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Sample records for over-the-counter whitening agents

  1. Over-the-counter whitening agents: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Meireles, Sônia Saeger; Masotti, Alexandre Severo

    2009-01-01

    Tooth discoloration is commonly found in the dental clinic and tooth bleaching has been considered the preferred esthetic alternative, being more conservative, safe and with predictable results. Supervised home-use of 10% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) bleaching with custom-trays is the most common bleaching procedure dispensed by dentists to their patients. The good results obtained with this technique stimulated the flourishing of new products and techniques. Over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching products appeared as a low-cost alternative to bleach discolored teeth without dentist supervision. Different OTC products are available in supermarkets, drug stores or on the Internet, including rinses, paint-on brushes, toothpastes, chewing guns, dental floss, and whitening strips. There is lack of clinical evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these products, being most of the studies supported by the manufacturers'. Basically, toothpastes, chewing gums, and dental floss are removal agents of superficial stains. Rinses and paint-on brushes with low levels of hydrogen peroxide have some whitening effect, but without clinical relevance. Strips present similar esthetic results and side-effects, compared to bleaching with 10% CP using trays; however, the studies have financial support from the manufacturers and were based on short term evaluations. Legislation varies widely in different countries regarding OTC dental bleaching. Concerns have appeared due to the potential abusive use of these self-medication agents, especially in young patients, with potential harmful results. Dentists should be acquainted with this kind of products to be able to inform their patients. In conclusion, there is a need for independent clinical trials to provide sufficient evidence regarding the use of OTC bleaching products. PMID:19838560

  2. Use and abuse of over-the-counter analgesic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, F V; Fraser, M I

    1998-01-01

    Pain and discomfort in everyday life are often treated with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic medications. These drugs are remarkably safe, but serious side effects can occur. Up to 70% of the population in Western countries uses analgesics regularly, primarily for headaches, other specific pains and febrile illness. It is not known whether the patterns of use are consistent with good pain management practices. OTC analgesics are also widely used to treat dysphoric mood states and sleep disturbances, and high levels of OTC analgesic medication use are associated with psychiatric illness, particularly depressive symptoms, and the use of alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. More than 4 g per day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or acetaminophen over long periods is considered abuse. People using excessive amounts of OTC analgesics may need more effective treatments for chronic pain, depression or dysthymia. The possibility that these drugs have subtle reinforcing properties needs to be investigated. Certainly phenacetin, which was taken off the market in the 1970s, had intoxicating effects. A better understanding of patterns of use is needed to determine the extent of problem use of OTC analgesics, and whether health could be improved by educating people about the appropriate use of these drugs. PMID:9505057

  3. Oral Adverse Reactions Caused by Over-the-Counter Oral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Andabak Rogulj, Ana; Vidovic Juras, Danica; Gabric, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-01-01

    Over-the-counter products rarely cause unwanted reactions in the oral cavity. Oral reactions to these agents are not specific and might present with various clinical oral findings. Detailed medical history is a key to the proper diagnosis of these lesions and fortunately other diagnostic procedures are rarely needed. Lesions are usually managed with elimination of the offending agent and with topical steroids. In more severe cases systemic steroids should be applied. PMID:25883811

  4. Fluorescent whitening agents in detergents.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, C; von Rütte, R

    1975-01-01

    Washing is a form of textile care which is characterized by its repetitive nature. Washing methods vary enormously in different parts of the world. The main types of detergents and fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are described. Washing slows down the deterioration in use of white goods, and yellowing is counteracted by FWAs. FWAs also enhance the freshness and brightness of most pale shades. Cost calculations show clearly the economic advantages of using FWAs in washing: the useful life of textiles can be prolonged considerably for a very small additional cost. PMID:1064549

  5. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  6. Toxicologic properties of fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Gloxhuber, C; Bloching, H

    1978-01-01

    From the collection of toxicologic data, it is seen that the fluorescent whitening agents are a well-investigated class of compounds. Only in one of the groups of compounds investigated did it appear advisable to discontinue the use of a particular product on the basis of the toxicologic findings. In the large number of the other cases, the findings indicate that there is a considerable degree of toxicologic safety in the use of the FWAs in soap and detergent products. PMID:367695

  7. Bleed fastness of fluorescent whitening agents in mass whitened paper.

    PubMed

    Anders, G; Flubacher, M

    1975-01-01

    Paper samples mass whitened with fluorescent whiteing agents (FWAs) of three different types (di-, tetra-, and hexasulfonated derivatives of 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) were examined for bleed fastness in five different eluents. Fluorescece intensity was measured by a sensitive spectrofluorimetric technique instead of the usual visual assessment. The degree of bleed obtained from each of the FWAs tested was less than 0.4mg/600 cm2 of paper surface area. The FWAs were applied at a normal concentration of use i.e. 0.05% active substance. FWAs with a high degree of sulfonation tend to bleed in aqueous solvents, and those with a lower degree of sulfonation in alcohol solutions. In aqueous acid solutions the degree of bleed was very low in all cases (0.04 mg/600 cm2 of paper surface area). In fatty solutions there was no bleed at all. The limit of detection was 3mug/600 cm2 of paper surface area, with an accuracy of +/-15%. PMID:1064530

  8. Toxicological investigations with fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Buxtorf, A

    1975-01-01

    The reasons for which toxicological investigations are carried out are: -handling and consumer safety, -the critical attitude of the public towards the use of chemicals in general, -the need to weigh benefit against risk when using chemicals, and -the safety requirements introduced by authorities. The guidelines for toxicological evaluation of chemicals and particularly fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), as well as the extent of which man is possibly exposed to these substances through alimentary intake or through contact with the skin are discussed. It is concluded that there is a very wide safety margin for every conceivable use of FWAs. PMID:1064536

  9. Over-the-Counter Agents for the Treatment of Occasional Disturbed Sleep or Transient Insomnia: A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Larry; Wingertzahn, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the level of evidence supporting the use of common over-the-counter (OTC) agents (diphenhydramine, doxylamine, melatonin, and valerian) for occasional disturbed sleep or insomnia. Data sources: A systematic review of the literature was conducted on July 31, 2014, using MEDLINE (PubMed) and the search terms (insomnia OR sleep) AND (over*the*counter OR OTC OR non*prescription OR antihistamine OR doxylamine OR diphenhydramine OR melatonin OR valerian) with the filters English, human, and clinical trials. Study selection: Identified publications (from 2003 to July 31, 2014, following previous published literature reviews) that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The criteria included randomized placebo-controlled clinical studies that utilized overnight objective (polysomnography) or next-day participant-reported sleep-related endpoints and that were conducted in healthy participants with or without occasional disturbed sleep or diagnosed insomnia. Results: Measures of efficacy and tolerability were summarized for each study individually and grouped according to OTC agent: H1 antagonists or antihistamines (3 studies, diphenhydramine), melatonin (8), and valerian or valerian/hops (7). Of the 3 sleep agents, studies conducted with melatonin, especially prolonged-release formulations in older individuals with diagnosed insomnia, demonstrated the most consistent beneficial effects (vs placebo) on sleep measures, specifically sleep onset and sleep quality, with favorable tolerability. In contrast, the clinical trial data for diphenhydramine, immediate-release melatonin, and valerian suggested limited beneficial effects. Conclusions: A review of randomized controlled studies over the past 12 years suggests commonly used OTC sleep-aid agents, especially diphenhydamine and valerian, lack robust clinical evidence supporting efficacy and safety. PMID:27057416

  10. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. Some prevent or cure ... the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. ...

  11. Fluorescent whitening agents in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zinkernagel, R

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the ecological situation regarding the use of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) is given. Firstly a survey is made of the existing literature with references to the contributions on the subject in this EQS supplement volume, then the effects of waste water treatment with respect to the elimination of FWAs in the different stages of treatment are discussed. The final load of FWAs in receiving water is estimated. These figures are brought into relation with the actual content of receiving water residues of natural and manmade origins. The significance of the FWA load is discussed. All the arguments lead to the strong suggestion that these residues are finally metabolized by natural systems of elimination, so that no ecological risks exist when FWAs are properly used in the main fields of application, i.e. in the textile, paper and soap and detergent industry. PMID:776604

  12. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains ... Others help manage recurring problems, like migraines. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration decides ...

  13. Studies on the reaction of skin when exposed to fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Gloxhuber, C; Bloching, H; Kästner, W

    1975-01-01

    In hand washing tests with detergents containing fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), the amounts of whitener left on both hands were determined by TLC spectrophotometry: they varied from 0.06 mg to 0.17 mg. Whiteners of different chemical constitutions behaved in a very similar manner. After 24 hours the skin of the treated hands was virtually free of whitener. PMID:1064539

  14. Comments on the isotope technique of determining fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Theidel, H

    1975-01-01

    The notes on the specific marking of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) refer to publications in the literature and the example of an autoradiographic measurement of an 35S-labelled FWA of the 1,3-diphenyl-2-pyrazoline type. PMID:1064528

  15. Mutagenicity assays on fluorescent whitening agents using microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kilbey, B J; Zetterberg, L G

    1975-01-01

    Six fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) have been re-examined for their activity as inducers of cytoplasmic petite mutants and mitotic gene conversion in diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerebisiae and reversion from auxotrophy to prototrophy in Neurospora crassa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The results provide no indication that the FWAs examinded produce mutagenic changes or any other alterations in the gene material. In a recent re-examination with Salmonella using the method of Ames et al., the four examined compounds failed to elicit a mutagenic response in the presence of rat liver postmitochondrial supernatant and cofactors. PMID:132347

  16. The chemistry of fluorescent whitening agents. Major structural types.

    PubMed

    Gold, H

    1975-01-01

    This gives a summary of those fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) that have industrial importance. Firstly, a survey of the general physical and applicational properties is given, and then the chemistry of FWAs is dealt with. The FWAs are classified in six major structural classes: (A) stilbenes (B) coumarin and carbostyril compounds, (C) 1,3-DIPHENYL-2-PYRAZOLINES, (D) naphthalimides, (E) benzoxazolyl substitution products of conjugated systems, and (F) combined products of other heteroaromatics with ethylene or aromatic systems, owing to their methods of preparation and to their optical characteristics. PMID:776606

  17. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that dermatologists are well-versed on this subject to provide appropriate information about treatment regimens and potential drug interactions and that their patients see them as well-informed. This article reviews the efficacy of various over-the-counter acne treatments based on the current literature. A thorough literature review revealed there are many types of over-the-counter acne treatments and each are designed to target at least one of the pathogenic pathways that are reported to be involved in the development of acne lesions. Many of the key over-the-counter ingredients are incorporated in different formulations to broaden the spectrum and consumer appeal of available products. Unfortunately, many over-the-counter products are not well-supported by clinical studies, with a conspicuous absence of double-blind or investigator-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. Most studies that do exist on over-the-counter acne products are often funded by the manufacturer. Use of over-the-counter acne treatments is a mainstay in our society and it is important that dermatologists are knowledgeable about the different options, including potential benefits and limitations. Overall, over-the-counter acne therapies can be classified into the following five major groups: cleansers, leave-on products, mechanical treatments, essential oils, and vitamins. PMID:22808307

  18. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000882.htm Using over-the-counter medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... need to know about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription ...

  19. Over-the-counter pain relievers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Analgesics; Acetaminophen; NSAID; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; Pain medicine - over-the-counter; Pain medicine - OTC ... Pain medicines are also called analgesics. Each kind of pain medicine has benefits and risks. Some types of pain ...

  20. Effective over-the-counter acne treatments.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Shalita, Alan R

    2008-09-01

    Acne is the most common disease of the skin, yet only a fraction of acne sufferers are treated with prescription products by physicians. There is, however, a large and expanding market for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, many of which are not only effective but also well tolerated and cosmetically elegant. Given the presence of OTC acne medications on the television, the Internet, and store shelves, patients will be acutely aware of these OTC remedies and will have questions. Patients will expect dermatologists to advise them regarding products to use either as a sole therapy or in combination with prescription drugs. Recently, combinations of OTC acne medications in treatment regimens or "kits" have gained popularity and appear to have increased patient compliance. Quality-of-life outcomes from OTC medication use, in at least one study, have demonstrated good benefit. The most common OTC ingredients include benzoyl peroxide, a potent antibacterial agent, and salicylic acid, a mild comedolytic and antiinflammatory medication. Other, less-common OTC ingredients include sulfur, sodium sulfacetamide, and alpha hydroxy acids. Zinc, vitamin A, tea tree oil, and ayurvedic therapies also are available OTC for acne. Additional and better studies are needed to clarify the benefit of these latter medications. PMID:18786494

  1. Clinical study of the safety and effectiveness of a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system

    PubMed Central

    Ghalili, K Michael; Khawaled, Kamal; Rozen, Doran; Afsahi, Veda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated color change, gingival irritation, and tooth sensitivity in patients undergoing at-home vital tooth bleaching with a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system. Tooth color shade in anterior teeth, supragingival plaque and gingivitis in Ramfjord teeth, as well as visual assessment of teeth gingival tissues and mucosa were evaluated in-office prior to treatment, after two consecutive applications of the 9% hydrogen peroxide bleaching product, after eight applications (10 minutes/day for 3 days at home), and after ten applications (50 minutes exposure over 5 days). Color stability was evaluated at 3 months after completing the treatment regimen. Over-the-counter bleaching products can be used by the patient at home without dentist supervision, but are frequently associated with gingival irritation and tooth sensitivity despite low concentrations of peroxide agents. Our investigations showed that the treatment is tolerable and safe with a low incidence of adverse effects. Any adverse effects associated with use of the whitening gel and tray are temporary, easily controlled, and often disappear within minutes of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvement in teeth whitening following treatment (mean color change of seven shades) and at three months after treatment. PMID:24591847

  2. Clinical study of the safety and effectiveness of a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system.

    PubMed

    Ghalili, K Michael; Khawaled, Kamal; Rozen, Doran; Afsahi, Veda

    2014-01-01

    We investigated color change, gingival irritation, and tooth sensitivity in patients undergoing at-home vital tooth bleaching with a novel over-the-counter bleaching tray system. Tooth color shade in anterior teeth, supragingival plaque and gingivitis in Ramfjord teeth, as well as visual assessment of teeth gingival tissues and mucosa were evaluated in-office prior to treatment, after two consecutive applications of the 9% hydrogen peroxide bleaching product, after eight applications (10 minutes/day for 3 days at home), and after ten applications (50 minutes exposure over 5 days). Color stability was evaluated at 3 months after completing the treatment regimen. Over-the-counter bleaching products can be used by the patient at home without dentist supervision, but are frequently associated with gingival irritation and tooth sensitivity despite low concentrations of peroxide agents. Our investigations showed that the treatment is tolerable and safe with a low incidence of adverse effects. Any adverse effects associated with use of the whitening gel and tray are temporary, easily controlled, and often disappear within minutes of treatment. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvement in teeth whitening following treatment (mean color change of seven shades) and at three months after treatment. PMID:24591847

  3. Direct determination of fluorescent whitening agents by absorption measurement in situ on thin layer chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Theidel, H

    1975-01-01

    The measuring technique for the chromatogram spectrophotometer (Zeiss) to determine the reflectance curves, the analysis according to the Kubelka-Munck function, and the basic outlines of the quantitative determination of stilbene fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are explained. PMID:1064527

  4. The effect of fluorescent whitening agent on hunter camouflage clothing.

    PubMed

    Beckner, D; Roth, N; Yolton, R L

    1993-05-01

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are chemicals added to most fabrics and papers during manufacture to increase color temperature, "whiteness," and "brightness." FWAs accomplish this by absorbing energy in the ultraviolet (UV) part of the spectrum and emitting it as visible blue light. Recently, hunters have become concerned that FWA could be reducing the effectiveness of their camouflage clothing. As a result, some manufacturers have begun making their camouflage clothing (camo) without FWA, and a spray-on product has been introduced to block the action of FWA. Radiometric spectra from camo and foliage samples suggest, however, that these concerns might not be fully justified. Under full sun and in the shade, spectra from 300 to 500 nanometers (nm) (i.e., UV and visible blue light) showed that camo samples containing FWA matched the foliage reasonably well. No evidence of a major problem caused by the FWA was detected, and no significant need for the use of UV absorbing dyes to block the action of FWA was found. PMID:8320420

  5. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized. PMID:26953335

  6. A research on measuring and analyzing the optical properties of fluorescent whitening agent in soybean milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xingyue; Zhao, Zhimin; Zhang, Lin; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lexin; Lan, Xiufeng

    2015-03-01

    A research on measuring and analyzing the fluorescence spectra of fluorescent whitening agent in soybean milk was explained in this paper. At the temperature of 30 °C, linear relationship was found good between fluorescence intensity and concentration of fluorescent whitening agent in the range of 0.015-0.25 mg/mL when the emission wavelength was 437 nm and excitation wavelength was 347 nm. Modeling analysis showed that the correlation coefficient was 0.996, the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 0.45% to 0.73% and the recovery of standard addition ranged from 96.80% to 102.67%, which testified the validity of the method. This research provided a new way for detecting the unedible fluorescent whitening agent content in food production.

  7. An over-the-counter omission.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Danielle Bowen

    2006-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications, their utilization is rarely ascertained at hospital admission. Presented here is an interesting case of acute renal failure and hemolytic anemia attributable to a commonly utilized OTC medication. The chronic use of phenazopyridine accounted for all of these findings. Upon discontinuation, everything normalized within one month. Although the differential diagnosis for renal failure and hemolytic anemia is extensive, scleral icterus, normal bilirubin, and orange-colored urine raised the suspicion of phenazopyridine use. This case report highlights overuse of common OTC medications, as well as a lack of knowledge of potential adverse reactions. With history-taking vigilance and patient education, adverse events from OTC medications can be minimized. PMID:17004539

  8. New 'Superlice' Resist Most Over-The-Counter Remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160878.html New 'Superlice' Resist Most Over-the-Counter Remedies But ... rather never see in the first place. A new report warns that over-the-counter products have ...

  9. Color measurements on prints containing fluorescent whitening agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mattias; Norberg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Papers with a slightly blue shade are, at least among a majority of observers being perceived as whiter than papers having a more neutral color1. Therefore, practically all commercially available printing papers contain bluish dyes and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) to give the paper a whiter appearance. Furthermore, in the paper industry, the most frequently used measure for paper whiteness is the CIE-whiteness. The CIE Whiteness formula, does in turn, also favor slightly bluish papers. Excessive examples of high CIE-whiteness values can be observed in the office-paper segment where a high CIE-whiteness value is an important sales argument. As an effect of the FWA, spectrophotometer measurements of optical properties such as paper whiteness are sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) content of the light source used in the instrument. To address this, the standard spectrophotometers used in the paper industry are equipped with an adjustable filter for calibrating the UV-content of the illumination. In the paper industry, spectrophotometers with d/0 measurement geometry and a light source of type C are used. The graphical arts industry on the other hand, typically measures with spectrophotometers having 45/0 geometry and a light source of type A. Moreover, these instruments have only limited possibilities to adjust the UV-content by the use of different weighting filters. The standard for color measurements in the paper industry governs that measurements should be carried out using D65 standard illumination and the 10 ° standard observer. The corresponding standard for the graphic arts industry specify D50 standard illumination and the 2 ° standard observer. In both cases, the standard illuminants are simulated from the original light source by spectral weighting functions. However, the activation of FWA, which will impact the measured spectral reflectance, depends on the actual UV-content of the illumination used. Therefore, comparisons between measurements on

  10. Study by fluorescence microscopy of the effect of fluorescent whitening agents on the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Luckhaus, G; Löser, E

    1975-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopic studies of the skin of hairless mice showed that a fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) of the bis(phenyltriazolyl)stilbenedisulfonate type did not penetrate into the subepithelial layers (dermis and subcutaneous tissue) of the skin after cutaneous application. PMID:1064538

  11. [Development of low-concentration hydrogen peroxide whitening agent using visible light-responsive titania photocatalyst].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Although highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (HP) has been used to bleach vital discolored teeth during office whitening, low-concentration HP was recognized to have insufficient whitening ability. We demonstrated that using a visible light-responsive titania photocatalyst (VLRTP) and a vis-Nd : YAG laser, 3 wt% HP-bleached oxytetracycline (OTC)-stained teeth models were more efficient than 30 wt% HP. The stained samples were prepared by soaking synthetic hydroxyapatite ceramic disks in OTC aqueous solutions. Color images of the OTC-stained models before and after whitening were taken with a conventional flatbed scanner and calibrated using a photocell colorimeter. By VLRTP treatment with vis-Nd : YAG laser irradiation, the lightness value (L*) significantly increased and the yellowness index (b*) significantly approached zero. This suggests that a diluted HP agent with VLRTP can more efficiently decolorize stained teeth by visible light irradiation. PMID:20662305

  12. Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Servey, Jessica; Chang, Jennifer

    2014-10-15

    Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and OTC medications to develop risk categories for use in pregnancy. Most OTC medications taken during pregnancy are for allergy, respiratory, gastrointestinal, or skin conditions, as well as for general analgesia. Acetaminophen, which is used by about 65% of pregnant women, is generally considered safe during any trimester. Cold medications are also commonly used and are considered safe for short-term use outside of the first trimester. Many gastrointestinal medications are now available OTC. Histamine H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors have not demonstrated significant fetal effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally not recommended in pregnancy, especially during organogenesis and in the third trimester. There are even fewer data regarding use of individual herbal supplements. Ginger is considered safe and effective for treating nausea in pregnancy. Topical creams are considered safe based on small studies and previous practice. All OTC medication use should be discussed with patients, and the effects of the symptoms should be balanced with the risks and benefits of each medication. Because of the expanding OTC market, formalized studies are warranted for patients to make a safe and informed decision about OTC medication use during pregnancy. PMID:25369643

  13. Applied research for quantitative analysis of fluorescent whitening agent in emulsion paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAS) are widely used in the emulsion paint for brightening effect. In spite of extensive use of FWAS, there are no reports about the measurement method of FWAS in emulsion paint. In this work, a very simple quantitative approach is proposed. Based on the digital grayscale images of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and two-dimensional fluorescence images, several wavelet moment invariants are calculated and used to establish the standard models for the quantitative analysis. The influence factors of storage time and exposure time are also studied here. Measurement results indicated the feasibility and precision of using this method for quantitative analysis of FWAS. The research results also provides a reliable basis for the application of FWAS in emulsion paint. Keywords: fluorescent whitening agents, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, fluorescence image, wavelet moment invariants

  14. Over-the-counter treatments for acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Rosamilia, Lorraine Larsen

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain. PMID:27416314

  15. Investigating the Stability of Benzoyl Peroxide in Over-the-Counter Acne Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittredge, Marina Canepa; Kittredge, Kevin W.; Sokol, Melissa S.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.; Sennet, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most commonly used ingredients in over-the-counter acne treatments in cream, gel, and wash form is benzoyl peroxide. It is an anti-bacterial agent that kills the bacterium ("Propionibacterium acne") involved in the formation of acne. The formulation of these products is extremely difficult owing to the instability of benzoyl peroxide.…

  16. Limits of accuracy obtainable in the direct determination by fluorimetry of fluorescent whitening agents in solution.

    PubMed

    Anders, G

    1975-01-01

    In direct determination by fluorimetry the limits of detection are governed by the restricted light stability of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in solution. The initial value of a fluorimetric reading can be registered by a rapid recorder, and in this way very light sensitive traces of FWAs as low as 10 parts per thousand million can be measured be measured with a statistical standard deviation of +/-15% for a single measurement and a reproducibility of +/-50% with a statistical certainty of 99%. PMID:1064529

  17. Over-the-counter drugs block heart accumulation of MIBG

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, P.S.; Fisher, S.J.; Wieland, D.M.; Sisson, J.C.

    1985-05-01

    Previous work in the authors' laboratory using chemically sympathectomized animals showed that > 50% of meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) in the heart is localized in adrenergic nerves. In the present study, commonly used drugs known to alter the uptake and/or release of norepinephrine by adrenergic neurons have been evaluated for their effect on the biodistribution of MIBG. Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim) and phenylephrine (Neosynephrine) were administered (5 mg/kg, i.p.) to rats; amphetamine was also evaluated (0.8mg/kg, i.p.). Thirty minutes later I-125-MIBG (0.2-0.4 Ci/mm) was injected i.v.; animals (N=3) were sacrificed 2 h following radiotracer. Compared to controls (N = 3), drug pretreatments resulted in large decreases in radiotracer concentration in adrenergic-rich tissues such as left atrium, left ventricle, spleen and parotid glands. Pseudoephedrine caused decreases (%) of 78, 57, 48 and 35 in the four tissues, respectively. Each of the four drugs caused a greater decrease in I-125-MIBG concentration in the left atrium than in the left ventricle. Comparative studies using H-3-norepinephrine are in progress. Entex, a nasal decongestant containing both phenylephrine and phenylpropanolamine, markedly diminished the heart and salivary gland accumulation of I-123-MIBG in a normal male volunteer. These preliminary studies suggest that commonly used sympathomimetic agents, including some over-the-counter preparations, decrease the accumulation of MIBG in adrenergic neurons. These results also suggest that patients should be carefully screened for drug usage prior to MIBG scintigraphy of the heart.

  18. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  19. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  20. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  1. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food... active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. (a... aqueous solution have been present in oral mucosal injury drug products for use as oral wound...

  2. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present. PMID:24927403

  3. Metabolic behaviour of water-soluble fluorescent whitening agents in the rat and bean plant.

    PubMed

    Muecke, W; Dupuis, G; Esser, H O

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of three representative water-soluble fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) was studied in rats and bean plants using 14C-labelled compounds. Following oral doses of 5 mg/kg of each of the FWAs to rats, rapid and complete excretion of radioactive material was observed, with an excretion half life ranging from 7-13 hours. Faeces were practically the only route of excretion, indicating, in combination with the short half life times, that no significant amounts of whitener were absorbed from the digestive tract. No radioactive residues were found in blood, liver, kidney, brain, muscle, or fat 96 hours after dosing (limit of quantitative determination 0.005-0.01 ppm Fwa equivalents). Whereas, after application of compound (1) and compound (3), radioactive material was completely extractable from faeces in the form of unchanged parent compounds, that in the compound (2) experiments was not extractable. When bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were grown in the presence of 14C-labelled compound (3) in nutrient solution (11.5 ppm) and in soil (,7.5 ppm), approximately 55% and 2% of the applied radioactive material, respectively, was absorbed by the plants. More than 90% of thie material was bound to the roots in both experiments 40 days after the application. Eight percent of the radioactive material absorbed in the soil experiment was translocated mainly into the stems whereas only trace amounts of the order of less than 0.1 ppm reached the leaves and bean pods. It is concluded from these experiments with extremely high concentrations of compound (3) that under the conditions which may occur in practice residues of water-soluble FWAs do not appear in substantial amounts in edible parts of crops. PMID:1064534

  4. A new source of whitening agent from a Thai Mulberry plant and its betulinic acid quantitation.

    PubMed

    Nattapong, Snitmatjaro; Omboon, Luanratana

    2008-06-15

    Protection of human body against the harmful ultraviolet exposure is nowadays more important and interesting. Melanin, a group of bio-pigments, acts as a natural solar filter absorbing and reflecting most of the UV radiation passing through the layer of skin. Over production of the pigments can create a health problem, hyperpigmentation. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-dihydroxyalanine (L-Dopa), therefore tyrosinase inhibitors are used in various skin preparations due to its pronounced effect on anti-hyperpigment. In this study, an in vitro anti-tyrosinase activity study of the extracts from a hybrid Mulberry plant obtained from Morus alba L. and Morus rotundiloba Koidz, is shown to prove as new source of Thai whitening agent. The presence of betulinic acid, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity agent, is also reported. The study develops the technique of HPLC quantitation of betulinic acid and its relation to anti-tyrosinase activity of the whole parts of Thai Mulberry. PMID:18569714

  5. [Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in plastic food contact materials by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yanna; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Fu, Shanliang; Gong, Qiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Libing

    2013-01-01

    A method for the determination of fluorescent whitening agents in plastic food contact materials by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector was developed. The samples were extracted with trichloromethane by sonication for 30 min at 40 degrees C. The HPLC method was performed on a column of Eclipse XDB-C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) by gradient elution using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as the mobile phases, and detected by the fluorescence detector at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm and an emission wavelength of 430 nm. The experimental results indicated that the four fluorescent whitening agents were separated well. The limits of detection (LOD) (S/N = 3) were 0.3, 0.1, 0.05, 0.14 mg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) (S/N = 10) were 1.0, 0.4, 0.2, 0.5 mg/L for 1,4-bis (4-cyanostyryl) benzene (C. I. 199), 1,4-bis (2-benzoxazolyl) naphthalene (C. I. 367), 4,4'-bis(2-methoxystyryl) biphenyl (C. I. 378) and 2,5-thiophenediylbis (5-tert-butyl-1,3-benzoxazole) (C. I. 184), respectively. Good linearities with correlation coefficients (r2) not less than 0.991 were obtained. The proposed method is simple, accurate, sensitive and can meet the requirements of the routine determination of fluorescent whitening agents in entry-exit products. PMID:23667995

  6. Three-dimensional distributions of sewage markers in Tokyo Bay water--fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs).

    PubMed

    Managaki, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige; Kim, Dong-Myung; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2006-03-01

    Three-dimensional distributions of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs: more specifically, DSBP and DAS1), which are sewage-derived water-soluble markers, were observed in Tokyo Bay water through multi-layer sampling of water at 20 locations. In summer, FWAs predominated in the surface layers, with trace but significant concentration of FWAs in bottom water due to stratification of seawater. In winter, on the other hand, FWAs were extensively mixed into the bottom layers because of the vertical mixing of seawater. In the surface layer, FWA concentrations and the DSBP/DAS1 ratio (the concentration ratio of DSBP to DAS1) were lower in summer than in winter, suggesting more efficient photodegradation of FWAs in euphotic zones during the summer due to stronger solar radiation. Horizontally, FWAs were widely distributed over the surface layer of Tokyo Bay. Surface water with DSBP concentrations above 50ng/L, corresponding to <200 times dilution of sewage effluent, was found to have spread up to 10km from the coastline. In addition, an offshore decline in FWA concentrations was observed, showing a half-distance of 10-20km. The decrease was caused by dilution by seawater of fresh water containing FWAs. The eastern part of the bay was different with respect to surface layers, with higher concentrations seen in northeastern parts. Furthermore, dispersion of combined sewer overflow (CSO)-derived water mass was observed in Tokyo Bay after heavy rain. PMID:16216280

  7. Photoproducts formed in the photoyellowing of collagen in the presence of a fluorescent whitening agent.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jolon M; Clerens, Stefan; Cornellison, Charisa D; Murphy, Chris J; Maurdev, George; Millington, Keith R

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous proteins discolor on exposure to the UV component of sunlight. This effect is exacerbated in the presence of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), which are often applied to textiles to improve product brightness. Tryptophan photoproducts have been identified as significant contributors to protein photoyellowing; however, the role of non-tryptophan-derived chromophores is less clear. In this study bovine collagen, containing no tryptophan residues, was irradiated in the presence and absence of the stilbene-derived FWA, 4,4'-bis(2-sulfostyryl)biphenyl (DSBP) and photoproducts were identified using mass spectrometry. Photoyellowing was found to be dependent on the presence of the FWA, attributed to amplified generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. Four key proteinaceous photomodifications contributing directly to photoyellowing were located in irradiated collagen pretreated with DSBP, namely dopa, nitrophenylalanine, nitrotyrosine and nitrohistidine. This represents the first direct characterization of the three nitrated residues in the photoyellowing of an isolated fibrous protein, and implicates the ROS, peroxynitrite, as a key contributor to protein photoyellowing. Direct oxidative modification of the FWA itself was also observed. This study demonstrates that, even in the absence of tryptophan residues, significant photomodification of protein residues leading to chromophore formation occurs in the presence of an FWA. PMID:19709380

  8. [Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in disposable sanitary products by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Wu, Song; Yu, Xi; Yin, Xianggang; Ge, Mingqiao

    2015-02-01

    A method for the determination of four fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) (FWA 357, FWA 220, FWA 204 and FWA 113) in disposable sanitary products by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed. The sample was extracted with a 20 mL ultrapure water by sonication for 30 min at 80 °C. The HPLC method was performed on an SB Phenyl column (250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 µm) by gradient elution using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as mobile phases, which can separate the target analytes successfully. The target analytes showed good linearity in the range of 0. 025-400 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0. 999 9. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N =3) were 0.02-0. 1 mg/L, and the method limits of quantification (MLOQs) were 1. 0 - 5. 0 mg/kg for the target analytes. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by the determination of FWAs in samples with spiked recoveries. The recoveries were in the range between 83. 7% and 101. 0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n=6) ranged from 2. 4% to 7. 0%. This method is simple, and has high recoveries for the determination of FWAs in disposable sanitary products. PMID:25989688

  9. The photoyellowing of stilbene-derived fluorescent whitening agents--mass spectrometric characterization of yellow photoproducts.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jolon M; Cornellison, Charisa D; Bringans, Scott D; Maurdev, George; Millington, Keith R

    2008-01-01

    The application of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) significantly accelerates the photoyellowing of wool and silk under exposure to the ultraviolet and visible components of sunlight <500 nm. The photochemistry involved in this process is poorly understood, particularly the role of photoproducts derived directly from the FWA itself. Hydroxylation was identified as the key initial mechanism of photodegradation leading to coloration of the solution in the irradiation of the stilbene-derived FWA 4,4'-bis(2-sulfostyryl)biphenyl (DSBP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Polyhydroxylated DSBP derivatives were implicated as critical intermediates in the formation of yellow photoproducts under these conditions. The formation of trace quantities of DSBP quinone derivatives subsequent to hydroxylation was identified as the key cause of DSBP photoyellowing. These results are the first successful characterization of yellow photoproducts resulting directly from irradiation of a stilbene-based FWA. Formation of these yellow stilbene-based FWA-derived photoproducts may occur on the surface of FWA-treated wool exposed to simulated sunlight, as previous work has shown that H2O2 is photogenerated when wet FWA-treated wool is exposed to light. These results therefore suggest that yellow FWA-derived photoproducts contribute to the accelerated photoyellowing of FWA-treated wool. PMID:18173714

  10. Photodegradation-based detection of fluorescent whitening agents in a mountain river.

    PubMed

    Assaad, Aziz; Pontvianne, Steve; Pons, Marie-Noëlle

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are highly soluble and poorly biodegradable ingredients used in laundry detergents and in industries (paper, textile, plastic manufacturing). They are likely to pass through biological wastewater treatment systems. The presence of FWAs in a mountain river was detected by monitoring the decay of synchronous fluorescence intensity at λ(ex)=360 nm after exposing samples to ultraviolet (UV) light (365 nm), for mimicking sunlight, for 15 min. The method was first validated on four commercial FWAs (DAS-1, FB28, DMA-X and CBS-X) in different water matrices (deionized water and pristine river water in the presence of humic acid and dyes). A 40% decay was observed after 15 min for the least photosensitive FWA (CBS-X). A field application was then performed on samples collected along a mountain river in which impacts of FWAs from domestic sources (laundry greywater) and industrial sources (paper and textile mills) were suspected. Variations of fluorescence decay at λ(ex)=360 nm could be explained by these potential sources of pollution. It is suggested that the fluorescence decay at λ(ex)=280 nm also be considered as an indicator, as some FWAs can exhibit fluorescence at that excitation wavelength. PMID:24461430

  11. Synthesis, physical properties and cytotoxicity of stilbene-triazine derivatives containing amino acid groups as fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Wan, Maosheng; Zhou, Shaoli; Jiao, Peifu; Cao, Chengbo; Guo, Jing

    2013-09-01

    A series of novel stilbene-triazine derivatives containing amino acid groups were synthesized and screened to evaluate their cytotoxicity. The UV absorptions of the derivatives were in the range of 240-450 nm. The absorption peaks of the cis-isomers and trans-isomers were in 281-291 nm and 353-361 nm, respectively. Their fluorescence emission peaks of the derivatives were located in the range of 400-650 nm. The whiteness data indicated that all the stilbene-triazine-amino acid derivatives showed excellent whitening effect on cotton fiber compared to untreated cotton. The preliminary cytotoxicity of these derivatives on a mouse fibroblast cell line (L-929 cells) was also investigated. The results showed that the compounds (7a-h) were nontoxic to L-929 cells as fluorescent whitening agents. PMID:23748838

  12. Abuse of over-the-counter dextromethorphan by teenagers.

    PubMed

    Murray, S; Brewerton, T

    1993-10-01

    Dextromethorphan, the d-isomer of the opiate agonist levorphanol, has none of the analgesic or sedative effects associated with the opiates and is approved for over-the-counter use as an antitussive. It is available, in various combinations with other medications, in nonprescription cough suppressant and common cold formulations, and its availability in the United States is not controlled. In this paper we have reported two cases of recreational use of dextromethorphan-containing cough syrup by two unrelated teenage boys. Despite the safety of this medication when used at the recommended dosage, there have been cases of "recreational" use of dextromethorphan as well as death by overdose. Although usually thought to be nonaddictive, dextromethorphan produces a substance dependence syndrome, and physicians should be aware of its abuse potential, particularly by youths. PMID:8211334

  13. Understanding the implications of over the counter statin sales.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Michaela

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the UK's biggest killer. While recommending that all patients can benefit from lifestyle interventions, the current guidelines focus pharmacological management on those at high risk. An over the counter (OTC) statin would enable people with moderate (10-15 per cent) CHD risk to take preventive action. Pharmacists would be able to recommend OTC simvastatin to those at moderate risk by following a simple pharmacy protocol to assess a person's risk. A regime of 10 mg simvastatin daily would have a significant impact on both the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level and the CHD risk of those at moderate risk. Cholesterol testing would not be mandatory but would be available in pharmacy to enable people to monitor their progress. PMID:15192918

  14. Best Way to Take Your Over-the-Counter Pain Reliever? Seriously.

    MedlinePlus

    ... best way to take your over-the-counter pain reliever? Seriously. Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print (PDF version - 6MB) Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers/fever reducers (the kind you can buy without ...

  15. [Rapid detection of eight fluorescent whitening agents in textile by ultra performance convergence chromatography].

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Ding, Youchao; Cao, Xizhong; Qi, Yan; Qian, Kai

    2014-11-01

    An accurate quantitative and confirmative method has been developed for the deter- mination of eight fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in textile by ultra performance conver- gence chromatography (UPC2) coupled with photo diode array (PDA) detection, including 1,2-bis (5-methyl-2-benzoxazole) ethylene (PF), 7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin (SWN), 2, 2'-(2,5-thiophenediyl) bis(5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzoxazol (OB), 2-[4-[2-[4-(2-benzox- azolyl) phenyl] ethenyl] phenyl] -5-methyl-benzoxazol (KSN), 1,4-bis (2-cyanostyryl) benzene (ER-I), 1-(2-cyanostyryl)-4-(4-cyanostyryl) benzene (ER-II), 2,2'-(1,4-naphthalenediyl) bis-benzoxazol (KCB), 4,4'-bis[2-(2-methoxyphenyl) ethenyl]-1,1'-biphenyl (FP). The sample was extracted with xylene and concentrated by a rotary evaporator, and then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by UPC2. The separation of target compounds was achieved on an ACQUITY UPC2 HSS C18 SB column (100 mm x 3.0 mm, 1.8 μm) by a gradient elution with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol as mobile phases. External standard method was used for the quantitative determination and the calibration curves showed good linearity in the concentration range of 1.0-20.0 mg/L for the eight target compounds with correlation coefficients not less than 0.999 1. The limits of quantification of the eight compounds (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 0.70-0.95 mg/L. The average recoveries of the eight compounds ranged from 90.9% to 96.5% at the spiked levels of 2.0, 5.0, 10.0 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.8%-4.2%. The method is simple, accurate and time-saving with high sensitivity, and can be used for the rapid determination of the eight FWAs in textile. PMID:25764658

  16. [Removal of fluorescent whitening agent by hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Zhang, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Xia; Jiao, Ru-Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of fluorescent whitening agent VBL in the processes of activated carbon (AC) and activated carbon modified (ACM) adsorptions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon were studied. Mechanism of the above catalytic oxidation was also investigated by adding tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), the free radical scavenger, and detecting the released gases. The results showed that: the activated carbon modified by Fe (NO3)3 (ACM)exhibited better adsorption removal than AC. Catalytic oxidation showed efficient removal of VBL, and the catalytic removal of AC (up to 95%) was significantly higher than that of ACM (58% only). Catalytic oxidation was inhibited by TBA, which indicates that the above reaction involved *OH radicals and atom oxygen generated by hydrogen peroxide with the presence of AC. The results of H2O2 decomposition and released gases detection involved in the process showed that activated carbon enhanced the decomposition of H2O2 which released oxygen and heat. More O2 was produced and higher temperature of the reactor was achieved, which indicated that H2O2 decomposition catalyzed by ACM was significantly faster than that of AC. Combining the results of VBL removal, it could be concluded that the rate of active intermediates (*OH radicals and atom oxygen) production by ACM catalytic reaction was faster than that of AC. These intermediates consumed themselves and produced O2 instead of degrading VBL. It seemed that the improper mutual matching of the forming rate of activating intermediates and the supply rate of reactants was an important reason for the lower efficiency of ACM catalytic reaction comparing with AC. PMID:25158496

  17. Role of photodegradation in the fate of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in lacustrine environments.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Nobuhisa; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Takada, Hideshige

    2010-10-15

    To understand the behavior of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in a lake environment, we measured the quantities of two FWAs, DSBP, and DAS1, in water samples collected monthly from six depths of the water column, in sediment trap sample, and a sediment core sample from Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan, and in sewage, effluent, and river water in the lake's catchment. We conducted a sunlight exposure experiment and developed a method to estimate the degree of photodegradation by using DSBP/DAS1 ratio in environmental samples. The observed seasonal pattern of the vertical distributions of the FWAs in the water column can be explained by stratification of the water, photodegradation in the euphotic zone, the subsurface loading of river water, and their seasonal changes. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio was much lower in the lake water (0.12-0.52) than in sewage (6.4 ± 1.1), indicating intensive photodegradation in rivers and the lake. A mass balance calculation and DSBP/DAS1 ratio demonstrated that ∼95% of DSBP and ∼55% of DAS1 supplied in sewage were photodegraded in inflowing rivers and the lake, and that sedimentation to the lake bottom is insignificant for DSBP and ∼35% for DAS1. More intensive photodegradation of FWAs, especially more photodegradable DSBP, in Lake Biwa than in Greifensee, a lake in Switzerland, was suggested, attributable to the longer residence time of water in and the larger size of Lake Biwa. These results demonstrate that photodegradation is important to the fate of FWAs in lacustrine environments, and that FWAs and the DSBP/DAS1 ratio are useful markers for understanding the role of direct photodegradation in the behavior of water-soluble chemicals in aquatic environments. PMID:20809589

  18. Over-the-counter medicines: professional expertise and consumer discourses.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Fiona A; Leontowitsch, Miranda; Duggan, Catherine

    2008-09-01

    Ideas of participation and partnership in health care consultations have attracted increasing attention in recent years; however the consequences in terms of the necessary shifts in existing relationships are often overlooked. We examine how pharmacists work to maintain their professional expertise against the rise of health-care consumerism. We draw on the following data from a UK study of consultations for over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in two pharmacies: (i) an outline of the pharmacy owners' views of their practice model, (ii) data from observations and tape recorded consultations (iii) interviews with customers and pharmacists and (iv) views expressed in two feedback sessions discussing vignettes developed from observational and interview-based fieldwork. There was no suggestion that attempts to engage customers in discussions about their treatment necessitated a diminution of the importance of pharmaceutical expertise. Indeed, both pharmacists and customers acknowledged the importance of the asymmetry of knowledge between pharmacists and customers. Pharmaceutical expertise was however not always perceived to be necessary and transactions in pharmacies may be treated like those in any other retail environment. Further research using a larger dataset to investigate problems in interactions resulting from tensions between pharmaceutical expertise and consumerism is indicated. PMID:18761511

  19. A review of over-the-counter drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Esmay, J B; Wertheimer, A I

    1979-01-01

    The authors review the extent of the use of nonprescription drugs as well as possible variables influencing such consumption. Various studies indicate that age, sex, personality characteristics, perceptions of health status, socioeconomic factors, parental example, and pharmacists all play parts in determining over-the-counter (OTC) drug utilization. Several sources express concern about the inaccessibility of accurate OTC drug information to the consumer. Indeed, even the FDA has occasional difficulty obtaining reliable facts on both the numbers and formulae of such products. Several studies indicate that consumers acquire information about their home remedies through advertising, friends and relatives, physicians, pharmacists, and product labels. By far the most influential of these is advertising, and much concern has been voiced over consumers' unquestioning faith in drug ads. Examples are cited of deceptive, inaccurate, and unfair advertising practices used by some OTC drug manufacturers. The pros and cons of the "drug-oriented society" theory are discussed, including an analysis of its underlying origins. Testing of the safety and efficacy of nonrescription remedies has proved to be controversial, especially when considering the ramifications of the placebo effect. Different surveys report widespread misuse of OTC's by consumers through overuse, taking several drugs concurrently, and using home remedies to treat potentially serious diseases. PMID:500849

  20. Oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication.

    PubMed

    Halperin, E C

    1994-05-01

    Five physicians debate the pros and cons of changing the prescription requirement for oral contraceptives (OCs) to an over-the-counter (OTC) status. Three of the physicians are in favor of changing the present policy, while the other 2 physicians are in favor of keeping the present policy. Reasons supporting a change to OTC OCs are: the health risks from an unwanted pregnancy are greater than the risks from OC use; the prescription requirement puts an expensive and unnecessary burden on women; and other countries (e.g., India and South Africa) dispense OCs OTC. Reasons for keeping the prescription requirement are: the potential risks of self medication; the possibility of inappropriate use by relatively uninformed patients; and the loss of opportunity for women to obtain a health evaluation, physical examination, and counseling. One family practice physician supports OTC status because this change may reduce the teenage pregnancy rate. She acknowledges, however, that the change will not solve the problem of teenage pregnancy. An advantage of OTC OCs is that women could use them as a postcoital contraceptive. Another physician in favor of OTC status for OCs suggests that the US health department and Planned Parenthood clinics could offer OCs at lower than retail cost to women who undergo an annual health examination. Another physician calls for randomized clinical trials to generate sufficient data to make an informed decision about public and medical policy changes. PMID:8035888

  1. Limits of accuracy obtainable in the direct determination by fluorimetry of fluorescent whitening agents on thin layer chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Anders, G

    1975-01-01

    The quantitative direct determination of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) by thin layer chromatography involves limits of detection of 0.001 to 0.0005 mug. Visual assessment is about ten to a hundred times less sensitive than photometric measurement on thin layer chromatograms. The standard deviations in 10 measurements of two substances with different degrees of light sensitivity for a single measurement with a limit of detection of the order of 0.005 mug were about +/-13% to 44%. In the higher concentrations normally used (0.5 mug), the standard deviations were only +/-5% for both substances. PMID:1064526

  2. [Over the counter drugs--a new era in Israel].

