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Sample records for overcome steric barriers

  1. Overcoming Barriers.

    PubMed

    Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Schmidt, Kari L

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Neal-Boylan's program of scholarship has always focused on nurse workforce issues. She recently published two books related to how nurses work. One (The Nurse's Reality Gap: Overcoming Barriers Between Academic Achievement and Clinical Success; Neal-Boylan, 2013) focused on the experience of new graduates from baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral programs. The second book, The Nurse's Reality Shift: Using Our History to Transform Our Future (Neal-Boylan, 2014), focuses on the problems nursing continues to face throughout our history and has failed to correct. PMID:26200309

  2. Overcoming Language Barriers

    PubMed Central

    De Buda, Yvonne

    1976-01-01

    Many family physicians in Canada experience language and cultural barriers between themselves and their patients. Several aspects of the ensuing problems are described and some practical suggestions for solutions are made. The importance of health education for new Canadians in the family physician's office as well as through the media and community projects is stressed. Imagesp68-ap68-bp70-a PMID:21308059

  3. Toward overcoming cisplatin resistance via sterically hindered platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyan; Gou, Shaohua; Wang, Zhimei; Chen, Feihong; Fang, Lei

    2016-05-23

    A number of platinum(II) complexes with steric hindrance derived from (1R,2R)-N(1)-benzylcyclohexane-1,2-diamine derivatives were designed and prepared. Biological assay indicated that most complexes showed antitumor activity against the tested cancer cell lines, especially those with chloride anions as leaving groups had compatible or superior activity to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Complex 2a, as the most potent agent, is also sensitive to cisplatin resistant SGC7901/CDDP cancer cell line, which has been subsequently studied by cellular uptake, flow cytometry, gel electrophoresis and western blot assays. The steric hindrance resulting from a pending 2-fluorobenzyl moiety of the ligand might be the key factor for its ability to overcome cisplatin resistant cancer cells. PMID:26974381

  4. Overcoming Barriers: Women in Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Claire M.

    2009-01-01

    Women currently represent the largest number of teachers in the United States but remain underrepresented in the superintendent position. This suggests that the superintendency has been influenced by patriarchy. If women are to break through the barriers that prevent them from attaining a superintendency, we will need to understand the social…

  5. Overcome barriers to career success

    SciTech Connect

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  6. Overcoming Barriers in Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heru, Alison M.; Drury, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committee for psychiatry outline the expected competencies for residents. These competencies include working with families. This article describes barriers that residents face when working with families, and offers ways to overcome these barriers. Method:…

  7. Overcoming cultural barriers to change.

    PubMed

    Hill, S; McNulty, D

    1998-01-01

    This article is a case study which focuses on organisational and cultural change associated with the incorporation of a college which provided pre- and post-registration nursing and midwifery education into a much larger institution within the university sector. Among the issues addressed is whether transformational change, such as that represented by incorporation or merger, can be used by managers to successfully refashion the culture of the organisation, making more effective than traditional or discipline-based management structures. It examines the barriers to change and the various considerations that arose in determining the fit of managerial styles and assesses the outcomes of the process of change. PMID:10346302

  8. Overcoming biological barriers with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

    2012-10-01

    Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study.

  9. Overcoming Barriers in the Media Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 has revolutionized one's ability to teach students in new and exciting ways. Students with disabilities can now overcome many barriers that once kept them from being successful in the regular education classroom. Media specialists can effectively advocate for students with disabilities. School library media specialists have the ability to…

  10. Overcoming Barriers to Engaging in College Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Lauren; Shaulskiy, Stephanie; Zircher, Andrew; Sanders, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Underprepared college students face transition issues that prevent full academic engagement. The written responses of 176 students in a learning-strategies course were used to develop a grounded model of overcoming barriers to academic engagement. Findings revealed contexts in which academic engagement involved high costs (i.e., effort, trade-off,…

  11. Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenack, Klaus; Moser, Susanne C.; Hoffmann, Esther; Klein, Richard J. T.; Oberlack, Christoph; Pechan, Anna; Rotter, Maja; Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The concept of barriers is increasingly used to describe the obstacles that hinder the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation. The growing literature on barriers to adaptation reveals not only commonly reported barriers, but also conflicting evidence, and few explanations of why barriers exist and change. There is thus a need for research that focuses on the interdependencies between barriers and considers the dynamic ways in which barriers develop and persist. Such research, which would be actor-centred and comparative, would help to explain barriers to adaptation and provide insights into how to overcome them.

  12. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... to interfere with your daily life, you may benefit from counseling, medication or both. Barrier: Difficulty understanding ...

  13. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  14. Overcoming immunological barriers in regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, Johannes L; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative therapies that use allogeneic cells are likely to encounter immunological barriers similar to those that occur with transplantation of solid organs and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Decades of experience in clinical transplantation hold valuable lessons for regenerative medicine, offering approaches for developing tolerance-induction treatments relevant to cell therapies. Outside the field of solid-organ and allogeneic HSC transplantation, new strategies are emerging for controlling the immune response, such as methods based on biomaterials or mimicry of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Novel biomaterials can alter the behavior of cells in tissue-engineered constructs and can blunt host immune responses to cells and biomaterial scaffolds. Approaches to suppress autoreactive immune cells may also be useful in regenerative medicine. The most innovative solutions will be developed through closer collaboration among stem cell biologists, transplantation immunologists and materials scientists. PMID:25093888

  15. Overcoming immunological barriers in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Johannes L; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    Regenerative therapies that use allogeneic cells are likely to encounter immunological barriers similar to those that occur with transplantation of solid organs and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Decades of experience in clinical transplantation hold valuable lessons for regenerative medicine, offering approaches for developing tolerance-induction treatments relevant to cell therapies. Outside the field of solid-organ and allogeneic HSC transplantation, new strategies are emerging for controlling the immune response, such as methods based on biomaterials or mimicry of antigen-specific peripheral tolerance. Novel biomaterials can alter the behavior of cells in tissue-engineered constructs and can blunt host immune responses to cells and biomaterial scaffolds. Approaches to suppress autoreactive immune cells may also be useful in regenerative medicine. The most innovative solutions will be developed through closer collaboration among stem cell biologists, transplantation immunologists and materials scientists. PMID:25093888

  16. Overcoming physical barriers in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Ines; van Rensburg, Ruan; Lieber, André

    2013-01-01

    Most solid tumors are of epithelial origin and, although malignant cells are de-differentiated, they maintain intercellular junctions, a key feature of epithelial cells, both in the primary tumor as well as in metastatic lesions. These intercellular junctions represent a protective mechanism against attacks by the host’s immune system and pose as physical barriers that prevent intratumoral penetration and dissemination of cancer therapeutics. A key protein of epithelial junctions is desmoglein 2 (DSG2). DSG2 is consistently upregulated in all cancers analyzed. Recently, we demonstrated that a group of human adenoviruses (Ad serotypes 3, 7, 11 and 14) use DSG2 as a primary attachment receptor for the infection of cells. We subsequently created a small recombinant protein derived from Ad serotype 3, which binds to DSG2 and triggers transient opening of epithelial intercellular junctions. We named the protein “JO-1” (“junction opener -1”). JO-1 is a small protein that can easily be produced in E. coli. JO-1 binding to and clustering of DSG2 triggers an epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition that results in transient opening of epithelial junctions. We have shown in over 25 xenograft tumor models that the intravenous injection of JO-1 increased the efficacy of monoclonal and chemotherapy, subsequently reducing the required treatment dose and concomitantly reducing the toxic side effect of these treatments. The application of JO-1 has not been associated with toxicities in safety studies performed in human DSG2-transgenic mice and monkeys. PMID:24665377

  17. Establishing a statewide mammography database in Arkansas: overcoming the barriers.

    PubMed

    Jazieh, Abdul Rahman

    2003-01-01

    To determine patterns of mammography utilization in Arkansas, the Arkansas Mammography Data Collection Project (MDCP) was established. The project's objective was to compile into one database statewide information about mammograms performed. All mammography centers were invited to participate in the project. Many barriers were encountered that were center related, data related, or personnel related; different interventions were implemented for each barrier. At the conclusion of the project, 92 out of 112 centers (82%) participated in the project, creating a database of 157,976 mammography data sets. Identifying and overcoming many of the barriers were crucial steps in the project's success. PMID:12552932

  18. Overcoming health literacy barriers: a model for action.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    A large influx of Indonesian immigrants seeking asylum from racial and religious persecution into our hospital service area alerted providers to the need for specific cultural knowledge about this ethnic group, and to develop new skill sets to effectively care for this population. Health education programs that provide knowledge and tools to overcome misunderstandings that arise from differences between provider and client expectations for behavior will be most effective in overcoming the health literacy barriers that so often contribute to health disparities. A framework to understand factors that affect health literacy for local Indonesian asylum seekers guided community health education, while the written educational materials for programs informed providers about health literacy barriers for this population. Community outreach engaged local pastors and interpreters as cultural brokers to collaborate with nurses to develop and implement culturally sensitive programs that are socially sensitive to the local Indonesian refugee population. PMID:21744676

  19. Evolving Drug Delivery Strategies to Overcome the Blood Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, David S.; Wadajkar, Aniket S.; Roberts, Nathan B.; Perez, Jimena G.; Connolly, Nina P.; Frenkel, Victor; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Woodworth, Graeme F.; Kim, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) poses a unique challenge for drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). The BBB consists of a continuous layer of specialized endothelial cells linked together by tight junctions, pericytes, nonfenestrated basal lamina, and astrocytic foot processes. This complex barrier controls and limits the systemic delivery of therapeutics to the CNS. Several innovative strategies have been explored to enhance the transport of therapeutics across the BBB, each with individual advantages and disadvantages. Ongoing advances in delivery approaches that overcome the BBB are enabling more effective therapies for CNS diseases. In this review, we discuss: (1) the physiological properties of the BBB, (2) conventional strategies to enhance paracellular and transcellular transport through the BBB, (3) emerging concepts to overcome the BBB, and (4) alternative CNS drug delivery strategies that bypass the BBB entirely. Based on these exciting advances, we anticipate that in the near future, drug delivery research efforts will lead to more effective therapeutic interventions for diseases of the CNS.

  20. Overcoming barriers to health care access for medically underserved children.

    PubMed

    Redlener, I

    1993-01-01

    The NYCHP was designed to serve the special needs of medically underserved, extremely disadvantaged children in New York City. As a model, and as the flagship program of a national network, the NYCHP demonstrates that it is possible to provide a medical home for children in a variety of challenging situations where access to traditional providers is limited. It is clear, however, that mobile units or other creative ways to overcome barriers to access to care are an insufficient long-term answer. Ultimately, the public sector must take steps to ensure that all American children have regular access to a true medical home regardless of their social or economic situation. In the interim, special initiatives such as the NYCHP must continue to fill the gap. PMID:10123427

  1. Overcoming barriers to development of cooperative medical decision support models.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Donna L; Cohen, Maurice E

    2012-01-01

    Attempts to automate the medical decision making process have been underway for the at least fifty years, beginning with data-based approaches that relied chiefly on statistically-based methods. Approaches expanded to include knowledge-based systems, both linear and non-linear neural networks, agent-based systems, and hybrid methods. While some of these models produced excellent results none have been used extensively in medical practice. In order to move these methods forward into practical use, a number of obstacles must be overcome, including validation of existing systems on large data sets, development of methods for including new knowledge as it becomes available, construction of a broad range of decision models, and development of non-intrusive methods that allow the physician to use these decision aids in conjunction with, not instead of, his or her own medical knowledge. None of these four requirements will come easily. A cooperative effort among researchers, including practicing MDs, is vital, particularly as more information on diseases and their contributing factors continues to expand resulting in more parameters than the human decision maker can process effectively. In this article some of the basic structures that are necessary to facilitate the use of an automated decision support system are discussed, along with potential methods for overcoming existing barriers. PMID:23366358

  2. Overcoming the barriers to xenotransplantation: prospects for the future

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Cooper, David KC

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation) has immense potential to solve the critical need for organs, tissues and cells for clinical transplantation. The increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs is enabling progress to be made in pig-to-nonhuman primate experimental models. Potent pharmacologic immunosuppressive regimens have largely prevented T-cell rejection and a T-cell-dependent elicited antibody response. However, coagulation dysfunction between the pig and primate is proving to be a major problem, and this can result in life-threatening consumptive coagulopathy. This complication is unlikely to be overcome until pigs expressing a human ‘antithrombotic’ or ‘anticoagulant’ gene, such as thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor or CD39, become available. Progress in islet xenotransplantation has been more encouraging, and diabetes has been controlled in nonhuman primates for periods in excess of 6 months, although this has usually been achieved using immunosuppressive protocols that might not be clinically applicable. Further advances are required to overcome the remaining barriers. PMID:20402385

  3. Overcoming the Confucian psychological barrier in government cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ook; Gong, Sung Jin

    2004-02-01

    The Confucian tradition still dictates the behavior of many people in East Asian countries such as South Korea. Even in e-mail communication, people try their best to show signs of respect which is required by the Confucian tradition. This psychological barrier can be detrimental to the development of democracy as people are educated not to challenge opinions of elders or bosses. After a long military dictatorship, South Korea has emerged as a newly democratized nation where the Confucian tradition is less emphasized. However, this tradition dies hard, and citizens are still afraid of offending government officials who have the power to affect lives of citizens. In light of creating a more democratic society, the e-government project has been implemented, and one of the features of cyber-government is to give citizens a place in cyberspace to express their concerns. Even though citizens have to use their real names, it is found that those who wrote messages in the bulletin board of the city of Seoul government's web pages tend not to use terms that are often used in e-mails for the purpose of expressing respect. A survey was conducted, and results show that people were able to overcome the Confucian psychological barrier in government cyberspace. Self-efficacy is proposed to explain this phenomenon. PMID:15006165

  4. Immunotherapy and complexity: overcoming barriers to control of advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Lage, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in fundamental immunology are changing paradigms for management of advanced cancer, now acknowledged as a chronic disease whose prevalence will increase, and one whose complexity makes it difficult to control. Immunotherapy is emerging as an alternative, with new monoclonal antibodies, therapeutic vaccines and deeper understanding of fundamental phenomena in the interaction between tumor and immune system. These novel insights concern mechanisms of programmed contraction of the immune response, characterization of molecular and cellular markers of immunosenescence, the dual role of inflammation, characterization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and cancer stem cells, and the phenomena of immunogenic apoptosis and oncogene addiction. Additionally, new data drive a deeper understanding of four barriers to overcome in control of advanced cancer: the complexity of biological systems, tumor heterogeneity, tumor mutation rates, and human genome-environment mismatch. The new landscape points to six main strategies: manage advanced cancer as a chronic disease, find relevant molecular markers for patient stratification, develop a rationale for therapeutic combinations, target regulatory control loops in the immune system, expand mathematical modeling capacity, and evaluate complex health intervention packages in real-world conditions. These transitions in cancer immunotherapy research are illustrated in this paper through description of ongoing projects at Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center. PMID:25208123

  5. 75 FR 58347 - Information Collection; Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire Defensible Space Behaviors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire... Fire Defensible Space Behaviors. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before November 23...: Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire Defensible Space Behaviors. OMB Number: 0596-New. Type of Request:...

  6. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  7. Steric repulsions, rotation barriers, and stereoelectronic effects: a real space perspective.

    PubMed

    Pendás, A Martín; Blanco, M A; Francisco, E

    2009-01-15

    Widely used chemical concepts like Pauli repulsion or hyperconjugation, and their role in determining rotation barriers or stereoelectronic effects, are analyzed from the real space perspective of the interacting quantum atoms approach (IQA). IQA emerges from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but is free from the equilibrium geometry constraint of the former. A framework with both electronically unrelaxed and relaxed wavefunctions is presented that leads to an approximate correspondence between the IQA concepts and those used in the EDA (energy decomposition analysis) or NBO (natural bond orbital) procedures. We show that no net force acts upon the electrons in an electronically relaxed system, so that any reasonable definition of Pauli repulsion must involve unrelaxed state functions. Using antisymmetrized fragments clarifies that Pauli repulsions are energetically connected to the IQA deformation energies, leaving footprints in the finally relaxed states. Similarly, EDA or NBO hyperconjugative stabilizations are found to be naturally related to the IQA electron delocalization patterns. Applications to the rotation barrier of ethane and other simple systems are presented, and the very often forgotten role of electrostatic contributions in determining preferred conformations is highlighted. PMID:18536054

  8. Service use among low-income minority elderly: strategies for overcoming barriers.

    PubMed

    Yeatts, D E; Crow, T; Folts, E

    1992-02-01

    The 1987 amendments to the Older Americans Act mandate a special effort to serve low-income minority elderly persons. A literature review showed that "practice-oriented" research on service use has focused primarily on identifying barriers with much less attention to identification of strategies for overcoming the barriers. This paper identifies and describes strategies used throughout Texas. Strategies addressing the "lack of knowledge" barrier included use of influential groups, working with significant individuals, and the media. Strategies addressing the "lack of access" barrier included transportation, affordability, and availability. Strategies addressing the "lack of intent" barrier focused on cultural differences, making services attractive, and overcoming negative attitudes toward service use. PMID:1740252

  9. SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To make treatment a viable option for remediation you must first identify the barriers to implementing treatment. The primary barrier is economics. Treatment options are relatively expensive and there is a lack of funds for treatment. The cost of technologies can be lowered by 1)...

  10. Provider barriers to telemental health: obstacles overcome, obstacles remaining.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Turvey, Carolyn; Augusterfer, Eugene F

    2013-06-01

    Many providers are hesitant to use telemental health technologies. When providers are queried, various barriers are presented, such as the clinician's skepticism about the effectiveness of telemental health (TMH), viewing telehealth technologies as inconvenient, or reporting difficulties with medical reimbursement. Provider support for TMH is critical to its diffusion because clinicians often serve as the initial gatekeepers to telehealth implementation and program success. In this article, we address provider concerns in three broad domains: (1) personal barriers, (2) clinical workflow and technology barriers, and (3) licensure, credentialing, and reimbursement barriers. We found evidence that, although many barriers have been discussed in the literature for years, advancements in TMH have rapidly reduced obstacles for its use. Improvements include extensive opportunities for training, a growing evidence base supporting positive TMH outcomes, and transformations in technologies that improve provider convenience and transmission quality. Recommendations for further change are discussed within each domain. In particular, it is important to grow and disseminate data underscoring the promise and effectiveness of TMH, integrate videoconferencing capabilities into electronic medical record platforms, expand TMH reimbursement, and modify licensure standards. PMID:23590176

  11. Women in School Administration: Overcoming the Barriers to Advancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEEA Digest, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This digest examines three prominent theories that attempt to explain why women are underrepresented in educational administration and develops a three-dimensional matrix as an empowerment perspective. Each of the theories--resocialization, structural barriers, and male dominance--is based on deficiencies in the woman, the system, or the society.…

  12. Teaching English Language Learners: Strategies for Overcoming Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Sara R.; Bosh, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    The number of English language learners (ELLs) in today's classrooms is increasing. In this article, the authors identify four perceived barriers beginning and veteran teachers face in teaching literacy to ELLs: the lack of understanding of the role of literacy in other cultures, the teacher's inability to differentiate instruction to meet the…

  13. Automation U.S.A.: Overcoming Barriers to Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Herb

    1985-01-01

    Although labor unions and inadequate technology play minor roles, the principal barrier to factory automation is "fear of change." Related problems include long-term benefits, nontechnical executives, and uncertainty of factory cost accounting. Industry support for university programs is helping to educate engineers to design, implement, and…

  14. Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Overcome Barriers to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, John J. M.; Chulak, Tala; Maitland, Scott; Allison, Kenneth R.; Lysy, Daria C.; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Sheeshka, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a revised measure of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity in a sample of 484 high school students in Toronto, Ontario. The students had a mean age of 15.3 years. Principal axis factoring with oblique rotation yielded five factors: self-efficacy to overcome internal, harassment, physical…

  15. Barriers to Effective Counseling with Blacks and Therapeutic Strategies for Overcoming Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents strategies for counselors working with Black clients. Suggests awareness of potential barriers to effective counseling enables the therapist to gear the initial sessions toward overcoming these obstacles and thus make early observations of tangible therapeutic gains. Proposes such advances are important in overcoming client skepticism and…

  16. Implementing District Energy Systems: Municipal Approaches To Overcoming Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Kevin George

    Climate change and energy security are issues facing municipalities throughout the world. Efficient, resilient, sustainable, community-based energy systems, such as district energy systems (DES), fuelled mostly by renewables, are an important tool for addressing both climate change and energy security at the municipal level. In spite of their benefits, DES are not widely adopted in Canada (CDEA, 2011). This is due to the complex nature of the barriers which project proponents face. This thesis examines the experience of the City of Prince George in adopting and implementing the Downtown DES. Using a case study methodology, data was collected through a review of relevant municipal documents and a series of semi-structured, open-ended interviews. A thematic analysis revealed unexpected barriers related to lack of adequate public consultation and negative perceptions regarding biomass as a fuel for the DES. These `lessons learned' were then developed into recommendations for other municipalities considering DES.

  17. No One Is Unemployable: Creative Solutions for Overcoming Barriers to Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, Elisabeth E.

    The goal of the WorkNet Model Career Development & Job Placement for people with barriers is to help even the most challenged job seekers begin and advance in careers they enjoy. This paper presents one key component of the WorkNet Model, a practical process for creatively overcoming any barrier a candidate faces. The chapter includes: the…

  18. Overcoming barriers to public understanding of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayhoe, K.

    2012-12-01

    Humans are interfering with global climate, increasing the risk of serious consequences for human society and the natural environment. As the scientific evidence builds, however, so does the public controversy surrounding this issue. Why is climate change so contentious? What makes it so hard to comprehend? I argue that there is no single reason for this, but rather a perfect storm of multiple confounding factors; scientific, historical, ideological, psychological and even physiological in nature. Education—of both the messengers and the audience—can play a critical role in surmounting many of the common barriers to understanding, accepting, and acting this important issue.

  19. Newborn screening progress in developing countries--overcoming internal barriers.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Krotoski, Danuta; Therrell, Bradford L

    2010-04-01

    Newborn screening is an important public health measure aimed at early identification and management of affected newborns thereby lowering infant morbidity and mortality. It is a comprehensive system of education, screening, follow-up, diagnosis, treatment/management, and evaluation that must be institutionalized and sustained within public health systems often challenged by economic, political, and cultural considerations. As a result, developing countries face unique challenges in implementing and expanding newborn screening that can be grouped into the following categories: (1) planning, (2) leadership, (3) medical support, (4) technical support, (5) logistical support, (6) education, (7) protocol and policy development, (8) administration, (9) evaluation, and (10) sustainability. We review some of the experiences in overcoming implementation challenges in developing newborn screening programs, and discuss recent efforts to encourage increased newborn screening through support networking and information exchange activities in 2 regions-the Asia Pacific and the Middle East/North Africa. PMID:20207264

  20. Staff resistance to restraint reduction: identifying & overcoming barriers.

    PubMed

    Curran, Staci Silver

    2007-05-01

    Professional organizations, regulating agencies, and hospital administrators have taken a strong stance on restraint reduction policies. When implementing a restraint reduction initiative, it is important to identify the barriers to restraint reduction, such as concern for personal safety, lack of knowledge about and practice using alternate de-escalation skills, and fear of disrupting the therapeutic milieu by using a variety of de-escalation methods. Education aimed to reduce the use of restraints needs to do more than simply provide information. It is important to acknowledge the emotional response of the nursing staff and the culture of the current practice. A variety of educational strategies, including role-playing, and case studies will help identify attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that are congruent with reducing the use of restraints. If the ultimate goal of restraint reduction is philosophical change, it will eventually lead to a new culture of practice. PMID:17526330

  1. Barriers to overcome for effective cancer control in Africa.

    PubMed

    Harford, Joe B

    2015-08-01

    Cancer control in Africa is complicated due to large differences in cancer incidence between countries caused by differences in exposure to known risk factors. For example, substantial differences are seen when selected cancers in north Africa are compared with those in sub-Saharan Africa. In the future, population growth and demographic shifts are likely to have profound effects on the prevalence of cancer across the continent. Likewise, many factors outside of health care such as language differences, conflict, and poverty can affect cancer control efforts. Although cooperation in cancer control efforts is desirable, differences in cultural and geopolitical factors that characterise African countries and their populations, together with the sheer size of the continent, present unique challenges to effective cancer control. This Series paper discusses factors related to the size, diversity, and conditions within Africa that present barriers to optimal collaboration in cancer control efforts across the continent. PMID:26248846

  2. Strategies to overcome the ABO barrier in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Böhmig, Georg A; Farkas, Andreas M; Eskandary, Farsad; Wekerle, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Kidney transplantation across the ABO blood group barrier was long considered a contraindication for transplantation, but in an effort to increase donor pools, specific regimens for ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation have been developed. These regimens are now widely used as an integral part of the available treatment options. Various desensitization protocols, commonly based on transient depletion of preformed anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies and modulation of B-cell immunity, enable excellent transplant outcomes, even in the long-term. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms behind transplant acceptance facilitated by a short course of anti-humoral treatment are still incompletely understood. With the evolution of efficient clinical programmes, tailoring of recipient preconditioning based on individual donor-recipient blood type combinations and the levels of pretransplant anti-A/B antibodies has become possible. In the context of low antibody titres and/or donor A2 phenotype, immunomodulation and/or apheresis might be dispensable. A concern still exists, however, that ABOi kidney transplantation is associated with an increased risk of surgical and infectious complications, partly owing to the effects of extracorporeal treatment and intensified immunosuppression. Nevertheless, a continuous improvement in desensitization strategies, with the aim of minimizing the immunosuppressive burden, might pave the way to clinical outcomes that are comparable to those achieved in ABO-compatible transplantation. PMID:26324199

  3. Mentoring women in academic surgery: overcoming institutional barriers to success.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Eddie L

    2006-09-01

    Women now comprise 50% of Caucasian matriculants to medical school; 66.6% of African Americans, 48% of Hispanics and 51.3% of Asians beginning medical school are also women. This trend is likely to continue since women now earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees, and they earn more degrees in the health professions and biological sciences than men. Black and Hispanic women now earn 66% and 60% of bachelor's degrees in their respective ethnic groups. Overall, women are concentrated at the lowest faculty ranks at medical schools, with 70% holding the rank of instructor or assistant professor. Women continue to experience difficulty with recruitment, retention, promotion and pay issues compared to men. They also experience additional gender-specific issues, including primary responsibility for rearing families and quality-of-life issues in some specialties, including most of the surgical disciplines. Clearly, there is an evolving population shift at work here; the pool of candidates for medical school faculty positions is likely to be evenly split between men and women for Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians, while the African-American pool is likely heavily weighted in favor of the women. Women are beginning to garner more Latin honors recognition at graduation as well and the definition of the "best and the brightest" is being redefined. Therefore, institutions must continue to identify the barriers that deter women from entering surgery, to develop research tools to understand how to improve the process of developing leadership skills among women and to insure a "buy-in" of their male counterparts when components of the plan are being implemented. PMID:17019926

  4. Mentoring women in academic surgery: overcoming institutional barriers to success.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Eddie L.

