We report a patient with combined polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 2. A 26-year-old female presented with polyuria, polydipsia and acute weight loss. She was diagnosed with: (1) type 1 diabetes, with hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion, and positive autoantibodies for GAD-65 and IA-2; (2) autoimmune thyroiditis, with hypothyroidism, positive anti-microsomal and antithyroglobulin antibodies; and (3) PCOS, with hyperandrogenic signs that had developed 5 years earlier, amenorrhea for the previous 6 months, and characteristic multiple microcystic appearance of both ovaries on ultrasonography. She is being treated with multiple subcutaneous insulin injections, thyroxine replacement, and cyclic medroxyprogesterone for the aforementioned diseases, respectively. Although several investigations have reported a relationship between PCOS and the individual components of APS, this is the first report of both syndromes occurring simultaneously. Potential mechanisms for their interrelation and the possibility that PCOS is an autoimmune disease are discussed. PMID:17558682

Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Mee-Ran; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young; Cha, Bong-Yun

2007-05-01

367

Ovary of Matsucoccus pini (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccinea: Matsucoccidae): morphology, ultrastructure, and phylogenetic implications.  

PubMed

The structure of ovary in a representative of the scale insect family Matsucoccidae, Matsucoccus pini, is described at the ultrastructural level. The paired ovaries of M. pini are composed of about 50 ovarioles of telotrophic type that develop asynchronously. An individual ovariole consists of an anterior tropharium (trophic chamber) and posterior vitellarium. The tropharium encloses trophocytes (nurse cells) and early previtellogenic oocytes termed arrested oocytes. In the vitellarium from 1 to 6, linearly arranged oocytes may develop. Analysis of serial sections has shown that each ovariole contains 32 germ cells (trophocytes, arrested oocytes, and developing oocytes). In the cytoplasm of all these cells, small rod-shaped bacteria are present. In the early vitellogenic oocytes, accessory nuclei arise. As vitellogenesis progresses, these nuclei migrate toward the cortical ooplasm. The obtained results are discussed in a phylogenetic context. PMID:24615736

Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Michalik, Anna; Kalandyk-Ko?odziejczyk, Ma?gorzata; Kobia?ka, Micha?; Simon, Ewa

2014-05-01

368

Rapid Selection of Optimal Formulations for Divergent Clones Through Screening Chinese Hamster Ovary Media Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The successful culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells can be a challenging endeavor. Historical data shows that CHO\\u000a clones have diverse nutritive requirements. Selecting a medium designed specifically for a CHO cell line is a key component\\u000a for achieving optimal growth and productivity. With the wide variety of media available, narrowing the number of formulations\\u000a for screening can be

Avril A. Lawshé; Min Zhang; Ashley Smith; Wade Nudson; James S. Ross; Matthew V. Caple

369

FTO and MC4R Gene Variants Are Associated with Obesity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the leading cause of anovulatory infertility in women. It is also associated with metabolic disturbances that place women at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. There is strong evidence for familial clustering of PCOS and a genetic predisposition. However, the gene(s) responsible for the PCOS phenotypes have not been elucidated. This two-phase family-based

Kathryn G. Ewens; Michelle R. Jones; Wendy Ankener; Douglas R. Stewart; Margrit Urbanek; Andrea Dunaif; Richard S. Legro; Angela Chua; Ricardo Azziz; Richard S. Spielman; Mark O. Goodarzi; Jerome F. Strauss; Marian Ludgate

2011-01-01

370

Identification and characterization of cryptochrome4 in the ovary of western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis.  

PubMed

CRY proteins can be classified into several groups based on their phylogenetic relationships, and they function as a photoreceptor, a photolyase, and/or a transcriptional repressor of the circadian clock. In order to elucidate the expression profile and functional diversity of CRYs in vertebrates, we focused on XtCRY4, a member of the uncharacterized cryptochrome family CRY4 in Xenopus tropicalis. XtCRY4 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR, and a phylogenetic analysis of deduced sequence of XtCRY4 suggested that the vertebrate Cry4 genes evolved at much higher evolutionary rates than mammalian-type Cry genes, such as the CRY1 and CRY2 circadian clock molecules. A transcriptional assay was performed to examine the transcriptional regulatory function as circadian repressor, and XtCRY4 had marginal effects on the transactivation of XtCLOCK/XtBMAL1 via E-box element. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect mRNA expression in native tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that XtCry4 mRNA was highly transcribed in the ovary. In situ hybridization showed the presence of XtCry4 transcripts in the oocytes, testis, renal tubules, the visual photoreceptors, and the retinal ganglion cells. A specific antiserum to XtCRY4 was developed to detect endogeneous expression of XtCRY4 protein in the ovary. The expression level was estimated by immunoblot analysis, and this is the first detection and estimation of endogenous expression of CRY protein in the ovary. These results suggest that X. tropicalis ovary may respond to blue-light by using XtCRY4. PMID:24601777