    PubMed

    Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Vaknin, Sharona; Marom, Eli; Shemer, Joshua; Luxenburg, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The reformation in the marketing of non-prescription medicinal products has been launched. As of May 10th 2005, the pharmacist regulations 2004 (marketing of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs outside of pharmacies, as well as not by a pharmacist) will be in effect. This change aLlows the marketing of medicines outside of pharmacies, as has been the custom in the U.S.A., England and some of the European Union countries for many years. This reformation is incorporated in a policy that encourages self-medication by the use of non-prescription drugs. The self-medication policy originates from the point of view of the consumers who wish to be responsible for their own health and save precious time wasted on doctor visits; and the government's assumption that self-medication of OTC medicines by citizens wiLL decrease expenses for the HMOs in both doctor's billings as well as medication costs. In order to regulate the marketing terms of these medicinal products, regulations and complimentary guidelines were written and published. These documents encompass the following issues: the list of OTC medicines, marketing reguLations, packaging regulations, Licensed marketing Locations, storage regulations as well as display regulations, advertising regulations, monitoring and control. The medicinal products in this category only included medicines containing "safe" active ingredients with restrictions regarding the strength/concentration and packaging size; this category does not include medicines requiring special storage conditions (such as refrigeration or freezing), medicines containing an active ingredient that is addictive, medicines containing an active ingredient with danger of poisoning if misused, and medicines containing an active ingredient that has the potential to harm. The implementation of the regulations and guidelines will improve the consumer's ability to diagnose and treat oneself when sick with minor ailments, without consulting a doctor. PMID:21449153

  3. Usage Patterns of Over-the-counter Phenazopyridine (Pyridium)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chih-Wen; Asch, Steven M; Fielder, Eve; Gelberg, Lillian; Brook, Robert H; Leake, Barbara; Shapiro, Martin F; Dowling, Patrick; Nichol, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Little is known about how the public uses formerly prescription medications that are available over-the-counter (OTC). This study examines whether consumers inappropriately use and substitute a recently widely distributed OTC urinary analgesic, phenazopyridine, for provider care. DESIGN/SETTING We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a stratified cluster random sample of OTC phenazopyridine purchasers (N = 434) in 31 Los Angeles retail pharmacies over 5 months. Recruited by shelf advertisements, participants were 18 years or older who purchased a phenazopyridine product. Each completed a 25-item self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Inappropriate use was defined as 1) having medical contraindications to phenazopyridine, or 2) not having concurrent antibiotic and/or provider evaluation for the urinary symptoms. RESULTS The survey response rate was 58%. Fifty-one percent of the respondents used OTC phenazopyridine inappropriately, and 38% substituted it for medical care. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that inappropriate use was correlated with having little time to see a provider (odds ratio [OR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.26 to 1.96), receiving friend's or family's advice (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.47), having prior urinary tract infections (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.80), having used prescription phenazopyridine, (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.63), and having back pain (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.74). Similar correlates were found in those who substituted OTC phenazopyridine for provider care. Respondents with incorrect knowledge about phenazopyridine's mode of action had 1.9 times greater odds of inappropriate use and 2.2 times greater odds of substitution than those who had correct knowledge about this drug. CONCLUSION Inappropriate use of OTC phenazopyridine appears common. Increasing the public's knowledge about reclassified drugs may help to mitigate this problem. PMID:12709095

  4. [A Method for Determination of Migratable Fluorescent Whitening Agents in Paper Products by Dual-Wavelength UV Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Chai, Xin-sheng; Tian, Ying-xin; Chen, Run-quan

    2015-07-01

    The current national standard method GB/T 27741-2011, i.e., "quantitative determination of migratable fluorescent whitening agents-UV spectroscopy", overestimates the migratable fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) in the paper based products because of the spectral interference of the leached lignin from the cellulose fibers. To minimize such interference, a spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength (305 and 348 nm) measurement was proposed. It was observed that the dual-wavelength spectroscopy can effectively subtract the spectral absorption contributed by the leached lignin in the extraction medium, thus more accurately determination of migratable FWA can be performed. The results showed that the present method has a relative standard deviation of 2.17%, the quantitative detection limit of 16.9 mg x kg(-1), and recovery of 98%-103%. Compared with the current alternative standard-HPLC method, the present method possesses advantages of low operation and maintenance costs, simple, and practical in application. Therefore, it is more suitable for the rapid determination of migratable FWA in the product quality control in the production process and sample examination in the commercial market. PMID:26717753

  5. Degradation of a stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agent with hypochlorite: identification of the degradation products by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Jiménez, L; Valverde, I

    2001-10-01

    The E,E-(4,4'-bis[2-sulfostyryl]biphenyl) (DSBP) is a fluorescent whitening agent widely used by the textile and detergent industries to whiten fabrics. Hypochlorite used to bleach fabrics oxidizes DSBP slowly at room temperature and in a higher rate at 60 degrees C. The ions of metals such as Fe, Cu, and Mn accelerate the process considerably. At ambient temperature, the oxidation results from cleavage of the stilbene bonds and involves the formation of various intermediates that evolve to end products. The intermediates form within minutes to hours and the end products within months. At 60 degrees C or in presence of the previously mentioned transition metals, intermediates form within minutes and the end products within days. The end products of the oxidation are 4-sulfobenzaldehyde and 4,4'-bisaldehyde biphenyl; in the presence of excess of hypochlorite, however, the process yields their corresponding oxidized derivatives 4-sulfobenzoic acid and 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid. Despite the chlorinating ability of hypochlorite, the major degradation products formed contain no chlorine. PMID:11596750

  6. Hispanic youth involvement in over-the-counter drug use: parent, peer, and school factors.

    PubMed

    Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Fehr, Sara K

    2014-01-01

    Research on substance use among Hispanic youth is lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine over-the-counter drug use among Hispanic youth. Of Hispanic youth, 23.9% used an over-the-counter drug for the purpose of getting high. Involvement in prosocial behaviors was correlated with decreased over-the-counter use for females and high school students. Involvement in risky behaviors increased the risk of use for males, females, junior high school students, and high school students. Significant differences were found based on parent, peer, teacher, and school factors. Prevention and intervention programs should address over-the-counter drug use among Hispanic youth. PMID:25310268

  7. Ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of eleven fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Xianbo; Qiu, Bin; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Juan; Luo, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, 11 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents with different numbers of sulfonic acid groups were separated by using an ionic liquid as a mobile phase additive in high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The effects of ionic liquid concentration, pH of mobile phase B, and composition of mobile phase A on the separation of fluorescent whitening agents were systematically investigated. The ionic liquid tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate is superior to tetrabutylammomnium bromide for the separation of the fluorescent whitening agents. The optimal separation conditions were an ionic liquid concentration at 8 mM and the pH of mobile phase B at 8.5 with methanol as mobile phase A. The established method exhibited low limits of detection (0.04-0.07 ng/mL) and wide linearity ranges (0.30-20 ng/mL) with high linear correlation coefficients from 0.9994 to 0.9998. The optimized procedure was applied to analyze target analytes in paper samples with satisfactory results. Eleven target analytes were quantified, and the recoveries of spiked paper samples were in the range of 85-105% with the relative standard deviations from 2.1 to 5.1%. The obtained results indicated that the method was efficient for detection of 11 fluorescent whitening agents. PMID:26843408

  8. Enhanced effect of fluorescent whitening agent on peroral infection for recombinant baculovirus in the host Bombyx mori L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Shang, Jinyan; Liu, Xunli; Cui, Weizheng; Wu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Na

    2007-01-01

    The low efficiency of the oral infectivity of recombinant polyhedrin-negative baculovirus is a major bottleneck in the application of the baculovirus expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori L). In this study, the effects of a fluorescent whitening agent on improving the oral infection for the recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus in silkworm larva and their possible mechanism were investigated. The results showed that the peroral infection can be remarkably enhanced by adding VBL into the larval artificial diet. The maximum infection rate reached as high as 90% with the concentration of VBL (1%), which was then considered as optimal. The total protease activity and pH value of the larval intestinal juice were found to be lower when compared to the control, indicating an abnormal physiological change of the larval digestive system by VBL, which, in turn, resulted in improved peroral infection of recombinant virus. PMID:17160363

  9. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  10. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food...

  11. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  12. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  13. 21 CFR 201.315 - Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats... Drug Products § 201.315 Over-the-counter drugs for minor sore throats; suggested warning. The Food and... anesthetic, chewing gum containing aspirin, various mouth washes and gargles and other articles sold over...

  14. Whitening of textiles.

    PubMed

    Hefti, H

    1975-01-01

    In the textile field, fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) can be used on practically all types of goods at any stage in the finishing process. As examples, three important types of methods for applying FWAs to textiles have been outlined. PMID:1064548

  15. HPLC-UV Method for the Identification and Screening of Hydroquinone, Ethers of Hydroquinone and Corticosteroids Possibly Used as Skin-Whitening Agents in Illicit Cosmetic Products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bancilhon, Marjorie; Lassu, Nelly; Gornes, Hervé; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids, hydroquinone and its ethers are regulated in cosmetics by the Regulation 1223/2009. As corticosteroids are forbidden to be used in cosmetics and cannot be present as contaminants or impurities, an identification of one of these illicit compounds deliberately introduced in these types of cosmetics is enough for market survey control. In order to quickly identify skin-whitening agents present in illegal cosmetics, this article proposes an HPLC-UV method for the identification and screening of hydroquinone, 3 ethers of hydroquinone and 39 corticosteroids that may be found in skin-whitening products. Two elution gradients were developed to separate all compounds. The main solvent gradient (A) allows the separation of 39 compounds among the 43 compounds considered in 50 min. Limits of detection on skin-whitening cosmetics are given. For compounds not separated, a complementary gradient elution (B) using the same solvents is proposed. Between 2004 and 2009, a market survey on "skin-whitening cosmetic" was performed on 150 samples and highlights that more than half of the products tested do not comply with the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009 (amending the Council Directive 76/768/EEC). PMID:26462503

  16. Checklist for Choosing Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicine for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    Checklist for Choosing Over-the-Counter (0TC) Medicine for Adults Information I need before going to the store: Problems(s) or symptoms(s) to be treated:_______________________________________________________ ...

  17. Readability and comprehensibility of over-the-counter medication labels.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Hariprasad; Trivedi, Akshaya; Hannan, Mary F

    2014-04-01

    Nonprescription medications are relatively safe, but not risk-free and can lead to serious adverse events, particularly if used contrary to directions or without attention to depicted warnings. The question arises whether the information presented on the product label is readable and comprehensible to the average lay person. We examined the product labels of nonprescription medications for readability and comprehensibility characteristics using the Flesch-Kincaid method. The Flesch-Kincaid reading ease scores and grade level scores were derived. We further validated the grade level scores using the Gunning-Fog method. Qualitative assessment of select labels found severe deficiencies such as poor organization and inundation with technical terms. By quantitative assessment the average reading ease score of 40 nonprescription medication labels (including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antacids, laxative preparations, anti-allergy medications, H-2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, sleep aids, an antiasthmatic, and cough and cold remedies) was 38 ± 12. The average Flesch-Kincaid grade level score was 16 ± 5. All labels except one were at reading grade level greater than the eighth grade. The average grade level of education necessary to understand the material according to the Gunning-Fog method was 17 ± 5 and all labels were above the eighth grade reading level. Nonprescription medication labels are written in a language that is not comprehensible to the average member of the general public. There is a need for considerable improvement in the readability of these labels. PMID:24456020

  18. Preformulation and formulation of newly synthesized QNT3-18 for development of a skin whitening agent.

    PubMed

    Ki, Do-Hyung; Jung, Hyun-Chan; Noh, Young-Wook; Thanigaimalai, Pillaiyar; Kim, Bong-Hee; Shin, Sang-Chul; Jung, Sang-Hun; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2013-04-01

    New molecules having the structure of (E)-2-(4-tert-butylbenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (QNT3-18) or 4-tert-butylphenylthiourea (QNT3-20) was synthesized and presupposed to inhibit melanogenesis through the inhibition of tyrosinase, which is involved in melanin formation. Therefore, we seek to develop these new molecules as skin whitening agents in topical formulations based on preformulation studies. QNT3-18 or QNT3-20 showed a strong single endothermic peak at 159.34°C with 10.79 μm-sized or at 150.69°C with 9.0 μm-sized aggregated particles, respectively. Both QNT3-18 and QNT3-20 did not show cytotoxicity at effective concentration range (0.4 µM) against keratinocyte cells and QNT3-18 was more retained than QNT3-20 in the skin instead of permeating through the skin. QNT3-18 or QNT3-20 was practically insoluble in water; the aqueous solubility was 3.8 ± 0.37 or 130.6 ± 2.52 μg/mL, respectively. Also, the partition coefficient value (log P) corresponding to the quotient between aqueous and octanol concentration of the molecule was 3.9 or 2.6, respectively. The skin retention amount of QNT3-18 was 1.7-fold higher than that of QNT3-20. When the optimal SLN cream (J3 formulation) containing 4 μM QNT3-18 was applied on the backs of hairless rats for 4 days after UV irradiation for 7 days and the skin color was checked by reflectance spectrophotometer, the rat skin treated with SLN cream with QNT3-18 quickly recovered to normal compared to skin treated with SLN cream without QNT3-18. Taken together, this study suggests that topical formulations such as creams including SLNs with QNT3-18 might be appropriate carriers for skin whitening agents. PMID:22670797

  19. Assessing the relationship between pharmacists' job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling at community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta

    2016-04-01

    Background Community pharmacies have an increasing role in self-medication and community health is dependent on the quality of counselling services provided to patients. Some studies show that pharmacists' job satisfaction affects their work quality; other studies found that higher involvement in clinical services increases pharmacists' job satisfaction. Objective To test the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling practice at community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacies in Lithuania. Method A convenience sample (n = 305) of community pharmacists participated in the cross-sectional survey where they expressed satisfaction with job and reported on their over-the-counter counselling behaviour on self-report scales. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling approach was employed for data analysis. Main outcome measure The strength of the relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service. Results A bidirectional relationship between job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling service was found. In addition, job satisfaction and over-the-counter counselling quality depended on pharmacists' age. Conclusion Organizations were recommended to create a counselling friendly environment that would increase pharmacists' job satisfaction and, in return, counselling quality. Also, additional motivation of the retired pharmacists, as well as development of counselling skills of the younger pharmacy workforce, were seen as a means to improve both organizational climate and counselling quality over the counter. PMID:26666908

  20. [Determination of four fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergents by solid phase extraction combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Luo, Haiying; Wu, Yuluan; Chen, Yiguang; Luo, Donghui; Wu, Wenhai

    2013-02-01

    A new method was established to determine three stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWA351, FWA85, FWA28 and FWA71) in laundry detergents by solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD). The fluorescent whitening agents were extracted from laundry detergents with 2% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol, and purified by WAX SPE column, and analyzed by UPLC-DAD on a Phenomenex Synergi Max-RP column (150 mm x 2.0 mm), employing acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate as the mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The fluorescent whitening agents were qualitatively determined by retention time, and confirmed by the ultraviolet spectrum. The results indicated that the target analytes were in the range of 0.05-180 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0. 999 3, and the method limits of quantification (MLOQ) of target analytes were ranged from 1.5 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg (S/N = 10). The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by the determination of FWAs in samples with spiked recoveries. The recoveries were in the range between 84.9% and 105%, and the precision (relative standard deviation, RSD) ranged from 3.2% to 6.1% (n = 6). Among the 15 samples analyzed, the rate of positive samples was 53.3%, over 1 000 mg/kg of FWA351 and FWA71 were detected. The method is simple, precise and has high recoveries for the determination of fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergent samples. PMID:23697183

  1. Measurement of the uptake of a 14C-labelled fluorescent whitening agent by fish from water and through a model food chain.

    PubMed

    Feron, J P; Hitz, H R

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory technique is described which simulates the uptake of a fluorescent whitening agent by fish directly from the water and indirectly through a model food chain. The use of radioactive labelled material enables the direct and indirect uptake and possible accumulation of the compounds to be measured quantitatively. The results are expressed as concentration factors. Between ecological and toxicological data a safety relationship is established. PMID:1064532

  2. 21 CFR 310.534 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use as oral wound healing agents. 310.534 Section 310.534 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific...

  3. Pilot trials with a fluorescent whitening agent of the bis(triazoly) stilbene-disulfonic acid type in golden orfes.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, B; Maul, W; Patzschke, K; Theidel, H; Wegner, L A

    1975-01-01

    Golden orfes were examined for uptake, distribution, and elimination of radioactivity administered in the form of a 14C-labelled fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) of the bis(triazolyl)stilbenedisulfonic acid type. Results of these studies are given below. Pilot trials using FWA concentrations of 10 and 100 ppb and a population density of 1 fish per liter show that an equilibrium between uptake and elimination of the FWA develops in the animals within a period of one week; i.e., the incorporated traces of the FWA are not irreversibly bound. The radioactivity is mainly located in the gall bladder and in the intestinal contents, as well as in the liver, throat, and gills. The muscular system (filet) is virtually free from activity. Approximately 1-2% of the FWA amount administered per animal (corresponding to the concentration factors of 7-14) can be temporarily detected in the fish. Radioactivity is eliminated comparatively quickly. Two days following the transfer of the fish into water free from FWA a concentration factor as low as 1 is reached, i.e. from this time the FWA concentration in the animals decreases to less than 10 resp. 100 ppb. PMID:1064533

  4. [Adsorption of the TiO2 @ yeast composite microspheres for adsorbing Fluorescent Whitening Agent-VBL in fixed bed].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fei; Zhang, Kai-Qiang; Bai, Bo; Wang, Hong-Lun; Suo, You-Rui

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption potential of TiO2@ yeast composite microspheres to remove Fluorescent Whitening Agent-VBL (FWA-VBL) from aqueous solution was investigated using fixed-bed adsorption column. The effects of pH(2.0-8.0), bed height (1-3 cm), inlet concentration (20-80 mg x L(-1)) and feed flow rate (5-11 mL x min(-1)) on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were determined. The results showed that the highest bed capacity of 223.80 mg x g(-1) was obtained under the condition of pH 2.0, 80 mg x L(-1) inlet dye concentration, 1.0 cm bed height and 5 mL x min(-1) flow rate. The adsorption data were fitted to three well-established fixed-bed adsorption models, namely, BDST model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model. The results fitted well to the three models with coefficients of correlation R2 > 0.980 in different conditions. The TiO2 @ yeast composite microspheres have desired regeneration ability and could be reused for four times. PMID:26031081

  5. Organic pollutant removal versus toxicity reduction in industrial wastewater treatment: the example of wastewater from fluorescent whitening agent production.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie; Escher, Beate I; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2006-05-15

    Industrial wastewater treatment in the chemical industry aims at eliminating organic contaminants, as these pollutants may be persistent and ecotoxic. In a case study performed in collaboration with the chemical industry, we investigated the removal of a fluorescent whitening agent and its side products in the wastewater-treatment system. Adsorption to activated carbon and biological treatment were simulated in laboratory tests. Algae toxicity tests were performed to quantify the toxicity of the wastewater mixture and of single components. The contaminants identified accounted for up to 82% of the wastewater's total organic carbon (TOC). Adsorption to activated carbon eliminated the TOC and the single contaminants only slightly. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the wastewater decreased by 40%. In contrast, biological treatment reduced the TOC by up to 80%, and the whole effluent toxicity increased. These results indicate that new ecotoxic metabolites were formed during the biological treatment. They also illustrate that mere reduction of the TOC in the wastewater-treatment system is not sufficient for ensuring a reduction of environmental impact. Therefore, simultaneously conducting TOC measurements and toxicity tests, as demonstrated in the current work, is recommended. PMID:16749712

  6. Combined advanced oxidation and biodegradation of industrial effluents from the production of stilbene-based fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Hörsch, Philip; Speck, Andreas; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2003-06-01

    Three different industrial wastewaters from the production of stilbene-based fluorescent whitening agents were investigated with regard to the applicability of advanced oxidation processes combined with biodegradation. Oxidation processes included the application of ozone, hydrogen peroxide, UV-radiation and Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)). Characterization of the combined chemical-biological treatment was done by sum parameters and HPLC analysis. In addition, toxicity was determined using the luminescence inhibition test. Results showed that processes producing OH-radicals without the need of UV-irradiation proved to be suited for the oxidation of all three wastewaters. H(2)O(2)/UV processes were ineffective due to the high inner filter effect of the effluents. Comparing the combined oxidative-biological process with biological treatment, the applied pre-oxidation steps did not always lead to a significant improvement of the biological degradation. In one case, an inverted treatment starting with biodegradation followed by oxidation turned out to be the preferable procedure. After oxidation with ozone or ozone combined with UV-irradiation, an increase in toxicity was partly observed indicating the formation of toxic intermediate products. In some cases samples had to be diluted before the biodegradation step to achieve a better biodegradability. PMID:12753853

  7. Subcritical water and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction of fluorescent whitening agents and azo dyes in paper samples.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, Mario; Batlle, Ramón; Salafranca, Jesús; Nerín, Cristina

    2005-02-01

    Two low-volume solvent continuous extraction methods are applied to the extraction of paper matrices. In the methods reported here, a complex mixture of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) and azo dyes (AZOs) used in paper materials intended to come into contact with foodstuffs was extracted by using subcritical water extraction (SWE) and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE). Rationale for the work is based upon migration concerns of these groups of analytes from the packaging to the packaged items, thus compromising their subjective and/or objective quality. In SWE, sample was extracted in 21 min with 0.5 mL of water, whereas the DSASE method required 11 min and used 7 mL of water. DSASE was further developed by incorporating an organic modifier in order to change water polarity, thus improving extraction of moderately polar analytes. This way, modified-DSASE used a total organic volume of 0.9 mL which represents a reduction of 200 times in organic solvent consumption (200 mL versus approximately 1.0 mL) and 11 times in extraction time (2h versus 11 min) compared to the existing methods. SWE was able to extract only 9 out of 12 test analytes with average recoveries between 10 and 25% whereas modified-DSASE succeed in extracting all the target analytes with an average recovery of 89%. Complete discussion and explanation concerning these differences are provided in the text. PMID:15739881

  8. Performance and membrane fouling characteristics of a combined biofilm and membrane bioreactor for treatment of fluorescent whitening agent wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhiwei; Du, Ping; Yang, Shangyuan; Li, Xin; Qian, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    A full-scale system, composed of one anoxic fixed biofilm reactor, four oxic fixed biofilm reactors and an activated sludge membrane bioreactor, was used to treat heavily organic loaded, high toxic and saline fluorescent whitening agent wastewater. This system was running steady during the experimental period of three months. Treatment performance and membrane fouling characteristics were investigated. The concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+, NO3- and total nitrogen (TN) in effluent were 447, 27, 14 and 114 mg L(-1), corresponding to the removal rates of 89%, 76%, 68% and 64%, respectively. A series of analyses, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and protein and polysaccharide concentration measurements, represented that the sludge layer formed on the membrane surface contained both organic and inorganic foulants. Polysaccharides in bound extracellullar polymeric substances in mixed liquor were the main contributor to membrane fouling. Off-line tap water rinsing was proved to be a cost-effective method of fouling control. PMID:24701941

  9. Development and validation of a fast chromatographic method for screening and quantification of legal and illegal skin whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2013-09-01

    During the last years, the EU market is flooded by illegal cosmetics via the Internet and a so-called "black market". Among these, skin-bleaching products represent an important group. They contain, according to the current European cosmetic legislation (Directive 76/768/EEC), a number of illegal active substances including hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. These may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. To control this market there is a need for a fast screening method capable of detecting illegal ingredients in the wide variety of existing bleaching cosmetic formulations. In this paper the development and validation of an ultra high pressure liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method is described. The proposed method makes use of a Waters Acquity BEH shield RP18 column with a gradient using 25 mM ammonium borate buffer (pH 10) and acetonitrile. This method is not only able to detect the major illegal (hydroquinone, tretinoin and six dermatologic active corticosteroids) and legal whitening agents, the latter having restrictions with respect to concentration and application (kojic acid, arbutin, nicotinamide and salicylic acid), but can also quantify these in a run time of 12 min. The method was successfully validated using the "total error" approach in accordance with the validation requirements of ISO-17025. During the validation a variety of cosmetic matrices including creams, lotions and soaps were taken into consideration. PMID:23708434

  10. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  11. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. 310.532 Section... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign... the ingredient sabal have been present in over-the-counter (OTC) drug products to relieve the...

  12. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. 310.532 Section... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign... the ingredient sabal have been present in over-the-counter (OTC) drug products to relieve the...

  13. Mass whitening of synthetic fibers and plastics.

    PubMed

    Wieber, A

    1975-01-01

    The evaluation of new and improved techniques has led to the development of mass whitening methods for use with synthetic fibers and plastics. The processes are complex but well defined, and call for the use of sophisticated fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) to meet the requirements of the fiber or plastics manufacturer, the textile finisher, and the end user. The performances of some leading commercial whiteners are compared and their interactions with dyes, fillers and stabilizers are discussed. PMID:1064550

  14. Effect of fluorescent whitening agent on the transcription of cell damage-related genes in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Han, Ju-Hee; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Chang, Seo-Na; Ko, Ae-Sun; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Cho-Rong; Seo, Ji-Eun; Byun, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Hak

    2012-09-01

    7-Diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin (DEMC) is a fluorescent whitening agent (FWAs). There have been some studies on DEMC's protective effects against biological activity but there are few papers about the in vivo toxicity of DEMC. In this study, we used wild-type zebrafish embryos 3 days post fertilization (dpf). Test solutions with DEMC concentrations were negative control (without vehicle), 0 (with vehicle, 0.01% v/v ethanol), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 and 2 ppm. Embryos and larvae were counted for survival rate and hatching rate. Heart rates were also counted at 2.5 and 3.0 dpf. At 3.0 dpf, quantitative RT-PCR was performed with some samples (0, 0.25, 0.75 and 1.25 ppm) to determine the toxic effect to DEMC by detecting the expression levels of toxic-responsive genes. We used 11 genes, which included oxidative stress-related genes [sod(Mn), sod(Cu,Zn) and hsp70], mitochondrial metabolism-related genes (coxI, pyc, cyt and cyclinG1) and apoptosis-related genes (c-jun, bcl2, bax and p53). High-concentration DEMC-treated groups showed significant different survival rate, hatching rate and heart rate compared with low-concentration DEMC-treated groups. The LC50 of this chemical, 0.959 ppm, was calculated. We also confirmed that some genes in the DEMC exposure groups showed significantly up-regulations in expression levels compared with control groups. We concluded that the fluorescence agent, DEMC, has possible developmental toxicities and alteration effect of gene expression, which are related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial metabolism and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. PMID:21538407

  15. "Just Advil": Harm reduction and identity construction in the consumption of over-the-counter medication for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Emery R

    2015-12-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing has sparked ongoing debate concerning whether ads empower consumers to be agents of their own care or shift greater control to the pharmaceutical industry. Ads for over-the-counter (OTC) medications in particular portend to offer simple, harmless solutions for meeting the demands of social life. Rather than join the longstanding debate between consumer agency and social control in pharmaceutical advertising, I approach self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics using Harm Reduction as a framework. From this perspective, consumption of OTC analgesics by chronic pain sufferers is a means of seeking some level of relief while also avoiding the stigma associated with prescription pain medication. Qualitative methods are used to analyze data from two sources: (1) semi-structured qualitative interviews with 95 participants in a trial examining the effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) from 2006 to 2011 in Tucson, AZ and Portland, OR; and (2) print, online, and television advertisements for three major brands of OTC pain medication. Participants described their use of OTC medications as minimal, responsible, and justified by the severity of their pain. OTC medication advertising, while ostensibly ambiguous and targeting all forms of pain, effectively lends support to the consumption of these medications as part of the self-projects of chronic pain sufferers, allowing them to reconcile conflicting demands for pain relief while being stoic and maintaining a positive moral identity. Describing OTC medication as "just over-the-counter" or "not real pain medication," sufferers engage in ideological harm reduction, distinguishing themselves from "those people who like taking pain medication" while still seeking relief. Justifying one's use of OTC medication as minimal and "normal," regardless of intake, avoids association with the addictive potential of prescription pain medications and

  16. Over-the-counter self-medication leading to intracranial hypertension in a young lady.

    PubMed

    Ramana Reddy, A M; Prashanth, L K; Sharat Kumar, G G; Chandana, G; Jadav, Rakesh

    2014-10-01

    Intracranial hypertension (idiopathic-IIH and secondary) is a potentially treatable condition. Although various factors such as female gender and obesity, certain drugs have been implicated as risk factors for IIH, there remains a lack of clarity in the exact causal-effect relationship. In India, self-medication by obtaining drugs over the counter due to lack of adequate drug regulation and ignorance of the public is a very common practice with a potential for severe adverse effects. We present a case of a young lady who has developed intracranial hypertension possibly due to self-medication with steroids and cyproheptadine, obtained over the counter. PMID:25288841

  17. History of whitening.

    PubMed

    Anliker, R

    1975-01-01

    Man's earliest endeavours to enhance the brightness of white objects in everyday use, especially clothing, led to the invention of various bleaching processes. KRAIS'S discovery in 1929 that the natural substance esculin could be applied to textiles to give whites of unprecedented brilliance led to the industrial development of fluorescent whitening agents (FWA's). The limited effectiveness of esculin, a glycoside of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin prompted research which led to the synthesis of other compounds of the same class, many of which have proved useful as whiteners; though the really broad developments of the 1940's stemmed from the synthesis of the 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'disulfonic acid derivatives which are sill the most important groups of FWAs. PMID:776605

  18. Fluorescent whitening agents in Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers: their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Managaki, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2002-08-15

    Two kinds of stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agents (i.e., DSBP and DAS1), minor components of laundry detergents, were analyzed in surface waters of Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers and in sewage effluents to examine their usefulness as molecular markers in the marine environment. Sensitive determination using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) with fluorescence detection with postcolumn UV radiator was employed. DSBP and DAS1 were found in Tokyo rivers at concentrations of a few microg/L and approximately 1 microg/L, respectively. DSBP and DAS1 were widely distributed in Tokyo Bay waters at concentrations in the range of 0.019-0.264 microg/L and 0.021-0.127 microg/L, respectively. Comparison of these concentrations with those in sewage effluents (DSBP: 8 microg/L and DAS1: 2.5 microg/L on average) yielded sewage dilutions in Tokyo Bay on the order of 10(2). FWAs-salinity diagram in the Tamagawa Estuary showed fairly conservative behaviors of the FWAs with approximately 20% and approximately 10% removal of DSBP and DAS1, respectively. This is thought to be caused by photodegradation. The persistent nature of FWAs and their widespread distribution in coastal environments demonstrates the utility of FWAs in tracing the behavior of water from rivers and sewage outfalls. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio showed a decreasing trend from sewage effluents, to rivers, to Tokyo Bay, indicating selective photodegradation of DSBP. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio is proposed as an index of the degree of photodegradation and residence time and freshness of water mass in coastal environments. PMID:12214649

  19. Determination of detergent-derived fluorescent whitening agent isomers in lake sediments and surface waters by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stoll, J M; Giger, W

    1997-07-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of three different fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in lake sediments and surface waters is described. Stereoisomers of the two main laundry detergent FWAs of the diaminostilbene type (DAS 1) and of the distyrylbiphenyl type (DSBP), as well as total BLS (a compound contained in detergents until a few years ago), were quantitated in sediments and water from Greifensee, a small lake in Switzerland. The freeze-dried sediments were extracted in an ultrasonic bath using methanol with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate as an ion-pairing reagent. Aqueous samples were extracted with C18 extraction disks, which were subsequently eluted by methanol with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate. Both extracts from solid and aqueous samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fluorescence detection was applied after postcolumn UV irradiation. Analytical reproducibility ranged from 1 to 12% (relative standard deviation). Limits of quantitation were 1-11 μg/kg of dry matter and 0.2-3 ng/L for solid and aqueous samples, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 93 to 100% and from 87 to 95% in solid and aqueous samples, respectively. Concentrations of DAS 1 and DSBP ranged from 0.4 to 1.4 mg/kg of dry matter in top sediment layers and from 12 to 98 ng/L in lake water. Concentrations of BLS were between 0.02 and 0.08 mg/kg of dry matter in top sediment layers and <0.2 ng/L in lake water. PMID:21639395

  20. Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: Facts, myths, evidence and controversies.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Sidharth; Daulatabad, Deepashree; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol-tripeptide that plays a prominent role in maintaining intracellular redox balance. In addition to its remarkable antioxidant properties, the discovery of its antimelanogenic properties has led to its promotion as a skin-lightening agent. It is widely used for this indication in some ethnic populations. However, there is a dichotomy between evidence to support its efficacy and safety. The hype around its depigmentary properties may be a marketing gimmick of pharma-cosmeceutical companies. This review focuses on the various aspects of glutathione: its metabolism, mechanism of action and the scientific evidence to evaluate its efficacy as a systemic skin-lightening agent. Glutathione is present intracellularly in its reduced form and plays an important role in various physiological functions. Its skin-lightening effects result from direct as well as indirect inhibition of the tyrosinase enzyme and switching from eumelanin to phaeomelanin production. It is available in oral, parenteral and topical forms. Although the use of intravenous glutathione injections is popular, there is no evidence to prove its efficacy. In fact, the adverse effects caused by intravenous glutathione have led the Food and Drug Administration of Philippines to issue a public warning condemning its use for off-label indications such as skin lightening. Currently, there are three randomized controlled trials that support the skin-lightening effect and good safety profile of topical and oral glutathione. However, key questions such as the duration of treatment, longevity of skin-lightening effect and maintenance protocols remain unanswered. More randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size, long-term follow-up and well-defined efficacy outcomes are warranted to establish the relevance of this molecule in disorders of hyperpigmentation and skin lightening. PMID:27088927

  1. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-3 - Qualifying over-the-counter options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualifying over-the-counter options. 1.1092(c)-3 Section 1.1092(c)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-3 Qualifying...

  2. Implementing an Over-the-Counter Medication Administration Policy in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lori S.; Keele, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    A major focus of school nursing interventions is to improve school attendance. In many schools, parents are required to leave work and/or to arrange transportation to bring their children over-the-counter medicines. Many times these children went home, missing class and making it difficult to keep up with class work. The purpose of this study was…

  3. Over-the-Counter Data's Impact on Educators' Data Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions, but research also contains evidence many educators incorrectly interpret student data. Meanwhile, the types of detailed labeling on over-the-counter medication have been shown to improve use of "non"-medication products, as well. However, data systems most…

  4. Over-the-Counter Data's Impact on Educators' Data Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions, but research also contains evidence many educators incorrectly interpret student data. Meanwhile, the types of detailed labeling on over-the-counter medication have been shown to improve use of non-medication products, as well. However, data systems most educators use…

  5. 78 FR 57623 - TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    .... On June 15, 2007, the Department of Defense published a notice in the Federal Register (FR) (72 FR..., the Department published a notice in the FR (74 FR 66626- 66627) on December 16, 2009 that extended... of the Secretary TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project AGENCY: Office of the...

  6. Parent, Teacher, and School Factors Associated with Over-the-Counter Drug Use among Multiracial Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Over-the-counter (OTC) drug use is an increasing health issue among adolescents. Purpose: This study investigated OTC drug use among 7th through 12th grade multiracial students in one metropolitan area. Methods: A total of 2134 students completed the PRIDE Questionnaire, which examines alcohol and other drug use. Results: A total of…

  7. Developing a Nursing Protocol for Over-the-Counter Medications in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awbrey, Lucinda Mejdell; Juarez, Sandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Management of medications in school is one of the critical roles that school nurses carry out in the school setting. In recent years, parents have come to question the medication procedures that school districts follow. Parents question why a physician's order is required for school personnel to provide over-the-counter (OTC) medications to their…

  8. Drug Knowledge (Prescription, Over-the-Counter, Social): Young Adult Consumers at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupka, Lawrence R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed knowledge of 561 young adults concerning use and effects of various over-the-counter, prescription, and social drug products. College student respondents correctly answered, on the average, 71% of the questions on the Drug Knowledge Test, with women demonstrating somewhat greater knowledge than men. Suggests using this instrument in drug…

  9. Exploring Ovulation & Pregnancy Using Over-the-Counter Products: A Novel Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venditti, Jennifer J.; Surmacz, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students explore the complex hormonal regulation of the female reproductive cycle using inexpensive ovulation and pregnancy detection kits that are readily available over the counter. This hands-on activity engages students in the practice of doing science as highlighted by the "National Science Education Standards." The…

  10. Facile synthesis of α-Fe2O3@ porous hollow yeast-based carbonaceous microspheres for fluorescent whitening agent-VBL wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pei; Tong, Zhiqing; Bai, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (PHCMs) fabricated from yeast cells by hydrothermal treatment have stimulated interest because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. Herein, the functionalizations of PHCMs by further coating of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles onto the surface were carried out. The structure of resulted α-Fe2O3@PHCMs products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET specific surface area measurements (BET), respectively. Its promising application was evaluated by the Fenton-like degradation of fluorescent whitening agent-VBL from aqueous solutions.

  11. Over the counter drugs. The interface between the community pharmacist and patients.

    PubMed

    Bond, C M; Bradley, C

    1996-03-23

    Pharmacists play an important part in primary health care, and their accessibility is a key factor. Their NHS payments relate predominantly to the dispensing of prescribed medicines; to recognise the service element of their advisory role, an NHS funded professional fee could be built into the cost structure for pharmacy medicines. The increased number of medicines available over the counter has highlighted the need for training for counter assistants; it will become compulsory in July 1996, and some family health services authorities are providing this. The shift to care in the community could mean that pharmacists will have an even greater role in the primary health care team. Encouraging the public to seek advice from the community pharmacist may lead to a greater proportion of visits to doctors resulting from referrals from the pharmacist. Joint development by pharmacists and doctors of guidelines for advice on, and recommendation of, over the counter medicines is needed. PMID:8605465

  12. Asthma medications should be available for over-the-counter use: pro.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Joe K; Wechsler, Michael E; Martinez, Fernando D

    2014-07-01

    Medications that provide quick relief of symptoms and that control airway inflammation are the mainstays of asthma treatment. However, adherence to these medications is suboptimal. The inconvenience and costs associated with obtaining these prescription-only medications are factors that contribute to poor adherence. The Food and Drug Administration recently requested public comment on a new paradigm whereby specific prescription-only medications could be made available over the counter, provided that conditions for their safe use could be established. Many organizations expressed opposition, including the American Thoracic Society and other societies representing patients with respiratory diseases. These organizations cited unsubstantiated benefits and unnecessary risks as reasons to oppose greater over-the-counter availability of current prescription-only medications. This article examines the rationale for, and potential ramifications of, making asthma medications available for nonprescription use. PMID:24964037

  13. Overdose in infant caused by over-the-counter cough medicine.

    PubMed

    Pugach, Sofya; Pugach, Isaac Z

    2009-04-01

    Each year consumers purchase about 95 million units of over-the-counter medications for pediatric use, an unsafe application that can cause life-threatening effects. Despite a warning from the Food and Drug Administration, many parents or caregivers continue to administer these remedies to children. This report describes the case of a 4-month-old infant presenting to the emergency department with acute life-threatening intoxication including altered mental status, impaired coordination of movements, as well as a positive urine drug test for phencyclidine and an elevated serum ethanol level. Further evaluation uncovered that the actual reason for all clinical symptoms and laboratory test results was over-the-counter cough syrup. PMID:19279531

  14. The Use of Over-The-Counter Medications to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A J; Stillwell, M E

    2010-01-01

    Over-the-counter drugs are medications that are available without the requirement of a prescription. They are considered relatively safe and well-tolerated when taken in accordance with the dosing instructions on the package label. However, when taken alone or in combination with other drugs, they possess pharmacological properties that have the potential to facilitate sexual assault. This chapter reviews the chemistry and pharmacology of these drugs. Additionally, a brief overview of analytical methodology is presented. PMID:26242457

  15. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives. 310.519 Section 310.519 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.519 Drug products...