    2006-01-01

    Women now comprise 50% of Caucasian matriculants to medical school; 66.6% of African Americans, 48% of Hispanics and 51.3% of Asians beginning medical school are also women. This trend is likely to continue since women now earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees, and they earn more degrees in the health professions and biological sciences than men. Black and Hispanic women now earn 66% and 60% of bachelor's degrees in their respective ethnic groups. Overall, women are concentrated at the lowest faculty ranks at medical schools, with 70% holding the rank of instructor or assistant professor. Women continue to experience difficulty with recruitment, retention, promotion and pay issues compared to men. They also experience additional gender-specific issues, including primary responsibility for rearing families and quality-of-life issues in some specialties, including most of the surgical disciplines. Clearly, there is an evolving population shift at work here; the pool of candidates for medical school faculty positions is likely to be evenly split between men and women for Caucasians, Hispanics and Asians, while the African-American pool is likely heavily weighted in favor of the women. Women are beginning to garner more Latin honors recognition at graduation as well and the definition of the "best and the brightest" is being redefined. Therefore, institutions must continue to identify the barriers that deter women from entering surgery, to develop research tools to understand how to improve the process of developing leadership skills among women and to insure a "buy-in" of their male counterparts when components of the plan are being implemented. PMID:17019926

  5. Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Barnicot, Kirsten; Couldrey, Laura; Sandhu, Sima; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients’ experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants’ reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research. PMID:26465757

  6. Strategies for Overcoming Key Barriers to Development of a National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    This report documents the strategies for overcoming identified key barriers to development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. Many barriers currently exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of properly trained national security personnel. The identified strategies to address the barriers will focus on both short-term and long-term efforts, as well as strategies to capture legacy knowledge of retiring national security workforce personnel.

  7. Using Appropriate Digital Tools to Overcome Barriers to Collaborative Learning in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardlow, Liane; Harm, Eian

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative learning provides students with vital opportunities to create and build knowledge. Existing technologies can facilitate collaborative learning. However, barriers exist to enacting collaborative practices related to the coverage of material for assessments and classroom management concerns, among others. Teachers can overcome these…

  8. Powering Your Community With Solar: Overcoming Market and Implementation Barriers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This document introduces the Energy Department's new Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems. The guide is designed for 'green' consumers, utilities, local governments, and community groups who want to replicate the success of the Solarize Portland model, overcome barriers to implementation, and permanently transform the market for solar energy in their communities.

  9. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, P. C.; Halverson, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  10. Open access for the non-English-speaking world: overcoming the language barrier

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    This editorial highlights the problem of language barrier in scientific communication in spite of the recent success of Open Access Movement. Four options for English-language journals to overcome the language barrier are suggested: 1) abstracts in alternative languages provided by authors, 2) Wiki open translation, 3) international board of translator-editors, and 4) alternative language version of the journal. The Emerging Themes in Epidemiology announces that with immediate effect, it will accept translations of abstracts or full texts by authors as Additional files. Editorial note: In an effort towards overcoming the language barrier in scientific publication, ETE will accept translations of abstracts or the full text of published articles. Each translation should be submitted separately as an Additional File in PDF format. ETE will only peer review English-language versions. Therefore, translations will not be scrutinized in the review-process and the responsibility for accurate translation rests with the authors. PMID:18173854

  11. Overcoming barriers to exercise among parents: a social cognitive theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; Phillips, Siobhan M; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Conroy, David E

    2016-08-01

    Parents face numerous barriers to exercise and exhibit high levels of inactivity. Examining theory-based determinants of exercise among parents may inform interventions for this population. The purpose of this study was to test a social-cognitive model of parental exercise participation over a 12-month period. Mothers (n = 226) and fathers (n = 70) of children <16 completed measures of exercise, barriers self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and exercise planning at baseline and 1 year later. Panel analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Barriers self-efficacy was related to exercise directly and indirectly through perceived barriers and prioritization/planning. Prioritization and planning also mediated the relationship between perceived barriers and exercise. These paths remained significant at 12 months. These results suggest efforts to increase exercise in parents should focus on improving confidence to overcome exercise barriers, reducing perceptions of barriers, and helping parents make specific plans for prioritizing and engaging in exercise. PMID:27108160

  12. Overcoming terminology barrier using Web resources for cross-language medical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Ray Shih-Jui; Chan, Yi-Che; Chen, Kuan-Hsi

    2006-01-01

    A number of authoritative medical websites, such as PubMed and MedlinePlus, provide consumers with the most up-to-date health information. However, non-English speakers often encounter not only language barriers (from other languages to English) but also terminology barriers (from laypersons inverted exclamation mark| terms to professional medical terms) when retrieving information from these websites. Our previous work address language barriers by developing a multilingual medical thesaurus, Chinese-English MeSH, while this study presents an approach to overcome terminology barriers based on Web resources. Two techniques were utilized in our approach: monolingual concept mapping using approximate string matching and crosslingual concept mapping using Web resources. The evaluation shows that our approach can significantly improve the performance on MeSH concept mapping and cross-language medical information retrieval. PMID:17238395

  13. Emergency department crowding, part 2--barriers to reform and strategies to overcome them.

    PubMed

    Moskop, John C; Sklar, David P; Geiderman, Joel M; Schears, Raquel M; Bookman, Kelly J

    2009-05-01

    Part 1 of this 2-article series reviews serious moral problems created by emergency department (ED) crowding. In this second part of the series, we identify and describe operational and financial barriers to resolving the crisis of ED crowding, along with a variety of institutional and public policy strategies proposed or implemented to overcome those barriers. Finally, the article evaluates 2 additional actions designed to address the problem of ED crowding, namely, distribution of a warning statement to ED patients and implementation of a "reverse triage" system for safe early discharge of hospital inpatients. PMID:19027194

  14. Overcoming transport barriers for interstitial-, lymphatic-, and lymph node-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Susan N.; Schudel, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite drug formulation improving circulation times and targeting, efficacy is stymied by inadequate penetration into and retention within target tissues. This review highlights the barriers restricting delivery to the connective tissue interstitium, lymphatics, and lymph nodes as well as advances in engineering drug carriers to overcome these delivery challenges. Three-dimensional tissue physiology is discussed in the context of providing material design principles for delivery to these tissues; in particular the influence of interstitial and lymphatic flows as well as differential permeabilities of the blood and lymphatic capillaries. Key examples of materials with different characteristics developed to overcome these transport barriers are discussed as well as potential areas for further development. PMID:25745594

  15. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: overcoming technical barriers for clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Haohua; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical translation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy is of great interest because of the advantages of noninvasive label-free imaging, high sensitivity, and chemical specificity. For this to happen, we have identified and review the technical barriers that must be overcome. Prior investigations have developed advanced techniques (features), each of which can be used to effectively overcome one particular technical barrier. However, the implementation of one or a small number of these advanced features in previous attempts for clinical translation has often introduced more tradeoffs than benefits. In this review, we outline a strategy that would integrate multiple advanced features to overcome all the technical barriers simultaneously, effectively reduce tradeoffs, and synergistically optimize CARS microscopy for clinical translation. The operation of the envisioned system incorporates coherent Raman micro-spectroscopy for identifying vibrational biomolecular markers of disease and single-frequency (or hyperspectral) Raman imaging of these specific biomarkers for real-time in vivo diagnostics and monitoring. An optimal scheme of clinical CARS micro-spectroscopy for thin ex vivo tissues. PMID:23674234

  16. Public Health in the Emergency Department: Overcoming Barriers to Implementation and Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary Pat; Vaca, Federico E.; Field, Craig; Rhodes, Karin

    2011-01-01

    This article is the outcome of a consensus building workshop entitled, “Overcoming Barriers to Implementation and Dissemination” convened at the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, “Public Health in the ED: Surveillance, Screening, and Intervention.” The participants were asked to address potential methods for overcoming barriers to the dissemination and implementation in the emergency department (ED) of evidenced-based practices to improve public health. The panel discussed three broad areas of interest including methods for disseminating evidence-based practices, barriers encountered during the process of implementation, and the importance of involvement in activities outside the ED including engagement in policy development and improvement. Four recommendations were discussed in detail and consensus was reached. The recommendations included 1) researchers and advocates should disseminate findings through multiple forums beyond peer-reviewed publications when an ED-based public health intervention has enough evidence to support integration into the routine practice of emergency care; 2) local barriers to implementation of public health interventions should be recognized and well understood from multiple perspectives prior to implementation; 3) innovation must be put into place and adapted based on local institutional context and culture as barriers and the best methods for overcoming them will vary across institutions; and 4) use of legislation, regulation, and incentives outside of the ED should support and strengthen ED-based interventions. For each area of interest, research dimensions to extend the current understanding of methods for effectively and efficiently implementing evidence-based public health interventions in the ED were discussed and consensus was achieved. PMID:20053233

  17. Overcoming the Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Barrier to Leading Adeno-associated Virus Gene Therapy Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Benjamin S; Kim, Anthony J; Kays, Joshua C; Kanzawa, Mia M; Guggino, William B; Boyle, Michael P; Rowe, Steven M; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Suk, Jung Soo; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy has not yet improved cystic fibrosis (CF) patient lung function in human trials, despite promising preclinical studies. In the human CF lung, inhaled gene vectors must penetrate the viscoelastic secretions coating the airways to reach target cells in the underlying epithelium. We investigated whether CF sputum acts as a barrier to leading adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene vectors, including AAV2, the only serotype tested in CF clinical trials, and AAV1, a leading candidate for future trials. Using multiple particle tracking, we found that sputum strongly impeded diffusion of AAV, regardless of serotype, by adhesive interactions and steric obstruction. Approximately 50% of AAV vectors diffused >1,000-fold more slowly in sputum than in water, with large patient-to-patient variation. We thus tested two strategies to improve AAV diffusion in sputum. We showed that an AAV2 mutant engineered to have reduced heparin binding diffused twice as fast as AAV2 on average, presumably because of reduced adhesion to sputum. We also discovered that the mucolytic N-acetylcysteine could markedly enhance AAV diffusion by altering the sputum microstructure. These studies underscore that sputum is a major barrier to CF gene delivery, and offer strategies for increasing AAV penetration through sputum to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24869933

  18. The Role of Carrier Geometry in Overcoming Biological Barriers to Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Carolyn; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Bailey, Mark; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Dziubla, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    For a variety of diseases, effective therapy is severely limited or rendered impossible due to an inability to deliver medications to the intended sites of action. Multiple barriers exist through the body, which have evolved over time to limit the migration of foreign compounds from entering the tissues. Turning toward biology as inspiration, it has been the general goal of drug delivery to create carrier strategies that mimic, in part, features of bacteria/ viruses that allow them overcome these barriers. By packaging drugs into nano and micron scale vehicles, it should be possible to completely change the biodistribution and residence times of pharmaceutically active compounds. Recently, due to advances in formulation technologies, it has become possible to control not just the material selection, surface chemistry, and/or size, but also the overall geometry and plasticity of the drug carriers. These approaches aid in the formulation of nonspherical particles such as, discs, rods, and even unique structures such as cubes and nanodiamonds. The adjustment of size and shape can be used for the aid or prevention in cellular uptake and also to overcome the vascular and mucosal barrier. In this review, we present a summary of some approaches used to control carrier shape and the impact these geometries have upon drug transport across biological barriers. PMID:26675218

  19. How to overcome barriers and establish a successful home HD program.

    PubMed

    Young, Bessie A; Chan, Christopher; Blagg, Christopher; Lockridge, Robert; Golper, Thomas; Finkelstein, Fred; Shaffer, Rachel; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2012-12-01

    Home hemodialysis (HD) is an underused dialysis modality in the United States, even though it provides an efficient and probably cost-effective way to provide more frequent or longer dialysis. With the advent of newer home HD systems that are easier for patients to learn, use, and maintain, patient and provider interest in home HD is increasing. Although barriers for providers are similar to those for peritoneal dialysis, home HD requires more extensive patient training, nursing education, and infrastructure support in order to maintain a successful program. In addition, because many physicians and patients do not have experience with home HD, reluctance to start home HD programs is widespread. This in-depth review describes barriers to home HD, focusing on patients, individual physicians and practices, and dialysis facilities, and offers suggestions for how to overcome these barriers and establish a successful home HD program. PMID:23037981

  20. How to Overcome Barriers and Establish a Successful Home HD Program

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christopher; Blagg, Christopher; Lockridge, Robert; Golper, Thomas; Finkelstein, Fred; Shaffer, Rachel; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2012-01-01

    Summary Home hemodialysis (HD) is an underused dialysis modality in the United States, even though it provides an efficient and probably cost-effective way to provide more frequent or longer dialysis. With the advent of newer home HD systems that are easier for patients to learn, use, and maintain, patient and provider interest in home HD is increasing. Although barriers for providers are similar to those for peritoneal dialysis, home HD requires more extensive patient training, nursing education, and infrastructure support in order to maintain a successful program. In addition, because many physicians and patients do not have experience with home HD, reluctance to start home HD programs is widespread. This in-depth review describes barriers to home HD, focusing on patients, individual physicians and practices, and dialysis facilities, and offers suggestions for how to overcome these barriers and establish a successful home HD program. PMID:23037981

  1. Cancer cells remodel themselves and vasculature to overcome the endothelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Anitha K; Lu, Jianrong

    2016-10-01

    Metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs mostly via the bloodstream. During the metastatic process, cancer cells invade blood vessels to enter circulation, and later exit the vasculature at a distant site. Endothelial cells that line blood vessels normally serve as a barrier to the movement of cells into or out of the blood. It is thus critical to understand how metastatic cancer cells overcome the endothelial barrier. Epithelial cancer cells acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which enables them to move toward vasculature. Cancer cells also express a variety of adhesion molecules that allow them to attach to vascular endothelium. Finally, cancer cells secrete or induce growth factors and cytokines to actively prompt vascular hyperpermeability that compromises endothelial barrier function and facilitates transmigration of cancer cells through the vascular wall. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying metastatic dissemination may help develop new anti-metastasis therapeutics. PMID:25449784

  2. Mental health care for irregular migrants in Europe: Barriers and how they are overcome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Irregular migrants (IMs) are exposed to a wide range of risk factors for developing mental health problems. However, little is known about whether and how they receive mental health care across European countries. The aims of this study were (1) to identify barriers to mental health care for IMs, and (2) to explore ways by which these barriers are overcome in practice. Methods Data from semi-structured interviews with 25 experts in the field of mental health care for IMs in the capital cities of 14 European countries were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Experts reported a range of barriers to mental health care for IMs. These include the absence of legal entitlements to health care in some countries or a lack of awareness of such entitlements, administrative obstacles, a shortage of culturally sensitive care, the complexity of the social needs of IMs, and their fear of being reported and deported. These barriers can be partly overcome by networks of committed professionals and supportive services. NGOs have become important initial points of contact for IMs, providing mental health care themselves or referring IMs to other suitable services. However, these services are often confronted with the ethical dilemma of either acting according to the legislation and institutional rules or providing care for humanitarian reasons, which involves the risk of acting illegally and providing care without authorisation. Conclusions Even in countries where access to health care is legally possible for IMs, various other barriers remain. Some of these are common to all migrants, whilst others are specific for IMs. Attempts at improving mental health care for IMs should consider barriers beyond legal entitlement, including communicating information about entitlement to mental health care professionals and patients, providing culturally sensitive care and ensuring sufficient resources. PMID:22607386

  3. "Closing the Loop": Overcoming barriers to locally sourcing food in Fort Collins, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a focal point for many communities in recent years, and restaurants are seeking creative ways to become more sustainable. As many chefs realize, sourcing food locally is an important step towards sustainability and towards building a healthy, resilient community. Review of literature on sustainability in restaurants and the local food movement revealed that chefs face many barriers to sourcing their food locally, but that there are also many solutions for overcoming these barriers that chefs are in the early stages of exploring. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify barriers to local sourcing and investigate how some restaurants are working to overcome those barriers in the city of Fort Collins, Colorado. To do this, interviews were conducted with four subjects who guide purchasing decisions for restaurants in Fort Collins. Two of these restaurants have created successful solutions and are able to source most of their food locally. The other two are interested in and working towards sourcing locally but have not yet been able to overcome barriers, and therefore only source a few local items. Findings show that there are four barriers and nine solutions commonly identified by each of the subjects. The research found differences between those who source most of their food locally and those who have not made as much progress in local sourcing. Based on these results, two solution flowcharts were created, one for primary barriers and one for secondary barriers, for restaurants to assess where they are in the local food chain and how they can more successfully source food locally. As there are few explicit connections between this research question and climate change, it is important to consider the implicit connections that motivate and justify this research. The question of whether or not greenhouse gas emissions are lower for locally sourced food is a topic of much debate, and while there are major developments

  4. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their children with language impairment (LI). The authors examined caregiver-level data corresponding to implementation issues from two randomized controlled trials and mapped these to domains in the TDF as well as empirically validated behavior-change techniques. Results Four barriers to implementation were identified as potentially affecting caregivers' implementation: time pressures, reading difficulties, discomfort with reading, and lack of awareness of benefits. These were mapped to 3 TDF domains: intentions, beliefs about capabilities, and skills. In turn, 4 behavior-change techniques were identified as potential vehicles for affecting these domains: reward, feedback, model, and encourage. An ongoing study is described that is determining the effects of these techniques for improving caregivers' implementation of a shared-reading intervention. Conclusions A description of the steps to identifying barriers to implementation, in conjunction with an ongoing experiment that will explicitly determine whether behavior-change techniques affect these barriers, provides a model for how implementation science can be used to identify and overcome implementation barriers in the treatment of communication disorders. PMID:26262941

  5. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  6. Overcoming barriers to high performance seismic design using lessons learned from the green building industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glezil, Dorothy

    NEHRP's Provisions today currently governing conventional seismic resistant design. These provisions, though they ensure the life-safety of building occupants, extensive damage and economic losses may still occur in the structures. This minimum performance can be enhanced using the Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology and passive control systems like base isolation and energy dissipation systems. Even though these technologies and the PBEE methodology are effective reducing economic losses and fatalities during earthquakes, getting them implemented into seismic resistant design has been challenging. One of the many barriers to their implementation has been their upfront costs. The green building community has faced some of the same challenges that the high performance seismic design community currently faces. The goal of this thesis is to draw on the success of the green building industry to provide recommendations that may be used overcome the barriers that high performance seismic design (HPSD) is currently facing.

  7. Delivery of nucleic acids for cancer gene therapy: overcoming extra- and intra-cellular barriers.

    PubMed

    McErlean, Emma M; McCrudden, Cian M; McCarthy, Helen O

    2016-09-01

    The therapeutic potential of cancer gene therapy has been limited by the difficulty of delivering genetic material to target sites. Various biological and molecular barriers exist which need to be overcome before effective nonviral delivery systems can be applied successfully in oncology. Herein, various barriers are described and strategies to circumvent such obstacles are discussed, considering both the extracellular and intracellular setting. Development of multifunctional delivery systems holds much promise for the progression of gene delivery, and a growing body of evidence supports this approach involving rational design of vectors, with a unique molecular architecture. In addition, the potential application of composite gene delivery platforms is highlighted which may provide an alternative delivery strategy to traditional systemic administration. PMID:27582234

  8. Overcoming Codes and Standards Barriers to Innovations in Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2015-02-15

    In this journal article, the authors discuss approaches to overcoming building code barriers to energy-efficiency innovations in home construction. Building codes have been a highly motivational force for increasing the energy efficiency of new homes in the United States in recent years. But as quickly as the codes seem to be changing, new products are coming to the market at an even more rapid pace, sometimes offering approaches and construction techniques unthought of when the current code was first proposed, which might have been several years before its adoption by various jurisdictions. Due to this delay, the codes themselves can become barriers to innovations that might otherwise be helping to further increase the efficiency, comfort, health or durability of new homes. . The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America, a program dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of America’s housing stock through research and education, is working with the U.S. housing industry through its research teams to help builders identify and remove code barriers to innovation in the home construction industry. The article addresses several approaches that builders use to achieve approval for innovative building techniques when code barriers appear to exist.

  9. Overcoming Barriers: Adolescents’ Experiences Using a Mobile Phone Dietary Assessment App

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Åsa; Magnusson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of new technology has the potential to increase participation rates in dietary studies and improve the validity of collected dietary data. However, to evaluate the usability of developed dietary methods, qualitative studies of participants’ experiences and perceptions are needed. Objective To explore adolescents’ experiences using a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app, with a focus on factors that could affect their recording of dietary intake. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 75 participants who had used a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app in a quantitative evaluation study. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and the theoretical framework of Self Determination Theory was applied. Results The adolescents’ use of the mobile phone dietary assessment app was characterized by their struggle to overcome several perceived barriers. Facilitators that helped adolescents complete the method were also identified. Motivation was found to be an important facilitator, and intrinsically motivated participants completed the method because they found it fun to use. The autonomous extrinsically motivated participants completed the method for the greater good, in order to contribute to the study. The controlled extrinsically motivated participants completed the method to get a reward or avoid punishment. Amotivated participants did not complete the method. More motivated participants were assumed to be more able to overcome barriers and needed less facilitators. Conclusions Future studies that examine the recording of food intake should include systematic efforts that aim to minimize identified barriers and promote identified facilitators. Further research should specifically aim at studying methods for (and effects of) increasing intrinsic motivation by supporting autonomy, competence, and relatedness among adolescents asked to participate in dietary studies. PMID:27473462

  10. Nanocomplexes for gene therapy of respiratory diseases: Targeting and overcoming the mucus barrier.

    PubMed

    Di Gioia, Sante; Trapani, Adriana; Castellani, Stefano; Carbone, Annalucia; Belgiovine, Giuliana; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Puglisi, Giovanni; Cavallaro, Gennara; Trapani, Giuseppe; Conese, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy, i.e. the delivery and expression of therapeutic genes, holds great promise for congenital and acquired respiratory diseases. Non-viral vectors are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors, although they are characterized by lower efficiency. However, they have to overcome many barriers, including inflammatory and immune mediators and cells. The respiratory and airway epithelial cells, the main target of these vectors, are coated with a layer of mucus, which hampers the effective reaching of gene therapy vectors carrying either plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA. This barrier is thicker in many lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. This review summarizes the most important advancements in the field of non-viral vectors that have been achieved with the use of nanoparticulate (NP) systems, composed either of polymers or lipids, in the lung gene delivery. In particular, different strategies of targeting of respiratory and airway lung cells will be described. Then, we will focus on the two approaches that attempt to overcome the mucus barrier: coating of the nanoparticulate system with poly(ethylene glycol) and treatment with mucolytics. Our conclusions are: 1) Ligand and physical targeting can direct therapeutic gene expression in specific cell types in the respiratory tract; 2) Mucopenetrating NPs are endowed with promising features to be useful in treating respiratory diseases and should be now advanced in pre-clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the development of such polymer- and lipid-based NPs in the context of in vitro and in vivo disease models, such as lung cancer, as well as in clinical trials. PMID:26192479

  11. Physicochemical properties of polymers: An important system to overcome the cell barriers in gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Namvar, Ali; Bolhassani, Azam; Khairkhah, Niloofardokht; Motevalli, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of the macromolecules including DNA, miRNA, and antisense oligonucleotides is typically mediated by carriers due to the large size and negative charge. Different physical (e.g., gene gun or electroporation), and chemical (e.g., cationic polymer or lipid) vectors have been already used to improve the efficiency of gene transfer. Polymer-based DNA delivery systems have attracted special interest, in particular via intravenous injection with many intra- and extracellular barriers. The recent progress has shown that stimuli-responsive polymers entitled as multifunctional nucleic acid vehicles can act to target specific cells. These nonviral carriers are classified by the type of stimulus including reduction potential, pH, and temperature. Generally, the physicochemical characterization of DNA-polymer complexes is critical to enhance the transfection potency via protection of DNA from nuclease digestion, endosomal escape, and nuclear localization. The successful clinical applications will depend on an exact insight of barriers in gene delivery and development of carriers overcoming these barriers. Consequently, improvement of novel cationic polymers with low toxicity and effective for biomedical use has attracted a great attention in gene therapy. This article summarizes the main physicochemical and biological properties of polyplexes describing their gene transfection behavior, in vitro and in vivo. In this line, the relative efficiencies of various cationic polymers are compared. PMID:25761628

  12. Barriers to the Uptake of Human-based Test Methods, and How to Overcome Them.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Kathy; Drake, Tamara; Coleman, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Although there is growing concern as to the questionable value of animal-based methods for determining the safety and efficacy of new medicines, which has in turn led to many groups developing innovative human-based methods, there are many barriers to their adoption for regulatory submissions. The reasons for this are various, and include a lack of confidence that the available human-based methods, be they in vivo, in silico or in vitro, can be sufficiently predictive of clinical outcomes. However, this is not the only problem: the issue of validation presents a serious impediment to progress, a particularly frustrating situation, in view of the fact that the existing animal-based methods have never themselves been formally validated. Superimposed upon this is the issue of regulatory requirements, where, although regulators may be willing to accept non-animal approaches in place of particular animal tests, nowhere is this explicitly stated in their guidelines. Such problems are far from trivial, and represent major hurdles to be overcome. In addition, there are a range of other barriers, real or self-imposed, that are hindering a more-predictive approach to establishing a new drug's clinical safety and efficacy profiles. Some of these barriers are identified, and ways forward are suggested. PMID:26551287

  13. Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Weller, Jennifer; Boyd, Matt; Cumin, David

    2014-03-01

    Modern healthcare is delivered by multidisciplinary, distributed healthcare teams who rely on effective teamwork and communication to ensure effective and safe patient care. However, we know that there is an unacceptable rate of unintended patient harm, and much of this is attributed to failures in communication between health professionals. The extensive literature on teams has identified shared mental models, mutual respect and trust and closed-loop communication as the underpinning conditions required for effective teams. However, a number of challenges exist in the healthcare environment. We explore these in a framework of educational, psychological and organisational challenges to the development of effective healthcare teams. Educational interventions can promote a better understanding of the principles of teamwork, help staff understand each other's roles and perspectives, and help develop specific communication strategies, but may not be sufficient on their own. Psychological barriers, such as professional silos and hierarchies, and organisational barriers such as geographically distributed teams, can increase the chance of communication failures with the potential for patient harm. We propose a seven-step plan to overcome the barriers to effective team communication that incorporates education, psychological and organisational strategies. Recent evidence suggests that improvement in teamwork in healthcare can lead to significant gains in patient safety, measured against efficiency of care, complication rate and mortality. Interventions to improve teamwork in healthcare may be the next major advance in patient outcomes. PMID:24398594

  14. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  15. Cronobacter sakazakii clinical isolates overcome host barriers and evade the immune response.