Takeuchi, Takahiro; Kubo, Yoko; Okano, Keiko; Okano, Toshiyuki

2014-03-01

371

Follicle Stimulating Hormone Increases Somatic and Germ Cell Number in the Ovary during Chick Embryo Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) on cellular proliferation in the chick embryo ovary. Chick embryos (Babcock B300) were injected on chorioallantoic membrane with a single dose of hFSH (2.0 IU\\/ embryo) at Days 7, 9, or 13 of incubation or with hCG (2.0 IU\\/embryo) at Day 13 of

M. C. Méndez-Herrera; L. Tamez; A. Cándido; J. A. Reyes-Esparza; E. Pedernera

1998-01-01

372

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Regulates Steroidogenic Enzymes in Cultured Cells of the Chick Embryo Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation addresses the potential regulation of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones during early stages of gonadal development by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Gonadal cells of 10-day-old chick embryo and cells of the left ovary of 18-day-old chick embryo were cultured for 60 h in a defined medium with or without the addition of FSH (2.0 IU\\/ml). At

Y. Gómez; P. N. Velázquez; I. Peralta-Delgado; M. C. Méndez; F. Vilchis; M. A. Juárez-Oropeza; E. Pedernera

2001-01-01

373

Identification of sheep ovary genes potentially associated with off-season reproduction.  

PubMed

Off-season reproduction is a favorable economic trait for sheep industry. Hu sheep, an indigenous Chinese sheep breed, demonstrates a higher productivity of lambs and displays year-around oestrous behavior under proper nutrition and environment. The genetic basis behind these traits, however, is not well understood. In order to identify genes associated with the off-season reproduction, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library using pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 oestrous Hu females as a tester and the pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 non-oestrous Chinese Merino females as a driver. A total of 382 resulting positive clones were obtained after the SSH. We identified 114 differentially up-regulated genes in oestrous Hu sheep by using subsequent screening and DNA sequencing, of which 8 were previously known, 93 were reported for the first time in sheep, and 13 were novel with no significant homology to any sequence in the DNA databases. Functions of the genes identified are related to cell division, signal transduction, structure, metabolism, or cell defense. To validate the results of SSH, 6 genes (Ntrk2, Ppap2b, Htra1, Nid1, Serpine2 and Foxola) were selected for conformational analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and two of them (Htral and Foxo1a) were verified by Northern blot. All of the 6 genes were differentially up-regulated in the ovary of oestrous Hu. It is obvious that off-season reproduction is a complex trait involving multiple genes in multiple organs. This study helps to provide a foundation for the final identification of functional genes involved in the sheep ovary. PMID:22546540

Chen, Lei; Liu, Ka; Zhao, Zongsheng; Blair, Hugh T; Zhang, Peng; Li, Daquan; Ma, Runlin Z

2012-04-20

374

Isolation and Characterization of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Variants Deficient in the Expression of Fibronectin Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese hamster ovary cell populations were enriched for cells displaying low surface expres- sion of the 140-kD integrin fibronectin receptor (FnR) by means of fluorescence-activated cell sorting using monoclonal anti-FnR antibodies. Selected cells were cloned by limiting dilution, and the resulting clones were screened for low cell surface FnR expression by ELISA. Two multiply sorted populations gave rise to variant

Clara L. Schreiner; J. S. Bauer; Yuri N. Danilov; Saber Hussein; Melanie M. Sczekan; R. L. Juliano

2010-01-01

375

Perturbation of gene expression and steroidogenesis with in vitro exposure of fathead minnow ovaries to ketoconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ketoconazole is a fungicidal drug that inhibits function of cytochrome P450s in the synthesis of steroids. To examine if inhibition of P450 function affects gene expression in a dynamic manner, we conducted in vitro exposures of ovary tissue from fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to 0.5?M ketoconazole to investigate effects on steroid production and gene expression over time. Expression of four

Edward J. Perkins; Natàlia Garcia-Reyero; Daniel L. Villeneuve; Dalma Martinovic; Sandra M. Brasfield; Lindsey S. Blake; Jeffrey D. Brodin; Nancy D. Denslow; Gerald T. Ankley