  16. Over-the-counter enzyme supplements: what a clinician needs to know.

    PubMed

    Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Bauer, Brent A; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-09-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) enzyme use is increasing in frequency in the United States. The numerous health benefit claims by manufacturers are leading to a surge in enzyme use for various conditions and symptoms. Clinicians need to help patients navigate this complex realm and make informed decisions about the use of OTC enzymes. This review focuses on key concepts for health care providers to understand the current evidence, risks, and benefits of OTC enzymes. PMID:25103998

  17. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives. 310.519 Section 310.519 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.519 Drug products...

  18. Periconceptional Over-the-Counter Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Exposure and Risk for Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Aldridge, Tiara; Baird, Donna D.; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Savitz, David A.; Hartmann, Katherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure during the early first-trimester and risk for spontaneous abortion (gestation prior to 20 weeks) in a prospective cohort. Methods Women were enrolled in the Right from the Start study (2004–2010). Exposure data regarding over-the-counter NSAID use from the last menstrual period through the 6th week of pregnancy were obtained from intake and first-trimester interviews. Pregnancy outcomes were self-reported and verified by medical records. Gestational age was determined from last menstrual period. Stage of development prior to loss was determined from study ultrasound. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between NSAID exposure and pregnancy outcome, taking into account candidate confounders. Results Among 2,780 pregnancies, 367 women (13%) experienced an spontaneous abortion. NSAID exposure was reported by 1,185 (43%) women. NSAID exposure was not associated with spontaneous abortion risk in unadjusted models (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82, 1.24) or models adjusted for maternal age (adjusted [aHR] = 1.00, 95% CI 0.81, 1.23). Conclusions Our findings suggest that use of non-prescription over-the-counter NSAIDs in early pregnancy does not put women at increased risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:22914399

  19. Ion mobility spectrometry for the rapid analysis of over-the-counter drugs and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Maestre, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, there are increasing requirements for analytical methods in quality assessment for the production of drugs. In this investigation, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for the rapid qualitative separation and identification of active ingredients in generic over-the-counter drugs and food additives in beverages. The active ingredients determined in drugs were acetaminophen, aspartame, bisacodyl, caffeine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, famotidine, glucosamine, guaifenesin, loratadine, niacin, phenylephrine, pyridoxine, thiamin, and tetrahydrozoline. Aspartame and caffeine were determined in beverages. Fourteen over-the-counter drugs and beverages were analyzed. Analysis times below 10 s were obtained for IMS, and reduced mobilities were reported for the first time for 12 compounds. A quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a mobility spectrometer was used to assure a correct peak assignation. The combination of fast analysis, low cost, and inexpensive maintenance of IMS instruments makes IMS an attractive technique for the qualitative determination of the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs and food additives in manufacture quality control and cleaning verification for the drug and food industries. PMID:20835390

  20. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  1. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  2. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  3. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  4. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  5. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC drug review. 330.13 Section 330.13 Food and Drugs FOOD...-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.13 Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter...

  6. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC drug review. 330.13 Section 330.13 Food and Drugs FOOD...-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.13 Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter...

  7. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. 310.543 Section 310.543... containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in exocrine pancreatic... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic...

  8. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. 310.543 Section 310.543... containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in exocrine pancreatic... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic...

  9. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC drug review. 330.13 Section 330.13 Food and Drugs FOOD...-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.13 Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter...

  10. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin...

  11. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin...

  12. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin...

  13. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin...

  14. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling. 201.66 Section 201.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.66 Format...

  15. Over-the-Counter Sale of Emergency Contraception: A Survey of Pharmacists in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Archana; Saxena, Pikee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pharmacists play a key role while dispensing over-the-counter emergency contraception (EC) to the client. Aims The study aims to evaluate the knowledge and over-the-counter services provided by the pharmacists in Delhi. Methods A prestructured questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Delhi, the capital city of India. Results Only 60 out of 85 pharmacies approached agreed to participate in the study. Number of packs sold in a month per pharmacy varied from 2 to 500 packs/month. Sixty-two percent of the pharmacists claimed that majority of the clients repeated use during the same month. Only 18% of the clients were referred by doctors while 82% directly approached the pharmacists. Nearly one third of the clients were adolescents. Sixty-seven percent of the pharmacists had adequate knowledge about EC. Only 3.3% asked about the last menstrual period or the time elapsed since the last unprotected intercourse. No pharmacist inquired whether there were one or multiple unprotected acts of intercourse, if any regular contraceptive method was being used, or explored the reason for EC intake. There were 91.7% who explained the dosage schedule to clients. Only half of them explained that the client may experience side effects. None of the pharmacists advised their clients for a sexually transmitted disease screening, and 35% counseled the clients regarding regular contraception. Conclusion Improving the quality of services provided by the pharmacists can clear misconceptions of the clients and promote subsequent regular contraception along with precautions to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. Mishra A and Saxena P. Over-the-counter sale of emergency contraception: A survey of pharmacists in Delhi. Sex Med 2013;1:16–20. PMID:25356282

  16. Nucleus anomaly test and chromosomal analysis of bone marrow cells of the Chinese hamster and dominant lethal test in male mice after treatment with fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Müller, D; Fritz, H; Langauer, M; Strasser, F F

    1975-01-01

    Four fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) were tested for mutagenic activity after oral administration in the following three different mammalian test systems: (1) Dominant lethal test in the male mouse; (2) Cytogenetic studies on metaphase chromosomes from the bone marrow of the Chinese hamster; (3) Nucleus anomaly test in somatic interphase cells (bone marrow) of the Chinese hamster. These investigations yielded no evidence of dominant lethal effects of any of the four compounds on the progeny of male mice. Furthermore, the data obtained from chromosome analyses and the nucleus anomaly test revealed no effects at all. Thus, the results obtained in all these tests gave no indication of mutagenic activity after the administration of these compounds in dosages up to approximately 1/3 or the LD50. PMID:1064545

  17. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-08-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such high amounts of caffeine itself has shown to have caused cardiac arrhythmias in healthy individuals and when it is mixed with a number of stimulant compounds can be associated with a number of adverse effects in the human body. However, the awareness of such life threatening complications associated with these energy drinks does not exist among people who consume it on a day to day basis. We report a case of 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history for cardiac diseases, no risk factors for atrial fibrillation, non smoker, occasional alcohol drinker who presents with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response due to the consumption of over the counter stimulant energy capsule which had high doses of caffeine. PMID:26435989

  18. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such high amounts of caffeine itself has shown to have caused cardiac arrhythmias in healthy individuals and when it is mixed with a number of stimulant compounds can be associated with a number of adverse effects in the human body. However, the awareness of such life threatening complications associated with these energy drinks does not exist among people who consume it on a day to day basis. We report a case of 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history for cardiac diseases, no risk factors for atrial fibrillation, non smoker, occasional alcohol drinker who presents with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response due to the consumption of over the counter stimulant energy capsule which had high doses of caffeine. PMID:26435989

  19. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC drug review. 330.13 Section 330.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE...

  20. Mechanism of whitening and quenching.

    PubMed

    Brockes, A

    1975-01-01

    The processes of radiation absorption in a molecule and the energy release by thermal or chemical deactivation, phosphorescence, and fluorescence are outlined briefly, and the difference between fluorescent and non-fluorescent dyestuffs is discussed under physical aspects. After a description of the optical mode of action of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), the colorimetrical methods of characterizing FWAs and evaluating the whiteness are investigated. PMID:1064535

  1. Prescription to over-the-counter switches in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jongwha; Lizer, Allison; Patel, Isha; Bhatia, Deepak; Tan, Xi; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    As the role of the pharmacist becomes more patient and counseling-centered, the healthcare market is changing to keep pace with more modern needs, such as self-treatment. Self-treatment provides patients the ability to diagnose their own condition and pick an appropriate medication from the pharmacy to treat their symptoms. This process allows a certain freedom for consumers to actively engage in their own health. In order for patients to self-treat, access to over-the-counter (OTC) medication is of prime importance. Many medications that are available as OTC today were previously labeled as prescription medications. As more safety studies and trials are conducted for different drugs, they can be deemed appropriate for use without a prescription. This review study discusses the process of switching of prescription medications to OTC medications in the United States and the implications of switching on patients, practitioners, drug makers, and insurers. PMID:27512703

  2. Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention. PMID:11727293

  3. Sulbutiamine, an 'innocent' over the counter drug, interferes with therapeutic outcome of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Douzenis, Athanasios; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient with bipolar disorder with a history of hospitalizations and addiction to sulbutiamine is presented. Sulbutiamine is a precursor of thiamine that crosses the blood-brain barrier and is widely available without prescription in most countries or over the internet. Because of this patient's need to consume ever increasing quantities of sulbutiamine, his psychiatric care was severely compromised through him defaulting appointments and frequent changes of psychiatrists. This paper reviews the current scientific knowledge about sulbutiamine, and some of the information and claims available on the web about its use and potential. It is argued that doctors need to be aware of the potential misuse of medication available over the counter or on the internet and its potential harmful influence. PMID:16861144

  4. Over-the-counter medicine and dietary supplement consumption among academic youth in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Godman, Brian; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mikrut, Karolina; Zuziak, Sandra; Pedzisz, Magdalena; Nowak, Aneta; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Poland, potentially improving but also potentially posing a threat to public health. The study goal is to characterize and assess behaviors related to use of OTC medicines and dietary supplements among Polish university students. A questionnaire-based survey was performed with students divided into groups (gender, subjects studied, period of studies). The majority of students declared using the products, significantly more females and younger students in their early years. Females tended to be more attentive to product information. Students with a background in biological or medical sciences were also more attentive and less influenced by advertising. The authors present that the differences between the defined groups of students should be utilized in tailored educational activities, aiming to rationalize high consumption of OTC medicines and dietary supplements. Targeting other, especially low-socioeconomic and less-educated, groups should follow. PMID:26886826

  5. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and PMID:26312772

  6. Prescription to over-the-counter switches in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jongwha; Lizer, Allison; Patel, Isha; Bhatia, Deepak; Tan, Xi; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    As the role of the pharmacist becomes more patient and counseling-centered, the healthcare market is changing to keep pace with more modern needs, such as self-treatment. Self-treatment provides patients the ability to diagnose their own condition and pick an appropriate medication from the pharmacy to treat their symptoms. This process allows a certain freedom for consumers to actively engage in their own health. In order for patients to self-treat, access to over-the-counter (OTC) medication is of prime importance. Many medications that are available as OTC today were previously labeled as prescription medications. As more safety studies and trials are conducted for different drugs, they can be deemed appropriate for use without a prescription. This review study discusses the process of switching of prescription medications to OTC medications in the United States and the implications of switching on patients, practitioners, drug makers, and insurers. PMID:27512703

  7. Developing a nursing protocol for over-the-counter medications in high school.

    PubMed

    Awbrey, Lucinda Mejdell; Juarez, Sandra M

    2003-02-01

    Management of medications in school is one of the critical roles that school nurses carry out in the school setting. In recent years, parents have come to question the medication procedures that school districts follow. Parents question why a physician's order is required for school personnel to provide over-the-counter (OTC) medications to their child at school. How do school districts balance the safety of students with the needs of parents wanting their children to have access to OTC medications at school? Following legal guidelines helps to reduce the risk for school nurses. Through the development and utilization of Nursing Standardized Protocols, high school nurses are able to provide nonprescription analgesics for specific common student complaints such as noninjury headaches and dysmenorrhea. On the basis of nursing knowledge and judgment, school nurses provide this service, which results in students returning to class quickly, feeling better, and being ready to learn. PMID:12562220

  8. Over-the-counter topical skincare products: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Katherine A; Marmur, Ellen S

    2012-02-01

    Topical "anti-aging" products, with their seemingly limitless list of ingredients, make extensive claims to reduce wrinkles, fine lines, and sun damage, among others. Sales in the United States alone for cosmeceutical products are expected to increase by 7.4% per year to $8.2 billion by 2012. However, in this enormous industry, there has been a significant lack of rigorous controlled trials of efficacy. It is difficult for both dermatologists and consumers to make informed decisions in a market that is yet to be clearly defined and regulated. We elucidate the scientific basis for, as well as the literature behind, common active ingredients found in products intended to reverse photoaging, discuss some interesting new activities, and provide a review of several comprehensive studies on over-the-counter (OTC) products. PMID:22270206

  9. Analysis of licensed over-the-counter (OTC) antibiotics in the European Union and Norway, 2012.

    PubMed

    Both, Leonard; Botgros, Radu; Cavaleri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognised as a growing problem that seriously threatens public health and requires prompt action. Concerns have therefore been raised about the potential harmful effects of making antibiotics available without prescription. Because of the very serious concerns regarding further spread of resistance, the over-the-counter (OTC) availability of antibiotics was analysed here. Topical and systemic OTC antibiotics and their indications were determined across 26 European Union (EU) countries and Norway by means of a European survey. We identified a total of 48 OTC products containing 20 different single antibiotics and three antibiotic combinations as active substances, used mainly as topical preparations in short treatment courses. Given the relevance of these medicines and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance, it is important to limit the availability of OTC antibiotics and to monitor their use. PMID:26530125

  10. Over-the-counter sleep aids: widely used but rarely studied.

    PubMed

    Pillitteri, J L; Kozlowski, L T; Person, D C; Spear, M E

    1994-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids are used in greater proportions than benzodiazepines for the treatment of sleep problems, yet limited research has focused on these nonprescription drugs. This article reports the results of two studies that examined the use of OTC sleep aids and alcohol for sleep problems by university students. Of those subjects in both studies who reported sleep problems 1 day per month or more, 6.4% of men and 11.4% of women reported using OTC sleep aids, however, a significantly greater percentage of men reported using alcohol to induce sleep (23.4% vs. 10.9%, p < .008). Future studies on OTC sleep aids are recommended to address a broader range of issues such as potential side effects and at-risk populations, tolerance effects, and individual differences in responsiveness and sensitivity to these drugs. PMID:7703708

  11. Designer steroids - over-the-counter supplements and their androgenic component: review of an increasing problem.

    PubMed

    Rahnema, C D; Crosnoe, L E; Kim, E D

    2015-03-01

    Colloquially referred to by various misleading monikers ('pro-hormones', 'natural steroids', 'testosterone boosters', etc.) designer anabolic steroids have been popular now for over a decade as a way to achieve classic anabolic steroid-like results from products sold in the legal marketplace. Recent evidence suggests that anabolic steroid use may be the most common cause of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age. Despite recent regulatory efforts that have banned specific compounds, many anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) remain available in over-the-counter dietary supplements that are legally sold in the United States. Severe side effects including hepatotoxicity, cholestasis, renal failure, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and infertility have been reported secondary to the use of these products. While some of these side effects may be reversible, more aggressive use may result in more permanent end-organ damage as has been previously described for the case of aggressive AAS users (Rahnema et al., Fertil Steril, 2014). Designer AAS remain easily available for purchase in over-the-counter bodybuilding supplements and these products appear to be increasingly popular, despite the known health risks associated with their use. We conducted a systematic search to identify the designer steroids that are most commonly sold in dietary supplements as of April 2014 and review what is known regarding their potency and toxicity. We propose that the impact of AAS use on the reproductive and hormonal health of men is underestimated in the literature owing to previous studies' failure to account for designer steroid use. Lastly, we make clinical recommendations to help physicians steer patients away from potentially harmful supplements, and summarize key regulatory obstacles that have allowed potent androgens to remain unregulated in the legal marketplace. PMID:25684733

  12. Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids: A Lost Decade for Change

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Zoe Yee Ting; McPherson, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hearing aids sold directly to consumers in retail stores or through the internet, without individual prescription by audiological professionals, are termed over-the-counter (OTC) devices. This study aimed to determine whether there was any change in the electroacoustic characteristics of OTC devices compared to research carried out a decade earlier. The previous results indicated that most OTC devices were low-frequency-emphasis devices and were unsuitable for elderly people with presbycusis, who were likely to be the major consumers of these products. Methods. Ten OTC devices were selected and their electroacoustic performance was measured. Appropriate clients for the OTC devices were derived, using four linear prescription formulae, and OTC suitability for elderly persons with presbycusis was investigated. Results. OTC electroacoustic characteristics were similar to those in the earlier study. Most OTC devices were not acoustically appropriate for potential consumers with presbycusis. Although several of the devices could match prescriptive targets for individuals with presbycusis, their poor electroacoustic performance—including ineffective volume control function, high equivalent input noise, and irregular frequency response—may override their potential benefit. Conclusion. The low-cost OTC devices were generally not suitable for the main consumers of these products, and there has been little improvement in the appropriateness of these devices over the past decade. PMID:26557701

  13. Over-the-counter medicine abuse – a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from pharmacies can help individuals self-manage symptoms. However, some OTC medicines may be abused, with addiction and harms being increasingly recognised. This review describes the current knowledge and understanding of OTC medicine abuse. Approach: Comprehensive search of international empirical and review literature between 1990 and 2011. Findings: OTC medicine abuse was identified in many countries and although implicated products varied, five key groups emerged: codeine-based (especially compound analgesic) medicines, cough products (particularly dextromethorphan), sedative antihistamines, decongestants and laxatives. No clear patterns relating to those affected or their experiences were identified and they may represent a hard-to-reach group, which coupled with heterogeneous data, makes estimating the scale of abuse problematic. Associated harms included direct physiological or psychological harm (e.g. opiate addiction), harm from another ingredient (e.g. ibuprofen-related gastric bleeding) and associated social and economic problems. Strategies and interventions included limiting supplies, raising public and professional awareness and using existing services and Internet support groups, although associated evaluations were lacking. Terminological variations were identified. Conclusions: OTC medicine abuse is a recognised problem internationally but is currently incompletely understood. Research is needed to quantify scale of abuse, evaluate interventions and capture individual experiences, to inform policy, regulation and interventions. PMID:23525509

  14. Skin protectant drug products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule in the form of a final monograph establishing conditions under which over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant drug products are generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded as part of the ongoing review of OTC drug products conducted by FDA. The final monograph includes OTC skin protectant drug products for minor cuts, scrapes, burns, chapped skin and lips, poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, and insect bites. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering public comments on the agency's proposed regulation, which was issued in the form of a tentative final monograph, and all new data and information on skin protectant drug products for these specific uses that have come to the agency's attention. This final rule amends the regulation that lists nonmonograph active ingredients by adding those OTC skin protectant ingredients that have been found to be not generally recognized as safe and effective. This final rule also lifts the stay of 21 CFR part 352 (published at 66 FR 67485, December 31, 2001) to amend the final monograph for OTC sunscreen drug products to include sunscreen-skin protectant combination drug products, and then stays Sec. 347.20(d) (21 CFR 347.20(d)) and part 352 until further notice in the Federal Register. PMID:12785379

  15. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. PMID:26861972

  16. Rosacea Patient Perspectives on Homeopathic and Over-the-counter Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Lucy; Kuo, Sandy; Huang, Karen E.; Taylor, Sarah L.; Feldman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rosacea patients commonly employ nonprescription therapies. The authors’ aim was to understand rosacea patients’ perceptions of over-the-counter products, complementary and alternative medicine, and homeopathic therapies. Method: A public, online discussion forum comprising 3,350 members and 27,051 posts provided a source of 346 posts on patient perceptions on alternative rosacea treatments. Results: Three major themes of nonprescription treatment were identified—motivation for use, patient-provider discussions, and experience with these treatments. Perceived medication failure, barriers to treatment, and distrust of physicians drive patients to seek nonprescription therapies. Still, patients prefer to consult a physician on incorporating nonprescription therapies into treatment. Complementary and alternative medicine natural products (19.4% of posts), complementary and alternative medicine practices (16.5%), and homeopathic medicine (3.8%) were commonly discussed. Conclusion: Physicians have an opportunity to be a trusted source of information on the strengths and weaknesses of skin care products and other complementary treatments for rosacea. PMID:26557217

  17. Over-the-counter drugs: factors in adult use of sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, R

    1984-01-01

    Despite a growing research interest in over-the-counter (OTC) drug use, little information has been available about the determinants of use for this category of medications. The researcher examined the effects of demographic, need, and physician utilization measures on the use of 10 OTC drugs that were categorized as sedatives, tranquilizers, or stimulants. A statewide survey in 1975 of drug-using behavior in the previous year by Illinois adults ages 18-59 resulted in 2,738 questionnaires that could be analyzed. Thirteen variables, representing the demographic, need, and physician utilization characteristics of the respondents, were entered as predictors into logistic multiple regression models to estimate their effects on drug use. Only 10.37 percent of the respondents indicated that they had used any of the OTC drugs in the previous year. Sedative use was found to be increased in persons who were tense or were having trouble sleeping. Having trouble sleeping also increased the probability of using OTC tranquilizers and stimulants. Women had a much higher probability of using OTC tranquilizers than men, and men had a higher probability of using stimulants. Non-whites had a higher probability of using tranquilizers than did whites. Stimulants were more likely to be used by younger adults and unmarried adults. Physician utilization, measured by the number of visits to physicians, did not significantly affect OTC drug use. PMID:6429733

  18. Labeling and effectiveness testing; sunscreen drug products for over-the-counter human use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-06-17

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this document to address labeling and effectiveness testing for certain over-the counter (OTC) sunscreen products containing specified active ingredients and marketed without approved applications. This document addresses labeling and effectiveness testing issues raised by the nearly 2,900 submissions that we received in response to the sunscreen proposed rule of August 27, 2007 (2007 proposed rule). The document also identifies specific claims that render a product that is subject to this rule misbranded or would not be allowed on any OTC sunscreen product marketed without an approved application. The document does not address issues related to sunscreen active ingredients or certain other issues regarding the GRASE determination for sunscreen products. The document requires OTC sunscreen products to comply with the content and format requirements for OTC drug labeling contained in the 1999 Drug Facts final rule (published in the Federal Register of March 17, 1999, by lifting the delay of implementation date for that rule that we published on September 3, 2004). PMID:21682059

  19. Study on consumers' preferences and habits for over-the-counter analgesics use.

    PubMed

    Lefterova, A; Getov, I

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate consumers' knowledge, preference habits and use of the over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Our survey indicates the preferences of respondents in consultation with medical specialists (medical doctors and pharmacists) and their sources of information about drugs. A questionnaire survey was conducted during the periods March/April and July/August 2002 in 11 community pharmacies situated in Sofia (capital) and two towns in different regions in Eastern Bulgaria. From 250 questionnaires 222 were filled in correctly and analyzed (response rate 89%). Metamizole (dipyrone) is the most popular OTC analgesic--35% of the questioned patients prefer it to relieve the pain. In the second place is paracetamole (acetaminophen), but patients prefer to use it mainly for symptomatic treatment of cold/flu and influenza-like symptoms. More than 50% of patients have indicated that medical doctor recommended them the chosen OTC analgesic and in case of health problems during the therapy they prefer to consult him. They had more confidence in medical doctors' than pharmacists' recommendations and consultation. The main conclusion is that the pharmacists do not have the main say in the choice of OTC analgesics and their rational and correct use. PMID:15068209

  20. Hand-Held Instrument Fights Acne, Tops Over-the-Counter Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tyrell Inc., a Houston-based medical technologies company, was able to access engineering support in redesigning a heating element for a hand-held acne-fighting device through SATOP, NASA's Space Alliance Technology Outreach Program. SATOP put Tyrell in contact with The Boeing Company, which assessed the design and made several major contributions. The product, named Zeno, is now the highest selling over-the-counter medical device for the treatment of acne, and in 2006, Zeno was named the "SATOP Texas, Success Story of the Year." Zeno employs proprietary ClearPoint technology to provide relief of mild to moderate inflammatory acne by delivering a precisely controlled low-level dosage of heat to the blemish, causing the bacteria at the root of more than 90 percent of acne to self-destruct. Within its first year on the market, Zeno was cited by various publications for several awards, including Allure's 2005 "Best of Beauty," Marie Claire's "10 Best Gadgets for Girls," and Popular Science's 2005 "Best of What's New." A variation of the Zeno for use in treating herpetic lesions such as cold sores, by killing the virus that causes them, is currently undergoing FDA trials.

  1. Accuracy of information on printed over-the-counter drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S; Sharp, W T; Sansgiry, S S

    1999-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer drug advertising is a useful medium for educating people and disseminating product information. Consumers make product purchase decisions based on the information gained from advertisements. If advertisements are misleading, consumers may not have adequate drug knowledge to detect this misinformation. The objective of this study was to evaluate print advertisements for over-the-counter (OTC) products. Five clinical pharmacists evaluated print advertisements appearing in three consumer periodicals. Advertisements were selected over a nine month period beginning January 1994. Accuracy of information on OTC advertisements was determined based on federal guidelines. Additionally, reviewers identified deficiencies in advertisements that may mislead consumers. According to reviewers, around 50% of advertisements lacked accurate statements. Side effects were indicated on only one advertisement. All advertisements were indicated by reviewers to be more promotional than educational. Reviewers indicated that more than 50% of advertisements lacked information essential for consumers to make an informed choice during self-medication decisions. This study indicates that OTC drug advertisements lack information necessary for consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Inaccurate information and lack of information on side effects could mislead consumers causing harmful adverse events. PMID:11010213

  2. Adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions with over-the-counter NSAIDs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicholas; Pollack, Charles; Butkerait, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available. PMID:26203254

  3. Implications of over-the-counter proton pump inhibitors for patient counseling by pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Simonson, William

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the literature on the role of the pharmacist in patient counseling and discusses how that role may apply to patients with frequent heartburn who are seeking an over-the-counter (OTC) treatment. Searches of the National Library of Medicine PubMed database were conducted using the terms "heartburn," "nonprescription," "therapy," "pharmacist," and "counseling," supplemented by additional searches on counseling for prescription products, and by the author's knowledge of pharmacy practice and the scientific literature. Accurate recognition of the signs of heartburn are an important first step in counseling a patient on the appropriate OTC medication; immediate referral to a health care provider is mandatory if cardiac pain or certain gastrointestinal symptoms are present. When counseling a patient about treatments for heartburn, the pharmacist should practice effective listening in an environment that is conducive to communication by the patient. Proton pump inhibitors are effective for the treatment of heartburn; the histamine2 receptor antagonists and antacids should also be considered for appropriate patients. Adverse events have been noted with proton pump inhibitors; however, overall the benefits significantly outweigh the risks and problems are unlikely to arise during the 2-week duration of OTC treatment of heartburn. Pharmacists can provide valuable services to patients with frequent heartburn, particularly with regard to counseling about the condition and appropriate OTC therapy. The availability of numerous OTC products, including antacids, histamine2 receptor antagonists, and proton pump inhibitors, enables pharmacists to fulfill an important clinical role and improve patient satisfaction. PMID:21642828

  4. The risks of do-it-yourself and over-the-counter devices for tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The tattoo removal market has boomed over the years following the increased prevalence of tattooed individuals around the world. Surgery and laser are currently the gold standards for tattoo removal. However, both of them have drawbacks. Surgery is better suited for small tattoos in areas of adequate skin laxity but leave a scar, while laser removal is a long and painful procedure, with no guarantee of a complete efficacy. Both are expensive procedures, and not all individuals are ready to fund them privately. Consequently, some individuals are in the search of faster, easier, and cheaper procedures that can be performed either by themselves or by laypeople. The unregulated market of internet provides a favorable ground for many websites to offer various tattoo removal methods. Besides, some tattooists and other non-medical laypeople have started to get interested by such a growing market, especially as some laser devices manufactured in Asia are now available at competitive prices, and due to weaknesses in the EU legislation regarding the use of lasers for cosmetic procedures by non-medical laypeople. We review here different do-it-yourself and over-the-counter tattoo removal methods. We discuss the potential risks for tattooed individuals and stress the importance of a better regulation of such a market. PMID:25534402

  5. Adverse drug reactions and drug–drug interactions with over-the-counter NSAIDs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nicholas; Pollack, Charles; Butkerait, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen have a long history of safe and effective use as both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics/antipyretics. The mechanism of action of all NSAIDs is through reversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) including gastrointestinal bleeding as well as cardiovascular and renal effects have been reported with NSAID use. In many cases, ADRs may occur because of drug–drug interactions (DDIs) between the NSAID and a concomitant medication. For example, DDIs have been reported when NSAIDs are coadministered with aspirin, alcohol, some antihypertensives, antidepressants, and other commonly used medications. Because of the pharmacologic nature of these interactions, there is a continuum of risk in that the potential for an ADR is dependent on total drug exposure. Therefore, consideration of dose and duration of NSAID use, as well as the type or class of comedication administered, is important when assessing potential risk for ADRs. Safety findings from clinical studies evaluating prescription-strength NSAIDs may not be directly applicable to OTC dosing. Health care providers can be instrumental in educating patients that using OTC NSAIDs at the lowest effective dose for the shortest required duration is vital to balancing efficacy and safety. This review discusses some of the most clinically relevant DDIs reported with NSAIDs based on major sites of ADRs and classes of medication, with a focus on OTC ibuprofen, for which the most data are available. PMID:26203254

  6. Safeguarding Older Adults From Inappropriate Over-the-Counter Medications: The Role of Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A.; Stone, Jamie A.; Martin, Beth A.; Croes, Kenneth D.; Thorpe, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To elicit the thought process or mental model that community pharmacists use when making recommendations on over-the-counter (OTC) medications to older adults and to elicit the current practices of community pharmacists in providing information, advice, and counseling to older adults about potentially inappropriate OTC medications. Design and Methods: Three separate focus groups with pharmacists were conducted with 5 to 8 pharmacists per group. A vignette about an elderly woman seeking an OTC sleep aid was used to elicit information that pharmacists seek to establish when making a recommendation. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes using the initial and focused coding methods of grounded theory. Results: Community pharmacists’ mental models were characterized by 2 similarities: a similarity in what community pharmacists seek to establish about patients and a similarity in when community pharmacists seek to establish it—the sequence in which they try to learn key details about patients. It was identified that pharmacists gather specific information about the patient’s medication profile, health conditions, characteristics of the problem, and past treatments in order to make a recommendation. Community pharmacists recommended behavioral modifications and seeing their physician prior to recommending an OTC sleep aid, primarily due to medication safety concerns. Implications: Pharmacists can play a key role in assisting older adults to select and use OTC medications. PMID:24197014

  7. Over-The-Counter Nicotine Replacement Therapy: Can its impact on smoking cessation be enhanced?

    PubMed Central

    Amodei, Nancy; Lamb, Rick. J.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are efficacious smoking cessation aids. However, only minimal increases in smoking cessation followed NRT being made available over-the-counter (OTC) which presumably made these treatments more readily available. To better understand why the U.S. did not experience improvements in smoking cessation following the OTC availability of NRT, it is useful to review factors that determine NRT’s impact on smoking cessation and how these factors played out with the introduction of OTC NRT. We contend that for NRT to have a greater impact on public health, we need to increase the number of individuals making a quit attempt, the proportion using NRT in a quit attempt, and the effectiveness of each quit attempt. Even small increases in the impact of OTC NRT could yield significant benefits in terms of morbidity and mortality. The remainder of this paper provides examples of interventions designed to target each of the above mentioned factors individually as well as examples of interventions that link increased cessation attempts, increased NRT reach, and increased NRT efficacy in order to synergistically increase the impact of OTC NRT. PMID:19071972

  8. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of over the counter cough medicines for acute cough in adults

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Knut; Fahey, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether over the counter cough medicines are effective for acute cough in adults. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Search of the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group specialised register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, and the UK Department of Health National Research Register in all languages. Included studies All randomised controlled trials that compared oral over the counter cough preparations with placebo in adults with acute cough due to upper respiratory tract infection in ambulatory settings and that had cough symptoms as an outcome. Results 15 trials involving 2166 participants met all the inclusion criteria. Antihistamines seemed to be no better than placebo. There was conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of antitussives, expectorants, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, and other drug combinations compared with placebo. Conclusion Over the counter cough medicines for acute cough cannot be recommended because there is no good evidence for their effectiveness. Even when trials had significant results, the effect sizes were small and of doubtful clinical relevance. Because of the small number of trials in each category, the results have to be interpreted cautiously. What is already know on this topicThe NHS encourages self treatment of acute self limiting illnessesOver the counter cough medicines are commonly used as first line treatment for acute coughWhat this study addsThere is little evidence for or against the effectiveness of over the counter cough medicinesAlthough cough medicines are generally well tolerated, they may be an unnecessary expenseRecommendation of over the counter cough medicines to patients is not justified by current evidence PMID:11834560

  9. Simultaneous determination of 11 fluorescent whitening agents in food-contact paper and board by ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dingguo; Chen, Lisong; Fu, Wusheng; Qiu, Hanquan

    2015-02-01

    4,4'-Diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid based fluorescent whitening agents (DSD-FWAs) are prohibited in food-contact paper and board in many countries. In this work, a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 common DSD-FWAs in paper material. Sample preparation and extraction as well as chromatographic separation of multicomponent DSD-FWAs were successfully optimized. DSD-FWAs in prepared samples were ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile/water/triethylamine (40:60:1, v/v/v), separated on the C(18) column with the mobile phase containing tetrabutylammonium bromide, and then detected by a fluorescence detector. The limits of detection were 0.12-0.24 mg/kg, and the calibration curves showed the linear correlation (R(2) ≥ 0.9994) within the range of 8.0-100 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the range of 0.80-10 mg/kg in the sample. The average recoveries and the RSDs were 81-106% and 2-9% at two fortification levels (1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) in paper bowls, respectively. The successful determination of 11 DSD-FWAs in food-contact paper and board obtained from local markets indicated that the newly developed method was rapid, accurate, and highly selective. PMID:25492053

  10. Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in environmental waters by solid-phase extraction and ion pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chang; Wang, Shu-Ping; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2006-01-13

    A comprehensive method for the trace determination of four stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in environmental water samples was developed and validated. Various solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were investigated. The newly developed Oasis WAX (weak mixed-mode anion exchange and reversed-phase sorbent) SPE cartridge provides the optimal sample extraction results. The analytes were then identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS) in negative ionization mode, applying di-n-hexylammonium acetate (DHAA) as the ion-pairing reagent in mobile phase. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were established between 4 and 18 ng/l in 50 ml of water samples. Intrabatch and interbatch precision with their accuracy at two concentration levels were also investigated. Precision for these five FWAs, as indicated by RSD, proved to be less than 13 and 11%, respectively, for intra- and interbatch. Accuracy, expressed as the mean recovery, was between 68 and 97%. The method was finally applied to environmental water samples, showing the occurrence of five FWAs in both river water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent samples. PMID:16288762

  11. Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in laundry detergents and surface waters by solid-phase extraction and ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shu, Wei-Chuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2005-09-23

    A simple method was developed to detect four stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in household laundry detergents and surface waters by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography. The FWA concentrations in detergents were measured directly. The contents of FWAs in water samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (C18-SPE) with ion-pairing reagent, and were then determined by an isocratic ion-pair chromatography (IPC) using a C18 column, applying tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate (TBA) as the ion-pairing reagent in mobile phase, and equipped with fluorescence detection. Water samples at various pH conditions for SPE were evaluated. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is precise and sensitive in analyzing FWAs, and enables quantitation of 0.01-0.1 microg/l in 100 ml water samples. The recovery rates of FWAs in spiked water samples were between 73 and 89%, and the precision (RSD) ranged from 2.6 to 8.9%. Over 7200 microg/g of 4,4'-bis(2-sulfostryl)-biphenyl (DSBP) and 2320 microg/g of 4,4'-bis[(4-anilino-6-morpholino-1,3,5-triazine-2-yl)-amino]stilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DAS1) were detected in household laundry detergents. Trace amounts of DSBP were detected in surface water samples ranging from 0.2 to 3.7 microg/l. PMID:16130754

  12. Severe Symptomatic Hypermagnesemia Associated with Over-the-Counter Laxatives in a Patient with Renal Failure and Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Khairi, Talal; Amer, Syed; Spitalewitz, Samuel; Alasadi, Lutfi

    2014-01-01

    Hypermagnesemia is an uncommon but a potentially serious clinical condition. Over-the-counter magnesium containing products are widely used as antacids or laxatives. Although generally well tolerated in patients with normal renal function, their unsupervised use in the elderly can result in severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia, especially in those patients with concomitant renal failure and bowel disorders. We report a case of severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia associated with over-the-counter laxatives in a 70-year-old male patient with renal failure and sigmoid volvulus, who was successfully treated with hemodialysis. PMID:24563801

  13. Effect of over-the-counter dosages of naproxen sodium and acetaminophen on plasma lithium concentrations in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Levin, G M; Grum, C; Eisele, G

    1998-06-01

    Prescription doses of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown to decrease clearance and increase plasma concentrations of lithium. This study was designed to evaluate whether over-the-counter (OTC) doses of naproxen sodium or acetaminophen have the same potential to affect lithium concentration. This was a prospective, crossover, 3-phase study conducted at the Clinical Pharmacology Studies Unit of the Albany Medical Center Hospital during July and August of 1995. The 3-phase study comprised the following: phase 1, lithium carbonate (300 mg every 12 hours) alone for 7 days; phase 2, lithium and either naproxen sodium (220 mg every 8 hours) or acetaminophen (650 mg every 6 hours) for 5 days; and phase 3, a 2-day washout period followed by a crossover to lithium with the alternate drug (acetaminophen or naproxen sodium) for 5 days. Twelve healthy male volunteers were recruited, nine of whom completed the study and were included in the statistical analysis. Mean (+/-SD) plasma lithium concentrations for subjects in treatment group 1 (lithium in phase 1, lithium and naproxen sodium in phase 2, lithium and acetaminophen in phase 3) were 0.38 (+/-0.11), 0.40 (+/-0.07), and 0.36 (+/-0.11) mEq/L, respectively. Mean plasma lithium concentrations for subjects in treatment group 2 (lithium in phase 1, lithium and acetaminophen in phase 2, lithium and naproxen sodium in phase 3) were 0.43 (+/-0.05), 0.48 (+/-0.10), and 0.48 (+/-0.05) mEq/L, respectively. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-test showed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in plasma lithium concentrations during any phase of the study. The results of this study demonstrated that OTC doses of naproxen sodium and acetaminophen did not increase plasma lithium concentrations in these volunteers when taken for short periods of time. PMID:9617983

  14. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  15. Over-the-counter treatments and perineal hygiene in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Brousseau, E. Christine; Yip, Sallis O.; Fried, Terri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this descriptive study was to quantify the personal hygiene habits/practices and over-the-counter (OTC) products used by postmenopausal women. Specifically, we were interested in any product that would contact the vulva or vagina. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care. We developed questionnaire of personal hygiene habits/practices and OTC products used by women that would contact the vulva or vagina. We recruited postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care from two separate gynecology practices. Descriptive statistics were performed as appropriate to characterize the frequency of reported treatments and practices. Results The questionnaire on OTC treatments and perineal hygiene was completed by 114 postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight women (50.9%) reported using at least one OTC vulvovaginal treatment in the last three months, including barrier treatments, topical anesthetics, powders, and antifungals. Women often used more than one OTC product. Thirty-seven women (32.5%) reported the use of two or more OTC products. Powders were used by 34 women (29.8%). Talcum powder was the most commonly used powder (76.5%, n/N = 26/34). Nine (7.9%) postmenopausal women reported douching in the last three months. Conclusions We found that over half of postmenopausal women seeking gynecologic care have used an OTC product for vulvovaginal symptoms in the last three months and 1/3 of women use 2 or more products. Because the use of OTC products is so common, our study highlights the need for detailed history inquiry about OTC product use and perineal hygiene practices. PMID:23880795

  16. The Impact of Restricting Over-the-Counter Sales of Antimicrobial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Maria Luísa; Boszczowski, Icaro; Mortari, Naíma; Barrozo, Lígia Vizeu; Neto, Francisco Chiaravalloti; Lobo, Renata Desordi; Pedroso de Lima, Antonio Carlos; Levin, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To describe the nationwide impact of a restrictive law on over-the-counter sales of antimicrobial drugs, implemented in Brazil in November 2010. Approximately 75% of the population receives healthcare from the public health system and receives free-of-charge medication if prescribed. Total sales in private pharmacies as compared with other channels of sales of oral antibiotics were evaluated in this observational study before and after the law (2008–2012). Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) was used as standard unit. In private pharmacies the effect of the restrictive law was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with an estimated decrease in DDD/TID of 1.87 (s.e. =  0.18). In addition, the trend of DDD/TID before the restrictive law was greater than after the intervention (P < 0.001). Before November 2010, the slope for the trend line was estimated as 0.08 (s.e. = 0.01) whereas after the law, the estimated slope was 0.03 (s.e. = 0.01). As for the nonprivate channels, no difference in sales was observed (P = 0.643). The impact in the South and Southeast (more developed) regions was higher than in the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. The state capitals had a 19% decrease, compared with 0.8% increase in the rest of the states. Before the law, the sales of antimicrobial drugs were steadily increasing. From November 2010, with the restrictive law, there was an abrupt drop in sales followed by an increase albeit at a significantly lower rate. The impact was higher in regions with better socio-economic status. PMID:26402824

  17. Adherence to Label and Device Recommendations for Over-the-Counter Pediatric Liquid Medications

    PubMed Central

    Budnitz, Daniel S.; Lovegrove, Maribeth C.; Rose, Kathleen O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce dosing errors when administering orally-ingested over-the-counter (OTC) liquid medications, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) released voluntary recommendations for dosing directions and dosing devices. This study assessed recommendation adherence for national brand-name orally-ingested OTC liquid pediatric analgesics/antipyretics and cough, cold, and allergy medications available after the FDA Guidance was finalized in 2011 in order to identify and prioritize specific improvements to dosing directions and dosing devices. Methods Recommendations were categorized as top tier or low tier based on potential to directly address ≥3-fold dosing errors. Labeled dosing directions and accompanying dosing devices were assessed by 2 independent reviewers for adherence to specific recommendations. Results Of 68 products, 91% of dosing directions and 62% of dosing devices adhered to all top tier recommendations; 57% of products adhered to every top tier recommendation and 93% adhered to all or all but one. A dosing was included with all products. No dosing directions used atypical volumetric units (e.g., drams), and no devices used volumetric units that did not appear in dosing directions. Six products used trailing zeros or failed to use leading zeros with decimal doses and 8 did not use small font for fractions. Product adherence to low tier recommendations ranged from 26% to 91%. Conclusion Products adhered to most recommendations in the final FDA Guidance and CHPA Guideline suggesting that these voluntary initiatives promote adherence to recommendations. Improving adherence to recommendations should be prioritized based on potential to reduce harm. PMID:24394683