    PubMed

    Almajed, Faisal S; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is the most frequently clinically isolated species of the Cronobacter genus. However the virulence factors of C. sakazakii including their ability to overcome host barriers remains poorly studied. In this study, ten clinical isolates of C. sakazakii were assessed for their ability to invade and translocate through human colonic carcinoma epithelial cells (Caco-2) and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Their ability to avoid phagocytosis in human macrophages U937 and human brain microglial cells was investigated. Additionally, they were tested for serum sensitivity and the presence of the Cronobacter plasminogen activation gene (cpa) gene, which is reported to confer serum resistance. Our data showed that the clinical C. sakazakii strains invaded and translocated through Caco-2 and HBMEC cell lines and some strains showed significantly higher levels of invasion and translocation. Moreover, C. sakazakii was able to persist and even multiply in phagocytic macrophage and microglial cells. All strains, except one, were able to withstand human serum exposure, the single serum sensitive strain was also the only one which did not encode for the cpa gene. These results demonstrate that C. sakazakii clinical isolates are able to overcome host barriers and evade the host immune response indicating their capacity to cause diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and meningitis. Our data showed for the first time the ability of C. sakazakii clinical isolates to survive and multiply within human microglial cells. Additionally, it was shown that C. sakazakii clinical strains have the capacity to translocate through the Caco-2 and HBMEC cell lines paracellularly. PMID:26616163

  16. N-trimethyl chitosan chloride-coated PLGA nanoparticles overcoming multiple barriers to oral insulin absorption.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jianyong; Han, Limei; Qin, Jing; Ru, Ge; Li, Ruixiang; Wu, Lihong; Cui, Dongqi; Yang, Pei; He, Yuwei; Wang, Jianxin

    2015-07-22

    Although several strategies have been applied for oral insulin delivery to improve insulin bioavailability, little success has been achieved. To overcome multiple barriers to oral insulin absorption simultaneously, insulin-loaded N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC)-coated polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (Ins TMC-PLGA NPs) were formulated in our study. The Ins TMC-PLGA NPs were prepared using the double-emulsion solvent evaporation method and were characterized to determine their size (247.6 ± 7.2 nm), ζ-potential (45.2 ± 4.6 mV), insulin-loading capacity (7.8 ± 0.5%) and encapsulation efficiency (47.0 ± 2.9%). The stability and insulin release of the nanoparticles in enzyme-containing simulated gastrointestinal fluids suggested that the TMC-PLGA NPs could partially protect insulin from enzymatic degradation. Compared with unmodified PLGA NPs, the positively charged TMC-PLGA NPs could improve the mucus penetration of insulin in mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells, the cellular uptake of insulin via clathrin- or adsorption-mediated endocytosis in Caco-2 cells and the permeation of insulin across a Caco-2 cell monolayer through tight junction opening. After oral administration in mice, the TMC-PLGA NPs moved more slowly through the gastrointestinal tract compared with unmodified PLGA NPs, indicating the mucoadhesive property of the nanoparticles after TMC coating. Additionally, in pharmacological studies in diabetic rats, orally administered Ins TMC-PLGA NPs produced a stronger hypoglycemic effect, with 2-fold higher relative pharmacological availability compared with unmodified NPs. In conclusion, oral insulin absorption is improved by TMC-PLGA NPs with the multiple absorption barriers overcome simultaneously. TMC-PLGA NPs may be a promising drug delivery system for oral administration of macromolecular therapeutics. PMID:26111015

  17. Overcoming barriers to the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system for medication dispensing: a case study.

    PubMed

    Nanji, Karen C; Cina, Jennifer; Patel, Nirali; Churchill, William; Gandhi, Tejal K; Poon, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Technology has great potential to reduce medication errors in hospitals. This case report describes barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of a pharmacy bar code scanning system to reduce medication dispensing errors at a large academic medical center. Ten pharmacy staff were interviewed about their experiences during the implementation. Interview notes were iteratively reviewed to identify common themes. The authors identified three main barriers to pharmacy bar code scanning system implementation: process (training requirements and process flow issues), technology (hardware, software, and the role of vendors), and resistance (communication issues, changing roles, and negative perceptions about technology). The authors also identified strategies to overcome these barriers. Adequate training, continuous improvement, and adaptation of workflow to address one's own needs mitigated process barriers. Ongoing vendor involvement, acknowledgment of technology limitations, and attempts to address them were crucial in overcoming technology barriers. Staff resistance was addressed through clear communication, identifying champions, emphasizing new information provided by the system, and facilitating collaboration. PMID:19567797

  18. Creating sustainable local health information exchanges: can barriers to stakeholder participation be overcome?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Joy M; Kushner, Kathryn L; November, Elizabeth A

    2008-02-01

    Local health information exchanges (HIEs) hold the promise of collecting patient clinical data across sites of care to provide more complete and timely information for treatment, as well as supporting quality improvement and reporting, public health activities, and clinical research. Findings from a study of stakeholder perspectives on participation in four HIEs by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) and the National Institute for Health Care Management (NIHCM) Foundation suggest, however, that barriers to achieving data exchange remain high. Concerns about loss of competitive advantage and data misuse impede provider and health plan willingness to contribute patient data. Additionally, uncertainty about who benefits from HIEs is affecting stakeholder willingness to fund the exchanges. The more mature exchanges--Cincinnati-based HealthBridge and the Indiana Health Information Exchange (IHIE)--have achieved some viability by meeting a specific business need--more efficient delivery of hospital test results to physicians. The newer exchanges--CareSpark, serving northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia, and the Tampa Bay Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO)--have struggled to identify and finance initial services without a similar critical mass of hospital participation. While narrow data exchange efforts that improve transaction efficiency may be a pragmatic first step to overcome barriers to stakeholder participation, expanding HIEs to achieve the broad-based data exchange necessary for quality reporting and pay-for-performance (P4P) activities raises more challenges. PMID:18496926

  19. Electrical, magnetic, photomechanical and cavitational waves to overcome skin barrier for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui

    2014-11-10

    Transdermal drug delivery is hindered by the barrier property of the stratum corneum. It limits the route to transport of drugs with a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 1 to 3, molecular weight of less than 500Da and melting point of less than 200°C. Active methods such as iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, magnetophoresis and laser techniques have been investigated for the past decades on their ability, mechanisms and limitations in modifying the skin microenvironment to promote drug diffusion and partition. Microwave, an electromagnetic wave characterized by frequencies range between 300MHz and 300GHz, has recently been reported as the potential skin permeation enhancer. Microwave has received a widespread application in food, engineering and medical sectors. Its potential use to facilitate transdermal drug transport is still in its infancy stage of evaluation. This review provides an overview and update on active methods utilizing electrical, magnetic, photomechanical and cavitational waves to overcome the skin barrier for transdermal drug administration with insights into mechanisms and future perspectives of the latest microwave technique described. PMID:24801250

  20. Overcoming Barriers in Kidney Health-Forging a Platform for Innovation.

    PubMed

    Linde, Peter G; Archdeacon, Patrick; Breyer, Matthew D; Ibrahim, Tod; Inrig, Jula K; Kewalramani, Reshma; Lee, Celeste Castillo; Neuland, Carolyn Y; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Sloand, James A; Meyer, Rachel; Smith, Kimberly A; Snook, Jennifer; West, Melissa; Falk, Ronald J

    2016-07-01

    Innovation in kidney diseases is not commensurate with the effect of these diseases on human health and mortality or innovation in other key therapeutic areas. A primary cause of the dearth in innovation is that kidney diseases disproportionately affect a demographic that is largely disenfranchised, lacking sufficient advocacy, public attention, and funding. A secondary and likely consequent cause is that the existing infrastructure supporting nephrology research pales in comparison with those for other internal medicine specialties, especially cardiology and oncology. Citing such inequities, however, is not enough. Changing the status quo will require a coordinated effort to identify and redress the existing deficits. Specifically, these deficits relate to the need to further develop and improve the following: understanding of the disease mechanisms and pathophysiology, patient engagement and activism, clinical trial infrastructure, and investigational clinical trial designs as well as coordinated efforts among critical stakeholders. This paper identifies potential solutions to these barriers, some of which are already underway through the Kidney Health Initiative. The Kidney Health Initiative is unique and will serve as a current and future platform from which to overcome these barriers to innovation in nephrology. PMID:27127187

  1. Overcoming barriers to implementing patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record: a case report.

    PubMed

    Harle, Christopher A; Listhaus, Alyson; Covarrubias, Constanza M; Schmidt, Siegfried Of; Mackey, Sean; Carek, Peter J; Fillingim, Roger B; Hurley, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    In this case report, the authors describe the implementation of a system for collecting patient-reported outcomes and integrating results in an electronic health record. The objective was to identify lessons learned in overcoming barriers to collecting and integrating patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record. The authors analyzed qualitative data in 42 documents collected from system development meetings, written feedback from users, and clinical observations with practice staff, providers, and patients. Guided by the Unified Theory on the Adoption and Use of Information Technology, 5 emergent themes were identified. Two barriers emerged: (i) uncertain clinical benefit and (ii) time, work flow, and effort constraints. Three facilitators emerged: (iii) process automation, (iv) usable system interfaces, and (v) collecting patient-reported outcomes for the right patient at the right time. For electronic health record-integrated patient-reported outcomes to succeed as useful clinical tools, system designers must ensure the clinical relevance of the information being collected while minimizing provider, staff, and patient burden. PMID:26159464

  2. Highly compacted biodegradable DNA nanoparticles capable of overcoming the mucus barrier for inhaled lung gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; da Silva, Adriana L; Chisholm, Jane; Song, Eric; Choi, Won Kyu; Boyle, Michael P; Morales, Marcelo M; Hanes, Justin; Suk, Jung Soo

    2015-07-14

    Gene therapy has emerged as an alternative for the treatment of diseases refractory to conventional therapeutics. Synthetic nanoparticle-based gene delivery systems offer highly tunable platforms for the delivery of therapeutic genes. However, the inability to achieve sustained, high-level transgene expression in vivo presents a significant hurdle. The respiratory system, although readily accessible, remains a challenging target, as effective gene therapy mandates colloidal stability in physiological fluids and the ability to overcome biological barriers found in the lung. We formulated highly stable DNA nanoparticles based on state-of-the-art biodegradable polymers, poly(β-amino esters) (PBAEs), possessing a dense corona of polyethylene glycol. We found that these nanoparticles efficiently penetrated the nanoporous and highly adhesive human mucus gel layer that constitutes a primary barrier to reaching the underlying epithelium. We also discovered that these PBAE-based mucus-penetrating DNA nanoparticles (PBAE-MPPs) provided uniform and high-level transgene expression throughout the mouse lungs, superior to several gold standard gene delivery systems. PBAE-MPPs achieved robust transgene expression over at least 4 mo following a single administration, and their transfection efficiency was not attenuated by repeated administrations, underscoring their clinical relevance. Importantly, PBAE-MPPs demonstrated a favorable safety profile with no signs of toxicity following intratracheal administration. PMID:26124127

  3. Understanding and Overcoming Barriers to Upper Limb Surgical Reconstruction After Tetraplegia: The Need for Interdisciplinary Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Punj, Vandana; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately 300,000 persons with spinal cord injury living in the United States, and nearly 60% of these persons have suffered tetraplegia with resultant alterations in body function, activity, and therefore participation. Restoring hand function can improve independence, and various studies have shown that persons with tetraplegia rate restoration of arm and hand function higher than bowel and bladder control, walking, or sexuality. There are conservative options to improve upper limb function in this population (eg, orthoses, neuroprostheses). Surgical interventions are also available, and 70% of surgical patients report satisfaction and improvement in various activities of daily living after surgery to restore arm and hand function. Despite these positive surgical outcomes, <10% of the eligible population of 60% to 70% undergo tendon transfer surgery to restore function. Underutilization of surgical interventions can be explained by population-, provider-, and health care systems-specific barriers. With further education of providers and patients and team building across disciplines these barriers can be overcome, ultimately leading to reduced disability and improved quality of life for persons with tetraplegia. PMID:27233595

  4. Evidence for Health II: Overcoming barriers to using evidence in policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Andermann, Anne; Pang, Tikki; Newton, John N; Davis, Adrian; Panisset, Ulysses

    2016-01-01

    Even the highest quality evidence will have little impact unless it is incorporated into decision-making for health. It is therefore critical to overcome the many barriers to using evidence in decision-making, including (1) missing the window of opportunity, (2) knowledge gaps and uncertainty, (3) controversy, irrelevant and conflicting evidence, as well as (4) vested interests and conflicts of interest. While this is certainly not a comprehensive list, it covers a number of main themes discussed in the knowledge translation literature on this topic, and better understanding these barriers can help readers of the evidence to be more savvy knowledge users and help researchers overcome challenges to getting their evidence into practice. Thus, the first step in being able to use research evidence for improving population health is ensuring that the evidence is available at the right time and in the right format and language so that knowledge users can take the evidence into consideration alongside a multitude of other factors that also influence decision-making. The sheer volume of scientific publications makes it difficult to find the evidence that can actually help inform decisions for health. Policymakers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, require context-specific evidence to ensure local relevance. Knowledge synthesis and dissemination of policy-relevant local evidence is important, but it is still not enough. There are times when the interpretation of the evidence leads to various controversies and disagreements, which act as barriers to the uptake of evidence. Research evidence can also be influenced and misused for various aims and agendas. It is therefore important to ensure that any new evidence comes from reliable sources and is interpreted in light of the overall body of scientific literature. It is not enough to simply produce evidence, nor even to synthesize and package evidence into a more user-friendly format. Particularly at the policy

  5. Overcoming Barriers to Eye Care: Patient Response to a Medical Social Worker in a Glaucoma Service.

    PubMed

    Fudemberg, Scott J; Amarasekera, Dilru C; Silverstein, Marlee H; Linder, Kathryn M; Heffner, Paul; Hark, Lisa A; Waisbourd, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the patient response to a medical social worker in a glaucoma clinic. The literature suggests that medical social workers are effective in a variety of health care settings, yet the efficacy of a medical social worker in an adult ophthalmic setting has not been studied. We present the results of a retrospective chart review of 50 patients with glaucoma referred to a medical social worker between January 5, 2015 and June 31, 2015 in an outpatient clinic of an urban eye hospital. Clinical and demographic data, as well as the data from a quality of care questionnaire, were collected for each patient. Patients rated their interaction with the medical social worker as highly positive (mean = 4.75, 5-point Likert scale), and nearly 90 % of patients expressed interest in future contact with the social worker. Additionally, most patients reported that the social worker resolved the issues they were facing (61.1 %), supported them in seeing their ophthalmologist (70.6 %), and helped them to manage their glaucoma (69.7 %). Reported barriers to glaucoma care were emotional distress; cost of office visits and medications; lack of medical insurance; transportation; poor medication adherence; impairment of daily activities; follow-up adherence; and language. As vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible, it is important to detect and treat patients at early stages of the disease. Therefore, it is imperative for patients to regularly visit their eye care providers and adhere to treatment and follow-up recommendations. This study suggests that a medical social worker could play a pivotal role in helping patients with glaucoma overcome barriers to treatment and facilitate disease management. PMID:26860278

  6. Nano-carrier systems: Strategies to overcome the mucus gel barrier.

    PubMed

    Dünnhaupt, S; Kammona, O; Waldner, C; Kiparissides, C; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2015-10-01

    The present review provides an overview of nanotechnology-based strategies to overcome various mucus gel barriers including the intestinal, nasal, ocular, vaginal, buccal and pulmonary mucus layer without destroying them. It focuses on the one hand on strategies to improve the mucus permeation behavior of particles and on the other hand on systems avoiding the back-diffusion of particles out of the mucus gel layer. Nanocarriers with improved mucus permeation behavior either exhibit a high density of positive and negative charges, bearing mucolytic enzymes such as papain and bromelain on their surface or display a slippery surface due to PEG-ylation. Furthermore, self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-systems (SNEDDS) turned out to exhibit comparatively high mucus permeating properties. Strategies in order to avoid back-diffusion are based on thiolated polymers reacting to a higher extent with cysteine subunits of the mucus at pH 7 in deeper mucus regions than at pH 5 being prevalent in luminal mucus regions of the intestinal and vaginal mucosa. Furthermore, particles changing their zeta potential from negative to positive once they have reached the epithelium seem to be promising carriers. The summarized knowledge should provide a good starting point for further developments in this field. PMID:25712487

  7. Lung Gene Therapy with Highly Compacted DNA Nanoparticles that Overcome the Mucus Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jung Soo; Kim, Anthony J.; Trehan, Kanika; Schneider, Craig S.; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Woodward, Owen M.; Boylan, Nicholas J.; Boyle, Michael P.; Lai, Samuel K.; Guggino, William B.; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled gene carriers must penetrate the highly viscoelastic and adhesive mucus barrier in the airway in order to overcome rapid mucociliary clearance and reach the underlying epithelium; however, even the most widely used viral gene carriers are unable to efficiently do so. We developed two polymeric gene carriers that compact plasmid DNA into small and highly stable nanoparticles with dense polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coatings. These highly compacted, densely PEG-coated DNA nanoparticles rapidly penetrate human cystic fibrosis (CF) mucus ex vivo and mouse airway mucus ex situ. Intranasal administration of the mucus penetrating DNA nanoparticles greatly enhanced particle distribution, retention and gene transfer in the mouse lung airways compared to conventional gene carriers. Successful delivery of a full-length plasmid encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was achieved in mouse lungs and airway cells, including a primary culture of mucus-covered human airway epithelium grown at air-liquid interface, without causing acute inflammation or toxicity. Highly compacted mucus penetrating DNA nanoparticles hold promise for lung gene therapy. PMID:24440664

  8. Lung gene therapy with highly compacted DNA nanoparticles that overcome the mucus barrier.

    PubMed

    Suk, Jung Soo; Kim, Anthony J; Trehan, Kanika; Schneider, Craig S; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Woodward, Owen M; Boylan, Nicholas J; Boyle, Michael P; Lai, Samuel K; Guggino, William B; Hanes, Justin

    2014-03-28

    Inhaled gene carriers must penetrate the highly viscoelastic and adhesive mucus barrier in the airway in order to overcome rapid mucociliary clearance and reach the underlying epithelium; however, even the most widely used viral gene carriers are unable to efficiently do so. We developed two polymeric gene carriers that compact plasmid DNA into small and highly stable nanoparticles with dense polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coatings. These highly compacted, densely PEG-coated DNA nanoparticles rapidly penetrate human cystic fibrosis (CF) mucus ex vivo and mouse airway mucus ex situ. Intranasal administration of the mucus penetrating DNA nanoparticles greatly enhanced particle distribution, retention and gene transfer in the mouse lung airways compared to conventional gene carriers. Successful delivery of a full-length plasmid encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein was achieved in the mouse lungs and airway cells, including a primary culture of mucus-covered human airway epithelium grown at air-liquid interface, without causing acute inflammation or toxicity. Highly compacted mucus penetrating DNA nanoparticles hold promise for lung gene therapy. PMID:24440664

  9. Adenovirus i-Leader Truncation Bioselected Against Cancer-associated Fibroblasts to Overcome Tumor Stromal Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Saus, Cristina; Gros, Alena; Alemany, Ramon; Cascalló, Manel

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-associated stromal cells constitute a major hurdle in the antitumor efficacy with oncolytic adenoviruses. To overcome this biological barrier, an in vitro bioselection of a mutagenized AdwtRGD stock in human cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) was performed. Several rounds of harvest at early cytopathic effect (CPE) followed by plaque isolation led us to identify one mutant with large plaque phenotype, enhanced release in CAFs and enhanced cytotoxicity in CAF and several tumor cell lines. Whole genome sequencing and functional mapping identified the truncation of the last 17 amino acids in C-terminal end of the i-leader protein as the mutation responsible for this phenotype. Similar mutations have been previously isolated in two independent bioselection processes in tumor cell lines. Importantly, our results establish the enhanced antitumor activity in vivo of the i-leader C-terminal truncated mutants, especially in a desmotic fibroblast-embedded lung carcinoma model in mice. These results indicate that the i-leader truncation represents a promising trait to improve virotherapy with oncolytic adenoviruses. PMID:21863000

  10. Translating Research to Practice: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Effective Off-Campus Party Intervention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on overcoming barriers in implementing effective off-campus party intervention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Problems Associated With Off-Campus Parties With Evidence-Based Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Overview of Research on Effective Off-Campus Party…

  11. Helping Our Most Vulnerable Families Overcome Barriers to Work and Achieve Financial Success. KIDS COUNT 2005 Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This essay, taken from the 2005 KIDS COUNT Data Book, examines four employment barriers that policymakers and others consider among the most difficult to overcome: substance abuse, domestic violence, a history of incarceration, and depression. These burdens can diminish a person's motivation and ability to find work. Furthermore, they can make it…

  12. Overcoming Relationship-Initiation Barriers: The Impact of a Computer-Dating System on Sex Role, Shyness, and Appearance Inhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlott, Bradford W.; Christ, William G.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of the users of an online computer-mediated matchmaking service showed that their communication patterns and objectives varied by their sex, shyness level, and appearance. Intrinsic aspects of this system helped some users overcome relationship-initiation barriers rooted in sex role, shyness, and appearance inhibitions. (Author)

  13. All Health Plans Need CLAMS: Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials for Diverse Populations Can Overcome Language Barriers to Effective Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra; Gonzales, Virginia

    2000-01-01

    CLAMs are "Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials" designed for diverse populations to help them overcome language barriers to effective treatment. The demographic shift underway in the United States is making the country more linguistically diverse. Health plans need to accommodate this shift, because without information patients…

  14. Overcoming the Fundamental Barrier Thickness Limits of Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions through BaTiO3/SrTiO3 Composite Barriers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingfei; Cho, Myung Rae; Shin, Yeong Jae; Kim, Jeong Rae; Das, Saikat; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Chung, Jin-Seok; Noh, Tae Won

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) have attracted increasing research interest as a promising candidate for nonvolatile memories. Recently, significant enhancements of tunneling electroresistance (TER) have been realized through modifications of electrode materials. However, direct control of the FTJ performance through modifying the tunneling barrier has not been adequately explored. Here, adding a new direction to FTJ research, we fabricated FTJs with BaTiO3 single barriers (SB-FTJs) and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 composite barriers (CB-FTJs) and reported a systematic study of FTJ performances by varying the barrier thicknesses and compositions. For the SB-FTJs, the TER is limited by pronounced leakage current for ultrathin barriers and extremely small tunneling current for thick barriers. For the CB-FTJs, the extra SrTiO3 barrier provides an additional degree of freedom to modulate the barrier potential and tunneling behavior. The resultant high tunability can be utilized to overcome the barrier thickness limits and enhance the overall CB-FTJ performances beyond those of SB-FTJ. Our results reveal a new paradigm to manipulate the FTJs through designing multilayer tunneling barriers with hybrid functionalities. PMID:27195918

  15. Overcoming the Meter Barrier and The Formation of Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.; Ford, Eric B.

    2014-11-01

    The Kepler space mission has revealed numerous planetary types and systems, shaping our understanding of planet formation. Among the quickly-growing data is a subclass of multi-planet configurations referred to as Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs). Their large abundance (>10% of stars) suggests that they are one of the principal outcomes of planet formation. The prototype STIP is Kepler-11, which hosts six known transiting planets, five of which have measured masses in the super-Earth and mini-Neptune regimes. The known planetary orbits in this system are spaced between a=0.09 and 0.47 AU, with small eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The lack of low-order mean motion resonances among planets in STIPs suggests that migration may have not played a dominant role in placing all of these planets on short orbital periods. While the formation of massive planetary systems on the hot side of the water ice line may be difficult to reconcile under the current paradigm of planet formation, we must explore whether many STIP planets formed by and large in situ. We discuss an overlooked mechanism that may allow the in situ formation of planetary systems on very short orbital periods. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can reduce net evaporation of incoming material, which could promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth and overcoming the classic meter barrier.

  16. Nanoparticles decorated with proteolytic enzymes, a promising strategy to overcome the mucus barrier.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Cattoz, Beatrice; Wilcox, Matthew D; Griffiths, Peter C; Dalgliesh, Robert; Rogers, Sarah; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    The intestinal mucus gel layer represents a stumbling block for drug adsorption. This study is aimed to formulate a nanoparticulate system able to overcome this barrier by cleaving locally the glycoprotein substructures of the mucus. Mucolytic enzymes such as papain (PAP) and bromelain (BRO) were covalently conjugated to poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). Nanoparticles (NPs) were then formulated via ionic gelation method and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, enzyme content and enzymatic activity. The NPs permeation quantified by rotating tube studies was correlated with changes in the mucus gel layer structure determined by pulsed-gradient-spin-echo NMR (PGSE-NMR), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and spin-echo SANS (SESANS). PAP and BRO functionalized NPs had an average size in the range of 250 and 285 nm and a zeta potential that ranged between -6 and -5 mV. The enzyme content was 242 μg enzyme/mg for PAP modified NPs and 253 μg enzyme/mg for BRO modified NPs. The maintained enzymatic activity was 43% for PAP decorated NPs and 76% for BRO decorated NPs. The rotating tube technique revealed a better performance of BRO decorated NPs compared to PAA decorated NPs, with a 4.8-fold higher concentration of NPs in the inner slice of mucus. Addition of 0.5 wt% of enzyme functionalized NPs to 5 wt% intestinal mucin led to c.a. 2-fold increase in the mobility of the mucin as measured by PGSE-NMR indicative of a significant break-up of the structure of the mucin. SANS and SESANS measurements further revealed a change in structure of the intestinal mucus induced by the incorporation of the functionalized NPs mostly occurring at a length scale longer than 0.5 μm. Accordingly, BRO decorated NPs show higher potential than PAP functionalized NPs as mucus permeating drug delivery systems. PMID:25661320

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice Concepts in Athletic Training Education: Perceptions of Select Educators

    PubMed Central

    Manspeaker, Sarah; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Context: The need to include evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts in entry-level athletic training education is evident as the profession transitions toward using evidence to inform clinical decision making. Objective: To evaluate athletic training educators' experience with implementation of EBP concepts in Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)-accredited entry-level athletic training education programs in reference to educational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Design: Qualitative interviews of emergent design with grounded theory. Setting: Undergraduate CAATE-accredited athletic training education programs. Patients or Other Participants: Eleven educators (3 men, 8 women). The average number of years teaching was 14.73 ± 7.06. Data Collection and Analysis: Interviews were conducted to evaluate perceived barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers to implementation of evidence-based concepts in the curriculum. Interviews were explored qualitatively through open and axial coding. Established themes and categories were triangulated and member checked to determine trustworthiness. Results: Educators identified 3 categories of need for EBP instruction: respect for the athletic training profession, use of EBP as part of the decision-making toolbox, and third-party reimbursement. Barriers to incorporating EBP concepts included time, role strain, knowledge, and the gap between clinical and educational practices. Suggested strategies for surmounting barriers included identifying a starting point for inclusion and approaching inclusion from a faculty perspective. Conclusions: Educators must transition toward instruction of EBP, regardless of barriers present in their academic programs, in order to maintain progress with other health professions' clinical practices and educational standards. Because today's students are tomorrow's clinicians, we need to include EBP concepts in entry-level education to promote

  18. Can Self-Prediction Overcome Barriers to Hepatitis B Vaccination? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Anthony D.; Cox, Dena; Cyrier, Rosalie; Graham-Dotson, Yolanda; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious public health problem, due in part to low vaccination rates among high-risk adults, many of whom decline vaccination because of barriers such as perceived inconvenience or discomfort. This study evaluates the efficacy of a self-prediction intervention to increase HBV vaccination rates among high-risk adults. Method Randomized controlled trial of 1175 adults recruited from three STD clinics in the United States over 28 months. Participants completed an audio-computer-assisted self-interview (A-CASI), which presented information about HBV infection and vaccination, and measured relevant beliefs, behaviors and demographics. Half of participants were assigned randomly to a "self-prediction" intervention, asking them to predict their future acceptance of HBV vaccination. The main outcome measure was subsequent vaccination behavior. Other measures included perceived barriers to HBV vaccination, measured prior to the intervention. Results There was a significant interaction between the intervention and vaccination barriers, indicating the effect of the intervention differed depending on perceived vaccination barriers. Among high-barriers patients, the intervention significantly increased vaccination acceptance. Among low-barrier patients, the intervention did not influence vaccination acceptance. Conclusions The self-prediction intervention significantly increased vaccination acceptance among "high-barriers" patients, who typically have very low vaccination rates. This brief intervention could be a useful tool in increasing vaccine uptake among high-barriers patients. PMID:21875205

  19. Energy management action plan: Developing a strategy for overcoming institutional barriers to municipal energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Energy offices working to improve efficiency of local government facilities face not only technical tasks, but institutional barriers, such as budget structures that do not reward efficiency, a low awareness of energy issues, and purchasing procedures based only on minimizing initial cost. The bureau, in working to remove such barriers in San Francisco, has identified 37 institutional barriers in areas such as operations & maintenance, purchasing, and facility design; these barriers were then reorganized into three groupings-- policy & attitudes, budget & incentives, and awareness & information-- and mapped. This map shows that the barriers mutually reinforce each other, and that a holistic approach is required for permanent change. The city`s recreation & parks department was used as a model department, and information about facility energy use was compiled into a departmental energy review. Staff interviews showed how barriers affect conservation. The bureau then generated ideas for projects to remove specific barriers and rated them according to potential impact and the resources required to implement them. Four of the six projects selected focused on maintenance staff: a cost- sharing lighting retrofit program, a boiler efficiency program, a departmental energy tracking system, and a budgetary incentive program for conservation. The other two projects are city-wide: promotion of a new term contract supplying energy-efficient light materials, and publication/distribution of ENERGY NEWS newsletter. A general methodology, the EMAP Strategy Guide, has been created to assist other energy offices in developing EMAPs.