2008-01-01

376

Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Girls Aged 14–18 Years in Isfahan, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of clinical polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in 14- to 18-year-old high school girls in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,000 high school girls (14–18 years old) were selected by multi-stage random sampling from different high schools in Isfahan. Following physical examination, a single physician recorded the presence of hirsutism, severe acne, androgenic alopecia,

Mahin Hashemipour; Sussan Faghihimani; Behzad Zolfaghary; Silva Hovsepian; Fahimeh Ahmadi; Sassan Haghighi

2004-01-01

377

Psychosocial and Quality-of-Life Consequences of Androgen Excess and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life is a multidimensional, subjective idea that defies exact definition. In androgen excess, and even more so\\u000a in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), changes in outer appearance, menstrual disturbances, and infertility result in psychological\\u000a distress, reduced quality of life, and a less satisfying sex life. Although obesity and hirsutism are major determinants of\\u000a the physical component of quality

Onno E. Janssen; Susanne Hahn; Sigrid Elsenbruch

378

Pattern and density of vascularization in mammalian testes, ovaries, and ovotestes.  

PubMed

According to the classical paradigm, the vasculature of the embryonic testis is more dense and complex than that of the ovary, but recent studies based on whole-mount detection of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) as an endothelial cell marker, have suggested that the level of ovarian vascularization is higher than previously assumed. However, this new hypothesis has been neither tested using alternative methodology nor investigated in other mammalian species. In this paper, we have studied the vascularization process in the gonads of males and females of two mammalian species, the mouse (Mus musculus) and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). Our results show that the pattern of testis vascularization is very well conserved among mammals, including both pre- and postnatal stages of development and, at least in the mole, it is conserved irrespectively of whether the testicular tissue is XY or XX. We have shown that CAV1 is present not only in endothelial cells but also in prefollicular oocytes and in an ovarian population of somatic cortical cells. These data clearly establish that: (1) according to the classical hypothesis, the degree of vascularization of the developing ovary is lower than that of the testis, (2) ovarian vascularization is also evolutionarily conserved as it occurs similarly both in moles and in mice, and (3) that the degree of vascular development of the mammalian ovary is age-dependent increasing significatively at puberty. The expression of CAV1 in the ovary of most animal taxa, from nematodes to mammals, strongly suggests a role for this gene in the female meiosis. PMID:22544714

Lupiáñez, Darío G; Real, Francisca M; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Carmona, Francisco D; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J; Jiménez, Rafael

2012-05-01

379

RUNX2 Transcription Factor Regulates Gene Expression in Luteinizing Granulosa Cells of Rat Ovaries  

PubMed Central

The LH surge promotes terminal differentiation of follicular cells to become luteal cells. RUNX2 has been shown to play an important role in cell differentiation, but the regulation of Runx2 expression and its function in the ovary remain to be determined. The present study examined 1) the expression profile of Runx2 and its partner CBF? during the periovulatory period, 2) regulatory mechanisms of Runx2 expression, and 3) its potential function in the ovary. Runx2 expression was induced in periovulatory granulosa cells of human and rodent ovaries. RUNX2 and core binding factor-? (CBF?) proteins in nuclear extracts and RUNX2 binding to a consensus binding sequence increased after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. This in vivo up-regulation of Runx2 expression was recapitulated in vitro in preovulatory granulosa cells by stimulation with hCG. The hCG-induced Runx2 expression was reduced by antiprogestin (RU486) and EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AG1478), indicating the involvement of EGF-signaling and progesterone-mediated pathways. We also found that in the C/EBP? knockout mouse ovary, Runx2 expression was reduced, indicating C/EBP?-mediated expression. Next, the function of RUNX2 was investigated by suppressing Runx2 expression by small interfering RNA in vitro. Runx2 knockdown resulted in reduced levels of mRNA for Rgc32, Ptgds, Fabp6, Mmp13, and Abcb1a genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the binding of RUNX2 in the promoter region of these genes, suggesting that these genes are direct downstream targets of RUNX2. Collectively, the present data indicate that the LH surge-induced RUNX2 is involved in various aspects of luteal function by directly regulating the expression of diverse luteal genes.

Park, Eun-Sil; Lind, Anna-Karin; Dahm-Kahler, Pernilla; Brannstrom, Mats; Carletti, Martha Z.; Christenson, Lane K.; Curry, Thomas E.; Jo, Misung

2010-01-01

380

Identification and characterization of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in granulosa cells of the human ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Granulosa cells (GCs) represent a major endocrine compartment of the ovary producing sex steroid hormones. Recently, we identified in human GCs a Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa) of big conductance (BKCa), which is involved in steroidogenesis. This channel is activated by intraovarian signalling molecules (e.g. acetylcholine) via raised intracellular Ca2+ levels. In this study, we aimed at characterizing 1. expression

Matthias H Traut; Dieter Berg; Ulrike Berg; Artur Mayerhofer; Lars Kunz

2009-01-01

381

Unilateral or bilateral vagotomy induces ovulation in both ovaries of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development. Methods Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 90–92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear. Results In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats. Conclusions This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries.