  18. Students’ attitude toward use of over the counter medicines during exams in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almalak, Haya; Albluwi, Ala’a Ibrahim; Alkhelb, Dalal Ahmed; Alsaleh, Hajar Mohmmed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Method A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students’ convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®. Results A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = <0.001) than male students. Ease in access to OTC medicine, availability of pharmacist consultation and advertisement in print and electronic media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001). Conclusion The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams. PMID:24648821

  19. Patient knowledge and use of acetaminophen in over-the-counter medications.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Jason; Sands, Shannon; Davis, Erica; Nielsen, Joel; Warholak, Terri

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate patient knowledge of over-the-counter (OTC) products containing acetaminophen and to determine patients' accuracy in dosing adult, child, and infant formulations. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Six community pharmacies in Tucson, AZ, between February and May 2011. PARTICIPANTS 88 adults aged 19 to 89 years. INTERVENTION Investigator-administered, semistructured interviews. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patient knowledge of and ability to safely use OTC products containing acetaminophen, including understanding risks, identifying products, and dosing different formulations. RESULTS Although most (86%) participants heard of acetaminophen, only 68% understood at least one of its uses and only 9% knew the abbreviation APAP. Virtually all knew that consuming too much acetaminophen in 1 day could be harmful, but only 17% and 35% knew that overdoses could result in death or liver damage, respectively. On average, participants correctly identified 80% (range 27-100%) of products with and without acetaminophen from a lineup of 11 OTC products. Although 38% (n = 84) of participants correctly measured both the child and infant doses of acetaminophen, doses ranged from one-half to twice the amount of the labeled child dose and one-third of the labeled infant dose. Findings from the regression analysis suggested that on average, women and those with college degrees had higher overall scores, while participants' age or parent status were nonsignificant predictors. CONCLUSION Many patients remain confused about using acetaminophen safely, signaling the need for greater patient education to prevent unintentional harm. The results further specify common misunderstandings to address during patient contact, which also includes replacing "APAP" with "acetaminophen" on any prescription bottle labels or patient-directed information. PMID:24362497

  20. Intentional misuse of over-the-counter medications, mental health, and polysubstance use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen; Martin, Aaron M; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana; Jeffers, Amy J

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, the non-medical use of prescription drugs (without a doctor's prescription) has increased dramatically. Less attention has been paid to the intentional misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Misuse of OTC medications has negative health consequences similar to those of illicit drugs, including psychosis, tachycardia, seizures and agitation. When mixed with alcohol or other drugs, these medications can also be dangerous: OTC-related emergency room visits increased 70% from 2004 to 2008. This study examined the intentional misuse of OTC medications, the non-medical use of prescription drugs, the use of alcohol and illicit drugs, and psychological factors in two samples of young adults (ages 18-25) from different areas of the United States (Total N = 1,197). Overall, 18.6% of the Colorado sample and 13.0% of the Virginia sample reported lifetime misuse of an OTC medication. Participants who reported misusing OTC medications were also significantly more likely to report using marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, and non-medical use of prescription analgesics, stimulants, anxiolytics, and sedatives. Participants who reported misusing OTC medications were more than twice as likely to report hazardous alcohol use, relative to individuals who denied misusing OTC medications. Individuals who had misused OTC medications scored significantly higher in sensation seeking and hopelessness and reported more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatic distress, relative to those who denied OTC misuse. Results suggest that a considerable minority of young adults are jeopardizing their health with the misuse of OTC medications as part of a pattern of polysubstance use. PMID:24338111

  1. Preclinical, Clinical, and Over-the-Counter Postmarketing Experience with a New Vaginal Cup: Menstrual Collection

    PubMed Central

    North, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Menstrual cups have been available for decades, but their use is limited by bulky design and the need for multiple sizes. The Softcup® (Instead, Inc., San Diego, CA) is a simple single-size disposable over-the-counter (OTC) menstrual cup that compresses to tampon shape to facilitate insertion and can be worn during coitus. This report describes preclinical evaluation, clinical testing, and postmarketing monitoring of the Softcup. Methods Preclinical testing complied with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and used standard United States Pharmacopoeia methodologies for assessment of potential toxicity. Clinical testing enrolled 406 women in seven U.S. centers. A detailed written questionnaire assessed safety, acceptability, and effectiveness for menstrual collection. Study safety parameters included pelvic examinations, Pap smears, colposcopy, urinalysis, vaginal pH, wet mounts, gram stain, and vaginal microflora cultures. Postmarketing surveillance of over 100 million Softcups has been conducted by the manufacturer and by the FDA Medwatch system. Results No toxicity or mutagenicity was observed in preclinical evaluations. In clinical testing, after three cycles of cup use, 37% of subjects rated the cup as better than, 29% as worse than, and 34% as equal to pads or tampons. The cup was preferred for comfort, dryness, and less odor. Cups received lower ratings for disposal and convenience. Eighty-one percent of enrolled women were able to insert and remove their first cup using only written instructions. Use difficulties resulting in study discontinuations included cramping (1%), leakage (1%), and improper fit (3%). No safety parameters were adversely affected. No significant health risks were reported during postmarketing surveillance. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a single-size vaginal device has no significant health risks and is acceptable to many women without the need for fitting or other medical services. PMID

  2. Socioeconomic impact of seasonal (epidemic) influenza and the role of over-the-counter medicines.

    PubMed

    Klepser, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    The substantial economic impact of influenza on society results primarily from lost work time and reduced productivity of patients and caregivers and increased use of medical resources. Additionally, since the 1980s, aging of the US population has meant rising influenza-related morbidity and mortality. According to the most current published data on this topic, in 2003 the total economic burden of influenza epidemics in the USA across all age groups was US$87.1 billion. As of February 2013, overall vaccine effectiveness for the 2012/2013 season was estimated to be 56 %. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases has concluded that more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies are needed. Moderate efficacy of the influenza vaccine, continued questions regarding the value of treatment with antivirals, and a growing self-care movement have led to increased use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, which play a vital role in managing symptoms associated with mild to moderate influenza and provide an estimated US$102 billion in annual savings for the US healthcare system. A primary benefit to society of using OTC medicines to manage influenza is decreased use of the healthcare system, thereby mitigating the socioeconomic burden of influenza. Considering the stresses placed on the US healthcare system and the substantial productivity losses resulting from seasonal influenza as well as the growing self-care movement, OTC medicines will play an important role in the course of future influenza epidemics. PMID:25150045

  3. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. 310.532 Section 310.532 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...

  4. 78 FR 68854 - Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products-Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Rescheduling of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 57397), FDA announced that it would hold a public hearing on December 4, 2013, to obtain... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products--Emergency...

  5. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  6. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  7. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  8. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  9. 21 CFR 310.530 - Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Topically applied hormone-containing drug products... for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.530 Topically applied hormone-containing drug products for over-the-counter (OTC) human use. (a) The term “hormone” is used broadly to describe a...

  10. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. 310.537 Section 310.537 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is not in compliance with...

  11. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. 310.537 Section 310.537 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is not in compliance with...

  12. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. 310.537 Section 310.537 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is not in compliance with...

  13. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. 310.537 Section 310.537 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is not in compliance with...

  14. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527 Section 310.527 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS...

  15. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. 310.532 Section 310.532 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...

  16. 21 CFR 310.542 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. 310.542 Section 310.542 Food...) Hyperphosphatemia is a condition in which an abnormally high plasma level of phosphate occurs in the blood....

  17. 21 CFR 310.541 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the treatment of hypophosphatemia. 310.541 Section 310.541 Food and...) Hypophosphatemia is a condition in which an abnormally low plasma level of phosphate occurs in the blood....

  18. 76 FR 56682 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35669) (the June 17... Effectiveness Testing final rule that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). FDA is...-ZA40 Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

  19. 76 FR 38975 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 201 (formerly Docket No. 1978N-0038) RIN 0910-AF43 Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human...

  20. 21 CFR 310.532 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) to relieve the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. 310.532 Section 310.532 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...

  1. 21 CFR 310.537 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral administration for the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores... the treatment of fever blisters and cold sores. (a) l-lysine (lysine, lysine hydrochloride... products to treat fever blisters and cold sores. There is a lack of adequate data to establish...

  2. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  3. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended... Administrative Procedures § 330.13 Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC... and will not await publication of a final monograph. Marketing of such a product with a formulation...

  4. 78 FR 57397 - Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products-Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Announcement of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Over-the-Counter Ophthalmic Drug Products--Emergency Use Eyewash Products; Announcement of Public Hearing; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public...

  5. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... any disease is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices §...

  6. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... any disease is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... any disease is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices §...

  8. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... any disease is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices §...

  9. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... any disease is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 201(p) of the Federal Food, Drug... ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. 310... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices §...

  10. Over the Counter, under the Radar: Inequitably Distributing New York City's Late-Enrolling High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Toi Sin; Fruchter, Norm; Mokhtar, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Every year, some 36,000 students who enroll in New York City high schools without participating in the high school choice process are labeled as "over-the-counter" or OTC students and are assigned a school by the New York City Department of Education (DOE). These young people are among the school system's highest-needs students: new…

  11. Over the Counter, under the Radar: Inequitably Distributing New York City's Late-Enrolling High School Students. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Toi Sin; Fruchter, Norm; Mokhtar, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Every year, some 36,000 students who enroll in New York City high schools without participating in the high school choice process are labeled as "over-the-counter" or OTC students and are assigned a school by the New York City Department of Education (DOE). These young people are among the school system's highest-needs students: new…

  12. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  13. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  14. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  15. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  16. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  17. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  18. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  19. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  20. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. 310.546... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... muscle cramps, i.e., a condition of localized pain in the lower extremities usually occurring in...

  1. 21 CFR 310.541 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the treatment of hypophosphatemia. 310.541 Section 310.541 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for...

  2. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. 310.543 Section 310.543 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...

  3. 21 CFR 310.538 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown toenail relief. 310.538 Section 310.538 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs...

  4. 21 CFR 310.542 - Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Over-the-counter (OTC) drug products containing active ingredients offered for use in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. 310.542 Section 310.542 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for...

  5. 21 CFR 310.536 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a nailbiting or thumbsucking deterrent. 310.536 Section 310.536 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements...

  6. Relative impact of clinical evidence and over-the-counter prescribing on topical antibiotic use for acute infective conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Helen; Mant, David; Scott, Caroline; Lasserson, Daniel; Rose, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute infective conjunctivitis is a common presentation in general practice. In 2005, three placebo-controlled clinical trials showed that use of topical antibiotics had a small effect on time to clinical resolution. In the same year, chloramphenicol eye drops were made available for sale over the counter. Aim To compare the relative impact of clinical trial evidence and a change to over-the-counter availability on community use of topical chloramphenicol. Design of study Observational study using mainly routinely collected data for England. Setting National prescribing data for England and local data from general practices in Oxfordshire, England. Method Data were collated from three sources: GP prescriptions from the Prescription Pricing Authority, wholesale supply to pharmacists from IMS Health, and an audit of delayed prescribing and non-prescribing from electronic consultation records for acute conjunctivitis, in four general practices. Results The number of general practice prescriptions for topical chloramphenicol fell from 2.3 million in 2004 to 1.9 million in 2007, a reduction of 15.5%. In contrast, over-the-counter sales by pharmacists have increased steadily. The net effect of these changes has been a 47.8% increase in total chloramphenicol use during 2005–2007, with 1.1 million additional packs being used in 2007 compared to 2004. Conclusion Making an antibiotic available over the counter increases its use substantially. This is in conflict with the important public health message that antibiotic use needs to be reduced to combat resistance. These findings support the views of the Chief Medical Officer that no more antibiotics should currently be made available over the counter. PMID:20875257

  7. Buyer beware? Does the information provided with herbal products available over the counter enable safe use?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herbal products obtained over the counter are commonly used in Europe, North America and Australia. Although there is concern about a lack of information provided to consumers to allow the safe use of these products, there has been no published research to confirm these fears. In this study, we evaluated written information provided with commonly used herbal products in the UK in advance of a European Union Directive issued in April 2011 that tightened regulations for some herbal products, including requirements to provide safety information. Methods Five commonly used herbal products were purchased from pharmacies, health food shops and supermarkets: St John's wort, Asian ginseng, echinacea, garlic and ginkgo. Written information provided with the products (on the package or on a leaflet contained in the package) was evaluated for inclusion of each of the key safety messages included in the monographs of the US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Specifically, we looked for information on precautions (such as Asian ginseng not being suitable for people with diabetes), interactions with conventional medicines (such as St John's wort with the contraceptive pill and warfarin) and side effects (such as ginkgo and allergic reactions). Results Our analysis showed that, overall, 51 (75%) of 68 products contained none of the key safety messages. This included 4 of 12 St John's wort products, 12 of 12 ginkgo products, 6 of 7 Asian ginseng products, 20 of 21 garlic products and 9 of 13 echinacea products. The two products purchased that are registered under the new European Union regulations (for St John's wort) contained at least 85% of the safety messages. Conclusions Most of the herbal medicine products studied did not provide key safety information which consumers need for their safe use. The new European Union legislation should ensure that St John's wort and echinacea products will include the previously missing information in due

  8. Fate of a stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agent (DSBP) in the presence of Fe(III) aquacomplexes: from the redox process to the photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wong-Wah-Chung, Pascal; Mailhot, Gilles; Aguer, Jean-Pierre; Bolte, Michèle

    2006-12-01

    The behaviour of 4,4'-bis(2-sulfostyryl)biphenyl (DSBP), a fluorescent whitening agent, was investigated in the presence of Fe(III) aquacomplexes at room temperature. In the dark, a two-step reaction was observed when adding Fe(III) to a solution of DSBP: an initial fast redox reaction between DSBP and the monomeric species Fe(OH)(2+) and a slower reaction leading to the coagulation of oxidised DSBP and iron. This phenomenon is due to the formation of a complex or an ion-pair between Fe(II) and/or Fe(III) with oxidised DSBP and it probably occurs by charge neutralisation in our experimental conditions. The precipitation of DSBP depends on the initial concentration in Fe(OH)(2+) and is achieved for a ratio [Fe(OH) (2+)]/[DSBP] of 5 approximately. Under irradiation at 365 nm, a complicated behaviour was observed: a complexation of iron by oxidised DSBP favoured by irradiation and a degradation of DSBP induced by an intramolecular electron transfer in the complex or by a photoredox of Fe(OH)(2+) species generating .OH radicals in the supernatant. The complete degradation of DSBP is reached four times faster in the presence of Fe(III) with respect to the direct photolysis of DSBP alone. Moreover, the total mineralization of DSBP obtained in less than 120 h upon irradiation at 365 nm is only observed in the presence of the ferric ions, enlightening the efficiency of the method involving Fe(III) and UV irradiation. PMID:16860369

  9. Whitening techniques using the diode laser and halogen lamp in human devitalized primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Isa T; Navarro, Ricardo S; Ciamponi, Ana Lídia; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make an in vivo assessment of 2 whitening techniques in deciduous teeth, with the variable being the source of energy activation. Ten upper central incisors darkened by trauma were selected and whitening agent used was a 35% hydrogen peroxide. The teeth were distributed into 2 groups: group 1-activation with an infrared diode laser (GaAlAs), and group 2-activation with a halogen lamp. Assessment of whitening was done by color analysis with the Vita 3D scale at 3 different times: before whitening, immediately after whitening, and 1 week after whitening. A Kruskal-Wallace test showed that there were no significant difference between the 2 groups when comparing group 1 and 2 and comparing 2 and 3 immediately and after 1 week of treatment. Laser activation of the whitening agent was not more effective than halogen light activation for root canal-treated deciduous teeth. PMID:18647512

  10. Skin protectant drug products for over-the-counter human use; final monograph; technical amendment. Final rule; technical amendment.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulation that established conditions under which over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant drug products are generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded as part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. This amendment revises several of the indications for OTC skin protectant drug products to provide additional labeling claims that should not have been excluded from the final monograph (FM). PMID:14664244

  11. A Guide to the Ingredients and Potential Benefits of Over-the-Counter Cleansers and Moisturizers for Rosacea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult for rosacea patients to discern which products and ingredients will be beneficial to their skin and which products will lead to an exacerbation of the signs and symptoms of rosacea. In this paper, the authors provide a brief overview of rosacea, its pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and the management of the two major rosacea subtypes—erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. Reviewed in greater detail are the common ingredients used in over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers with discussion of how these ingredients potentially benefit or harm the skin of patients with rosacea. Clinical studies investigating the benefits of using certain over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers in patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea with or without topical prescription therapy are also reviewed. The specific formulas used in the clinical studies include a sensitive skin synthetic detergent bar, a nonalkaline cleanser and moisturizer, polyhydroxy acid containing cleanser and moisturizer, and a ceramide-based cleanser and moisturizer formulated in a multivesicular emulsion. Based on review of available data, the authors conclude that the use of mild over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers is beneficial for patients with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papular pustular rosacea. The properties of over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers that contribute to their mildness include an acidic-neutral pH to minimize the flux in skin pH; surfactants or emulsifiers that will not strip the skin of its moisture or strip the lipids and proteins of the stratum corneum; moisturizing ingredients such as emollients, humectants, and occlusives; and formulas without potential irritants and allergens. The most consistent clinical benefits demonstrated in the reviewed studies were a subjectively perceived improvement in subjective symptoms of dryness and irritation as well as an objective improvement in

  12. Factors influencing consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer and over-the-counter drug advertising.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mina; Whitehill King, Karen; Reid, Leonard N

    2015-04-01

    Using a model developed from the research literature, the authors compared consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DCTA) and over-the-counter nonprescription drug advertising (OTCA) of drugs. Adults 18 years of age and older who had taken any prescription drugs in the past 6 months completed online survey questionnaires. Variables measured included demographics (age, gender, race, education, and income), health-related characteristics (health status, prescription and over-the-counter drug use, health consciousness, and involvement with prescription or over-the-counter drugs), perceived amount of attention and exposure to DTCA and OTCA, attitudinal outcomes (skepticism toward DTCA/OTCA and attitude toward DTCA/OTCA), and behavioral outcomes triggered by DTCA and OTCA. The findings indicate that exposure to drug advertising is one of the most significant predictors of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Some audience factors such as health status, involvement with drugs, health consciousness, drug use, income, and age also were differentially associated with consumer responses to drug advertising. PMID:25730505

  13. Microemulsions and nanoemulsions: novel vehicles for whitening cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Junyaprasert, Varaporn B; Suksawad, Nattiya; Songkro, Sarunyoo

    2009-08-01

    For Asian women, white skin is preferable. During the last decade, skin whitening products appear to be the largest and continually growing segment in skin-care market in Asia and have an impaction of economic worth. Skin whitening or lightening agents are as cosmetics which act as a drug-like benefit since melanin producing process of the skin is disturbed and can be classified as cosmeceuticals. To increase efficiency, novel vehicles are necessary for skin penetration enhancement of these agents. Microemulsions and nanoemulsions are one of useful nanocarriers for skin application in view of achieving efficiency of the active substances. Moreover, they can be formulated with ease for active ingredient incorporation, high stability and good appearance. In this review article, applications of well-known whitening or lightening agents were summarized. In addition, the use of microemulsions and nanoemulsions as novel vehicles for whitening products were discussed. PMID:20055083

  14. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. (a) Thiamine hydrochloride... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack...

  15. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. (a) Thiamine hydrochloride... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack...

  16. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. (a) Thiamine hydrochloride... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack...

  17. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. (a) Thiamine hydrochloride... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack...

  18. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. (a) Thiamine hydrochloride... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack...

  19. Detection of a whitening fluorescent agent as an indicator of white paper biodegradation: a new approach to study the kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Bichet-Hébé, I; Pourcher, A M; Sutra, L; Comel, C; Moguedet, G

    1999-08-01

    A simple and reliable method to estimate paper degradation by cellulolytic bacteria is described. This method is based on the detection in the culture medium of a fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) added to white paper during the manufacturing process. Preliminary results using a Cellulomonas strain cultivated in a liquid medium containing FWA, indicated that this component is non-toxic at a final concentration of 0.01 per thousand (v/v) and that the fluorescence decreased during the first 24 h of incubation, i.e. during exponential growth phase, suggesting an adsorption of FWA on bacterial cells. Consequently, all experiments have been performed with a liquid medium containing FWA (0.01 per thousand v/v) and white paper (8.0 g/l) as cellulose source. Mixed bacterial populations (MBPs) were prepared from refuse samples. These MBPs, which mainly consisted of bacterial rod cells, were used as inocula and fluorescence was measured after 30 h of incubation, i.e. after the stationary phase was reached. A high linear correlation (R(2) = 0.979) was found between the percentages of degraded paper (%P) deduced from residual paper weight and the fluorescence values (F) of the culture medium and the following equation between %P and F was determined: %P = 8.71x10(-5) x F. An additional experiment using a second MBP showed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.990) between the measured %P and the %P estimated from F values, confirming the reproducibility of the method. Moreover, the time course of paper degradation by five replicate flasks from a unique MBP was set up. Paper degradation was detected 3 to 5 days after the beginning of the stationary phase. The average degradation rate between the 7th and the 11th day of incubation was 11.4% per day. Rates of paper degradation ranged from 31 to 60% after 10 days and from 77 to 88% after 3 weeks of incubation, depending on the inoculum. PMID:10445310

  20. Effect of various tooth whitening modalities on microhardness, surface roughness and surface morphology of the enamel.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Kurti, Steven R; Oyoyo, Udochukwu; Li, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four whitening modalities on surface enamel as assessed with microhardness tester, profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whitening was performed according to manufacturer's directions for over-the-counter (OTC), dentist dispensed for home use (HW) and in-office (OW) whitening. Do-it-yourself (DIY) whitening consisted of a strawberry and baking soda mix. Additionally, negative and positive controls were used. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for microhardness testing at baseline and post-whitening. Following microhardness testing specimens were prepared for SEM observations. A total of 120 enamel specimens were used for surface roughness testing at baseline and post-whitening (n = 20 per group). Rank-based Analysis of Covariance was performed to compare microhardness and surface roughness changes. Tests of hypotheses were two-sided with α = 0.05. There was a significant difference in Knoop hardness changes (ΔKHN) among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Significant hardness reduction was observed in the positive control and DIY group (p < 0.0001). Mean surface roughness changes (ΔRa) were significantly different among the groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Surface roughness increased in the OTC group (p = 0.03) and in the positive control (p < 0.0001). The four whitening modalities-DIY, OTC, HW and OW induced minimal surface morphology changes when observed with SEM. It can be concluded that none of the four whitening modalities adversely affected enamel surface morphology. However, caution should be advised when using a DIY regimen as it may affect enamel microhardness and an OTC product as it has the potential to increase surface roughness. PMID:24972882

  1. Tooth whitening in children.

    PubMed

    Donly, Kevin J; Donly, Adriana Segura; Baharloo, Laila; Rojas-Candelas, Edith; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Zhou, Xiaojie; Gerlach, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    Although there are several case reports of vital tooth bleaching in children, there is limited clinical trial evidence of the safety or efficacy of this practice. Accordingly, a new clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of 2 different bleaching systems, a 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip system and a 10% carbamide peroxide tray system, in a population of preteens and teens. A total of 106 volunteers, aged 11 to 18 years, took part in this 8-week study. Patients were randomized by a ratio of 2:1 to the strip or tray groups, with each group treating the maxillary arch first and then the mandibular arch for 4 consecutive weeks each. Individuals assigned to the strip group used the system twice daily for 30 minutes (a total of 56 contact hours over the 8-week study). Those assigned to the tray group used that system overnight (approximately 448 contact hours). Digital images were obtained at baseline and after every 2-week treatment period. Average tooth color was determined in L*, a*, b* color space, where L* indicated lightness, a* indicated red-green, and b* indicated yellow-blue. Both systems significantly whitened teeth (P < 0.0001). While there were no significant differences between groups with respect to the primary whitening response (delta b*) on the maxillary teeth, 4 weeks of overnight treatment with the 10% carbamide peroxide tray (approximately 224 contact hours) yielded statistically significant whitening (P < 0.05) on the mandibular teeth compared with the 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip used for 28 hours. Both tooth-whitening systems had similar sensitivity/irritation reported after instructed use. This research demonstrates that tooth whitening in teens may be safely accomplished using either the short-contact-time hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips or the overnight carbamide peroxide tray systems tested in this study. PMID:11913290

  2. Anti-calculus and whitening toothpastes.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, Cor; Duckworth, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In terms of novel formulations, there seems to have been a shift in emphasis from anti-caries/anti-gingivitis to anti-calculus/whitening toothpastes in recent years. The anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes are to some extent based on the same active ingredients: compounds of high affinity for tooth mineral. Due to this affinity, crystal growth may be hindered (anti-calculus) and chromophores be displaced (whitening). Besides these common ingredients, both types of toothpaste may contain agents specifically aimed at each condition. Clinical studies have shown that these active ingredients can be successfully formulated in fluoride toothpastes to give significant reductions in supragingival calculus and stain formation and facilitate their removal. Some of the ingredients are formulated in toothpastes that additionally contain anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis ingredients, making these toothpastes (together with the fluoride) truly multi-functional. The development of these products is not straightforward because of interaction between formulation components and because the active ingredients must maintain their beneficial characteristics during the shelf life of the paste. Neither a therapeutic benefit (in terms of less gingivitis or less caries) nor a societal benefit (in terms of less treatment demand) has been demonstrated as a result of the anti-calculus and whitening effects of toothpastes. PMID:23817060

  3. Use of Prescription and Over-the-counter Medications and Dietary Supplements Among Older Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Qato, Dima M.; Alexander, G. Caleb; Conti, Rena M.; Johnson, Michael; Schumm, Phil; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2009-01-01

    Context Despite concerns about drug safety, current information on older adults’ use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements is limited. Objective To estimate the prevalence and patterns of medication use among older adults (including concurrent use), and potential major drug-drug interactions. Design, Setting, and Participants Three thousand five community-residing individuals, aged 57 through 85 years, were drawn from a cross-sectional, nationally representative probability sample of the United States. In-home interviews, including medication logs, were administered between June 2005 and March 2006. Medication use was defined as prescription, over-the-counter, and dietary supplements used “on a regular schedule, like every day or every week.” Concurrent use was defined as the regular use of at least 2 medications. Main Outcome Measure Population estimates of the prevalence of medication use, concurrent use, and potential major drug-drug interactions, stratified by age group and gender. Results The unweighted survey response rate was 74.8% (weighted response rate, 75.5%). Eighty-one percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.4%–83.5%) used at least 1 prescription medication, 42% (95% CI, 39.7%–44.8%) used at least 1 over-the-counter medication, and 49% (95% CI, 46.2%–52.7%) used a dietary supplement. Twenty-nine percent (95% CI, 26.6%–30.6%) used at least 5 prescription medications concurrently; this was highest among men (37.1%; 95% CI, 31.7%–42.4%) and women (36.0%; 95% CI, 30.2%–41.9%) aged 75 to 85 years. Among prescription medication users, concurrent use of over-the-counter medications was 46% (95% CI, 43.4%–49.1%) and concurrent use of dietary supplements was 52% (95% CI, 48.8%–55.5%). Overall, 4% of individuals were potentially at risk of having a major drug-drug interaction; half of these involved the use of nonprescription medications. These regimens were most prevalent among men in the oldest age

  4. Pharmacist's evolving role in the nonopioid, over-the-counter, analgesic selection process.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacist provides an integral role in pain management and treatment by focusing on the selection and evaluation of analgesic agents in a process that is patient specific, patient focused, and patient centered in a personalized care plan. Counseling patients (and the families of patients) who are using acetaminophen, aspirin, and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for acute musculoskeletal pain and inflammation regarding the appropriate use of these agents is a key component of the pharmacist's overall pharmacotherapeutic role. This article reviews the importance of explaining the therapeutic and nontherapeutic effects of these agents, cautions, contraindications, dosing parameters, and the avoidance of acetaminophen/aspirin and multiple nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use to patients and prescribers. The article also discusses the need to evaluate the cytochrome P450 system and the patient's pharmacotherapy and comorbid disease history to identify potential drug-mediated interactions. Evaluation of patients for comorbidities, allergies, and gastrointestinal, renal, hepatic, hematologic, and cardiovascular risks is also addressed, as are essential laboratory tests and the special needs of elderly patients. PMID:26448336

  5. Rheologic Profile, Specific Gravity, Surface Tension, and pH of Fifteen Over-the-Counter Preparations.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Baghat, Tushar; Chukwubeze, Onah; Dembla, Ishwin

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical characteristics of commercially available over-the-counter preparations can aid the compounding pharmacist in preparing medication. In this study, 15 over-the-counter products were studied with regard to their specific gravity, surface tension, pH, and rheologic profile. The specific gravities of all the products were greater than 1, with the exceptions of Nivea Lotion and rubbing alcohol, which were less than 1. The majority of the products had an acidic pH. With the exception of two products, Citrucel and Chloraseptic, all products demonstrated a surface tension value less than that of water (72.8 dynes/cm). Chloraseptic had the lowest Newtonian viscosity (1.27 cPs), whereas Vicks DayQuil had the highest (098.86 cPs). Citrucel exhibited dilatant-type flow; Suave Shampoo, herbal shampoo, Tangerine Tickle Herbal Shampoo, and Metamucil pseudoplastic flow; the remaining non-Newtonian formulations, plastic flow profiles. PMID:23996027

  6. Over-the-Counter and Out-of-Control: Legal Strategies to Protect Youths From Abusing Products for Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of widely available, over-the-counter drugs and supplements such as laxatives and diet pills for weight control by youths is well documented in the epidemiological literature. Many such products are not medically recommended for healthy weight control or are especially susceptible to abuse, and their misuse can result in serious health consequences. We analyzed the government’s role in regulating these products to protect public health. We examined federal and state regulatory authority, and referred to international examples to inform our analysis. Several legal interventions are indicated to protect youths, including increased warnings and restrictions on access through behind-the-counter placement or age verification. We suggest future directions for governments internationally to address this pervasive public health problem. PMID:23237149

  7. Managing Use of Over-the-Counter Medications in the School Setting: Keeping Kids in School and Ready to Learn.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Anne C

    2016-07-01

    The use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications in our unique school setting has proven to be a cost-effective and valuable tool in keeping students in the classroom and prepared to learn. Disruptions in educational time due to minor complaints become frustrating for students and teachers. Utilizing the assessment skills of the school nurse and treatment options available through the use of OTC medications decreases those disruptions and protects the educational time. The opportunity to increase student understanding and health literacy regarding the correct use of OTC medications is a valuable way to protect the health of students. Lessons learned in the residential setting may have application to other school settings. PMID:26980851

  8. Use of over the counter oral relief aids or dietary supplements for the ring-opening polymerization of lactide.

    PubMed

    Balasanthiran, Vagulejan; Beilke, Tamara L; Chisholm, Malcolm H

    2013-07-01

    Over the counter oral relief aids or dietary supplements, namely calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, Tums® and Pepto-Bismol® have been investigated in the melt ring-opening polymerization of lactide and a direct comparison with that involving tin(II) octanoate has been made. Of these, Pepto-Bismol® is shown to be the most active and comparable to tin octanoate. The active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol® is bismuth subsalicylate and when this is employed as the initiator similar results are obtained in melt polymerizations which suggests it could be employed as an alternative to the commercially used tin(II) octanoate. PMID:23047812

  9. The non-destructive identification of solid over-the-counter medications using single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Audrey N; Farquar, George R; Jones, A Daniel; Frank, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Single over-the-counter medication tablets were analyzed in real time using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS). Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for micrometer-sized single particles dislodged from a single tablet without destroying the shape or markings of each tablet. The solid tablet was placed in a modified-top glass vial and shaken to dislodge and introduce micrometer-sized particles into the SPAMS system. Unique spectra from these particles were obtained in less than 1 s for single tablets of aspirin, ibuprofen, pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, loratadine, or diphenhydramine. The signals obtained allowed the non-destructive identification of an individual tablet in seconds. SPAMS presents an ideal system for high-throughput analysis of solid drugs. PMID:17935106

  10. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. PMID:24334193

  11. Ex vivo effectiveness of French over-the-counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Toubate, Berthine; Veirron, Emilie; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is still a public health problem worldwide, with an intracountry and intercountry prevalence variation of 0.7 to 59%. There is a large variety of over-the-counter anti-louse products, but their efficacy is not always well assessed. Our objective was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of 21 over-the-counter head louse products, available in France during the period of 2008 to 2012. We tested children living in Tours City in central France and visiting preschools, primary schools, kindergarten, camps, and child care facilities, as well as children in their family houses, and were examined for the presence of lice. The products were collected from randomly selected pharmacies by covert investigators and then tested in the laboratory on an ex vivo sample of head lice and their eggs, collected from the hair of infested children. Living lice and unharmed eggs were collected from the scalps of 3-12 years old. The laboratory conditions for ex vivo testing mimicked the manufacturers' instructions for exposure time and application method. In 21 runs, 3919 living lice and 4321 undamaged living eggs were collected from the scalp of over 400 children. The 21 products were classified in three groups: 6 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity and potentially 100% ovicidal activity, 8 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity but insufficient ovicidal activity (including 2 products with claims of single application treatment), and 7 products in a group of insufficient pediculicidal activity and ovicidal activity. The pharmaceutical market for head lice products in France is swamped with poorly tested and ineffective products. Rigorous efficacy testing preregistration and periodic screening and testing of effectiveness in the post-registration period should be endorsed by the health authorities. PMID:25716822

  12. Popularity and customer preferences for over-the-counter Chinese medicines perceived by community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou: a questionnaire survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study interviewed community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou for their perception of the popular categories of over-the-counter (OTC) Chinese medicines and the factors affecting customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six main administrative districts in Guangzhou and eight main administrative districts in Shanghai, China. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted in this study. Results OTC Chinese medicines contributed 21–50% among all the pharmaceutical sales by the community pharmacies. The prevalent categories of OTC Chinese medicines were common cold medicines, respiratory system medicines, digestive system agents, gynecological medicines, health tonic medicines, and qing re (heat-clearing) and qu du (detoxifying) medicines. Customers were more concerned about medical factors of OTC Chinese medicines than business factors. Among the medical factors, the most important was drug safety, followed by efficacy, contraindications, indications, and side effects. Among the business factors, the most important were brand and price. Conclusions This study identified the top sales categories of OTC Chinese medicines in Shanghai and Guangzhou and the important factors such as drug safety, efficacy, period of validity, contraindications, and indications that are affecting the customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. PMID:25243017

  13. Laxative drug products for over-the-counter human use; psyllium ingredients in granular dosage forms. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-03-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing that over-the-counter (OTC) laxative drug products in granular dosage form containing the bulk-forming psyllium ingredients (psyllium (hemicellulose), psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, psyllium seed, psyllium seed (blond), psyllium seed husks, plantago ovata husks, and plantago seed) are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) and are misbranded. This final rule includes, but is not limited to, any granules that are swallowed dry prior to drinking liquid; dispersed, suspended, or partially dissolved in liquid prior to swallowing; chewed, partially chewed, or unchewed, and then washed down (or swallowed) with liquid; or sprinkled over food. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering reports of esophageal obstruction associated with the use of psyllium laxatives in granular dosage form. These cases continue to occur despite efforts to promote safe use through label warnings and directions. This final rule does not apply to psyllium laxatives in nongranular dosage forms, such as powders, tablets, or wafers. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products. PMID:17450664

  14. Demographic, Risk, and Spatial Factors Associated With Over-the-Counter Syringe Purchase Among Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Stopka, Thomas J.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wenger, Lynn D.; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Geraghty, Estella M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, California law allowed over-the-counter (OTC) syringe sales pending local authorization. Although pharmacy sales of OTC syringes are associated with reduced injection-mediated risks and decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates, little is known about the factors associated with syringe purchase among injection drug users (IDUs). Using a cross-sectional design, the authors applied targeted sampling to collect quantitative survey data from IDUs (n = 563) recruited in San Francisco, California, during 2008. They also compiled a comprehensive list of retail pharmacies, their location, and whether they sell OTC syringes. They used a novel combination of geographic information system and statistical analyses to determine the demographic, behavioral, and spatial factors associated with OTC syringe purchase by IDUs. In multivariate analyses, age, race, injection frequency, the type of drug injected, and the source of syringe supply were independently associated with OTC syringe purchases. Notably, the prevalence of OTC syringe purchase was 53% lower among African-American IDUs (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.67) and higher among injectors of methamphetamine (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.70). Two neighborhoods with high densities of IDUs had limited access to OTC syringes. Increased access to OTC syringes would potentially prevent blood-borne infectious diseases among IDUs. PMID:22562660

  15. Over-the-Counter Relief From Pains and Pleasures Alike: Acetaminophen Blunts Evaluation Sensitivity to Both Negative and Positive Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Durso, Geoffrey R O; Luttrell, Andrew; Way, Baldwin M

    2015-06-01

    Acetaminophen, an effective and popular over-the-counter pain reliever (e.g., the active ingredient in Tylenol), has recently been shown to blunt individuals' reactivity to a range of negative stimuli in addition to physical pain. Because accumulating research has shown that individuals' reactivity to both negative and positive stimuli can be influenced by a single factor (an idea known as differential susceptibility), we conducted two experiments testing whether acetaminophen blunted individuals' evaluations of and emotional reactions to both negative and positive images from the International Affective Picture System. Participants who took acetaminophen evaluated unpleasant stimuli less negatively and pleasant stimuli less positively, compared with participants who took a placebo. Participants in the acetaminophen condition also rated both negative and positive stimuli as less emotionally arousing than did participants in the placebo condition (Studies 1 and 2), whereas nonevaluative ratings (extent of color saturation in each image; Study 2) were not affected by drug condition. These findings suggest that acetaminophen has a general blunting effect on individuals' evaluative and emotional processing, irrespective of negative or positive valence. PMID:25862546

  16. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Electrosurgical Device for Over-the-Counter Aesthetic Use. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the electrosurgical device for over-the-counter aesthetic use into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the electrosurgical device for over-the-counter aesthetic use's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:27373015

  17. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 3: Paediatric deaths associated with over the counter cough and cold medicines.

    PubMed

    Deschler, Deanna; Judge, Bryan

    2014-02-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether over the counter cough and cold medicines were associated with unexpected deaths in childhood. 115 papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of those best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that while over the counter cough and cold medications may be associated with unexpected paediatric deaths, the degree of risk is not clear. PMID:24429253

  18. Quantitative determination of a-Arbutin, ß-Arbutin, Kojic acid, nicotinamide, hydroquinone, resorcinol, 4-methoxyphenol, 4-ethoxyphenol and ascorbic acid from skin whitening Products by HPLC-UV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multifarious skin whitening agents will provide an efficient tool to analyze skin whitening cosmetics. An HPLC-UV method was developed for quantitative analysis of six commonly used whitening agents, a-arbutin, ß-arbutin, koji...