  20. Principles of nanoparticle design for overcoming biological barriers to drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Elvin; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Biological barriers to drug transport prevent successful accumulation of nanotherapeutics specifically at diseased sites, limiting efficacious responses in disease processes ranging from cancer to inflammation. Although substantial research efforts have aimed to incorporate multiple functionalities and moieties within the overall nanoparticle design, many of these strategies fail to adequately address these barriers. Obstacles, such as nonspecific distribution and inadequate accumulation of therapeutics, remain formidable challenges to drug developers. A reimagining of conventional nanoparticles is needed to successfully negotiate these impediments to drug delivery. Site-specific delivery of therapeutics will remain a distant reality unless nanocarrier design takes into account the majority, if not all, of the biological barriers that a particle encounters upon intravenous administration. By successively addressing each of these barriers, innovative design features can be rationally incorporated that will create a new generation of nanotherapeutics, realizing a paradigmatic shift in nanoparticle-based drug delivery. PMID:26348965

  1. Overcoming Career Barriers: A Model of Cognitive and Emotional Processes for Realistic Appraisal and Constructive Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel

    1997-01-01

    A model of reactions to career barriers explains how people differ in appraising situations and establishing coping strategies based on a mix of emotional and cognitive processes, appraisal styles, and predispositions. (SK)

  2. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided

  3. Ground-Source Heat Pumps. Overview of Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Options for Overcoming Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Lisle, Heather; Burgos, Javier

    2009-02-03

    February 2009 final report submitted to DOE by Navigant Consulting, Inc. This report summarizes the status of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology and market penetration globally, estimates the energy saving potential of GSHPs in the U.S., identifies key market barriers that are inhibiting wider market adoption of GSHPs, and recommends initiatives that can be implemented or facilitated by the DOE to accelerate market adoption.

  4. Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Training and Education for Canadians with Disabilities. Lessons in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    If stronger skills and more education are key to greater labour force participation, then it is important to identify critical barriers to education and training for Canadians with disabilities. In 2008, the Canadian Council on Learning's Adult Learning Knowledge Centre funded a "Community Outreach Initiative for Learner's with Disabilities" that…

  5. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura M.; Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods: A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their…

  6. Overcoming Barriers to the Sexual Expression of Women with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Jennifer; Christian, LeeAnn; Dotson, Lori Ann

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses barriers to sexual fulfillment faced by women with developmental disabilities, including: access to gynecological healthcare, limited choices regarding reproductive issues, lack of sex education, and prevailing negative stereotypes that affect the way women are viewed by others and the way they view themselves.…

  7. Writing for Publication: An Intervention to Overcome Barriers to Scholarly Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapp, C. A.; Albertyn, R. M.; Frick, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    Academics are actively encouraged to disseminate new knowledge to the scientific community by publishing in scholarly journals. External and internal barriers to writing, however, prevent many authors from writing for publication. This article gives an account of an intervention to provide hands-on coaching to inexperienced academic authors.…

  8. Learning from the Best: Overcoming Barriers to Reforms-Based Elementary Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchi, Heather May

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics of elementary science teachers who employ reforms-based practices. Particular attention was paid to the consistency of teachers' practices and their beliefs, the impact of professional development experiences on practices, and how teachers mitigated barriers to reforms-based instruction. Understanding how…

  9. Overcoming Barriers to the Market Access of Biosimilars in the European Union: The Case of Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Moorkens, Evelien; Jonker-Exler, Clara; Huys, Isabelle; Declerck, Paul; Simoens, Steven; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2014, six of the top ten blockbuster medicines were monoclonal antibodies. This multibillion-dollar market with expiring patents is the main driver for the development of biosimilar mAbs. With the ever-increasing cost of healthcare and the economic pressure to reduce or sustain healthcare expenses, biosimilars could be instrumental in reducing costs for medication and increasing patient access to treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify and describe the barriers to market access of biosimilar mAbs in the European Union and to analyze how these barriers could be overcome. Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the databases PubMed, Embase, and EconLit. Studies were published in English or Dutch. Additionally, the reference list of the articles was checked for relevant studies. Articles and conference papers known to the authors were included as well. Articles were also identified by searching on the website of the Generics and Biosimilars Initiative (GaBI) journal. Results: Six barriers were identified based on available literature: The manufacturing process, the regulatory process, intellectual property rights, lack of incentive, the impossibility of substitution, and the innovator's reach. These six barriers are presented as a possible framework to study the market access of biosimilar mAbs. Based on the literature search, recommendations can be made to overcome these barriers: (i) invest initially in advanced production processes with the help of single-use technology, experience or outsourcing (ii) gain experience with the regulatory process and establish alignment between stakeholders (iii) limit patent litigation, eliminate evergreening benefits, build out further the unitary patent and unified patent litigation system within the EU (iv) create demand-side policies, disseminate objective information (v) change attitude toward biosimilar switching/substitution, starting with physician, and patient

  10. ECR heating power modulation as a means to ease the overcoming of the radiation barrier in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, D. Kh.; Pshenov, A. A.; Mineev, A. B.

    2010-06-15

    A method is proposed to ease the overcoming of the impurity radiation barrier during current drive in tokamaks, as well as in alternative fusion and plasmochemical systems with ECR plasma heating. The method is based on the fact that the dependence of the ionization rate on the electron temperature is strongly nonlinear and the dependence of the recombination rate on the latter is weaker. The result is that, during temperature oscillations, the effective temperature for ionization-recombination processes is higher than that in a steady state, so the ionization equilibrium is shifted and strongly emitting ions are stripped more rapidly. Thereby, ECR plasma heating in the initial discharge stage can be made more efficient by modulating the heating power at a low frequency. The evolution of the electron temperature in a homogeneous hydrogen plasma with a carbon impurity and in small ISX-scale tokamaks is simulated numerically, as well as the evolution of the electron and ion temperatures and of the current during discharge startup in the ITER device. Numerical simulations of the effect of modulation of the ECR heating power on the rate of heating of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon plasmas were also carried out. The assumption of coronal equilibrium is not used. It is shown that the low-frequency modulation of the heating power can substantially ease the overcoming of the radiation barrier.

  11. A possible mechanism for overcoming the electrostatic barrier against dust growth in protoplanetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimkin, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    The coagulation of dust particles under the conditions in protoplanetary disks is investigated. The study focuses on the repulsive electrostatic barrier against growth of charged dust grains. Taking into account the photoelectric effect leads to the appearance of a layer at intermediate heights where the dust has a close to zero charge, enabling the dust grains to grow efficiently. An increase in the coagulation rate comes about not only due to the lowering of the Coulomb barrier, but also because of the electrostatic attraction between grains of opposite charge due to the non-zero dispersion of the near-zero charge. Depending on the efficiency of mixing in the disk, the acceleration of the evolution of the dust in this layer could be important, both in the quasi-stationary stage of the disk evolution and during its dispersal.

  12. Overcoming barriers to the mobilisation of patients in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, S; Chapman, M J; Edwards, S; Stiller, K

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project aimed at increasing the frequency of mobilisation in our ICU. We designed a four-part quality improvement project comprising: an audit documenting the baseline frequency of mobilisation; a staff survey evaluating perceptions of the barriers to mobilisation; identification of barriers that were amenable to change and implementation of strategies to address these; and a follow-up audit to determine their effectiveness. The setting was a tertiary care, urban, public hospital ICU in South Australia. All patients admitted to the ICU during the two audit periods were included in the audits, while all permanent/semi-permanent ICU staff were eligible for inclusion in the staff survey. We found that patient- and institution-related factors had the greatest impact on the mobilisation of patients in our ICU. Barriers identified as being amenable to change included insufficient staff education about the benefits of mobilisation, poor interdisciplinary communication and lack of leadership regarding mobilisation. Various strategies were implemented to address these barriers over a three-month period. Multivariable analyses showed that three out of four mobility outcomes did not significantly change between the baseline and follow-up audits, with a significant difference in favour of the baseline audit found for the fourth mobility outcome (maximum level of mobility). We concluded that implementing relatively simple measures to improve staff education, interdisciplinary communication and leadership regarding early progressive mobilisation was ineffective at improving mobility outcomes for patients in a large tertiary-level Australian ICU. Other strategies, such as changing sedation practices and/or increasing staffing, may be required to improve mobility outcomes of these patients. PMID:26603796

  13. Overcoming barriers in care for the dying: Theoretical analysis of an innovative program model.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Cara L

    2016-08-01

    This article explores barriers to end-of-life (EOL) care (including development of a death denying culture, ongoing perceptions about EOL care, poor communication, delayed access, and benefit restrictions) through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism (SI), and applies general systems theory (GST) to a promising practice model appropriate for addressing these barriers. The Compassionate Care program is a practice model designed to bridge gaps in care for the dying and is one example of a program offering concurrent care, a recent focus of evaluation though the Affordable Care Act. Concurrent care involves offering curative care alongside palliative or hospice care. Additionally, the program offers comprehensive case management and online resources to enrollees in a national health plan (Spettell et al., 2009).SI and GST are compatible and interrelated theories that provide a relevant picture of barriers to end-of-life care and a practice model that might evoke change among multiple levels of systems. These theories promote insight into current challenges in EOL care, as well as point to areas of needed research and interventions to address them. The article concludes with implications for policy and practice, and discusses the important role of social work in impacting change within EOL care. PMID:27332743

  14. Zelda overcomes the high intrinsic nucleosome barrier at enhancers during Drosophila zygotic genome activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yujia; Nien, Chung-Yi; Chen, Kai; Liu, Hsiao-Yun; Johnston, Jeff; Zeitlinger, Julia; Rushlow, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila genome activator Vielfaltig (Vfl), also known as Zelda (Zld), is thought to prime enhancers for activation by patterning transcription factors (TFs). Such priming is accompanied by increased chromatin accessibility, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. Here, we analyze the effect of Zld on genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and binding of the patterning TF Dorsal (Dl). Our results show that early enhancers are characterized by an intrinsically high nucleosome barrier. Zld tackles this nucleosome barrier through local depletion of nucleosomes with the effect being dependent on the number and position of Zld motifs. Without Zld, Dl binding decreases at enhancers and redistributes to open regions devoid of enhancer activity. We propose that Zld primes enhancers by lowering the high nucleosome barrier just enough to assist TFs in accessing their binding motifs and promoting spatially controlled enhancer activation if the right patterning TFs are present. We envision that genome activators in general will utilize this mechanism to activate the zygotic genome in a robust and precise manner. PMID:26335633

  15. Pathogen population bottlenecks and adaptive landscapes: overcoming the barriers to disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Senior, Alistair M; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-08-31

    Emerging diseases are a major challenge to public health. Revealing the evolutionary processes that allow novel pathogens to adapt to new hosts, also the potential barriers to host adaptation, is central to understanding the drivers of disease emergence. In particular, it is unclear how the genetics and ecology of pathogens interact to shape the likelihood of successful cross-species transmission. To better understand the determinants of host adaptation and emergence, we modelled key aspects of pathogen evolutionary dynamics at both intra- and inter-host scales, using parameter values similar to those observed in influenza virus. We considered the possibility of acquiring the necessary host adaptive mutations both before ('off-the-shelf' emergence) and after ('tailor-made' emergence) a virus is transmitted from a donor to a new recipient species. Under both scenarios, population bottlenecks at inter-host transmission act as a major barrier to host adaptation, greatly limiting the number of adaptive mutations that are able to cross the species barrier. In addition, virus emergence is hindered if the fitness valley between the donor and recipient hosts is either too steep or too shallow. Overall, our results reveal where in evolutionary parameter space a virus could adapt to and become transmissible in a new species. PMID:27581875

  16. AccessAbility: Overcoming Information Barriers. Proceedings from the 1987 Spring Meeting of the Nebraska Library Association, College and University Section (Omaha, Nebraska, May 29, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kacena, Barbara J., Ed.

    Various aspects of the theme, "AccessAbility: Overcoming Information Barriers," are considered in the conference papers collected in this document. They include: (1) "The Library Image: A Barrier to Accessibility" (Janice S. Boyer); (2) "The Educationally Disadvantaged Student: How Can the Library Help?" (Michael Poma and Richard Jehlik); (3)…

  17. Oculocutaneous albinism: identifying and overcoming barriers to vision care in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Udeh, N N; Eze, B I; Onwubiko, S N; Arinze, O C; Onwasigwe, E N; Umeh, R E

    2014-06-01

    To assess eye care service utilization, and identify access barriers in a south-eastern Nigerian albino population. The study was a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in Enugu state between August, 2011 and January, 2012. Using the data base of the state's Albino Foundation and tailored awareness creation, persons living with albinism were identified and recruited at two study centres. Data on participants' socio-demographics, perception of vision, visual needs, previous eye examination and or low vision assessment, use of glasses or low vision devices were collected. Reasons for non-utilisation of available vision care services were also obtained. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The participants (n = 153; males 70; females 83; sex ratio: 1:1.1) were aged 23.46 + 10.44 SD years (range 6-60 years). Most--95.4 % of the participants had no previous low vision assessment and none--0.0% had used low vision device. Of the participants, 82.4% reported previous eye examination, 33.3% had not used spectacles previously, despite the existing need. Ignorance--88.9% and poor access--8.5% were the main barriers to uptake of vision care services. In Enugu, Nigeria, there is poor awareness and low utilization of vision care services among people with albinism. The identified barriers to vision care access are amenable to awareness creation and logistic change in the provision of appropriate vision care services. PMID:24198136

  18. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Ford, E. B.

    2014-09-10

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission.

  19. "Take your own path": minority leaders encountering and overcoming barriers in cultural community centers.

    PubMed

    Flores, Kevin Lynn; Matkin, Gina Sue

    2014-01-01

    Minority leaders face workplace issues not experienced by white leaders including lack of support, discrimination, racism, and stereotyping. The purpose of this study was to explore how racial/ethnic minority leaders encountered and overcame barriers as leaders of cultural community centers. Three racial/ethnic minority executive directors of cultural community centers located in a Midwestern city were interviewed and their responses were hand-coded to develop themes. Six themes emerged from this process: finding "inspiration", "developing thick skin", "stereotypes", "damage from within", "take your path", and "hope". Their stories help us understand the complexities of inter-racial relations in the workplace. PMID:24855809

  20. Enhanced intranasal delivery of mRNA vaccine by overcoming the nasal epithelial barrier via intra- and paracellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Zhao, Mengnan; Fu, Yao; Li, You; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Xun

    2016-04-28

    Facing the threat of highly variable virus infection, versatile vaccination systems are urgently needed. Intranasal mRNA vaccination provides a flexible and convenient approach. However, the nasal epithelium remains a major biological barrier to deliver antigens to nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). To address this issue, a potent polymer-based intranasal mRNA vaccination system for HIV-1 treatment was synthesized using cationic cyclodextrin-polyethylenimine 2k conjugate (CP 2k) complexed with anionic mRNA encoding HIV gp120. The delivery vehicle containing CP 2k and mRNA overcame the epithelial barrier by reversibly opening the tight junctions, enhanced the paracellular delivery of mRNA and consequently minimized absorption of toxins in the nasal cavity. Together with the excellent intracellular delivery and prolonged nasal residence time, strong system and mucosal anti-HIV immune responses as well as cytokine productions were achieved with a balanced Th1/Th2/Th17 type. Our study provided the first proof of evidence that cationic polymers can be used as safe and potent intranasal mRNA vaccine carriers to overcome the nasal epithelial barrier. The safe and versatile polymeric delivery system represents a promising vaccination platform for infectious diseases. PMID:26941035

  1. Overcoming Workplace Barriers: A Focus Group Study Exploring African American Mothers' Needs for Workplace Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345

  2. Overcoming barriers to health-care access: A qualitative study among African migrants in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lavinia; Brown, Katherine B; Hall, Brian J; Yu, Fan; Yang, Jingqi; Wang, Jason; Schrock, Joshua M; Bodomo, Adams B; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Nehl, Eric J; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Frank Y

    2016-10-01

    Guangzhou is China's third most populous city, and the region's burgeoning manufacturing economy has attracted many young African businessmen and entrepreneurs to the city. The aims of this study were to examine strategies that African migrants in Guangzhou have adopted in response to health-care barriers, and explore their perceptions of how to address their needs. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were conducted among African migrants residing in Guangzhou, China. Facing multiple barriers to care, African migrants have adopted a number of suboptimal and unsustainable approaches to access health care. These included: using their Chinese friends or partners as interpreters, self-medicating, using personal connections to medical doctors, and travelling to home countries or countries that offer English-speaking doctors for health care. Health-care providers and health organisations in Guangzhou have not yet acquired sufficient cultural competence to address the needs of African migrants residing in the city. Introducing linguistically and culturally competent health-care services in communities concentrated with African migrants may better serve the population. With the growing international migration to China, it is essential to develop sustainable approaches to improving health-care access for international migrants, particularly those who are marginalised. PMID:26400191

  3. Overcoming barriers to glycemic control in African Americans with type-2 diabetes: benefits of insulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Merville C

    2007-08-01

    A disproportionate number of African-American men and women are affected by obesity and diabetes. The documented rate of poor glycemic control in the African-American population may contribute to the high rate of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes observed in these patients. Since the benefits of strict glycemic control have been demonstrated in multiple large trials, the aim of treatment should be to achieve the goals set forth by the American Diabetes Association. Insulin remains an essential therapeutic agent for helping patients achieve glycemic control and preventing long-term comorbidities. However, barriers to insulin therapy exist for both the physician and patient. Strategies to counter this resistance include identifying barriers to treatment, restoring the patient's sense of control, utilizing simple regimens, and reviewing the benefits of insulin and the risk of hypoglycemia. In treating African-American patients with diabetes, providers of various racial and ethnic backgrounds may maximize treatment efficacy by attempting to understand and practice culturally competent care. PMID:17722663

  4. Autism and Overcoming Job Barriers: Comparing Job-Related Barriers and Possible Solutions in and outside of Autism-Specific Employment

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Frischling, Cora; Cuadros, Raphael; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover how individuals with autism succeed in entering the job market. We therefore sought to identify expected and occurred barriers, keeping them from taking up and staying in employment as well as to identify the solutions used to overcome these barriers. Sixty-six employed individuals with autism–17 of them with autism-specific employment–participated in an online survey. Results showed a variety of possible barriers. Individuals in autism-specific employment named formality problems–problems with organizational and practical process-related aspects of the job entry–most frequently while individuals in non-autism-specific employment mentioned social problems–obstacles concerning communication and human interaction–most. In terms of solutions, both groups used their own resources as much as external help, but differed in their specific strategies. In addition, correlations of an autism-specific employment with general and occupational self-efficacy as well as life and job satisfaction were examined. Possible implications of the results are discussed with regard to problem solving behavior and the use of strengths. PMID:26766183

  5. Autism and Overcoming Job Barriers: Comparing Job-Related Barriers and Possible Solutions in and outside of Autism-Specific Employment.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Frischling, Cora; Cuadros, Raphael; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover how individuals with autism succeed in entering the job market. We therefore sought to identify expected and occurred barriers, keeping them from taking up and staying in employment as well as to identify the solutions used to overcome these barriers. Sixty-six employed individuals with autism--17 of them with autism-specific employment--participated in an online survey. Results showed a variety of possible barriers. Individuals in autism-specific employment named formality problems--problems with organizational and practical process-related aspects of the job entry--most frequently while individuals in non-autism-specific employment mentioned social problems--obstacles concerning communication and human interaction--most. In terms of solutions, both groups used their own resources as much as external help, but differed in their specific strategies. In addition, correlations of an autism-specific employment with general and occupational self-efficacy as well as life and job satisfaction were examined. Possible implications of the results are discussed with regard to problem solving behavior and the use of strengths. PMID:26766183

  6. Overcoming restriction as a barrier to DNA transformation in Caldicellulosiruptor species results in efficient marker replacement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thermophilic microorganisms have special advantages for the conversion of plant biomass to fuels and chemicals. Members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic bacteria known. They have the ability to grow on a variety of non-pretreated biomass substrates at or near ~80°C and hold promise for converting biomass to bioproducts in a single step. As for all such relatively uncharacterized organisms with desirable traits, the ability to genetically manipulate them is a prerequisite for making them useful. Metabolic engineering of pathways for product synthesis is relatively simple compared to engineering the ability to utilize non-pretreated biomass. Results Here we report the construction of a deletion of cbeI (Cbes2438), which encodes a restriction endonuclease that is as a major barrier to DNA transformation of C. bescii. This is the first example of a targeted chromosomal deletion generated by homologous recombination in this genus and the resulting mutant, JWCB018 (ΔpyrFA ΔcbeI), is readily transformed by DNA isolated from E. coli without in vitro methylation. PCR amplification and sequencing suggested that this deletion left the adjacent methyltransferase (Cbes2437) intact. This was confirmed by the fact that DNA isolated from JWCB018 was protected from digestion by CbeI and HaeIII. Plasmid DNA isolated from C. hydrothermalis transformants were readily transformed into C. bescii. Digestion analysis of chromosomal DNA isolated from seven Caldicellulosiruptor species by using nine different restriction endonucleases was also performed to identify the functional restriction-modification activities in this genus. Conclusion Deletion of the cbeI gene removes a substantial barrier to routine DNA transformation and chromosomal modification of C. bescii. This will facilitate the functional analyses of genes as well as metabolic engineering for the production of biofuels and bioproducts from biomass. An analysis of

  7. Targeting the microenvironment of pancreatic cancer: overcoming treatment barriers and improving local immune responses.

    PubMed

    Strauss, J; Alewine, C; Figg, W D; Duffy, A

    2016-07-01

    Historically, patients diagnosed with metastatic pancreatic cancer have faced a grim prognosis. The survival benefit seen with systemic chemotherapies and even combinations thereof have been disappointing. However, growing data suggest that the microenvironment of pancreatic cancer may be contributing to this poor prognosis. This microenvironment has a dense fibrotic stroma, and is hypoxic and highly immunosuppressive, all of which pose barriers to treatment. Newer strategies looking to disrupt the fibrotic stroma, target hypoxic areas, and improve local immune responses in the tumor microenvironment are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and seem to offer great promise. In addition to these therapies, preclinical work evaluating novel cytotoxic agents including nanoparticles has also been encouraging. While much research still needs to be done, these strategies offer new hope for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26661112

  8. Personal health records: definitions, benefits, and strategies for overcoming barriers to adoption.

    PubMed

    Tang, Paul C; Ash, Joan S; Bates, David W; Overhage, J Marc; Sands, Daniel Z

    2006-01-01

    Recently there has been a remarkable upsurge in activity surrounding the adoption of personal health record (PHR) systems for patients and consumers. The biomedical literature does not yet adequately describe the potential capabilities and utility of PHR systems. In addition, the lack of a proven business case for widespread deployment hinders PHR adoption. In a 2005 working symposium, the American Medical Informatics Association's College of Medical Informatics discussed the issues surrounding personal health record systems and developed recommendations for PHR-promoting activities. Personal health record systems are more than just static repositories for patient data; they combine data, knowledge, and software tools, which help patients to become active participants in their own care. When PHRs are integrated with electronic health record systems, they provide greater benefits than would stand-alone systems for consumers. This paper summarizes the College Symposium discussions on PHR systems and provides definitions, system characteristics, technical architectures, benefits, barriers to adoption, and strategies for increasing adoption. PMID:16357345

  9. Overcoming barriers to osteoporosis care in vulnerable elderly patients with hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Julie A; Jaglal, Susan; Bogoch, Earl R

    2009-07-01

    Indications for and benefits of providing osteoporosis (OP) care for hip fracture patients have become widely understood. The hip fracture patient is frequently over age 80 years, minimally ambulatory, has multiple medical comorbidities, and has cognitive impairment. Patient barriers to initiation of effective OP treatment include: age, dementia, medical comorbidities, polypharmacy, lack of adherence with treatment, alcohol abuse, postoperative delirium, language barriers, inadequate social support, and socioeconomic status. In a large teaching hospital, 244 patients presented with hip fracture over 2 years: 72% were female and 64% were over age 80. Forty percent had been diagnosed with dementia; another 29% had other severe medical comorbidities.Opportunities for OP diagnosis and treatment are numerous. In acute care hospitals, coordinator facilitated programs are effective for identification, education, assessment, referral, and treatment of underlying OP in fracture patients. System modifications may include an automated care path or automatic specialist referral for hip fracture patients. In the rehabilitation hospital, the patients are in a more stable condition, there is a focus on the recent fracture, and there are opportunities to initiate OP treatment and to promote adherence. In long-term care, dietary intake including calcium and vitamin D supplementation and persistence with pharmacotherapy can be monitored. Patient education and referral to the family physician for osteoporosis investigation and treatment have improved patient knowledge and diagnosis, but the reported impact on treatment has been limited.Effective OP care for the vulnerable hip fracture patient should be initiated early but may be complex and require coordination. In addition to calcium and vitamin D supplementation, most patients in this category have an indication for aminobisphosphonate therapy. Liaison between the orthopaedic team and the discharge destination caregivers, an

  10. Learning from the best: Overcoming barriers to reforms-based elementary science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchi, Heather May

    This study explored the characteristics of elementary science teachers who employ reforms-based practices. Particular attention was paid to the consistency of teachers' practices and their beliefs, the impact of professional development experiences on practices, and how teachers mitigated barriers to reforms-based instruction. Understanding how successful elementary science teachers develop fills a gap in the science reforms literature. Participants included 7 upper elementary science teachers from six different schools. All schools were located within two suburban school districts in the south-Atlantic United States and data was collected during the spring of 2008. Data collection included use of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to evaluate the level of reforms-based instruction, as well as 35 hours of classroom observation field notes and 21 hours of audio-taped teacher interviews. The variety of data sources allowed for triangulation of evidence. The RTOP was analyzed using descriptive statistics and classroom observations and interview data were analyzed using Erickson's (1986) guidelines for analytic induction. Findings indicated (a) reforms-based elementary science teaching was attainable, (b) beliefs and practices were consistent and both reflected reforms-based philosophies and practices, (c) formal professional development experiences were limited and did not foster reforms-based practices, (d) informal professional development pursued by teachers had a positive impact on practices, (e) barriers to reforms-based instruction were present but mitigated by strong beliefs and practical strategies like curriculum integration. These findings suggest that there are common, salient characteristics of reforms-based teachers' beliefs, practices, and professional development experiences. These commonalities contribute to an understanding of how reforms-based teachers develop, and inform efforts to move all elementary teachers in the direction of

  11. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  12. Mucosal Vaccination Overcomes the Barrier to Recombinant Vaccinia Immunization Caused by Preexisting Poxvirus Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Igor M.; Moss, Bernard; Strober, Warren; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    1999-04-01

    Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.