2013-01-01

382

Vitrification of mouse ovaries using ethylene glycol and DMSO as cryoprotectants: histopathological evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten, 4- to 6-week-old BALB\\/c mice were randomly assigned to either control (non-vitrified, n = 5) or treatment (vitrified, n = 5) groups. Ovaries in the vitrified group were frozen sequentially by immersion into two vitrification solutions VS1: 10% ethylene glycol (EG) + 10% DMSO in holding medium (TCM-199 + 20% FBS) and VS2: 20% EG + 20% DMSO in

Homayoon Babaei; Amin Derakhshanfar; Arash Kheradmand

2007-01-01

383

Identification of Metabolites in the Normal Ovary and Their Transformation in Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Cancer  

PubMed Central

In this study, we characterized the metabolome of the human ovary and identified metabolic alternations that coincide with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and metastatic tumors resulting from primary ovarian cancer (MOC) using three analytical platforms: gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) using buffer systems and instrument settings to catalog positive or negative ions. The human ovarian metabolome was found to contain 364 biochemicals and upon transformation of the ovary caused changes in energy utilization, altering metabolites associated with glycolysis and ?-oxidation of fatty acids—such as carnitine (1.79 fold in EOC, p<0.001; 1.88 fold in MOC, p<0.001), acetylcarnitine (1.75 fold in EOC, p<0.001; 2.39 fold in MOC, p<0.001), and butyrylcarnitine (3.62 fold, p<0.0094 in EOC; 7.88 fold, p<0.001 in MOC). There were also significant changes in phenylalanine catabolism marked by increases in phenylpyruvate (4.21 fold; p?=?0.0098) and phenyllactate (195.45 fold; p<0.0023) in EOC. Ovarian cancer also displayed an enhanced oxidative stress response as indicated by increases in 2-aminobutyrate in EOC (1.46 fold, p?=?0.0316) and in MOC (2.25 fold, p<0.001) and several isoforms of tocopherols. We have also identified novel metabolites in the ovary, specifically N-acetylasparate and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate, whose role in ovarian physiology has yet to be determined. These data enhance our understanding of the diverse biochemistry of the human ovary and demonstrate metabolic alterations upon transformation. Furthermore, metabolites with significant changes between groups provide insight into biochemical consequences of transformation and are candidate biomarkers of ovarian oncogenesis. Validation studies are warranted to determine whether these compounds have clinical utility in the diagnosis or clinical management of ovarian cancer patients.

Fong, Miranda Y.; McDunn, Jonathan; Kakar, Sham S.

2011-01-01

384

Relationship Between Androgen Levels and Blood Pressure in Young Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The role of testosterone on the development of hypertension is controversial, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,(PCOS) who have higher prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance than women,without PCOS. Little is known,about the association between serum testosterone level and blood pressure in young women,with PCOS. In the 151 young Taiwanese women with PCOS enrolled in this cross-sectional study, we

Mei-Jou Chen; Wei-Shiung Yang; Jehn-Hsiahn Yang; Chi-Ling Chen; Hong-Nerng Ho; Yu-Shih Yang

2010-01-01

385

Occurrence of saxitoxins as a major toxin in the ovary of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven male and 14 female specimens of a marine puffer Arothron firmamentum were collected from Oita and Iwate Prefectures, Japan. The toxicity assay using mouse showed that only ovary and skin of the female specimens were toxic, the toxicity scores being 5–740 as paralytic shellfish poison and <5–30MU\\/g as tetrodotoxin (TTX), respectively. The toxin extracts from the both tissues were

Kazuhito Nakashima; Osamu Arakawa; Shigeto Taniyama; Mamoru Nonaka; Tomohiro Takatani; Kunio Yamamori; Yuichi Fuchi; Tamao Noguchi

2004-01-01

386

Acute Doxorubicin Insult in the Mouse Ovary Is Cell- and Follicle-Type Dependent  

PubMed Central

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR) as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours) than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours), as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10–12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult in the ovary must act almost immediately to prevent acute insult as significant damage was seen in stroma cells within the first two hours.

Roti Roti, Elon C.; Leisman, Scott K.; Abbott, David H.; Salih, Sana M.