  19. Seasonal Variation in Penicillin Use in Mexico and Brazil: Analysis of the Impact of Over-the-Counter Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

    2014-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use. PMID:25313222

  20. The drugs don't sell: DIY heart health and the over-the-counter statin experience.

    PubMed

    Will, Catherine M; Weiner, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This paper draws on a study of over-the-counter statins to provide a critical account of the figure of the 'pharmaceutical consumer' as a key actor in the pharmaceuticalisation literature. A low dose statin, promising to reduce cardiovascular risk, was reclassified to allow sale in pharmacies in the UK in 2004. We analysed professional and policy debates about the new product, promotional and sales information, and interviews with consumers and potential consumers conducted between 2008 and 2011, to consider the different consumer identities invoked by these diverse actors. While policymakers constructed an image of 'the citizen-consumer' who would take responsibility for heart health through exercising the choice to purchase a drug that was effectively rationed on the NHS and medical professionals raised concerns about 'a flawed consumer' who was likely to misuse the product, both these groups assumed that there would be a market for the drug. By contrast, those who bought the product or potentially fell within its target market might appear as 'health consumers', seeking out and paying for different food and lifestyle products and services, including those targeting high cholesterol. However, they were reluctant 'pharmaceutical consumers' who either preferred to take medication on the advice of a doctor, or sought to minimize medicine use. In comparison to previous studies, our analysis builds understanding of individual consumers in a market, rather than collective action for access to drugs (or, less commonly, compensation for adverse effects). Where some theories of pharmaceuticalisation have presented consumers as creating pressure for expanding markets, our data suggests that sociologists should be cautious about assuming there will be demand for new pharmaceutical products, especially those aimed at prevention or asymptomatic conditions, even in burgeoning health markets. PMID:24954520

  1. Over-the-counter fish oil use in a county hospital: Medication use evaluation and efficacy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tatachar, Amulya; Pio, Margaret; Yeung, Denise; Moss, Elizabeth; Chow, Diem; Boatright, Steven; Quinones, Marissa; Mathew, Annie; Hulstein, Jeffrey; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Ahmad, Zahid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the use and effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) fish oil supplements for triglyceride (TG) lowering. OBJECTIVES To (1) perform a medication-use evaluation (MUE) and (2) assess the efficacy of OTC fish oil. METHODS Retrospective, observational cohort study using electronic medical records and the pharmacy database from Parkland Health and Hospital System in Dallas, Texas. Parkland is a tax-supported county institution that provides patients with single-brand OTC fish oil. Two separate analyses were conducted. Six hundred seventeen patients (prescribed fish oil between July 1, 2012, and August 31, 2012) were included in the MUE analysis and 235 patients (109 fish oil, 72 fenofibrate, and 54 gemfibrozil, prescribed between January 1, 2012, and July 31, 2013) were included in the efficacy analysis. The main outcome measure for the MUE was fish oil prescribing habits including dosages and patient adherence, as defined by medication possession ratio. The main outcome measure for the efficacy analysis was change in lipids measured using the last value before fish oil treatment and the first value after fish oil treatment. RESULTS MUE: 617 patients received prescriptions for OTC fish oil. Sixty-four percent were prescribed a total daily dose of 2000 mg. Only 25% of patients were adherent. Efficacy analysis: despite being prescribed suboptimal doses, fish oil reduced TGs by 29% (95% confidence interval, 34.3–22.7). Compared with fish oil therapy, fibrate therapy resulted in a greater TG reduction: 48.5% (55.1–41.0) with fenofibrate and 49.8% (57.6–40.5) with gemfibrozil (P < 0001, both medications compared with fish oil). CONCLUSIONS Health care providers prescribe suboptimal doses of fish oil, and adherence is poor. Even at low doses (2 g/d), though, fish oil lowers TGs by 29%. PMID:26073390

  2. Is wetter better? An evaluation of over-the-counter personal lubricants for safety and anti-HIV-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Brown, Elizabeth R; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; Leblanc, Marc-André; Rohan, Lisa C

    2012-01-01

    Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm. PMID:23144863

  3. Is Wetter Better? An Evaluation of Over-the-Counter Personal Lubricants for Safety and Anti-HIV-1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Moncla, Bernard; Russo, Julie; Cost, Marilyn; Wang, Lin; Uranker, Kevin; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya P.; Pryke, Kara; Pickett, Jim; LeBlanc, Marc-André; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2012-01-01

    Because lubricants may decrease trauma during coitus, it is hypothesized that they could aid in the prevention of HIV acquisition. Therefore, safety and anti-HIV-1 activity of over-the-counter (OTC) aqueous- (n = 10), lipid- (n = 2), and silicone-based (n = 2) products were tested. The rheological properties of the lipid-based lubricants precluded testing with the exception of explant safety testing. Six aqueous-based gels were hyperosmolar, two were nearly iso-osmolar, and two were hypo-osmolar. Evaluation of the panel of products showed Gynol II (a spermicidal gel containing 2% nonoxynol-9), KY Jelly, and Replens were toxic to Lactobacillus. Two nearly iso-osmolar aqueous- and both silicone-based gels were not toxic toward epithelial cell lines or ectocervical or colorectal explant tissues. Hyperosmolar lubricants demonstrated reduction of tissue viability and epithelial fracture/sloughing while the nearly iso-osmolar and silicon-based lubricants showed no significant changes in tissue viability or epithelial modifications. While most of the lubricants had no measurable anti-HIV-1 activity, three lubricants which retained cell viability did demonstrate modest anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. To determine if this would result in protection of mucosal tissue or conversely determine if the epithelial damage associated with the hyperosmolar lubricants increased HIV-1 infection ex vivo, ectocervical tissue was exposed to selected lubricants and then challenged with HIV-1. None of the lubricants that had a moderate to high therapeutic index protected the mucosal tissue. These results show hyperosmolar lubricant gels were associated with cellular toxicity and epithelial damage while showing no anti-viral activity. The two iso-osmolar lubricants, Good Clean Love and PRÉ, and both silicone-based lubricants, Female Condom 2 lubricant and Wet Platinum, were the safest in our testing algorithm. PMID:23144863

  4. The Impact of Restricting Over-the-Counter Sales of Antimicrobial Drugs: Preliminary Analysis of National Data.

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria Luísa; Boszczowski, Icaro; Mortari, Naíma; Barrozo, Lígia Vizeu; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Lobo, Renata Desordi; Pedroso de Lima, Antonio Carlos; Levin, Anna S

    2015-09-01

    To describe the nationwide impact of a restrictive law on over-the-counter sales of antimicrobial drugs, implemented in Brazil in November 2010. Approximately 75% of the population receives healthcare from the public health system and receives free-of-charge medication if prescribed. Total sales in private pharmacies as compared with other channels of sales of oral antibiotics were evaluated in this observational study before and after the law (2008-2012). Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) was used as standard unit. In private pharmacies the effect of the restrictive law was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with an estimated decrease in DDD/TID of 1.87 (s.e. =  0.18). In addition, the trend of DDD/TID before the restrictive law was greater than after the intervention (P < 0.001). Before November 2010, the slope for the trend line was estimated as 0.08 (s.e. = 0.01) whereas after the law, the estimated slope was 0.03 (s.e. = 0.01). As for the nonprivate channels, no difference in sales was observed (P = 0.643). The impact in the South and Southeast (more developed) regions was higher than in the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. The state capitals had a 19% decrease, compared with 0.8% increase in the rest of the states. Before the law, the sales of antimicrobial drugs were steadily increasing. From November 2010, with the restrictive law, there was an abrupt drop in sales followed by an increase albeit at a significantly lower rate. The impact was higher in regions with better socio-economic status. PMID:26402824

  5. Medicine reclassification processes and regulations for proper use of over-the-counter self-care medicines in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Kaori; Kitagawa, Yuki; Yuda, Yasukatsu; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Japan has actively reclassified substances ranging from prescription drugs to over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in recent years. The sale of most OTC drugs was deregulated several times and pharmacists’ supervision was deemed no longer mandatory. Japan established a new OTC evaluation system in 2015 to hear opinions from various stakeholders regarding medicine types to be reclassified. This study aimed to examine the new framework to identify candidate substances for reclassification. Moreover, we examined how to manage the safe, self-care use of OTC drugs in Japan. Methods The necessary regulatory information on OTC approvals as of January 2015 was collected using an Internet search and relevant databases. To highlight the characteristics of OTC drugs in Japan, the UK was selected as a comparison country because it too was actively promoting the reclassification of medicines from prescription to nonprescription status, and because of economic similarity. Results Japan and the UK have a risk-based classification for nonprescription medicines. Japan has made OTC drugs available with mandatory pharmacists’ supervision, face-to-face with pharmacists, or online instruction, which is similar to the “pharmacy medicine” practiced in the UK. Japan recently reformed the reclassification process to involve physicians and the public in the process; some interactions were back to “prescription-only medicine” in the UK. Conclusion It is expected that the opinion of marketers, medical professionals, and the public will improve the discussion that will greatly contribute to the safe use of drugs. Monitoring the new system will be noteworthy to ensure that OTC drug users are managing their self-care properly and visiting a doctor only when necessary. The supply methods are similar in Japan and the UK; however, the expected growth in the Japanese OTC market by the Cabinet and the industry is still uncertain. PMID:27555801

  6. Relationships between Perceptual Attributes and Rheology in Over-the-Counter Vaginal Products: A Potential Tool for Microbicide Development

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Ellen D.; Zaveri, Toral; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides are believed to have substantial potential to empower women to protect themselves from HIV, although clinical trials to date have had mixed results at best. Issues with patient adherence in these trials suggest additional emphasis should be placed on optimizing acceptability. Acceptability is driven, in part, by the sensory properties of the microbicide, so better understanding of the relationships between sensory properties and the physical and rheological properties of microbicides should facilitate the simultaneous optimization of sensory properties in parallel with the biophysical properties required for drug deployment. Recently, we have applied standard methods to assess the potential acceptability of microbicide prototypes ex vivo and to quantify the sensory properties of microbicide surrogates. Here, we link quantitative perceptual data to the rheological properties of 6 over-the counter (OTC) vaginal products used as ex vivo microbicide surrogates. Shear-thinning behavior (n) and tan δ (10 rad/s) showed no relationship with any perceptual attributes while shear storage modulus, G’ (10 rad/s) was correlated with some attributes, but did not appear to be a strong predictor of sensory properties. Conversely, the storage loss modulus, G” (10 rad/s) and the consistency coefficient, K, were correlated with several sensory attributes: stickiness, rubberiness, and uniform thickness for G’’ and stickiness, rubberiness, and peaking for K. Although these relationships merit confirmation in later studies, this pilot study suggests rheological principles can be used to understand the sensory properties evoked by microbicide surrogates assessed ex vivo. Additional work is needed to determine if these findings would apply for microbicides in vivo. PMID:25188244

  7. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions...

  8. 21 CFR 201.21 - Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of presence of phenylalanine as a component of aspartame in over-the-counter and prescription drugs for human use. 201.21 Section 201.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions...

  9. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  10. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

  11. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  12. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  13. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  14. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  15. 21 CFR 310.547 - Drug products containing quinine offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. 310.547 Section 310.547 Food and Drugs FOOD... over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria. (a) Quinine and quinine salts have been used OTC for the treatment and/or prevention of malaria, a serious and potentially...

  16. Key information providers, channels, and characteristics of Japanese consumers' informed choices of over-the-counter medications.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makiko; Masuda, Sachiko; Kimura, Hiromichi

    2015-01-01

    People need reliable information regarding over-the-counter medications (OTCs), so that they can independently make appropriate informed choices. The study aimed to identify the information providers and channels that have an impact on the purchase of OTCs, and to demonstrate the information needs of OTC purchasers, using these providers and channels, from the viewpoint of information characteristics such as specialty, objectivity, concreteness, comprehensiveness, individuality, and availability, focusing on the efficacy of OTCs and related safety information. A questionnaire survey of randomly sampled adults aged ≥20 was conducted at the Japan Drugstore Show 2012, hosted by the Japan Association of Chain Drug Stores. In this questionnaire, information was particularly limited to the efficacy and safety of OTCs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on data from 1743 respondents (1625 purchasers and 118 non-purchasers of OTCs) who obtained information on OTCs in their daily lives, to demonstrate the associations between the use of information providers and channels (predictor variables) and the purchase of OTCs (outcome variable), as well as between information characteristics valued by purchasers (predictor variables) and their use of these information providers or channels (outcome variables). Both the use of pharmacists as information providers and consultation at pharmacies as an information channel were positively associated with the purchase of OTCs (odds ratio [OR], 3.74; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 2.46-5.68; P < 0.001 and OR, 4.55; 95 % CI 2.92-7.11, P < 0.001, respectively), whereas both the use of family or friends using OTCs as information providers and family or friends as information channels were negatively associated with the purchase of OTCs (OR, 0.60; 95 % CI 0.40-0.90; P = 0.014 and OR, 0.55; 95 % CI 0.36-0.82; P = 0.004, respectively). OTC purchasers who valued individuality of information were more likely to

  17. A Study on the Dispensing Pattern of Over the Counter Drugs in Retail Pharmacies in Sarjapur Area, East Bangalore

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Ananya; Srinivas, B.N

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the counter drugs (OTC) are sold without the prescription of a registered medical practitioner. There are reports that OTC drug market in India is on the rise. This is attributed to the rising cost of health care, difficulty in accessing healthcare, and an alarming tendency to self manage symptoms. The outcome of this is OTC related adverse effects, abuse, and hospitalizations. Literature on OTC is sparse. Hence this study was undertaken to evaluate the dispensing pattern of OTC drugs in retail pharmacies in Sarjapur area, East Bangalore. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in 3 retail pharmacies in Sarjapur area, Bangalore East. The duration of the study was for a period of 10 days from August 1st to August 10th 2014. The common complaints for which the patients frequented the pharmacies were observed and recorded .The investigator personally interviewed the patients between 6pm to 9pm, near the respective pharmacies. During this study period around 216 patients visited pharmacies without prescription. The drugs supplied to 216 patients by private pharmacies without prescription was recorded. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel. Results and Observations Most commonly dispensed OTC drugs were analgesics (26.8%). The other categories of medications dispensed were antihistamines (15.2%), antacids (14.8%), antibiotics (10%), antipyretics (7.8%), Oral contraceptive (OC pills) (5.09%) and others (20%). The commonly dispensed antibiotics were Cefadroxil (250mg) for dental infection and Levofloxacin (500mg) for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common complaint for the use of OTC drugs was pain (25%). It was noted that 55.09% of the dispensed drugs belonged to schedule H. However, 13% patients were aware regarding the harmful effects of drugs. Conclusion The use of OTC drugs is alarmingly high in Bangalore East. Pharmacists have to be trained and educated regarding rationale dispensing of drugs. The need

  18. Hot-water and solid-phase extraction of fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials and infant clothes followed by unequivocal determination with ion-pair chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2006-03-10

    A comprehensive method for the determination of four stilbene-type disulfonate and one distyrylbiphenyl-type fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) in paper materials (napkin and paper tissue) and infant clothes was developed. FWAs were extracted from paper material and cloth samples using a hot-water extraction, and the aqueous extracts were then preconcentrated with the newly developed Oasis WAX (mixed-mode of weak anion exchange and reversed-phase sorbent) solid-phase extraction cartridge. The analytes were unequivocal determined by ion pair chromatography coupled with negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS), applying a di-n-hexyl-ammonium acetate (DHAA) as the ion-pairing reagent in mobile phase. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were established between 0.2 and 0.9 ng/g in 2 g of samples. Recovery of five FWAs in spiked commercial samples was between 42 and 95% and RSD (n = 3) ranging from 2 to 11%. The method was finally applied to commercial samples, showing that two stilbene-type disulfonates were predominant FWAs detected in napkin and infant cloth samples. PMID:16455094

  19. Self-management of psychiatric symptoms using over-the-counter (OTC) psychopharmacology: the S-DTM therapeutic model--Self-diagnosis, self-treatment, self-monitoring.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacological self-management is becoming more widespread in modernizing societies, as part of a general expansion of health care. This may exert a vital corrective balance to the professionalization of health by ensuring that the individual perspective of patients is not neglected. There are many 'good ideas' for new treatments being published which have a plausible scientific rationale for effectiveness and a low likelihood of harm, yet are essentially ignored by mainstream medical research. The most likely avenue for progress is probably the spread of self-management, together with increased sharing of experience via the internet. There is considerable scope for self-management of psychiatric symptoms with psychoactive medication purchased 'over-the-counter' (OTC) and without prescription. A surprisingly wide range of effective psychoactive agents are available with the potential to self-treat many of the common psychiatric problems. These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St. John's Wort (Hypericum), and physical treatments such as early morning bright light therapy. But self-management currently lacks an explicit therapeutic model. A three stage process of S-DTM - self-diagnosis, self-treatment and self-monitoring is proposed and described in relation to psychiatric symptoms. Self-diagnosis describes the skill of introspection to develop awareness of inner bodily states and emotions. A specific sensation is identified and isolated as the 'focal symptom' for subsequent treatment and monitoring. Self-treatment involves choosing a drug (or other therapy) which is intended to alleviate the focal symptom. Self-monitoring entails a continued awareness of the focal system and of general well-being in order to evaluate effect of therapy. Self-monitoring could involve repeated cycles of dose-adjustment, and on-off ('challenge-dechallenge-rechallenge') therapeutic trials. An example of S

  20. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-27

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  1. Tooth whitening and temperature rise with two bleaching activation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-02-01

    Objectives: To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and intra-pulpal temperature increase in vitro on extracted upper human incisors after chemical, zoom light and diode laser activated bleaching. Materials and Methods: Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n=10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power zoom activation light, for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. Degree of whitening was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and intrapulpal. Results: The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Conclusions: Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than zoom AP light. Diode lasers used to activate bleaching gels are not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulps using power settings of 2W.

  2. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-09-01

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  3. The effect of three whitening oral rinses on enamel micro-hardness.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, E; Osman, Y; Grobler, S R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on human enamel micro-hardness of three over-the-counter whitening oral rinses available in South Africa. Enamel fragments were gathered into three groups of 15 each. One group was exposed to Colgate Plax Whitening Blancheur, the second group to White Glo 2 in 1 and the third to Plus White, in each case for periods recommended by the respective manufacturers. Surface micro-hardness of all groups was measured before and after a 14 day treatment period. pH levels of the oral rinses were also determined with a combination pH electrode. Pre- and post- treatment data were analysed by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. According to the micro-hardness values no significant (p > 0.05) enamel damage was found as a result of treatment. However, it was observed that Colgate Pax and White Glo decreased the enamel hardness, an early sign of enamel damage, while Plus White showed a small increase in hardness. The three whitening oral rinses on the South African market do not damage the tooth enamel significantly when used as recommended by the manufacturers. However, extending the contact period and increasing the frequency of application might lead to damage of enamel. PMID:24984388

  4. How adolescents experience and cope with pain in daily life: a qualitative study on ways to cope and the use of over-the-counter analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Lagerløv, Per; Rosvold, Elin Olaug; Holager, Tanja; Helseth, Sølvi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe how different adolescents experience and manage pain in their daily life, with a focus on their use of over-the-counter analgesics. More specifically, the aim was to explore different patterns among the adolescents in pain descriptions, in the management of pain, in relationships with others, and in their daily life. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews on experiences with pain, pain management and involvement of family and friends during pain. Pain and stress management strategies and attachment theory will be in focus for interpretations. Participants and setting 25 participants aged 15–16-years from six different junior high schools, both genders, with and without immigrant background were interviewed at their local schools in Norway. Results We identified 4 groups of adolescents with similarities in attitudes and management strategies to pain: ‘pain is manageable’, ‘pain is communicable’, ‘pain is inevitable’ and ‘pain is all over’. The participants within each group differed in how they engaged their parents in pain; how they perceived, communicated and managed pain; and how they involved emotions and used over-the-counter analgesics. Conclusions The adolescents’ different involvement with the family during pain related to their pain perception and management. Knowledge of the different ways of approaching pain is important when supporting adolescents and may be a subject for further research on the use of over-the-counter analgesics in the family. PMID:26932141

  5. Results of a national survey on over-the-counter medicines, Part 1: Pharmacist opinion on current scheduling status

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeff; Landry, Eric; Lalonde, Lyne; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2012-01-01

    >Background: OTC medicines make up an important part of the community pharmacy world. As with most aspects of practice, however, hurdles exist that prevent an optimal level of care. Objective: To gauge pharmacist agreement on the scheduling status of various OTC medicines. Methods: Pharmacists across Canada were surveyed by mail. Results: Of the 5037 surveys mailed, 2403 were returned, with 2305 being usable for analysis (response rate of 49.4%). Across 25 agents, pharmacists tended to support existing control for pharmacies (such as Nix crème rinse and minoxidil topical solution) and returning control to pharmacies for unscheduled agents (such as ranitidine 75 mg tablets and nicotine patches). Conclusions: Pharmacists generally favour tighter control of OTC agents, especially those that are unscheduled. This hopefully reflects pharmacist desire to ensure their proper selection and use. PMID:23509487

  6. Considerations for the development of over-the-counter dentifrices for the treatment and relief of dentin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Stephen; Hughes, Nathan; Layer, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    There have been many recent articles and reviews covering the effectiveness of dentifrices for the treatment and relief of dentin sensitivity. To date, there are no articles which fully examine all the compromises that a dentifrice formulator and manufacturer have to make when developing an effective dentifrice technology in the context of theoretical approaches and proposed modes of action. This article provides a first review and discussion of the currently available technologies, nerve depolarization and occluding agents. The generalized formulation strategies and approaches of dentifrices containing these agents are discussed, demonstrating that simplified conclusions with regard to efficacy should be drawn with caution. PMID:19902641

  7. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  8. Hypercalcemia, hypervitaminosis A and 3-epi-25-OH-D3 levels after consumption of an "over the counter" vitamin D remedy. a case report.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Rubio, E; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Rodríguez-Pena, R; García López, F J

    2012-06-01

    Intoxication from vitamin D supplements has been rarely reported but, nowadays, it occurs more frequently. 3-epi-25-OH-D(3) is highly prevalent in adults and it is considered of biological relevance. We report a case of vitamin D toxicity with hypercalcemia, acute renal failure and hypervitaminosis A after consuming an over-the-counter vitamin D supplement. Our data suggest that the contribution of 3-epi-25-OH-D(3) is not altered during vitamin D toxicity, although the serum levels of 25-OH-D(3) and 3-epi-25-OH-D(3) may display a different rate of clearance. The patient also displayed hypervitaminosis A unrelated to diet, possibly caused by renal failure related to the hypercalcemia induced by vitamin D toxicity. Because of the increasing use of over-the-counter vitamin D supplements and the potential iatrogenic hypercalcemia related to hypervitaminosis A, the present case highlights the importance of evaluating both the use of (non-) prescribed medication and vitamin A status during vitamin D toxicity. PMID:22426357

  9. Skin Barrier Health: Regulation and Repair of the Stratum Corneum and the Role of Over-the-Counter Skin Care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thomas; Friedman, Adam

    2016-09-01

    The epidermis functions as a physical barrier that separates the inner body from the outside environment. The outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, plays a key role in maintaining this barrier. There are numerous biochemical changes that take place to and in the keratinocyte as it migrates from the bottom, or startum basale, to the top layer of the epidermis in order for this barrier to function appropriately. In addition, external and internal factors, such as irritants and underlying medical diseases, can also affect the stratum corneum, both of which can potentially lead to disruption of barrier function and ultimately skin pathology. In this article, we will review keratinocyte biology as it relates to the formation and function of the stratum corneum. We will also review stratum corneum structure, physiology, and the impact of chemical agents and defective stratum corneum components that can lead to skin disease. Finally, we will briefly discuss how moisturizers repair defects in the stratum corneum and restore barrier function.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1047-1051. PMID:27602965

  10. Additional criteria and procedures for classifying over-the-counter drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-01-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule establishing additional criteria and procedures by which over-the- counter (OTC) conditions may become eligible for consideration in the OTC drug monograph system. The criteria and procedures address how OTC drugs initially marketed in the United States after the OTC drug review began in 1972, and OTC drugs without any U.S. marketing experience, can meet the statutory definition of marketing to a "material extent" and "for a material time" and become eligible. If found eligible, the condition would be evaluated for general recognition of safety and effectiveness in accordance with FDA's OTC drug monograph regulations. FDA is also changing the current OTC drug monograph procedures to streamline the process and provide additional information in the review. PMID:11820251

  11. Over-the-counter medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... sprains, and other minor joint and muscle problems. Acetaminophen. Try this medicine first for your pain. DO ... need to be checked for side effects. FEVER Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help reduce fever ...

  12. Over-the-counter medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... anti-inflammatory drugs for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2013;6:CD006362. PMID: 23733384 www. ... paracetamol) for the common cold in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2013;7:CD008800. PMID: 23818046 www. ...

  13. Editorial: Pills over the counter.

    PubMed

    1975-05-17

    A pamphlet published by the Birth Control Trust and followed by a letter in the British Medical Journal has recommended that paramedical personnel be allowed to dispense oral contraceptives if properly supervised. Also, others have recommended that these drugs should be on direct sale to the public. However, because of the multiple risk factors, there is a place for screening before the pills are prescribed. The main objection to freeing the pill from prescription would be the abdication of medical responsibility for supply of potentially dangerous drugs. For an exception to be made for oral contraceptives there should be evidence of a clear benefit to society, which is not believed to be the case. Present contraceptive services would not be improved if the pill went on display on the counters of chemists' shops. PMID:1131602

  14. Clinical evaluation of a 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening system.

    PubMed

    Papathanasiou, Aikaterini; Kastali, Samer; Perry, Ronald D; Kugel, Gerard

    2002-04-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of light-curing (heat conversion) vs no light-curing (no heat conversion) of a 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office tooth whitening system. Twenty patients with sound medical history (without tooth sensitivity) participated in this randomized, parallel clinical evaluation. Only six maxillary anterior teeth with discoloration and a tooth shade of A3 or darker were selected. Patients received a complete prophylaxis and were evaluated for initial (baseline) shade by three independent evaluators, precalibrated at 85% rater reliability in determining shades before the experiment began. Participants received a 20-minute chairside whitening treatment with a 35% hydrogen peroxide agent using a reflective resin barrier for gingival isolation. During the whitening treatment, the 35% hydrogen peroxide agent was light-activated with a halogen curing light on teeth Nos. 6 through 8 (Group I), but was not light-activated on teeth Nos. 9 through 11 (Group II). All patients returned 24 hours after the whitening application for shade evaluation. Although there were isolated instances (7 out of 20 patients) of greater degrees of lightening in the light-curing group, there was no statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney U test (P > .05). This study indicates that light-curing is optional with this 35% tooth whitening system. PMID:12789959

  15. Effect of Whitening Dentifrice on Micro Hardness, Colour Stability and Surface Roughness of Aesthetic Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Basappa, N.; Prabhakar, AR; Raju, OS; Lamba, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Whitening agents present in the novel whitening dentifrices may have deleterious effects over the aesthetic restorations. Aim The present study evaluated the invitro effect of whitening dentifrice on micro hardness, colour stability and surface roughness on aesthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods Forty specimens each of compomer and of composite were prepared using brass mould. Specimens were equally divided into 4 groups. Group I (20 disks of compomer are subjected to brushing with conventional tooth paste) Group II (20 disks of composite subjected to brushing with conventional tooth paste), Group III (20 disks of compomer subjected to brushing with whitening tooth paste). Group IV (20 disks of composite subjected to brushing with whitening toothpaste). Each group was further divided into two subgroups, where 10 sample were subjected for two weeks of brushing with respective tooth paste and other 10 were subjected for four weeks of brushing. For the evaluation of micro hardness, colour stability and surface roughness, micro hardness testing machine, spectrophotometer and surface testing machine were used respectively. Initial and final readings were taken for each specimen and difference obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. One-way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparison followed by post-hoc Tukey’s-test. The paried t-test was used for intra group comparison and unpaired t-test for comparing independent sample groups. Results The compomer and composite showed no significant difference in micro hardness either with conventional or whitening tooth paste both at two and four weeks. Although there was a highly significant colour change observed after using whitening tooth paste for both compomer and composite. Regarding surface roughness, there was a significant change in roughness in both conventional and whitening tooth paste with compomer and composite. However, whitening tooth paste had a significant change in surface

  16. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories. PMID:27542428

  17. The skin whitening industry in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2014-05-01

    Skin whitening is a big and booming industry in many developing countries. Its popularity owes mainly to post-colonial, internalized racism. This study examines whether government intervention is necessary and more efficient than market-driven approaches in addressing the health risks and harms associated with skin whitening. We gathered empirical data on the quality and quantity of health-related information about skin whiteners with a multi-stage probability sample of consumers in two cities in the Philippines (n=110; α=0.05). Regardless of their socio-demographic characteristics, we find that cognitive biases and information asymmetries build and sustain consumers' trust in manufacturers and distributors of skin whiteners while, paradoxically, breeding uncertainties over the integrity of these products. The results are product adulteration and misbranding, leading to pricing advantages for toxic whiteners over safer products. This has impeded regulatory efficacy. We recommend anchoring government intervention in transaction cost-reduction, containing the externalities of skin bleaching, and institutionalizing third party partnerships. Failure to do so would leave consumers extremely vulnerable to the forces of supply and demand that favor toxic whiteners, particularly in a market where voluntary collective action is difficult to organize. PMID:24352110

  18. Is It Safe to Provide Abortion Pills over the Counter? A Study on Outcome Following Self-Medication with Abortion Pills

    PubMed Central

    Nivedita, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medical abortion is a safe method of termination of pregnancy when performed as per guidelines with a success rate of 92-97 %. But self-administration of abortion pills is rampant throughout the country due to over the counter availability of these drugs and complications are not uncommon due to this practice. The society perceives unsupervised medical abortion as a very safe method of termination and women use this as a method of spacing. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to study the implications of self-administration of abortion pills by pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study done in Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College & Hospital between the period of July 2013 to June2014. Case sheets were analysed to obtain data regarding self-administration of abortion pills and complications secondary to its administration. The following data were collected. Age, marital status, parity, duration of pregnancy as perceived by the women, confirmation of pregnancy, duration between pill intake and visit to hospital, whether any intervention done elsewhere, any known medical or surgical complications, Hb level on admission, whether patient was in shock, USG findings, evidence of sepsis, blood transfusion, treatment given and duration of hospital stay. Descriptive analysis of the collected data was done. Results: Among the 128 cases of abortion in the study period, 40 (31.25%) patients had self-administered abortion pills. Among these 40 patients 27.5% had consumed abortion pills after the approved time period of 63 days of which 17.5% had consumed pills after 12 weeks of gestation. The most common presentation was excessive bleeding (77.5%) Severe anaemia was found in 12.5% of the patients and 5% of patients presented with shock. The outcome was as follows : 62.5% of the patients were found to have incomplete abortion, 22.5% had failed abortion and 7.5% of patients had incomplete abortion with sepsis. Surgical evacuation

  19. Study of the influence of over-the-counter vitamin supplement intake on urine fluorescence to optimize cancer detection by fluorescence cystoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellweger, Matthieu; Martoccia, Carla; Mengin, Matthieu; Iselin, Christophe; Bergh, Hubert van den; Wagnières, Georges

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) efficiently enhances the detection and improves the therapeutic management of early bladder cancer. During an FC, about 150 ml of water is needed to inflate the bladder. The water is quickly diluted by urine which can be fluorescent. If this bladder washout fluid (BWF) becomes fluorescent, the FC images are frequently degraded. Unfortunately, it is unclear which elements of the diet may contribute to this background fluorescence. We propose to start this exploration with over-the-counter (OTC) vitamin supplements. To this end, we measured excitation-emission matrices of urine samples and the kinetics of modifications of urine fluorescence obtained from nine healthy volunteers before, during, and after intake of a commercially available OTC vitamin supplement. The pharmacokinetics shows that the BWF fluorescence values reach a maximum 8 to 10 h after vitamin intake. They decrease in the half-day that follows and reach values close to baseline ˜1 day afterward. Based on these results, we conclude that, in order to avoid degradations of fluorescence images, it is likely best that the intake of OTC vitamin supplements be avoided during the week preceding an FC.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an over-the-counter acne regimen containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid in subjects with acne.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H; Gwazdauskas, Jennifer; Butners, Victoria; Eastern, Joseph; Green, Lawrence J

    2013-03-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a widely used over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne treatment often used in combination with salicylic acid (SA) to achieve better comedone control than that achieved with BPO alone. MaxClarity™ is an OTC acne treatment system comprising BPO and SA in an aqueous foam delivery vehicle, VersaFoam AF™. This paper describes 2 open-label, single-arm studies conducted to assess the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and patient preference of MaxClarity in the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe acne. Subjects applied MaxClarity twice daily for 8 weeks in study 402 and for 12 weeks in study 405. Reductions in all lesion types were seen throughout both studies. At week 8 (study 402), there was a mean reduction from baseline of -56.9 ± 32.7% in total lesions in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe acne. At week 12 (study 405), there was a reduction from baseline of -61.6 ± 22.0% in total lesions in subjects with moderate or severe acne. Overall, both studies demonstrated that MaxClarity is a generally well tolerated and effective treatment for mild, moderate, and severe acne. PMID:23545906

  1. Atmospheric identification of active ingredients in over-the-counter pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse by atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry (APGD-MS).

    PubMed

    Brewer, Tim M; Verkouteren, Jennifer R

    2011-09-15

    Atmospheric pressure glow discharge mass spectrometry was used to characterize the active ingredients in pharmaceutical over-the-counter (OTC) drug formulations (Tylenol Allergy, Alka-Seltzer Plus Nighttime, Sudafed, Aleve and Mucinex DM) and drugs of abuse (crack cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy) and hydrocodone). Material was desorbed and directly ionized under atmospheric conditions by allowing the substance to come in direct contact with the plasma followed by mass spectrometric detection. With this technique, controlled substances and OTC medications were readily distinguished from one another. Characteristic mass spectra were identified for the active ingredients in the OTC and drugs of abuse. Importantly, all drug compounds studied here, both OTC and illicit, demonstrated signals for either molecular ions or protonated molecules as well as fragmentation patterns that are readily identified in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electron ionization (EI) mass spectral library. It is believed that this technique holds promise for forensic and law enforcement communities for real-time atmospheric analysis of drugs with database-searchable spectra of controlled substances. PMID:21818799

  2. Spatial Access to Syringe Exchange Programs and Pharmacies Selling Over-the-Counter Syringes as Predictors of Drug Injectors' Use of Sterile Syringes

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Ross, Zev; Tempalski, Barbara; Bossak, Brian; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships of spatial access to syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and pharmacies selling over-the-counter (OTC) syringes with New York City drug injectors’ harm reduction practices. Methods. Each year from 1995 to 2006, we measured the percentage of 42 city health districts’ surface area that was within 1 mile of an SEP or OTC pharmacy. We applied hierarchical generalized linear models to investigate relationships between these exposures and the odds that injectors (n = 4003) used a sterile syringe for at least 75% of injections in the past 6 months. Results. A 1-unit increase in the natural log of the percentage of a district's surface area within a mile of an SEP in 1995 was associated with a 26% increase in the odds of injecting with a sterile syringe; a 1-unit increase in this exposure over time increased these odds 23%. A 1-unit increase in the natural log of OTC pharmacy access improved these odds 15%. Conclusions. Greater spatial access to SEPs and OTC pharmacies improved injectors’ capacity to engage in harm reduction practices that reduce HIV and HCV transmission. PMID:21088267

  3. Will Gay and Bisexually Active Men at High Risk of Infection Use Over-the-Counter Rapid HIV Tests to Screen Sexual Partners?

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Frasca, Timothy; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration may license OraQuick™, a rapid HIV test, for over-the-counter (OTC) sale. We investigated whether HIV-uninfected, non-monogamous gay and bisexual men who never or rarely use condoms would use the test with partners as a harm-reduction approach. Sixty participants responded to two computer-assisted self-interviews, underwent an in-depth interview, and chose whether to test themselves with OraQuick™. Over 80% of the men said they would use the kit to test sexual partners or themselves if it became available OTC. Most participants understood that antibody tests have a window period in which the virus is undetectable yet saw advantages to using the test to screen partners; 74% tested themselves in our offices. Participants offered several possible strategies to introduce the home-test idea to partners, frequently endorsed mutual testing, and highlighted that home testing could stimulate greater honesty in serostatus disclosure. Participants drew distinctions between testing regular versus occasional partners. Non-monogamous MSM who never or rarely use condoms may nevertheless seek to avoid HIV. Technologies that do not interfere with sexual pleasure are likely to be used when available. Studies are needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using OTC rapid HIV tests as one additional harm-reduction tool. PMID:22293029

  4. Approval and potential use of over-the-counter HIV self-tests: the opinion of participants in a street based HIV rapid testing program in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; de la Fuente, Luis; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Figueroa, Carmen; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Hoyos, Juan; Ruiz, Mónica; Belza, M José

    2015-03-01

    HIV self-testing, not yet available in Spain, is a strategy thought to be able to increase the number of people tested and testing frequency. 3,373 attenders of a street-based HIV rapid-testing program gave their opinion on authorizing over-the-counter self-tests and a potentially shorter lead time if self-tests were available. 88.0 % of participants were in favor of authorization, 9.2 % had no clear opinion and 2.8 % were against. 54.6 % of men who have sex with men (MSM), 38.4 % of men who have sex with women and 36.3 % of women acknowledged a potential for lead time reduction. Potential lead time was associated with being ≥35 years, having a university degree, never injected drugs, previous HIV tests and being concerned about an HIV positive result, and in MSM, also having ≥5 partners. Self-testing seems a promising strategy for Spain: its authorization is supported by nearly all potential users and almost three quarters of MSM would have opted to advance their current testing if self-tests were available. PMID:25537965

  5. Will gay and bisexually active men at high risk of infection use over-the-counter rapid HIV tests to screen sexual partners?

    PubMed

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Frasca, Timothy; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration may license OraQuick™, a rapid HIV test, for over-the-counter (OTC) sale. This study investigated whether HIV-uninfected, non-monogamous, gay and bisexual men who never or rarely use condoms would use the test with partners as a harm-reduction approach. Sixty participants responded to two computer-assisted self-interviews, underwent an in-depth interview, and chose whether to test themselves with OraQuick. Over 80% of the men said they would use the kit to test sexual partners or themselves if it became available OTC. Most participants understood that antibody tests have a window period in which the virus is undetectable, yet saw advantages to using the test to screen partners; 74% tested themselves in our offices. Participants offered several possible strategies to introduce the home-test idea to partners, frequently endorsed mutual testing, and highlighted that home testing could stimulate greater honesty in serostatus disclosure. Participants drew distinctions between testing regular versus occasional partners. Non-monogamous men who have sex with men, who never or rarely use condoms, may nevertheless seek to avoid HIV. Technologies that do not interfere with sexual pleasure are likely to be used when available. Studies are needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using OTC rapid HIV tests as one additional harm-reduction tool. PMID:22293029

  6. Gold nanoparticles bridging infra-red spectroscopy and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of over-the-counter drug and botanical medicines.

    PubMed

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Tang, Ho-Wai; Ng, Kwan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    With a coating of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and Chinese herbal medicine granules in KBr pellets could be analyzed by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Surface-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). FT-IR spectroscopy allows fast detection of major active ingredient (e.g., acetaminophen) in OTC drugs in KBr pellets. Upon coating a thin layer of AuNPs on the KBr pellet, minor active ingredients (e.g., noscapine and loratadine) in OTC drugs, which were not revealed by FT-IR, could be detected unambiguously using AuNPs-assisted LDI-MS. Moreover, phytochemical markers of Coptidis Rhizoma (i.e. berberine, palmatine and coptisine) could be quantified in the concentrated Chinese medicine (CCM) granules by the SALDI-MS using standard addition method. The quantitative results matched with those determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Being strongly absorbing in UV yet transparent to IR, AuNPs successfully bridged FT-IR and SALDI-MS for direct analysis of active ingredients in the same solid sample. FT-IR allowed the fast analysis of major active ingredient in drugs, while SALDI-MS allowed the detection of minor active ingredient in the presence of excipient, and also quantitation of phytochemicals in herbal granules. PMID:27086100

  7. The availability and validity of safety information of over the counter herbal products for use in diabetes in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Widanapahirana, Heshan; Prasanga, Tharindu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: There is an increase of over-the-counter (OTC) herbal products for use in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety information provided with OTC herbal remedies intended for diabetic patients in Sri Lanka and to assess the completeness of the information provided. Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of OTC herbal remedies meant for use in diabetes. They were bought from local Sri Lankan supermarkets and non-ayurvedic pharmacies and product information regarding the risk of hypoglycemia, precautions for use, adverse events, dose, and interactions were assessed using a scoring system. The accuracy of the information was then compared against published data. Results: 11 products fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five products contained a single constituent and five contained more than one. None had complete and accurate safety information according to our criteria. None specifically warned against the risk of hypoglycemia. 9 out of 11 products (81.8%) carried ≤3 items of the five essential factual information we expected. Hypoglycemic coma, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenesis, and interactions causing elevated drug levels of Carbamazepine were some of the safety information that was missing. Conclusions: Key safety information was absent in most products. Regulation of sale, provision of key safety information and adverse event reporting should be a priority. PMID:26649230

  8. Use of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to monitor tooth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-04-01

    The changing of tooth shade by whitening agents occurs gradually. Apart from being subjective and affected by the conditions of the surroundings, visual observation cannot detect a very slight change in tooth color. An electronic method, which can communicate the color change quantitatively, would be more reliable. Quantitative Light- induced Fluorescence (QLF) was developed to detect and assess dental caries based on the phenomenon of change of autofluorescence of a tooth by demineralization. However, stains on the tooth surface exhibit the same phenomenon, and therefore QLF can be used to measure the percentage fluorescence change of stained enamel with respect to surrounding unstained enamel. The present study described a technique of assessing the effect of a tooth-whitening agent using QLF. This was demonstrated in two experiments in which either wholly or partially stained teeth were whitened by intermittent immersion in sodium hypochlorite. Following each immersion, the integrated fluorescence change due to the stain was quantified using QLF. In either situation, the value of (Delta) Q decreased linearly as the tooth regained its natural shade. It was concluded that gradual changing of the shade of discolored teeth by a whitening agent could be quantified using QLF.