  13. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  14. Supramolecular association via Sb...S and C-H...S interactions in dimeric tris(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III): an approach to overcome the concept of steric bulk on such interactions.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, H P S; Carpenter, Jaswant

    2013-12-01

    Tris(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) has been isolated as a dimer in acetonitrile. Single-crystal X-ray analysis shows that the molecule possesses both Sb···S and C-H···S interactions, which results in a supramolecular association in the absence of hydrogen-bonding functionality on the R group. The co-existence in the title compound of such interactions is a unique character of known dimeric antimony(III) alkyl and/or aryl dithiocarbamate complexes. The literature reveals that the species where the alkyl and/or aryl dithiocarbamates carry the following groups: R = methyl (chloroform solvated), ethyl, n-propyl, pyrrolidine, morpholine, piperidine, azepane, benzyl, methylphenyl, are not capable of forming significant hydrogen-bonding interactions. However, either Sb···S or C-H···S intermolecular interactions dominate between two centrosymmetrically related molecules leading to a supramolecular aggregation. In the species where the R group carries hydrogen-bonding functionality, i.e. 2-hydroxylethyl, the C-H···S interactions are subverted by O-H···O hydrogen bonding. In addition, the title compound does not have steric hindrance or any hydrogen-bonding group but is stabilized with the co-existence of Sb···S and C-H···S interactions. Analysis of the secondary interactions of a series of analogues previously reported reveals that steric bulk is unnecessary for the mitigation of Sb···S interactions and for the establishment of C-H···S secondary bonding. PMID:24253087

  15. 'Fit to fly': overcoming barriers to preoperative haemoglobin optimization in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Gómez-Ramírez, S; Kozek-Langeneker, S; Shander, A; Richards, T; Pavía, J; Kehlet, H; Acheson, A G; Evans, C; Raobaikady, R; Javidroozi, M; Auerbach, M

    2015-07-01

    In major surgery, the implementation of multidisciplinary, multimodal and individualized strategies, collectively termed Patient Blood Management, aims to identify modifiable risks and optimise patients' own physiology with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes. Among the various strategies utilized in Patient Blood Management, timely detection and management of preoperative anaemia is most important, as it is in itself a risk factor for worse clinical outcome, but also one of the strongest predisposing factors for perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, which in turn increases postoperative morbidity, mortality and costs. However, preoperative anaemia is still frequently ignored, with indiscriminate allogeneic blood transfusion used as a 'quick fix'. Consistent with reported evidence from other medical specialties, this imprudent practice continues to be endorsed by non-evidence based misconceptions, which constitute serious barriers for a wider implementation of preoperative haemoglobin optimisation. We have reviewed a number of these misconceptions, which we unanimously consider should be promptly abandoned by health care providers and replaced by evidence-based strategies such as detection, diagnosis and proper treatment of preoperative anaemia. We believe that this approach to preoperative anaemia management may be a viable, cost-effective strategy that is beneficial both for patients, with improved clinical outcomes, and for health systems, with more efficient use of finite health care resources. PMID:26089443

  16. Nanoparticle-mediated brain drug delivery: Overcoming blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Cláudia; Praça, Catarina; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Ferreira, Lino; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-08-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a vital boundary between neural tissue and circulating blood. The BBB's unique and protective features control brain homeostasis as well as ion and molecule movement. Failure in maintaining any of these components results in the breakdown of this specialized multicellular structure and consequently promotes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In several high incidence pathologies such as stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) the BBB is impaired. However, even a damaged and more permeable BBB can pose serious challenges to drug delivery into the brain. The use of nanoparticle (NP) formulations able to encapsulate molecules with therapeutic value, while targeting specific transport processes in the brain vasculature, may enhance drug transport through the BBB in neurodegenerative/ischemic disorders and target relevant regions in the brain for regenerative processes. In this review, we will discuss BBB composition and characteristics and how these features are altered in pathology, namely in stroke, AD and PD. Additionally, factors influencing an efficient intravenous delivery of polymeric and inorganic NPs into the brain as well as NP-related delivery systems with the most promising functional outcomes will also be discussed. PMID:27208862

  17. OVERCOMING BARRIERS To DIVERSITY IN CHIROPRACTIC PATIENT AND PRACTITIONER POPULATIONS: A COMMENTARY.

    PubMed

    Young, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the diversity of practitioner and patient populations has been identified as a worthy goal in the chiropractic profession, which has predominantly white male practitioners and white female patients in the USA. Toward that end, 'diversity' has been the topic of several papers and was the theme of a 2012 conference of chiropractic educators. However, generally just the microcosm of the interactions of practitioners with patients or teachers with students has been discussed. The macrocosm of larger societal issues and government policies has not been broached. Examples of issues and policies that affect diversity within a profession include portrayals of, and value judgements on diversity by the media and politicians, as well as public funding for healthcare and education. Diversity was defined in this paper to mean differences in race, sex, sexual orientation, economic status, ethnicity, religion and other life circumstances in a population. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of evidence that social issues and government policy affect the diversity of practitioners and patients, and to suggest that the barriers to diversity present in these realms be addressed with a cogent, profession-wide effort in order to help increase the diversity of people involved with chiropractic. PMID:26647486

  18. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  19. Applying Risk Science and Stakeholder Engagement to Overcome Environmental Barriers to Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Anderson, Richard M.; Van Cleve, Frances B.

    2010-09-20

    The production of electricity from the moving waters of the ocean has the potential to be a viable addition to the portfolio of renewable energy sources worldwide. The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry faces many hurdles, including technology development, challenges of offshore deployments, and financing; however, the barrier most commonly identified by industry, regulators, and stakeholders is the uncertainty surrounding potential environmental effects of devices placed in the water and the permitting processes associated with real or potential impacts. Regulatory processes are not well positioned to judge the severity of harm due to turbines or wave generators. Risks from MHK devices to endangered or protected animals in coastal waters and rivers, as well as the habitats that support them, are poorly understood. This uncertainty raises concerns about catastrophic interactions between spinning turbine blades or slack mooring lines and marine mammals, birds and fish. In order to accelerate the deployment of tidal and wave devices, there is a need to sort through the extensive list of potential interactions that may cause harm to marine organisms and ecosystems, to set priorities for regulatory triggers, and to direct future research. Identifying the risk of MHK technology components on specific marine organisms and ecosystem components can separate perceived from real risk-relevant interactions. Scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are developing an Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) to assess environmental effects associated with MHK technologies and projects through a systematic analytical process, with specific input from key stakeholder groups. The array of stakeholders interested in the development of MHK is broad, segmenting into those whose involvement is essential for the success of the MHK project, those that are influential, and those that are interested. PNNL and their partners have engaged these groups, gaining

  20. Performance of some new Niño3.4 predictors at overcoming the spring predictability barrier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, Tasambay-Salazar; Jose, Ortizbevia Maria; Francisco Jose, Alvarez-Garcia; Antonio, Ruizdeelvira

    2016-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon is the main source of predictability skill in many regions of the world, at seasonal and interannual timescales. Improving ENSO understanding and forecast skill is still one of the main goals of the international seasonal forecast programs. A common feature found in ENSO forecast is the skill predictability barrier, that is the skill drop for forecast across the spring season. In this study ENSO variability is represented by the Niño3.4 Index. Here we will use different seasonal linear stochastic models to test the performance of some new ENSO predictors at overcoming the spring predictability barrier. The benchmarkt is the performance scored by the same predictive scheme when the variables are those of a basic equatorial model representing the 'recharge-discharge' oscillator paradigm. Some of the new predictors, like the Tropical South Atlantic Index, the Tropical North Atlantic Index, the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode or the Pacific Meridional Model have been pointed at by recent studies. Additionally, we propose two new predictors, that take into account the zonal sea surface temperature gradients across the tropical Pacific, the North Tropical Pacific Zonal Gradient and the South Tropical Pacific Zonal Gradient Indexes. We intercompare the performance of the new predictors, by introducing them, one at a time, in a simple, three variables, stochastic predictive scheme. For some seasons and lags, the differences between the skill scored by some of the models that include one of these predictors are important. However, these are diminished when a Full Stochastic Mode set-up is adopted. References. Tasambay Salazar, M.; Ortiz Beviá, M. J.; Alvarez García, F. J.; Ruiz de Elvira Serra, A. The Niño3.4 region predictability beyond the persistence barrier. Tellus A. 2015, 67. doi: 10.3402/tellusa.v67.27457,

  1. Barriers to integration of behavioral and social sciences in the general medicine curriculum and recommended strategies to overcome them: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    TABATABAEI, ZAHRA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; SADEGHI, RAMIN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The integration of behavioral and social sciences (BSS) into the curriculum of medical students in order to equip them with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes is an essential issue, emphasized in many researches. Our aim is to investigate the barriers to integrate BSS into the general medicine curriculum as well as the recommended strategies to overcome such barriers through a systematic review of literature. Methods PubMed, ERIC, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and OPENGREY were searched for studies on the barriers to integration of BSS into the general medicine curriculum as well as the strategies employed to overcome them until August 28, 2015. Results Sixteen relevant studies were included and the related domains were categorized as barriers and some strategies were recommended to overcome them. In addition, the quality of the included studies was assessed. Conclusion Despite the prominent role of BSS in the effectiveness of health care, these sciences have not been included in the curriculum of medical students effectively. The identified barriers and the strategies used to overcome them should be considered for all integration programs. Future studies should focus on the process of BSS integration in the medical curricula and should evaluate the efficacy of this integration in more detail. PMID:27382578

  2. The GEOFAR Project - Geothermal Finance and Awareness in Europeans Regions - Development of new schemes to overcome non-technical barriers, focusing particularly on financial barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, Adeline; Wendel, Marco; Jaudin, Florence; Hiegl, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Numerous advantages of geothermal energy like its widespread distribution, a base-load power and availability higher than 90%, a small footprint and low carbon emissions, and the growing concerns about climate changes strongly promote the development of geothermal projects. Geothermal energy as a local energy source implies needs on surface to be located close to the geothermal resource. Many European regions dispose of a good geothermal potential but it is mostly not sufficiently developed due to non-technical barriers occurring at the very early stages of the project. The GEOFAR Project carried out within the framework of EU's "Intelligent Energy Europe" (IEE) program, gathers a consortium of European partners from Germany, France, Greece, Spain and Portugal. Launched in September 2008, the aim of this research project is to analyze the mentioned non-technical barriers, focusing most particularly on economic and financial aspects. Based on this analysis GEOFAR aims at developing new financial and administrative schemes to overcome the main financial barriers for deep geothermal projects (for electricity and direct use, without heat pumps). The analysis of the current situation and the future development of geothermal energy in GEOFAR target countries (Germany, France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary) was necessary to understand and expose the diverging status of the geothermal sector and the more and less complicated situation for geothermal projects in different Europeans Regions. A deeper analysis of 40 cases studies (operating, planned and failed projects) of deep geothermal projects also contributed to this detailed view. An exhaustive analysis and description of financial mechanisms already existing in different European countries and at European level to support investors completed the research on non-technical barriers. Based on this profound analysis, the GEOFAR project has made an overview of the difficulties met by project

  3. Overcoming the Illiteracy Barrier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1984-01-01

    This article asks "How literate do workers need to be?" and suggests such measures as the widespread use of technical materials written in "plain language" and employers' offering job-related reading programs. (JB)

  4. Overcoming access barriers to health services through membership-based microfinance organizations: a review of evidence from South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Somen; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2015-01-01

    It is a challenge for the poor to overcome the barriers to accessing health services. Membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes can improve health outcomes for the poor. This study reviewed the evidence published between 1993 and 2013 on the role of membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes in improving health outcomes for the poor in South Asia. A total of 661 papers were identified and 26 selected for inclusion, based on the relevance and rigour of the research methods. Of these 26, five were evidence reviews. Of the remaining 21 papers, 12 were from India, seven from Bangladesh, and one each from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Three papers addressed more than one theme. Five key themes emerged from the review: (i) the impact of microfinance programmes on the social and economic situation of the poor; (ii) the impact of microfinance programmes on community health; (iii) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on raising client awareness; (iv) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on financing health care; and (v) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on affordable health-care products and services. The review provides new evidence on the pathways through which microfinance helps to improve population health and value for money for such programmes. Among countries with large populations in the informal sector, there is a strong case for policy-makers to support these groups in providing access to life-saving health care among the poor. PMID:25685728

  5. Polyploid cells rewire DNA damage response networks to overcome replication stress-induced barriers for tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li; Dai, Huifang; Zhou, Mian; Li, Xiaojin; Liu, Changwei; Guo, Zhigang; Wu, Xiwei; Wu, Jun; Wang, Charles; Zhong, John; Huang, Qin; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Shen, Binghui

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in genes involved in DNA replication such as FEN1, can cause single-stranded DNA breaks (SSBs) and subsequent collapse of DNA replication forks leading to DNA replication stresses. Persistent replication stresses normally induce p53-mediated senescence or apoptosis to prevent tumor progression. It is unclear how some mutant cells can overcome persistent replication stresses and bypass the p53-mediated pathways to develop malignancy. Here we show that formation of polyploidy, which is often observed in human cancers, leads to overexpression of BRCA1, p19arf and other DNA repair genes in FEN1 mutant cells. This overexpression triggers SSB repair and non-homologous end joining pathways to increase DNA repair activity, but at the cost of frequent chromosomal translocations. Meanwhile, DNA methylation silences p53 target genes, to bypass the p53-mediated senescence and apoptosis. These molecular changes rewire DNA damage response and repair gene networks in polyploid tumor cells, enabling them to escape replication stress-induced senescence barriers. PMID:22569363

  6. The role of "blebbing" in overcoming the hydrophobic barrier during biooxidation of elemental sulfur by Thiobacillus thiooxidans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knickerbocker, C.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Southam, G.

    2000-01-01

    Brimstone Basin, in southeastern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming is an ancient hydrothermal area containing solfataric alteration. Drainage waters flowing from Brimstone Basin had pH values as low as 1.23 and contained up to 1.7×106 MPN/ml acidophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Thiobacillus thiooxidans was the dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacterium recovered from an enrichment culture and was used in a structural examination of bacterial sulfur oxidation. Growth in these sulfur cultures occurred in two phases with cells in association with the macroscopic sulfur grains and in suspension above these grains. Colonization of sulfur grains by individual cells and microcolonies was facilitated by organic material that appeared to be responsible for bacterial adhesion. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained (2% [wt./vol.] uranyl acetate), sulfur-grown T. thiooxidans revealed extensive membrane blebbing (sloughing of outer membrane vesicles) and the presence of approximately 100 nm sized sulfur particles adsorbed to membrane material surrounding individual bacteria. Sulfite-grown bacteria did not possess membrane blebs. The amphipathic nature of these outer membrane vesicles appear to be responsible for overcoming the hydrophobic barrier necessary for the growth of T. thiooxidans on elemental sulfur.

  7. Overcoming the barriers to effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a neuro-educational approach.

    PubMed

    Monastra, Vincent J

    2005-10-01

    Despite specific diagnostic criteria, published practice guidelines for assessing patients, and the availability of effective pharmacological treatments for children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), a review of prescription practices in the United States indicates that as few as 25-50% of these patients receive even minimal medical treatment for this condition. Because untreated children with AD/HD are at increased risk for psychoactive substance abuse, criminal behavior, and other social problems as adults, the provision of effective care during childhood is essential. In order to clarify the factors impeding treatment during childhood and develop a targeted intervention to overcome these barriers, two studies involving 1514 families were conducted. Each family included one child diagnosed with AD/HD. Factors associated with treatment failure or non-compliance with medical advice included: dissatisfaction with a diagnostic process limited to brief observation, interview, and review of behavior rating scales; fear of stimulant medication; lack of medication response within the first month; development of side-effects during the first month; lack of understanding of the reasons stimulants were being prescribed for a child, and insufficient clinical response. Based on these findings, an intervention program consisting of a comprehensive evaluation process (that included neuropsychological and neurophysiological tests of attention, and medical screening for other health problems associated with inattention and hyperactivity) and parent education about the medical causes of AD/HD, the biochemical action of medications, the relationship between dietary habits and attention, and the educational rights of children with AD/HD was conducted. Following completion of this three session intervention, 95% of patients complied with medical recommendations, initiated pharmacological treatment, and continued medication for a 2-year follow-up period

  8. "My hair or my health:" Overcoming barriers to physical activity in African American women with a focus on hairstyle-related factors.

    PubMed

    Huebschmann, Amy G; Campbell, Lucille Johnson; Brown, Candace S; Dunn, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity disparities among African American (AA) women may be related to sociocultural barriers, including difficulties with restyling hair after exercise. We sought to identify physical activity barriers and facilitators in AA women with a focus on sociocultural factors related to hairstyle maintenance. Participants (n = 51) were AA women aged 19-73 years who completed valid surveys and participated in structured focus groups, stratified by age and physical activity levels, from November 2012 to February 2013. The Constant Comparison method was used to develop qualitative themes for barriers and facilitators. The most frequently reported general physical activity barrier among exercisers was "lack of money" (27%) and among non-exercisers was "lack of self-discipline" (57%). A hairstyle-related barrier of "sweating out my hairstyle" was reported by 7% of exercisers and 29% of non-exercisers. This hairstyle-related barrier included the need for extra time and money to restyle hair due to perspiration. Hairstyle-related facilitators included: prioritizing health over hairstyle and high self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration. Participants were interested in resources to simplify hairstyle maintenance. AA women whose hairstyle is affected by perspiration may avoid physical activity due to time and financial burdens. Increasing self-efficacy to restyle hair after perspiration may help to overcome this barrier. PMID:26495938

  9. Sequence-Specific, RNA–Protein Interactions Overcome Electrostatic Barriers Preventing Assembly of Satellite Tobacco Necrosis Virus Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Robert J.; Barker, Amy M.; Bakker, Saskia E.; Coutts, Robert H.; Ranson, Neil A.; Phillips, Simon E.V.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Stockley, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the roles of RNA–coat protein (CP) interactions in the assembly of satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV). The viral genomic RNA encodes only the CP, which comprises a β-barrel domain connected to a positively charged N-terminal extension. In the previous crystal structures of this system, the first 11 residues of the protein are disordered. Using variants of an RNA aptamer sequence isolated against the CP, B3, we have studied the sequence specificity of RNA-induced assembly. B3 consists of a stem–loop presenting the tetra-loop sequence ACAA. There is a clear preference for RNAs encompassing this loop sequence, as measured by the yield of T = 1 capsids, which is indifferent to sequences within the stem. The B3-containing virus-like particle has been crystallised and its structure was determined to 2.3 Å. A lower-resolution map encompassing density for the RNA has also been calculated. The presence of B3 results in increased ordering of the N-terminal helices located at the particle 3-fold axes, which extend by roughly one and a half turns to encompass residues 8–11, including R8 and K9. Under assembly conditions, STNV CP in the absence of RNA is monomeric and does not self-assemble. These facts suggest that a plausible model for assembly initiation is the specific RNA-induced stabilisation of a trimeric capsomere. The basic nature of the helical extension suggests that electrostatic repulsion between CPs prevents assembly in the absence of RNA and that this barrier is overcome by correct placement of appropriately orientated helical RNA stems. Such a mechanism would be consistent with the data shown here for assembly with longer RNA fragments, including an STNV genome. The results are discussed in light of a first stage of assembly involving compaction of the genomic RNA driven by multiple RNA packaging signal–CP interactions. PMID:23318955

  10. What are the barriers which discourage 15-16 year-old girls from participating in team sports and how can we overcome them?

    PubMed

    Wetton, Abigail R; Radley, Rebecca; Jones, Angela R; Pearce, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport. PMID:24073416

  11. What Are the Barriers Which Discourage 15-16 Year-Old Girls from Participating in Team Sports and How Can We Overcome Them?

    PubMed Central

    Wetton, Abigail R.; Jones, Angela R.; Pearce, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport. PMID:24073416

  12. Advocating for responsible oil and natural gas extraction policies; FracTracker as a mechanism for overcoming the barriers to scientific advocacy for academics and communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrar, K. J.; Malone, S.; Kelso, M.; Lenker, B.

    2013-12-01

    The inability to translate data to scientific information that can readily be incorporated by citizens into the public arena is an obstacle for science-based advocacy. This issue is particularly poignant for shale oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing, as the issue has become highly politicized. Barriers to engaging in policy debate are different but highly related for community members and scientists. For citizens and interest groups, barriers including accessibility, public awareness and data presentation limit the motivation for community involvement in political interactions. To overcome such barriers, social researchers call for public engagement to move upstream and many call for a broad engagement of scientists in science-based advocacy. Furthermore surveys have shown that citizens, interest groups, and decision-makers share a broad desire for scientists to engage in environmental policy development. Regardless, scientists face a number of perceived barriers, with academics expressing the most resistance to overcoming the tension created by adherence to the scientific method and the need to engage with the broader society, described by Schneider (1990) as the 'double ethical bind'. For the scientific community the appeal of public dissemination of information beyond the scope of academic journals is limited for a number of reasons. Barriers include preservation of credibility, peer attitudes, training, and career trajectory. The result is a lack of translated information available to the public. This systematic analysis of the FracTracker platform provides an evaluation of where the features of the public engagement, GIS platform has been successful at overcoming these barriers to public dissemination, where the platform needs further development or is ill-suited to address these issues, and the development of FracTracker as an outlet for scientific researchers to engage with citizens. The analysis will also provide insight into what

  13. Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in General Practice: a Delphi Study Among Healthcare Professionals and Addiction Prevention Experts.

    PubMed

    Abidi, L; Oenema, A; Nilsen, P; Anderson, P; van de Mheen, D

    2016-08-01

    Despite the evidence base, alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) have rarely been integrated into routine clinical practice. The aim of this study is to identify strategies that could tackle barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice by involving primary healthcare professionals and addiction prevention experts. A three-round online Delphi study was carried out in the Netherlands. The first-round questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions to generate ideas about strategies to overcome barriers. In the second round, participants were asked to indicate how applicable they found each strategy. Items without consensus were systematically fed back with group median ratings and interquartile range (IQR) scores in the third-round questionnaire. In total, 39 out of 69 (57 %) invited participants enrolled in the first round, 214 participants completed the second round, and 144 of these (67 %) completed the third-round questionnaire. Results show that participants reached consensus on 59 of 81 strategies, such as the following: (1) use of E-learning technology, (2) symptom-specific screening by general practitioners (GPs) and/or universal screening by practice nurses, (3) reimbursement incentives, (4) supportive materials, (5) clear guidelines, (6) service provision of addiction care centers, and (7) more publicity in the media. This exploratory study identified a broad set of strategies that could potentially be used for overcoming barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice and paves the way for future research to experimentally test the identified implementation strategies using multifaceted approaches. PMID:27167074

  14. Steric effects on geminate recombinations

    SciTech Connect

    Traylor, T.G.; Taube, D.; Jongeward, K.A.; Magde, D. )

    1990-09-12

    Steric effects on the binding of isonitrile ligands to iron(II) porphyrins were investigated by picosecond flash photolysis. Two different types of steric effects were distinguished and characterized: (1) steric restrictions to porphyrin planarity and (2) blocking of the pathway for ligand approach. Heme planarity was restricted by coordinating 1,2-dimethylimidazole trans to the ligand binding site being investigated. Blocking of the binding site was explored by using adamantane heme 6,6-cyclophane, in which the adamantane moiety forms a cap over the binding site. Results of picosecond kinetic measurements demonstrate that the first effect, heme nonplanarity or trans strain, influences the bond-making step, whereas the second effect, ligand blocking, involves a conformational preequilibrium prior to bond making. Relevance of these findings for contact pair recombination, in general, and for heme protein ligation, in particular, are discussed.

  15. "We Don't Want to Talk about That": Overcoming Barriers to Rural Aging Research and Interventions on Sensitive Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanjani, Faika; Rowles, Graham D.

    2012-01-01

    Geographical, economic, social and cultural barriers to accessing services in rural areas are widely reported. Less widely discussed are dilemmas posed by individual and community reluctance to address sensitive health issues. This article, focusing on the highly sensitive area of mental health, and employing a participatory action approach,…

  16. Fisher information and steric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Á.

    2007-11-01

    A modified Fisher information, the sum of the one-electron Fisher information, is proposed. It is shown that the modified Fisher information is the original Fisher information plus a sum of differences of quantum and classical variances. A generalization of the Stam's inequality is derived. It is argued that Fisher information provides a measure of steric effect.

  17. Overcoming barriers to effectiveness in a health care operational environment: building on the lessons of American industry.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, L W; Zimmerer, T W; Yasin, M M

    1999-01-01

    Several of the manufacturing-based philosophies, techniques and tools, such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Continuous Improvement (CI), Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Time-based Competition (TBC) have been successfully adapted for use within the service sector. Diverse service industries including airlines, insurance, food services and hospitality have increased customer satisfaction and performance through the use of the quality driven, manufacturing-based philosophies. This article explores the reasons for the limited success of TQM/CI, BPR, TBC and benchmarking within the health care industry. Sixteen barriers to change are identified, possible counter-measures to these barriers are outlined and two conceptual frameworks are offered as possible facilitators of change for the health care industry. PMID:11066723

  18. Being "chill" with teachers and "frozen" by peers in science: overcoming social and educational barriers in a learning community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hannah; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    This forum discusses the issue of `othering' and how intersectionality is a useful analytical framework for understanding the students' immigrant experiences in, and out of, the science classroom. We use a feminist perspective to discuss Minjung's study because gender is a key aspect of one's identity other aspects such as race, religion, socio-economic status, and age have assumed a significant status in gender studies. Lastly we examine the supports and barriers that cliques can produce and propose the importance of building a learning community in the science classroom to engage all students.