2012-01-01

387

Melatonin Receptor 1A Gene Polymorphism Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene is a regulator of circadian rhythms and reproductive processes. The MTNR1A gene is also a potential candidate gene of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the MTNR1A gene polymorphism is associated with a predisposition to PCOS. Methods: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2119882 in

Chao Li; Yuhua Shi; Li You; Laicheng Wang; Zi-Jiang Chen

2011-01-01

388

Pharmaceutical Intervention in Metabolic and Cardiovascular risk Factors in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of women in reproductive age, its prevalence internationally\\u000a ranges between 6 and 8%. This syndrome is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and frequently, insulin resistance\\u000a (IR).\\u000a \\u000a The past decade, the central importance of IR in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been established, by pioneering elegant\\u000a studies. Subsequently, in addition to the

Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis

389

Ultrasound and menstrual history in predicting endometrial hyperplasia in polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To assess the role of endometrial thickness on vaginal ultrasound assessment and menstrual history in predicting endometrial hyperplasia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who presented with infertility due to anovulation.METHODS:This was a prospective study in a university referral-based fertility and endocrine clinic. Fifty-six women with PCOS presenting with infertility due to anovulation underwent both vaginal ultrasound assessments and

Anthony P Cheung

2001-01-01

390

Ultrastructural studies of the ovary of Palaeococcus fuscipennis (Burmeister) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccinea: Monophlebidae).  

PubMed

Ovaries of Palaeocoocus fuscipennis are composed of about 100 telotrophic ovarioles that are devoid of terminal filaments. In the ovariole a tropharium ( = trophic chamber) and vitellarium can be distinguished. The tropharium contains 7 trophocytes. A single oocyte develops in the vitellarium. The oocyte is surrounded by follicular cells that do not undergo diversification into subpopulations. The obtained results are discussed in a phylogenetic context. PMID:16212107

Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Kedra, Katarzyna; Niznik, Sylwia

2005-01-01

391

decapentaplegic Is Essential for the Maintenance and Division of Germline Stem Cells in the Drosophila Ovary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells are thought to occupy special local environments, or niches, established by neighboring cells that give them the capability for self-renewal. Each ovariole in the Drosophila ovary contains two germline stem cells surrounded by a group of differentiated somatic cells that express hedgehog and wingless. Here we show that the BMP2\\/4 homolog decapentaplegic (dpp) is specifically required to maintain

Ting Xie; Allan C Spradling

1998-01-01

392

Pregnancies following use of metformin for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess pregnancy outcome in anovulatory infertility patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were treated with metformin.Design: Case series.Setting: Outpatient.Patient(s): Anovulatory patients (n = 48) with a diagnosis of PCOS based on clinical, diagnostic, and laboratory evaluations were enrolled in the study over a 15-month period.Intervention(s): Metformin was started at 500 mg b.i.d. for 6 weeks and

Michael J Heard; Anita Pierce; Sandra A Carson; John E Buster

2002-01-01

393

Specific haplotypes of the CALPAIN5 gene are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CALPAIN-5 (CAPN5) gene in PCOS susceptibility. METHODS: We analysed four intronic polymorphisms of the CAPN5 gene in 148 well-characterized women with PCOS and 606 unrelated controls. We performed a case-control study and an

A. González; M. E. Sáez; M. J. Aragón; J. J. Galán; P. Vettori; L. Molina; C. Rubio; L. M. Real; Agustín Ruiz; R. Ramírez-Lorca

394

Heterogeneity in sexual bipotentiality and plasticity of granulosa cells in developing mouse ovaries.  

PubMed

In mammalian sex determination, SRY directly upregulates the expression of SOX9, the master regulatory transcription factor in Sertoli cell differentiation, leading to testis formation. Without SRY action, the bipotential gonadal cells become pre-granulosa cells, which results in ovarian follicle development. When, where and how pre-granulosa cells are determined to differentiate into developing ovaries, however, remains unclear. By monitoring SRY-dependent SOX9 inducibility (SDSI) in an Sry-inducible mouse system, we were able to identify spatiotemporal changes in the sexual bipotentiality/plasticity of ovarian somatic cells throughout life. The early pre-granulosa cells maintain the SDSI until 11.5 d.p.c., after which most pre-granulosa cells rapidly lose this ability by 12.0 d.p.c. Unexpectedly, we found a subpopulation of the pre-granulosa cells near the mesonephric tissue that continuously retains SDSI throughout fetal and early postnatal stages. After birth, these SDSI-positive pre-granulosa cells contribute to the initial round of folliculogenesis by the secondary follicle stage. In experimental sex reversal of 13.5-d.p.c. ovaries grafted into adult male nude mice, the differentiated granulosa cells re-acquire the SDSI before other signs of masculinization. Our data provide direct evidence of an unexpectedly high sexual heterogeneity of granulosa cells in developing mouse ovaries in a stage- and region-specific manner. Discovery of such sexually bipotential granulosa cells provides a novel entry point to the understanding of masculinization in various cases of XX disorders of sexual development in mammalian ovaries. PMID:23613466