  9. In vitro efficacy of over-the-counter botanical pediculicides against the head louse Pediculus humanus var capitis based on a stringent standard for mortality assessment.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, J; Canyon, D V; Oliveira, F A; Muller, R; Speare, R

    2008-09-01

    Infestation of the head louse Pediculus humanus var capitis DeGeer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) is an important public health problem in Australia, with up to a third of children infested in some primary schools. Insecticide resistance and inadequate attention to the application instructions of topical pediculicides are common reasons for treatment failure. This study evaluated six popular Australian over-the-counter products against head lice, primarily comprised of different botanical extracts, and compared them with permethrin 1% (Quellada) and a non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. We also assessed commonly used criteria for evaluating pediculicide efficacy in vitro. All tested products failed to demonstrate high levels of efficacy with the exception of Tea Tree Gel((R)), which outperformed 1% permethrin. Permethrin had a high level of efficacy, but using stringent criteria 18% of lice were not dead at 3 h, indicating some resistance to Quellada. Commonly used less stringent criteria were shown to overestimate mortality of head lice as a result of the protective phenomenon of stasis or sham death observed in exposed lice that may recover after some time. Using two different levels of stringency resulted in different rankings of efficacy for most products, with the exception of the first ranked product, Tea Tree Gel. Rankings of efficacy also varied over time, even within the different assessment criteria. Government regulatory agencies should require standard in vitro tests using stringent mortality criteria, with an observation period of >or= 6 h, to determine the efficacy of new pediculicides, and only products that cause a minimum mortality rate (e.g. 80%) in head lice collected from the target population should be licensed for sale. PMID:18816275

  10. Acute over-the-counter pharmacological intervention does not adversely affect behavioral outcome following diffuse traumatic brain injury in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jordan L; Rowe, Rachel K; O'Hara, Bruce F; Adelson, P David; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    Following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), patients may self-treat symptoms of concussion, including post-traumatic headache, taking over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics. Administering one dose of OTC analgesics immediately following experimental brain injury mimics the at-home treated population of concussed patients and may accelerate the understanding of the relationship between brain injury and OTC pharmacological intervention. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute administration of OTC analgesics on neurological function and cortical cytokine levels after experimental diffuse TBI in the mouse. Adult, male C57BL/6 mice were injured using a midline fluid percussion (mFPI) injury model of concussion (6-10 min righting reflex time for brain-injured mice). Experimental groups included mFPI paired with either ibuprofen (60 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 16), acetaminophen (40 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 9), or vehicle (15% ethanol (v/v) in 0.9% saline; n = 13) and sham injury paired OTC medicine or vehicle (n = 7-10 per group). At 24 h after injury, functional outcome was assessed using the rotarod task and a modified neurological severity score. Following behavior assessment, cortical cytokine levels were measured by multiplex ELISA at 24 h post-injury. To evaluate efficacy on acute inflammation, cortical cytokine levels were measured also at 6 h post-injury. In the diffuse brain-injured mouse, immediate pharmacological intervention did not attenuate or exacerbate TBI-induced functional deficits. Cortical cytokine levels were affected by injury, time, or their interaction. However, levels were not affected by treatment at 6 or 24 h post-injury. These data indicate that acute administration of OTC analgesics did not exacerbate or attenuate brain-injury deficits which may inform clinical recommendations for the at-home treated mildly concussed patient. PMID:24760409

  11. Next-day residual sedative effect after nighttime administration of an over-the-counter antihistamine sleep aid, diphenhydramine, measured by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongying; Tashiro, Manabu; Shibuya, Katsuhiko; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Funaki, Yoshihito; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Kato, Masato; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2010-12-01

    Antihistamines often are self-administered at night as over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids, but their next-day residual sedative effect has never been evaluated using a reliable quantitative method such as positron emission tomography (PET). We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in which we evaluated the residual effect the next day after nighttime administration of diphenhydramine, a commonly used OTC sleep aid, in terms of brain H₁ receptor occupancy (H₁RO) measured using ¹¹C-doxepin-PET. We also compared the results of diphenhydramine with those of bepotastine, a second-generation antihistamine. Eight healthy adult male subjects underwent PET measurement the morning (11:00) after random oral administration of diphenhydramine (50 mg), bepotastine (10 mg), or placebo the night before (23:00). Binding potential ratios and H₁ROs were calculated in different brain regions of interest such as the cingulate gyrus, frontotemporal cortex, and cerebellum. Subjective sleepiness and plasma drug concentration also were measured. Calculation of binding potential ratios revealed significantly lower values for diphenhydramine than for bepotastine or placebo in all regions of interest (P < 0.01). Cortical mean H₁RO after diphenhydramine treatment was 44.7% compared with 16.6% for bepotastine treatment (P < 0.01). Subjective sleepiness was not significantly different among the subjects treated with each test drug or the placebo. In conclusion, the next-day residual sedative effect after nighttime administration of the OTC sleep aid diphenhydramine was verified for the first time by direct PET measurement of H₁RO. Taking into account the possible hangover effect of OTC antihistamine sleep aids, care needs to be taken during their administration. PMID:21105284

  12. ‘I can't be an addict. I am.’ Over-the-counter medicine abuse: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacy medicines are considered relatively safe in contrast to prescribed and illicit substances, but their abuse and addiction potential is increasingly recognised. Those affected represent a hard to reach group, with little known about their experiences. Study objectives were to describe the experiences and views of those self-reporting OTC medicine abuse, and why medicines were taken, how they were obtained and associated treatment and support sought. Design Qualitative study using in-depth mainly telephone interviews. Participants A purposive sample of 25 adults, aged 20–60s, 13 women. Setting UK, via two internet support groups. Results Individuals considered themselves ‘addicted’, but socially and economically active and different from illicit substance misusers. They blamed themselves for losing control over their medicine use, which usually began for genuine medical reasons and not experimentation and was often linked to the cessation of, or ongoing, medical prescribing. Codeine, in compound analgesics, was the main medicine implicated with three distinct dose ranges emerging with decongestant and sedative antihistamine abuse also being reported. Subsequent use was for the ‘buzz’ or similar effects of the opiate, which was obtained unproblematically by having lists of pharmacies to visit and occasionally using internet suppliers. Perceived withdrawal symptoms were described for all three dose ranges, and work and health problems were reported with higher doses. Mixed views about different treatment and support options emerged with standard drug treatment services being considered inappropriate for OTC medicines and concerns that this ‘hidden addiction’ was recorded in medical notes. Most supported the continued availability of OTC medicines with appropriate addiction warnings. Conclusions Greater awareness of the addiction potential of OTC medicines is needed for the public, pharmacists and medical

  13. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Alvi, Azhar Z; Mirajkar, Abdur; Imani, Zahabia; Gamalevych, Yuliya; Shaikh, Nisar A; Jackowski, George

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation status of North American n-3 (omega-3) PUFA nutritional supplements commercially available in Canada and evaluate the influence of product formulation and delivery form on oxidative safety. A total of 171 North American over-the-counter n-3 PUFA nutritional supplements were analysed for oxidation safety. Primary and secondary oxidation and total oxidation (TOTOX) were determined using the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) procedures. Comparisons between supplements' final forms, oil source and n-3 PUFA concentration quartiles, as measures of product formulations and delivery forms, were compared using ANOVA. Of the products successfully tested, 50 % exceeded the voluntary recommended levels for markers of oxidation. Another 18 % of products were approaching the limits with 1-3 years before expiration. Encapsulated products without flavour additives had significantly lower secondary and TOTOX levels than bulk oils and flavoured products (P < 0·05). Children's products had significantly higher primary, secondary and TOTOX levels compared with all other products (P < 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between oil sources (P > 0·05), with the exception of krill oil products having higher secondary oxidation levels than plant-based products (P > 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between n-3 PUFA supplement concentration quartiles. Consumers may be at risk of exposure to higher levels of oxidative products. New regulatory mandates need to be introduced to ensure that all n-3 PUFA products, used as nutritional supplements, regardless of their formulation or delivery form, can be tested for oxidative safety and compliance. PMID:26688721

  14. A Review of the Ingredients Contained in Over the Counter (OTC) Cough Syrup Formulations in Kenya. Are They Harmful to Infants?

    PubMed Central

    Kigen, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough syrups are widely used in the developing world, but safety of their use in infants and children less than two years has not been well documented. Some syrups contain multiple combinations of such drugs as promethazine, diphenhydramine and ephedrine; which are individually now contraindicated in children less than two years. Despite this, the syrups are available as over the counter drugs and may be dispensed to mothers who are unaware of the potentially hazardous effects to their infants. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to investigate suitability of cough syrups sold within Eldoret municipality for use in children less than two years of age based on their formulations and available literature. Methods Two semi-structured questionnaires were administered to pharmacy attendants and mothers attending sick child clinic at a referral hospital to establish whether cough syrups containing more than one active ingredient of compounds, now contraindicated in children are administered to infants, and awareness of potential serious adverse effects. Data from labeled contents of cough syrups from retail pharmacies was recorded and corroborated with information from literature to determine those deemed to contain the ingredients. The second questionnaire was administered to mothers with children less than two years to ascertain whether they had used the identified syrups. A total of 260 mothers and 55 pharmacy attendants were interviewed. Results There was widespread use of the syrups in children, including infants, with 192 (74%) of the respondents having used identified syrups and over 90% of these on children less than 2 years including those less than three months.146 (76%) mothers had administered the syrup at double the recommended dose. Conclusion The regulatory authorities should make concerted efforts to discourage use of cough syrups containing ingredients that pose adverse events to infants, including campaigns to educate pharmacy

  15. Mir-434-5p mediates skin whitening and lightening

    PubMed Central

    Wu, David TS; Chen, Jack S; Chang, Donald C; Lin, Shi-Lung

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of gene silencing effectors, such as microRNA (miRNA) and small hairpin RNA (shRNA), provides a powerful new strategy for human skin care in vivo, particularly for hyperpigmentation treatment and aging prevention. In this study, tyrosinase (Tyr), the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin (black pigment) biosynthesis, was served as a target for treatment of hyperpigmentation in mouse and human skins. There are over 54 native microRNA capable of silencing human tyrosinase for skin whitening and lightening. To this, we have designed a mir-434-5p homologue and used it to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of miRNA-mediated skin whitening and lightening in vitro and in vivo. Under the same experimental condition in the trials, Pol-II-directed intronic mir-434-5p expression did not cause any detectable sign of cytotoxicity, whereas siRNAs targeting the same sequence often induced certain nonspecific mRNA degradation as previously reported. Because the intronic miRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway is tightly regulated by multiple intracellular surveillance systems, including Pol-II transcription, RNA splicing, exosomal digestion and nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD), the current findings underscore the fact that intronic miRNA agents, such as manually re-designed mir-434-5p homologues, are effective, target-specific and safe to be used for skin whitening without any detectable cytotoxic effect. Given that the human skins also express a variety of other native miRNAs, we may re-design these miRNAs based on their individual functions for skin care, which may provide significant insights into areas of opportunity for new cosmetic and/or therapeutical applications. PMID:21437136

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Over-the-Counter Drug Use by the Elderly. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains the prepared statements and panel testimony from the Congressional hearing on over-the-counter (OTC) drug use by the elderly. Opening statements are given by Representatives Claude Pepper (chairman), Ralph Regula, Mary Rose Oakar, Michael Bilirakis, Tom Lantos, and Hal Daub. Topics which are covered include the incidence and…

  17. Principal whitened gradient for information geometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhirong; Laaksonen, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    We propose two strategies to improve the optimization in information geometry. First, a local Euclidean embedding is identified by whitening the tangent space, which leads to an additive parameter update sequence that approximates the geodesic flow to the optimal density model. Second, removal of the minor components of gradients enhances the estimation of the Fisher information matrix and reduces the computational cost. We also prove that dimensionality reduction is necessary for learning multidimensional linear transformations. The optimization based on the principal whitened gradients demonstrates faster and more robust convergence in simulations on unsupervised learning with synthetic data and on discriminant analysis of breast cancer data. PMID:18255260

  18. Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice: testing the feasibility of an educational intervention among physicians in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice is common in Southern Europe. Recent findings from a research project funded by the European Commission (FP7), the “OTC SOCIOMED”, conducted in seven European countries, indicate that physicians in countries in the Mediterranean Europe region prescribe medicines to a higher degree in comparison to physicians in other participating European countries. In light of these findings, a feasibility study has been designed to explore the acceptance of a pilot educational intervention targeting physicians in general practice in various settings in the Mediterranean Europe region. Methods This feasibility study utilized an educational intervention was designed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It took place in geographically-defined primary care areas in Cyprus, France, Greece, Malta, and Turkey. General Practitioners (GPs) were recruited in each country and randomly assigned into two study groups in each of the participating countries. The intervention included a one-day intensive training programme, a poster presentation, and regular visits of trained professionals to the workplaces of participants. Reminder messages and email messages were, also, sent to participants over a 4-week period. A pre- and post-test evaluation study design with quantitative and qualitative data was employed. The primary outcome of this feasibility pilot intervention was to reduce GPs’ intention to provide medicines following the educational intervention, and its secondary outcomes included a reduction of prescribed medicines following the intervention, as well as an assessment of its practicality and acceptance by the participating GPs. Results Median intention scores in the intervention groups were reduced, following the educational intervention, in comparison to the control group. Descriptive analysis of related questions indicated a high overall acceptance and perceived practicality of

  19. Effects of over-the-counter jaw-repositioning mouth guards on dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, strength, and power in college-aged male athletes.

    PubMed

    Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2015-02-01

    Improvements in muscular power and anaerobic performance have resulted from the use of jaw-repositioning mouth guards designed with advanced dental techniques. The high cost of such techniques has dissuaded the widespread use. Recently, more affordable, over-the-counter (OTC) jaw-repositioning mouth guards have become available. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on muscular power and strength performance in college-aged male athletes. It was hypothesized that similar to previous observations with advanced dentistry-designed mouth guards, OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards would impart positive effects on muscular power but not have any effect on muscular strength. Secondary objectives of this study included the examination of the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on other variables related to athletic performance. Male collegiate athletes (N = 20) participated in 4 separate testing sessions that consisted of assessment of muscular power, dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, and muscular strength. The 4 conditions, 1 per testing session, were assigned in a randomized order and consisted of a no-mouth guard control (CON), a placebo mouth guard, a self-adapted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (SA), and a custom-fitted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (CF). No significant differences were observed between conditions in muscular power (p = 0.78), dynamic balance (p = 0.99), agility (p = 0.22), or muscular strength (p = 0.47). The CF had significantly lower hip flexion than the CON (p = 0.014) and had significantly greater lumbar spine lateral flexion compared with the SA condition (p = 0.054). However, these flexibility differences lack practical relevance as the effect sizes remain very small (ES = -0.27 and -0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the jaw-repositioning technique used in the design of these OTC mouth guards did not affect performance. It is important to note that negative

  20. A clinical evaluation of bleaching using whitening wraps and strips.

    PubMed

    Matis, Bruce A; Cochran, Michael; Wang, Ge; Franco, Miguel; Eckert, George J; Carlotti, Ronald J; Bryan, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree of color change of teeth and the sensitivities of teeth and gums in an in vivo study. Ranir Whitening Wraps (WW2) and Crest Whitestrips Premium (WP2) were used twice a day and Ranir Whitening Wraps (WW1) were used once a day. Color evaluations occurred at baseline, after five and seven-day use of bleaching agent and 14 days post-bleaching. Color change was evaluated objectively and subjectively. Sensitivity evaluations were also accomplished. Seventy-six of the 78 subjects enrolled completed the study. All three products significantly lightened teeth. WW2 lightened more than WP2 and WW1 in L*, a*, b*, E and shade guide value. WP2 lightened more than WW1 in a*, b*, E and shade guide value. There was no difference in tooth sensitivity, but WW1 and WP2 caused less gingival sensitivity than WW2. The mean age of smokers was seven years younger than nonsmokers who qualified. PMID:16268392

  1. In silico prediction of the cosmetic whitening effects of naturally occurring lead compounds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Pedro; Tong, Henry H Y

    2012-10-01

    The identification of tyrosinase inhibitors is important, not only for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation disorders, such as melasma, but also for the production of cosmetic whitening effects. The aim of this study was the in silico prediction of the naturally occurring lead compounds in three commonly used skin-whitening herbs: Ampelopsis japonica, Lindera aggregata, and Ginkgo biloba. The active ingredients responsible for the whitening effect of these herbs remain largely unknown. The tyrosinase binding affinities and skin permeation, skin irritancy, and corrosive properties of43 natural constituents of the three herbs were predicted by docking simulations using Surflex-Dock and the QSAR-based Dermal Permeability Coefficient Program (DERMWIN) and Skin Irritation Corrosion Rules Estimation Tool (SICRET) implemented in Toxtree. Nine constituents of the three herbs were found to have more advanced binding energies than the gold standard whitening agents, arbutin and kojic acid, but 40 were indicative of at least one skin sensitization alert, and many exhibited poor skin permeability. Linderagalactone c and (+)-n-methyllaurotetanine were found to have the strongest prospects for use in topical formulations, as they achieved high predicted tyrosinase binding scores and displayed good skin permeation properties and minimal potential for skin sensitization and irritation. PMID:23156992

  2. A whitened face woman with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soo, Yannie Oi-Yan; Chow, Kai-Ming; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Lai, Fernand Mac-Moune; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Chan, Michael Ho-Ming; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2003-01-01

    Skin whitening cream from developing countries is a recognized source of chronic mercury poisoning. The authors report on a 34-year-old Indonesian domestic helper who presented with nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy. It was subsequently found that she used a skin whitening cream regularly that was found to contain a mercury level of almost 2,000 times above the allowable limit. Her blood and urinary mercury levels were both grossly elevated. Her symptoms improved after she stopped using the cream. However, she returned to her home country before chelating therapy could be arranged. Because mercury-containing skin products are still widely available in developing countries, the use of these products should be considered a possible cause of membranous nephropathy in immigrants from those countries. PMID:12500245

  3. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  4. Novel screening method for potential skin-whitening compounds by a luciferase reporter assay.

    PubMed

    Shirasugi, Ichiro; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Yamasaki, Masao; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Matsui, Takashi; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Suiko, Masahito

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the melanin content by using B16 melanoma cells is generally applied to find novel skin-whitening agents. However, this measurement method using B16 melanoma cells has such disadvantages, as the time taken, its sensitivity, and troublesomeness. We therefore attempted in the present study to establish a reporter assay system by measuring the tyrosinase promoter activity to use for convenient, high-throughput screening of new melanogenesis inhibitors. We first confirmed the validity of this reporter assay system by using such known skin-whitening agents, as arbutin, sulforaphane, and theaflavin 3,3'-digallate. We then compared the effect of 56 compounds on the tyrosinase promoter activity to test this reporter assay system. Carnosol, and rottlerin strongly inhibited the tyrosinase promoter activity. Moreover, carnosol and rottlerin decreased melanin synthesis and tyrosinase expression in a dose-dependent manner when using B16 melanoma cells. These results indicate this new luciferase reported assay system to be an effective and convenient method for screening potential skin-whitening compounds. PMID:21071833

  5. Comparative investigation of the tooth whitening processes using Ar+ and CuBr lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Gisbrecht, Alexander; Todorovska, Roumiana; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Todorov, Georgy C.

    2001-04-01

    In the present work some results of the comparative measurements of the tooth whitening effect using a bleaching agent activated by Ar+ (emitting at 488 nm) and CuBr (emitting at 510 nm) lasers are reported. It is shown that the whitening effect is observed in both cases. Some of the peculiarities in application of CuBr laser in the field of aesthetic dentistry are discussed, as well as the possibility to replace the more expensive Ar+ laser. In order to ensure reliable results from a light-chemical treatment of the teeth, as spectroscopy method has been developed and applied. The method is based on the analysis of laser-induced fluorescence spectra of the teeth with different coloring.

  6. Whitening non vital teeth – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moraru, Iren; Ţuculină, Mihaela; Bătăiosu, Marilena; Gheorghiţă, Lelia; Diaconu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    Commonly used in cosmetic dentistry teeth whitening can be used combined with other restorative techniques during dental treatment. Non-vital teeth whitening is necessary whenever we need an improvement of their aspect, as it’s a known fact that these teeth can have a grey or pink-grey coloration when they are not correctly endodontical treated. PMID:24778849

  7. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. Findings This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification. Conclusions Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C. PMID:23514228

  8. A Game-Theoretic Model of Marketing Skin Whiteners.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies consistently find that people in less developed countries tend to regard light or "white" skin, particularly among women, as more desirable or superior. This is a study about the marketing of skin whiteners in these countries, where over 80 percent of users are typically women. It proceeds from the following premises: a) Purely market or policy-oriented approaches toward the risks and harms of skin whitening are cost-inefficient; b) Psychosocial and informational factors breed uninformed and risky consumer choices that favor toxic skin whiteners; and c) Proliferation of toxic whiteners in a competitive buyer's market raises critical supplier accountability issues. Is intentional tort a rational outcome of uncooperative game equilibria? Can voluntary cooperation nonetheless evolve between buyers and sellers of skin whiteners? These twin questions are key to addressing the central paradox in this study: A robust and expanding buyer's market, where cheap whitening products abound at a high risk to personal and societal health and safety. Game-theoretic modeling of two-player and n-player strategic interactions is proposed in this study for both its explanatory and predictive value. Therein also lie its practical contributions to the economic literature on skin whitening. PMID:26565686

  9. A six-month study of two self-applied tooth whitening products containing carbamide peroxide.

    PubMed

    Brunton, Paul A; Ellwood, Roger; Davies, Robin

    2004-01-01

    Bleaching offers a non-interventive way of improving the appearance of sound, yet discolored anterior teeth. Until recently, the whitening agent was applied using a tray, but now other methods of delivering whitening agents, such as those using brush applicators, are available. This study investigated the tooth whitening efficacy of two novel, self-applied tooth whitening systems containing either 18% (Group 1) or 16.4% (Group 2) carbamide peroxide. Ninety-five subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 70 with anterior teeth A3 or darker, were recruited and randomly allocated to a group. The subjects were instructed to apply the formulation to all maxillary anterior teeth after brushing in the morning and evening. At baseline, two weeks and six months the upper six anterior teeth of the subjects were measured using the Vita shade guide tab system. In addition, the gingival health of the labial surfaces of the upper six anterior teeth was assessed using the Loee and Silness Gingival index (Loee & Silness, 1963) at baseline and at two weeks. The mean (SD) reduction in shade guide scores was 4.1 (2.4) shade guide tabs for subjects in Group 1, compared to 3.7 (2.6) shades for those in Group 2. This difference was not statistically significant (p=0.5). During the course of study, the gingivitis scores reduced from a mean (SD) of 0.91 (0.62) at baseline to 0.44 (0.55) at final examination (48% reduction). At the six-month recall, the mean (SD) reduction in shade guide scores was 2.3 (2.7) shade guide tabs for subjects in Group 1, compared to 2.5 (2.5) shades for those in Group 2. The different concentrations tested were found to be equally effective in improving the whiteness of upper anterior teeth by approximately four shades over a two-week period and the majority of the whitening benefit (c.60%) was sustained at six-month recall. PMID:15646216

  10. Insights into an adipocyte whitening program

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Bradford G

    2015-01-01

    White adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating systemic metabolism and can remodel rapidly in response to changes in nutrient availability. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the metabolic changes occurring in adipocytes during obesity. Our laboratory recently addressed this issue in a commonly used, high-fat-diet mouse model of obesity. We found remarkable changes in adipocyte metabolism that occur prior to infiltration of macrophages in expanding adipose tissue. Results of metabolomic analyses, adipose tissue respirometry, electron microscopy, and expression analyses of key genes and proteins revealed dysregulation of several metabolic pathways, loss of mitochondrial biogenetic capacity, and apparent activation of mitochondrial autophagy which were followed in time by downregulation of numerous mitochondrial proteins important for maintaining oxidative capacity. These findings demonstrate the presence of an adipocyte whitening program that may be critical for regulating adipose tissue remodeling under conditions of chronic nutrient excess. PMID:26167407

  11. Role of fluoridated carbamide peroxide whitening gel in the remineralization of demineralized enamel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bollineni, Swetha; Janga, Ravi Kumar; Venugopal, L.; Reddy, Indukuri Ravikishore; Babu, P. Ravisekhar; Kumar, Sunil S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of self-administered carbamide peroxide bleaching gels has become increasingly popular for whitening of discolored vital teeth. Studies have reported that its use may induce increased levels of sensitivity and surface roughness of the tooth due to demineralization. This study evaluates the effect of fluoride addition to the bleaching agent – its remineralizing capacity and alterations in the whitening properties. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted lower third molar teeth, with the pretreatment shade determined, were taken up in the study. Each tooth was sectioned into four and labeled as groups A, B, C, and D. The tooth quadrants in group A-C were demineralized; groups A and B were treated with 10% carbamide peroxide gel (group-A without fluoride and group-B with 0.463% fluoride addition) (no further treatment was carried out for group c) group-D remained as the control. The post-treatment shade was determined. The tooth samples were sectioned (approximately 200 μm) for evaluation under a light microscope. The depth of demineralization was analyzed at five different equidistant points. Statistical analysis was carried out with t-tests, accepting ≤0.05 as significant. Results and Conclusion: Addition of fluoride caused remineralization of demineralized enamel. The tooth whitening system showed that the remineralization properties did not affect the whitening properties. PMID:25254197

  12. Classification of benzoyl peroxide as safe and effective and revision of labeling to drug facts format; topical acne drug products for over-the-counter human use; final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    We, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are issuing this final rule to include benzoyl peroxide as a generally recognized as safe and effective (GRASE) active ingredient in over-the-counter (OTC) topical acne drug products. In addition, this final rule includes new warnings and directions required for OTC acne drug products containing benzoyl peroxide. We are also revising labeling for OTC topical acne drug products containing resorcinol, resorcinol monoacetate, salicylic acid and/or sulfur to meet OTC drug labeling content and format requirements in a certain FDA regulation. This final rule is part of our ongoing review of OTC drug products and represents our conclusions on benzoyl peroxide in OTC acne drug products. PMID:20383916

  13. Adaptive whitening of ambient ocean noise with narrowband signal preservation.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Luke J; Stevenson, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Passive underwater listening devices are often deployed to listen for narrowband signals of interest in time-varying background ocean noise. Such tonals are generated mechanically by ships, submarines, and machines, or acoustically by aquatic wildlife. Quantization of the sensor data for storage or low bit-rate transmission adds white noise which can overwhelm weak narrowband signals if the background noise is sufficiently colored. Whitening the background noise prior to quantization can reduce the detrimental effects, but the whitening process must preserve any tonals in the signal for maximum effectiveness. Existing adaptive whitening techniques make no effort to avoid suppressing tonals in the whitening process, while existing spectral separation methods fail to whiten background noise. The proposed methods perform adaptive whitening of background ambient noise while preserving narrowband tones at their original signal-to-noise ratios. The proposed methods are shown to outperform combinations of existing partial solutions both subjectively and by evaluating the objective criteria introduced. The stability and convergence properties of the proposed algorithms match or surpass those of existing well-known adaptive algorithms. PMID:27369136

  14. Adaptive whitening of the electromyogram to improve amplitude estimation.

    PubMed

    Clancy, E A; Farry, K A

    2000-06-01

    Previous research showed that whitening the surface electromyogram (EMG) can improve EMG amplitude estimation (where EMG amplitude is defined as the time-varying standard deviation of the EMG). However, conventional whitening via a linear filter seems to fail at low EMG amplitude levels, perhaps due to additive background noise in the measured EMG. This paper describes an adaptive whitening technique that overcomes this problem by cascading a nonadaptive whitening filter, an adaptive Wiener filter, and an adaptive gain correction. These stages can be calibrated from two, five second duration, constant-angle, constant-force contractions, one at a reference level [e.g., 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] and one at 0% MVC. In experimental studies, subjects used real-time EMG amplitude estimates to track a uniform-density, band-limited random target. With a 0.25-Hz bandwidth target, either adaptive whitening or multiple-channel processing reduced the tracking error roughly half-way to the error achieved using the dynamometer signal as the feedback. At the 1.00-Hz bandwidth, all of the EMG processors had errors equivalent to that of the dynamometer signal, reflecting that errors in this task were dominated by subjects' inability to track targets at this bandwidth. Increases in the additive noise level, smoothing window length, and tracking bandwidth diminish the advantages of whitening. PMID:10833845

  15. Influence of Whitening Gel Application Protocol on Dental Color Change

    PubMed Central

    Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Bresciani, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the influence of different whitening protocols on the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) tooth whitening and gel pH and concentration. Material and Methods. Eighty-four enamel/dentin discs from bovine incisors were used. The baseline color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Two sessions of in-office whitening with 35% HP were performed under different protocols: G1: 3 applications of HP (10 min each) per session; G2: 1 application of 30 min per session; G3: 1 application of 40 min per session, with no gel replenishment within session for groups 2 and 3. HP titration and pH evaluation at baseline, after 10, 30, and 40 min were also performed. The final color was measured 24 h after the 1st and 2nd whitening sessions. Data were submitted to Repeated Measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results. For color evaluation, no differences were observed among groups after two sessions. HP titration showed no drop on concentration after 10, 30, or 40 min. The pH was 5.54 at baseline and 5.41 after 40 min. Conclusion. Replenishment or extended application time of in-office whitening gel does not affect gel pH and concentration, a fact that supports the similar effectiveness of whitening observed among the tested protocols. PMID:25866839

  16. Use Over-the-Counter Medicines Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have ■ glaucoma ■ a breathing problem such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis ■ trouble urinating due to an ... my other medical conditions? (For example, pregnancy, glaucoma, emphysema) ● Can I continue my normal activities while taking ...

  17. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... by acting on the same neurotransmitter systems as cocaine. Opioid pain relievers such as OxyContin ® attach to ...

  18. Saliency computation via whitened frequency band selection.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Liming

    2016-06-01

    Many saliency computational models have been proposed to simulate bottom-up visual attention mechanism of human visual system. However, most of them only deal with certain kinds of images or aim at specific applications. In fact, human beings have the ability to correctly select attentive focuses of objects with arbitrary sizes within any scenes. This paper proposes a new bottom-up computational model from the perspective of frequency domain based on the biological discovery of non-Classical Receptive Field (nCRF) in the retina. A saliency map can be obtained according to the idea of Extended Classical Receptive Field. The model is composed of three major steps: firstly decompose the input image into several feature maps representing different frequency bands that cover the whole frequency domain by utilizing Gabor wavelet. Secondly, whiten the feature maps to highlight the embedded saliency information. Thirdly, select some optimal maps, simulating the response of receptive field especially nCRF, to generate the saliency map. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to work with stable effect and outstanding performance in a variety of situations as human beings do and is adaptive to both psychological patterns and natural images. Beyond that, biological plausibility of nCRF and Gabor wavelet transform make this approach reliable. PMID:27275381

  19. 21 CFR 349.16 - Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. 349.16 Section 349.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 349.16 Ophthalmic hypertonicity agent. The...

  20. Decision support system for predicting color change after tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Thanathornwong, Bhornsawan; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Ouivirach, Kan

    2016-03-01

    Tooth whitening is becoming increasingly popular among patients and dentists since it is a relatively noninvasive approach. However, the degree of color change after tooth whitening is known to vary substantially between studies. The present study aims to develop a clinical decision support system for predicting color change after in-office tooth whitening. We used the information from patients' data sets, and applied the multiple regression equation of CIELAB color coordinates including L*, a*, and b* of the original tooth color and the color difference (ΔE) that expresses the color change after tooth whitening. To evaluate the system performance, the patient's post-treatment color was used as "gold standard" to compare with the post-treatment color predicted by the system. There was a high degree of agreement between the patient's post-treatment color and the post-treatment color predicted by the system (kappa value=0.894). The results obtained have demonstrated that the decision support system is possible to predict the color change obtained using an in-office whitening system using colorimetric values. PMID:26657921

  1. In vitro permeation and in vivo whitening effect of topical hesperetin microemulsion delivery system.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Hung; Lee, Ko-Feng; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Huang, Chi-Te; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2010-03-30

    Hesperetin is one of the flavonoids and possess anti-inflammatory, UV-protecting and antioxidant effects. Permeation issues for topical delivery systems of such effects are occasionally problematic, and in view of the fact that microemulsions are potential carriers for transdermal delivery system, the objective of this study was to design an optimal microemulsion formulation by in vitro permeation study for hesperetin topical dosage form and determine its topical photoprotective effect and skin irritation by in vivo study. The hesperetin-loaded microemulsion showed an enhanced in vitro permeation compared to the aqueous and isopropyl myristate (IPM) suspension dosage form of hesperetin. In comparison, the effect of co-surfactant on the drug permeation capacity, propylene glycol showed highest permeation rate, followed by ethanol, glycerol and polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Sunscreen agent padimate O, as a transdermal enhancer could increase the permeation rate of hesperetin. In case of in vivo study, the hesperetin-loaded microemulsion showed significant topical whitening effect and diminished skin irritation when compared with the non-treatment group, indicating that the hesperetin microemulsion could be used as an effective whitening agent. PMID:20060453

  2. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bo Young; Choi, So Ra; Moon, Ik Jun; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Young-Hoon; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH) is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE), GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE) and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE) in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders. PMID:27128906

  3. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bo Young; Choi, So Ra; Moon, Ik Jun; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Young-Hoon; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH) is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE), GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE) and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE) in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders. PMID:27128906

  4. Molecular design and fluorescent whitening emission from novel lanthanide activated organic-inorganic covalently hybrid micro-particles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Feng; Yan, Bing

    2008-09-01

    A series of potential lanthanide activated fluorescent-whitening hybrid micro-particles has been prepared by sol-gel method. The precursor derived from 2,2'-dipyridylamine derivative modified though hydrogen transfer addition exhibited a self-organization under the coordination to RE(3+) (Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Sm(3+), Dy(3+), respectively) evaluated by SEM (micrometric scale) and X-ray diffraction studies (nanometric scale). The adapting traditional routes used in this paper affected the shape of the materials and can be taken as a new method to control the hydrolysis-polycondensation process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectra (DRUVS) and (1)H NMR spectra were used to confirm the modifications. These activated phosphors with lanthanide ions represent a novel way to produce fluorescent whitening agents. PMID:18176781

  5. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of community pharmacists toward administration of over-the-counter drugs for the treatment of diarrhea in children: A pretest–posttest survey

    PubMed Central

    Foroughinia, Farzaneh; Zarei, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of community pharmacists toward administration of over-the-counter (OTC) antidiarrheal drugs in our city pharmacies, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 90 pharmacies among 128 pharmacies in our city were randomly chosen. The study was designed into two phases: A standard questionnaire to determine the level of knowledge and attitude of pharmacists and a simulated client method to evaluate practice among them. An educational pamphlet was then given to the pharmacists. One month later, knowledge, attitude, and performance of studied pharmacists were evaluated again using the same method. Findings: Our results showed that an average consultation time by female pharmacists was considerably more than male pharmacists (P < 0.001). Before intervention, only 37.8% of pharmacists performed appropriately by prescribing the proper medicine while this increased to 58.44% after intervention. The average score of pharmacists’ knowledge was statistically increased (P < 0.001) and the pharmacists’ performance was significantly improved (P < 0.001) after the educational intervention. In related to the attitude, pharmacists’ tendency toward prescribing oral rehydration salt solutions (ORS) (P < 0.001) and their belief about the great effect of ORS on the treatment of diarrhea increased significantly after the intervention. Conclusion: It is concluded that training programs such as educational pamphlets and continuing educational seminars may play important roles in increasing pharmacists’ knowledge and therefore improving their performance in prescribing OTC medicines. PMID:27512712

  6. Now you see it. Now you don't: fair balance and adequate provision in advertisements for drugs before and after the switch from prescription to over-the-counter.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Adrienne E; Kreling, David H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure differences in fair balance (benefit and risk statements) and adequate provision (toll-free numbers, Internet URLs, print ad references, and medical professional references) in advertising content for drugs that have switched from prescription to over-the-counter (OTC). The Vanderbilt TV News Archive was used to select products to study, to measure the frequency and placement of ads for those products, and to view advertising content for those products. Unique advertisements (n = 108) for loratadine (Claritin), citirizine (Zyrtec), and omeprazole (Prilosec) were analyzed for the presence of adequate provision statements and for the frequency of benefit, risk, and other statements. OTC ads were shorter than prescription ads by 10.6 seconds but contained the same total number of statements. Most prescription ads (n (RX) = 31) contained toll-free numbers (97%), Internet URLs (94%), medical professional references (100%) and print ad references (68%). Few OTC ads (n (OTC) = 77) contained adequate provision statements: 4% contained toll-free numbers and 10% contained Internet URLs. Prescription ads had similar numbers of benefits (1.5) and risks (1.8) per 30 seconds of ad time, and OTC ads had more benefits (6.6) than risks (1.2) per 30 seconds of ad time. Prescription drug ads contained risk statements that listed specific side effects and explicit harms from taking the product, but OTC ads contained nonspecific risk information and statements that implied risk rather than directly identifying risk. Differences in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulation of advertising affected the balance of risk and benefit information that appeared and the specificity of risk information available. PMID:21745037

  7. Preparation and evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticles with JSH18 for skin-whitening efficacy.

    PubMed

    So, Jae-Woo; Kim, Sujin; Park, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Bong-Hee; Jung, Sang-Hun; Shin, Sang-Chul; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2010-01-01

    A new molecule having the structure of 6-methyl-3-phenethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinazoline-2-thione (JSH18) was synthesized and it was possibly presupposed to show depigmentation through the inhibition of tyrosinase which is involved in the formation of melanin. Therefore, we are going to develop JSH18 as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis with topical formulations to show its optimal efficiency for skin whitening. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) play an important role as drug delivery systems for intravenous, peroral, parenteral, or ocular administration and for topical delivery. The particle size of prepared SLNs of JSH18 was variable from 59.8-919.6 nm. When the optimal SLNs cream (PU3) including 4 uM of JSH18 was applied to the backs of hairless rats for four days after the backs were irradiated by UV ray for seven days and the skin color was checked by reflectance spectrophotometer, the rat skin applied with PU3 cream quickly recovered to normal compared to SLNs cream without JSH18. Taken together, this study suggests topical formulations such as creams including SLNs with JSH18 might be an appropriate carrier for skin-whitening agents. PMID:19775236

  8. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet; Hatipoglu, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (n = 10): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control). Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (ΔE) was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (P > 0.05). The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel. PMID:26295061

  9. A Simple Recipe for Whitening Old Newspaper Clippings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a method for experimenting with both whitening and deacidifying old newspaper clippings using sodium borohydride bleaching. Clippings are soaked in distilled water then immersed in sodium borohydride for 15-20 minutes. After rinsing with distilled water, the paper is washed with saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. Readers should not begin…

  10. Do stress-whitening and optical clearing of collagenous tissue occur by the same mechanism?

    PubMed

    Hardisty, M R; Soicher, M A; Garcia, T C; Stover, S M; Fyhrie, D P

    2013-09-27

    Bone is biphasic with an organic matrix and an inorganic mineral component. As we age bone's susceptibility to fracture increases. It has been shown that there is no change in mean mineralization with aging, but bone nevertheless becomes less tough. This aging effect is therefore likely related to the organic phase. Under mechanical loading, immediately prior to failure, bone has been observed to visually become more opaque and has been termed stress-whitening. Stress-whitening is known to make materials tougher. The goal of this investigation was to investigate stress-whitening in the collagenous matrix of bone. Hydrogen bonds play a key role in collagen stability and we hypothesize that changes in hydrogen bonding will significantly affect matrix stiffness, toughness and stress whitening. Demineralized bone specimens were loaded in tension and stress-whitening was monitored. The effect of hydrogen bonding on mechanical properties and stress-whitening process was probed by altering the Hansen's hydrogen bonding parameter (δh) of the immersing solution. The Hansen's hydrogen bonding parameter of the immersing fluid affected the morphology, mechanical properties and stress whitening of specimens. Specimens were visually whiter in the absence of mechanical load in low δh solvents (the specimens solvent-whitened). Both the observed stress-whitening and solvent-whitening were reversible and repeatable processes. The observed solvent-whitening that occurred without the presence of load was consistent with solvent-induced optical clearing (the opposite of whitening) in skin caused by collagen fibril swelling. Stress whitening and solvent whitening can be explained by a common mechanism, collagen fibril densification and thinning, leading to an increased distinction between the collagen fibrillar phase and immersing fluid, ultimately leading to more scattering. Bones may be at a greater risk for fracture as we age because solubility of the matrix changes, thus making

  11. Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao T.; Qu, Jianan Y.; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yim, So Fan; Wong, Yick Fu

    2005-06-01

    Acetic acid, inducing transient whitening (acetowhitening) when applied to epithelial tissues, is a commonly used contrast agent for detecting early cervical cancer. The goals of this research are to investigate the temporal characteristics of acetowhitening process in cervical epithelial tissue at cellular level and develop a clear understanding of the diagnostic information carried in the acetowhitening signal. A system measuring time-resolved reflectance was built to study the rising and decay processes of acetowhitening signal from the monolayered cell cultures of normal and cancerous cervical squamous cells. It is found that the dynamic processes of acetowhitening in normal and cancerous cells are significantly different. The results of this study provide insight valuable to further understand the acetowhitening process in epithelial cells and to encourage the development of an objective procedure to detect the early cervical cancers based on quantitative monitoring of the dynamic process of acetowhitening

  12. A longitudinal comparison of tooth whitening resulting from dentifrice use.

    PubMed

    Koertge, T E; Brooks, C N; Sarbin, A G; Powers, D; Gunsolley, J C

    1998-01-01

    The effect of twice-daily brushing with one of three different dentifrices (Arm & Hammer Dental Care, Arm & Hammer Dental Care Extra Whitening, Crest) on stain removal and tooth whitening was examined in 115 volunteers over a period of 12 weeks. The facial surfaces of 12 anterior teeth were assessed for stain using a published, modified version of a standard stain index. Whiteness was measured on teeth 8 and 9 using a single Vita Lumin-Vaccum Shade Guide for consistency. At baseline, the mean facial stain scores were significantly higher (p < 0.05-0.01) for both Arm & Hammer dentifrices than for Crest. In addition, the tooth shades, as indicated by the stain guide, specifically the b* values representing yellowness, were quantified using a Minolta spectrophotometer. Arm & Hammer Dental Care Extra Whitening formula was found to be significantly better than Crest at removing naturally occurring extrinsic stain. The difference between Arm & Hammer Dental Care Extra Whitening and Crest became significant (p < 0.01) after two weeks of use, and remained intact during the balance of the study, achieving p values of 0.0002 for at least one of the three assessed parameters (total stain, proximal, and facial) at weeks 4 and 12. The study also found that Arm & Hammer Dental Care produced a significant increase in tooth whiteness by week 12, whereas Crest showed no such increase at any time during the study. These results suggest that the two Arm & Hammer Baking Soda products are more effective in reducing stain and increasing whiteness than the standard silica-based dentifrice. Their effectiveness is not related to abrasivity since they are less abrasive to tooth enamel than the silica-based product tested. PMID:10518865

  13. Vascular rarefaction mediates whitening of brown fat in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ippei; Aprahamian, Tamar; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Ayako; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Maruyama, Sonomi; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly vascularized organ with abundant mitochondria that produce heat through uncoupled respiration. Obesity is associated with a reduction of BAT function; however, it is unknown how obesity promotes dysfunctional BAT. Here, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity, we determined that obesity causes capillary rarefaction and functional hypoxia in BAT, leading to a BAT “whitening” phenotype that is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid droplet accumulation, and decreased expression of Vegfa. Targeted deletion of Vegfa in adipose tissue of nonobese mice resulted in BAT whitening, supporting a role for decreased vascularity in obesity-associated BAT. Conversely, introduction of VEGF-A specifically into BAT of obese mice restored vascularity, ameliorated brown adipocyte dysfunction, and improved insulin sensitivity. The capillary rarefaction in BAT that was brought about by obesity or Vegfa ablation diminished β-adrenergic signaling, increased mitochondrial ROS production, and promoted mitophagy. These data indicate that overnutrition leads to the development of a hypoxic state in BAT, causing it to whiten through mitochondrial dysfunction and loss. Furthermore, these results link obesity-associated BAT whitening to impaired systemic glucose metabolism. PMID:24713652

  14. The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University-Linked Corporate Scientific Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mire, Amina

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the interlocking strategies of scientific entrepreneurialism and academic capitalism in cutting-edge innovations in molecular biology, biomedicine, and other life sciences deployed in research and the development of high-end skin whitening and anti-aging cosmeceuticals. Skin whitening products and anti-aging cosmeceuticals are…

  15. The Comparative Evaluation of Fermented and Non-fermented Soybean Extract on Antioxidation and Whitening.

    PubMed

    Chae, Ga Yeon; Ha, Bae Jin

    2011-12-01

    The present study was performed to compare the antioxidative and whitening activities of fermented soybean extract (FSB) and non-fermented soybean extract (SB). Antioxidative and whitening activities of FSB and SB were evaluated by the determination of DPPH, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, linoleic acid inhibition activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. FSB showed the higher effect than SB in the antioxidative activities. Also FSB showed the better effect than SB in whitening activity. These results demonstrated that the fermentation played a more excellent role than the non-fermentation in antioxidation and whitening. Therefore, this study suggested that FSB could be a useful cosmetic ingredient for antioxidation and skin whitening. PMID:24278573

  16. The effect of whitening transformation on pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuhe; Fan, Yangyu; Liu, Weihua

    2015-12-01

    Convolutional autoencoders (CAEs) are unsupervised feature extractors for high-resolution images. In the pre-processing step, whitening transformation has widely been adopted to remove redundancy by making adjacent pixels less correlated. Pooling is a biologically inspired operation to reduce the resolution of feature maps and achieve spatial invariance in convolutional neural networks. Conventionally, pooling methods are mainly determined empirically in most previous work. Therefore, our main purpose is to study the relationship between whitening processing and pooling operations in convolutional autoencoders for image classification. We propose an adaptive pooling approach based on the concepts of information entropy to test the effect of whitening on pooling in different conditions. Experimental results on benchmark datasets indicate that the performance of pooling strategies is associated with the distribution of feature activations, which can be affected by whitening processing. This provides guidance for the selection of pooling methods in convolutional autoencoders and other convolutional neural networks.