  19. Do we need to overcome barriers to learning in the workplace for foundation trainees rotating in neurosurgery in order to improve training satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Phan, Pho Nh; Patel, Keyur; Bhavsar, Amar; Acharya, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Junior doctors go through a challenging transition upon qualification; this repeats every time they start a rotation in a new department. Foundation level doctors (first 2 years postqualification) in neurosurgery are often new to the specialty and face various challenges that may result in significant workplace dissatisfaction. The neurosurgical environment is a clinically demanding area with a high volume of unwell patients and frequent emergencies - this poses various barriers to learning in the workplace for junior doctors. We identify a number of key barriers and review ideas that can be trialed in the department to overcome them. Through an evaluation of current suggestions in the literature, we propose that learning opportunities need to be made explicit to junior doctors in order to encourage them to participate as a member of the team. We consider ideas for adjustments to the induction program and the postgraduate medical curriculum to shift the focus from medical knowledge to improving confidence and clinical skills in newly qualified doctors. Despite being a powerful window for opportunistic learning, the daily ward round is unfortunately not maximized and needs to be more learner focused while maintaining efficiency and time consumption. Finally, we put forward the idea of an open forum where trainees can talk about their learning experiences, identify subjective barriers, and suggest solutions to senior doctors. This would be achieved through departmental faculty development. These interventions are presented within the context of the neurosurgical ward; however, they are transferable and can be adapted in other specialties and departments. PMID:27099543

  20. Do we need to overcome barriers to learning in the workplace for foundation trainees rotating in neurosurgery in order to improve training satisfaction?

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Pho NH; Patel, Keyur; Bhavsar, Amar; Acharya, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Junior doctors go through a challenging transition upon qualification; this repeats every time they start a rotation in a new department. Foundation level doctors (first 2 years postqualification) in neurosurgery are often new to the specialty and face various challenges that may result in significant workplace dissatisfaction. The neurosurgical environment is a clinically demanding area with a high volume of unwell patients and frequent emergencies – this poses various barriers to learning in the workplace for junior doctors. We identify a number of key barriers and review ideas that can be trialed in the department to overcome them. Through an evaluation of current suggestions in the literature, we propose that learning opportunities need to be made explicit to junior doctors in order to encourage them to participate as a member of the team. We consider ideas for adjustments to the induction program and the postgraduate medical curriculum to shift the focus from medical knowledge to improving confidence and clinical skills in newly qualified doctors. Despite being a powerful window for opportunistic learning, the daily ward round is unfortunately not maximized and needs to be more learner focused while maintaining efficiency and time consumption. Finally, we put forward the idea of an open forum where trainees can talk about their learning experiences, identify subjective barriers, and suggest solutions to senior doctors. This would be achieved through departmental faculty development. These interventions are presented within the context of the neurosurgical ward; however, they are transferable and can be adapted in other specialties and departments. PMID:27099543

  1. Overcoming barriers to effective early parenting interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): parent and practitioner views

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Koerting, J; Latter, S; Knowles, M M; McCann, D C; Thompson, M; Sonuga-Barke, E J

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of early intervention approaches for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasingly acknowledged. Parenting programmes (PPs) are recommended for use with preschool children with ADHD. However, low ‘take-up’ and high ‘drop-out’ rates compromise the effectiveness of such programmes within the community. Methods This qualitative study examined the views of 25 parents and 18 practitioners regarding currently available PPs for preschool children with ADHD-type problems in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify both barriers and facilitators associated with programme access, programme effectiveness, and continued engagement. Results and conclusions Many of the themes mirrored previous accounts relating to generic PPs for disruptive behaviour problems. There were also a number of ADHD-specific themes. Enhancing parental motivation to change parenting practice and providing an intervention that addresses the parents' own needs (e.g. in relation to self-confidence, depression or parental ADHD), in addition to those of the child, were considered of particular importance. Comparisons between the views of parents and practitioners highlighted a need to increase awareness of parental psychological barriers among practitioners and for better programme advertising generally. Clinical implications and specific recommendations drawn from these findings are discussed and presented. PMID:24814640

  2. Exploring the role of social interactions and supports in overcoming accessibility barriers while undertaking health tours in India.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arnab; Harata, Noboru; Kiyoshi, Takami; Ohmori, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of companionship as an adaptation strategy to counter the existing barriers to health care access in developing nations. Companionship is argued to be an outcome of "inter" and "intra" household collaboration to offer diverse supports in addition to altruism. The analysis of the household survey conducted in West Bengal, India, exhibited different patterns of health care tours and the associated dependencies. In addition to support in terms of mobility while traveling and companionship while waiting for the opportunity, support in terms of refuge is also found to be essential, especially for the poor while they undertake regional tours. Causal models focusing on aggregated general health tours and specific regional tours were estimated separately to comprehend the implicit social interactions and their effects on the patient as well as the companions. The research demonstrated that accessibility barriers affect not only the ill, but also those associated with them and at times adversely. Segregation of regional tours illustrated the gaps, which instigated such tours and also might aid in health infrastructure planning as a whole. PMID:24871773

  3. Overcoming barriers to effective immunotherapy: MDSCs, TAMs, and Tregs as mediators of the immunosuppressive microenvironment in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ruth J; Van Waes, Carter; Allen, Clint T

    2016-07-01

    A significant subset of head and neck cancers display a T-cell inflamed phenotype, suggesting that patients with these tumors should respond to therapeutic approaches aimed at strengthening anti-tumor immune responses. A major barrier to the development of an effective anti-tumor immune response, at baseline or in response to immunotherapy, is the development of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Several well described mechanisms of effector immune cell suppression in the head and neck cancer microenvironment are discussed here, along with updates on current trials designed to translate what we have learned from pre-clinical and correlative clinical studies into improved responses in patients with head and neck cancer following immune activating therapies. PMID:27215705

  4. Overcoming language and cultural barriers: a graphical communication tool to perform a parasitological screening in two vulnerable populations from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Buyayisqui, María Pía; Bordoni, Noemí; Garbossa, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the application of a support tool for the detection of asymptomatic subjects carrying enteric parasites in two vulnerable populations in Argentina: a shantytown in the city of Buenos Aires and a rural Wichí indigenous community in the province of Chaco. The ethnic and cultural diversity, high illiteracy rate, and language barriers called for the development of an auxiliary resource to explain stool sample collection procedures. In individual interviews with each family, the authors used two instructional guidance leaflets in comic strip format depicting the procedures. They evaluated the acceptance of the graphical communication tool on the basis of the number of retrieved samples. Percentages of respondent families were 72.2% and 66.7%, respectively. Definitive validation of these instruments would allow their use in community studies, community service learning experiences, and research on aboriginal communities that would otherwise be excluded from studies on health status. PMID:23066862

  5. Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Amelia T; Freebody, Kylie; Pohlman, Catherine L; Shoo, Luke P; Catterall, Carla P

    2014-01-01

    Combating the legacy of deforestation on tropical biodiversity requires the conversion to forest of large areas of established pasture, where barriers to native plant regeneration include competition with pasture grasses and poor propagule supply (seed availability). In addition, initial woody plants that colonise pasture are often invasive, non-native species whose ecological roles and management in the context of forest regeneration are contested. In a restoration experiment at two 0.64 ha sites we quantified the response of native woody vegetation recruitment to (1) release from competition with introduced pasture grasses, and (2) local facilitation of frugivore-assisted seed dispersal provided by scattered woody plants and artificial bird perches. Herbicide pasture grass suppression during 20 months caused a significant but modest increase in density of native woody seedlings, together with abundant co-recruitment of the prominent non-native pioneer wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum). Recruitment of native species was further enhanced by local structure in herbicide-treated areas, being consistently greater under live trees and dead non-native shrubs (herbicide-treated) than in open areas, and intermediate under bird perches. Native seedling recruitment comprised 28 species across 0.25 ha sampled but was dominated by two rainforest pioneers (Homalanthus novoguineensis, Polyscias murrayi). These early results are consistent with the expected increase in woody vegetation recruitment in response to release from competitive and dispersive barriers to rainforest regeneration. The findings highlight the need for a pragmatic consideration of the ecological roles of woody weeds and the potential roles of "new forests" more broadly in accelerating succession of humid tropical forest across large areas of retired agricultural land. PMID:24904602

  6. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. II. OVERCOMING THE FRAGMENTATION BARRIER IN α CENTAURI AND γ CEPHEI-LIKE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-10

    Planet formation in small-separation (∼20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the ''fragmentation barrier'' for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ∼20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity ≲ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several M{sub J} ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  7. Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, Amelia T.; Freebody, Kylie; Pohlman, Catherine L.; Shoo, Luke P.; Catterall, Carla P.

    2014-01-01

    Combating the legacy of deforestation on tropical biodiversity requires the conversion to forest of large areas of established pasture, where barriers to native plant regeneration include competition with pasture grasses and poor propagule supply (seed availability). In addition, initial woody plants that colonise pasture are often invasive, non-native species whose ecological roles and management in the context of forest regeneration are contested. In a restoration experiment at two 0.64 ha sites we quantified the response of native woody vegetation recruitment to (1) release from competition with introduced pasture grasses, and (2) local facilitation of frugivore-assisted seed dispersal provided by scattered woody plants and artificial bird perches. Herbicide pasture grass suppression during 20 months caused a significant but modest increase in density of native woody seedlings, together with abundant co-recruitment of the prominent non-native pioneer wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum). Recruitment of native species was further enhanced by local structure in herbicide-treated areas, being consistently greater under live trees and dead non-native shrubs (herbicide-treated) than in open areas, and intermediate under bird perches. Native seedling recruitment comprised 28 species across 0.25 ha sampled but was dominated by two rainforest pioneers (Homalanthus novoguineensis, Polyscias murrayi). These early results are consistent with the expected increase in woody vegetation recruitment in response to release from competitive and dispersive barriers to rainforest regeneration. The findings highlight the need for a pragmatic consideration of the ecological roles of woody weeds and the potential roles of “new forests” more broadly in accelerating succession of humid tropical forest across large areas of retired agricultural land. PMID:24904602

  8. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    PubMed

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    The emerging field of cancer prevention through chemoprevention agents and cancer vaccines offers significant promise for reducing suffering and death from cancer. However, that promise may not be kept unless major barriers to progress are lowered or eliminated. Among the most significant barriers are the relatively small investment from government and industry in research and development of cancer preventive agents; a predominant emphasis of translational cancer research on therapeutic interventions for metastatic or advanced cancer; complexities of prevention trial design; a relatively uncharted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for preventive agents; insufficient public and patient understanding of the importance and potential for cancer preventive measures, with consequent unpredictable public and patient willingness to take preventive agents; an uncertain reimbursement from payors; and limitations in patent law, liability protection, and data package exclusivity that undermine the opportunity for recouping investment. Viewed individually or collectively, each of these barriers serves as a substantial deterrent to intellectual and financial investment by all sectors of the cancer community. In an effort to ultimately overcome these barriers, a Cancer Prevention Research Summit was assembled June 12-13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized by C-Change with support from the AACR. The Summit brought together some 120 leaders from private, public, and not-for-profit entities, including cancer researchers and clinicians; federal health officials; regulatory agency representatives; pharmaceutical, biotech, and food industry leaders; patent attorneys; economists; public and private provider group executives; and advocates. Participants engaged in a detailed process to more carefully define the major barriers, identify potential solutions, and formulate initial priorities and recommendations for action. At the conclusion of this dialogue among

  9. The Long Way From Government Open Data to Mobile Health Apps: Overcoming Institutional Barriers in the US Federal Government

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Government agencies in the United States are creating mobile health (mHealth) apps as part of recent policy changes initiated by the White House’s Digital Government Strategy. Objective The objective of the study was to understand the institutional and managerial barriers for the implementation of mHealth, as well as the resulting adoption pathways of mHealth. Methods This article is based on insights derived from qualitative interview data with 35 public managers in charge of promoting the reuse of open data through Challenge.gov, the platform created to run prizes, challenges, and the vetting and implementation of the winning and vendor-created apps. Results The process of designing apps follows three different pathways: (1) entrepreneurs start to see opportunities for mobile apps, and develop either in-house or contract out to already vetted Web design vendors; (2) a top-down policy mandates agencies to adopt at least two customer-facing mobile apps; and (3) the federal government uses a policy instrument called “Prizes and Challenges”, encouraging civic hackers to design health-related mobile apps using open government data from HealthData.gov, in combination with citizen needs. All pathways of the development process incur a set of major obstacles that have to be actively managed before agencies can promote mobile apps on their websites and app stores. Conclusions Beyond the cultural paradigm shift to design interactive apps and to open health-related data to the public, the managerial challenges include accessibility, interoperability, security, privacy, and legal concerns using interactive apps tracking citizen. PMID:25537314

  10. In vitro affinity maturation of a natural human antibody overcomes a barrier to in vivo affinity maturation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Fouts, Ashley E; Stengel, Katharina; Luan, Peng; Dillon, Michael; Liang, Wei-Ching; Feierbach, Becket; Kelley, Robert F; Hötzel, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies isolated from human donors are increasingly being developed for anti-infective therapeutics. These antibodies undergo affinity maturation in vivo, minimizing the need for engineering of therapeutic leads for affinity. However, the affinities required for some therapeutic applications may be higher than the affinities of the leads obtained, requiring further affinity maturation in vitro. To improve the neutralization potency of natural human antibody MSL-109 targeting human cytomegalovirus (CMV), we affinity matured the antibody against the gH/gL glycoprotein complex. A phage display library where most of the six complementary-determining regions (CDRs) were allowed to vary in only one amino acid residue at a time was used to scan for mutations that improve binding affinity. A T55R mutation and multiple mutations in position 53 of the heavy chain were identified that, when present individually or in combination, resulted in higher apparent affinities to gH/gL and improved CMV neutralization potency of Fab fragments expressed in bacterial cells. Three of these mutations in position 53 introduced glycosylation sites in heavy chain CDR 2 (CDR H2) that impaired binding of antibodies expressed in mammalian cells. One high affinity (KD < 10 pM) variant was identified that combined the D53N and T55R mutations while avoiding glycosylation of CDR H2. However, all the amino acid substitutions identified by phage display that improved binding affinity without introducing glycosylation sites required between two and four simultaneous nucleotide mutations to avoid glycosylation. These results indicate that the natural human antibody MSL-109 is close to a local affinity optimum. We show that affinity maturation by phage display can be used to identify and bypass barriers to in vivo affinity maturation of antibodies imposed by glycosylation and codon usage. These constraints may be relatively prevalent in human antibodies due to the codon usage and the amino acid

  11. Socio-ecological Model as a Framework for Overcoming Barriers and Challenges in Randomized Control Trials in Minority and Underserved Communities

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.; Wilson, Ronee E.; King, Lindsey M.; Marty, Phillip J.; Whiteman, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous barriers and challenges can hinder the successful enrollment and retention of study participants in clinical trials targeting minority populations. To conduct quality research, it is important to investigate these challenges, determine appropriate strategies that are evidence-based and continue seeking methods of improvement. Methods: In this paper, we report such experiences in a registered clinical trial in an underserved minority population in the Southern part of United States. This research study is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial that tests the efficacy of higher-strength as compared to low-strength/standard of care folic acid to prevent fetal body and brain size reduction in pregnant women who smoke. A unique approach in this socio-behavioral, genetic-epigenetic clinical trial is that we have adopted the socio-ecological model as a functional platform to effectively achieve and maintain high participant recruitment and retention rates. Results: We highlight the barriers we have encountered in our trial and describe how we have successfully applied the socio-ecological model to overcome these obstacles. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Our positive experience will be of utility to other researchers globally. Our fi ndings have far-reaching implications as the socio-ecological model approach is adaptable to developed and developing regions and has the potential to increase recruitment and retention of hard-to-reach populations who are typically under-represented in clinical trials.

  12. Collective epithelial cell invasion overcomes mechanical barriers of collagenous extracellular matrix by a narrow tube-like geometry and MMP14-dependent local softening†

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, Jordi; Mori, Hidetoshi; Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Brownfield, Doug; Galgoczy, Roland; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    Collective cell invasion (CCI) through interstitial collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to the initial stages of branching morphogenesis, and a hallmark of tissue repair and dissemination of certain tumors. The collagenous ECM acts as a mechanical barrier against CCI. However, the physical nature of this barrier and how it is overcome by cells remains incompletely understood. To address these questions, we performed theoretical and experimental analysis of mammary epithelial branching morphogenesis in 3D type I collagen (collagen-I) gels. We found that the mechanical resistance of collagen-I is largely due to its elastic rather than its viscous properties. We also identified two strategies utilized by mammary epithelial cells that can independently minimize ECM mechanical resistance during CCI. First, cells adopt a narrow tube-like geometry during invasion, which minimizes the elastic opposition from the ECM as revealed by theoretical modeling of the most frequent invasive shapes and sizes. Second, the stiffness of the collagenous ECM is reduced at invasive fronts due to its degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as indicated by direct measurements of collagen-I microelasticity by atomic force microscopy. Molecular techniques further specified that the membrane-bound MMP14 mediates degradation of collagen-I at invasive fronts. Thus, our findings reveal that MMP14 is necessary to efficiently reduce the physical restraints imposed by collagen-I during branching morphogenesis, and help our overall understanding of how forces are balanced between cells and their surrounding ECM to maintain collective geometry and mechanical stability during CCI. PMID:21993836

  13. Increasing Rural Adults' Participation in Collegial Programs: Exemplary Programs. Proceedings of the Rural Action Conference "Programs and Activities to Overcome Barriers to Rural Adult Participation in Postsecondary Education" (Blacksburg, Virginia, June 1-3, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullins, W. Robert, Ed.; And Others

    Approximately 85 educators from six states participated in a regional conference designed to showcase exemplary and collaborative programs to overcome many of the barriers faced by rural adults in pursuing higher education. After the keynote address, "The Role of Adult Learning in Revitalizing Rural Communities," by Cornelia Butler Flora, the…

  14. Sterically and electrosterically stabilized emulsion polymerization. Kinetics and preparation.

    PubMed

    Capek, Ignác

    2002-10-21

    The principal subject discussed in the current paper is the radical polymerization in the aqueous emulsions of unsaturated monomers (styrene, alkyl (meth)acrylates, etc.) stabilized by non-ionic and ionic/non-ionic emulsifiers. The sterically and electrosterically stabilized emulsion polymerization is a classical method which allows to prepare polymer lattices with large particles and a narrow particle size distribution. In spite of the similarities between electrostatically and sterically stabilized emulsion polymerizations, there are large differences in the polymerization rate, particle size and nucleation mode due to varying solubility of emulsifiers in oil and water phases, micelle sizes and thickness of the interfacial layer at the particle surface. The well-known Smith-Ewart theory mostly applicable for ionic emulsifier, predicts that the number of particles nucleated is proportional to the concentration of emulsifier up to 0.6. The thin interfacial layer at the particle surface, the large surface area of relatively small polymer particles and high stability of small particles lead to rapid polymerization. In the sterically stabilized emulsion polymerization the reaction order is significantly above 0.6. This was ascribed to limited flocculation of polymer particles at low concentration of emulsifier, due to preferential location of emulsifier in the monomer phase. Polymerization in the large particles deviates from the zero-one approach but the pseudo-bulk kinetics can be operative. The thick interfacial layer can act as a barrier for entering radicals due to which the radical entry efficiency and also the rate of polymerization are depressed. The high oil-solubility of non-ionic emulsifier decreases the initial micellar amount of emulsifier available for particle nucleation, which induces non-stationary state polymerization. The continuous release of emulsifier from the monomer phase and dismantling of the non-micellar aggregates maintained a high level of

  15. A Progress Report of Activities in "To Study a Program to Overcome Sex Bias Barriers in Women's Qualifications for Vocational Administration Posts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Marilyn R.

    One of four phases has been completed in a study conducted at Kansas State University of sex-bias barriers in women's qualifications for vocational administration posts. The project's objective is to improve the probability that women may be able to move into vocational administration. The first phase, a field survey in the form of a mail…

  16. A Change Agent's Facilitation Process for Overcoming the Barriers of ICT Adoption for Educational Administration--The Case of a Rural-Bangladesh Vocational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The factors influencing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) as a professional and management tool outside the classroom have received little research attention. The two objectives of this research were: how do stakeholders of educational administration experience the barriers of ICT adoption, and how can they facilitate the…

  17. Women bound to be active (years 3 and 4): can a book club help women overcome barriers to physical activity and improve self-worth?

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Ransdell, Lynda; Schulte, Laura; Budd, Melissa A; Gao, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Little progress has been made toward increasing physical activity in women. This study aimed to determine if an 8-month theory-based book club intervention (Women Bound to Be Active) was effective in increasing: (a) self-worth, (b) benefits relative to barriers to physical activity, and (c) physical activity in women (n = 51). Findings suggested a book club was effective for improving: self-worth, the benefits relative to barriers to physical activity, and possibly participation in physical activity. This is an innovative model to help women become more active and learn skills that may enable them to be active on their own long after a physical activity program has ended. PMID:20349397

  18. You can teach an old dog new tricks: a qualitative analysis of how residents of senior living communities may use the web to overcome spatial and social barriers.

    PubMed

    Winstead, Vicki; Anderson, William A; Yost, Elizabeth A; Cotten, Shelia R; Warr, Amanda; Berkowsky, Ronald W

    2013-08-01

    For adults in senior living communities, information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be used to increase and expand communication for a population that is often spatially and socially separated from the general public. Using qualitative observational data from a longitudinal study of the impact of ICT usage on the quality of life among residents in assisted and independent living communities, the authors examine whether ICTs can mitigate the effects of social and spatial barriers. The authors find that ICTs have the potential to allow individuals to transcend social and spatial barriers, providing residents with the ability to maintain and enhance social networks as well as provide a greater sense of connection to the world at large. PMID:25474761

  19. Overcoming prejudice.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J M; Correa, J; Terto, V

    1998-02-01

    People of African descent comprise a large proportion of Brazil's population. While racism exists in the country, it is commonly denied. Most Afro-Brazilians live in poor areas, with poor health care services, sanitation, schools, and transport. Since HIV is linked to poverty, Afro-Brazilians are more affected by HIV than is the overall population. Although Afro-Brazilians contribute to Brazil's culture, they do not benefit from that contribution. Recognizing this considerable social problem, Project Araye was created in 1996 to address issues of race and HIV. Building upon religious and cultural traditions, the project is staffed by Afro-Brazilians who are knowledgeable in both health issues and Afro-Brazilian culture. Project Araye supports a wide range of diverse community leaders in linking sexual health and HIV with other health concerns which affect Afro-Brazilians such as sickle-cell anemia, diabetes, and leprosy. One important challenge has been overcoming the target population's denial of HIV and encouraging Afro-Brazilians to accept that HIV also affects them. Community leaders include religious leaders, rap musicians, artists, and other people respected by various communities. Activities include visits to samba dance schools, Umbanda and Candomble temples, and street youth groups to provide HIV-related information. PMID:12293758

  20. Tri-membrane nanoparticles produced by combining liposome fusion and a novel patchwork of bicelles to overcome endosomal and nuclear membrane barriers to cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Asako; Mitsueda, Asako; Hasan, Mahadi; Ueda, Miho; Hama, Susumu; Warashina, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fusion is a rational strategy for crossing intracellular membranes that present barriers to liposomal nanocarrier-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into the nucleus of non-dividing cells, such as dendritic cells. Based on this strategy, we previously developed nanocarriers consisting of a nucleic acid core particle coated with four lipid membranes [Akita, et al., Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 2940-2949]. However, including the endosomal membrane and two nuclear membranes, cells possess three intracellular membranous barriers. Thus, after entering the nucleus, nanoparticles coated with four membranes would still have one lipid membrane remaining, and could impede cargo delivery. Until now, coating a core particle with an odd number of lipid membranes was challenging. To produce nanocarriers with an odd number of lipid membranes, we developed a novel coating method involving lipid nano-discs, also known as bicelles, as a material for packaging DNA in a carrier with an odd number of lipid membranes. In this procedure, bicelles fuse to form an outer coating that resembles a patchwork quilt, which allows the preparation of nanoparticles coated with only three lipid membranes. Moreover, the transfection activity of dendritic cells with these three-membrane nanoparticles was higher than that for nanoparticles coated with four lipid membranes. In summary, we developed novel nanoparticles coated with an odd number of lipid membranes using the novel "patchwork-packaging method" to deliver plasmid DNA into the nucleus via membrane fusion. PMID:26667208

  1. Community-based antiretroviral therapy programs can overcome barriers to retention of patients and decongest health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Decroo, Tom; Rasschaert, Freya; Telfer, Barbara; Remartinez, Daniel; Laga, Marie; Ford, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa models of care need to adapt to support continued scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retain millions in care. Task shifting, coupled with community participation has the potential to address the workforce gap, decongest health services, improve ART coverage, and to sustain retention of patients on ART over the long-term. The evidence supporting different models of community participation for ART care, or community-based ART, in sub-Saharan Africa, was reviewed. In Uganda and Kenya community health workers or volunteers delivered ART at home. In Mozambique people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) self-formed community-based ART groups to deliver ART in the community. These examples of community ART programs made treatment more accessible and affordable. However, to achieve success some major challenges need to be overcome: first, community programs need to be driven, owned by and embedded in the communities. Second, an enabling and supportive environment is needed to ensure that task shifting to lay staff and PLWHA is effective and quality services are provided. Finally, a long term vision and commitment from national governments and international donors is required. Exploration of the cost, effectiveness, and sustainability of the different community-based ART models in different contexts will be needed. PMID:24030268

  2. Screening for Asymptomatic Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Men Who Have Sex with Men: Significance, Recommendations, and Options for Overcoming Barriers to Testing.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Anthony R

    2015-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a disproportionately greater risk than other populations of acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), the two most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The presence of either of these diseases is a significant risk factor for the acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent studies have shown that significant rates of asymptomatic GC and CT infection are found at the extragenital oropharygeal and rectal sites in MSM, with or without concurrent urogenital infection. However, extragenital sites are not being routinely screened and, thus, many asymptomatic GC and CT infections at the oropharyngeal and rectal sites may go undiagnosed. This review will begin with the current evidence-based screening recommendations for extragenital GC and CT in MSM. This will be followed by recently reported extragenital GC and CT infection rates in asymptomatic MSM, and a discussion of the risks and potential implications of undiagnosed extragenital GC and CT infections. Finally, a discussion on the frequency of, and potential barriers to, screening will be presented with a summary of potential interventions for increasing screening frequency found in the literature. The scope of this review will focus primarily on U.S. recommendations, infection rates, and screening frequencies, with the inclusion of relevant international recommendations and studies for comparative and illustrative purposes. PMID:26790015

  3. Increased Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Expression in Denervated Brainstem Targets Following Spinal Cord Injury Creates a Barrier to Axonal Regeneration Overcome by Chondroitinase ABC and Neurotrophin-3

    PubMed Central

    Massey, James M.; Amps, Jeremy; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Matthews, Russell. T.; Wagoner, Michelle R.; Whitaker, Christopher M.; Alilain, Warren; Yonkof, Alicia L.; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Cooper, Nigel G. F.; Silver, Jerry; Onifer, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Increased chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expression in the vicinity of a spinal cord injury (SCI) is a primary participant in axonal regeneration failure. However, the presence of similar increases of CSPG expression in denervated synaptic targets well away from the primary lesion and the subsequent impact on regenerating axons attempting to approach deafferented neurons has not been studied. Constitutively expressed CSPGs within the extracellular matrix and perineuronal nets of the adult rat dorsal column nuclei (DCN) were characterized using real-time PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. We show for the first time that by 2 days and through 3 weeks following SCI, the levels of NG2, neurocan and brevican associated with reactive glia throughout the DCN were dramatically increased throughout the DCN despite being well beyond areas of trauma-induced blood brain barrier breakdown. Importantly, regenerating axons from adult sensory neurons microtransplanted 2 weeks following SCI between the injury site and the DCN were able to regenerate rapidly within white matter (as shown previously by Davies et al., 1999) but were unable to enter the denervated DCN. Application of chondroitinase ABC or neurotrophin 3-expressing lentivirus in the DCN partially overcame this inhibition. When the treatments were combined, entrance by regenerating axons into the DCN was significantly augmented. These results demonstrate both an additional challenge and potential treatment strategy for successful functional pathway reconstruction after SCI. PMID:17540369

  4. Adaptation to Ephemeral Habitat May Overcome Natural Barriers and Severe Habitat Fragmentation in a Fire-Dependent Species, the Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis)

    PubMed Central

    Cerame, Blain; Cox, James A.; Brumfield, Robb T.; Tucker, James W.; Taylor, Sabrina S.