Harikae, Kyoko; Miura, Kento; Shinomura, Mai; Matoba, Shogo; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai-Azuma, Masami; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Kanai, Yoshiakira

2013-07-01

395

Regulation of Intracellular Ca 2+ by CFTR in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In cystic fibrosis, the mutation of the CFTR protein causes reduced transepithelial Cl? secretion. As recently proposed, beside its role of Cl? channel, CFTR may regulate the activity of other channels such as a Ca2+-activated Cl? channel. Using a calcium imaging system, we show, in adenovirus-CFTR infected Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell monolayers,\\u000a that CFTR can act as a

V. Urbach; B. J. Harvey

1999-01-01

396

Evaluation of metabolic syndrome frequency and premature carotid atherosclerosis in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic syndrome frequency, cardiovascular risk profile and premature carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) especially during early adulthood. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 43 young women (18-22 years of age) with PCOS and 43 age-matched volunteer controls. Anthropometrical measurements, hormone levels, lipid and glucose profile

Birol Vural; Eray Caliskan; Erkan Turkoz; Teoman Kilic; Ali Demirci

2005-01-01

397

Atorvastatin reduces tissue damage in rat ovaries subjected to torsion and detorsion: biochemical and histopathologic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin as an antioxidant and tissue protective agent and study\\u000a the biochemical and histopathological changes in experimental ischemia and ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) injury in rat ovaries.\\u000a The experiment used 48 adult female rats, and the experimental groups can be summarized as: group I, a sham operation; group\\u000a II, a sham

Elif Cadirci; Akgun Oral; Fehmi Odabasoglu; Cenk Kilic; Kagan Coskun; Zekai Halici; Halis Suleyman; Osman Nuri Keles; Bunyami Unal

2010-01-01

398

Presence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) interactive factors in ovaries of the grey fleshfly Neobellieria bullata.  

PubMed

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, defined as a captopril-inhibitable dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity towards 3H-hippurylglycylglycine, was demonstrated in haemolymph, testes and ovaries of the grey fleshfly Neobellieria bullata, hereby suggesting a physiological role for ACE in these particular tissues. While the ACE activity in haemolymph and testes reached relatively high levels, only minute ACE activity could be detected in ovaries throughout the entire vitellogenic cycle. Ovarian extracts of Neobellieria bullata do contain, however, in addition to Neb-TMOF, the Neobellieria bullata trypsin modulating oostatic factor which is an in vitro and a putative in vivo substrate of ACE in circulation, several other heat-stable molecules which individually function either as an ACE substrate or ACE inhibitor. Presumably these ACE interactive factors mask ACE activity in the fly ovaries, as measured by a classic substrate-binding assay. Purification and characterisation of these ACE substrates/inhibitors is in progress and is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the enigmatic physiological relevance of ACE in insects. PMID:11997207

Vandingenen, Anick; Hens, Korneel; Macours, Nathalie; Schoofs, Liliane; De Loof, Arnold; Huybrechts, Roger

2002-05-01

399

Oocyte formation by mitotically-active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive age women  

PubMed Central

Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a FACS-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically-active cells that exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and spontaneously generate 35–50 µm oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and attainment of haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1–2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, like adult mice, possess rare mitotically-active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo.

White, Yvonne A. R.; Woods, Dori C.; Takai, Yasushi; Ishihara, Osamu; Seki, Hiroyuki; Tilly, Jonathan L.

2012-01-01

400

A new method for preparation of pure zonae pellucidae in large quantities from porcine ovaries.  