  17. Surface and pulpal temperature comparison of tooth whitening using lasers and curing lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel M.; Pelino, Jose; Rodrigues, Rively; Zwhalen, Brian J.; Nguyen, Max H.; Wu, Emily

    2000-03-01

    Chemical action of bleaching agents applied to tooth surface is accelerated by increase in temperature. This in vitro study measured the temperature rises on the surface and in the pulp of teeth during whitening using a diode laser, a plasma arc curing (PAC) light and conventional curing lights. Extracted, non-carious single-rooted teeth were exposed to PAC light and laser at times ranging from 10 to 60 seconds and energy ranges of 2 W, 4 W, and 6 W, and to low-intensity curing lights from 1 to 4 minutes. Maximum temperature rises were analyzed for both pulpal and surface temperature. Diode laser exposures at 2 W for all times and at 4 watts for 10 seconds and PAC light exposures at 10 seconds all produced acceptably safe pulpal rises equivalent to conventional light-curing exposures. Exposures at these settings also attained surface temperature rises that were significantly higher than those using conventional light-curing. The diode laser demonstrated bleaching results equivalent to the PAC light, and both were achieved in significantly less times than conventional light- curing.

  18. Laboratory studies on the chemical whitening effects of a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Baig, Arif A; Kozak, Kathy M; Cox, Ed R; Zoladz, James R; Mahony, Lynn; White, Donald J

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory studies were developed to permit the evaluation of chemical actions of toothpaste components in the non-abrasive prevention and removal of tea stains. Powdered hydroxyapatites were used as substrates for adsorption of tea chromogens. Pre-treatment with a sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice (Crest Dual Action Whitening) reduced tea adsorption to powdered apatite, while post-treatments of pre-stained powder resulted in desorption of tea components. These results exemplified the chemical actions of condensed calcium phosphate surface active builders toward dental stain removal and prevention. A cycling synamel chip model permitted the study of stain prevention, including salivary pellicle formation and chlorhexidine enhancement of dental staining by tea chromogens. Staining was evaluated by image analysis of color development. Under these conditions, condensed phosphate dentifrices were observed to produce superior prevention of stain accumulations, with Crest Dual Action Whitening dentifrice providing stain prevention superior to a variety of commercial dentifrices, including Colgate Total, Aquafresh Whitening, Colgate Tartar Control Whitening, Mentadent Baking Soda and Peroxide Whitening, Close-Up Whitening, Crest Tartar Control and Crest Regular Cavity Protection. PMID:11507927

  19. Whitening efficacy of plant extracts including Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula extracts on the skin of Asian patients with melasma

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Hussain, Irshad; Abbas, Khwaja Asad; Rasul, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Melasma/hyperpigmentation and solar damage of the skin remains a difficult problem to treat. Various types of whitening agents are used to treat hyperpigmentation. A change has been observed recently to use plant extracts as skin whitening agents. Aim To compare the effectiveness of emulsion formulations containing plant extracts that include catechins/polyphenols and placebo without plant extracts, on patients with melasma. Material and methods Two groups of 25 patients each (aged 21–35 years), who reported to the outpatient department of BV Hospital and Personal clinic of a dermatologist, were included in the study. Volunteers applied the formulations with plant extracts and placebo to one side of the cheek. Prior to the study, signed consent was obtained from each patient. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the extracts and formulations was tested in vitro. The pigment density of patients was evaluated biometrologically using Mexameter® and subjectively using a visual survey before and after treatment of 12 weeks. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Faculty of Pharmacy, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur was obtained before the study. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in the statistical analysis. Results A significant decrease in the level of melanin was determined in all 50 patients who used a plant extract containing catechin (p ≤ 0.05). The difference between pre- and post-treatment levels of melanin was statistically significant (p = 0.05). Formulations prepared with plant extracts containing catechin were found effective on melasma, compared to the placebo. Conclusions Formulations containing plant extracts that are not yet being used widespread commercially on melasma could be an effective alternative treatment of melasma. PMID:24278079

  20. Over-the-Counter Biosensors: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Thomas Ming-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The demand for specific, low cost, rapid, sensitive and easy detection of biomolecules is huge. A well-known example is the glucose meters used by diabetics to monitor their blood glucose levels. Nowadays, a vast majority of the glucose meters are based on electrochemical biosensor technology. The inherent small size and simple construction of the electrochemical transducer and instrument are ideally suited for point-of-care biosensing. Besides glucose, a wide variety of electrochemical biosensors have been developed for the measurements of some other key metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids. Nevertheless, unlike the glucose meters, limited success has been achieved for the commercialization of the protein and nucleic acid biosensors. In this review article, key technologies on the electrochemical detection of key metabolites, proteins, and DNAs are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on those that are compatible to home-use setting. Moreover, emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors (i.e., silicon and carbon nanotube field-effect sensors) offer opportunities for the construction of new generation biosensors with much better performances. Together with the continuous innovations in the basic components of biosensors (i.e., transducers, biorecognition molecules, immobilization and signal transduction schemes), consumers could soon buy different kinds of biosensing devices in the pharmacy stores.

  1. Over-the-Counter Drugs: A Challenge for Drug Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrone, David M.

    1973-01-01

    Drug education should be a complete program including information on the all too frequently overused group of self medicaments. Misuse of these drugs by self medication may, in many circumstances, lead to serious consequences. Knowledge of their use should be an effort of every drug education program. (Author)

  2. Over-the-Counter Medicines: What's Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Aren't Just Small Adults Child-Resistant Packaging Protect Yourself Against Tampering Advice for Americans about ... remember that you called it candy. Child-Resistant Packaging Child-resistant closures are designed for repeated use ...

  3. Indoles: Industrial, Agricultural and Over-the-Counter Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Timothy C.

    Indole-containing compounds are best known for their medicinal properties in the pharmaceutical industry. Although to a lesser degree, the indole motif none-the-less appears in many significant products across the entire chemical industry. This chapter describes the role that indole plays in a more commodity setting and provides examples illustrating these uses.

  4. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    MedlinePlus

    ... version - 342KB) Always Read the Label Reading the product label is the most important part of taking care ... for special "flags" or "banners" on the front product label alerting you to such changes. If you read ...

  5. Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in treating the initial stages of a common cold or viral infection. Nasal decongestant sprays are safe ... and to halt progression of sinus infections following colds. However, they should only be utilized for 3- ...

  6. On estimating attenuation from the amplitude of the spectrally whitened ambient seismic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weemstra, Cornelis; Westra, Willem; Snieder, Roel; Boschi, Lapo

    2014-06-01

    Measuring attenuation on the basis of interferometric, receiver-receiver surface waves is a non-trivial task: the amplitude, more than the phase, of ensemble-averaged cross-correlations is strongly affected by non-uniformities in the ambient wavefield. In addition, ambient noise data are typically pre-processed in ways that affect the amplitude itself. Some authors have recently attempted to measure attenuation in receiver-receiver cross-correlations obtained after the usual pre-processing of seismic ambient-noise records, including, most notably, spectral whitening. Spectral whitening replaces the cross-spectrum with a unit amplitude spectrum. It is generally assumed that cross-terms have cancelled each other prior to spectral whitening. Cross-terms are peaks in the cross-correlation due to simultaneously acting noise sources, that is, spurious traveltime delays due to constructive interference of signal coming from different sources. Cancellation of these cross-terms is a requirement for the successful retrieval of interferometric receiver-receiver signal and results from ensemble averaging. In practice, ensemble averaging is replaced by integrating over sufficiently long time or averaging over several cross-correlation windows. Contrary to the general assumption, we show in this study that cross-terms are not required to cancel each other prior to spectral whitening, but may also cancel each other after the whitening procedure. Specifically, we derive an analytic approximation for the amplitude difference associated with the reversed order of cancellation and normalization. Our approximation shows that an amplitude decrease results from the reversed order. This decrease is predominantly non-linear at small receiver-receiver distances: at distances smaller than approximately two wavelengths, whitening prior to ensemble averaging causes a significantly stronger decay of the cross-spectrum.

  7. Power and Socioscientific Issues: The Pedagogy of Mire's Critique of Skin Whitening Cosmeceuticals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David

    2012-01-01

    In her article, "The Scientification of Skin Whitening and the Entrepreneurial University- Linked Corporate Scientific Officer," published in this issue, Amina Mire (2012) deconstructs the tacit investments implicit in such discourses of beauty, in particular those linked to cosmetic products that purport to fight the "war on aging" through the…

  8. Light-enhanced chemical whitening of teeth: new in vitro investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovska, R.; Dimitrov, S.; Pavlova, P.; Todorov, G.

    2007-03-01

    We report new results on the light enhanced teeth whitening obtained in a research collaboration financed by the Medical Science Council of the Medical University of Sofia. The project is an extension of previous research and its basic goal is to develop new teeth bleaching substances and procedures, in which the activators are diode lamps (LED).

  9. Quantitative Determination of α-Arbutin, β-Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Nicotinamide, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, 4-Methoxyphenol, 4-Ethoxyphenol, and Ascorbic Acid from Skin Whitening Products by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nine skin whitening agents in a single injection. These compounds are α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, resorcinol, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, 4-methoxyphenol, and 4-ethoxyphenol. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column within 30 min. The mobile phase was composed of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v). The stability of the analytes was evaluated at different pH values between 2.3 and 7.6, and the extraction procedure was validated for different types of skin whitening product matrixes, which included two creams, a soap bar, and a capsule. The best solvent system for sample preparation was 20 mM NaH2PO4 containing 10% methanol at pH 2.3. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The developed HPLC-UV method was applied for the quantitation of the nine analytes in 59 skin whitening products including creams, lotions, sera, foams, gels, mask sheets, soap bars, tablets, and capsules. PMID:25857872

  10. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of arbutin, whitening agent through oxidation by periodate and complexation with ferric chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoom, B. N.; Abdelsamad, A. M. E.; Adib, N. M.

    2006-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of arbutin (glycosylated hydroquinone) is described. It is based on the oxidation of arbutin by periodate in presence of iodate. Excess periodate causes liberation of iodine at pH 8.0. The unreacted periodate is determined by measurement of the liberated iodine spectrophotometrically in the wavelength range (300-500 nm). A calibration curve was constructed for more accurate results and the correlation coefficient of linear regression analysis was -0.9778. The precision of this method was better than 6.17% R.S.D. ( n = 3). Regression analysis of Bear-Lambert plot shows good correlation in the concentration range 25-125 ug/ml. The identification limit was determined to be 25 ug/ml a detailed study of the reaction conditions was carried out, including effect of changing pH, time, temperature and volume of periodate. Analyzing pure and authentic samples containing arbutin tested the validity of the proposed method which has an average percent recovery of 100.86%. An alternative method is also proposed which involves a complexation reaction between arbutin and ferric chloride solution. The produced complex which is yellowish-green in color was determined spectophotometrically.

  11. On-the-teeth whitening process using Ar+ and CuBr lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Raychev, L.; Gisbrecht, Alexander; Todorovska, Roumyana; Petrov, Lyubomir P.; Todorov, Georgy C.

    2004-06-01

    The present investigations are directed at a more detailed studying of methods for colour determination aimed at estimation of human teeth whiteness degree, sufficiently handy for common use in clinical practice. In order to be obtained unbiased results of the whitening, specific techniques for the degree of whiteness (coloration) determination had been developed on the basis of common colorimetric and spectral methods and apparatus, including a standard computer processing and accorded to the three-dimensional colour scheme Vita 3D. Comparative experimental investigations with two lasers (Ar+, CuBr) and three experimental whitening compositions for treatment of 6 different groups of samples were carried out. The results of the applied spectral and colorimetric techniques are in a good agreement with those of the standard computer processing of the corresponding digital photographs and comply with the visually estimated degree of the teeth whiteness judged according to the standard reference scale commonly used in the aesthetic dentistry.

  12. A study of the human skin-whitening effects of resveratryl triacetate.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seok, Jin Kyung; An, Sang Mi; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Koh, Jae Sook; Boo, Yong Chool

    2015-04-01

    Resveratrol has a variety of bioactivities that include its anti-melanogenic effects, but its use in cosmetics has been challenging partly because of its chemical instability. Resveratryl triacetate (RTA) is a prodrug that can enhance stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the skin safety and whitening effects of RTA in human subjects. The primary skin irritation potentials of RTA and resveratrol were tested at 0.1 and 0.5 % on human subjects. Resveratrol at a concentration of 0.5 % induced weak skin irritation, whereas RTA did not induce any skin responses. The skin-whitening efficacy of a cosmetic formulation containing 0.4 % RTA was evaluated in two different test models. In the artificial tanning model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the skin of the forearms of 22 human subjects after pigmentation induction by ultraviolet irradiation. Applying the test and the control products to the artificial tanning model for 8 weeks increased the individual topology angles (ITA°) by 17.06 and 13.81 %, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the hyperpigmentation model, the test product and the control product were applied twice daily to the faces of 21 human subjects. The averaged intensity of the hyperpigmented spots decreased by 2.67 % in the test group and 1.46 % in the control group, a difference that was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, RTA incorporated into cosmetic formulations can whiten human skin without inducing skin irritation. PMID:25750159

  13. Effect of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Gabriela Migliorin; da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Menezes, Márcio; do Vale, Hugo Felipe; Regalado, Diego Ferreira; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study verified the influence of whitening dentifrices on the surface roughness of a nanohybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two specimens were prepared with Filtek™ Z350 XT (3M/ESPE) and randomly divided into four groups (n = 08) that were subjected to brushing simulation equivalent to the period of 1 month. The groups assessed were a control group with distilled water (G1), Colgate Total 12 Professional Clean (G2), Sensodyne Extra Whitener Extra Fresh (G3), and Colgate Luminous White (G4). A sequence of 90 cycles was performed for all the samples. The initial roughness of each group was analyzed by the Surface Roughness Tester (TR 200-TIME Group Inc., CA, USA). After the brushing period, the final roughness was measured, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn tests for intergroup roughness comparison in the time factor. For intragroup and “Δ Final − Initial” comparisons, the Wilcoxon test and (one-way) ANOVA were, respectively, performed (α = 0.05). Results: The roughness mean values before and after brushing showed no statistically significant difference when the different dentifrices were used. None of the dentifrices analyzed increased significantly the nanohybrid composite resin surface roughness in a 1 month of tooth brushing simulation. Conclusions: These results suggest that no hazardous effect on the roughness of nanohybrid composite resin can be expected when whitening dentifrices are used for a short period. Similar studies should be conducted to analyze other esthetic composite materials. PMID:27095891

  14. Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... its box has the American Dental Association's (ADA) seal of acceptance, it is good for your oral ... dispensed solutions have the American Dental Association (ADA) seal. Other over-the-counter whitening products include whitening ...

  15. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Stewartia pseudocamellia Maxim. and their Whitening Activities

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Hyun Jung; Noh, Hye-Ji; Na, Chun Su; Kim, Chung Sub; Kim, Ki Hyun; Hong, Cheol Yi; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-01-01

    The half-dried leaves of Stewartia. pseudocamellia were extracted with hot water (SPE) and partitioned with n-hexane (SPEH), dichloromethane (SPED), and ethyl acetate (SPEE) successively. SPE and SPEE showed significant inhibitory effects against melanogenesis and tyrosinase activities. By bioassay-guided isolation, ten phenolic compounds were isolated by column chromatography from SPEE. The whitening effect of the isolated compounds from SPEE were tested for the inhibitory activities against melanogenesis using B16 melanoma cells, in vitro inhibition of tyrosinase, and L-3,4-dihydorxy-indole-2-carboxylic acid (L-DOPA) auto-oxidation assay. A cytotoxic activity assay was done to examine the cellular toxicity in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Of the compounds isolated, gallic acid and quercetin revealed significant inhibitory activities against melanogenesis compared to arbutin. In particular, quercetin exhibited similar inhibitory activities against tyrosinase and L-DOPA oxidation without cytotoxicity. These results suggested that SPE could be used as a potential source of natural skin-whitening material in cosmetics as well as in food products. PMID:25995828

  16. Effective of diode laser on teeth enamel in the teeth whitening treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunboot, U.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Chitaree, R.; Emarat, N.

    2011-12-01

    This research purpose is to investigate the changing of teeth color and to study the surface of teeth after treatment by laser diode at different power densities for tooth whitening treatment. In the experiment, human-extracted teeth samples were divided into 7 groups of 6 teeth each. After that laser diode was irradiated to teeth, which were coated by 38% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, during for 20, 30 and 60 seconds at power densities of 10.9 and 52.1 W/cm2. The results of teeth color change were described by the CIEL*a*b* systems and the damage of teeth surface were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the power density of the laser diode could affect the whiteness of teeth. The high power density caused more luminous teeth than the low power density did, but on the other hand the high power density also caused damage to the teeth surface. Therefore, the laser diode at the low power densities has high efficiency for tooth whitening treatment and it has a potential for other clinical applications.

  17. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Stewartia pseudocamellia Maxim. and their Whitening Activities.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyun Jung; Noh, Hye-Ji; Na, Chun Su; Kim, Chung Sub; Kim, Ki Hyun; Hong, Cheol Yi; Lee, Kang Ro

    2015-05-01

    The half-dried leaves of Stewartia. pseudocamellia were extracted with hot water (SPE) and partitioned with n-hexane (SPEH), dichloromethane (SPED), and ethyl acetate (SPEE) successively. SPE and SPEE showed significant inhibitory effects against melanogenesis and tyrosinase activities. By bioassay-guided isolation, ten phenolic compounds were isolated by column chromatography from SPEE. The whitening effect of the isolated compounds from SPEE were tested for the inhibitory activities against melanogenesis using B16 melanoma cells, in vitro inhibition of tyrosinase, and L-3,4-dihydorxy-indole-2-carboxylic acid (L-DOPA) auto-oxidation assay. A cytotoxic activity assay was done to examine the cellular toxicity in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Of the compounds isolated, gallic acid and quercetin revealed significant inhibitory activities against melanogenesis compared to arbutin. In particular, quercetin exhibited similar inhibitory activities against tyrosinase and L-DOPA oxidation without cytotoxicity. These results suggested that SPE could be used as a potential source of natural skin-whitening material in cosmetics as well as in food products. PMID:25995828

  18. Spectrophotometric evaluation of peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber from whitening strips and gel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Wadhwani, KK

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate pulp chamber penetration of different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were taken and grouped into five (n = 10). All teeth were cut approximately 3 mm apical to the cemento-enamel junction. Pulp was removed and the pulp chamber filled with acetate buffer. Buccal crown surfaces of teeth in the experimental groups were subjected to whitening strip and paint on whitener gel. Control group teeth were exposed to distilled water. The acetate buffer solution in each tooth was then transferred to a glass test tube after 30 min. Leuco-crystal violet dye and enzyme horse radish peroxidase were added. The optical density of resultant blue color in the tubes was measured by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The values were converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. Results: The results were evaluated statistically using nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. Whitening strip showed the lowest pulpal peroxide penetration whereas paint on whitener gel showed highest pulpal peroxide penetration. Conclusion: This study demonstrate that peroxide is readily penetrate into the pulp chamber of teeth. PMID:23716964

  19. Effects of a tartar control whitening dentifrice on tooth shade in a population with long-standing natural stain.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, R W; Barker, M L; Hyde, J D; Jones, M B; Cordero, R E

    2001-01-01

    Changing and whitening tooth color in people with long-standing tooth stain without excessive hard tissue abrasion may represent one of the more difficult challenges for whitening dentifrices. An eight-week clinical trial was conducted to evaluate change in tooth color by a silica-based, enamel-safe tartar control whitening dentifrice compared to a marketed baking soda dentifrice control. First, a screening exercise was conducted to identify individuals with long-standing extrinsic dental stain. This exercise targeted adults who reported "stained teeth" and coffee/tea drinking or smoking, but who had no recent history of dental prophylaxis. Targeted subjects were examined for stain (Lobene Index) and tooth shade/color (Vita). A total of 291 adults having extrinsic stain and discolored teeth were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomized to one of the two treatment groups, and all dentifrice use was unsupervised. Tooth color was measured at 4 and 8 weeks from shade values collected from the 8 incisors, and averages were determined from a linear ordering of the shade guide. A total of 278 evaluable subjects completed the 8-week study. Overall, the tartar control whitening dentifrice group experienced an improvement in color, differing statistically from baseline (p < 0.001) and from the marketed control (p < 0.05). Safety profiles for the two dentifrices were generally similar. Among patients with long-standing extrinsic stain, use of the tartar control whitening dentifrice resulted in superior overall tooth shade and reduced maximum or worst color compared to the marketed baking soda dentifrice control. PMID:11476014

  20. In vitro tooth whitening by a sodium bicarbonate/peroxide dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Putt, M S; Nelson, B J

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this laboratory study was to determine the tooth whitening effect of a baking soda dentifrice containing stabilized 1% hydrogen peroxide following repeated applications to intrinsically stained teeth. Additional objectives were to investigate (1) the influence of tooth surface curvature and moisture on color measurements, (2) preliminary treatment parameters using 1% hydrogen peroxide solution, and (3) the relationship between Vita shade guide standards and instrumental color readings. Human tooth specimens with intrinsic stain were specially prepared and measured for color (L*a*b*) by means of diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Specimens were measured under wet and dry conditions with natural and flattened enamel surfaces. A preliminary test was conducted with 1% H2O2 solution to establish tooth whitening versus treatment time. Then, new tooth specimens were treated repeatedly with slurries of silica, baking soda, or baking soda/peroxide dentifrices at 30-minute intervals, and color measurements were taken under both wet and dry conditions after 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. L*a*b* color measurements of the Vita shade guide teeth were also made in order to relate laboratory color changes to clinical effects. The parameter testing results showed that flattening the enamel surface had no effect on tooth color, but the teeth rapidly became lighter and less yellow upon air-drying. The 1% H2O2 solution caused both a significant decrease in yellow (b*) and an increase in lightness (L*). Since the reduction for b* occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than the L* factor, the b* component may be the more important indicator of tooth whitening by bleaching. Compared to the silica and baking soda dentifrices, the baking soda/peroxide dentifrice significantly decreased the yellow color (b*) of the teeth after 8 or more hours of topical treatment. The instrumental color readings of the Vita Shade guide teeth showed that the color differences between

  1. Whitening Effect of Black Tea Water Extract on Brown Guinea Pig Skin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, So-Young

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the whitening effect of black tea water extract (BT), BT was topically applied to artificially hyperpigmented spots on the back skins of brown guinea-pigs (weight: 450~500 g) induced by 1,500 mJ/ cm2 of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The test compounds of 30 μl were applied twice a day, six days a week, for four weeks. The artificially hyperpigmented spots were divided into 5 groups: control (UVB + saline, C), vehicle control [UVB + propylene glycol: ethanol: water (5 : 3 : 2), VC], positive control (UVB + 2% hydroquinone, PC), experimental 1 (UVB + 1% BT), experimental 2 (UVB + 2% BT). After 4-week application, the spots were removed by biopsy punch under anesthetic condition and used as specimens for the histological examination. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of BT were 104 and 91 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability of BT revealed a dose-dependent response, showing the excellent capacities of 86% at 800 μg/ml. The artificially hyperpigmented spots treated with the PC and BT were obviously lightened compared to the C and VC groups. At the fourth week, the melanin indices for the PC and BT groups were significantly lower (p < 0.00l) than those of the C and VC groups. In histological examination, PC and BT groups were significantly reduced in the melanin pigmentation, the proliferation of melanocytes and the synthesis of melanosomes compared to the C and VC groups. It is found that BT inhibits the proliferation of melanocytes and synthesis of melanosomes in vivo using brown guinea pigs, thereby showing a definite skin whitening effect. PMID:24278566

  2. Whitening effect of black tea water extract on brown Guinea pig skin.

    PubMed

    Choi, So-Young; Kim, Young-Chul

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the whitening effect of black tea water extract (BT), BT was topically applied to artificially hyperpigmented spots on the back skins of brown guinea-pigs (weight: 450~500 g) induced by 1,500 mJ/ cm(2) of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The test compounds of 30 μl were applied twice a day, six days a week, for four weeks. The artificially hyperpigmented spots were divided into 5 groups: control (UVB + saline, C), vehicle control [UVB + propylene glycol: ethanol: water (5 : 3 : 2), VC], positive control (UVB + 2% hydroquinone, PC), experimental 1 (UVB + 1% BT), experimental 2 (UVB + 2% BT). After 4-week application, the spots were removed by biopsy punch under anesthetic condition and used as specimens for the histological examination. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of BT were 104 and 91 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability of BT revealed a dose-dependent response, showing the excellent capacities of 86% at 800 μg/ml. The artificially hyperpigmented spots treated with the PC and BT were obviously lightened compared to the C and VC groups. At the fourth week, the melanin indices for the PC and BT groups were significantly lower (p < 0.00l) than those of the C and VC groups. In histological examination, PC and BT groups were significantly reduced in the melanin pigmentation, the proliferation of melanocytes and the synthesis of melanosomes compared to the C and VC groups. It is found that BT inhibits the proliferation of melanocytes and synthesis of melanosomes in vivo using brown guinea pigs, thereby showing a definite skin whitening effect. PMID:24278566

  3. Natural Compounds as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Isha; Shah, Kalpit; Bradbury, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    The recent FDA approval of two drugs to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis has given hope to patients and their families battling this devastating disease. Over many years, with heavy financial investment from Vertex Pharmaceuticals and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, pre-clinical evaluation of thousands of synthetic drugs resulted in the production of Kalydeco and Orkambi. Yet, despite the success of this endeavor, many other compounds have been proposed as therapeutic agents in the treatment of CF. Of note, several of these compounds are naturally occurring, and are present in spices from the grocery store and over the counter preparations in health food stores. In this short review, we look at three such compounds, genistein, curcumin, and resveratrol, and evaluate the scientific support for their use as therapeutic agents in the treatment of patients with CF. PMID:27081574

  4. Pharmacology in rehabilitation: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Ross E

    2005-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are the most commonly encountered over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications in physical therapy practice. Worldwide, over 73000000 prescriptions for nonsteroidal agents are written yearly. NSAIDs produce a wide range of beneficial effects to the physical therapy patient, enhancing the outcome of treatment. Helpful effects of NSAIDs include analgesia, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic properties. However, NSAIDs are also associated with frequent and significant side effects that are deleterious to treatment outcome, including delay in soft tissue and bone healing, renal and liver toxicity, hemorrhagic events, gastric irritation and ulceration, and central nervous system effects. Understanding of the pharmacological properties of these drugs, exemplified by aspirin, and the individual pharmacokinetics of specific preparations will help the therapist to screen patients for potential side effects, develop more effective plans of care, and, where allowed, effectively and safely prescribe NSAIDs. PMID:16001907

  5. The comparison of the effects of different whitening toothpastes on the micro hardness of a nano hybrid composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Nainan, Mohan Thomas; Balan, Ashok Kalappurakkal; Sharma, Roshni; Thomas, Sabeena Susan; Deveerappa, Santhosh B

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the micro hardness of a nanohybrid composite resin after brushing with two herbal and one non-herbal whitening toothpastes. Materials and Methods: We divided Eighty disk-shaped specimens of a nanohybrid composite (Tetric N Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Asia) into 4 groups of 20 specimens each: Groups A, B, C, and D. Group A was control, Group B was brushed with Colgate total advanced whitening (Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited), Group C with Salt and Lemon, Dabur (Dabur International Limited, Dubai, UAE), and Group D with HiOra Shine, Himalaya (The Himalaya Drug Company, India). The specimens were polished using medium, fine, and superfine discs (Sof-lex, 3M, ESPE, USA) and subsequently placed at 37°C in distilled water. They were brushed for 2 minutes twice daily with a soft motorized toothbrush (Colgate 360 sonic power battery-operated tooth brush, Colgate Palmolive, India) for 30 days. The samples were rinsed under running water to remove the toothpaste and stored in distilled water at 37°C until the readout was taken on the Vickers's hardness tester for microhardness. Results: The results revealed that the difference among the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Tukey's test showed that reduction in microhardness for Group B was significantly higher than that for Group C and Group D (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, non-herbal whitening toothpaste had a greater impact on the microhardness of nanohybrid resin composite than herbal whitening toothpastes. PMID:25506143

  6. OCT monitoring of diffusion of clearing agents within tooth dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunina, N. A.; Lychagov, V. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Monitoring of agent diffusion within tooth tissues is important in a wide context of tooth therapy (diffusion of medicinal preparations) and cosmetics (chemical whitening agents). We report here the results of optical coherence tomography (OCT) monitoring of diffusion of water and glycerol as clearing agents in samples of human tooth tissue. The diffusion process is analyzed by monitoring the changes in the OCT signal slope and the depth-resolved amplitude of OCT signal from a sample. Slow temporal kinetics of the mean attenuation coefficient was measured to monitor a saturable optical clearing due to the diffusion of the agent. The average permeability coefficient was estimated by dividing the measured thickness of the selected region by the time it took for the agent to diffuse through. The experimental results demonstrate that OCT can be an efficient tool in the study of agent diffusion through hard tissues.

  7. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Flynn, C. J.; Barnard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase occurred in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. suggested that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode particle scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidars data proved untenable due to instrument limitations and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870, 500, and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD

  8. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Barnard, J.; Flynn, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase is in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. speculated that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidar data proved untenable due to instrument limitation and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870 and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD), J. Geophys. Res., 113

  9. The large deviations of the whitening process in random constraint satisfaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, Alfredo; Dall’Asta, Luca; Semerjian, Guilhem; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2016-05-01

    Random constraint satisfaction problems undergo several phase transitions as the ratio between the number of constraints and the number of variables is varied. When this ratio exceeds the satisfiability threshold no more solutions exist; the satisfiable phase, for less constrained problems, is itself divided in an unclustered regime and a clustered one. In the latter solutions are grouped in clusters of nearby solutions separated in configuration space from solutions of other clusters. In addition the rigidity transition signals the appearance of so-called frozen variables in typical solutions: beyond this threshold most solutions belong to clusters with an extensive number of variables taking the same values in all solutions of the cluster. In this paper we refine the description of this phenomenon by estimating the location of the freezing transition, corresponding to the disappearance of all unfrozen solutions (not only typical ones). We also unveil phase transitions for the existence and uniqueness of locked solutions, in which all variables are frozen. From a technical point of view we characterize atypical solutions with a number of frozen variables different from the typical value via a large deviation study of the dynamics of a stripping process (whitening) that unveils the frozen variables of a solution, building upon recent works on atypical trajectories of the bootstrap percolation dynamics. Our results also bear some relevance from an algorithmic perspective, previous numerical studies having shown that heuristic algorithms of various kinds usually output unfrozen solutions.

  10. Formulation and stability of whitening VCO-in-water nano-cream.

    PubMed

    Al-Edresi, Sarmad; Baie, Saringat

    2009-05-21

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO)-in-water, nano-emulsion in the form of cream stabilized by Emulium Kappa as an emulsifier, was prepared by using the Emulsion Inversion Point method. A nano-emulsion with droplet size <300 nm was then obtained. VCO has recently become a more popular new material in the cosmetic industries. Emulium Kappa is an ionic emulsifier that contains sodium stearoyl lactylate, the active whitening ingredient was Kojic Dipalmitate. Ostwald ripening is the main destabilizing factor for the nano-emulsion. This decline can be reduced by adding non-soluble oil, namely squalene, to the virgin coconut oil. We tested VCO:squalene in the ratios of 10:0, 9.8:0.2, 9.6:0.4, 9.4:0.6, 9.2:0.8, 9:1 and 8:2 and discovered that squalene's higher molecular weight (above critical molecular weight) resulted in low polarity and insolubility in the continuous phase. The continuous partitioning between the droplets results in the decline of Ostwald ripening. Furthermore, flocculation may occur due to the instability of nano-emulsion, especially for the preparations with little or no squalene at all. The stability of the nano-emulsion was evaluated by the electrophoretic properties of the emulsion droplets. The zeta potential values for the emulsion increased as the percentage of squalene oil increased. PMID:19429303

  11. Hyperintense lesions in brain MRI after exposure to a mercuric chloride-containing skin whitening cream.

    PubMed

    Benz, Marcus R; Lee, Seung-Hee; Kellner, Lars; Döhlemann, Christoph; Berweck, Steffen

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to inorganic mercury (Hg) is a serious problem presenting with a combination of neurological and psychiatric symptoms along with weight loss, pruritus, erythema, arterial hypertension, tachycardia, and renal tubular dysfunction. We report a 4-year-old girl with chronic intoxication of inorganic mercury secondary to the accidental use of an Hg₂Cl₂- and HgCl₂-containing skin whitening cream (urine level of Hg, 41.1 μg/l; reference level, < 25 μg/l). Under treatment with dimercapto-1-propansulficacid, Hg level in the urine raised to 1,175.5 μg/l, neurological deterioration occurred, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed on fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences new hyperintense lesions in the subcortical white matter. After 4 months, clinical signs and symptoms and brain MRI findings resolved. This is a first case of inorganic mercury poisoning showing hyperintense lesions in brain MRI and confirms earlier cases showing transient deterioration during chelation therapy. Although urinary excretion could be enhanced during chelation therapy, signs and symptoms of intoxication could be worsened. PMID:21052738

  12. Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Twice Whitening for MIMO Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Mitra, Pramita; Barhen, Jacob; Schleck, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    While many techniques exist for local spectrum sensing of a primary user, each represents a computationally demanding task to secondary user receivers. In software-defined radio, computational complexity lengthens the time for a cognitive radio to recognize changes in the transmission environment. This complexity is even more significant for spatially multiplexed receivers, e.g., in SIMO and MIMO, where the spatio-temporal data sets grow in size with the number of antennae. Limits on power and space for the processor hardware further constrain SDR performance. In this report, we discuss improvements in spatio-temporal twice whitening (STTW) for real-time local spectrum sensing by demonstrating a form of STTW well suited for MIMO environments. We implement STTW on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a multicore processor intended for low-power, high-throughput software-defined signal processing. These results demonstrate how coupling the novel capabilities of emerging multicore processors with algorithmic advances can enable real-time, software-defined processing of large spatio-temporal data sets.

  13. Sorption of a fluorescent whitening agent (Tinopal CBS) onto modified cellulose fibers in the presence of surfactants and salt.

    PubMed

    Iamazaki, Eduardo T; Atvars, Teresa D Z

    2007-12-18

    The combined effect of salt (10 mmol L(-1)) and surfactants on the sorption of the fluorescent brightener 4,4'-distyrylbiphenyl sodium sulfonate (Tinopal CBS) onto modified cellulose fibers was studied. Sorption efficiencies with both cationic and anionic surfactants were evaluated. Emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis since Tinopal has an intense fluorescence. The sorption efficiency of the brightener is greater for solutions containing a cationic surfactant (DTAC) below the critical micelle concentration (cmc), while for an anionic surfactant (SDS) above its cmc the efficiency is greater. The profile of the sorption isotherms were interpreted in terms of the evolution of surfactant aggregation at the fiber/solution interface. Salt influences the efficiency of the Tinopal sorption on the modified cellulose fibers either because it decreases the cmc of the surfactants or because the ions screen the surface charges of the fiber which decreases the electrostatic interaction among the charged headgroup of the surfactant and the charged fiber surface. PMID:18020381

  14. Depth-resolved dynamics of aceto-whitening in rabbit cornea studied by 1300nm optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, P.; Mittar, S.; Kasaragod, D.; Lu, Z.; Matcher, S. J.

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the eleventh most common cancer in the UK, especially for women under 35. In developed countries, cervical cancer is diagnosed by performing colposcopy. Contrast is enhanced by spraying dilute acetic acid onto the surface of the tissue. In the past decades, it has been shown that abnormal cervical epithelium turns opaque white upon contact with this weak acid whereas normal epithelium is generally not affected. This mechanism is known as aceto-whitening. However, the exact mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully known. In this study, OCT using near infrared light was used to quantify depth-resolved kinetics of aceto-whitening in a simple squamous epithelium model: rabbit cornea. We have found that both the epithelium and stroma brighten with approximately the same time course, reaching a peak reflectivity at about 50 seconds. The most significant increase in reflectivity was seen in the first 20 seconds upon the application of acid, and was measured to be 11dB. This result is compared with phosphate buffered saline solution, which was shown to exhibit no effect. Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid, has been reported as a negative control for aceto-whitening. However, our OCT results showed a significant epithelial brightening effect of approximately 8 dB in the first 20 seconds. The key difference with acetic acid is the lack of brightening in the corneal stroma. This could be due to inability to permeate through the basal lamina between corneal epithelium and stroma or lack of interaction with stromal keratocytes.

  15. Noise Whitening in Airborne Wind Profiling With a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Arthur, Grant E.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Two different noise whitening methods in airborne wind profiling with a pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. In order to provide accurate wind parameter estimates from the airborne lidar data acquired during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010, the adverse effects of background instrument noise must be compensated properly in the early stage of data processing. The results of the two methods are presented using selected GRIP data and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes.

  16. Investigation of photo-bleaching through transmittance method in pigmented solution: understanding possible mechanisms and advantages for photo dental whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, F. L. E.; Lins, E. C.; Portero, Priscila P.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Oliveira, O. B., Jr.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2007-02-01

    The dental bleaching is known for many years. Recently a technique employing light has open up new and exciting possibilities. Besides its vast application there are still many important points to be understood about teeth photon bleaching. In this work we present an "in vitro" experiment to explore the main mechanisms involved during the photon action in tooth whitening. Our results indicated that light at same wavelengths are great absorbed by pigments creating a local heating which considerably increase the bleaching rate. This results in a fast reaction without heating the whole dental structure. We discuss details of our experiment. Work supported by Fapesp and CNPq.

  17. Non-specific fluorescent whitener stains in the rapid recognition of pulmonary dirofilariasis: a report of 20 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Green, L. K.; Ansari, M. Q.; Schwartz, M. R.; Ro, J. Y.; Alpert, L. C.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Solitary lung nodules in humans caused by the dog parasite Dirofilaria immitis are steadily increasing in number. The organisms can be easily missed in haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue when they are degenerated and pale staining. METHODS--The value of Tinopal CBS-X (TCBS-X) and Calcofluor white (CFW), two rapid, inexpensive, simple non-specific fluorescent whitening stains, were assessed in the identification of these worms. Deparaffinised rehydrated tissue slides prepared from the pulmonary nodules were stained for one minute in 1% w/v aqueous solutions of TCBS-X or CFW, counterstained, coverslipped, and viewed with a fluorescent microscope. RESULTS--The stains demonstrated the intact worm and worm fragments in 20 cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis collected from hospitals in Houston. The filariae and fragments of filariae stained bright green while the background tissue stained red, delineating the internal structures of the worm. CONCLUSIONS--Dirofilariasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of subpleural masses, and non-specific fluorescent whitening stains can help in the rapid recognition of the fragmented organism in cytological or surgical material. Images PMID:7517073

  18. Spatio-Temporal Signal Twice-Whitening Algorithms on the hx3100 Ultra-Low Power Multicore Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Mitra, Pramita; Barhen, Jacob; Schleck, Bryan; Polcari, John; Traweek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    While modern signal detection theory fully accounts for spatially distributed sensors, exploiting these techniques for real-time sensing using large, underwater acoustic arrays requires advances in the spatio-temporal signal processing algorithms. In particular, the computational complexity of many spatio-temporal processing techniques is so large that conventional computer processors lack sufficient throughput to provide real-time processing of large spatio-temporal data sets. These limits are exacerbated when constraints, such as power consumption or footprint, reduce the available computational resources. In this report, we demonstrate an implementation of a signal twice-whitening algorithm that is better suited for processing spatio-temporal data in real time. We emphasize these advances by implementing data whitening on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a programmable multicore processor intended for low-power and high-throughput signal processing. These results serve as an example of how the novel capabilities available from emerging multicore processor platforms can provide real-time, software-defined processing of large data sets acquired by spatially distributed sensing.

  19. Alteration of Dentin-Enamel Mechanical Properties Due to Dental Whitening Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, B.; Datko, L.; Cupelli, M.; Alapati, S.; Dean, D.; Kennedy, M.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties of dentin and enamel affect the reliability and wear properties of a tooth. This study investigated the influence of clinical dental treatments and procedures, such as whitening treatments or etching prior to restorative procedures. Both autoclaved and non-autoclaved teeth were studied in order to allow for both comparison with published values and improved clinical relevance. Nanoindentation analysis with the Oliver-Pharr model provided elastic modulus and hardness across the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). Large increases were observed in the elastic modulus of enamel in teeth that had been autoclaved (52.0GPa versus 113.4GPa), while smaller increases were observed in the dentin (17.9GPa versus 27.9GPa). Likewise, there was an increase in the hardness of enamel (2.0GPa versus 4.3GPa) and dentin (0.5GPa versus 0.7GPa) with autoclaving. These changes suggested that the range of elastic modulus and hardness values previously reported in literature may be partially due to the sterilization procedures. Treatment of the exterior of non-autoclaved teeth with Crest Whitestrips™, Opalescence™ or UltraEtch™ caused changes in the mechanical properties of both the enamel and dentin. Those treated with Crest Whitestrips™ showed a reduction in the elastic modulus of enamel (55.3GPa to 32.7GPa) and increase in the elastic modulus of dentin (17.2GPa to 24.3GPa). Opalescence™ treatments did not significantly affect the enamel properties, but did result in a decrease in modulus of dentin (18.5GPa to 15.1GPa). Additionally, as expected, UltraEtch™ treatment decreased the modulus and hardness of enamel (48.7GPa to 38.0GPa and 1.9GPa to 1.5GPa, respectively) and dentin (21.4GPa to 15.0GPa and 1.9GPa to 1.5GPa, respectively). Changes in the mechanical properties were linked to altered protein concentration within the tooth, as evidenced by fluorescence microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:20346902

  20. Over-the-Counter Drugs and Complementary Medications Use among Children in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Claudia; Mascaro, Valentina; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The use of nonprescription medicines (NPDs) for children illnesses without a doctor's suggestion can lead to unnecessary medication use and is not free of risks. The aim of our study was to examine attitudes and practice of parents towards NPDs use for their children. We also investigated the conditions that may predict NPDs use. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on parents of children attending Community Based Pediatrician (CBP) consultation and data were collected through structured interviews. Positive attitude on NPDs use was reported by 71.4% of parents, and 61.5% of them had administered NPDs in the previous 6 months. Antipyretic drugs were the most frequently used medication class without the supervision of the CBP. A positive attitude towards NPDs was significantly more frequent in parents who did not use the CBP as the sole source of information about drugs. The study demonstrated a widespread use of NPDs in children in our context, supported by a substantial positive attitude towards their safety. However, considering potential harms related to some NPDs and the finding that most parents rely on CBP advice, role of CBP on appropriate use of NPDs by parents should be emphasized. PMID:26106606

  1. Over-the-counter pharmaceuticals: exploratory research of consumer preference toward solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Reisenwitz, T H; Wimbish, G J

    1996-01-01

    The capsule dosage form in nonprescription pharmaceuticals persists as being one of the most vulnerable to product tampering. This study examines consumer preference toward three solid oral dosage forms (capsules, caplets, and tablets) in nonprescription products. Thirteen independent variables representing dosage form attributes are measured on semantic differential scales. The data are analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and factor analysis. Implications for the pharmaceutical marketer are noted. Future directions for research are also outlined. PMID:10159645

  2. Medicines in My Home: Information for Adults on Using Over-the-Counter Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    Medicines In My Home More about using medicines safely Medicines in My Home: www.fda.gov/medsinmyhome FDA Consumer Medicine Education: www.fda.gov/usemedicinesafely National Council on Patient Information and ...