    2014-01-01

    Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) is a fire-dependent species that has undergone range-wide population declines in recent decades. We examined genetic diversity in Bachman's Sparrows to determine whether natural barriers have led to distinct population units and to assess the effect of anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation. Genetic diversity was examined across the geographic range by genotyping 226 individuals at 18 microsatellite loci and sequencing 48 individuals at mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Multiple analyses consistently demonstrated little genetic structure and high levels of genetic variation, suggesting that populations are panmictic. Based on these genetic data, separate management units/subspecies designations or translocations to promote gene flow among fragmented populations do not appear to be necessary. Panmixia in Bachman's Sparrow may be a consequence of an historical range expansion and retraction. Alternatively, high vagility in Bachman's Sparrow may be an adaptation to the ephemeral, fire-mediated habitat that this species prefers. In recent times, high vagility also appears to have offset inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in highly fragmented habitat. PMID:25180939

  5. Overcoming barriers to validation of non-animal partial replacement methods/Integrated Testing Strategies: the report of an EPAA-ECVAM workshop.

    PubMed

    Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Akkan, Zerrin; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Dal Negro, Gianni; De Bruijn, Jack; De Silva, Odile; Gribaldo, Laura; Griesinger, Claudius; Jaworska, Joanna; Kreysa, Joachim; Maxwell, Gavin; McNamee, Pauline; Price, Anna; Prieto, Pilar; Schubert, Roland; Tosti, Luca; Worth, Andrew; Zuang, Valerie

    2009-09-01

    The use of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) in toxicological hazard identification and characterisation is becoming increasingly common as a method for enabling the integration of diverse types of toxicology data. At present, there are no existing procedures and guidelines for the construction and validation of ITS, so a joint EPAA WG5-ECVAM workshop was held with the following objectives: a) to investigate the role of ITS and the need for validation of ITS in the different industry sectors (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, chemicals); b) to formulate a common definition of ITS applicable across different sectors; c) to explore how and when Three Rs methods are used within ITS; and d) to propose a validation rationale for ITS and for alternative methods that are foreseen to be used within ITS. The EPAA provided a platform for comparing experiences with ITS across different industry sectors. It became clear that every ITS has to be adapted to the product type, R&D stage, and regulatory context. However, common features of ITS were also identified, and this permitted the formulation of a general definition of ITS in a regulatory context. The definition served as a basis for discussing the needs, rationale and process of formal ITS validation. One of the main conclusions was that a formal validation should not be required, unless the strategy will serve as full replacement of an in vivo study used for regulatory purposes. Finally, several challenges and bottlenecks to the ITS validation were identified, and it was agreed that a roadmap on how to address these barriers would be established by the EPAA partners. PMID:19807215

  6. Enhanced clickability of doubly sterically-hindered aryl azides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Shiraishi, Akira; Kanno, Kimiyuki; Matsushita, Takeshi; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Takamitsu

    2011-09-01

    Steric character is one of the most fundamental factors to determine the reactivity of the substrate in organic synthesis. In bimolecular reaction, the sterically-bulky group situated close to the reactive center generally prevents the approach of the reaction partner retarding the bond formation. This report describes, to the contrary, significantly enhanced reactivity of 2,6-disubstituted phenyl azides observed in catalyst-free 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with alkynes, unexpectedly reacting faster than unsubstituted phenyl azide and even more faster than unhindered alkyl azide, despite the steric hindrance adjacent to the reactive azido group. Experimental and computational studies have indicated that the steric hindrance eliciting the inhibition of resonance between azido group and the aromatic ring is the primary cause of this apparently-paradoxical phenomenon. This is the first type of steric acceleration, indicating a possibility of designing a highly reactive functional group by strategically locating it in the sterically-congested environment.

  7. Steric Effects Govern the Photoactivation of Phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Falklöf, Olle; Durbeej, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Phytochromes constitute a superfamily of photoreceptor proteins existing in two forms that absorb red (Pr) and far-red (Pfr) light. Although it is well-known that the conversion of Pr into Pfr (the biologically active form) is triggered by a Z→E photoisomerization of the linear tetrapyrrole chromophore, direct evidence is scarce as to why this reaction always occurs at the methine bridge between pyrrole rings C and D. Here, we present hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a high-resolution Pr crystal structure of Deinococcus radiodurans bacteriophytochrome to investigate the competition between all possible photoisomerizations at the three different (AB, BC and CD) methine bridges. The results demonstrate that steric interactions with the protein are a key discriminator between the different reaction channels. In particular, it is found that such interactions render photoisomerizations at the AB and BC bridges much less probable than photoisomerization at the CD bridge. PMID:26756452

  8. Zero Steric Potential and bond order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, S.; Noorizadeh, S.

    2016-05-01

    The variation of Zero Steric Potential (ZSP) through a C-C bond shows two maximums, which their values depend on the bond order (BO). A good relationship (R2 = 1) is observed between the mean values of maximum ZSPs and the bond orders of C-C bonds in ethane, ethylene and acetylene, as reference molecules (Ln BO = 1.956ZSP‾max - 0.898). The obtained equation is used to predict the C-C bond orders of more than twenty aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The results show that the obtained bond orders from ZSP‾max are more reliable than those which are evaluated using NBO and Laplacian methods.

  9. Temporary Restraints to Overcome Steric Obstacles—Efficient Strategy for the Synthesis of Mycalamide B**

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, John C.; Rawal, Viresh H.

    2014-01-01

    Restrain and Release: An efficient synthesis of mycalamide B is reported. The synthetic route features (a) a one-pot Mukaiyama–Michael/epoxidation sequence to introduce three of the stereocenters found in the natural product, (b) an intramolecular isocyanate trapping to produce a rigid 10-membered cyclic carbamate, and (c) the selective opening of the cyclic carbamate to reveal the fully constructed natural product. PMID:20931583

  10. Steric interactions between two grafted polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckenstein, Eli; Li, Buqiang

    1997-07-01

    A lattice model and a generator-matrix method are employed to calculate the interaction force profile between two grafted polymer brushes. The correlation between neighboring bonds and the interdigitation between the two brushes are taken into account. The calculations show that the effect of incorporating the bond correlations is equivalent to an increase in the value of the polymer-solvent interaction parameter when the bond correlations are ignored. The interdigitation between the two brushes decreases the free energy of the system and consequently results in a smaller steric repulsion. A complete interdigitation occurs at a separation close to half the separation between the two plates for which the interaction force is zero. The model is compared with the experimental interaction force profiles for ten systems which involve poly(2-vinylpyridine)-polyisoprene (PVP-PI), poly(2-vinylpyridine)-polystyrene (PVP-PS) block copolymers as well as end-functionalized polystyrenes (PS-X). For most of the systems, the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experiment. In addition, the present results are compared with the equations proposed by de Gennes, based on the assumption of a step distribution function for the segment density, and by Milner et al., based on the parabolic distribution of the segment density. Both equations neglected interdigitation. It is shown in this paper that the interdigitation is not negligible and that it can decrease by an order of magnitude the repulsive force.

  11. Sterically stabilized colloids with tunable repulsions.

    PubMed

    van Gruijthuijsen, Kitty; Obiols-Rabasa, Marc; Heinen, Marco; Nägele, Gerhard; Stradner, Anna

    2013-09-10

    When studying tunable electrostatic repulsions in aqueous suspensions of charged colloids, irreversible colloid aggregation or gelation may occur at high salt concentrations. For many commonly used synthetic colloids, such as polystyrene and silica particles, the reason for coagulation is the presence of unbalanced, strongly attractive, and short-ranged van der Waals (VDW) forces. Here, we present an aqueous polystyrene model colloid that is sterically stabilized against VDW attractions. We show that the synthesis procedure, based on a neutral initiator couple and a nonionic surfactant, introduces surface charges that can be further increased by the addition of charged comonomer methacrylic acid. Thus, the interactions between the polystyrene spheres can be conveniently tuned from hard-sphere-like to charge-stabilized with long-ranged electrostatic repulsions described by a Yukawa-type pair potential. The particle size, grafting density, core-shell structure, and surface charge are characterized by light and neutron scattering. Using X-ray and neutron scattering in combination with an accurate analytic integral equation scheme for the colloidal static structure factor, we deduce effective particle charges for colloid volume fractions ≥0.1 and salt concentrations in the range of 1.5 to 50 mM. PMID:23937718

  12. Overcoming Barriers to Progress in Exercise Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Claude

    2011-01-01

    This commentary focuses on the issues of statistical power, the usefulness of hypothesis-free approaches such as in genome-wide association explorations, the necessity of expanding the research beyond common DNA variants, the advantage of combining transcriptomics with genomics, and the complexities inherent to the search for links between genotype and phenotype in exercise genomics research. PMID:21697717

  13. Overcoming the barriers to effective clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    Bush, Tony

    Clinical supervision remains one of the most misunderstood practices in modern nursing. It provides a nurturing and supportive service for nurses, helping them to reflect critically on their actions in the provision of patient care. The aim of this article is to explore and examine the current role and status of clinical supervision in the NHS. PMID:15688921

  14. Overcoming Barriers to Exercise: No More Excuses

    MedlinePlus

    ... cost exercise programs in your area. Increasing your energy Regular, moderate physical activity can help reduce fatigue ... become active, you’re likely to have more energy than before. As you do more, you also ...

  15. Overcoming the Adoption Barrier to Electric Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Nickol, Craig L.; Jones, Frank P.; Yasky, Richard J.; Woodham, Kurt; Fell, Jared S.; Litherland, Brandon L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Samuel, Aamod G.

    2016-01-01

    Electrically-powered aircraft can enable dramatic increases in efficiency and reliability, reduced emissions, and reduced noise as compared to today's combustion-powered aircraft. This paper describes a novel flight demonstration concept that will enable the benefits of electric propulsion, while keeping the extraordinary convenience and utility of common fuels available at today's airports. A critical gap in airborne electric propulsion research is addressed by accommodating adoption at the integrated aircraft-airport systems level, using a confluence of innovative but proven concepts and technologies in power generation and electricity storage that need to reside only on the airframe. Technical discriminators of this demonstrator concept include (1) a novel, high-efficiency power system that utilizes advanced solid oxide fuel cells originally developed for ultra-long-endurance aircraft, coupled with (2) a high-efficiency, high-power electric propulsion system selected from mature products to reduce technical risk, assembled into (3) a modern, high-performance demonstration platform to provide useful and compelling data, both for the targeted early adopters and the eventual commercial market.

  16. Overcoming Learning Barriers through Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dror, Itiel E.; Makany, Tamas; Kemp, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn highly depends on how knowledge is managed. Specifically, different techniques for note-taking utilize different cognitive processes and strategies. In this paper, we compared dyslexic and control participants when using linear and non-linear note-taking. All our participants were professionals working in the banking and…

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Classroom Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Technology-savvy teachers are often the "go to" staff members in schools for their colleagues' technology issues. These teachers are seen as leaders within their schools with respect to technology and often do not understand their peers' difficulties when bringing technology into the classroom. Understanding both the reasons teachers may…

  18. Overcoming barriers to physician adoption of EHRs.

    PubMed

    Hochron, Stuart M; Goldberg, Paul

    2014-02-01

    A hospital's success in implementing an electronic health record will depend largely on physicians' willingness to adopt the new technology. Therefore, before embarking on such an initiative, finance leaders should conduct a targeted survey to assess the likelihood that the initiative will meet with physician resistance. The survey results can provide a basis for developing an outreach program that will bring physicians on board by helping them understand the initiative's purpose and giving them a stake in its success. PMID:24611225

  19. Overcoming Disaster Barriers To Service All Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This paper contains an outline of a workshop designed for the disaster mental health worker. The goal of the workshop is to describe how disaster services are different from other mental health services and to provide suggestions on how to make these services more effective. The types of disasters, the anatomy of a disaster, and time phases of a…

  20. Overcoming the cutaneous barrier with microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luciana B

    2014-01-01

    Microemulsions are fluid and isotropic formulations that have been widely studied as delivery systems for a variety of routes, including the skin. In spite of what the name suggests, microemulsions are nanocarriers, and their use as topical delivery systems derives from their multiple advantages compared to other dermatological formulations, such as ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability and penetration-enhancing properties. Composition, charge and internal structure have been reported as determinant factors for the modulation of drug release and cutaneous and transdermal transport. This manuscript aims at reviewing how these and other characteristics affect delivery and make microemulsions appealing for topical and transdermal administration, as well as how they can be modulated during the formulation design to improve the potential and efficacy of the final system. PMID:24590260

  1. Childhood lymphoedema and 'Lymphaletics': overcoming barriers.

    PubMed

    Todd, Marie

    2016-07-14

    Primary lymphoedema is a complex condition that causes tissue swelling, usually in one or more of the limbs, but lymphatic drainage of the head, trunk or deeper organs may also be affected. It can manifest in swelling at any time from birth meaning there are a number of children affected by this condition. While it is rare in childhood there are too few professionals experienced in diagnosis and treatment, which results in delays in identification and referral to appropriate services for diagnosis and treatment. The Children's Lymphoedema Special Interest Group (CLSIG) was formed in 2010 by a group of lymphoedema specialists in a bid to raise awareness, improve service provision, and enhance practitioner knowledge. One of the aims of the group was to deliver a 'fun day' (Lymphaletics) for children with lymphoedema and their families to encourage physical activity and social interaction with children who have similar problems, and to provide a source of parent-to-parent support. This article discusses the issues for children and their families, and the aims and format of the event. PMID:27409777

  2. Overcoming the Cutaneous Barrier with Microemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Luciana B.

    2014-01-01

    Microemulsions are fluid and isotropic formulations that have been widely studied as delivery systems for a variety of routes, including the skin. In spite of what the name suggests, microemulsions are nanocarriers, and their use as topical delivery systems derives from their multiple advantages compared to other dermatological formulations, such as ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability and penetration-enhancing properties. Composition, charge and internal structure have been reported as determinant factors for the modulation of drug release and cutaneous and transdermal transport. This manuscript aims at reviewing how these and other characteristics affect delivery and make microemulsions appealing for topical and transdermal administration, as well as how they can be modulated during the formulation design to improve the potential and efficacy of the final system. PMID:24590260

  3. Drastic alteration of diffusioosmosis due to steric effects.

    PubMed

    Hoshyargar, Vahid; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin; Sadeghi, Arman

    2015-11-21

    The inclusion of the ionic size (steric) effects into the steady and locally developed diffusioosmotic flow inside a uniformly charged slit microchannel through a theoretical analysis is the subject of this study. The results indicate essential quantitative and qualitative distinctions between the steric effects on classical electrokinetic phenomena like electroosmosis and on diffusioosmosis. For example, although the steric effect on electroosmotic flow is always unfavorable, it may have a positive influence on diffusioosmosis and even double the mean velocity under certain conditions. Moreover, finite ionic sizes can even change the flow direction with a tendency to increase the chance of flow toward higher concentrations. Another interesting finding is that, unlike electroosmosis, the steric effects on diffusioosmotic flow do not vanish even when the EDL is very thin. The main quantitative difference between the ionic size effects on diffusioosmosis and the other electrokinetic phenomena is the critical zeta potential above which these effects become important which is here found to be only about several tens of millivolts. The more sensitivity of diffusioosmosis to the steric effects and also the above-mentioned surprisingly different trends are attributed to the induced electric field which may drastically get influenced by the steric factor. PMID:26465606

  4. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming ...

  5. From information theory to quantitative description of steric effects.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Mojtaba; Safari, Zahra

    2016-07-21

    Immense efforts have been made in the literature to apply the information theory descriptors for investigating the electronic structure theory of various systems. In the present study, the information theoretic quantities, such as Fisher information, Shannon entropy, Onicescu information energy, and Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, have been used to present a quantitative description for one of the most widely used concepts in chemistry, namely the steric effects. Taking the experimental steric scales for the different compounds as benchmark sets, there are reasonable linear relationships between the experimental scales of the steric effects and theoretical values of steric energies calculated from information theory functionals. Perusing the results obtained from the information theoretic quantities with the two representations of electron density and shape function, the Shannon entropy has the best performance for the purpose. On the one hand, the usefulness of considering the contributions of functional groups steric energies and geometries, and on the other hand, dissecting the effects of both global and local information measures simultaneously have also been explored. Furthermore, the utility of the information functionals for the description of steric effects in several chemical transformations, such as electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions and host-guest chemistry, has been analyzed. The functionals of information theory correlate remarkably with the stability of systems and experimental scales. Overall, these findings show that the information theoretic quantities can be introduced as quantitative measures of steric effects and provide further evidences of the quality of information theory toward helping theoreticians and experimentalists to interpret different problems in real systems. PMID:27321125

  6. Density Functional Steric Analysis of Linear and Branched Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Ess, Daniel H.; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-11-18

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (Ee[[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (Ee[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (Eq[[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  7. Density functional steric analysis of linear and branched alkanes.

    PubMed

    Ess, Daniel H; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-12-16

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (E(s)[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (E(e)[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (E(q)[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes. PMID:21086970

  8. Overcoming: A Concept Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Barbara L.; Kirk, Keri; Gultekin, Laura; Baiardi, Janet M.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an operational definition of overcoming as a first step in the systematic analysis of the concept. Using the method described by Walker and Avant (2005), the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of overcoming and its theoretical and practical application to nursing. Sample cases from clinical research illustrate the concept further. Further nursing research needs to test the theoretical relationships between overcoming and outcome variables. PMID:21806626

  9. Unlocking the Sugar ‘Steric Gate’ of DNA Polymerases†

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica A.; Suo, Zucai

    2011-01-01

    To maintain genomic stability, ribonucleotide incorporation during DNA synthesis is controlled predominantly at the DNA polymerase level. A steric clash between the 2′-hydroxyl of an incoming ribonucleotide and a bulky active site residue, known as the ‘steric gate’, establishes an effective mechanism for most DNA polymerases to selectively insert deoxyribonucleotides. Recent kinetic, structural, and in vivo studies have illuminated novel features about ribonucleotide exclusion and the mechanistic consequences of ribonucleotide misincorporation on downstream events, such as the bypass of a ribonucleotide in a DNA template and the subsequent extension of the DNA lesion bypass product. These important findings are summarized in this review article. PMID:21226515

  10. Understanding and Overcoming "Bottlenecks" in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturts, Jill R.; Mowatt, Rasul A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogically, the term "bottleneck" refers to a moment when students may face barriers to understanding content in the process of learning. As instructors identify "bottlenecks" within their courses, they are faced with the challenge of how to best assist students in overcoming them. Further, most instructors want to know what selected teaching…

  11. Shock initiation sensitivity of PETN: A steric hindrance model

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, shock initiation sensitivity of PETN crystals is discussed. A new molecular model for shock sensitivity in crystalline solids is proposed in terms of steric hindrance to edge dislocation motion. This model is successful in predicting the relative shock sensitivities of the four PETN orientations studied, especially at low stresses. (JL)

  12. Origin of anomeric effect: A density functional steric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Ying; Zhong, Ai-Guo; Yang, Qinsong; Liu, Shubin

    2011-01-01

    The anomeric effect (the tendency of heteroatomic substituents adjacent to a heteroatom within the cyclohexane ring to prefer the axial orientation instead of the sterically less hindered equatorial position) is traditionally explained through either the dipole moment repulsion or the hyperconjugation effect. In this work, by employing our recent work in density functional steric analysis, we provide a novel two-component explanation, which is consistent with the common belief in chemistry that the effect has a stereoelectronic origin. With α-D-glucopyranose as the prototype, we systematically explore its conformational space and generate 32 isomers, leading to a total of 80 axial–equatorial conformation pairs. The energy difference analysis of these pairs shows that while statistically speaking the tendency is valid, the anomeric effect is not always true and can be violated. Three energy components, exchange–correlation, classical electrostatic, and density functional steric, are found to be directly proportional to the total energy difference between axial and equatorial isomers. We also found that the total dipole moment change, not the hyperconjugation effect, is a reasonable indicator of the total energy difference. However, all these correlations alone are not strong enough to provide a compellingly convincing explanation for the general validity of the effect. With the help of strong correlations between energy components, an explanation with two energy components, steric and electrostatic, was proposed in this work. We show that the axial–equatorial energy difference in general, with the anomeric effect as a special case, is dictated by two factors of the stereoelectronic origin, steric hindrance and classical electrostaticinteractions, synchronously working together. Another explanation in terms of exchange–correlation and electrostaticinteractions has also been obtained in this work.

  13. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  14. Overcoming job stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this ... you stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is ...

  15. Sterically-hindered amines for acid-gas absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, G.; Ho, W.S.; Savage, D.W.; Chludzinski, G.R.; Wiechert, S. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes sterically hindered amines for removal of acid gases such as CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S from gaseous streams. Steric hindrance of amines reduces carbamate stability. Moderately hindered amines are characterized by high rates of CO/sub 2/ absorption and high capacities for CO/sub 2/. The moderately hindered amine in use with organic solvent has considerably higher capacity than the conventional amine-solvent system for simultaneous removal of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S from synthesis gas and natural gas. A severely-hindered-amine absorbent, characterized by a very low rate of CO/sub 2/ absorption, has much higher capacity and selectivity than the current industry standard absorbent, using the conventional methyldiethanolamine for selective removal of H/sub 2/S from CO/sub 2/-containing streams.

  16. General theory of asymmetric steric interactions in electrostatic double layers.

    PubMed

    Maggs, A C; Podgornik, R

    2016-01-28

    We study the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann equation in the context of dense ionic liquids where steric effects become important. We generalise lattice gas theory by introducing a Flory-Huggins entropy for ions of differing volumes and then compare the effective free energy density to other existing lattice gas approximations, not based on the Flory-Huggins Ansatz. Within the methodology presented we also invoke more realistic equations of state, such as the Carnahan-Starling approximation, that are not based on the lattice gas approximation and lead to thermodynamic functions and properties that differ strongly from the lattice gas case. We solve the Carnahan-Starling model in the high density limit, and demonstrate a slow, power-law convergence at high potentials. We elucidate how equivalent convex free energy functions can be constructed that describe steric effects in a manner which is more convenient for numerical minimisation. PMID:26584630

  17. Interactions of triazine herbicides with biochar: Steric and electronic effects.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Pignatello, Joseph J

    2015-09-01

    We studied the adsorption of triazine herbicides and several reference heteroaromatic amines from water onto a temperature series of hardwood biochars (300-700 °C, labeled B300-B700). Adsorption on biochars correlated poorly with pyrolysis temperature, H/C, O/C, mean minimum fused ring size, surface area (N2 or CO2), microporosity, and mesoporosity, but correlated well with a weighted sum of microporosity and mesoporosity. Steric effects were evident by the negative influence of solute molecular volume on adsorption rate. For a given compound, adsorption rate maximized for the biochar with the greatest mesoporosity-to-total-porosity ratio, suggesting that mesopores are important for facilitating diffusion into pore networks. The cationic forms of amines adsorb more slowly than the neutral forms. To further probe steric and electronic effects, adsorption on a biochar (B400) was compared to adsorption on graphite-a nonporous reference material with an unhindered, unfunctionalized graphene surface-and in comparison with reference compounds (benzene, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline and 1,3-triazine). Relative to benzene, the surface area-normalized adsorption of the triazine herbicides was disfavored on B400 (favored on graphite) by 11-19 kJ/mol, depending on concentration. It is estimated that steric suppression of B400 adsorption comprises 6.2 kJ/mol of this difference, the remainder being the difference in polar electronic effects. Based on the behavior of the reference amines, the difference in polar effects is dominated by π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions with sites on polyaromatic surfaces, which are more electropositive and/or more abundant on graphite. Overall, our results show that mesoporosity is critical, that adsorption rate is a function of solute molecular size and charge, that steric bulk in the solute suppresses equilibrium adsorption, and that π-π EDA forces play a role in triazine polar interactions with biochar. PMID:26001283

  18. Collective overcoming of point defects by dislocations in the dynamic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashenko, V. V.

    2014-08-01

    A mechanism of collective overcoming of point defects by dislocations during the over-barrier slip has been proposed. It has been shown that the interaction between dislocations promotes the overcoming of point defects at a high dislocation density.

  19. Steric Effects in the Reaction of Aryl Radicals on Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Combellas, Catherine; Jiang, Deen; Kanoufi, Frederic; Pinson, Jean; Podvorica, Fetah

    2009-01-01

    Steric effects are investigated in the reaction of aryl radicals with surfaces. The electrochemical reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-methyl, 2-methoxy, 2-ethyl, 2,6-, 2,4-, and 3,5-dimethyl, 4-tert-butyl, 3,5-bis-tert-butyl benzenediazonium, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl), and pentafluoro benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborates is examined in acetonitrile solutions. It leads to the formation of grafted layers only if the steric hindrance at the 2- or 2,6-position(s) is small. When the 3,5-positions are crowded with tert-butyl groups, the growth of the organic layer is limited by steric effects and a monolayer is formed. The efficiency of the grafting process is assessed by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared, and ellipsometry. These experiments, together with density functional computations of bonding energies of substituted phenyl groups on a copper surface, are discussed in terms of the reactivity of aryl radicals in the electrografting reaction and in the growth of the polyaryl layer.

  20. Overcoming the Polyester Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Dorothy

    1988-01-01

    Urges community colleges to overcome their image problem by documenting the colleges' impact on their communities. Suggests ways to determine what data should be collected, how to collect the information, and how it can be used to empower faculty, staff, and alumni to change the institution's image. (DMM)

  1. Deterministic folding: The role of entropic forces and steric specificities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roosevelt A.; da Silva, M. A. A.; Caliri, A.