PubMed

A new method for preparation of large quantities of zona substance in pure form from porcine ovaries has been described. In addition to the previously reported techniques of glass wool treatment and sieving by saran meshes, the following three significant improvements have been introduced: disruption of ovaries by an electric machine equipped with two multi-needed disks, which resulted in a considerably accelerated recovery of follicular oocytes with a high yield; low-speed centrifugation at 170 X g for 15 s was found to be an obligatory step to eliminate light particulate material from the crude oocyte suspension; use of 50% sucrose solution in discontinuous density gradient centrifugation permitted complete separation of homogeneous samples at two stages of the final preparation of zona-encased oocytes or of oocyte-free zonae. Microscopic examination revealed no contaminating components in the zona preparation. With this method 93 mg of lyophilized zona preparation were obtained from 24 553 porcine ovaries. Analysis of a solubilized zona substance by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography showed the presence of two major glycoproteins which could not be separated completely from each other. By analysis of the two components with SDS-PAGE, only a single, but broad, band of glycoprotein was found, indicating the successful isolation of a major component(s) from porcine zonae. PMID:7196952

Noda, Y; Mori, T; Takai, I; Kohda, H; Nishimura, T

1981-07-01

401

Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. (Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))

1993-11-01

402

Prevalence of ultrasonography proved polycystic ovaries in North Indian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovaries (PCO) and their clinical expression (the polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common medical conditions linked through insulin resistance. We studied the prevalence of PCO and PCOS in women with diet and/or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM and non-diabetic control women. Design Prospective study. Methods One hundred and five reproductive age group women with diet and /or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM were the subjects of the study. Sixty age-matched non-diabetic women served as controls. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of the ovaries was used to diagnose PCO. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were also noted. Results Ultrasonographic prevalence of PCO was higher in women with diabetes than in non-diabetic subjects (61.0% vs. 36.7%, P < 0.003) whereas that of PCOS was 37.1% in diabetic subjects and 25% in non-diabetic controls (P > 0.1). Diabetic women with PCO had diabetes of significantly longer duration than those without PCO (4.19±2.0 versus 2.9±1.6 yrs; p < 0.05). Among both diabetic and non-diabetic women, those with PCO had significantly higher plasma LH, LH/FSH ratio, total testosterone and androstenedione levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of PCO in women with T2DM as compared to non-diabetic subjects.

Zargar, Abdul H; Gupta, Vipin K; Wani, Arshad I; Masoodi, Shariq R; Bashir, Mir I; Laway, Bashir A; Ganie, Mohammad A; Salahuddin, Mohammad

2005-01-01

403

In vivo inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and growth in tobacco ovary tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post fertilization growth of tobacco ovary tissues treated with inhibitors of polyamine (PA) biosynthesis was examined in relation to endogenous PA titers and the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17). DL-alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), specific, irreversible ("suicide") inhibitors of ODC and ADC in vitro, were used to modulate PA biosynthesis in excised flowers. ODC represented >99% of the total decarboxylase activity in tobacco ovaries. In vivo inhibition of ODC with DFMO resulted in a significant decrease in PA titers, ovary fresh weight and protein content. Simultaneous inhibition of both decarboxylases by DFMO and DFMA produced only a marginally greater depression in growth and PA titers, indicating that ODC activity is rate-limiting for PA biosynthesis in these tissues. Paradoxically, DFMA alone inhibited PA biosynthesis, not as a result of a specific inhibition of ADC, but primarily through the inactivation of ODC. In vivo inhibition of ODC by DFMA appears to result from arginase-mediated hydrolysis of this inhibitor to urea and DFMO, the suicide substrate for ODC. Putrescine conjugates in tobacco appear to function as a storage form of this amine which, upon hydrolysis, may contribute to Put homeostasis during growth.

Slocum, R. D.; Galston, A. W.

1985-01-01

404

Regulation of Drosophila yolk protein genes by an ovary-specific GATA factor.  

PubMed Central

The divergently transcribed yolk protein genes (Yp1 and Yp2) of Drosophila melanogaster are expressed only in adult females, in fat body tissue and in ovarian follicle cells. Using an in vitro transcription assay, we have identified a single 12-bp DNA element that activates transcription from the promoters of both Yp genes. In vivo, this regulatory element is tissue specific: it activates transcription of Yp1 and Yp2 reporter genes in follicle cells but has no detectable effect in fat body or other tissues. The sequence of the element consists of two recognition sites for the GATA family of transcription factors. We show that among the Drosophila genes known to encode GATA factors, only dGATAb is expressed in ovaries. The single transcript that we detect in ovaries is alternatively spliced or initiated to produce an ovary-specific isoform of the protein. Bacterially expressed dGATAb binds to the 12-bp element; a similar binding activity is also present in the Kc0 nuclear extracts used for in vitro transcription assays. These in vitro and in vivo results lead us to propose that dGATAb makes several developmentally regulated products, one of which is a follicle cell-specific protein activating transcription of Yp1 and Yp2 from a known regulatory element.

Lossky, M; Wensink, P C

1995-01-01

405

Autophagy in Drosophila ovaries is induced by starvation and is required for oogenesis.  