  3. Acute Therapy: Why Not Over-The-Counter or Other Nonspecific Options?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY About Migraine Patient Registry Corporate Roundtable Info for Residents & Fellows Living With Migraines Types of Headache/Migraine Life with Headache/Migraine ...

  4. The case for over-the-counter shortwave therapy: safe and effective devices for pain management.

    PubMed

    Rawe, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed shortwave diathermy, an electromagnetic therapy, has been in clinical use for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain for many decades. Innovation, miniaturization and advances in technology have allowed for the development of a new generation of shortwave devices that deliver a localized, low fixed dose of shortwave therapy. Clinical research has shown that these novel shortwave devices can be used safely in order to reduce acute and chronic pain, as well as the need for pain medications. Their ease of use and safety profile make low-dose shortwave devices an attractive alternative, or adjunct therapy, to pharmacological-based pain therapies. PMID:24641342

  5. 77 FR 66182 - TRICARE Over-the-Counter Drug Demonstration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... a notice in the Federal Register (72 FR 33208-33210) implementing the demonstration project until... beneficiary satisfaction with the project, the Department published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR... beneficiary satisfaction of providing OTC drugs under the pharmacy benefits program when the selected...

  6. Transcript for: Why Data Should Be Over-the-Counter. TEDxTUM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2015-01-01

    Data is critical, but data has not always lead to success. If data is not communicated clearly, the results can be disastrous. Design lets us communicate data so it can be understood. Dr. Rankin believes that "when we're fluent in visualizing our ideas, we can communicate them across global boundaries, across spoken language barriers, and…

  7. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... been made for daytime sedative products: “occasional simple nervous tension,” “nervous irritability,” “nervous tension headache,” “simple nervousness due to common every day overwork and fatigue,” “a...

  8. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... been made for daytime sedative products: “occasional simple nervous tension,” “nervous irritability,” “nervous tension headache,” “simple nervousness due to common every day overwork and fatigue,” “a...

  9. Use of Over-the-Counter and Home Remedies by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferata, Gail L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This study was undertaken to attempt to understand the prevalence, factors in selection, and safety of nonprescription drugs and home remedies by a population of college students. Results suggest the need for health education programs in stress/anxiety management, skin care, and gastrointestinal problems. (JN)

  10. Reporting Data with "Over-the-Counter" Data Analysis Supports Improves Educators' Data Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of making data-informed decisions to improve learning rely on educators correctly interpreting given data. Many educators routinely misinterpret data, even at districts with proactive support for data use. The tool most educators use for data analyses, which is an information technology data system or its reports, typically reports…

  11. Reporting Data with "Over-the-Counter" Data Analysis Supports Increases Educators' Analysis Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jenny Grant

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive research on the benefits of making data-informed decisions to improve learning, but these benefits rely on the data being effectively interpreted. Despite educators' above-average intellect and education levels, there is evidence many educators routinely misinterpret student data. Data analysis problems persist even at…

  12. 76 FR 35672 - Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...) published in 1978 (43 FR 38206 at 38213 through 38214, August 25, 1978). A panel of sunscreen experts... by an SPF 50 sunscreen product compared to an SPF 30 sunscreen product (64 FR 27666 at 27675). We... inadequate application and infrequent reapplication of sunscreen products (72 FR 49070 at 49086). C....

  13. 76 FR 12916 - Benzocaine; Weight Control Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... of gum, lozenges, or candy is an effective OTC drug product for weight control'' (47 FR 8466 at 8474... were published in the Federal Register as an ANPR for OTC weight control products in 1982 (47 FR 8466... daily) Group 4: Glucose hard candy containing benzocaine, caffeine, and vitamins (benzocaine...

  14. Early statistical detection of anthrax outbreaks by tracking over-the-counter medication sales

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Anna; Shmueli, Galit; Caruana, Richard A.; Fienberg, Stephen E.

    2002-01-01

    The recent series of anthrax attacks has reinforced the importance of biosurveillance systems for the timely detection of epidemics. This paper describes a statistical framework for monitoring grocery data to detect a large-scale but localized bioterrorism attack. Our system illustrates the potential of data sources that may be more timely than traditional medical and public health data. The system includes several layers, each customized to grocery data and tuned to finding footprints of an epidemic. We also propose an evaluation methodology that is suitable in the absence of data on large-scale bioterrorist attacks and disease outbreaks. PMID:11959973

  15. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain if they follow the directions on the product label. But taking too much can lead to liver ... pain if they follow the directions on the product label. But taking too much can lead to liver ...

  16. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  17. 21 CFR 310.519 - Drug products marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) daytime sedatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs... irritability that ruins your day,” “helps you relax,” “restlessness,” “when you're under occasional...

  18. 49 CFR 219.103 - Prescribed and over-the-counter drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on the basis of the available medical history, that use of the substance by the employee at the... Schedules II through V of the controlled substance list) prescribed or authorized by a medical practitioner, or possession incident to such use, if— (1) The treating medical practitioner or a...

  19. Acute Therapy: Why Not Over-The-Counter or Other Nonspecific Options?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bayer Enteric coated Aspirin 325mg Anacin Aspirin 400mg, Caffeine 32 mg Excedrin migraine Aspirin 250mg, Acetaminophen 250mg, caffeine 65mg* Excedrin tension headache Acetaminophen 500mg, caffeine 65mg* ...

  20. Over-the-Counter Chemistry: Bringing Aspirin, Antacids, and Detergent to Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocci, Salvatore

    1982-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry course which encourages students to investigate the applications of chemical concepts to everyday situations. Commercially available products are analyzed and the accuracy of manufacturers' claims are evaluated. For example, students compare different aspirin brands, calculating percentage of active ingredients and…

  1. Over-the-Counter Drugs and Complementary Medications Use among Children in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, Claudia; Mascaro, Valentina; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The use of nonprescription medicines (NPDs) for children illnesses without a doctor's suggestion can lead to unnecessary medication use and is not free of risks. The aim of our study was to examine attitudes and practice of parents towards NPDs use for their children. We also investigated the conditions that may predict NPDs use. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on parents of children attending Community Based Pediatrician (CBP) consultation and data were collected through structured interviews. Positive attitude on NPDs use was reported by 71.4% of parents, and 61.5% of them had administered NPDs in the previous 6 months. Antipyretic drugs were the most frequently used medication class without the supervision of the CBP. A positive attitude towards NPDs was significantly more frequent in parents who did not use the CBP as the sole source of information about drugs. The study demonstrated a widespread use of NPDs in children in our context, supported by a substantial positive attitude towards their safety. However, considering potential harms related to some NPDs and the finding that most parents rely on CBP advice, role of CBP on appropriate use of NPDs by parents should be emphasized. PMID:26106606

  2. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases. PMID:21867365

  3. Disparities in Access to Over-the-Counter Nicotine Replacement Products in New York City Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Lisa; Maantay, Juliana; Peprah, Dorothy; Lounsbury, David; Maroko, Andrew; Murphy, Mary; Shelley, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We surveyed the availability of tobacco products and nonprescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in pharmacies in New York City, stratified by the race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES) of the surrounding neighborhoods to determine whether disparities in availability existed. Methods. Surveyors visited a random sample of retail pharmacies to record the availability of tobacco products and nonprescription NRT. We used census data and geographic information systems analysis to determine the SES of each neighborhood. We used logistic modeling to explore relations between SES and the availability of NRT and tobacco products. Results. Of 646 pharmacies sampled, 90.8% sold NRT and 46.9% sold cigarettes. NRT and cigarettes were slightly more available in pharmacies in neighborhoods with a higher SES. NRT was more expensive in poorer neighborhoods. Conclusions. Small disparities existed in access to nonprescription NRT and cigarettes. The model did not adequately account for cigarette access, because of availability from other retail outlets. These results may explain some of the excess prevalence of cigarette use in low-SES areas. PMID:19638596

  4. Allergy evaluation after emergency treatment: anaphylaxis to the over-the-counter medication clobutinol.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Cornelia S; Bröcker, Eva-B; Trautmann, Axel

    2007-03-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally diagnosed and treated as an acute emergency but should be always followed by a search for specific triggers, resulting in avoidance strategies. This case report highlights the relevance of a detailed evaluation after anaphylaxis for diagnosis of a rare but potentially life-threatening allergy. Considering the high frequency of clobutinol application, IgE-mediated allergic hypersensitivity seems extremely rare and has to be distinguished from infection-associated urticaria and angioedema as well as non-specific summation effects. Accidental re-exposure has to be strictly avoided and therefore after identification of clobutinol as the anaphylaxis trigger, the patient received detailed allergy documents including international non-proprietary and trade names of the culprit drug. PMID:17351213

  5. Fabrication of Metal Nanoparticle-Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes for the Evaluation of Hydrogen Peroxide Content in Teeth Whitening Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Adriana; Abenojar, Eric C.; Vianna, Adam; Buenviaje, Czarina Y. A.; Yang, Jiahua; Pascual, Cherrie B.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment in which students synthesize Ag, Au, and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and use them to modify screen printed carbon electrodes for the electroanalysis of the hydrogen peroxide content in commercially available teeth whitening strips is described. This experiment is designed for two 3-h laboratory periods and can be adapted for…

  6. Photocarcinogenesis: lack of enhancement by fluorescent white agents.

    PubMed

    Forbes, P D; Urbach, F

    1975-01-01

    These studies were designed to determine whether fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) could: (I) produce an augmented acute response of skin to a single ultraviolet light exposure (i.e., phototoxicity), or (II) increase the number or hasten the appearance of skin tumors after several ultraviolet light exposures (i.e., chemically enhanced photocarcinogenesis). Five substituted stilbene FWAs were screened for phototoxicity. The results of pretreatment with these agents were compared with pretreatment by a known photoxic agent, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) or the vehicle (methanol) using the skin of hairless mice, miniature pigs, and man. None of the FWAs was phototoxic. Photocarcinogenesis testing involved pretreating hairless mouse skin with FWAs, 8-MOP, or methanol only before each daily exposure to simulated solar ultraviolet light. In terms of tumor yield and tumor development time, photocarcinogenesis was enhanced by 8-MOP, but not by FWAs. PMID:1064541

  7. Novel agents for the treatment of alopecia.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, M E

    1998-12-01

    Recent approval in the United States of two new products, Propecia (Merck Co, Rahway, NJ) and Rogaine Extra Strength 5% (Pharmacia & UpJohn Co, Kalamazoo, MI), indicated in men to promote scalp hair growth, have added a new dimension to treatment options offered by physicians in treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA). The search for new and effective agents to treat many different hair loss problems has been intensified by the increase in hair biology research taking place worldwide, from university academic institutions to the pharmaceutical companies. All have a desire to profit from marketing such drugs that have been termed, "cosmeceuticals". Millions of men and women of every race suffer from various forms of alopecia, the most common being AGA where the target tissue active androgen, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) aggravates genetically programmed scalp hair follicles that results in short, fine, miniaturized hairs. Currently available to treat alopecia are drugs indicated for other disease processes because no other agents are accessible; some have severe side-effects and many are minimally effective. These prescription drugs were not originally indicated for alopecia and have not been adequately tested in controlled clinical trials to assess for efficacy, safety, and toxicity. These agents continue to be used clinically to treat patients with various forms of alopecia. As a result, a variety of new agents are emerging in the patient application process to gain protection and approval specifically for various forms of alopecia. This report reviews the most recently approved products, some of the more promising compounds in clinical trial development, as well as those in the over-the-counter (OTC) "natural" treatments category. PMID:9859915

  8. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin in skin-whitening creams and medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative analysis of arbutin. The arbutin was separated on an ODS Hypersil C(18) column with a mobile phase of water:methanol:0.1 M hydrochloric acid (89:10:1, v/v/v). The level of arbutin was measured by means of UV detection at 222 nm. The optimum conditions for arbutin quantitative analysis were investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear up to 1,000 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin concentration, and the working calibration curve for arbutin determination over the range 0.5-30.0 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin (r(2)=0.9999) was established. The relative standard deviations for intraday and interday were found to be 0.98% and 1.15%, respectively. A detection limit (3sigma) and quantitation limit (10sigma) of 0.02 microg/ml(-1) and 0.2 microg/ml(-1), respectively, and a mean percentage recovery of the spiked arbutin of 99.88 +/- 1.12% were obtained. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of arbutin in commercial skin-whitening creams (Arbuwhite cream, Super Whitening cream, and Shiseido cream) with average contents of 7.60, 5.30, and 57.90 mg/g(-1), respectively. It was also applied to the determination of arbutin in medicinal plant extracts from Betula alnoides Buch. Ham., Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore, Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Var. latifolia, and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem, levels of which were found to be 3.50, 1.50, 1.10, and 0.12 microg/g(-1), respectively (no article reported in the literature about arbutin analysis). The proposed HPLC method is rapid, simple, and selective for routine analysis. PMID:17342266

  9. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  10. Study of the temporal evolution of Whitening Teeth immersed in Peroxide of hydrogen (H2O2) Using Digital Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, L.; Morales, Y.; Torres, C.

    2015-01-01

    The esthetic dentistry reference in our society is determined by several factors, including one that produces more dissatisfaction is abnormal tooth color or that does not meet the patient's expectations. For this reason it has been designed and implemented an algorithm in MATLAB that captures, digitizes, pre-processing and analyzed dental imaging by allowing to evaluate the degree of bleaching caused by the use of peroxide of hidrogen. The samples analyzed were human teeth extracted, which were subjected to different concentrations of peroxide of hidrogen and see if they can teeth whitening when using these products, was used different concentrations and intervals of time to analysis or study of the whitening of the teeth with the hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumiko; Hashizume, Erika; Chan, Gertrude P; Kamimura, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate and functions as a major antioxidant. It is synthesized endogenously in humans. Glutathione protects thiol protein groups from oxidation and is involved in cellular detoxification for maintenance of the cell environment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has a skin-whitening effect in humans through its tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but in the case of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) this effect is unclear. We examined the skin-whitening and skin-condition effects of topical GSSG in healthy women. Subjects and methods The subjects were 30 healthy adult women aged 30 to 50 years. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, matched-pair, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects applied GSSG 2% (weight/weight [w/w]) lotion to one side of the face and a placebo lotion to the other side twice daily for 10 weeks. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values, moisture content of the stratum corneum, smoothness, wrinkle formation, and elasticity of the skin. The principal investigator and each subject also used subjective scores to investigate skin whitening, wrinkle reduction, and smoothness. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results The skin melanin index was significantly lower with GSSG treatment than with placebo from the early weeks after the start of the trial through to the end of the study period (at 10 weeks, P<0.001). In addition, in the latter half of the study period GSSG-treated sites had significant increases in moisture content of the stratum corneum, suppression of wrinkle formation, and improvement in skin smoothness. There were no marked adverse effects from GSSG application. Conclusion Topical GSSG is safe and effectively whitens the skin and improves skin condition in healthy women. PMID:25378941

  12. Reduction of facial pigmentation of melasma by topical lignin peroxidase: A novel fast-acting skin-lightening agent

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, SHAO-MIN; SUN, NAN; LIU, HUI-XIAN; NIU, YUE-QING; WU, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase (LIP) as a skin-lightening agent in patients with melasma. A self-controlled clinical study was performed in 31 women who had melasma on both sides of the face. This study involved 8 weeks of a full-face product treatment. The skin color was measured at days 0, 7, 28 and 56 using a chromameter on the forehead and cheeks. Standardized digital photographic images of each side of the face of all subjects were captured by a complexion analysis system. Clinical scores of the pigmentation were determined by two dermatologists. After using the LIP whitening lotion for 7 days, the luminance (L*) values of the melasma and the normal skin were significantly increased from baseline. The L* values continued to increase at days 28 and 56. The melasma area severity index (MASI) score was statistically decreased after 28 days of treatment. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. LIP whitening lotion was able to eliminate the skin pigmentation after 7 days of treatment, and provides a completely innovative approach to rapid skin lightening. The LIP whitening lotion exhibited good compatibility and was well tolerated. PMID:25574195

  13. Influence of gel/LED-laser application on cervical microleakage of two barrier materials used for endodontically treated teeth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Barros, Felipe; Porto, Saulo; Zaitter, Suellen; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D.

    2007-02-01

    This study evaluated ex vivo the influence of the number of gel/LED-laser applications/activations on cervical microleakage of two different barrier materials used for protection during whitening of endodontically treated teeth. Eighty-four canines were instrumented and obturated with epoxy resin sealer. The seal was removed 2 mm beyond the cemento-enamel junction for barrier placement and the teeth were divided into two groups of 40 teeth each: G1, zinc phosphate cement; G2, glass ionomer cement. The two groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n=10 each): I) no gel or LED-laser application; II) one gel application and two LED-laser activations; III) two gel applications and four LED-laser activations; IV) three gel applications and six LED-laser activations. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 7 days, decalcified and cleared. Cervical microleakage was quantified with a measurement microscope. Statistical analysis showed that zinc phosphate caused significantly lower microleakage than glass ionomer cement (presented microleakage in all subgroups). However, after two (p<0.01) and three (p<0.001) applications of gel, there was statistially significant microleakage in zinc phosphate barriers. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that cervical barriers with zinc phosphate cement show less cervical microleakage and that two or more applications/activations of gel/LED-laser significantly increase microleakage.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

  15. New Whitening Constituents from Taiwan-Native Pyracantha koidzumii: Structures and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Analysis in Human Epidermal Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Dih; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Lu, Mei-Kuang; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Nontoxic natural products useful in skin care cosmetics are of considerable interest. Tyrosinase is a rate-limiting enzyme for which its inhibitor is useful in developing whitening cosmetics. Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder is an endemic species in Taiwan that exhibits tyrosinase-inhibitory activity. To find new active natural compounds from P. koidzumii, we performed bioguided isolation and studied the related activity in human epidermal melanocytes. In total, 13 compounds were identified from P. koidzumii in the present study, including two new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-dibenzofuran (9) and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl-2ʹ-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), as well as 11 known compounds. The new compound 13 exhibited maximum potency in inhibiting cellular tyrosinase activity, the protein expression of cellular tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2, as well as the mRNA expression of Paired box 3 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in a concentration-dependent manner. In the enzyme kinetic assay, the new compound 13 acted as an uncompetitive mixed-type inhibitor against the substrate l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and had a Km value against this substrate of 0.262 mM, as calculated using the Lineweaver–Burk plots. Taken together, our findings show compound 13 exhibits tyrosinase inhibition in human melanocytes and compound 13 may be a potential candidate for use in cosmetics. PMID:26633381

  16. Eliminating the influence of serial correlation on statistical process control charts using trend free pre-whitening (TFPW) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desa, Nor Hasliza Mat; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    A key assumption in traditional statistical process control (SPC) technique is based on the requirement that observations or time series data are normally and independently distributed. The presences of a serial autocorrelation results in a number of problems, including an increase in the type I error rate and thereby increase the expected number of false alarm in the process observation. However, the independency assumption is often violated in practice due to the influence of serial correlation in the observation. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate with the hospital admission data, the influence of serial correlation on the statistical control charts. The trend free pre-whitening (TFPW) method has been used and applied as an alternative method to obtain residuals series which are statistically uncorrelated to each other. In this study, a data set of daily hospital admission for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases was used from the period of 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009 (365 days). Result showed that TFPW method is an easy and useful method in removing the influence of serial correlation from the hospital admission data. It can be concluded that statistical control chart based on residual series perform better compared to original hospital admission series which influenced by the effects of serial correlation data.

  17. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  18. Reemergence of chloroquine (CQ) analogs as multi-targeting antimalarial agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Mushtaque, Md; Shahjahan

    2015-01-27

    Amongst several communicable diseases (CDs), malaria is one of the deadliest parasitic disease all over the world, particularly in African and Asian countries. To curb this menace, numbers of antimalarial agents are being sold as over the counter (OTC) drugs. Chloroquine (CQ) is one of them and is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easily available synthetic agents used to curb malaria. Unfortunately, after the reports of CQ-resistance against different strains of malarial parasite strains worldwide, scientist are continuously modifying the core structure of CQ to get an efficient drug. Interestingly, several new drugs have been emerged in due course having unique and enhanced properties (like dual stage inhibitors, resistance reversing ability etc.) and are ready to enter into the clinical trial. In this course, some new agents have also been discovered which are; though inactive against CQS strain, highly active against CQR strains. The present article describes the role of modification of the core structure of CQ and its effects on the biological activities. Moreover, the attempt has also been made to predict the future prospects of such drugs to reemerge as antimalarial agents. PMID:25461328

  19. The clinical anticalculus efficacy of a tartar control whitening dentifrice for the prevention of supragingival calculus in a three-month study.

    PubMed

    Sowinski, J; Petrone, D M; Battista, G; Petrone, M E; Crawford, R; Patel, S; DeVizio, W; Chaknis, P; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to compare the effect of a new dentifrice (Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening Fluoride Toothpaste) for the prevention of supragingival calculus, with that of a commercially available calculus-inhibiting dentifrice (Crest Tartar Control Toothpaste). The study involved adult male and female subjects who had pre-qualified for participation by developing sufficient supragingival calculus (greater than 7.0 on the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index) during an eight-week screening period. Subjects received a full oral prophylaxis, and were stratified into two treatment groups balanced for age, sex and qualifying calculus score. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice using a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for dental calculus were performed after twelve weeks' use of the study dentifrices, using the Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index, Fifty-eight (58) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. The Colgate Tartar Control Plus Whitening group exhibited a statistically significant (p < 0.001) 34.6% reduction in mean calculus score compared to the Crest Tartar Control group. PMID:10825856

  20. Role of epidermal γδ T-cell-derived interleukin 13 in the skin-whitening effect of Ginsenoside F1.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiyeon; Lee, Eunkyung; Kim, EunJoo; Yeom, Myung Hun; Kwon, Ohsang; Yoon, Tae Hong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Kwangmi

    2014-11-01

    Ginsenoside F1 (GF1) is a metabolite of ginsenoside Rg1. Although GF1 has several benefits for skin physiology, the effect of GF1 on skin pigmentation has not been reported. We found that a cream containing 0.1% GF1 showed a significant whitening effect on artificially tanned human skin after 8 weeks of application. However, GF1 did not inhibit mRNA expression of tyrosinase or dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) in normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) or cocultured NHEMs/normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Interestingly, GF1 enhanced production of interleukin 13 (IL-13) from human epidermal γδ T cells. IL-13 significantly reduced the mRNA expression and protein amount of both tyrosinase and DCT and reduced melanin synthesis activities in NHEMs, resulting in visible brightening of NHEM pellet. These results suggest that enhancement of IL-13 production by GF1 from epidermal γδ T cells might play a role in the skin-whitening effect of GF1 via the suppression of tyrosinase and DCT. PMID:25091975

  1. Application of Solid Phase Extraction on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes of Some Heavy Metal Ions to Analysis of Skin Whitening Cosmetics Using ICP-AES

    PubMed Central

    ALqadami, Ayoub A.; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; ALOthman, Zeid A.; Omer, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive method for the determination of some heavy metals in skin whitening cosmetics creams using multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs as solid phase extraction sorbent for the preconcentration of these heavy metals prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. Different practical parameters have been thoroughly investigated and the optimum experimental conditions were employed. The developed method was then applied for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, lead and titanium in samples of skin whitening cosmetics. The detection limits under these conditions for As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ti were 2.4, 4.08, 0.3, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 ng·mL−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were found to be less than 2.0%. For validation, a certified reference material of NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves was analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 89.6–104.4%. PMID:23343988

  2. Instrumental and clinical studies of the facial skin tone and pigmentation of Shanghaiese women. Changes induced by age and a cosmetic whitening product.

    PubMed

    Huixia, Q; Xiaohui, L; Chengda, Y; Yanlu, Z; Senee, J; Laurent, A; Bazin, R; Flament, F; Adam, A; Piot, B

    2012-02-01

    The pigmentation patterns of facial skin of 354 healthy Chinese women aged 18-80 years were investigated clinically and instrumentally. Chromasphere(®) was used to acquire pictures from the cheeks of subjects. Facial skin tone was described by L* parameter from the L,a,b system as well as Individual Typology Angle (ITA). Results show that skin tone becomes significantly darker along the life span. Both size of hyper-pigmented spots and their contrast with surrounding skin were found increased with age. As additional study, 40 women from these 354 subjects were asked to apply daily a whitening cosmetic product for a 2-month period. Such application led to a significantly lighter skin tone, although this study was not vehicle controlled and we cannot exclude that the increase in L* observed was in some part because of cumulative effects of previously used whitening products, there was an association with lighter skin tone as assessed through both instrumental measurements and self-perception by most subjects. PMID:21848763

  3. Online identification of the fluorescent whitening agent 4,4-bis(2-sulfostyrol)biphenyl using a sweeping technique combined with capillary electrophoresis/77 K fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ting-Yang; Wang, Shu-Ping; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2005-11-01

    The feasibility of combining the techniques of online concentration and CE/low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy in the detection and identification of E,E-4,4'-bis(2-sulfostyryl)biphenyl (DSBP) in synthetic detergents at 77 K is demonstrated. The technique involves the use of sweeping-MEKC, and was used for the initial online concentration and separation, after which a cryogenic molecular fluorescence experiment was performed at 77 K. The proposed method not only permits the separation and detection of E,E-DSBP in a synthetic detergent sample, but also ensures that the online spectrum is readily distinguishable and can be unambiguously assigned at 77 K. The photoconversion and isomer separation of DSBP are also described. PMID:16240298

  4. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to help prevent sunburn, not skin cancer or early skin aging.” (e) Directions. The labeling of the... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a... 32 °C. Fresh water is clean drinking water that meets the standards in 40 CFR part 141. The pool...

  5. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to help prevent sunburn, not skin cancer or early skin aging.” (e) Directions. The labeling of the...-11-15), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You... 32 °C. Fresh water is clean drinking water that meets the standards in 40 CFR part 141. The pool...

  6. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) or steroid drug take other drugs containing prescription or nonprescription NSAIDs (aspirin... ulcers or bleeding problems takes a blood thinning (anticoagulant) or steroid drug takes other drugs... (anticoagulant) or steroid drug takes other drugs containing prescription or nonprescription NSAIDs...

  7. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) or steroid drug take other drugs containing prescription or nonprescription NSAIDs (aspirin... ulcers or bleeding problems takes a blood thinning (anticoagulant) or steroid drug takes other drugs... (anticoagulant) or steroid drug takes other drugs containing prescription or nonprescription NSAIDs...

  8. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dermatological, dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper..., dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale shall package the product in a...

  9. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dermatological, dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper..., dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale shall package the product in a...

  10. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dermatological, dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper..., dentifrice, insulin, or lozenge product) for retail sale shall package the product in a...

  11. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)(ii)(B) and before the “Stomach bleeding” warning in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(A) of this section. If... warnings under the heading “Warnings”: (A) The stomach bleeding warning states “Stomach bleeding warning : This product contains an NSAID, which may cause severe stomach bleeding. The chance is higher if...

  12. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... request shall be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC... “Reye's syndrome:” (B) Allergic reaction and asthma alert warnings. Allergic reaction warnings set forth... separate allergy warning. This warning shall follow the subheading “Allergy alert:” The asthma...

  13. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... request shall be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC... “Reye's syndrome:” (B) Allergic reaction and asthma alert warnings. Allergic reaction warnings set forth... separate allergy warning. This warning shall follow the subheading “Allergy alert:” The asthma...

  14. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... request shall be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC... “Reye's syndrome:” (B) Allergic reaction and asthma alert warnings. Allergic reaction warnings set forth... separate allergy warning. This warning shall follow the subheading “Allergy alert:” The asthma...

  15. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pancreatic insufficiency drug products. Pancreatin and pancrelipase are composed of enzymes: amylase, trypsin... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic enzymes... included in an OTC drug monograph. Therefore, the safe and effective use of these enzymes for...

  16. Over the Counter Drugs (and Dietary Supplement) Exercise: A Team-based Introduction to Biochemistry for Health Professional Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadtare, Sangita; Abali, Emine; Brodsky, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    For successful delivery of basic science topics for health-professional students, it is critical to reduce apprehension and illustrate relevance to clinical settings and everyday life. At the beginning of the Biochemistry course for Physician Assistants, a team-based assignment was designed to develop an understanding of the mechanism of action,…

  17. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling... mL (3 ounces (oz)) per OTC container because of the serious health risks associated with the... such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction into...

  18. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling... mL (3 ounces (oz)) per OTC container because of the serious health risks associated with the... such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction into...

  19. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling... mL (3 ounces (oz)) per OTC container because of the serious health risks associated with the... such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction into...

  20. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., testosterone, vitamins, yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbinum have been present as ingredients in such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are...

  1. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., testosterone, vitamins, yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbinum have been present as ingredients in such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are...

  2. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., testosterone, vitamins, yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbinum have been present as ingredients in such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are...

  3. Medicines in My Home: Information for Students on the Safe Use of Over-the-Counter Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sweat Contains active ingredients Yes that reduce plaque and gum disease No Just makes breath smell better Yes Treats dandruff and itching No Just cleans hair Yes Reduces cavities No Just cleans your teeth Read the label each time before you use ...

  4. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) or steroid drug take other drugs containing prescription or nonprescription NSAIDs (aspirin... ulcers or bleeding problems takes a blood thinning (anticoagulant) or steroid drug takes other drugs... (anticoagulant) or steroid drug takes other drugs containing prescription or nonprescription NSAIDs...

  5. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  6. 21 CFR 201.307 - Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and directions for over-the-counter sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphates; package size limitation... Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.307 Sodium phosphates; package size limitation, warnings, and... and Drug Administration indicate that multiple container sizes of sodium phosphates oral...

  7. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... drug product. Anise, cantharides, don qual, estrogens, fennel, ginseng, golden seal, gotu kola, Korean... such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are...

  8. 76 FR 35665 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Enforcement Policy for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... sunscreen final rule published in the Federal Register of May 21, 1999 (64 FR 27666) (the 1999 final rule) that was stayed before becoming effective (69 FR 53801, September 3, 2004); The draft guidance states... FR 27666 at 27689 through 27693) or a proposed rule that published in the Federal Register of...

  9. 77 FR 27591 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... proposed rule (72 FR 49070 at 49073, August 27, 2007) and the 1999 sunscreen final rule (64 FR 27666 at... Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). The final rule establishes labeling and effectiveness.... The final rule published at 76 FR 35620 on June 17, 2011, remains effective June 18, 2012....

  10. 75 FR 7606 - Safety and Efficacy Review for Additional Ingredients in Over-the-Counter Drug Products for Human...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... No. Eligibility Amiloxate Sunscreen FDA-2003-N-019 July 11, 2003, 68 6 FR 41386 Bemotrizinol Sunscreen FDA-2005-N-045 December 5, 2005, 3 70 FR 72449 Bisoctrizole Sunscreen FDA-2005-N-045 December 5... Sunscreen FDA-2006-O-031 July 26, 2006, 71 butamido triazone 4 FR 42405 Ecamsule\\1\\ Sunscreen...

  11. 76 FR 35678 - SPF Labeling and Testing Requirements and Drug Facts Labeling for Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... described in the May 21, 1999, final rule (64 FR 27666 at 27689 through 27693) or the SPF test method described in the August 27, 2007, proposed rule (72 FR 49070 at 49114 through 49119). We believe that the..., 1999 (64 FR 13254), we amended our regulations governing requirements for human drug products...

  12. 76 FR 35669 - Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... (ANPR) (43 FR 38206 at 38207, 38223, 38224, 38229, and 38239) as lip protectants, which are allowed to... products (72 FR 49070), several submissions recommended that we include the following dosage forms in the... Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 352 RIN 0910-ZA40 Sunscreen Drug Products for...

  13. 76 FR 7743 - Professional Labeling for Laxative Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... monograph for OTC laxative drug products published January 15, 1985 (50 FR 2124), FDA proposed labeling for... document March 21, 1975 (40 FR 12902), Recommendations of the Advisory Review advance notice of proposed... preparation of the colon for x-ray and endoscopic examination. (50 FR 12902 at 12940 and 12942) January...

  14. 21 CFR 201.326 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (e.g., fluorescent or color contrast) or in bold type, be in lines generally parallel to the base on... must appear after the “Reye's syndrome” and “Allergy alert” warnings in § 201.66(c)(5)(ii)(A) and (c)(5... “(NSAID)” must appear highlighted (e.g., fluorescent or color contrast) or in bold type, be in...

  15. 76 FR 35619 - Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... published at 69 FR 53801, September 3, 2004. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Reynold Tan, Center for Drug...OTCRulemakings/ucm072134.htm . In the Federal Register of May 12, 1993 (58 FR 28194), we published a proposed... radiation (58 FR 28194 at 28232 and 28233). The proposed rule referenced published UVA test methods but...

  16. 21 CFR 201.327 - Over-the-counter sunscreen drug products; required labeling based on effectiveness testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-11-15), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You... standards in 40 CFR part 141. The pool and air temperature and the relative humidity should be recorded. (i...) of this chapter shall not apply to these products. (i) SPF test procedure—(1) UV source...

  17. 21 CFR 310.543 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for human use in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pancreatic insufficiency drug products. Pancreatin and pancrelipase are composed of enzymes: amylase, trypsin... potential for serious risk to patients using these drug products. The bioavailability of pancreatic enzymes... included in an OTC drug monograph. Therefore, the safe and effective use of these enzymes for...

  18. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by this section must be sealed using an acceptable tamper-evident technology. (c) Labeling. (1) In...-evident feature(s) and any capsule sealing technologies used to comply with paragraph (b) of this...

  19. 21 CFR 211.132 - Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by this section must be sealed using an acceptable tamper-evident technology. (c) Labeling. (1) In...-evident feature(s) and any capsule sealing technologies used to comply with paragraph (b) of this...

  20. Evaluation of an Innovative Over-the-Counter Treatment for Symptoms of Reflux Disease: Quick-Dissolving Alginate Granules

    PubMed Central

    Strugala, Vicki; Dettmar, Peter W.; Thomas, Edward C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional antacids and alginate-based reflux suppressants are OTC products commonly used to treat reflux symptoms. There has been a lack of innovation of new formulations in this therapy area despite consumers finding established products unpalatable. Here we evaluate a novel product formulation which takes the form of quick-dissolving alginate granules in single-dose sachets (Gaviscon Direct Powder (GDP)). Market research and taste evaluation confirmed that reflux sufferers considered GDP to have good flavour and taste, no chalky aftertaste and dissolved rapidly in the mouth with 68% noting so within 10 seconds. GDP was considered convenient and easy to use. The consumer-driven product development was also shown to form a strong alginate raft in standardised in vitro conditions that met the specifications of the BP monograph (raft strength > 7.5 g). Gastric retention of GDP and a test meal was investigated in healthy volunteers using gamma scintigraphy in comparison to Liquid Gaviscon. Both products formed an alginate raft in the stomach above the test meal and emptied after the meal. The gastric retention of the GDP product was found to be noninferior to Liquid Gaviscon. In conclusion, the innovative GDP product formed an effective raft and was well liked by consumers. PMID:23320198

  1. Evaluation of an Innovative Over-the-Counter Treatment for Symptoms of Reflux Disease: Quick-Dissolving Alginate Granules.

    PubMed

    Strugala, Vicki; Dettmar, Peter W; Thomas, Edward C M

    2012-01-01

    Traditional antacids and alginate-based reflux suppressants are OTC products commonly used to treat reflux symptoms. There has been a lack of innovation of new formulations in this therapy area despite consumers finding established products unpalatable. Here we evaluate a novel product formulation which takes the form of quick-dissolving alginate granules in single-dose sachets (Gaviscon Direct Powder (GDP)). Market research and taste evaluation confirmed that reflux sufferers considered GDP to have good flavour and taste, no chalky aftertaste and dissolved rapidly in the mouth with 68% noting so within 10 seconds. GDP was considered convenient and easy to use. The consumer-driven product development was also shown to form a strong alginate raft in standardised in vitro conditions that met the specifications of the BP monograph (raft strength > 7.5 g). Gastric retention of GDP and a test meal was investigated in healthy volunteers using gamma scintigraphy in comparison to Liquid Gaviscon. Both products formed an alginate raft in the stomach above the test meal and emptied after the meal. The gastric retention of the GDP product was found to be noninferior to Liquid Gaviscon. In conclusion, the innovative GDP product formed an effective raft and was well liked by consumers. PMID:23320198

  2. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: A rare side effect of a common over-the-counter drug, Acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is an uncommon cutaneous reaction characterized by sudden onset of generalized non-follicular aseptic pustules. It is most often secondary to drugs but causes as varied from viral infection to insect bites are reported. A case report of a 48-year-old male who developed pustular eruptions after taking acetylsalicylic acid is reported here. Clinicians need to be aware of this entity when dealing with pustular rash as this rare side effect of a very common drug is both, easy to miss and easy to manage. PMID:23984244

  3. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide... general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these or any other ingredient for OTC use for...

  4. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide... general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these or any other ingredient for OTC use for...

  5. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide... general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these or any other ingredient for OTC use for...

  6. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS..., petrolatum, phenol, pine tar, rosin, rosin cerate, sassafras oil, sulfur, thymol, triclosan, and zinc oxide... general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these or any other ingredient for OTC use for...

  7. Effects of an over-the-counter vented mouthguard on cardiorespiratory responses to exercise and physical agility.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephen P; Willauer, Thomas J; Balilionis, Gytis; Wilson, Laura E; Salley, John T; Bailey, Elizabeth K; Strickland, Tony L

    2015-03-01

    Many athletes avoid using mouthguards because they believe that they impair their ability to breath and negatively affect performance. Recently, some manufacturers have developed "vented" mouthguards (VentMGs) to address this concern. The purposes of this investigation were to describe the impact of a commercially available "vented" boil-and-bite mouthguard on the physiological responses to graded exercise and to determine whether the use of the same mouthguard influences performance during traditional physical agility tests. Recreationally trained males (n = 15) (age = 24 ± 1 year; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 43.5 ± 1.9 ml·kg·min; body mass index = 25.2 ± 0.9) completed 3 randomly assigned trials where they wore no mouthguard (control), a traditional mouthguard (TradMG), or a VentMG. During each trial, subjects completed a modified maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and a series of physical agility tests (40-m dash, vertical leap, broad jump, 3-cone drill, and shuttle run). No differences were seen between control and the TradMG in any cardiorespiratory measures at any time during the maximal exercise test. Ventilation and blood lactate were lower (p ≤ 0.05) during VentMG at 200 W and at MAX; however, no differences in (Equation is included in full-text article.)were observed. Although TradMG had no impact on physical agility, VentMG produced a higher (1.9 cm; p = 0.03) vertical leap than control. Both mouthguard conditions negatively affected perceptions of breathability, comfort, and ability to communicate, but no differences existed between the 2 conditions. These findings confirm that TradMG has no negative impact on physiological function during exercise and physical agility; however, VentMG may have a positive impact at higher workload and on vertical leap. PMID:25264671

  8. 21 CFR 201.66 - Format and content requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) drug product labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... request shall be clearly identified on the envelope as a “Request for Exemption from 21 CFR 201.66 (OTC... of the body of humans. The term includes those components that may undergo chemical change in...

  9. Medical professionals' perspectives on prescribed and over-the-counter medicines containing codeine: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Michelle; Carney, Tara; Rich, Eileen; Parry, Charles; Van Hout, Marie-Claire; Deluca, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore prescribing practitioners' perspectives on prescribed codeine use, their ability to identify dependence and their options for treatment in the UK. Design Cross-sectional design using a questionnaire containing closed-ended and open-ended items. Setting A nationally representative sample of prescribing professionals working in the UK. Participants 300 prescribing professionals working in primary care and pain settings. Results Participants stated that they regularly reviewed patients prescribed codeine, understood the risks of dependence and recognised the potential for codeine to be used recreationally. Over half the participants felt patients were unaware of the adverse health consequences of high doses of combination codeine medicines. One-quarter of participants experienced patient resentment when asking about medicines containing codeine. Just under 40% of participants agreed that it was difficult to identify problematic use of codeine without being informed by the patient and did not feel confident in identification of codeine dependence. Less than 45% of all participants agreed that codeine dependence could be managed effectively in general practice. Slow or gradual withdrawal was the most popular suggested treatment in managing dependence. Education and counselling was also emphasised in managing codeine-dependent patients in primary care. Conclusions Communication with patients should involve assessment of patient understanding of their medication, including the risk of dependence. There is a need to develop extra supports for professionals including patient screening tools for identifying codeine dependence. The support structure for managing codeine-dependent patients in primary care requires further examination. PMID:27417200

  10. 77 FR 35986 - Guidance for Industry on Toll-Free Number Labeling and Related Requirements for Over-the-Counter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... plain language and provides answers to common questions on how to comply with the rule. FDA prepared... summarizes the final rule published in the Federal Register of October 28, 2008 (73 FR 63886), which...

  11. 21 CFR 201.322 - Over-the-counter drug products containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients; required alcohol warning. 201.322 Section 201.322 Food and Drugs... containing internal analgesic/antipyretic active ingredients; required alcohol warning. (a) People who regularly consume large quantities of alcohol (three or more drinks every day) have an increased risk...

  12. 21 CFR 310.531 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid extract, hexachlorophene, ichthammol, isobutamben... aminacrine hydrochloride, bismuth subnitrate, calomel, camphor, cholesterol, ergot fluid...

  13. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hours of protection that is inconsistent with the directions for application in 21 CFR 201.327. (30) (b..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Iodine Iron ox bile Johnswort Juniper Kaolin, colloidal Knotgrass Lactic acid Lactose Lavender...

  14. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 310.545, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Iodine Iron ox bile Johnswort Juniper Kaolin, colloidal Knotgrass Lactic acid Lactose Lavender...

  15. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hours of protection that is inconsistent with the directions for application in 21 CFR 201.327. (30) (b..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Iodine Iron ox bile Johnswort Juniper Kaolin, colloidal Knotgrass Lactic acid Lactose Lavender...

  16. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 310.545, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... specific number of hours of protection that is inconsistent with the directions for application in 21 CFR... Iodine Iron ox bile Johnswort Juniper Kaolin, colloidal Knotgrass Lactic acid Lactose Lavender...

  17. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 310.545, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... Iodine Iron ox bile Johnswort Juniper Kaolin, colloidal Knotgrass Lactic acid Lactose Lavender...

  18. 78 FR 19718 - Modifications To Labeling of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Nicotine Gum: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study,'' Clinical ] Pharmacology and..., C., et al., ``Precessation Nicotine Replacement Therapy: Pragmatic Randomized Trial,'' Addiction... Replacement to Reduce Cigarette Consumption in Smokers Who Are Unwilling to Quit: A Randomized...

  19. 21 CFR 310.536 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 505 of the act and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved... product initially introduced or initially delivered for introduction into interstate commerce that is...

  20. 21 CFR 310.538 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use for ingrown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved new drug application or abbreviated new drug... March 9, 1994, any such OTC drug product initially introduced or initially delivered for...