    2001-03-01

    The inverse folding problem of proteinlike macromolecules is studied by using a lattice Monte Carlo (MC) model in which steric specificities (nearest-neighbors constraints) are included and the hydrophobic effect is treated explicitly by considering interactions between the chain and solvent molecules. Chemical attributes and steric peculiarities of the residues are encoded in a 10-letter alphabet and a correspondent "syntax" is provided in order to write suitable sequences for the specified target structures; twenty-four target configurations, chosen in order to cover all possible values of the average contact order χ (0.2381⩽χ⩽0.4947 for this system), were encoded and analyzed. The results, obtained by MC simulations, are strongly influenced by geometrical properties of the native configuration, namely χ and the relative number φ of crankshafts-type structures: For χ<0.35 the folding is deterministic, that is, the syntax is able to encode successful sequences: The system presents larger encodability, minimum sequence-target degeneracies and smaller characteristic folding time τf. For χ⩾0.35 the above results are not reproduced any more: The folding success is severely reduced, showing strong correlation with φ. Additionally, the existence of distinct characteristic folding times suggests that different mechanisms are acting at the same time in the folding process. The results (all obtained from the same single model, under the same "physiological conditions") resemble some general features of the folding problem, supporting the premise that the steric specificities, in association with the entropic forces (hydrophobic effect), are basic ingredients in the protein folding process.

  2. Thin Filament Structure and the Steric Blocking Model.

    PubMed

    Lehman, William

    2016-04-01

    By interacting with the troponin-tropomyosin complex on myofibrillar thin filaments, Ca2+ and myosin govern the regulatory switching processes influencing contractile activity of mammalian cardiac and skeletal muscles. A possible explanation of the roles played by Ca2+ and myosin emerged in the early 1970s when a compelling "steric model" began to gain traction as a likely mechanism accounting for muscle regulation. In its most simple form, the model holds that, under the control of Ca2+ binding to troponin and myosin binding to actin, tropomyosin strands running along thin filaments either block myosin-binding sites on actin when muscles are relaxed or move away from them when muscles are activated. Evidence for the steric model was initially based on interpretation of subtle changes observed in X-ray fiber diffraction patterns of intact skeletal muscle preparations. Over the past 25 years, electron microscopy coupled with three-dimensional reconstruction directly resolved thin filament organization under many experimental conditions and at increasingly higher resolution. At low-Ca2+, tropomyosin was shown to occupy a "blocked-state" position on the filament, and switched-on in a two-step process, involving first a movement of tropomyosin away from the majority of the myosin-binding site as Ca2+ binds to troponin and then a further movement to fully expose the site when small numbers of myosin heads bind to actin. In this contribution, basic information on Ca2+-regulation of muscle contraction is provided. A description is then given relating the voyage of discovery taken to arrive at the present understanding of the steric regulatory model. PMID:27065174

  3. Large steric effect in the substitution reaction of amines with phosphoimidazolide-activated nucleosides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Stronach, M. W.; Ketner, R. J.; Hurley, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    Aliphatic amines react with phosphoimidazolide-activated derivatives of guanosine and cytidine (ImpN) by replacing the imidazole group. The kinetics of reaction of guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) with glycine ethyl ester, glycinamide, 2-methoxyethylamine, n-butylamine, morpholine, dimethylamine (Me2NH), ethylmethylamine (EtNHMe), diethylamine (Et2NH), pyrrolidine, and piperidine were determined in water at 37 degrees C. With primary amines, a plot of the logarithm of the rate constant for attack by the amine on the protonated substrate, log kSH(A), versus the pKa of the amine exhibits a good linear correlation with a Bronsted slope, beta nuc = 0.48. Most of the secondary amines tested react with slightly higher reactivity than primary amines of similar pKa. Interestingly, some secondary amines show substantially lower reactivity than might be expected: EtNHMe reacts about eight times, and Et2NH at least 100 times, more slowly than Me2NH although all three amines are of similar basicity. For comparison, the kinetics of reaction of guanosine 5'-phosphoimidazolide (ImpG) and cytidine 5'-phosphoimidazolide (ImpC) were determined with Me2NH, EtNHMe, and Et2NH, and similar results were obtained. These results establish that the increased steric hindrance observed with the successive addition of ethyl groups are not due to any special steric requirements imposed by the guanosine or the methyl on the 2-methylimidazole leaving group of 2-MeImpG. It is concluded that addition of ethyl and, perhaps, groups larger than ethyl dramatically increases the kinetic barrier for addition of aliphatic secondary amines to the P-N bond of ImpN. This study supports the observation that the primary amino groups on the natural polyamines are at least 2 orders of magnitude more reactive than the secondary amino groups in the reaction with ImpN.

  4. A Steric Block in Translation Caused by the Antibiotic Spectinomycin

    PubMed Central

    Holton, James M.; Fredrick, Kurt; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2015-01-01

    The widely used antibiotic spectinomycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by blocking translocation of messenger RNA and transfer RNAs on the ribosome. Here, we show that in crystals of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome spectinomycin binding traps a distinct swiveling state of the head domain of the small ribosomal subunit. Spectinomycin also alters the rate and completeness of reverse translocation in vitro. These structural and biochemical data indicate that in solution spectinomycin sterically blocks swiveling of the head domain of the small ribosomal subunit and thereby disrupts the translocation cycle. PMID:17696316

  5. Optimized steric stabilization of aqueous ferrofluids and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nirmesh; Wang, Yanjun; Jones, Stephen K; Hawkett, Brian S; Warr, Gregory G

    2010-03-16

    The preparation and properties of an aqueous ferrofluid consisting of a concentrated (>65 wt %) dispersion of sterically stabilized superparamagnetic, iron oxide (maghemite) nanoparticles stable for several months at high ionic strength and over a broad pH range is described. The 6-8 nm diameter nanoparticles are individually coated with a short poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(acrylamide) copolymer, designed to form the thinnest possible steric stabilizing layer while remaining strongly attached to the iron oxide surface over a wide range of nanoparticle concentrations. Thermogravimetric analysis yields an iron oxide content of 76 wt % in the dried particles, consistent with a dry polymer coating of approximately 1 nm in thickness, while the poly(acrylamide) chain length indicated by electrospray mass spectrometry is consistent with the 4-5 nm increase in the hydrodynamic radius observed by light scattering when the poly(acrylamide) stabilizing chains are solvated. Saturation magnetization experiments indicate nonmagnetic surface layers resulting from the strong chemical attachment of the poly(acrylic acid) block to the particle surface, also observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:19950943

  6. Retinal Photoisomerization in Rhodopsin: Electrostatic and Steric Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasello, Gaia; Altoe, Piero; Stenta, Marco; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Garavelli, Marco; Orlandi, Giorgio

    2007-12-26

    Excited state QM(CASPT2//CASSCF)/MM(GAFF) calculations, by our recently developed code COBRAMM (Computations at Bologna Relating Ab-initio and Molecular Mechanic Methods), were carried out in rhodopsin to investigate on the steric and electrostatic effects in retinal photoisomerization catalysis due to the {beta}-ionone ring and glutammate 181 (GLU 181), respectively. The excited state photoisomerization channel has been mapped and a new christallographyc structure (2.2 Aa resolution) has been used for this purpose. Two different set-ups have been used to evaluate the electrostatic effects of GLU 181 (which is very close to the central double bond of the chromophore): the first with a neutral GLU 181 (as commonly accepted), the second with a negatively charged (i.e. deprotonated) GLU 181 (as very recent experimental findings seem to suggest). On the other hand, {beta}-ionone ring steric effects were evaluated by calculating the photoisomerization path of a modified chromophore, where the ring double bond has been saturated. Spectroscopic properties were calculated and compared with the available experimental data.

  7. Steric-electronic effects in malarial peptides inducing sterile immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Vranich, Armando; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is it evident that the residues position are relevant regarding of {phi} angular value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The geometry considered for detailing the alterations undergone by HABPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter planar interactions ruled by clashes between the atoms making them up. -- Abstract: Conserved Plasmodium falciparum high activity binding peptides' (HABPs) most relevant proteins involved in malaria parasite invasion are immunologically silent; critical binding residues must therefore be specifically replaced to render them highly immunogenic and protection-inducing. Such changes have a tremendous impact on these peptides' steric-electronic effects, such as modifications to peptide length peptide bonds and electronic orbitals' disposition, to allow a better fit into immune system MHCII molecules and better interaction with the TCR which might account for the final immunological outcome.

  8. Steric effects and preferential interactions in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Saquing, C.D.; Lucien, F.P.; Foster, N.R

    1998-10-01

    Solubility data are presented for a mixture of o-hydroxybenzoic acid (o-HBA) and m-HBA in supercritical CO{sub 2} doped with 3.5 mol% methanol. The data were measured at 318 and 328 K and for pressures in the range of 101--201 bar. Some new data for the solubility of pure m-HBA in methanol-doped supercritical CO{sub 2} are also presented. The solubilities of the HBA isomers are enhanced considerably with the addition of methanol to supercritical CO{sub 2}. However, the solubility enhancement is strongly affected by the spatial arrangement of their functional groups (steric effect). There appears to be preferential interaction between the solutes and the cosolvent in the quaternary system, and this phenomenon is consistent with thermodynamic modeling of the system.

  9. Modulations in restricted amide rotation by steric induced conformational trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, V. V.; Thompson, William B.; Goto, Joy J.; Maitra, Kalyani; Maitra, Santanu

    2012-01-01

    The rotation around the amide bond in N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (m-DEET) has been studied extensively and often used in laboratory instructions to demonstrate the phenomenon of chemical exchange. Herein, we show that a simple modification to N,N-diethyl-o-toluamide (o-DEET) significantly alters the dynamics of the restricted rotation around the amide bond due to steric interactions between the ring methyl group and the two N-ethyl groups. This alters the classic two-site exchange due to restricted rotation around the amide bond, to a three-site exchange, with the third conformation trapped at a higher-energy state compared to the other two. This often overlooked phenomenon is elucidated using variable-temperature NMR, two-dimensional exchange spectroscopy and molecular modeling studies.

  10. Blocking cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation by steric hindrance.

    PubMed

    Vendrell-Criado, Victoria; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Yamaji, Minoru; Cuquerella, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2016-04-26

    The efficiency of thymine (Thy) and uracil (Ura) to form cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in solution, upon UV irradiation differs by one order of magnitude. This could to be partially related to the steric hindrance induced by the methyl at C5 in thymine. The aim of the present work is to establish the influence of a bulky moiety at this position on the photoreactivity of pyrimidines. With this purpose, photosensitization with benzophenone and acetone of a 5-tert-butyl uracil derivative () and the equivalent Thy () has been compared. Introduction of the tert-butyl group completely blocks CPD formation. Moreover, the mechanistic insight obtained by laser flash photolysis is in accordance with the observed photoreactivity. PMID:27112630

  11. Sterically stabilized water based magnetic fluids: Synthesis, structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Marinică, Oana; Socoliuc, Vlad; Bălăsoiu, Maria; Garamus, Vasil M.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic fluids (MFs), prepared by chemical co-precipitation followed by double layer steric and electrostatic (combined) stabilization of magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in water, are presented. Several combinations of surfactants with different chain lengths (lauric acid (LA), myristic acid (MA), oleic acid (OA) and dodecyl-benzene-sulphonic acid (DBS)) were used, such as LA+LA, MA+MA, LA+DBS, MA+DBS, OA+DBS, OA+OA and DBS+DBS. Static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, small angle neutron scattering, magnetic and magneto-rheological measurements revealed that MFs with MA+MA or LA+LA biocompatible double layer covered magnetite nanoparticles are the most stable colloidal systems among the investigated samples, and thus suitable for biomedical applications.

  12. Overcoming associative learning.

    PubMed

    Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Thorndike (1898, 1911) rejected the idea that animal behavior was the consequence of reasoning, and suggested instead that the gradual acquisition of associations formed the basis of behavior-a contention that has had a significant impact on the development of animal learning theory. Despite this, comparative psychology provides a number of examples of behaviors that have been considered to be above and beyond the explanation of associative-, or reinforcement-learning mechanisms. These behaviors have motivated some researchers to propose higher-order cognitive abilities in animals, including (but not limited to) reasoning, sensitivity to ambiguity, and metacognition. However, other authors have questioned this claim, and provided alternative explanations for these behaviors from an associative perspective. With relevant examples, the steps that must be taken in order to overcome an associative explanation of behavior are described. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986019

  13. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  14. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  15. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers. PMID:21221258

  16. Modulated nematic structures induced by chirality and steric polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longa, Lech; PajÄ k, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    What kind of one-dimensional modulated nematic structures (ODMNS) can form nonchiral and chiral bent-core and dimeric materials? Here, using the Landau-de Gennes theory of nematics, extended to account for molecular steric polarization, we study a possibility of formation of ODMNS, both in nonchiral and intrinsically chiral liquid crystalline materials. Besides nematic and cholesteric phases, we find four bulk ODMNS for nonchiral materials, two of which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported so far. These two structures are longitudinal (NLP) and transverse (NTP) periodic waves where the polarization field being periodic in one dimension stays parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the wave vector. The other two phases are the twist-bend nematic phase (NTB) and the splay-bend nematic phase (NSB), but their fine structure appears more complex than that considered so far. The presence of molecular chirality converts nonchiral NTP and NSB into new NTB phases. Surprisingly, the nonchiral NLP phase can stay stable even in the presence of intrinsic chirality.

  17. Lis1 regulates dynein by sterically blocking its mechanochemical cycle

    PubMed Central

    Toropova, Katerina; Zou, Sirui; Roberts, Anthony J; Redwine, William B; Goodman, Brian S; Reck-Peterson, Samara L; Leschziner, Andres E

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cytoplasmic dynein's motor activity is essential for diverse eukaryotic functions, including cell division, intracellular transport, and brain development. The dynein regulator Lis1 is known to keep dynein bound to microtubules; however, how this is accomplished mechanistically remains unknown. We have used three-dimensional electron microscopy, single-molecule imaging, biochemistry, and in vivo assays to help establish this mechanism. The three-dimensional structure of the dynein–Lis1 complex shows that binding of Lis1 to dynein's AAA+ ring sterically prevents dynein's main mechanical element, the ‘linker’, from completing its normal conformational cycle. Single-molecule experiments show that eliminating this block by shortening the linker to a point where it can physically bypass Lis1 renders single dynein motors insensitive to regulation by Lis1. Our data reveal that Lis1 keeps dynein in a persistent microtubule-bound state by directly blocking the progression of its mechanochemical cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03372.001 PMID:25380312

  18. Sterically allowed configuration space for amino acid dipeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Diego; Maatta, Jukka; Sammalkorpi, Maria; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent improvements in computational methods for protein design, we still lack a quantitative, predictive understanding of the intrinsic propensities for amino acids to be in particular backbone or side-chain conformations. This question has remained unsettled for years because of the discrepancies between different experimental approaches. To address it, I performed all-atom hard-sphere simulations of hydrophobic residues with stereo-chemical constraints and non-attractive steric interactions between non-bonded atoms for ALA, ILE, LEU and VAL dipeptide mimetics. For these hard-sphere MD simulations, I show that transitions between α-helix and β-sheet structures only occur when the bond angle τ(N -Cα - C) >110° , and the probability distribution of bond angles for structures in the `bridge' region of ϕ- ψ space is shifted to larger angles compared to that in other regions. In contrast, the relevant bond-angle distributions obtained from most molecular dynamics packages are broader and shifter to larger values. I encounter similar correlations between bond angles and side-chain dihedral angles. The success of these studies is an argument for re-incorporating local stereochemical constraints into computational protein design methodology.

  19. Steric Effects Induce Geometric Remodeling of Actin Bundles in Filopodia.

    PubMed

    Dobramysl, Ulrich; Papoian, Garegin A; Erban, Radek

    2016-05-10

    Filopodia are ubiquitous fingerlike protrusions, spawned by many eukaryotic cells, to probe and interact with their environments. Polymerization dynamics of actin filaments, comprising the structural core of filopodia, largely determine their instantaneous lengths and overall lifetimes. The polymerization reactions at the filopodial tip require transport of G-actin, which enter the filopodial tube from the filopodial base and diffuse toward the filament barbed ends near the tip. Actin filaments are mechanically coupled into a tight bundle by cross-linker proteins. Interestingly, many of these proteins are relatively short, restricting the free diffusion of cytosolic G-actin throughout the bundle and, in particular, its penetration into the bundle core. To investigate the effect of steric restrictions on G-actin diffusion by the porous structure of filopodial actin filament bundle, we used a particle-based stochastic simulation approach. We discovered that excluded volume interactions result in partial and then full collapse of central filaments in the bundle, leading to a hollowed-out structure. The latter may further collapse radially due to the activity of cross-linking proteins, hence producing conical-shaped filament bundles. Interestingly, electron microscopy experiments on mature filopodia indeed frequently reveal actin bundles that are narrow at the tip and wider at the base. Overall, our work demonstrates that excluded volume effects in the context of reaction-diffusion processes in porous networks may lead to unexpected geometric growth patterns and complicated, history-dependent dynamics of intermediate metastable configurations. PMID:27166814

  20. Nano-Drugs Based on Nano Sterically Stabilized Liposomes for the Treatment of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Turjeman, Keren; Bavli, Yaelle; Kizelsztein, Pablo; Schilt, Yaelle; Allon, Nahum; Katzir, Tamar Blumenfeld; Sasson, Efrat; Raviv, Uri; Ovadia, Haim; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2015-01-01

    The present study shows the advantages of liposome-based nano-drugs as a novel strategy of delivering active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that involve neuroinflammation. We used the most common animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), mice experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The main challenges to overcome are the drugs' unfavorable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, which result in inadequate therapeutic efficacy and in drug toxicity (due to high and repeated dosage). We designed two different liposomal nano-drugs, i.e., nano sterically stabilized liposomes (NSSL), remote loaded with: (a) a "water-soluble" amphipathic weak acid glucocorticosteroid prodrug, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (MPS) or (b) the amphipathic weak base nitroxide, Tempamine (TMN). For the NSSL-MPS we also compared the effect of passive targeting alone and of active targeting based on short peptide fragments of ApoE or of β-amyloid. Our results clearly show that for NSSL-MPS, active targeting is not superior to passive targeting. For the NSSL-MPS and the NSSL-TMN it was demonstrated that these nano-drugs ameliorate the clinical signs and the pathology of EAE. We have further investigated the MPS nano-drug's therapeutic efficacy and its mechanism of action in both the acute and the adoptive transfer EAE models, as well as optimizing the perfomance of the TMN nano-drug. The highly efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutic feature of these two nano-drugs meets the criteria of disease-modifying drugs and supports further development and evaluation of these nano-drugs as potential therapeutic agents for diseases with an inflammatory component. PMID:26147975

  1. Nano-Drugs Based on Nano Sterically Stabilized Liposomes for the Treatment of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Turjeman, Keren; Bavli, Yaelle; Kizelsztein, Pablo; Schilt, Yaelle; Allon, Nahum; Katzir, Tamar Blumenfeld; Sasson, Efrat; Raviv, Uri; Ovadia, Haim; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2015-01-01

    The present study shows the advantages of liposome-based nano-drugs as a novel strategy of delivering active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that involve neuroinflammation. We used the most common animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), mice experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The main challenges to overcome are the drugs’ unfavorable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, which result in inadequate therapeutic efficacy and in drug toxicity (due to high and repeated dosage). We designed two different liposomal nano-drugs, i.e., nano sterically stabilized liposomes (NSSL), remote loaded with: (a) a “water-soluble” amphipathic weak acid glucocorticosteroid prodrug, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (MPS) or (b) the amphipathic weak base nitroxide, Tempamine (TMN). For the NSSL-MPS we also compared the effect of passive targeting alone and of active targeting based on short peptide fragments of ApoE or of β-amyloid. Our results clearly show that for NSSL-MPS, active targeting is not superior to passive targeting. For the NSSL-MPS and the NSSL-TMN it was demonstrated that these nano-drugs ameliorate the clinical signs and the pathology of EAE. We have further investigated the MPS nano-drug’s therapeutic efficacy and its mechanism of action in both the acute and the adoptive transfer EAE models, as well as optimizing the perfomance of the TMN nano-drug. The highly efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutic feature of these two nano-drugs meets the criteria of disease-modifying drugs and supports further development and evaluation of these nano-drugs as potential therapeutic agents for diseases with an inflammatory component. PMID:26147975

  2. Nano- and microfabrication for overcoming drug delivery challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Kimberly R.

    2013-01-01

    This highlight article describes current nano- and microfabrication techniques for creating drug delivery devices. We first review the main physiological barriers to delivering therapeutic agents. Then, we describe how novel fabrication methods can be utilized to combine many features into a single physiologically relevant device to overcome drug delivery challenges. PMID:23730504

  3. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  4. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  5. Perspective: Vibrational-induced steric effects in bimolecular reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kopin

    2015-02-28

    The concept of preferred collision geometry in a bimolecular reaction is at the heart of reaction dynamics. Exemplified by a series of crossed molecular beam studies on the reactions of a C–H stretch-excited CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) with F, Cl, and O({sup 3}P) atoms, two types of steric control of chemical reactivity will be highlighted. A passive control is governed in a reaction with strong anisotropic entry valley that can significantly steer the incoming trajectories. This disorientation effect is illustrated by the F and O({sup 3}P) + CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) reactions. In the former case, the long-range anisotropic interaction acts like an optical “negative” lens by deflecting the trajectories away from the favored transition-state geometry, and thus inhibiting the bond rupture of the stretch-excited CHD{sub 3}. On the contrary, the interaction between O({sup 3}P) and CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) behaves as a “positive” lens by funneling the large impact-parameter collisions into the cone of acceptance, and thereby enhances the reactivity. As for reactions with relatively weak anisotropic interactions in the entry valley, an active control can be performed by exploiting the polarization property of the infrared excitation laser to polarize the reactants in space, as demonstrated in the reaction of Cl with a pre-aligned CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) reactant. A simpler case, the end-on versus side-on collisions, will be elucidated for demonstrating a means to disentangle the impact-parameter averaging. A few general remarks about some closely related issues, such as mode-, bond-selectivity, and Polanyi’s rules, are made.

  6. Comparative investigation of antimutagenic activity of sterically hindered phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, Yu.V.; Bakhitova, L.M.; Bentkhen, T.I.

    1985-07-01

    Mutagenic properties of primarily inactive carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are manifested after metabolic oxidation by microsomal enzymes. It has been established that activation of carcinogens in biological systems is accompanied by intensification of free-radical processes, effective inhibition of which is achieved by sterically hindered phenols (SHP). The authors studied the effect of SHP on the mutagenic activity of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) using estimation of induced direct gene mutation at the locus for hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) in somatic Chinese hamster cells of line V-79 cultured in vitro and with estimation of the induction of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of mouse bone marrow in vivo. The reference mutagen was BP from Fluka and the following SHP were used: dibunol, F-800, and F-804. Genetic activity of each substance tested and their combination was studied in an in vitro system under conditions of metabolic activation by mouse liver microsomes and in vivo according to induction of micronuclei in polychromatophilic bone marrow erythrocytes in (CBA x C57B1/6J)F/sub 1/ mice 60-80 days old, which reflects gross defects of chromosomes at the erythroblast stage. In order to establish optimal time for recording the frequency of induction of micronuclei, bone marrow samples were taken from the animals, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of the agents. The BP was dissolved in sunflower oil and used in a concentration constituting 1/3 of the lowest lethal dose in mice. The SHP was then dissolved in water or dimethyl sulfoxide and administered in a ratio with BP of 1:1 or 1:0.5. The smears were then stained in methanol, washed with twice-distilled water, and stained in 7% Giemsa solution.

  7. Virtual states introduced for overcoming entropic barriers in conformational space

    PubMed Central

    Higo, Junichi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    Free-energy landscape is an important quantity to study large-scale motions of a biomolecular system because it maps possible pathways for the motions. When the landscape consists of thermodynamically stable states (low-energy basins), which are connected by narrow conformational pathways (i.e., bottlenecks), the narrowness slows the inter-basin round trips in conformational sampling. This results in inaccuracy of free energies for the basins. This difficulty is not cleared out even when an enhanced conformational sampling is fairly performed along a reaction coordinate. In this study, to enhance the inter-basin round trips we introduced a virtual state that covers the narrow pathways. The probability distribution function for the virtual state was controlled based on detailed balance condition for the inter-state transitions (transitions between the real-state basins and the virtual state). To mimic the free-energy landscape of a real biological system, we introduced a simple model where a wall separates two basins and a narrow hole is pierced in the wall to connect the basins. The sampling was done based on Monte Carlo (MC). We examined several hole-sizes and inter-state transition probabilities. For a small hole-size, a small inter-state transition probability produced a sampling efficiency 100 times higher than a conventional MC does. This result goes against ones intuition, because one considers generally that the sampling efficiency increases with increasing the transition probability. The present method is readily applicable to enhanced conformational sampling such as multi-canonical or adaptive umbrella sampling, and extendable to molecular dynamics.

  8. Telecollaborative Networks in University Higher Education: Overcoming Barriers to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dowd, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Foreign language telecollaboration refers to virtual intercultural interaction and exchange projects between classes of learners in geographically distant locations. While research findings on telecollaboration have confirmed its valuable contribution to students' foreign language, intercultural and electronic competences, a preliminary research…

  9. Overcoming cellular and tissue barriers to improve liposomal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Aditya G.

    Forty years of liposome research have demonstrated that the anti-tumor efficacy of liposomal therapies is, in part, driven by three parameters: 1) liposome formulation and lipid biophysics, 2) accumulation and distribution in the tumor, and 3) release of the payload at the site of interest. This thesis outlines three studies that improve on each of these delivery steps. In the first study, we engineer a novel class of zwitterlipids with an inverted headgroup architecture that have remarkable biophysical properties and may be useful for drug delivery applications. After intravenous administration, liposomes accumulate in the tumor by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, the tumor stroma often limits liposome efficacy by preventing distribution into the tumor. In the second study, we demonstrate that depletion of hyaluronan in the tumor stroma improves the distribution and efficacy of DoxilRTM in murine 4T1 tumors. Once a liposome has distributed to the therapeutic site, it must release its payload over the correct timescale. Few facile methods exist to quantify the release of liposome therapeutics in vivo. In the third study, we outline and validate a simple, robust, and quantitative method for tracking the rate and extent of release of liposome contents in vivo. This tool should facilitate a better understanding of the pharmacodynamics of liposome-encapsulated drugs in animals. This work highlights aspects of liposome behavior that have prevented successful clinical translation and proposes alternative approaches to improve liposome drug delivery.

  10. Postsecondary Correctional Education: Recognizing and Overcoming Barriers to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Shelby M.

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary programs offering vocational training and college credit to eligible inmates have had difficulty finding a place in the U.S. correctional system. Politically motivated restrictions preventing inmates from receiving federal funds for college resulted in drastic program closures. Although new laws restored funding to select inmates,…