PubMed

Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-mediated degradation, promotes cell survival under starvation and is controlled by insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling. In Drosophila, nutrient depletion induces autophagy in the fat body. Interestingly, nutrient availability and insulin/TOR signaling also influence the size and structure of Drosophila ovaries, however, the role of nutrient signaling and autophagy during this process remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that starvation induces autophagy in germline cells (GCs) and in follicle cells (FCs) in Drosophila ovaries. This process is mediated by the ATG machinery and involves the upregulation of Atg genes. We further demonstrate that insulin/TOR signaling controls autophagy in FCs and GCs. The analysis of chimeric females reveals that autophagy in FCs, but not in GCs, is required for egg development. Strikingly, when animals lack Atg gene function in both cell types, ovaries develop normally, suggesting that the incompatibility between autophagy-competent GCs and autophagy-deficient FCs leads to defective egg development. As egg morphogenesis depends on a tightly linked signaling between FCs and GCs, we propose a model in which autophagy is required for the communication between these two cell types. Our data establish an important function for autophagy during oogenesis and contributes to the understanding of the role of autophagy in animal development. PMID:21151027

Barth, J M I; Szabad, J; Hafen, E; Köhler, K

2011-06-01

406

Influence of oral contraceptive pills on phenotype expression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a heterogeneous phenotype including chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. The use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) alters features characteristic for the syndrome. In the present study, PCOS features were compared between women using or not using OCP at the time of the study. One hundred and one women diagnosed with normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility were included. A total of 81 (80%) women were diagnosed with PCOS (revised 2003 criteria). From these women, a total of 54 did not use OCP, whereas 27 women did. Corrected for age, women taking OCP had increased serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.001). Serum concentrations of testosterone (P = 0.04) and androstenedione (P = 0.01) were decreased. These differences resulted in a decreased free androgen index for women currently taking OCP compared with women without (P < 0.001). The mean ovarian volume/ovary and the mean follicle number/ovary were not different. Use of OCP influences phenotype expression (the observable trait) of individual women known to suffer from PCOS by reducing hyperandrogenism. Despite taking OCP, women still fulfilled the revised 2003 criteria for the syndrome, as PCO morphology was still present. Hence, OCP use does not appreciably affect the PCOS phenotype. PMID:16417732

Mulders, Annemarie G M; ten Kate-Booij, Marianne; Pal, Richard; De Kruif, Marjolijn; Nekrui, Lizka; Oostra, Ben A; Fauser, Bart C J M; Laven, Joop S E

2005-12-01

407

Axenic Ovarial Explants from the Marine Nematode Deontostoma californicum on Culture Media.  

PubMed

The gonads of Deontostoma californicum were isolated from the organismal environment by dissection. In an attempt to approximate the in vivo condition and to maintain in vitro architecture and function ten media recommended for the culture of insect cells or organs were tested. The media were prepared in two series: one according to published recommendations and the second substituting filtered seawater for the inorganic salts and distilled water. Media were prepared as both liquid and gel (agar) with and without antibiotics. Whole animals and eggs were placed on the same culture media series as the ovarial explants. Ovarial explant reaction was divided into those which supported the entire gonad and those which supported the ovary or ova-containing oviduct. Seawater preparations of Samia and Grace culture media were outstanding for support of the entire explant. Eggs underwent their greatest development in seawater without antibiotics. Prolonged survival of whole animals took place only in those media (A-l, C-G, 26c, 199, Mosquito, and Media B) in which the inorganic salts and distilled water were replaced by filtered seawater. The results demonstrated that those conditions suitable for adults on culture media are not necessarily suitable for eggs, larvae, or tissue explants. PMID:19325658

Viglierchio, D R; Maggenti, A R; Johnson, R N

1969-01-01

408

Genome-wide analysis of genes related to ovary activation in worker honey bees.  

PubMed

A defining characteristic of eusocial animals is their division of labour into reproductive and nonreproductive specialists. Here, we used a microarray study to identify genes associated with functional sterility in the worker honey bee Apis mellifera. We contrasted gene expression in workers from a functionally sterile wild-type strain with that in a mutant (anarchist) strain selected for high rates of ovary activation. We identified a small set of genes from the brain (n = 7) and from the abdomen (n = 5) that are correlated in their expression with early stages of ovary activation. Sterile wild-type workers up-regulated two unknown genes and a homologue of Drosophila CG6004. By contrast, reproductive anarchist workers up-regulated genes for the yolk protein vitellogenin, venom peptides and a member of the AdoHycase superfamily, among others. The differentially expressed genes identified are likely to be involved in early differentiation into sterile and reproductive worker phenotypes and may therefore form part of the gene networks associated with the regulation of ho